WorldWideScience

Sample records for cereals

  1. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    how Si influences cell wall composition in cereal straw and, consequently, the enzymatic saccharification efficiency. Considering the importance of Nitrogen (N) fertilization in cereal production, an additional objective was to elucidate the effect of N supply on Si concentration and cell wall...

  2. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  3. Phosphoproteomics in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pingfang

    2015-01-01

    Cereals are the most important crop plant supplying staple food throughout the world. The economic importance and continued breeding of crop plants such as rice, maize, wheat, or barley require a detailed scientific understanding of adaptive and developmental processes. Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important regulatory posttranslational modifications and its analysis allows deriving functional and regulatory principles in plants. This minireview summarizes the current knowledge of phosphoproteomic studies in cereals.

  4. Hyperphosphorylation of cereal starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Plant starch is naturally phosphorylated at a fraction of the C6 and the C3 hydroxyl groups during its biosynthesis in plastids. Starch phosphate esters are important in starch metabolism and they also generate specific industrial functionality. Cereal grains starch contains little starch bound......-type phenotype. Transgenic cereal grains synthesized starch with higher starch bound phosphate content (7.5 (±0.67) nmol/mg) compared to control lines (0.8 (±0.05) nmol/mg) with starch granules showing altered morphology and lower melting enthalpy. Our data indicate specific action of GWD during starch...... biosynthesis and demonstrates the possibility for in planta production of highly phosphorylated cereal starch....

  5. Trichothecenes in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroud, Nora A; Eudes, François

    2009-01-01

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins associated with fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals, with worldwide economic and health impacts. While various management strategies have been proposed to reduce the mycotoxin risk, breeding towards FHB-resistance appears to be the most effective means to manage the disease, and reduce trichothecene contamination of cereal-based food products. This review provides a brief summary of the trichothecene synthesis in Fusarium species, their toxicity in plants and humans, followed by the current methods of screening and breeding for resistance to FHB and trichothecene accumulation.

  6. Classifying Cereal Data (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DSQ includes questions about cereal intake and allows respondents up to two responses on which cereals they consume. We classified each cereal reported first by hot or cold, and then along four dimensions: density of added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium.

  7. Micronutrients in cereal crops

    OpenAIRE

    Hamnér, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Seven elements essential for plants are defined as micronutrients: boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). Deficiency of these nutrients can cause yield losses in crops and impaired crop quality. The overall aim of this thesis work was to increase the knowledge how micronutrients in Swedish cereal crops are affected by nutrient management and soil properties in order to improve crop status and avoid yield losses. Data from long term and s...

  8. [Wholegrain cereals and sanitary benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena

    2015-07-18

    Objetivos: las guías alimentarias para conseguir una alimentación correcta establecen como aconsejable tomar tres o más raciones de cereales integrales de grano completo al día. Sin embargo, la norma es poco conocida en nuestro entorno, afectando el incumplimiento a la práctica totalidad de la población. Por ello, el objetivo de la presente revisión es analizar los beneficios nutricionales y sanitarios asociados al consumo de cereales de grano completo y las posibles ventajas que podrían derivarse del cumplimiento con consumo aconsejado para estos alimentos. Métodos: búsqueda bibliográfica en relación con el tema. Resultados: los cereales de grano completo aportan cantidades elevadas de hidratos de carbono, fibra, vitaminas y minerales, cuya contribución a la dieta media ayuda a alcanzar las ingestas recomendadas y los objetivos nutricionales vigentes, por lo que su consumo en la cantidad aconsejada supone un beneficio nutricional. Por otra parte, diversos estudios señalan que un aumento en el consumo de cereales de grano completo se asocia con una protección frente al padecimiento de diversas enfermedades crónico-degenerativas (cardiovasculares, diabetes, síndrome metabólico y cáncer), ayudando en el mantenimiento de la salud digestiva y del peso corporal. Estos resultados pueden ser debidos al aporte de nutrientes, fibra y fitoquímicos, procedente de estos alimentos, así como al desplazamiento de la dieta de otros productos con un perfil nutricional menos conveniente, teniendo en cuenta la composición de la dieta media española. De hecho, el consumo de cereales de grano completo ha sido relacionado con una posible mejora en la microbiota intestinal y una mayor protección antioxidante. Pese a estas ventajas, el consumo de cereales es mirado con recelo por diversos individuos, especialmente por aquellas personas preocupadas por el control de peso, y los beneficios adicionales asociados al consumo de cereales de grano completo no son

  9. Detection methods for mycotoxins in cereal grains and cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Michelangelo N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods for mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based products require three major steps, including extraction, clean-up (to eliminate interferences from the extract and concentrate the analyte, and detection/determination of the toxin (by using suitable analytical instruments/technologies. Clean-up is essential for the analysis of mycotoxins at trace levels, and involves the use of solid phase extraction and multifunctional (e.g. MycoSep® or immunoaffinity columns. Different chromatographic methods are commonly used for quantitative determination of mycotoxins, including gas-chromatography (GC coupled with electron capture, flame ionization or mass spectrometry (MS detectors (mainly for type-A trichothecenes, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with ultraviolet, diode array, fluorescence or MS detectors. The choice of method depends on the matrix and the mycotoxin to be analyzed. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is spreading rapidly as a promising technique for simultaneous screening, identification and quantitative determination of a large number of mycotoxins. In addition, commercial immunometric assays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, are frequently used for screening purposes as well. Recently, a variety of emerging methods have been proposed for the analysis of mycotoxins in cereals based on novel technologies, including immunochromatography (i.e. lateral flow devices, fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIA, infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs and optical biosensors.

  10. Cereal based oral rehydration solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenya, P R; Odongo, H W; Oundo, G; Waswa, K; Muttunga, J; Molla, A M; Nath, S K; Molla, A; Greenough, W B; Juma, R

    1989-07-01

    A total of 257 boys (age range 4-55 months), who had acute diarrhoea with moderate to severe dehydration, were randomly assigned to treatment with either the World Health Organisation/United Nations Childrens Fund (WHO/Unicef) recommended oral rehydration solution or cereal based oral rehydration solution made either of maize, millet, sorghum, or rice. After the initial rehydration was achieved patients were offered traditional weaning foods. Treatment with oral rehydration solution continued until diarrhoea stopped. Accurate intake and output was maintained throughout the study period. Efficacy of the treatment was compared between the different treatment groups in terms of intake of the solution, stool output, duration of diarrhoea after admission, and weight gain after 24, 48, and 72 hours, and after resolution of diarrhoea. Results suggest that all the cereal based solutions were as effective as glucose based standard oral rehydration solution in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  11. [Development of cereal bar with pineapple skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Renata Siqueira; Del Santo, Victor Rogério; Souza, Gilberto Batista de; Pereira, Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci

    2011-06-01

    The cereal bars are multi-component products consisting of cereals, dried fruit and syrup binder and may be added to the consumable parts of fruits and vegetables which usually are not exploited and have high nutritional value, thereby reducing food waste. It was developed a jam with pineapple skin, which it was utilized in 13.5% in the cereal bar formulation. The cereal bar was sensorial evaluated and had its centesimal and mineral composition determined. The new product achieved average of 8.3 for global impression using 9 points hedonic scale, 91% of acceptance rate and 67% of purchase intent. In this first use of pineapple skin jam as food ingredient it can be concluded that its aggregation in the cereal bar formula is feasible, making an accepted product with fibers, proteins and minerals, as an alternative to traditional cereal bars.

  12. Cereal aids fight against diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    Ricewater has been proved to be an effective treatment of diarrhea by investigators at the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), who have shown that cereal-based solutions are even more effective than the much publicized mixtures of water, sugar, and salts. Diarrhea kills 8 or 9 children under the age of 5 every minute, often simply by draining out of them the water and salts the body needs to keep functioning. Only a few years ago, the conventional treatment for severe cases was a drip of saline fluid into the patients arm through a needle. But this requires hospital treatment, and few 3rd world children ever see the inside of a hospital. Recently, "oral rehydration therapy" (ORT)--giving children a carefully measured mix of water, sugar (or pure glucose), and sodium chloride and potassium salts--has gained world recognition as a simple, cheap, and effective treatment. A village mother can give it in her home, either from a prepackaged powder mixed with water or from solution she mixes herself. Sugar, or the glucose into which the body converts sugar, continues to be absorbed across the intestinal walls during diarrhea--when the body is absorbing little else. This process aids the absorption of the all-important salts. The standard ORT formula for a liter of water calls for 20 g of glucose or 40 g of household sugar. The newer cereal-based ORT replaces the sugar with rice powder. Tests have shown that 80-86% of the rice powder is converted into glucose and absorbed. According to Dr. A. Majid Molloa of ICDDR,B who pioneered the use of rice powder in ORT, 1 liter of rice powder solution is twice as effective as 2 liters of sugar solution. There are several advantages in using rice powder in ORT. Rice is the staple food of more than 1/2 the world's population, particularly so where diarrhea is a killer. It is grown and eaten throughout Asia, and in many parts of Latin America and Africa. Some rice is usually available in the

  13. Future cereal starch bioengineering: Cereal ancestors encounter gene technology and designer enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2013-01-01

    The importance of cereal starch production worldwide cannot be overrated. However, the qualities and resulting values of existing raw and processed starch do not fully meet future demands for environmentally friendly production of renewable, advanced biomaterials, functional foods and biomedical...... additives. New approaches for starch bioengineering are needed. In this review we discuss cereal starch from a combined universal bioresource point of view. The combination of new biotechniques and clean tech methods can be implemented to replace e.g. chemical modification. The recently released cereal...... genomes and the exploding advancement in whole genome sequencing now paves the road for identifying new genes to be exploited to generate a multitude of completely new starch functionalities directly in the cereal grain converting cereal crops to production plants. Newly released genome data from cereal...

  14. European survey on sterigmatocystin in cereals, cereals-based products, beer and nuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, H.G.J.; MacDonald, S.J.; Anagnostopoulos, C.; Spanjer, M.; Bertuzzi, T.; Pietri, A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the EFSA proposal 'Survey on sterigmatocystin in food' (GP/EFSA/CONTAM/2013/02), this study provides a survey on the occurrence of this mycotoxin. A total of 1,259 samples of cereal grains (429), cereal products (713), beer (53) and nuts (64) were analysed for the presence of sterigmatoc

  15. Fusarium Head Blight of Cereals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. K.; Jensen, J. D.; Nielsen, G. C.

    2011-01-01

    1957 to 2000, to determine incidence and abundance of individual Fusarium spp. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, zearalenone, T-2, and HT-2 were quantified using liquid chromatography–double mass spectrometry. Major differences in the Fusarium species complex among the five cereals...

  16. Predictive Modelling of Mycotoxins in Cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Liu, C.

    2015-01-01

    In dit artikel worden de samenvattingen van de presentaties tijdens de 30e bijeenkomst van de Werkgroep Fusarium weergegeven. De onderwerpen zijn: Predictive Modelling of Mycotoxins in Cereals.; Microbial degradation of DON.; Exposure to green leaf volatiles primes wheat against FHB but boosts produ

  17. Mineral Analysis of Whole Grain Total Cereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of elemental iron in Whole Grain Total Cereal using visible spectroscopy is suitable for a general chemistry course for science or nonscience majors. The more extensive mineral analysis, specifically for the elements iron, calcium and zinc, is suitable for an instrumental or quantitative analysis chemistry course.

  18. Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael G; Clemens, Stephan; Williams, Lorraine E;

    2008-01-01

    The goal of biofortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. Cereals serve as the main staple food for a large proportion of the world population but have the shortcoming, from a nutrition perspective, of being low in zinc...

  19. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  20. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...... into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations...

  1. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2016-01-01

    -grains, however, are unclear but is most likely assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. The DF fraction of cereals consists of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), resistant starch, oligosaccharides (mostly fructans) and the non-carbohydrate polyphenolic ether...... a high level of β-glucan. Physiologically, it is of importance that some of the cell wall polysaccharides, i.e. AX and β-glucan (soluble NSP) contribute to higher viscosity as this may influence rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Associated to the DF matrix of cereals......, however, is also an array of non-nutritive non-carbohydrate constituents predominantly concentrated in the bran fraction. Of importance in a nutritional-health context is the phenolic components - benzoic acid and cinnamic derivatives and lignans. Of the phenolics only a small fraction is absorbed...

  2. Frictional Impact Modeling of a Cereal Thresher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian O. Osueke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There is no point producing cereal threshing models that cannot replicate its performance on the field. The frictional impact that occurs between the crop surface and threshing cylinder has been often neglected by most researchers in cereal threshing. Approach: Study proffers a solution to this issue by developing a model for threshing which in-cooperate friction. This was done by analyzing the crop/threshing cylinder behavior, hence establishing mathematical sub-models to characterize the performance of this model. Results: The model was further packaged with computer aided software based on visual basic programming language and finally applied. Conclusion: Upon application, it was discovered that at a moisture content of 15% v = 9 m sec-1, Q = 0.18 kg sec-1 the model yielded performance characteristics as Eff = 88.22%, TNL = 11.78% and CAPTH = 211.52 kg h-1.

  3. Regulation of aleurone development in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becraft, Philip W; Yi, Gibum

    2011-03-01

    The aleurone layer of cereal grains is important biologically as well as nutritionally and economically. Here, current knowledge on the regulation of aleurone development is reviewed. Recent reports suggest that the control of aleurone development is more complex than earlier models portrayed. Multiple levels of genetic regulation control aleurone cell fate, differentiation, and organization. The hormones auxin and cytokinin can also influence aleurone development. New technical advances promise to facilitate future progress.

  4. Lunasin in cereal seeds: What is the origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rowan A C; Lovegrove, Alison; Shewry, Peter R

    2013-05-01

    Lunasin is a peptide from soybean seeds which has been demonstrated to have anticancer properties. It has also been reported in cereal seeds: wheat, rye, barley and Triticale. However, extensive searches of transcriptome and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals have failed to identify sequences encoding either the lunasin peptide or a precursor protein. This raises the question of the origin of the lunasin reported in cereal grain.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment in the Cereal and Derived Products Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Benedetto, Graziella; Fusi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    environmental improvement in such systems. Following a brief introduction to the cereal sector and supply chain, this chapter reviews some of the current cereal-based life cycle thinking literature, with a particular emphasis on LCA. Next, an analysis of the LCA methodological issues emerging from...... of the main hot spots in the cereal supply chain.......This chapter discusses the application of life cycle assessment methodologies to rice, wheat, corn and some of their derived products. Cereal product systems are vital for the production of commodities of worldwide importance that entail particular environmental hot spots originating from...

  6. Microbiological assay-trienzyme procedure for total folates in cereals and cereal foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Keagy, Pamela M; Hudson, Carol A; Angyal, G; Arcot, J; Castelli, M; Doreanu, N; Hudson, C; Lawrence, P; Martin, J; Peace, R; Rosner, L; Strandler, H S; Szpylka, J; van den Berg, H; Wo, C; Wurz, C

    2005-01-01

    In 1996, U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations mandated the fortification of enriched cereal-grain products with folic acid, thereby emphasizing the need for validated methods for total folates in foods, particularly cereal products. The AOAC Official Methods (944.12, 960.46) currently used for the analysis of folate in foods for compliance purposes are microbiological methods. When the fortification regulations were finalized, no Official AOAC or Approved AACC methods for folate in cereal-grain products were in place. The AOAC Official Method (992.05) for folic acid in infant formula does not incorporate important improvements in the extraction procedure and was not considered suitable for the analysis of folates in foods in general. A microbiological assay protocol using a trienzyme extraction procedure was prepared and submitted for comments to 40 laboratories with recognized experience in folate analysis. On the basis of comments, the method was revised to have the conjugase (gamma-glutamyl-carboxy-peptidase) treatment follow a protease treatment, to include the use of cryoprotected inoculum, and to include the spectroscopic standardization of the standard and optional use of microtiter plates. Thirteen laboratories participated in a collaborative study of 10 required and 10 optional cereal-grain products, including flour, bread, cookies, baking mixes, and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. The majority of the participating laboratories performed the assay by the standard test tube method; others used the microtiter plate modification for endpoint quantitation with equal success. For the required products, the relative standard deviation between laboratories (RSD(R)) ranged from 7.4 to 21.6% for 8 fortified (or enriched) products compared with expected (Horwitz equation-based) values of 11-20%. RSD(R) values were higher (22.7-52.9%) for 2 unfortified cereal-grain products. For the optional products, the RSD(R) ranged from 1.8 to 11.2% for 8 fortified

  7. Probiotic potentials of cereal-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enujiugha, Victor N; Badejo, Adebanjo A

    2017-03-04

    Probiotics offer remarkable potential for the prevention and management of various infective and noninfective disorders. They are reported to play key roles in the suppression of gastrointestinal infections, antimicrobial activity, improvement in lactose metabolism, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system stimulation, antimutagenic properties, anticarcinogenic properties, anti-diarrheal properties, and improvement in inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotic foods are classically confined to beverages and cheese, containing live organisms of the lactic acid bacteria family, such health-promoting foods are traditionally dairy-based, comprising milk and its fermented products. However, recent research focuses on the probiotic potentials of fermented cereal-based beverages which are especially consumed in developing countries characterized by low nutritional security and high incidence of gut pathogen infections. Moreover, lactose intolerance and cholesterol content associated with dairy products, coupled with the vegetarian tendencies of diverse populations in the third world, tend to enforce the recent recourse to nondairy beverages. Probiotic microorganisms are mostly of human or animal origin; however, strains recognized as probiotics are also found in nondairy fermented substrates. This review examines the potentials of some traditional cereal-based beverages to serve as probiotic foods, their microbial and functional properties, as well as their process optimization and storage for enhanced utilization.

  8. Programmed cell death in cereal aleurone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fath, A; Bethke, P; Lonsdale, J; Meza-Romero, R; Jones, R

    2000-10-01

    Progress in understanding programmed cell death (PCD) in the cereal aleurone is described. Cereal aleurone cells are specialized endosperm cells that function to synthesize and secrete hydrolytic enzymes that break down reserves in the starchy endosperm. Unlike the cells of the starchy endosperm, aleurone cells are viable in mature grain but undergo PCD when germination is triggered or when isolated aleurone layers or protoplasts are incubated in gibberellic acid (GA). Abscisic acid (ABA) slows down the process of aleurone cell death and isolated aleurone protoplasts can be kept alive in media containing ABA for up to 6 months. Cell death in barley aleurone occurs only after cells become highly vacuolated and is manifested in an abrupt loss of plasma membrane integrity. Aleurone cell death does not follow the apoptotic pathway found in many animal cells. The hallmarks of apoptosis, including internucleosomal DNA cleavage, plasma membrane and nuclear blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, are not observed in dying aleurone cells. PCD in barley aleurone cells is accompanied by the accumulation of a spectrum of nuclease and protease activities and the loss of organelles as a result of cellular autolysis.

  9. The relationship between strigolactones and Striga hermonthica infection in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cereal production in Africa is under increasing constraint due to the obligate, out-crossing, hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth, a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. Striga parasitizes roots of cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, maize and upland rice. It has infested about 40%

  10. Lignan Content in Cereals, Buckwheat and Derived Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal foods are a fundamental part of a balanced diet and several studies have assigned to wholemeal cereal products a protective role in human health, due to their content of bioactive compounds. Within the phytochemicals, lignans are of increasing interest for their potential anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. The aim of this work is to contribute to the updating of food lignan databases by providing the profile and the amount of lignans in cereals, buckwheat and several cereal based foods commonly consumed in human diets. Values were taken from published papers. Items were divided in different groups, namely grains, brans and flours, bread, cereal staple foods, breakfast cereals and other cereal products, and values for secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, lariciresinol are given. For example, the total average values for the mentioned lignans in grains ranged between 23 μg/100 g and 401 μg/100 g dry weight. The contribution of each single lignan molecule to the total value of lignans appears to be different for every cereal species. Lignan content and typology in processed foods depends on the raw materials used, their degree of refinement and on processing conditions.

  11. From protein catalogues towards targeted proteomics approaches in cereal grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Sultan, Abida; Grasser, Klaus D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their importance for human nutrition, the protein content of cereal grains has been a subject of intense study for over a century and cereal grains were not surprisingly one of the earliest subjects for 2D-gel-based proteome analysis. Over the last two decades, countless cereal grain...... proteomes, mostly derived using 2D-gel based technologies, have been described and hundreds of proteins identified. However, very little is still known about post-translational modifications, subcellular proteomes, and protein–protein interactions in cereal grains. Development of techniques for improved...... of proteins. These “next-generation” proteomics studies will vastly increase our depth of knowledge about the processes controlling cereal grain development, nutritional and processing characteristics....

  12. Optimal root arrangement of cereal crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeonsu; Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    The plant root absorbs water from the soil and supplies it to the rest part of the plant. It consists of a number of root fibers, through whose surfaces water uptake occurs. There is an intriguing observation that for most of cereal crops such as maize and wheat, the volume density of root in the soil declines exponentially as a function of depth. To understand this empirical finding, we construct a theoretical model of root water uptake, where mass transfer into root surface is modeled just as heat flux around a fin. Agreement between the theoretically predicted optimal root distribution in vertical direction and biological data supports the hypothesis that the plant root has evolved to achieve the optimal water uptake in competition with neighbors. This study has practical implication in the agricultural industry as well as optimal design of water transport networks in both micro- and macroscales. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

  13. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in Italian cereal and cereal products from organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Cristina; Ritieni, Alberto; Mañes, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, the occurrence of eighteen mycotoxins, nine trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, neosolaniol, diacetoxyscirpenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin), three zearalenones (zearalenone, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol), and six emergent mycotoxins, beauvericin and five enniatins (A, A1, B, B1 and B4), was monitored in different Italian organic cereals and cereal products by using a liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method. A total of 93 organic cereal samples (wheat, barley, rye and oat) were collected from Italy. Limits of quantification ranged from 5 to 15 μg/kg. 80% of analyzed samples contained mycotoxins. The occurrence was 33%, 6.5%, 2%, 27%, 7%, 10% and 43% for deoxynivalenol, HT-2, T-2, nivalenol, zearalenone, beauvericin and enniatins, respectively. The major mycotoxin found was enniatin B4; it was detected in 40% of all analyzed samples and its levels ranged from 5.7 to 284.2 μg/kg. Risk assessment was evaluated by EDI calculations which were lower than TDI for all legislated Fusarium mycotoxins.

  14. Production of Drought and Salt Tolerant Transgenic Cereal Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Garg; R. Wu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Genetic transformation of cereal plants is a powerful method for producing agronomically useful transgenic plants. Salt and drought stress result in substantial yield losses, which amounts to many billions of dollars each year.

  15. Phytase-mediated mineral solubilization from cereals underin vitrogastric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne V. F.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    cereal phytic acid at similar rates and to similar extents. Microbial phytase-catalysed phytate dephosphorylation was accompanied by increased iron and zinc release from the cereal substrates. For wheat bran at pH 5, the endogenous wheat phytase activity produced mineral release equal to or better than...... that of the microbial phytases. No increases in soluble cadmium, lead or arsenic were observed with microbial phytase-catalyzed phytate dephosphorylation. CONCLUSION Microbial phytase treatment abated phytate chelation hence enhanced the release of iron and zinc from the phytate-rich cereals at the simulated gastric...... conditions. The data infer that acid stable microbial phytases can help improve iron bioavailability from phytate-rich cereal substrates via post-ingestion activity....

  16. Gravity Perception and Response in Shoots of Cereal Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, P. B.; Song, I.; Bluncson, C.

    1985-01-01

    Two components of the gravitropic curvature response in cereal grass pulvini are studied. These two components are gravity perception and mechanism of response following the transduction phase. The effects of gravity, time lag, protein synthesis and enzyme production are included.

  17. Improving cereal grain carbohydrates for diet and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafiandra, Domenico; Riccardi, Gabriele; Shewry, Peter R

    2014-05-01

    Starch and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fibre) of cereal grains contribute to the health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain cereal products, including reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. The physiological bases for these effects are reviewed in relation to the structures and physical properties of the polysaccharides and their behaviour (including digestion and fermentation) in the gastro-intestinal tract. Strategies for modifying the content and composition of grain polysaccharides to increase their health benefits are discussed, including exploiting natural variation and using mutagenesis and transgenesis to generate further variation. These studies will facilitate the development of new types of cereals and cereal products to face the major health challenges of the 21st century.

  18. A cross-cultural study of cereal foods' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Costa, Ana I. A.

    of several cues and dimensions in their evaluation of the perceived quality of bread, cookies, breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka. Portuguese and Lithuanians consistently gave a significantly higher average importance to all the cues and quality dimensions considered, for all products, than their Danish...... information and price were the most important for Danes. The cues and dimensions Portuguese found relevant were fairly different and more category-dependent. Cues like store type for bread, brand for breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka, country-of-origin for vodka, and price for cookies, pasta and vodka were......Cereal foods' production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal foods' quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were inquired about the importance...

  19. A cross-cultural study of cereal food quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I. A.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    of several cues and dimensions in their evaluation of the perceived quality of bread, cookies, breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka. Portuguese and Lithuanians consistently gave a significantly higher average importance to all the cues and quality dimensions considered, for all products, than their Danish...... information and price were the most important for Danes. The cues and dimensions Portuguese found relevant were fairly different and more category-dependent. Cues like store type for bread, brand for breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka, country-of-origin (CoO) for vodka, and price for cookies, pasta and vodka......Cereal food production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal food quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were interviewed about the importance...

  20. Preparation and Properties of Cereal-Metal Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Various kinds of biodegradable polymer materials have been researched[1]. In our previous papers,cereals such as wheat,buckwheat,glutinous rice and nonglutinous rice were polycondenced with citric acid and polysilicic acid to prepare copolymer films respectively[2,3].These copolymer fims have relatively good mechanical properties but the water proofness is not so good.Recently,some cereals such as wheat,glutinous rice,nonglutinous rice,kaoliang,millet and maize were reacted with copper chlorid...

  1. Cell wall chemical characteristics of whole‐crop cereal silages harvested at three maturity stages

    OpenAIRE

    Wallsten, Johanna; Hatfield, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In cooler climates such as found in Scandinavian countries cereals are important feedstuffs for ruminants often ensiled as whole‐crop cereal silages (WCCS) to preserve nutrients. Animal performance varies with the type of cereal forage and stage of cereal development being ensiled. Cell wall isolation and analysis was undertaken to determine differences among cereal silages harvested at different stages of maturity. Results A set of 27 WCCS samples of barley, wheat and oat...

  2. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality.

  3. Transgene expression systems in the Triticeae cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Götz; Himmelbach, Axel; Chen, Wanxin; Douchkov, Dimitar K; Kumlehn, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    The control of transgene expression is vital both for the elucidation of gene function and for the engineering of transgenic crops. Given the dominance of the Triticeae cereals in the agricultural economy of the temperate world, the development of well-performing transgene expression systems of known functionality is of primary importance. Transgenes can be expressed either transiently or stably. Transient expression systems based on direct or virus-mediated gene transfer are particularly useful in situations where the need is to rapidly screen large numbers of genes. However, an unequivocal understanding of gene function generally requires that a transgene functions throughout the plant's life and is transmitted through the sexual cycle, since this alone allows its effect to be decoupled from the plant's response to the generally stressful gene transfer event. Temporal, spatial and quantitative control of a transgene's expression depends on its regulatory environment, which includes both its promoter and certain associated untranslated region sequences. While many transgenic approaches aim to manipulate plant phenotype via ectopic gene expression, a transgene sequence can be also configured to down-regulate the expression of its endogenous counterpart, a strategy which exploits the natural gene silencing machinery of plants. In this review, current technical opportunities for controlling transgene expression in the Triticeae species are described. Apart from protocols for transient and stable gene transfer, the choice of promoters and other untranslated regulatory elements, we also consider signal peptides, as they too govern the abundance and particularly the sub-cellular localization of transgene products.

  4. [Nutritional characteristics of cereal and peanut bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Tepper, A; Aguayo, M

    1998-06-01

    Snack with good nutritional value could play an important role in the physical and mental development of children and teenagers since they show a great preference for them. The tendency is increasing their nutritional value by supplying proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals in a balanced form. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical, sensorial and nutritional quality of cereal and peanut bars. Three types of bars using different ratios of oat, wheat germ, peanut, toasted and expanded amaranthus and wheat extrudate were prepared. Bars proximate composition was determined according the AOAC methods, and their acceptability according Hedonic Scale. In the biological assays, rats fed with 10% protein diets, were used to obtain the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) Net Protein Ratio (NPR) and Apparent Digestibility (AD). Corrected PER, relative PER, relative AD, PER and NPR values did not showed difference between bars CM1 and CM2 (PER: 2.59-2.57; NPR: 3.99-3.95 respectively); CM3 bar showed a lower quality. There were not differences among bars in relation to AD. CM1 and CM2 bars had a better biological quality of the protein being CM3 bar of lower quality. From a chemical and sensorial point of view CM1 bar shows the highest protein content (14.23%) and acceptability (6.8) and CM2 bar shows a high raw fiber content (2.27%).

  5. Molecular genetics and evolution of disease resistance in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krattinger, Simon G; Keller, Beat

    2016-10-01

    Contents 320 I. 320 II. 321 III. 321 IV. 322 V. 324 VI. 328 VII. 329 330 References 330 SUMMARY: Cereal crops produce a large part of the globally consumed food and feed. Because of the constant presence of devastating pathogens, the molecular characterization of disease resistance is a major research area and highly relevant for breeding. There has been recent and accelerating progress in the understanding of three distinct resistance mechanisms in cereals: resistance conferred by plasma membrane-localized receptor proteins; race-specific resistance conferred by intracellular immune receptors; and quantitative disease resistance. Intracellular immune receptors provide a particularly rich source for evolutionary studies, and have, for example, resulted in the recent discovery of a novel detection mechanism based on integrated decoy domains. Evolutionary studies have also revealed the origins of active resistance genes in both wild progenitors of today's cereals as well as in cultivated forms. In addition, independent evolution of orthologous genes in related cereals has resulted in resistance to different pathogen species. Quantitative resistance genes have been best characterized in wheat. The quantitative resistance genes identified so far in wheat encode transporter proteins or unusual kinase proteins. The recent discoveries in these three different resistance mechanisms have contributed to the basic molecular understanding of cereal immunity against pathogens and have suggested novel applications for resistance breeding.

  6. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals.

  7. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes. PMID:27303632

  8. Meiosis in cereal crops: the grasses are back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-perez, E

    2009-01-01

    A major goal of breeding programs is to increase and manipulate the genetic diversity of crops. The incorporation of beneficial genes from wild relatives into crops is achieved by producing hybrid plants in which meiotic recombination events occur between the two genomes. Furthering our understanding of meiosis in the cereals could enable the manipulation of homolog pairing and recombination, significantly enhancing the efficiency of breeding programs. The main obstacle to the genetic analysis of meiosis in cereal crops has been the complex organization of most cereal genomes, many of which are polyploid. However, the recent sequencing of the rice genome, the use of insertional mutagenesis and reverse genetics approaches has opened the door for the genetic and genomic analysis of cereal meiosis. The goal of this review is to show how these new resources, as well as the use of three-dimensional microscopy, are rapidly providing insights into the mechanisms that control pairing, recombination and segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis in four major cereal crops: wheat, rice, maize and rye.

  9. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Cereals and their Malts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrejovič Miroslav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of malting on the antioxidant content in cereals such as wheat (PS Sunanka, Zaira, PS 57/11 and Vanda, oat (Dunajec and barley (Laudis 550 harvested in 2013. Antioxidant and polyphenol contents of these cereals and malts were investigated. Secondary, technological parameters of prepared malts were evaluated and compared with malt from barley Laudis 550 used as reference material. Malting of selected cereals had an impact on antioxidant and polyphenol content and allowed a better extraction of these compounds from cereal matrix, except of barley malt, whose antioxidant and total polyphenol content remained comparable. For other cereal malts, antioxidant contents were 2.0, 1.8, 2.6, 2.9 and 3.2-fold higher and total polyphenol content were 1.8, 1.9, 1.9, 3.1 and 3.4-fold higher than in wheat (PS Sunanka, Zaira, PS 57/11, Vanda and oat (Dunajec, respectively. From correlation analysis, the results showed that not all polyphenols released by malting have antioxidant activity. Technological parameters (friability, haze of wort, saccharification rate, filtration rate, extract and diastatic power also indicated that good malt quality had oat Dunajec and wheat PS Sunanka and Zaira in comparison with reference material (barley Laudis 550.

  10. Functionality of lipids and lipid-protein interactions in cereal-derived food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Didier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids and especially cereal lipids play a significant role in the processing and quality of cereals and baked cereal foods (bread, biscuits and beverages (beer. Most of the physico-chemical mechanisms responsible for the lipid functionality has been investigated and recently the specific role of lipid-binding proteins, e.g. lipid transfer proteins and puroindolines, has been highlighted. The state of the researches performed in this field are briefly presented in this review and the data obtained until now show that new perspectives are opened in cereal breeding and processing for improving the quality of cereals and cereal products.

  11. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals: implication in agriculture, cereal processing and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, N.; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long......-term gains on the quality and quantity of the raw materials. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes (alpha-amylase, limit-dextrinase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, pectin methylesterase, invertase and xyloglucan endoglucanase) naturally occur in plants where they are involved in various...... roles from plant defence to metabolism. Xylanase inhibitors represent the latest addition to this growing family. In this review, we will focus on the inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes present in cereals, mostly represented by et-amylase and xylanase inhibitors, and summarise the existing...

  12. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spring barley is grown on about half of the Norwegian cereal area. The rest of the area is equally divided between wheat and oats. Most years the domestic production provides 70%–80% of the domestic market for bread wheat. Barley and oats are mainly grown for animal feed. During the years 2008–2012, severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight have led to increased mycotoxin contamination of cereals. During that period, precipitation was above normal during anthesis and grain maturation. The most important mycotoxin producers have been F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae. Increased deoxynivalenol contamination of Norwegian cereals during recent years is due to severe F. graminearum epidemics.

  13. Prediction of cereal feed value by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    and problems that crop variety choices and cropping practices have on feeding value of winter wheat, triticale and spring barley. A successful development of an EDOM, EDOMi, FEso and FEsv calibration to NIRS will be a relatively cheap tool to monitor, diversify and evaluate the quality of cereals for animal...... feed, a possible tool to assess the feed value of new varieties in the variety testing and a useful, cheap and rapid tool for cereal breeders. A bank of 1213 grain samples of wheat, triticale, barley and rye, and related chemical reference analyses to describe the feed value have been established...... with the error in the chemical analysis. Prediction error by NIRS prediction of feed value has been shown to be above the error of the chemical measurement. The conclusion is that it has proved possible to predict the feed value in cereals with NIRS quickly and cheaply, but prediction error with this method...

  14. Prediction of cereal feed value using spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Gislum, René

    2009-01-01

    of EDOM, EDOMi, FEso and FEsv. The outcome of a successful NIRS calibration will be a relatively cheap tool to monitor, diversify and evaluate the quality of cereals for animal feed, a possible tool to assess the feed value of new varieties in the variety testing and a useful, cheap and rapid tool...... for cereal breeders. A collection of 1213 grain samples of wheat, triticale, barley and rye, and related chemical reference analyses to describe the feed value have been established. The samples originate from available field trials over a three-year period. The chemical reference analyses are dry matter...... value, the prediction error has to be compared with the error in the chemical analysis. Prediction error by NIRS prediction of feed value is above the error of the chemical measurement. The conclusion is that it is possible to predict the feed value in cereals with NIRS quickly and cheaply...

  15. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-04

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  16. Effects of processing on mycotoxin stability in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Jafar; Maleki, Gisoo

    2014-09-01

    The mycotoxins that generally occur in cereals and other products are not completely destroyed during food-processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most usually associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins. The various food processes that may have effects on mycotoxins include cleaning, milling, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, flaking, alkaline cooking, nixtamalization, and extrusion. Most of the food processes have variable effects on mycotoxins, with those that utilize high temperatures having the greatest effects. In general, the processes reduce mycotoxin concentrations significantly, but do not eliminate them completely. This review focuses on the effects of various thermal treatments on mycotoxins.

  17. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and

  18. Nutritional quality, labelling and promotion of breakfast cereals on the New Zealand market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Anandita; Eyles, Helen; Rayner, Mike; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Swinburn, Boyd; Lonsdale-Cooper, Emily; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2014-10-01

    Breakfast cereals substantially contribute to daily energy and nutrient intakes among children. In New Zealand, new regulations are being implemented to restrict nutrition and health claims to products that meet certain 'healthy' criteria. This study investigated the difference in nutritional quality, labelling and promotion between 'healthy' and 'less healthy' breakfast cereals, and between breakfast cereals intended for children compared with other breakfast cereals on the New Zealand market. The cross-sectional data collection involved taking pictures of the nutrition information panel (NIP) and front-of pack (FoP) for all breakfast cereals (n = 247) at two major supermarkets in Auckland in 2013. A nutrient profiling tool was used to classify products into 'healthy'/'less healthy'. In total 26% of cereals did not meet the 'healthy' criteria. 'Less healthy' cereals were significantly higher in energy density, sugar and sodium content and lower in protein and fibre content compared with 'healthy' cereals. Significantly more nutrition claims (75%) and health claims (89%) featured on 'healthy' compared with 'less healthy' cereals. On the 'less healthy' cereals, nutrition claims (65%) were more predominant than health claims (17%). Of the 52 products displaying promotional characters, 48% were for 'cereals for kids', and of those, 72% featured on 'less healthy' cereals. In conclusion, most breakfast cereals met the 'healthy' criteria; however, 'cereals for kids' were 'less healthy' and displayed more promotional characters than other cereal categories. Policy recommendations include: food composition targets set or endorsed by government, strengthening and enforcing current regulations on health and nutrition claims, considering the application of nutrient profiling for nutrition claims in addition to health claims, introducing an interpretative FoP labelling system and restricting the use of promotional characters on 'less healthy' breakfast cereals.

  19. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ready-to-Eat Cereal Subcategory § 406.90 Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory....

  20. Algorithms for in-season nutrient management in cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for improved decision making products for cereal production systems has placed added emphasis on using plant sensors in-season, and that incorporate real-time, site specific, growing environments. The objective of this work was to describe validated in-season sensor based algorithms prese...

  1. ANALYSIS OF FREE AND BOUND CHLOROPHENOXY ACIDS IN CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Extraction of the chlorophenoxy acids 2,4-D and dichlorprop in cereals has been examined by analyzing barley from spraying experiments. A procedure has been set up by combination of acid hydrolysis and enzymatic degradation followed by extraction and clean up on either silica gel or basic aluminum...

  2. Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N. Wegulo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed.

  3. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  4. Sourdough and cereal fermentation in a nutritional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Kaisa; Flander, Laura; Katina, Kati

    2009-10-01

    Use of sourdough is of expanding interest for improvement of flavour, structure and stability of baked goods. Cereal fermentations also show significant potential in improvement and design of the nutritional quality and health effects of foods and ingredients. In addition to improving the sensory quality of whole grain, fibre-rich or gluten-free products, sourdough can also actively retard starch digestibility leading to low glycemic responses, modulate levels and bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds, and improve mineral bioavailability. Cereal fermentation may produce non-digestible polysaccharides, or modify accessibility of the grain fibre complex to gut microbiota. It has also been suggested that degradation of gluten may render bread better suitable for celiac persons. The changes in cereal matrix potentially leading to improved nutritional quality are numerous. They include acid production, suggested to retard starch digestibility, and to adjust pH to a range which favours the action of certain endogenous enzymes, thus changing the bioavailability pattern of minerals and phytochemicals. This is especially beneficial in products rich in bran to deliver minerals and potentially protective compounds in the blood circulation. The action of enzymes during fermentation also causes hydrolysis and solubilisation of grain macromolecules, such as proteins and cell wall polysaccharides. This changes product texture, which may affect nutrient and non-nutrient absorption. New bioactive compounds, such as prebiotic oligosaccharides or other metabolites, may also be formed in cereal fermentations.

  5. Speciation of chromium in bread and breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathebula, Mpho Wendy; Mandiwana, Khakhathi; Panichev, Nikolas

    2017-02-15

    Bread and breakfast cereals are a major constituents of the human diet, yet their Cr(VI) content is not known. Chromium(VI) was determined in these products by high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (HR-CS AAS) after leaching Cr(VI) with 0.10molL(-1) Na2CO3. The results showed that 33-73% of total Cr (58.17±5.12μgkg(-1)-156.1±6.66μgkg(-1)) in bread exist as Cr(VI) and the highest total Cr content was found in brown bread. It was shown that Cr(III) is oxidized to Cr(VI) during toasting of bread. Chromium(VI) content in breakfast cereals ranged between 20.4±4μgkg(-1) and 470.4±68μgkg(-1). Therefore, it can be concluded that bread and breakfast cereals contains Cr(VI) which does not exceed maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.003mgkg(-1)bw(-1)day(-1) through daily consumption of half a bowl (65g) of breakfast cereal and four slices of toasted (122g) or untoasted bread (160g).

  6. Diagnosis and control of cereal viruses in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Ata, Aboul-Ata E; Mazyad, Hamed; El-Attar, Ahmad Kamal; Soliman, Ahmed Mohamed; Anfoka, Ghandi; Zeidan, Muhammad; Gorovits, Rena; Sobol, Iris; Czosnek, Henryk

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eastern countries are major consumers of small grain cereals. Egypt is the biggest bread wheat producer with 7.4 million tons (MT) in 2007, but at the same time, it had to import 5.9 MT. Jordan and Israel import almost all the grains they consume. Viruses are the major pathogens that impair grain production in the Middle East, infecting in some years more than 80% of the crop. They are transmitted in nonpersistent, semipersistent, and persistent manners by insects (aphids, leafhoppers, and mites), and through soil and seeds. Hence, cereal viruses have to be controlled, not only in the field but also through the collaborative efforts of the plant quarantine services inland and at the borders, involving all the Middle Eastern countries. Diagnosis of cereal viruses may include symptom observation, immunological technologies such as ELISA using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies raised against virus coat protein expressed in bacteria, and molecular techniques such as PCR, microarrays, and deep sequencing. In this chapter, we explore the different diagnoses, typing, and detection techniques of cereal viruses available to the Middle Eastern countries. We highlight the plant quarantine service and the prevention methods. Finally, we review the breeding efforts for virus resistance, based on conventional selection and genetic engineering.

  7. POTENTIAL OF CEREALS AND PSEUDOCEREALS FOR LACTIC ACID FERMENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Valík

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and pseudocereals play a significant role in human nutrition. They are source of specific carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, fibre and wide spectrum of vitamins and minerals. Moreover, pseudocereals have a higher content of essential amino acids, e.g. lysine and tryptophan. Cereals and pseudocereals may also contain some antinutrition factors, such as phytic acid, polyphenols, trypsin inhibitors and inhibitors of α-amylase. These are responsible for reducing of protein and carbohydrate digestibility and decreasing accessibility of minerals due to complex formation. This review assesses the applications of cereals and pseudocereals in fermentation technology including the effects of lactic acid bacteria on nutrition, sensory quality and shelf-life. This work is focusing also on fermentation process of cereal matrice leading in degradation of antinutritional factors increase of nutritional value and availability of minerals, proteins and carbohydrates. Lactic acid bacteria produce many aromatic compounds that are beneficial to organoleptic atributes of the products. However, a few questions have been not answered in experiments, yet. For eample, is there any space for evaluation of their suitability to act as carriers of probiotics? Could such the attempts lead in development some special formulae suitable for consumers with food allergies or deficiencies?doi:10.5219/127

  8. Analysing lodging of the panicle bearing cereal teff (Eragrostis tef)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van S.H.; Vos, J.; Ennos, A.R.; Stomph, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    •Lodging, the permanent displacement of crop plants from their vertical because of root or shoot failure, is a major yield constraint of the gluten free, panicle bearing cereal teff. The objective of this paper was to analyse the causes of lodging of teff by using, modifying and validating conventio

  9. Decrease in Content of Lead in Danish Cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Per Bent; Aarkrog, Asker; Fenger, Jørgen Folkvard

    1978-01-01

    or contamination by lead. So far we have examined three cereals (spring and winter wheat (Triticum vulgare) and barley (Hordeurn sativum), and total diet2, which is the average daily diet of an adult in Denmark. (The composition of total diet is given in ref. 2.) We report here that there has been an overall...

  10. Fertilizer effects on a winter cereal cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits associated with conservation tillage in the Southeast are improved by using a winter cereal cover crop. In general, cover crop benefits increase as biomass production is increased, but the infertile soils typically require additional N (inorganic or organic). Currently, limited informatio...

  11. Prevention of ochratoxin A in cereals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Monica; Jonsson, Nils; Magan, Naresh;

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes objectives and activities of a major European Community project (OTA PREV) aimed at understanding sources of contamination of ochratoxin A in European cereals and related food-stuffs, and the development of strategies to minimise ochratoxin A in the food supply. The project ran...

  12. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2012-12-01

    Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted in the need for food products with versatile health-benefiting properties. Cereal- and cereal component-based food products offer opportunities to include probiotics, prebiotics, and fibers in the human diet. Various growth studies using probiotic Lactic acid bacteria on cereal-based substrates and utilization of whole grain or components as high-fiber foods in developing novel food products lend support to the idea that cereal-based media may well be good probiotic carriers. It is essential that science and traditional knowledge should go together to find mutually beneficial results. In the Indian subcontinent, making use of fermented food and beverages using local food crops and other biological resources are very common. But the nature of the products and the base material vary from region to region.

  13. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...

  14. Cereal and nonfat milk support muscle recovery following exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Yi-Hung

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compared the effects of ingesting cereal and nonfat milk (Cereal and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Drink immediately following endurance exercise on muscle glycogen synthesis and the phosphorylation state of proteins controlling protein synthesis: Akt, mTOR, rpS6 and eIF4E. Methods Trained cyclists or triathletes (8 male: 28.0 ± 1.6 yrs, 1.8 ± 0.0 m, 75.4 ± 3.2 kg, 61.0 ± 1.6 ml O2•kg-1•min-1; 4 female: 25.3 ± 1.7 yrs, 1.7 ± 0.0 m, 66.9 ± 4.6 kg, 46.4 ± 1.2 mlO2•kg-1•min-1 completed two randomly-ordered trials serving as their own controls. After 2 hours of cycling at 60–65% VO2MAX, a biopsy from the vastus lateralis was obtained (Post0, then subjects consumed either Drink (78.5 g carbohydrate or Cereal (77 g carbohydrate, 19.5 g protein and 2.7 g fat. Blood was drawn before and at the end of exercise, and at 15, 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. A second biopsy was taken 60 minutes after supplementation (Post60. Differences within and between treatments were tested using repeated measures ANOVA. Results At Post60, blood glucose was similar between treatments (Drink 6.1 ± 0.3, Cereal 5.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L, p Conclusion These results suggest that Cereal is as good as a commercially-available sports drink in initiating post-exercise muscle recovery.

  15. Phytotoxicity and Benzoxazinone Concentration in Field Grown Cereal Rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. La Hovary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter rye (Secale cereale L. is used as a cover crop because of the weed suppression potential of its mulch. To gain insight into the more effective use of rye as a cover crop we assessed changes in benzoxazinone (BX levels in rye shoot tissue over the growing season. Four rye varieties were planted in the fall and samples harvested at intervals the following spring. Two different measures of phytotoxic compound content were taken. Seed germination bioassays were used as an estimate of total phytotoxic potential. Dilutions of shoot extracts were tested using two indicator species to compare the relative toxicity of tissue. In addition, BX (DIBOA, DIBOA-glycoside, and BOA levels were directly determined using gas chromatography. Results showed that rye tissue harvested in March was the most toxic to indicator species, with toxicity decreasing thereafter. Likewise the BX concentration in rye shoot tissue increased early in the season and then decreased over time. Thus, phytotoxicity measured by bioassay and BX levels measured by GC have a similar but not identical temporal profile. The observed decrease in phytotoxic potential and plant BX levels in rye later in the season appears to correlate with the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth.

  16. Antioxidant properties of diverse cereal grains: A review on in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masisi, Kabo; Beta, Trust; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2016-04-01

    Cereal grains and products have gained popularity in contributing to healthy eating behavior because of their antioxidant properties associated with protection against chronic diseases. In this review, notable studies on the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereal grains are summarized. Cereals contain phytochemicals or certain minor components with antioxidant properties. The antioxidant potential of cereals depends on their bioaccessibility, absorption in the gastrointestinal and their bioavailability utilization in vivo. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of cereals increased their antioxidant potentials which are significantly correlated with their total phenolic contents. Most studies performed in vivo have been concerned with the antioxidant properties of colored rice, wheat bran and rye products. There are inadequate in vitro and in vivo studies on antioxidative potentials of fermented versus unfermented cereals. Therefore, further studies are necessary to maximize possible health benefits of cereal antioxidative phytochemicals.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree; Kim, Kwan-Soo; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2008-03-01

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwan-Soo [Research and Development Department, Greenpia Technology, Yeoju 469-811 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-03-15

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  19. Problems of residues in cereals and bread. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocker, H.D.; Seibel, W.

    1980-01-01

    More than 1200 samples of cereals (wheat and rye) and more than 180 representative bread samples of the years 1975 to 1978 have been analyzed with regard to Pb and Cd concentrations (AAS tubular graphite cell). The findings are presented in 4 tables and 11 histograms and discussed. In wheat, the mean Pb concentration was a constant 0.05 ppm while the Cd concentration increased from 0.05 ppm to 0.06 ppm. In rye, the mean Pb concentration increased from 0.08 ppm to 0.11 ppm while the Cd concentration remained at 0.12 ppm. Variations between samples were considerable. Mean values for bread were between 0.021 and 0.059 ppm for Pb and between 0.011 and 0.037 ppm for Cd (referred to the fresh substance). The decontaminating effect of cereals processing was clearly proven.

  20. Glycemic index of cereals and tubers produced in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Xin Yang; Hong-Wei Wang; Hong-Mei Cui; Yan Wang; Lian-Da Yu; Shi-Xue Xiang; Shui-Ying Zhou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the GI of some cereals and tubers produced in China in an effort to establish the database of glycemic index (GI) of Chinese food.METHODS: Food containing 50 g carbohydrate was consumed by 8-12 healthy adults after they have been fasted for 10 h and blood glucose was monitored for 2 h.Glucose was used as reference food. GI of food was calculated according to a standard method.RESULTS: GI of 9 types of sugar and 60 kinds of food were determined.CONCLUSION: Food GI is mainly determined by nature of carbohydrate and procession. Most of cereals and tubers produced in China have similar GI with their counterparts produced in other countries.

  1. Cereal Grains: Their Impacts on Health and Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Rayas-Duarte; J Uriyapongson

    2006-01-01

    Cereal grains can contribute to maintain health and prevent chronic diseases by supplying biologically active components. The exact mechanism of action of these components is not completely understood, but extensive evidence suggests the antioxidants that are present in the grains are the likely source of benefits. These activities or properties might protect against coronary heart disease and diabetes. The relationships of complex carbohydrates, whole grain products and the prevention of diseases, including type2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease continue to challenge the scientific community. Though cereal grains contribute to a healthy diet there are some people that can not tolerate the proteins present in the grain. This can lead to food allergies and when severe can be diagnosed as celiac disease.

  2. Optimization of the composition of the powdered cereal sprouts mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas-Šaponjac Vesna T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sprouts of cereals have received significant attention as functional food due to their nutritional and functional value. Consumption of sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. Cereal grains contain several classes of phytochemicals, i.e. phenolics, chlorophylls, and carotenoids. However, their nutritional and chemical profile is altered and improved during germination. The purpose of this study was to find the best ratio of the powdered wheat (WS, oat (OS and barley (BS sprouts for designing the cereal sprout mixture (CSM with the highest total phenolic content (TPh and antioxidant capacity (AC, using Simplex-Centroid experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM. Single- and multi-response optimizations showed that OS did not contribute to TPh or AC values of CSM and, therefore, was not included in any of the compositions of the optimized CSM. Single-response optimizations showed that the highest TPh was found for CSM containing 82% BS and 18% WS, while the best AC was found for pure BS. The predicted ratio of cereal sprout powders in CSM obtained by multi-response optimization was: 96% BS and 4% WS. This mixture possessed the highest predicted TPh and AC (372.32 mg GAE/100 g, 549.99 μmol TE/100 g, respectively, which was confirmed to be in accordance with the experimental values. Based on the results obtained in this study, a designed CSM is proposed as a convenient ingredient of functional food products, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.

  3. Cereal Crop Farm Planning for Profit Maximization in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadzai, Najeebullah; Nanseki, Teruaki; Chomei, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Cereal crops are the major component of agriculture sector in Afghanistan by generating income and providing food dietary of subsistence to the farm family. The sector which is dominated by small scale farmer across the country is facing numerous problems such as inefficient use of resources, poor production technology, low labor productivity and high production costs. This study was carried out to maximize farm income by optimization resource allocation and developing an optimal farm plan fo...

  4. Plant protection and food safety: notes on cereal chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Trematerra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management (or IPM is a decision-making process that prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term solutions. Components of an IPM program may include education, proper waste management, structural repair, maintenance, biological and mechanical control techniques, and pesticide application. These tactics should meet economic, public health and environmental goals. In this paper new methods and strategies of pest control in cereal chain are reported.

  5. Impacts of cereal ergot in food animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eCoufal-Majewski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops such as wheat, barley and rye, favouring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements which may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety and genotype. Considerable animal to animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome.

  6. Cover crops in cereals – better companions than weeds?

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Jukka; Zarina, Livija; Melander, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cover crops have gained popularity in cereal cropping now that they are one of the subsidized options in agri-environmental schemes of the EU. Several studies on cover/catch crops affecting nutrient leaching have been published but less information is available concerning their applicability for weed management. In our opinion, combinations of crop and cover crop types as well as crop sequencing conform IPM principles and optimize weed management. The PRODIVA project (ERA-Net Core Organic Plu...

  7. Assessment of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Rabbani, Tehmeena; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Jinap, S

    2014-08-15

    Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analysed in 237 breakfast cereal samples collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. According to the results, 41% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 16% and 8% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 48% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 30% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The results have shown that 53% samples of breakfast cereals were found contaminated with ZEN and 8% samples were found to be above the permissible limit of EU. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in semolina i.e. 3.60 and 4.55 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly, semolina was the highest contaminated breakfast cereal for OTA (3.90 μg/kg), while cornflakes (brand B) was found highest contaminated with ZEN (13.45 μg/kg).

  8. [Storage and use of antioxidants in cereal and peanut bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Tepper, A; Castillo, E

    1998-06-01

    The use of fatty materials in cereal bars gives to them a good energetic value; however they are exposed to oxidative rancidity which can affect their acceptability and nutritional value. So, the purpose of this research was to determine the stability in storage and the effect of antioxidants on three tipes of cereal bars with peanuts. Cereal bars with 18% of peanuts were prepared, with and without antioxidants (BHA + BHT; 100 ppm). Bars were packed in polyprolpilene-aluminium-polythilene bags, and were stored at room temperature (18-20 degrees C) for 90 days. Each 30 days, analysis of water activity (Aw); moisture content, peroxides index, sensory quality (flavor, aroma and appearance) and acceptability, were carried out. Moisture content was similar in all bars (7.6-9.6%) and Aw was higher in the bar which contained expanded amaranthus and antioxidant. At the 60th day of storage, the peroxide values were lower in the bars with antioxidants; only the bar which included expanded amaranthus showed significant differences (16.4 meq/kg in the bar with antioxidant and 25.7 meq/kg for the control bar). The sensory parameters were kept within normal status without differences between the bars with antioxidants and the control ones, along all the storage period. Shelf life of bars CM1 and CM2 was at least of 60 days when they are kept at 18-20 degrees C.

  9. Possible Roles for Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 in Cereal Endosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru eTonosaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2 is an evolutionarily conserved multimeric protein complex in both plants and animals. In contrast to animals, plants have evolved a range of different components of PRC2 and form diverse complexes that act in the control of key regulatory genes at many stages of development during the life cycle. A number of studies, particularly in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, have highlighted the role of PRC2 and of epigenetic controls via parent-of-origin specific gene expression for endosperm development. However, recent research in cereal plants has revealed that although some components of PRC2 show evolutionary conservation with respect to parent-of-origin specific gene expression patterns, the identity of the imprinted genes encoding PRC2 components is not conserved. This disparity may reflect the facts that cereal plant genomes have undergone different patterns of duplication during evolution compared to Arabidopsis thaliana and that the endosperm development program is not identical in monocots and eudicots. In this context, we focus this review on the expression of imprinted PRC2 genes and their roles in endosperm development in cereals.

  10. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G

    2014-05-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue.

  11. Application of roasted rice bran in cereal bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of using microwave-roasted rice bran as an ingredient in high-fiber cereal bars to obtain a product with good acceptability. The influence of the rice flakes, corn flakes, and roasted rice bran levels on the physical and chemical characteristics of the cereal bars was studied. The overall acceptability of three selected formulations was also evaluated. An increase in the roasted rice bran level in the formulation reduced the force of rupture and water activity, resulted in intermediate density, and caused darkening of the bars. The contents of lipid and total dietary fiber were higher in the formulation with the highest rice bran content, which was therefore classified as functional food. The formulation containing 0.34; 0.32; and 0.34 roasted rice bran, rice flakes, and corn flakes, respectively, seemed to be the best outcome. Cereal bars with roasted rice bran levels between 10 and 20% were accepted by consumers.

  12. Sensory Acceptability of Infant Cereals with Whole Grain in Infants and Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Haro-Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, infant cereals are one of the first foods introduced during the complementary feeding stage. These cereals are usually made with refined cereal flours, even though several health benefits have been linked to the intake of whole grain cereals. Prior evidence suggests that food preferences are developed at early stages of life, and may persist in later childhood and adulthood. Our aim was to test whether an infant cereal with 30% of whole grain was similarly accepted both by parents and infants in comparison to a similar cereal made from refined flour. A total of 81 infants between 4 and 24 months old were included in the study. Parent-infant pairs participated in an 8-day experimental study. Acceptance was rated on hedonic scales (4-points for infants and 7-points for parents. Other attributes like color, smell, and taste were evaluated by the parents. Acceptability for infant cereals with whole grain and refined cereals was very similar both for infants (2.30 ± 0.12 and 2.32 ± 0.11, p = 0.606 and parents (6.1 ± 0.8 and 6.0 ± 0.9, p = 0.494. Therefore, our findings show that there is an opportunity to introduce whole grain cereals to infants, including those who are already used to consuming refined infant cereals, thereby accelerating the exposure of whole grain in early life.

  13. Sensory Acceptability of Infant Cereals with Whole Grain in Infants and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro-Vicente, Juan Francisco; Bernal-Cava, Maria Jose; Lopez-Fernandez, Amparo; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Bodenstab, Stefan; Sanchez-Siles, Luis Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, infant cereals are one of the first foods introduced during the complementary feeding stage. These cereals are usually made with refined cereal flours, even though several health benefits have been linked to the intake of whole grain cereals. Prior evidence suggests that food preferences are developed at early stages of life, and may persist in later childhood and adulthood. Our aim was to test whether an infant cereal with 30% of whole grain was similarly accepted both by parents and infants in comparison to a similar cereal made from refined flour. A total of 81 infants between 4 and 24 months old were included in the study. Parent-infant pairs participated in an 8-day experimental study. Acceptance was rated on hedonic scales (4-points for infants and 7-points for parents). Other attributes like color, smell, and taste were evaluated by the parents. Acceptability for infant cereals with whole grain and refined cereals was very similar both for infants (2.30 ± 0.12 and 2.32 ± 0.11, p = 0.606) and parents (6.1 ± 0.8 and 6.0 ± 0.9, p = 0.494). Therefore, our findings show that there is an opportunity to introduce whole grain cereals to infants, including those who are already used to consuming refined infant cereals, thereby accelerating the exposure of whole grain in early life. PMID:28098769

  14. Influence of water-based ferrofluid upon chlorophylls in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racuciu, Mihaela [Lucian Blaga University, Faculty of Science, 10 Blvd. Victoriei, Sibiu, 550012 (Romania)]. E-mail: mracuciu@yahoo.com; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia [Al. I. Cuza University, Faculty of Physics, 11A Blvd.Copou, Iasi, 700506 (Romania)

    2007-04-15

    The present experimental investigation was focused on the study of the simultaneous influence of the water-based ferrofluid and static magnetic field exposure on young cereal plants. Water-based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added daily in various concentrations, ranging between 10 and 250 {mu}L/L, in the culture medium of maize (Zea mays) plants in their early ontogenetic stages. The used static magnetic field was about 50 mT. In order to investigate the biochemical changes of chlorophylls and total carotenoids, spectrophotometric measurements were carried out, that revealed stimulatory effects of ferrofluid and magnetic exposure upon the studied plant species.

  15. Fusarium head blight of winter rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on Fusarium head blight of rye were carried out in the years 2005-2007 on 10 production fields in the Lublin region. The percentage of heads showing the fusariosis symptoms in the years 2005-2007 ranged from 0 to 7%. Mycological analysis of kernels and chaff obtained from heads with Fusarium blight (scab symptoms showed that Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium sporotrichioides were the largest threat to heads of this cereal. The species of Fusarium poae and Fusarium crookwellense were also isolated from infected rye heads. The dominance of particular species in infecting rye heads was determined by weather conditions.

  16. CEREALS AS BASIS OF PREVENTING NUTRITION AGAINST OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Still more alarming obesity studies show in fact that it is largely due to incorrect diet and lifestyle. For suitable alternative for prevention of this disease are now considered cereal foods, mainly based on increased fiber content. The importance of dietary fiber for human organism consist primarily in its protective function before civilization diseases. It has beneficial effects on digestive physiology and it is therefore an important factor in the prevention of obesity, but also other diseases. Fiber consumption in developed countries is low and it is below the lower limit of the recommended dose. Slovaks per day take only 10-12 g of fiber, which represents only 47% of the recommended dose. Recent large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of wholegrain cereals can reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers by 30 percent. One of the factors that increase the functionality of foods is the so-called indigestible resistant starch. For its the positive impact on the physiology of digestion is referred to as prebiotics new generation of dietary fiber. The increasing availability of tasty, whole grain products rich in fiber could be health benefits. doi:10.5219/76

  17. Reduced fungicide doses in cereals: Which parameters to consider?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:A long tradition for using reduced fungicides rates in cereals have been exploited successfully in Denmark for more than 20 years and a similar trend has also been seen in other Northern European countries. The use of reduced and appropriate dose rates have been driven by field trials wi...... that reduced fungicide rates select less for fungicide resistance and can help to delay development of resistance.......Abstract:A long tradition for using reduced fungicides rates in cereals have been exploited successfully in Denmark for more than 20 years and a similar trend has also been seen in other Northern European countries. The use of reduced and appropriate dose rates have been driven by field trials...... to be controlled successfully at rates down to quarter rates. Fungicides, in general, show highly variable dose responses for specific diseases, which is important to know when specific advice is given. Preventive treatments generally require less input compared with treatments during the latent period or later...

  18. Quantification of sugars in breakfast cereals using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounji, Michelle R; Van Leeuwen, Matthew P; Oliver, James D; Shrestha, Ashok K; Castignolles, Patrice; Gaborieau, Marianne

    2015-05-18

    About 80% of the Australian population consumes breakfast cereal (BC) at least five days a week. With high prevalence rates of obesity and other diet-related diseases, improved methods for monitoring sugar levels in breakfast cereals would be useful in nutrition research. The heterogeneity of the complex matrix of BCs can make carbohydrate analysis challenging or necessitate tedious sample preparation leading to potential sugar loss or starch degradation into sugars. A recently established, simple and robust free solution capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was used in a new application to 13 BCs (in Australia) and compared with several established methods for quantification of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates identified in BCs by CE included sucrose, maltose, glucose and fructose. The CE method is simple requiring no sample preparation or derivatization and carbohydrates are detected by direct UV detection. CE was shown to be a more robust and accurate method for measuring carbohydrates than Fehling method, DNS (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid) assay and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography).

  19. Prospects for advancing defense to cereal rusts through genetical genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballini, Elsa; Lauter, Nick; Wise, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Rusts are one of the most severe threats to cereal crops because new pathogen races emerge regularly, resulting in infestations that lead to large yield losses. In 1999, a new race of stem rust, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt TTKSK or Ug99), was discovered in Uganda. Most of the wheat and barley cultivars grown currently worldwide are susceptible to this new race. Pgt TTKSK has already spread northward into Iran and will likely spread eastward throughout the Indian subcontinent in the near future. This scenario is not unique to stem rust; new races of leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) have also emerged recently. One strategy for countering the persistent adaptability of these pathogens is to stack complete- and partial-resistance genes, which requires significant breeding efforts in order to reduce deleterious effects of linkage drag. These varied resistance combinations are typically more difficult for the pathogen to defeat, since they would be predicted to apply lower selection pressure. Genetical genomics or expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis enables the identification of regulatory loci that control the expression of many to hundreds of genes. Integrated deployment of these technologies coupled with efficient phenotyping offers significant potential to elucidate the regulatory nodes in genetic networks that orchestrate host defense responses. The focus of this review will be to present advances in genetical genomic experimental designs and analysis, particularly as they apply to the prospects for discovering partial disease resistance alleles in cereals.

  20. Manufacturing cereal bars with high nutritional value through experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Covino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations responsible for public health throughout the world have been increasingly worrying about how to feed populations encouraging a nutritious and balanced diet in order to decrease the occurrence of chronic diseases, which are constantly related to an inadequate diet. Still, due to matters of modern lifestyle consumers are increasingly seeking convenient products. This being so, cereal bars have been an option when the matter is low calorie fast food which is also source of fiber. This study aimed at developing a cereal bar with high dietary fiber, iron, vitamins A and vitamin E, in order to easily enable adult population achieve the daily recommendation for such nutrients. Eight formulations plus the focal point were conducted through experimental planning; sensory analysis with 110 tasters for each block and texture. Afterwards, we conducted centesimal analysis for all three formulations presenting the best sensory results. After statistical analysis and comparison to the means for products available in the market, it was possible to conclude that the product developed presented great acceptance and fiber level more than twice as much as the means for commercial products.

  1. Metagenomics reveals flavour metabolic network of cereal vinegar microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin-Huan; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Zong-Min; Yu, Yong-Jian; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Multispecies microbial community formed through centuries of repeated batch acetic acid fermentation (AAF) is crucial for the flavour quality of traditional vinegar produced from cereals. However, the metabolism to generate and/or formulate the essential flavours by the multispecies microbial community is hardly understood. Here we used metagenomic approach to clarify in situ metabolic network of key microbes responsible for flavour synthesis of a typical cereal vinegar, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, produced by solid-state fermentation. First, we identified 3 organic acids, 7 amino acids, and 20 volatiles as dominant vinegar metabolites. Second, we revealed taxonomic and functional composition of the microbiota by metagenomic shotgun sequencing. A total of 86 201 predicted protein-coding genes from 35 phyla (951 genera) were involved in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of Metabolism (42.3%), Genetic Information Processing (28.3%), and Environmental Information Processing (10.1%). Furthermore, a metabolic network for substrate breakdown and dominant flavour formation in vinegar microbiota was constructed, and microbial distribution discrepancy in different metabolic pathways was charted. This study helps elucidating different metabolic roles of microbes during flavour formation in vinegar microbiota.

  2. Simple and efficient methodology to determine mycotoxins in cereal syrups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Huertas-Pérez, José F; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2015-06-15

    Consumption of cereal syrups is increasing nowadays. Mycotoxins may be found in syrups resulting from the use of contaminated raw material or invading microorganisms in the final manufactured product. However, these matrices have been scarcely explored regarding their mycotoxin content. A sensitive, simple and rapid method for the determination of ten mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 and HT-2 toxin, citrinin, sterigmatocystin and zearalenone) in cereal syrups (rice, wheat and barley) has been developed and characterised using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and a sample treatment based on QuEChERS procedure. Matrix-matched calibration curves were established and limits of quantification were below the limits usually established by current legislation in different foodstuff. The relative standard deviation of the whole analytical method was lower than 12% in all cases, while recoveries ranged from 70.2% to 100.6%, therefore fulfilling the current requirements for mycotoxins analysis.

  3. Metabolomics of cereals under biotic stress: current knowledge and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eBalmer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Prone to attacks by pathogens and pests, plants employ intricate chemical defense mechanisms consisting of metabolic adaptations. However, many plant attackers are manipulating the host metabolism to counteract defense responses and to induce favorable nutritional conditions. Advances in analytical chemistry have allowed the generation of extensive metabolic profiles during plant-pathogen and pest interactions. Thereby, metabolic processes were found to be highly specific for given tissues, species and plant-pathogen/pest interactions. The clusters of identified compounds not only serve as base in the quest of novel defense compounds, but also as markers for the characterization of the plants’ defensive state. The latter is especially useful in agronomic applications where meaningful markers are essential for crop protection. Cereals such as maize make use of their metabolic arsenal during both local and systemic defense responses, and the chemical response is highly adapted to specific attackers. Here, we summarize highlights and recent findings of metabolic patterns of cereals under pathogen and pest attack.

  4. A comparison of methods to quantify prolamin contents in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Giuberti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic prolamins are endosperm storage proteins accounting for about 40% of the total protein in most cereals seeds. Despite the absence of a reference method, several procedures have been periodically published to quantify prolamins in cereals. The aim of this study was to compare a conventional fractionation assay (LND vs three other methods: one based on sequential extractions (HAM and two rapid turbidimetric procedures (L&H and DRO. Prolamins were extracted in duplicate on barley, corn and wheat samples. For the turbidimetric prolamin evaluation in barley and wheat, a universally available purified gliadin, as alternative to purified zein, was also tested as standard reference material (SRM. The extraction prolamin values were different among grain types (P0.05. LND agreed sufficiently well both with HAM and with L&H methods (R2=0.664 and R2=0.703, respectively, P0.05, whereas a higher prolamin quantification was obtained using HAM (P<0.05. Overall, DRO did not provide similar comparison and performance parameters with respect to other method comparisons. The effect of changing purified zein with purified gliadin was noteworthy only for L&H, both for wheat and barley samples (P<0.01. Considering the increasing attention of animal nutritionists on prolamins, our results could get useful information for routine laboratories analysis.

  5. Genetic population structure of Fusarium graminearum species complex in Korean cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small grain cereals are frequently contaminated with toxigenic Fusarium species. Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are known as a head blight pathogens and mycotoxin producers. In order to characterize the FGSC populations associated with cereals in Korea, barley, corn, maiz...

  6. Online detection and quatification of ergot bodies in cereals using near infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ph.; Fernandez - Pierna, J.A.; Egmond, van H.P.; Dardenne, P.; Baeten, V.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of ergot bodies (sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea) in cereals presents a high toxicity risk for animals and humans due to the alkaloid content. To reduce this risk, the European Commission fixed an ergot concentration limit of 0.1% in all feedstuffs containing unground cereals, and a l

  7. Cereal Foods and Health : New results and science-based nutrition guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, S.; Ashwell, M.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies, in populations with higher intakes of whole grain, have extended and confirmed the evidence from previous findings showing an association between whole grain cereal or cereal fibre consumption and prevention of several non-communicable diseases. Although the results f

  8. Effect of infant cereals on zinc and copper absorption during weaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.; Loennerdal, B.

    1987-10-01

    Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk-cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning.

  9. Exploring the Boundaries of N2-Fixation in Cereals and Grasses: A Hypothetical and Experimental Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.

    2003-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of research on free-living and endophytic bacteria associated with cereals and grasses, conclusive examples of impacts of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in agriculture are lacking. All available methods for measurement of N2-fixation associated with cereals and grasses have bee

  10. Increased understanding of the cereal phytase complement for better mineral bio-availability and resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holme, Inger Bæksted

    2014-01-01

    for the bio-availability of micronutrients in human nutrition. The composition and levels of mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) in cereals is of central importance for efficient phytate hydrolysis. The MGPA varies considerably between species. Substantial activity is present in Triticeae tribe cereals like...

  11. Effects of Ready-to-Eat-Cereals on Key Nutritional and Health Outcomes : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, Marion G.; McMonagle, Jolene R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are investig

  12. Cereal foods are the major source of betaine in the Western diet--analysis of betaine and free choline in cereal foods and updated assessments of betaine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Zangger, Alicia; Guiraud, Seu Ping

    2014-02-15

    Betaine and its precursor choline are important components of one-carbon metabolism, remethylating homocysteine into methionine and providing methyl groups for DNA methylation. Cereals are the main source of betaine in the diet, though there is little literature available on the content of betaine in cereal products, nor on betaine intake from cereals. Betaine and free-choline concentrations were measured by liquid-chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in a wide range of commercially available cereal foods and cereal fractions. Whole grain wheat and related fractions were the best overall common source of betaine, while the pseudocereal quinoa had the highest amount of betaine measured (3900 μg/g). Based on estimates of dietary intake data cereal foods provide approximately 60-67% of betaine in Western diets, and 20-40% of betaine in South-East Asian diets. Average intake of betaine was 131 mg/d, well below those used in intervention studies using betaine to lower blood homocysteine.

  13. In vitro estimation of the rate and extent of ruminal digestion of cereal feed fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahir, M.N.; Lund, Peter; Hetta, M.

    2011-01-01

    by their physical and chemical properties and might be ranked as highly and poorly degrading starch after their extent and rate of degradation in rumen (Nocek and Tamminga, 1991). It is hypothesized that rumen fermentation rate of cereal starch varies considerably and that this might affect fibre digestibility......Cereal grains are important components in diets for high producing dairy cows and fast growing beef cattle. The most important feed fraction in cereals is starch, which constitutes the major portion (70-80%) of cereal grains. In ruminant nutrition different starch sources are characterized......, forage intake, and animal performance (Nocek and Tamminga, 1991; Mills et al., 1999). It would, therefore, be useful to reliably determine the differences in rumen fermentation characteristics of cereals. Part of the variation can be attributed to the methods used for evaluation (Stensig et al., 1998b...

  14. A low glycaemic index breakfast cereal preferentially prevents children's cognitive performance from declining throughout the morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Jeanet; Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Kennedy, David O; Wesnes, Keith A; Scholey, Andrew B

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated whether the glycaemic index (GI) of breakfast cereal differentially affects children's attention and memory. Using a balanced cross-over design, on two consecutive mornings 64 children aged 6-11 years were given a high GI cereal and a low GI cereal in a counterbalanced order. They performed a series of computerised tests of attention and memory, once prior to breakfast and three times following breakfast at hourly intervals. The results indicate that children's performance declines throughout the morning and that this decline can be significantly reduced following the intake of a low GI cereal as compared with a high GI cereal on measures of accuracy of attention (M=-6.742 and -13.510, respectively, p<0.05) and secondary memory (M=-30.675 and -47.183, respectively, p<0.05).

  15. Cereal area and nitrogen use efficiency are drivers of future nitrogen fertilizer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobermann, Achim; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2005-12-01

    At a global scale, cereal yields and fertilizer N consumption have increased in a near-linear fashion during the past 40 years and are highly correlated with one another. However, large differences exist in historical trends of N fertilizer usage and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) among regions, countries, and crops. The reasons for these differences must be understood to estimate future N fertilizer requirements. Global nitrogen needs will depend on: (i) changes in cropped cereal area and the associated yield increases required to meet increasing cereal demand from population and income growth, and (ii) changes in NUE at the farm level. Our analysis indicates that the anticipated 38% increase in global cereal demand by 2025 can be met by a 30% increase in N use on cereals, provided that the steady decline in cereal harvest area is halted and the yield response to applied N can be increased by 20%. If losses of cereal cropping area continue at the rate of the past 20 years (-0.33% per year) and NUE cannot be increased substantially, a 60% increase in global N use on cereals would be required to meet cereal demand. Interventions to increase NUE and reduce N losses to the environment must be accomplished at the farm- or field-scale through a combination of improved technologies and carefully crafted local policies that contribute to the adoption of improved N management; uniform regional or national directives are unlikey to be effective at both sustaining yield increases and improving NUE. Examples from several countries show that increases in NUE at rates of 1% per year or more can be achieved if adequate investments are made in research and extension. Failure to arrest the decrease in cereal crop area and to improve NUE in the world's most important agricultural systems will likely cause severe damage to environmental services at local, regional, and global scales due to a large increase in reactive N load in the environment.

  16. Cereal area and nitrogen use efficiency are drivers of future nitrogen fertilizer consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achim Dobermann; Kenneth G. Cassman

    2005-01-01

    At a global scale, cereal yields and fertilizer N consumption have increased in a near-linear fashion during the past 40 years and are highly correlated with one another. However,large differences exist in historical trends of N fertilizer usage and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)among regions, countries, and crops. The reasons for these differences must be understood to estimate future N fertilizer requirements. Global nitrogen needs will depend on: (i) changes in cropped cereal area and the associated yield increases required to meet increasing cereal demand from population and income growth, and (ii) changes in NUE at the farm level. Our analysis indicates that the anticipated 38% increase in global cereal demand by 2025 can be met by a 30% increase in N use on cereals, provided that the steady decline in cereal harvest area is halted and the yield response to applied N can be increased by 20%. If losses of cereal cropping area continue at the rate of the past 20 years (-0.33% per year) and NUE cannot be increased substantially, a 60% increase in global N use on cereals would be required to meet cereal demand. Interventions to increase NUE and reduce N losses to the environment must be accomplished at the farm- or field-scale through a combination of improved technologies and carefully crafted local policies that contribute to the adoption of improved N management; uniform regional or national directives are unlikey to be effective at both sustaining yield increases and improving NUE. Examples from several countries show that increases in NUE at rates of 1% per year or more can be achieved if adequate investments are made in research and extension. Failure to arrest the decrease in cereal crop area and to improve NUE in the world's most important agricultural systems will likely cause severe damage to environmental services at local, regional, and global scales due to a large increase in reactive N load in the environment.

  17. Sex influence on recombination frequency in Secale cereale L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, C; Romero, M P; Henriques-Gil, N; Llorente, F; Figueiras, A M

    1996-10-01

    The variation in recombination frequency (rf) is important to plant breeders since their major objective is to obtain favorable recombinants of linked genes. One source of variation in rf is sex. Sex differences for recombination frequencies were studied in four of the seven chromosomes of Secale cereale L. cv 'Ailés' using isozyme and storage protein loci and were determined on the basis of reciprocal crosses between heterozygous plants of cv. 'Ailés' and homozygous plants of the inbred line 'Riodeva'. The differences were found to be strongly segmentspecific. In some cases the level of crossing-over in male and female meiosis was about the same (between Pgm1 and Ndh1 loci on chromosome arm 4RS). However, for most of the chromosome segments in 1R, 3RL and 6RL the male rf was significantly higher than the female rf. Different hypotheses about the mechanisms of plant sex differences for recombination are discussed.

  18. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel;

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...... structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics...... showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated...

  19. Analytical Aspects of Total Starch Polarimetric Determination in Some Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Caprita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the most important digestible polysaccharide present in foods and feeds. The starch concentration in cereals cannot be determined directly, because the starch is contained within a structurally and chemically complex matrix. Fine grinding and boiling in dilute HCl are preparative steps necessary for complete release of the starch granules from the protein matrix. Starch can be determined using simple and inexpensive physical methods, such as density, refractive index or optical rotation assessment. The polarimetric method allows the determination even of small starch contents due to its extremely high specific rotation. For more accurate results, the contribution of free sugars is eliminated by dissolution in 40% (V/V ethanol. The influence of other optically active substances, which might interfere, is removed by filtration/clarification prior to the optical rotation measurement.

  20. DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN CEREAL MILLING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts of grain - substances from these parts can be isolated and after treatment, which causes their efficiently usable for human body, they can be used for fortification of wide range of food products.

  1. Characteristics of Genome Editing Mutations in Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Bortesi, Luisa; Baysal, Can; Twyman, Richard M; Fischer, Rainer; Capell, Teresa; Schillberg, Stefan; Christou, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Designer nucleases allow the creation of new plant genotypes by introducing precisely-targeted double-strand breaks that are resolved by endogenous repair pathways. The major nuclease technologies are meganucleases, zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Each comprises a promiscuous endonuclease guided by protein-DNA or RNA-DNA interactions. A great deal is known about the principles of designer nucleases but much remains to be learned about their detailed behavioral characteristics in different plant species. The outcome of genome engineering reflects the intrinsic properties of each nuclease and target genome, causing variations in efficiency, accuracy, and mutation structure. In this article, we critically discuss the activities of designer nucleases in different cereals representing a broad range of genome characteristics.

  2. Parallel Domestication of the Heading Date 1 Gene in Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Hangqin; Zhou, Leina; Zhang, Zhihai; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Mingli; Li, Haixia; Lin, Zhongwei

    2015-10-01

    Flowering time is one of the key determinants of crop adaptation to local environments during domestication. However, the genetic basis underlying flowering time is yet to be elucidated in most cereals. Although staple cereals, such as rice, maize, wheat, barley, and sorghum, have spread and adapted to a wide range of ecological environments during domestication, it is yet to be determined whether they have a common genetic basis for flowering time. In this study, we show, through map-based cloning, that flowering time in sorghum is controlled by a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) Heading Date 1 (HD1), located on chromosome 10. The causal gene encodes the CONSTANS gene family which contains a CCT domain. A 5-bp deletion of a minor allele present in the coding sequence leads to a gene frameshift that delays flowering in sorghum. In contrast, in foxtail millet, association mapping of HD1 showed a common causal site with a splicing variant from "GT" to "AT" that was highly correlated with flowering time. In addition, the rice HD1 gene is known to harbor several causal variants controlling flowering time. These data indicate that the major flowering time QTL HD1 was under parallel domestication in sorghum, foxtail millet, and rice. The pattern of common mixed minor, or even rare, causal alleles in HD1 across different species may be representative of the genetic basis of the domestication syndrome. Furthermore, large DNA sequence analysis of HD1 revealed multiple origins for domesticated sorghum and a single origin for domesticated foxtail millet.

  3. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-01-01

    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading.

  4. Antioxidant properties of certain cereals as affected by food-grade bacteria fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Wu, Sz-Jie; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2014-04-01

    The effects of fermentation by 2 food-grade bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum) on antioxidant activities and the contents of phenolics and flavonoids in 4 cereals (specifically adlay, chestnut, lotus seed, and walnut) were determined and compared with those of their non-fermented counterparts. Results showed that antioxidant properties observed in the fermented and non-fermented cereals may vary with fermented starters. Fermentation was observed to increase the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts. The effects on Bacillus-fermented cereals were stronger than on Lactobacillus-fermented cereals. In IC50 values (mg/mL) of extracts, the extracts of fermented cereal showed a stronger DPPH radical scavenging and ferric-reducing activities. Fermentation did not significantly alter the Fe(2+)-chelating activity in the extracts of chestnuts and lotus seeds. All cereals were shown significantly inhibited the production of LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) without creating obvious cytotoxic effects in the macrophage cells. These results suggest that the fermentation process enables cereal-based foods with enhanced antioxidant capacities to contribute to health and nutritional improvements in consumers.

  5. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals - implication in agriculture, cereal-processing and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, Nathalie; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long......-term gains on the quality and quantity of the raw materials. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes (alpha-amylase, limit-dextrinase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, pectin methylesterase, invertase and xyloglucan endoglucanase) naturally occur in plants where they are involved in various...... roles from plant defence to metabolism. Xylanase inhibitors represent the latest addition to this growing family. In this review, we will focus on the inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes present in cereals, mostly represented by et-amylase and xylanase inhibitors, and summarise the existing...

  6. THE USE OF PSEUDO-CEREALS FLOURS IN BAKERY / UTILISATION DE FARINES DES PSEUDO-CEREALES DANS LA BOULANGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMULUS MARIAN BURLUC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a special attention should be given to the nutritional properties of foods. In the bakery industry there is a tendency to develop innovative range of bakery products by using the therapeutic role of cereals that are not used at their true potential (buckwheat, millet, rice, oats. Among bioactive components present in the pseudocereal flours, flavones group is highlighted, in particular rutine, the most important ramnoglicosid with multiple beneficial effects on health. The aims of this study were the obtention of different bakery products (bread, biscuits from raw materials with high therapeutic potential (fiber, antioxidant capacity, minerals, the optimization of process parameters and recipes, and the characterization of finished products in terms of sensory and physico-chemical properties. The results confirm that the use of unusual raw materials for the Romanian market led to obtaining high quality finished products with special therapeutic features.

  7. The Cereal Pollen Sensitivity and Effect of the Asthma Clinics in Sanliurfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ceylan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim in this study was to detect the kinds of cereal that cause cereal pollens sensitivity, and to investigate the effects of cereal pollen sensitivity on the asthma clinic. Material and Method: In this study 140 cases from Sanliurfa with asthma (83 women, 57 men, with the mean age of 26.3-7.9 year and sensitivity against cereal pollen demonstrated by skin prick test, who applied to OSM Ortadogu Hospital Chest Diseases Outpatient Clinic in the period of March-June were evaluated prospectively. The patients’ peak expiratory flow (PEF values measured in the morning and evening, changes in PEF, asthma symptom score and the symptom-relieving therapy used during the 16-weeks study period were recorded and evaluated in the clinic with FEV1 results at the beginning, month 1, 2, 3 and 4. Results: Of the patients with sensitivity against cereals pollens, 25.4% had allergy against Hordeum vulgare, 23.6% against Secale cereale, 20.7% against Triticum sativum, 19,3% against Zea mays and 18.6% against Avena sativa. Prior to the study and at the end of follow up period, morning and evening PEF values, asthma scores and symptom relieving drug usage were same cereals pollens sensitivity (p>0.05. Discussion: Accordance to the vegetation of Sanliurfa region, important ratio of the sensitivities were detected with prick test against Hordeum vulgare, Secale cereale, Triticum sativum, Zea mays and Avena sativa pollens. The effects of cereals pollens were similar rates of asthma clinics.

  8. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one.

  9. Cereals Market in Romania under the Impact of the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina CONSTANTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyses the cereals market after Romania accession to European Union. Thus, I considered necessary and appropriate to achieve the dynamic analysis of production, prices, trade, consumption, and self-sufficiency that provides an overview on the evolution of the cereals market in Romania, in the European context, starting from resources representing the demand, to the uses that represent the supply. I also point out the main mechanisms and support instruments for the cereals market under the Common Agriculture Policy, in the period 2007-2013 and towards 2014-2020.

  10. Barras de cereales energéticas y enriquecidas con otras fuentes vegetales

    OpenAIRE

    Zenteno Pacheco, Sonia; Universidad Peruana Unión, E.P. Ingeniería de Alimentos

    2016-01-01

    Las barras de cereales se constituyen a base de avena pero además se adicionan ingredientes como la jalea de mora, harina de camote, camu camu deshidratado, cascara de piña, murici deshidratado, algarrobo y semillas de macauba. El objetivo es sistematizar la revisión de las distintas barras de cereales y conocer el elemento que destaca nutricionalmente. Se compararon cada una de las barras frente a una barra comercial. La información disponible realizados por los estudios de barras de cereale...

  11. Using fuzzy logic for automatic control: Case study of a problem of cereals samples classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhoua Najeh Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the use of fuzzy logic for automatic control of industrial systems particularly the way to approach a problem of classification. We present a case study of a grading system of cereals that allows us to determine the price of transactions of cereals in Tunisia. Our contribution in this work consists in proposing not only an application of the fuzzy logic on the grading system of cereals but also a methodology enabling the proposing of a new grading system based on the concept of 'Grade' while using the fuzzy logic techniques. .

  12. Distribution of carotenoids in endosperm, germ, and aleurone fractions of cereal grain kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndolo, Victoria U; Beta, Trust

    2013-08-15

    To compare the distribution of carotenoids across the grain, non-corn and corn cereals were hand dissected into endosperm, germ and aleurone fractions. Total carotenoid content (TCC) and carotenoid composition were analysed using spectrophotometry and HPLC. Cereal carotenoid composition was similar; however, concentrations varied significantly (paleurone layer had zeaxanthin levels 2- to 5-fold higher than lutein among the cereals. Positive significant correlations (paleurone layer. Our findings suggest that the aleurone of wheat, oat, corn and germ of barley have significantly enhanced carotenoid levels.

  13. Evaluation of Cereals and Pseudocereals Suitability for the Development of New Probiotic Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kocková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate suitability of cereals and pseudocereals for the development of new probiotic foods and to evaluate the stability of cereal and pseudocereal porridges fermented by probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Ten samples of cereals and pseudocereals obtained from Slovak mill house and markets were used in this work. A mixture of each cereal and pseudocereal samples with water (10% w/v was inoculated after sterilization with coequal number of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, to obtain approximately 5-6 log colony form units per gram of suspensions. Fermentation was led at 37°C during 10 hours. Fermented suspensions were stored for 21 days at 5°C. Monitoring of cell counts, pH value, and concentration of organic acids during fermentation and storage was done.

  14. Relative severity of aflatoxin contamination of cereal crops in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Kumar, Manjula; Leslie, John F

    2007-10-01

    Aflatoxins are a common contaminant of cereals that can cause cancer, liver disease, immune suppression, retarded growth and development, and death, depending on the level and duration of exposure. Maize is an introduced crop to Africa and there have been efforts over the last 20 years or so to replace traditional cereal crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), with maize. We found that maize was significantly more heavily colonized by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. than either sorghum or millet, with overall aflatoxin levels being correspondingly higher. On average, Nigerians consume 138 kg cereals annually. If the primary cereal is sorghum instead of maize, then the risk of aflatoxin-related problems is reduced 4-fold; if it is pearl millet, then the risks are reduced 8-fold. Development programs and other ventures to increase maize production in marginal cropping areas of Africa should be reconsidered and, instead, efforts to improve/maintain traditional crops encouraged.

  15. Rich nutrition from the poorest - Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia involve mainly the processing of maize, rice, sorghum and the millets. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus), Enterobacter spp., yeasts (Candida, Debaryomyces, Endomycopsis, Hansenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Trichosporon spp.) and filamentous fu

  16. Calcium availability from yogurt by itself or yogurt-cereal-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibniewska, Krystyna A; Zakrzewski, Janusz; Siemianowska, Ewa; Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna; Aljewicz, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Dairy products are the basic source of calcium (Ca) for many nations. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of addition of cereal products to yogurt on the ability of subsequent release of Ca present in yogurt. This was conducted in vitro by the process of enzymatic digestion simulating digestion in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Calcium content was determined in commercial yogurts containing cereal and in yogurt meals with subsequent addition of cereal products or bread. Only 3 samples contained more Ca than 100 mg/100 g. Only about 45% (from 28.5 to 77.9%) of Ca was released from the samples with cereals. Innovations in yogurt production technologies actually result in less Ca being released to humans, which may be a problem for individuals with low daily Ca intake.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  18. The prevalence and distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.;

    2003-01-01

    In the period 1994-1996 a post-harvest survey was conducted in wheat, barley and oats to assess the occurrence and geographic distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals. The number of samples investigated was adjusted proportionally to the production of each cereal species within...... the regions. A total of 695 grain samples were analysed. The amount of Fusarium infection varied with cereal species and region of origin. The most frequently isolated Fusarium spp. from all samples were F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. culmorum. Other important toxigenic Fusarium spp. were F...... and F. culmorum demonstrated in this study , corresponded to previously reported DON-distribution, although DON seems to be produced by different species in different regions. Distribution of the isolated Fusarium species and comparison between cereals and locations are discussed....

  19. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties in Cereals: Study of Some Traditional Italian Wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole grain cereals contain a wide range of phytochemicals and it is often difficult to ascribe protective effects on metabolic health to any one particular constituent. The interactions among bioactive components, which contribute highly to the total antioxidant capacity of cereals, represent the first step in the evaluation of food potential health benefits. This research focused on the determination of antioxidant properties in grains and whole flours of some traditional Italian wheats. Results showed that hydrolysable polyphenols in grains are 85% of total polyphenols and contribute 95% of the total antioxidant properties, which indicates that hydrolysable polyphenols represent an important fraction of polyphenols in cereals. The distinction between extractable and non-extractable antioxidants was shown to be of paramount importance for an adequate determination of antioxidant capacity in cereals and represents a key element in the definition of potential nutritional value of the food matrix under consideration.

  20. Ochratoxin A and ochratoxin-producing fungi on cereal grain in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihong, Liang; Kunlun, Huang; Yunbo, Luo

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is known to be the main contaminant of cereal grain and has become increasingly important in recent years. Therefore, a survey of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA contamination in China is a special challenge. This paper summarises data on cereals and moulds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus ochraceus, for example) and on grain and OTA from 1973 by searching Chinese information databases (NCKI, VIP, DuXiu etc.), calculating the OTA-producing mould detection rate, referring to sampling locations, latitude and temperature, and also combining six grain-producing areas of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA positive rate through a comprehensive analysis. It is concluded that in China rice (excluding shell rice) has less OTA contamination than wheat or maize. The contamination of cereal grains with Aspergillus section Nigri (formerly of the A. niger group) is a serious problem in China, and these fungi may be the main ochratoxigenic fungi on cereals.

  1. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news......: fighting crystalline starch energy deposits in the cell. Trends in Plant Science Vol. 15, 4:236-240 Hebelstrup, K. H., Christiansen, M. W., Carciofi, M., Tauris, B., Brinch-Pedersen, H., Bach Holm, P. (2010). UCE: A uracil excision (USER™)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals. Plant Methods 6:15...

  2. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news......: fighting crystalline starch energy deposits in the cell. Trends in Plant Science Vol. 15, 4:236-240 Hebelstrup, K. H., Christiansen, M. W., Carciofi, M., Tauris, B., Brinch-Pedersen, H., Bach Holm, P. (2010). UCE: A uracil excision (USER™)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals. Plant Methods 6:15...

  3. Material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastio, Michael Joseph, Jr.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly seventy-five years ago, the single screw extruder was introduced as a means to produce metal products. Shortly after that, the extruder found its way into the plastics industry. Today much of the world's polymer industry utilizes extruders to produce items such as soda bottles, PVC piping, and toy figurines. Given the significant economical advantages of extruders over conventional batch flow systems, extruders have also migrated into the food industry. Food applications include the meat, pet food, and cereal industries to name just a few. Cereal manufacturers utilize extruders to produce various forms of Ready-to-Eat (RTE) cereals. These cereals are made from grains such as rice, oats, wheat, and corn. The food industry has been incorrectly viewed as an extruder application requiring only minimal energy control and performance capability. This misconception has resulted in very little research in the area of material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruders. Breakfast cereal extruder barrels and individual screw elements are subjected to the extreme pressures and temperatures required to shear and cook the cereal ingredients, resulting in excessive material wear and catastrophic failure of these components. Therefore, this project focuses on the material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements, modeled as a Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC) process in which historical data is used to predict future failures. Such predictive analysis will yield cost savings opportunities by providing insight into extruder maintenance scheduling and interchangeability of screw elements. In this DTMC wear analysis, four states of wear are defined and a probability transition matrix is determined based upon 24,041 hours of operational data. This probability transition matrix is used to predict when an extruder component will move to the next state of wear and/or failure. This information can be used to determine

  4. High protein and vitamin cereal bars: enzymatic and vitamins C and E stability during storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela G.C. Freitas; Moretti,Roberto H.

    2006-01-01

    Cereal-based products have become an excellent vehicle for delivering tasty functional food ingredients to busy consumers. One emerging trends is food products formulates with soy protein because of its proven health benefits. Because of the potential usefulness of these products, it was considered of interest to determine the stability of cereal bars based on soy protein, wheat germ and oat, enriched with vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and E (acetate of a-tocopherol 50%), during the storage. Thre...

  5. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Rela, P. R.; Mancini-Filho, J.

    2007-11-01

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in São Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at "Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares" (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  6. The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sousa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A strict gluten-free diet (GFD is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition.

  7. The gluten-free diet: testing alternative cereals tolerated by celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Isabel; Moreno, María de Lourdes; Real, Ana; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Barro, Francisco; Sousa, Carolina

    2013-10-23

    A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs) from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition.

  8. EFFECTS GENERATED BY THE ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE FIELD OF TRADING CEREAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DONA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European consumer exigencies, the mechanisms of the Common Agricultural Policy, the European norms and standards, the ecological productions are as many challenges to which the producers, processors, traders and decision makers in the agro food field, and specifically for our research, in the cereals field, must face in order for the Romanian products to be present on an external market, as well as on an internal market that are increasingly competitive.In this paper we have concluded a brief analysis of the cereals market nationally and on a European level, and of the common support policies in this sector, of the common market organizations, as well as of the implications of the accession over the trade of cereal products. Also, we have made several recommendations within this paper targeting the specific sectorial aspects of the cereals sector: in order to fully profit from the possibilities offered by the Common Agricultural Policy instruments and from the demand and prices growth its necessary that Romanian producers organize and make, together, major investments in cereals conditioning and storage systems; the majority of Romanian producers sell the cereals immediately after harvest, when prices are at their lowest level; storage in good conditions of the harvest could allow a substantial increase of profit.

  9. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Lab. de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Travessa R. No. 400, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-910, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Araujo, M.M.; Fanaro, G.B.; Rela, P.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Lab. de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Travessa R. No. 400, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-910, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mancini-Filho, J. [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas-FCF/USP, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental, Lab. de Lipides, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: jmancini@usp.br

    2007-11-15

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in Sao Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares' (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a {sup 60}Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  10. Extracellular peptidases of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan George Thomas Lowe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum (Fgr creates economic and health risks in cereals agriculture. Fgr causes head blight (or scab of wheat and stalk rot of corn, reducing yield, degrading grain quality and polluting downstream food products with mycotoxins. Fungal plant pathogens must secrete proteases to access nutrition and to breakdown the structural protein component of the plant cell wall. Research into the proteolytic activity of Fgr is hindered by the complex nature of the suite of proteases secreted. We used a systems biology approach comprising genome analysis, transcriptomics and label-free quantitative proteomics to characterise the peptidases deployed by Fgr during growth. A combined analysis of published microarray transcriptome datasets revealed seven transcriptional groupings of peptidases based on in vitro growth, in planta growth, and sporulation behaviours. An orbitrap MS/MS proteomics technique defined the extracellular proteases secreted by Fusarium graminearum. A meta-classification based on sequence characters and transcriptional/translational activity in planta and in vitro provides a platform to develop control strategies that target Fgr peptidases.

  11. Spectrophotometric estimation of total carotenoids in cereal grain products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterotti, Svjetlana; Kljak, Kristina

    2010-12-01

    Total carotenoids (TC) were determined as a measure of total xanthophylls in grain flours and grits, by new validated spectrophotometric method based on A1cm1%-approach. The general analytical procedure is easily adjustable to different samples, the number of extraction steps depending on TC concentration in the sample. Basically, two methods have been suggested: the rapid one for low-TC samples (white corn, wheat, soybean, sorghum) including one to two extractions, and the one for high-TC samples (yellow corn) needing three to four extractions. Method's accuracy was proven against the reference standard material (102.1±3.9%) and the reference method. Good precision (repeatability and intermediate precision of upto 9% for yellow corn products) and sensitivity with LOD (limit of detection) and LLOQ (lower limit of quantitation) of 0.2 and 0.6 mg kg-1 TC, resp., were estimated. The method was applied to the control of nutritional value of cereal grain products. TC concentration (in mg kg-1) in the samples ranged from 11-23 in yellow corn flours, 0.7-0.9 in white corn flours, 17-22 in yellow corn grits, 1.1-1.3 in wheat flours, 1.6 in wheat grits and 1.5 in sorghum flour, to 0.9-9.9 in soybean flours.

  12. Molecular Approaches to Understand Nutritional Potential of Coarse Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Rakesh; Subramani, Rajkumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Wankhede, Dhammaprakash P

    2016-06-01

    Coarse grains are important group of crops that constitutes staple food for large population residing primarily in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Coarse grains are designated as nutri-cereals as they are rich in essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins. In spite of having several nutritional virtues in coarse grain as mentioned above, there is still scope for improvement in quality parameters such as cooking qualities, modulation of nutritional constituents and reduction or elimination of anti-nutritional factors. Besides its use in traditional cooking, coarse grains have been used mainly in the weaning food preparation and other malted food production. Improvement in quality parameters will certainly increase consumer's preference for coarse grains and increase their demand. The overall genetic gain in quality traits of economic importance in the cultivated varieties will enhance their industrial value and simultaneously increase income of farmers growing these varieties. The urgent step for improvement of quality traits in coarse grains requires a detailed understanding of molecular mechanisms responsible for varied level of different nutritional contents in different genotypes of these crops. In this review we have discussed the progresses made in understanding of coarse grain biology with various omics tool coupled with modern breeding approaches and the current status with regard to our effort towards dissecting traits related to improvement of quality and nutritional constituents of grains.

  13. Breakfast cereal industry pledges to self-regulate advertising to youth: will they improve the marketing landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Ross, Craig; Harris, Jennifer L; Jernigan, David H; Siegel, Michael; Ostroff, Joshua; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-04-01

    In 2007, the Council of Better Business Bureaus created the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative to improve the nutritional profile of products marketed to children in the United States. We provide quantitative baseline data describing (a) the amount of child-directed breakfast cereal advertising in 2007; (b) an assessment of the nutritional value for all cereals advertised on television; and (c) the relationship between nutrition quality and child exposure to television advertising for major cereal brands. In 2007, the average American child viewed 757 cereal ads, and 98 per cent of these ads promoted unhealthy cereals that would be prohibited from advertising to children in the United Kingdom. Healthy cereals were advertised in 2007 in the United States, but adults, not children, were predominantly exposed to these ads. These quantitative methods can be used in the future to evaluate the impact of industry self-regulation efforts to improve the marketing landscape.

  14. Cereal and nut bars, nutritional quality and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Vásquez, M; Castillo, E; Araya, E; Zacarías, I

    1995-06-01

    Six snack-type bars were manufactured, to contain oat and wheat germ and two different walnut levels, agglutinated with natural sweeteners and fats. Two bars also contained toasted amaranth with brown sugar cover and wheat extrudate, while two others, contained puffed instead of toasted amaranth. Water activity (Aw) and moisture were determined in the manufactured products. Quality and sensory evaluation and proximate analysis were carried out on the bars containing highest levels of walnuts (18%). The caloric contribution of the bars was computed by Atwater methods. The nutritional quality of the bars was determined by means of the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Net Protein Ratio (NPR), and the results were used to obtain relative PER and relative NPR. Samples of the latter bars were kept under accelerated storage for 15 days at 37 degrees C and analyzed every 5 days to determine their Aw, moisture, peroxide and sensory acceptability. The drying time for the cereal - and walnut - based bars was 45 min at 120 degrees C. All bars presented a good fiber supply and the CN1 bar, containing only oat, wheat germ and walnut, had the greatest protein content. In the sensory evaluation, the walnut level with the greatest preference was 18%. PER and NPR values of the bars did not differ significantly showing values approximately 86% that of the casein value. During storage, the moisture and Aw decreased in all the bars. Peroxides remained within the acceptable ranges; acceptability based on sensory evaluation remained best in the bar with toasted amaranth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Active oxygen and cell death in cereal aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fath, Angelika; Bethke, Paul; Beligni, Veronica; Jones, Russell

    2002-05-01

    The cereal aleurone layer is a secretory tissue whose function is regulated by gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Aleurone cells lack functional chloroplasts, thus excluding photosynthesis as a source of active oxygen species (AOS) in cell death. Incubation of barley aleurone layers or protoplasts in GA initiated the cell death programme, but incubation in ABA delays programmed cell death (PCD). Light, especially blue and UV-A light, and H(2)O(2) accelerate PCD of GA-treated aleurone cells, but ABA-treated aleurone cells are refractory to light and H(2)O(2) and are not killed. It was shown that light elevated intracellular H(2)O(2), and that the rise in H(2)O(2) was greater in GA-treated cells compared to cells in ABA. Experiments with antioxidants show that PCD in aleurone is probably regulated by AOS. The sensitivity of GA-treated aleurone to light and H(2)O(2) is a result of lowered amounts of enzymes that metabolize AOS. mRNAs encoding catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase are all reduced during 6-18 h of incubation in GA, but these mRNAs were present in higher amounts in cells incubated in ABA. The amounts of protein and enzyme activities encoded by these mRNAs were also dramatically reduced in GA-treated cells. Aleurone cells store and metabolize neutral lipids via the glyoxylate cycle in response to GA, and glyoxysomes are one potential source of AOS in the GA-treated cells. Mitochondria are another potential source of AOS in GA-treated cells. AOS generated by these organelles bring about membrane rupture and cell death.

  16. Progress of cereal transformation technology mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukoh eHiei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monocotyledonous plants were believed to be not transformable by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens until two decades ago, although convenient protocols for infection of leaf disks and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants had been well established in a number of dicotyledonous species by then. This belief was reinforced by the fact that monocotyledons are mostly outside the host range of crown gall disease caused by the bacterium and by the failures in trials in monocotyledons to mimic the transformation protocols for dicotyledons. However, a key reason for the failure could have been the lack of active cell divisions at the wound sites, which are the basis of tissue culture and transformation in dicotyledons, in monocotyledons. The complexity and narrow optimal windows of critical factors, such as genotypes of plants, conditions of the plants from which explants are prepared, tissue culture methods and culture media, pre-treatments of explants, strains of A. tumefaciens, inducers of virulence genes, transformation vectors, selection marker genes and selective agents, kept technical hurdles high. Eventually it was determined that rice and maize could be transformed by co-cultivating cells of callus cultures or immature embryos, which are actively dividing or about to divide, with A. tumefaciens. Subsequently, these initial difficulties were resolved one by one by many research groups, and the major cereals are now transformed quite efficiently. As many as 15 independent transgenic events may be regenerated from a single piece of immature embryo of rice. Maize transformation protocols are well established, and almost all transgenic events deregulated for commercialization after 2003 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Wheat, barley and sorghum are also among those plants that can be efficiently transformed by A. tumefaciens.

  17. Evaluation of iron bioavailability in a mixture of cereals, seeds, and grains ("Human Ration"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Nery Enes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron bioavailability was evaluated in three mixtures of cereals, seeds, and grains ("Human Ration": light, regular, and homemade provided to rats. The animals received an iron depletion diet for 21 days, followed by a repletion diet containing 12 mg·kg-1 of iron for 14 days. The hemoglobin regeneration efficiency and the relative biological value did not differ between the light mixture and control group. The iron bioavailability of the light mixture of cereals, seeds, and grains and the control group were 99.99±27.62 and 80.02±36.63, respectively, while the regular and homemade mixtures of cereals, seeds, and grains showed lower iron bioavailability, 50.12±35.53 and 66.66±15.44, respectively; the iron content of the diet with light cereal mixture light was statistically similar to that of the control (ferrous sulfate 99.99±27.62. The high content of tannin (202.81±19.53 mg·100-1 in the diet with the regular cereal mixture may have contributed to its low iron bioavailability. The higher intake of soluble fiber by the animals fed the light mixture (21.15±0.92 g was moderately correlated (r=0.5712, p=0.0018 with the concentration of propionate in the caecal bulk (65.49±11.08 µmol/g. The short chain fatty acids produced by soluble fiber fermentation, associated with the low-content of tannin may have improved iron solubility and absorption in the light cereal mixture diet. The iron bioavailability in the light mixture of cereals, seeds, and grains was similar to that of ferrous sulfate.

  18. Effects of cereal bars for breakfast and mid-morning snacks on mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Wilds, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of consuming cereal bars, given either for breakfast or a mid-morning snack, on mood and memory. Thirty-two volunteers (16 males, 16 females; mean age, 20 years 9 months) were randomly assigned to one of four groups formed by combining breakfast (cereal bar versus no breakfast) and snack (cereal bar versus no snack) conditions. A baseline session was completed at 08:30 h followed by breakfast at 9:00 h, another test at 10:00 h, followed by a mid-morning snack and then a final test at 12:00 h. In each session, volunteers rated their mood and carried out four memory tasks: free recall; recognition memory; a verbal reasoning task; and a semantic processing task. The results showed that volunteers who consumed a cereal bar for breakfast felt more alert, happy and sociable and less anxious. In addition, they also recalled more words in a free recall task. When the cereal bar was consumed as a mid-morning snack, alertness and hedonic tone increased, especially in the group who received no breakfast. The group who had no breakfast reported reduced anxiety after consumption of the snack. Recall was also improved after the snack. These findings show that consuming cereal bars in the early and mid-morning leads to beneficial behavioural effects. The results confirm earlier research on effects of breakfast and extend our knowledge of effects of snacks. Consumption of cereal bars may have important practical applications especially in situations where preparation of breakfast is difficult.

  19. Effect of flaxseed flour incorporation on the physical properties and consumer acceptability of cereal bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouryieh, H; Aramouni, F

    2013-12-01

    Extensive research has revealed numerous nutritional and health benefits of flaxseed due primarily to its nutrients content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flaxseed flour addition on the physical and sensory characteristics of cereal bars. Four formulations of the flaxseed cereal bars were prepared by partially replacing oats with flaxseed flour added at levels of 0 (control), 6%, 12% and 18%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in water activity, moisture and firmness values between the flaxseed bars and control. Flaxseed addition significantly (p bars. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the 12% flax cereal bars and the control with respect to sensory attributes and overall acceptability. The overall acceptability for both 12% flax bars and the control was in between 'like moderately' and 'like slightly' on the 9-point hedonic scale. The overall acceptability was most highly correlated with flavor acceptability for both control (r = 0.80) and 12% flax (r = 0.82) cereal bars. Flaxseed bars provided 12% dietary fiber of the daily recommended value. These results indicated that flaxseed flour incorporation up to 12% substantially enhanced the nutritional qualities of the cereal bars without affecting their sensory and quality properties.

  20. Comparative pathogenomics reveals horizontally acquired novel virulence genes in fungi infecting cereal hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M Gardiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analyses of pathogen genomes provide new insights into how pathogens have evolved common and divergent virulence strategies to invade related plant species. Fusarium crown and root rots are important diseases of wheat and barley world-wide. In Australia, these diseases are primarily caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum. Comparative genomic analyses showed that the F. pseudograminearum genome encodes proteins that are present in other fungal pathogens of cereals but absent in non-cereal pathogens. In some cases, these cereal pathogen specific genes were also found in bacteria associated with plants. Phylogenetic analysis of selected F. pseudograminearum genes supported the hypothesis of horizontal gene transfer into diverse cereal pathogens. Two horizontally acquired genes with no previously known role in fungal pathogenesis were studied functionally via gene knockout methods and shown to significantly affect virulence of F. pseudograminearum on the cereal hosts wheat and barley. Our results indicate using comparative genomics to identify genes specific to pathogens of related hosts reveals novel virulence genes and illustrates the importance of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of plant infecting fungal pathogens.

  1. Breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee: effects on working memory, attention, mood, and cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P; Clark, R; Gallagher, J

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the effects of breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee on working memory, attention, mood, and cardiovascular function. One hundred and forty-four volunteers (72 male, 72 female, mean age 21 years) were assigned to one of the groups formed by combining breakfast (cereal versus no breakfast) and caffeine (caffeinated versus decaffeinated coffee) conditions. The volunteers completed a baseline session between 0800 and 0845 h. The breakfast/caffeine administration took place between 0845 and 0915 h. They then completed another test session (starting at 0945) and had a coffee break at 1045, followed by a final session starting at 1145. The results showed that those who consumed breakfast cereal had a more positive mood at the start of the test sessions, performed better on a spatial memory task, and felt calmer at the end of the test session than those in the no breakfast condition. Ingestion of caffeine had no effect on initial mood or working memory, but it did improve encoding of new information and counteracted the fatigue that developed over the test session. Caffeine increased blood pressure and pulse rate, whereas breakfast cereal consumption only had an effect on pulse. Overall, these results confirm previous findings on the effects of breakfast and caffeine, and demonstrate distinct profiles for two common examples of early-morning food and drink, breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee.

  2. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Booij, C J H

    2010-06-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges. Mycotoxin contamination in cereal grain-based feed and food products is currently managed and controlled by good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices, hazard analysis critical control points, and by checking and more recently by notification systems and predictive mathematical models. Most of the predictive models for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains focus on deoxynivalenol in wheat and aim to help growers make decisions about the application of fungicides during cultivation. Future developments in managing Fusarium mycotoxins should include the linkage between predictive mathematical models and geographical information systems, resulting into region-specific predictions for mycotoxin occurrence. The envisioned geographically oriented decision support system may incorporate various underlying models for specific users' demands and regions and various related databases to feed the particular models with (geographically oriented) input data. Depending on the user requirements, the system selects the best fitting model and available input information. Future research areas include organizing data management in the cereal grain supply chain, developing predictive models for other stakeholders (taking into account the period up to harvest), other Fusarium mycotoxins, and cereal grain types, and understanding the underlying effects of the regional component in the models.

  3. Major Cereal Grain Fibers and Psyllium in Relation to Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roizen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. β-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in β-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake.

  4. Advances in functional genomics for investigating salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C Shelden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as low water availability and high salinity are major causes of cereal crop yield losses and significantly impact on sustainability. Wheat and barley are two of the most important cereal crops (after maize and rice and are grown in increasingly hostile environments with soil salinity and drought both expected to increase this century, reducing the availability of arable land. Barley and wheat are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive, yet they are more salt-tolerant than other cereal crops such as rice and so are good models for studying salt-tolerance in cereals. The exploitation of genetic variation of phenotypic traits through plant breeding could significantly improve growth of cereals in salinity-affected regions, thus leading to improved crop yields. Genetic variation in phenotypic traits for abiotic stress tolerance have been identified in land races and wild germplasm but the molecular basis of these differences is often difficult to determine due to the complex genetic nature of these species. High-throughput functional genomics technologies, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics and ionomics are powerful tools for investigating the molecular responses of plants to abiotic stress. The advancement of these technologies has allowed for the identification and quantification of transcript /metabolites in specific cell types and/or tissues. Using these new technologies on plants will provide a powerful tool to uncovering genetic traits in more complex species such as wheat and barley and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of salinity stress tolerance.

  5. Characterisation of dietary fibre components in cereals and legumes used in Serbian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodevska, Margarita S; Djordjevic, Brizita I; Sobajic, Sladjana S; Miletic, Ivanka D; Djordjevic, Predrag B; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna S

    2013-12-01

    The typical Serbian diet is characterised by high intake of cereal products and also legumes are often used. The content of total fibre as well as certain fibre fractions was determined in cereals, cereal products, and cooked legumes. The content of total fibre in cooked cereals and cereal products ranged from 2.5 to 20.8 g/100 g, and in cooked legumes from 14.0 to 24.5 g/100 g (on dry matter basis). Distribution of analysed fibre fractions and their quantities differed significantly depending on food groups. Fructans and arabinoxylans were the most significant fibre fractions in rye flakes, and β-glucan in oat flakes, cellulose and resistant starch were present in significant amounts in peas and kidney beans. When the size of regular food portions was taken into consideration, the best sources of total dietary fibre were peas and kidney beans (more than 11 g/serving). The same foods were the best sources of cellulose (4.98 and 3.56 g/serving) and resistant starch (3.90 and 2.83 g/serving). High intake of arabinoxylans and fructans could be accomplished with cooked wheat (3.20 g and 1.60 g/serving, respectively). Oat (1.39 g/serving) and barley flakes (1.30 g/serving) can be recommended as the best sources of β-glucan.

  6. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Hyman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes.

  7. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Hyman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes.

  8. [High protein and vitamin cereal bars: enzymatic and vitamins C and E stability during storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Daniela G C; Moretti, Roberto H

    2006-09-01

    Cereal-based products have become an excellent vehicle for delivering tasty functional food ingredients to busy consumers. One emerging trends is food products formulates with soy protein because of its proven health benefits. Because of the potential usefulness of these products, it was considered of interest to determine the stability of cereal bars based on soy protein, wheat germ and oat, enriched with vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and E (acetate of a-tocopherol 50%), during the storage. Three films with different properties of barrier (A: PET/PEBD; B: PETMET/PEBD; C: PET/PEBD/ALIPEBD) were used as packing and the cereal bars were stored at temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) and relative humidity ambient (56%) for six months. The stability of vitamin C, vitamin E and, its lipase and peroxidase activity was verified. During the study, the cereal bars packed in three tested films presented retention in the vitamin C lesser that 50%. However, packing structuralized with aluminum (C) leaf provided to minor speed of reaction during the storage, k = 0.00437 (-day), and greater time of half-life (146 days). The vitamin E (acetate of a-tocopherol) in the cereal bars presented a little variation during the storage. It had a significant (p < or = 0.05) increase in the peroxidase activity at 90 days of storage in the packages tested, while that the lipase activity demonstrated no significant increase during the period studied.

  9. THE SUPPLEMENTARY RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PROTEINS OF MOTTLED GRAM BEAN AND CERTAIN OTHER CEREALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗登义

    2006-01-01

    @@ It has been well understood that a mixture of vegetable and animal proteins is of higher quality than the former alone, and also there are some remarkable instances of effective supplementing between the proteins of certain cereals and certain legume seeds[1]. In practice, it is very valuable for the selection of human diets and farm-animal relations. This question is especially important in China where the protein of the average diet are mainly of vegetable origin, in which about 83 percent are derived from cereals and 11 percent from beans[2]. However, a review of the literature indicates that no work has been done on the supplementary relationships of the protein of mottled gram bean with those of other cereals. The writer purchased, therefore, from the Peiping market some cheaper cereals commonly used in China, namely, yellow corn(黄玉米), red kaoliang(红高粱),oat meal(油麦面),panicled glutinous and non-glutinous millets(黄米及糜子米); and determined the supplementary values between the proteins of mottled gram bean and these cereals. The experimental details are communicated in the present paper.

  10. Acrylamide exposure among Turkish toddlers from selected cereal-based baby food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı

    2013-10-01

    In this study, acrylamide exposure from selected cereal-based baby food samples was investigated among toddlers aged 1-3 years in Turkey. The study contained three steps. The first step was collecting food consumption data and toddlers' physical properties, such as gender, age and body weight, using a questionnaire given to parents by a trained interviewer between January and March 2012. The second step was determining the acrylamide levels in food samples that were reported on by the parents in the questionnaire, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The last step was combining the determined acrylamide levels in selected food samples with individual food consumption and body weight data using a deterministic approach to estimate the acrylamide exposure levels. The mean acrylamide levels of baby biscuits, breads, baby bread-rusks, crackers, biscuits, breakfast cereals and powdered cereal-based baby foods were 153, 225, 121, 604, 495, 290 and 36 μg/kg, respectively. The minimum, mean and maximum acrylamide exposures were estimated to be 0.06, 1.43 and 6.41 μg/kg BW per day, respectively. The foods that contributed to acrylamide exposure were aligned from high to low as bread, crackers, biscuits, baby biscuits, powdered cereal-based baby foods, baby bread-rusks and breakfast cereals.

  11. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  12. Forage potential of winter cereal/legume intercrops in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mariotti

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed to assess the potential of cereal/legume intercropping to enhance forage yield and quality when compared with cereal sole crops under the constrains imposed by UE organic farming regulations. Sole crops (SC and intercrops (IC of two winter cereals, barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., and two legumes, white lupin (Lupinus albus L. and common vetch (Vicia sativa L., were evaluated at two harvest times for dry matter yield (DMY, crude protein concentration (CPC, and nitrogen yield (NY. Yield values and dry matter concentration (DMC were generally higher when cereals were at the hard dough compared to the late milk stage. On average, intercropping increased forage yield by 72%, NY by 190%, and CPC by 40 g kg-1, compared to cereal sole crops, but the choice of legume species affected the yield advantage and the composition of forage. Land equivalent ratio (LER of intercrops was always higher than 1, ranging from 1.39 to 1.61. Intercropping also enhanced weed suppression, compared to sole crop.

  13. An Ultrasonic System for Weed Detection in Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Andújar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group

  14. An ultrasonic system for weed detection in cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland

    2012-12-13

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were

  15. Changes in time of sowing, flowering and maturity of cereals in Europe under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Elsgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The phenological development of cereal crops from emergence through flowering to maturity is largely controlled by temperature, but also affected by day length and potential physiological stresses. Responses may vary between species and varieties. Climate change will affect the timing of cereal...... crop development, but exact changes will also depend on changes in varieties as affected by plant breeding and variety choices. This study aimed to assess changes in timing of major phenological stages of cereal crops in Northern and Central Europe under climate change. Records on dates of sowing......, flowering, and maturity of wheat, oats and maize were collected from field experiments conducted during the period 1985–2009. Data for spring wheat and spring oats covered latitudes from 46 to 64°N, winter wheat from 46 to 61°N, and maize from 47 to 58°N. The number of observations (site...

  16. Potential of phytase-mediated iron release from cereal-based foods: a quantitative view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Tetens, Inge; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate). Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism...... to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via...... enzyme-catalysed dephosphorylation of phytate, indicating the potential of this strategy for preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia. Despite the immense promise of this strategy and the prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide, the number of human studies elucidating the significance of phytase...

  17. Bound phytophenols from ready-to-eat cereals: comparison with other plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, M; McMonagle, J; Fletcher, R J; Scobbie, L; Duncan, G J; Cantlay, L; de Roos, B; Duthie, G G; Russell, W R

    2013-12-01

    Whole-grain diets are linked to reduced risk of several chronic diseases (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome) and all-cause mortality. There is increasing evidence that these benefits are associated with the gut microbiota and that release of fibre-related phenolic metabolites in the gut is a contributing factor. Additional sources of these metabolites include fruits and vegetables, but the evidence for their protective effects is less well established. With respect to the availability of bound phytophenols, ready-to-eat cereals are compared with soft fruits (considered rich in antioxidants) and other commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The results demonstrated that when compared with an equivalent serving of fruits or vegetables, a recommended portion of whole-grain cereals deliver substantially higher amounts of bound phytophenols, which are available for metabolism in the colon. The increased amount of these phenolic metabolites may, in part, explain the evidence for the protective effects of whole-grain cereals.

  18. Effect of primary processing of cereals and legumes on its nutritional quality: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Oghbaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are important part of dietaries and contribute substantially to nutrient intake of human beings. They are significant source of energy, protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Primary processing of cereals and legumes is an essential component of their preparation before use. For some grains, dehusking is an essential step, whereas for others, it could be milling the grain into flour. Grains are subjected to certain processing treatments to impart special characteristics and improve organoleptic properties such as expanded cereals. All these treatments result in alteration of their nutritional quality which could either be reduction in nutrients, phytochemicals and antinutrients or an improvement in digestibility or availability of nutrients. It is important to understand these changes occurring in grain nutritional quality on account of pre-processing treatments to select appropriate techniques to obtain maximum nutritional and health benefits. This review attempts to throw light on nutritional alterations occurring in grains due to pre-processing treatments.

  19. Efficacy of imidacloprid for control of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, C; Blodgett, S L; Johnson, G D

    2000-02-01

    The toxicity of imidacloprid to the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), was measured under laboratory and field conditions. Insect mortality and plant damage were determined from artificial and natural infestations of O. melanopus applied to various growth stages of barley. All rates of imidacloprid formulated and applied as a seed treatment caused >90% mortality to cereal leaf beetle larvae when barley was infested with eggs at the 4-leaf stage, but were ineffective when barley was infested with eggs at the early tillering or flag-leaf stages of barley. This window of susceptibility influenced results obtained in field trials where peak larval emergence did not occur until the early tillering stage of barley. The resulting mortality in plants from treated seeds never exceeded 40% in the field. Foliar imidacloprid, however, caused >90% mortality in the field, and may be another option in the management of the cereal leaf beetle.

  20. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  1. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  2. Ochratoxin A in Danish cereals 1986-1992 and daily intake by the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Rasmussen, Gitte; Thorup, Inger

    1996-01-01

    Ochratoxin A is a common contaminant in Danish cereals, and surveillance of ochratoxin A in cereals has been a part of the Danish monitoring system since 1986. Occurrence of ochratoxin A is highly related to the climatic conditions during harvest. Rye is the crop which is most often contaminated...... and contains the highest levels of ochratoxin A. The result of the survey period from 1986 to 1992 (total of 1431 samples) together with food consumption data is the basis of intake calculations. Especially in years with wet weather during harvest, the daily intake of ochratoxin A for some individuals...... in the Danish population could reach levels which exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for ochratoxin A of 5 ng/kg bw suggested by The Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation. A maximum limit of 5 mu g ochratoxin A per kg cereal would keep the daily intake below 5 ng/kg bw....

  3. Environmentally Friendly Nitrogen Fertilizers Appplication for Winter Cereals Considering the Mineral Nitrogen Content in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Timbare, R.; Bušmanis, M.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve nitrogen fertilizers application recommendations for cereals, the soil mineral nitrogen (Nmin) investigations (1995 – 2000) were carried out on sod – podzolic and brown – lesssive loamy sand and loamy soils in co-operation with other research institutions. The soil samples for determination of NO3 – N and NH4 – N were taken in depth 0 - 20, 21 – 40 and 41 – 60 cm in spring before the start of growth on winter cereals fields, but in 2001,2002- also in autumn before the sowi...

  4. Exploring the potential of symbiotic fungal endophytes in cereal disease suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hanlon, Karen; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup;

    2012-01-01

    Cereal crops are an essential source of nutrition worldwide. The incidence and severity of fungal diseases, in particular foliar diseases such as leaf spots, mildews and rusts, is a serious challenge to cereal production, and this problem is likely to escalate with the changing global climate....... Traditional and current methods for controlling fungal pathogens include the use of fungicides, good farming practices, and increasing plant resistance through conventional breeding. While effective, these strategies also carry limitations, mainly due to fungicide-resistance, breakdown of plant resistance...

  5. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2013-01-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counte...

  6. Genetic Engineering of Cereal Grains with Starch Consisting of More Than 99% Amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Numerous textbooks tell us that plant starches are a mix of two starch types: amylopectin and amylose. We recently succeeded in engineering a cereal crop – a barley line – producing grain starch consisting of more than 99% amylose1. This amylose-only starch contains a high residual fraction...... that is resistant to enzymatic degradation, even when gelatinized by cooking. The barley plants producing the grains had a moderate yield loss of 25% in comparison with other barley plants of the same cultivar. We believe that the method can be applied to produce amylose-only starch in other cereal crops including...

  7. Physicochemical properties and nutritional quality of raw cereals for newly weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, G A; Doucet, F J; Hill, S E; Wiseman, J

    2008-06-01

    The digestibility of the starch component of raw cereals in newly weaned piglets is highly variable. Reasons for this must be elucidated if the most suitable cereals are to be used. A novel approach was employed, which consisted of assessing the physicochemical properties (rapid visco analysis, water absorption and solubility indices, particle size distribution and in vitro amylolytic digestion) of eight raw cereals contained within piglet diets and subsequently relating this in vitro data to the biological responses of weaned piglets. Trial 1 examined soft and hard wheat, trial 2 - soft wheat, barley, rye and triticale, and trial 3 - soft wheat, naked oats, whole oats and maize. The initial observation was that in vitro testing prior to animal trials is recommended in nutritional evaluation since it indicated fundamental differences between raw cereals, such as for example the levels of endogenous amylase in wheat. Starch and nitrogen digestibility differed between cereals (apparent digestibility coefficients at the 0.5 site of the small intestine ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 for starch and from 0.17 to 0.68 for nitrogen). There is also a probable relationship between the coefficients of ileal apparent starch digestibility, at approximately halfway from the gastric pylorus to the ileocaecal valve, and the presence of endogenous amylase (mean values of 0.53 and 0.62 in trials 2 and 3, respectively, for the higher amylase wheat; 0.38 for the low-amylase wheat used in trial 1). This additional variable (i.e. the unforeseen presence of endogenous amylase) in wheat made it more difficult to draw a firm conclusion about the nutritional suitability of the different cereals. All raw-cereal diets caused atrophy of the villi during the initial week following weaning, but the soft wheat was associated with the highest comparative villi height and might therefore be considered the best of all raw cereals in minimising the post-weaning growth check. For wheat, this might also

  8. Skin health promotion effects of natural beta-glucan derived from cereals and microorganisms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bin; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Xu, Baojun

    2014-02-01

    β-Glucans are natural cell wall polysaccharides found in yeast, fungi (including mushrooms), some bacteria, seaweeds and cereals. Natural β-glucans possess many health promotion effects on human health, such as anti-tumor, anti-diabetes, anti-infection, lowering blood cholesterol and immune-modulating properties. These effects have been reviewed previously. However, skin health promotion of β-glucan derived from cereals and microorganisms has received little attention. This review focuses on antioxidant activity, anti-wrinkle activity, anti-ultraviolet light, wound healing, and moisturizing effect and skin permeation absorption of β-glucan. Furthermore, applications of β-glucan in cosmetics are also discussed.

  9. Invertebrate communities in spring wheat and the identification of cereal aphid predators through molecular gut content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal aphid complexes are responsible for reducing wheat production worldwide; however, management against these species is rare in North America. Generalist predators may contribute to reducing cereal aphid numbers and preventing significant damage to crops. A two-year survey identifying the arth...

  10. 9 CFR 318.15 - Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tagging chemicals, preservatives...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.15 Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” When any chemical, preservative, cereal, spice, or other substance is...

  11. Cereal bran fractionation: processing techniques for the recovery of functional components and their applications to the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Aprea, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    Bran is the outer part of cereal grains that is separated during the cereals de-hulling and milling processes. It was considered in the past a by-product of cereal industry employed mainly as animal feed. Cereal bran, being particularly rich in different functional biopolymers, bio-active compounds and essential fatty acids, attracted the interest of pharmaceutical and food industry. Furthermore, the peculiar techno-functional properties of brans together with their particular physiological and nutritional aspects have led to a great interest in their incorporation as main or secondary components in different groups of food products including bakery and confectionery products, breakfast cereals and extruded foodstuffs, emulsions and functional dairy products and pasta products. In the first part of the present work the main fractionation processes, bran fractions properties and their physicochemical and technological properties are briefly reviewed. In the second part, relevant applications, with emphasis on patents, in food industry are reviewed as well.

  12. Effect of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sholly, D.M.; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Sutton, A.L.;

    2011-01-01

    square design. Pigs were cannulated and housed individually in metabolism pens during sample collection. The 4 cerealbased diets were nonfermented liquid barley (NFLB), nonfermented liquid wheat (NFLW), fermented liquid barley (FLB), and fermented liquid wheat (FLW). The fermented feeds were prepared...... ingredients were added. Water was added to the dry nonfermented feeds [1:1 (wt/wt)] immediately before feeding. The fermentation process reduced the amount of DM in both cereals (P fermented cereals. There was an interaction of cereal.......243) on the fecal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides in either of the cereals but their digestibility was 10.0% greater (P fermentation of cereal before feeding altered the dietary composition and influenced flow and composition...

  13. Validation and transferability study of a method based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for the detection and quantification of ergot bodies in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ph.; Fernández - Pierna, J.A.; Egmond, van H.P.; Zegers, J.; Dardenne, P.; Baeten, V.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging has proved its suitability for quality and safety control in the cereal sector by allowing spectroscopic images to be collected at single-kernel level, which is of great interest to cereal control laboratories. Contaminants in cereals includ

  14. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...

  15. Cereal fiber intake may reduce risk of gastric adenocarcinomas : The EPIC-EURGAST study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendez, M. A.; Pera, Guillem; Aguclo, Antonio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Carneiro, Ftima; Berrino, Franco; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Goeran; Manjer, Jonas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Stenling, Roger; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, Maria J.; Quiros, Jose R.; Allen, Naomi; Key, Timothy J.; Bingham, Sheila; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Majken; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Ocke, Marga C.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lund, Eiliv; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous case-control studies suggest dietary fiber may reduce risk of gastric cancer, but this has not been confirmed prospectively. A previous case-control study reported reduced risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinomas associated with cereal fiber, but not with fruit or vegetable fiber. To date, di

  16. INFLUENCE DE LA PROPOLIS SUR LA MITOSE DANS LE MERYSTEME DE SECALE CEREALE L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mioara Navrotescu; Ovidiu Toma

    2005-01-01

    Cette recherche présente l’influence de propolis sur la mitose dans le merysteme de Secale cereale L. (2n=14). On confirme l’utilisation de plus en plus large de ce produit apicole - propolis - au niveau de la thérapeutique.

  17. Cereal crops as viable production and storage systems for pharmaceutical scFv antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, E; Vaquero, C; Torres, E; Sack, M; Nicholson, L; Drossard, J; Williams, S; Keen, D; Perrin, Y; Christou, P; Fischer, R

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the stable expression of a medically important antibody in the staple cereal crops rice and wheat. We successfully expressed a single-chain Fv antibody (ScFvT84.66) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a well characterized tumor-associated marker antigen. scFv constructs were engineered for recombinant antibody targeting to the plant cell apoplast and ER. Up to 30 microg/g of functional recombinant antibody was detected in the leaves and seeds of wheat and rice. We confirmed that transgenic dry seeds could be stored for at least five months at room temperature, without significant loss of the amount or activity of scFvT84.66. Our results represent the first transition from model plant expression systems, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis, to widely cultivated cereal crops, such as rice and wheat, for expression of an antibody molecule that has already shown efficacy in clinical applications. Thus, we have established that molecular pharming in cereals can be a viable production system for such high-value pharmaceutical macromolecules. Our findings provide a strong foundation for exploiting alternative uses of cereal crops both in industrialized and developing countries.

  18. Sourdough lactic acid bacteria: exploration of non-wheat cereal-based fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Cagno, Raffaella Di; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Cereal-based foods represent a very important source of biological as well as of cultural diversity, as testified by the wide range of derived fermented products. A trend that is increasingly attracting bakery industries as well as consumers is the use of non-conventional flours for the production of novel products, characterised by peculiar flavour and better nutritional value. Lactic acid bacteria microbiota of several non-wheat cereals and pseudo-cereals has been recently deeply investigated with the aim of studying the biodiversity and finding starter cultures for sourdough fermentation. Currently, the use of ancient or ethnic grains is mainly limited to traditional typical foods and the bread making process is not well standardised with consequent negative effects on the final properties. The challenge in fermenting such grains is represented by the necessity to combine good technology and sensory properties with nutritional/health benefits. The choice of the starter cultures has a critical impact on the final quality of cereal-based products, and strains that dominate and outcompete contaminants should be applied for specific sourdough fermentations. In this sense, screening and characterisation of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota is very useful in the improvement of a peculiar flour, from both a nutritional and technological point of view.

  19. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Booij, C.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges.

  20. Innovaciones Tecnológicas y Tendencias de Desarrollo en las cosechadoras de Cereales

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Revisamos en este artículo los temas en los que ingenieros y científicos están trabajando para aportar innovaciones a la cosecha de cereal. Además se revisa el mercado español y las últimas novedades comerciales presentadas por los fabricantes.

  1. Monitoring the Expression Profiles of Cereal Crops Seedlings by Using Rice cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNLiang-xian; DONGHai-tao; LIDe-bao

    2004-01-01

    Through exploiting the high homology of cereal crop genes, membranous cDNA microarrays containing 3311 unique rice transcripts (including 1 639 cndosperm-derived transcripts and 1 672 mature stem-derived transcripts) were used for monitoring the expression profiles of l-leaf stage seedlings of 4 cereal crop species: rice, maize, sorghum and barley. After hybridizing with [P] labeled probes, 73.6 % of the arrayed genes generated reliable signals in all of the four cereal crops. Further analysis revealed that among the arrayed genes, a higher percentage of the endosperm-derived transcripts (86.6%) expressed than that of the mature stem-derived genes (60.9 %), indicating that most of the endosperm expressed genes functioned in young seedlings whilc considerable amount of mature stem tissue expressed genes did not express. These results also inferred that some genes might function only at certain developmental stages. By comparing the obtained profdes, 84 genes were identified constantly expressed in all the four cereal crops. Many housekeeping genes, such as polyubiquitin, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and ribosomal proteins were included in this catalogue. The experiment also identified 14 rice seedling specifically expressed genes, including 3 biotic and abiotic stress induced genes and 1 apoptosis suppressor encoding gene Bax inhibitor-1. This investigation provided invaluable information for comparative genomics of gramineae members.

  2. Monitoring the Expression Profiles of Cereal Crops Seedlings by Using Rice cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang-xian; DONG Hai-tao; LI De-bao

    2004-01-01

    Through exploiting the high homology of cereal crop genes, membranous cDNA microarrays containing 3 311 unique rice transcripts (including 1 639 endosperm-derived transcripts and 1 672 mature stem-derived transcripts) were used for monitoring the expression profiles of 1-leaf stage seedlings of 4 cereal crop species: rice, maize, sorghum and barley. After hybridizing with [α-33p] labeled probes, 73.6 % of the arrayed genes generated reliable signals in all of the four cereal crops. Further analysis revealed that among the arrayed genes, a higher percentage of the endosperm-derived transcripts (86.6 %) expressed than that of the mature stem-derived genes (60.9 %), indicating that most of the endosperm expressed genes functioned in young seedlings while considerable amount of mature stem tissue expressed genes did not express. These results also inferred that some genes might function only at certain developmental stages. By comparing the obtained profiles, 84 genes were identified constantly expressed in all the four cereal crops. Many housekeeping genes, such as polyubiquitin, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and ribosomal proteins were included in this catalogue. The experiment also identified 14 rice seedling specifically expressed genes, including 3 biotic and abiotic stress induced genes and 1 apoptosis suppressor encoding gene Bax inhibitor-1. This investigation provided invaluable information for comparative genomics of gramineae members.

  3. Stability of the Trichothecene, Deoxynivalenol in Processed Foods and Wheat Flake Cereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, principally F. graminearum and F. culmorum. These fungi are natural contaminants of wheat, barley and corn and, consequently, DON is found in cereal-based foods. The effect of thermal processing on DON is variable: som...

  4. New Trends in Pesticide Residue Analysis in Cereals, Nutraceuticals, Baby Foods, and Related Processed Consumer Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide residue methods have been developed for a wide variety of food products including cereal-based foods, nutraceuticals and related plant products, and baby foods. These cereal, fruit, vegetable, and plant-based products provide the basis for many processed consumer products. For cereal and nutraceuticals, which are dry sample products, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method has been used with additional steps to allow wetting of the dry sample matrix and subsequent cleanup using dispersive or cartridge format SPE to reduce matrix effects. More processed foods may have lower pesticide concentrations but higher co-extracts that can lead to signal suppression or enhancement with MS detection. For complex matrixes, GC/MS/MS or LC/electrospray ionization (positive or negative ion)-MS/MS is more frequently used. The extraction and cleanup methods vary with different sample types particularly for cereal-based products, and these different approaches are discussed in this review. General instrument considerations are also discussed.

  5. Grass Hosts Harbor More Diverse Isolates of Puccinia striiformis Than Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, P; Chen, X M; See, D R

    2016-04-01

    Puccinia striiformis causes stripe rust on cereal crops and many grass species. However, it is not clear whether the stripe rust populations on grasses are able to infect cereal crops and how closely they are related to each other. In this study, 103 isolates collected from wheat, barley, triticale, rye, and grasses in the United States were characterized by virulence tests and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Of 69 pathotypes identified, 41 were virulent on some differentials of wheat only, 10 were virulent on some differentials of barley only, and 18 were virulent on some differentials of both wheat and barley. These pathotypes were clustered into three groups: group one containing isolates from wheat, triticale, rye, and grasses; group two isolates were from barley and grasses; and group three isolates were from grasses and wheat. SSR markers identified 44 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) and clustered them into three major molecular groups (MG) with MLGs in MG3 further classified into three subgroups. Isolates from cereal crops were present in one or more of the major or subgroups, but not all, whereas grass isolates were present in all of the major and subgroups. The results indicate that grasses harbor more diverse isolates of P. striiformis than the cereals.

  6. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Weinborn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study. Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control, study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05. In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05. These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption.

  7. Country of origin (COO) effect in cereal products: A comparative study of Danish and Lithuanian consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I.A.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey which aimed at uncovering the influence of COO information on the perceptions of 281 Danish and Lithuanian consumers regarding several cereal foods and their marketing characteristics, such as price, place-of-purchase, brand, packaging, and labelling...

  8. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  9. Estimation of leaf area index in cereal crops using red-green images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Kristian; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Thomsen, Anton G;

    2009-01-01

    A new method for estimating the leaf area index (LAI) in cereal crops based on red-green images taken from above the crop canopy is introduced. The proposed method labels pixels into vegetation and soil classes using a combination of greenness and intensity derived from the red and green colour...

  10. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  11. Relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in epigeaic weed seed predation in organic cereal fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, P.R.; Hofman, A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Van der Werf, W.

    2003-01-01

    Exclosure trials were conducted in four organic cereal fields in The Netherlands in 1999 and 2000 to determine the relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in weed seed predation. The trials showed that seed predation by vertebrates was rather consistent and predictable, occurring on all

  12. Beyond whole grain: The European HEALTHGRAIN project aims at healthier cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutanen, K.; Shepherd, R.; Shewry, P.R.; Delcour, J.A.; Björck, I.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2008-01-01

    Cereal foods are an important source of carbohydrates and dietary fiber in our diet. Epidemiological evidence increasingly demonstrates that a diet rich in whole grain is protective against development of diet-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The majority of cere

  13. The effect of perennials as green manure on cereal productivity and disease incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuodiene, R.; Nekrosiene, R.

    2012-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Vezaiciai Branch of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry during the period 2002-2007. They were designed to ascertain the effects of phytomass of different perennial pre-crops used for green manure on the productivity and on the occurrence of foliar fungal diseases of cereal agrocenoses. Plant residues and phytomass ploughed down as green manures positively affected cereal indices of crop productivity not only for the first but for the second year as well. It influenced the productivity of cereal segments. The largest amount of metabolizable energy was in the yield of cereal sequence under white clover (Trifolium repens L.) 83.23-84.76% GJ ha{sup 1}. The potential accumulated by perennials of the second year of development was more efficiently utilised by winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) cv. Tevo, and that of perennials of the third year of development was more efficiently utilised by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Ula. Perennials had a significant effect on the spread of foliar diseases in winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) agrocenoses. The severity of the disease was 1.1-1.3 times higher in the winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) treatments with white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pre-crops. Foliar disease incidence and severity was 1.1-1.2 times higher in the agrocenoses of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after legumes of the third year of development, especially after lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). (Author) 28 refs.

  14. Food safety of cereals: a chain wide approach to reduce Fusarium mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Ruckenbauer, P.; Visconti, A.; Osenburggen, W.A.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley and Fusarium ear rot in maize is caused by several Fusarium species. The disease reduces the quality of the seed since several of these fungi produce mycotoxins. From a food safety point of view, consumption of mycotoxin-infected cereals is dangerous as

  15. Developments on the cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua (iburu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jideani, I A; Jideani, V A

    2011-06-01

    Research and development on these indigenous African cereal grains, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. iburua Stapf), is experiencing renewed interest not just in Africa but the rest of the world. It is believed that acha and iburu may have nutraceutical properties, as it is used in some areas for managing diabetes. Value addition and exploitation of fonio (acha and iburu) in the development of health or speciality foods like acha-bread, biscuit, cookies, sour dough, traditional drinks, nonfermented steamed and granulated dumpling products are gaining interest. These grains may also contribute in addressing some very relevant challenges in today's food formulation-both from functionality and health perspectives. The constraint of low yield is receiving attention in cereal breeding programmes which may give rise to a new generation of 'healthy' cereal grains in future. Further research on acha and iburu whole grains will hopefully lead to increase understanding of the health effects of grain components and to increase the intake of health-protective grain components. Moreover, with strong consumer demand for these grains due to their potential nutritional and health benefits, and because they help to satisfy the demand for a more varied cereal diet, efforts should be made to tackle the obstacles militating against production, improved quality, competitiveness and value-addition.

  16. Haemoglobin fortified cereal: a source of available iron to breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrampf, E; Olivares, M; Pizarro, F; Walter, T; Cayazzo, M; Heresi, G; Llaguno, S; Chadud, P; Stekel, A

    1990-11-01

    We tested in the field an extruded rice flour, fortified with a bovine haemoglobin concentrate (Fe:14 mg/100 g of powder). This cereal has a high iron bioavailability, good protein quality and amino acid score. Healthy, term breast-fed infants were prospectively studied. One group (n = 92) received the fortified cereal (from 4 to 12 months of age). As control, 96 infants received regular solid foods (cooked vegetables and meat) from age 4 months. At the end of the field trial, a subsample of infants in both groups was supplemented with 45 mg Fe during 90 d. Iron nutrition status was determined at 9, 12 and 15 months. At 12 months, iron deficiency anaemia was present in 17 per cent of controls, in 10 per cent of fortified infants as a whole, but only in 6 per cent of the babies who consumed over 30 g of cereal/d. In addition, this latter group did not show any significant changes in iron nutrition status after the supplementation trial. Results demonstrate that the consumption of a haemoglobin fortified cereal is effective in markedly reducing the incidence of iron deficiency in breast-fed infants.

  17. Methods for analysis of the distribution and speciation of iron and zinc in the cereal grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj

    micronutrients in cereal grain primarily depends on two main components; phytic acid and proteins. Most of the phosphorus (P) found in the grain is bound in phytic acid and most sulphur (S) is incorporated into the amino acids cysteine and methionine that are part of different proteins. Co...

  18. INFLUENCE DE LA PROPOLIS SUR LA MITOSE DANS LE MERYSTEME DE SECALE CEREALE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara Navrotescu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche présente l’influence de propolis sur la mitose dans le merysteme de Secale cereale L. (2n=14. On confirme l’utilisation de plus en plus large de ce produit apicole - propolis - au niveau de la thérapeutique.

  19. Preparation of a cereal bar containing bocaiuva: physical, nutritional, microbiological and sensory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Leite Munhoz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Regional fruit have been increasingly used in recent years in the preparation of foodstuffs because besides promoting the biome preservation, it is obtained differentiated and value-added products. This study aimed to prepare cereal bars containing pulp and kernel of bocaiuva and determine the nutritional quality, assess the acceptability, and microbiological quality. Two formulations of cereal bar were prepared with pulp dehydrated by osmoconvection and kernel of bocaiuva. The formulations were analyzed as for the texture, color analysis, proximate composition, fatty acids profile, mineral, microbiology and sensory evaluation. Cereal bars presented on average, in g 100 g-1, 4.83 moisture, 8.01 protein, 12.93 lipids, 1.30 ash, 53.75 total carbohydrate, 19.78 fiber and 363.41 kcal 100 g-1 total caloric value. Bars represented a source of calcium and iron and had a high content of oleic acid, average of 20 g 100 g-1 total lipids. In the microbiological evaluation, cereal bars have met the standards set by the legislation, being suitable for consumption. As for the attributes evaluated in the sensory analysis, all showed mean values above 6, considered acceptable for consumption. The use of bocaiuva may contribute to highlight differentiated taste and appearance, emphasizing the use of native fruits in the preparation of new products.

  20. Identification of secreted proteins of Aspergillus oryzae associated with growth on solid cereal substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, R. te; Boussier, A.; Biezen, N. van; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Filamentous growth of Aspergillus oryzae on solid cereal substrates involves secretion of substrate converting enzymes and a solid substrate specific polarised hyphal growth phenotype. To identify proteins produced under these specific conditions, the extracts of A. oryzae grown on wheat-based media

  1. Development and Life History of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Adebayo Ojo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals. Knowledge of the life history and biology is important to the development of an integrated pest management program. Investigation was carried out on developmental biology of S. zeamais on four main cereal crops, maize, rice, sorghum, and millet, under laboratory conditions. Egg incubation, oviposition periods, and larval instar development were not different significantly among the food hosts. Number of eggs laid varied significantly among the cereal grains; mean fecundity was highest on maize (67.2±3.16 and lowest on millet (53.8±0.17. Number of immature (larva and pupa and adult stages varied significantly among the cereal grains. There exist four larval instars with a varied mean head capsule width, with a mean total instar larval developmental period of 23.1, 22.2, 22.2, and 21.6 d on maize, rice, sorghum, and millet, respectively. There was linear relationship and significant correlation between the stages of larval development and head capsule width. The mean developmental period from egg to adult varied, being highest on maize (34.7 d and lowest on sorghum (33.5 d.

  2. Colour and shape analysis techniques for weed detection in cereal fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, A.J; López, F; Benlloch, J.V.;

    2000-01-01

    Information on weed distribution within the field is necessary to implement spatially variable herbicide application. This paper deals with the development of near-ground image capture and processing techniques in order to detect broad-leaved weeds in cereal crops under actual field conditions. T...

  3. Tillage system and cereal rye residue affects pigweed establishment and competitiveness in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integral component of conservation-agriculture systems in cotton is the use of a winter cover crop; however, managing problematic weeds in such systems is a challenge. To evaluate pigweed dynamics in conventional vs. conservation systems, a rye (Secale cereale L.) winter cover crop was establish...

  4. Cereal bar with added chayote peel flour: physico-chemical and sensory characteristics among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Wendler de Cristo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to verify the sensory acceptability of traditional cereal bars and cereal bars added with chayote peel flour, and determine the physico-chemical compositions of their formulations. Five cereal bars formulas were prepared and analyzed as follows: F1: standard (0% and with the addition of chayote peel flour in the proportions of 6.75% (F2; 13.5% (F3; 20.25% (F4 and 27% (F5. Sixty tasters, aged 7-10 took part in the sensorial analysis. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05 regarding appearance, aroma, texture and color among formulations. For the attributes taste, overall acceptance and purchase intention, higher scores were given towards the standard sample when compared to F5, but no differences were observed among the other sample scores. There was no statistical difference (p>0.05 for moisture, protein, fat and calories between F1 and F4 formulations. However, higher levels of ash and dietary fiber and lower level of carbohydrates were observed in F4 compared to F1. The formulas preparation demonstrated that a level of addition of up to 20.25% of chayote peel flour in cereal bars was well accepted by the panel, with a sensory acceptance similar to the standard product and good trading expectation.

  5. Suitability of cereal porridges as substrate for probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Valík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find new substrates suitable for growth and metabolism of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which would be interesting for development of new functional food. The growth and metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG in cereal (rye, barley, oat and millet porridges were monitored during fermentation process. Cereal and porridges, were inoculated with this strain at two initial levels to obtain approximately 5 or 6 log colony form units per gram of suspension after sterilization and cooling,. Fermentation was led stationary at 37 °C for 48 hours and viable cell count, pH value, titratable acidity and organic acids were analysed. Metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG was influenced by inoculation level and by the type of cereal used. The cereals fermented by lactic acid bacteria, especially probiotic strains, might broaden the offer of probiotic products for those suffering from milk allergy.doi:10.5219/242 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  6. Тhe effectiveness of extruding the poly-cereal mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ospanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies about the effectiveness of extruding the floury polycereal mixtures; obtained dependence of the operating parameters of the process on the variable rotation frequency of extruder’ auger and humidity value of extruded poly-cereal mixture. The obtained results have practical significance in the construction of the technological scheme of food production of high readiness.

  7. Growth, yield and composition of four winter cereals. 1. Biomass, grain yield and yield formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen, J.

    1993-01-01

    A field experiment with 3 cultivars of each of 4 winter cereals (wheat, rye, triticale and barley), sown at about 320 plants/msuperscript 2, was conducted on a fertile clay soil in the central Netherlands. The N fertilizer was split-dressed: 120 kg/ha in total for wheat and triticale, and 60 kg/ha f

  8. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower me

  9. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (P< 0·05) in rice and lowest (P< 0·05) in rye and sorghum. The concentrations of SID indispensable AA in rice were less (P< 0·05) than in dehulled oats, but greater (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (P< 0·05) than in yellow dent maize and sorghum, but less (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains.

  10. Cereal Crops Are not Created Equal: Wheat Consumption Associated with Obesity Prevalence Globally and Regionally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng You

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cereals have been extensively advocated as the beneficial food group in terms of body weight management, but each staple cereal crop may contribute in different ways. Studies of the association between wheat availability and risk of obesity are controversial. This study aimed to test the global and regional association between wheat availability as reported by FAO and obesity prevalence at a population level. FAO does not distinguish between whole grain wheat and refined wheat. Methods: Population-specific data from 170 countries on prevalence of obesity, availabilities of mixed cereals, wheat, rice, maize, meat, sugar, fat, soy and calories and GDP are obtained from the UN agencies. All variables were measured as per capita per day (or per year. Each country is treated as an individual subject. SPSS v. 22 is used to analyse these data for all the 170 countries and official country groupings (regions using non parametric and parametric correlations, including partial correlation analysis. Results: Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis showed that obesity prevalence is positively associated with wheat availability (r = 0.500, p < 0.001, but is inversely associated with availabilities of total cereals (r = -0.132, p = 0.087, rice (r = -0.405, p < 0.001 and maize (r = -0.227, p = 0.004. These associations remain in partial correlation model when we keep availabilities of meat, fat, sugar, soy, caloric intake and GDP statistically constant. Overall, positive associations between wheat availability and obesity prevalence remain in different regions. Maize and mixed cereal availabilities do not show independent associations with the obesity prevalence. Conclusions: Our study suggests that wheat availability is an independent predictor of the obesity prevalence both worldwide and with special regard to the regions of Africa, Americas and Asia. Future studies should distinguish between possible influence of whole grain and ultra

  11. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-12-17

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp.) respectively (P ingredient in diets for both pigs and chickens.

  12. [Cereal bars with soy protein and wheat germ, physicochemical characteristics and texture during the storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Freitas, Daniela D G

    2005-09-01

    Studies analyzing cereal bars have reported on consumer characteristics and preferences in sensory analyses and on their market growth, however little has been published on their physicochemical data and texture properties. Thus the objective of this research was to provide information about the storage of a cereal bar formulation with high protein and vitamin levels based on soy protein and wheat germ, packaged in 3 different films (A: PET/PEBD; B: PETmet/PEBD; C: PET/PEBD/AL/PEBD), during 6 months under environmental conditions of temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) and relative humidity (56%). The moisture content, water activity, pH and total acidity of the cereal bars were determined. The textural measurements accompanied during storage were breaking strength, hardness and cohesiveness. The cereal bars presented variations in water activity (Aw), moisture content and total acidity during storage. The moisture content of the bars tended to increase, which led to a significant (p = 0.05) influence on the texture characteristics of breaking strength and hardness, in the different packaging films tested. The increase in the values for breaking strength (A: 4756,5N; B: 5093,0N; C: 5575,6N) at 45 days of storage was attributed to a possible crystallization of the agglutinating syrup used for the bars. The textured soy protein used in the formulation could also have contributed to this fact due to its hygroscopic character, also interfering in the decrease in the cohesiveness measurements (deformation) with time. The effect of the different barrier properties of the packaging films tested was significant (p cereal bars during storage.

  13. Calidad tecnológica de la harina de trigo obtenida a partir de cereales ozonizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lobo Paes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El cloro es uno de los principales agentes antimicrobianos utilizados en la industria molinera, pero debido a la formación de organoclorados tóxicos o incluso cancerígenos su uso no ha sido considerado seguro. El proceso de ozonización puede considerarse como uno de los más modernos y eficientes, tanto en la desinfección de insectos-plaga como en los microorganismos. Sin embargo, es necesario evaluar su efecto sobre la calidad de cereales y subproductos. Así, el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del gas ozono en la calidad tecnológica de la harina de trigo obtenidos a partir de cereales ozonizados. Los cereales de trigo fueron ozonizado con una concentración de 200 ppm por períodos de 0, 48, 96, 144, 192 y 240 h, y posteriormente molidos para obtener harina. Para evaluar el efecto del gas en la harina de trigo fueron realizados los análisis físico químicos (tasa de extracción, la composición y la Falling number y reológicas (alveógrafia, farinógrafia y extensografia. El gas ozono se ha obtenido mediante el generador de ozono desarrollado por el Ozone & Life y la concentración fue cuantificada por el método Yodométrica. La harina de trigo obtenidas a partir de cereales ozonizados no presento diferencia significativa en la tasa de extracción, composición y Falling Number, alveografia, farinógrafia y extensoggrafia cuando fue comparada con la harina obtenida de granos no ozonizados. Se concluye que el gas de ozono puede ser considerado una alternativa para ser implementada en la industria molinera, ya que no afecta la calidad tecnológica de harinas procedentes de cereales ozonizada.

  14. CerealsDB 2.0: an integrated resource for plant breeders and scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Paul A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food security is an issue that has come under renewed scrutiny amidst concerns that substantial yield increases in cereal crops are required to feed the world’s booming population. Wheat is of fundamental importance in this regard being one of the three most important crops for both human consumption and livestock feed; however, increase in crop yields have not kept pace with the demands of a growing world population. In order to address this issue, plant breeders require new molecular tools to help them identify genes for important agronomic traits that can be introduced into elite varieties. Studies of the genome using next-generation sequencing enable the identification of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be used by breeders to identify and follow genes when breeding new varieties. The development and application of next-generation sequencing technologies has made the characterisation of SNP markers in wheat relatively cheap and straightforward. There is a growing need for the widespread dissemination of this information to plant breeders. Description CerealsDB is an online resource containing a range of genomic datasets for wheat (Triticum aestivum that will assist plant breeders and scientists to select the most appropriate markers for marker assisted selection. CerealsDB includes a database which currently contains in excess of 100,000 putative varietal SNPs, of which several thousand have been experimentally validated. In addition, CerealsDB contains databases for DArT markers and EST sequences, and links to a draft genome sequence for the wheat variety Chinese Spring. Conclusion CerealsDB is an open access website that is rapidly becoming an invaluable resource within the wheat research and plant breeding communities.

  15. Quantitative estimation of sampling uncertainties for mycotoxins in cereal shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, F S; Lyman, G J

    2012-01-01

    Many countries receive shipments of bulk cereals from primary producers. There is a volume of work that is on-going that seeks to arrive at appropriate standards for the quality of the shipments and the means to assess the shipments as they are out-loaded. Of concern are mycotoxin and heavy metal levels, pesticide and herbicide residue levels, and contamination by genetically modified organisms (GMOs). As the ability to quantify these contaminants improves through improved analytical techniques, the sampling methodologies applied to the shipments must also keep pace to ensure that the uncertainties attached to the sampling procedures do not overwhelm the analytical uncertainties. There is a need to understand and quantify sampling uncertainties under varying conditions of contamination. The analysis required is statistical and is challenging as the nature of the distribution of contaminants within a shipment is not well understood; very limited data exist. Limited work has been undertaken to quantify the variability of the contaminant concentrations in the flow of grain coming from a ship and the impact that this has on the variance of sampling. Relatively recent work by Paoletti et al. in 2006 [Paoletti C, Heissenberger A, Mazzara M, Larcher S, Grazioli E, Corbisier P, Hess N, Berben G, Lübeck PS, De Loose M, et al. 2006. Kernel lot distribution assessment (KeLDA): a study on the distribution of GMO in large soybean shipments. Eur Food Res Tech. 224:129-139] provides some insight into the variation in GMO concentrations in soybeans on cargo out-turn. Paoletti et al. analysed the data using correlogram analysis with the objective of quantifying the sampling uncertainty (variance) that attaches to the final cargo analysis, but this is only one possible means of quantifying sampling uncertainty. It is possible that in many cases the levels of contamination passing the sampler on out-loading are essentially random, negating the value of variographic quantitation of

  16. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CHANGE IN SALIVARY pH ON CONSUMPTION OF DRY READY TO EAT CEREALS, CEREALS WITH AND WITHOUT ADDED SUGAR IN MILK- AN IN -VIVO STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh J*, Sapna B, Veeresh DJ, Divya D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dry, Ready to Eat Cereals are a combination of refined sugar and starch, most commonly consumed breakfast in the modern human diet. The present study was done to investigate the effects of combination foods on salivary pH. Objective: To assess and compare the salivary pH changes after consumption of Dry Ready to Eat Cereals (REC), Cereals with plain and sugar added milk. Method: Thirty six adults of age 18 to 25 years were assessed for salivary pH at baseline followed by one minut...

  17. Prospective associations among cereal intake in childhood and adiposity, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M; Bauserman, Robert; Barton, Bruce A

    2009-10-01

    Cereal consumption is a common dietary behavior that has been associated with positive health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine prospective associations between cereal intake in childhood and percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence. In this longitudinal investigation (data collected 1987-1997), data were analyzed for the 2,379 girls who participated in the 10-year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. The cumulative percent of days that each girl consumed cereal during childhood (based on 3-day food diaries collected during six study visits between ages 11.5 and 18.6 years) was examined in relation to percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity measured at age 18.6 years. Results indicated that nearly all girls (90.1%) reported eating cereal and 18.7% reported eating cereal on half or more of the days reported in the food diaries. Girls who ate cereal on a greater percentage of days during childhood had lower percent body fat and total cholesterol, and were more likely to exhibit high levels of physical activity and less television viewing during Study Year 10 (P values<0.05). Further research should explore lifestyle issues related to cereal consumption.

  18. The cereal type in feed influences gut wall morphology and intestinal immune cell infiltration in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teirlynck, Emma; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Eeckhaut, Venessa;

    2009-01-01

    In broiler chickens a diet where the major cereal types are wheat, rye and/or barley has a lower digestibility compared with a diet in which maize is the major cereal type In the present study, the effects of two different dietary cereal types, maize v. wheat/rye on host factors (inflammation and...... showing changes in the microbiota compostion was larger than that of Zn-bacitracin supplementation In conclusion, a wheat/rye-based diet evoked mucosal damage, an alteration in the composition of the microbiota and an inflammatory bowel type of condition....

  19. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  20. Does Regular Breakfast Cereal Consumption Help Children and Adolescents Stay Slimmer? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne de la Hunty

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review systematically the evidence on breakfast cereal consumption and obesity in children and adolescents and assess whether the regular consumption of breakfast cereals could help to prevent excessive weight gain. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies relating breakfast cereal consumption to BMI, BMI z-scores and prevalence of obesity as the outcomes. Results: 14 papers met the inclusion criteria. The computed effect size for mean BMI between high consumers and low or non-consumers over all 25 study subgroups was -1.13 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.81, -1.46, p Conclusion: Overall, the evidence reviewed is suggestive that regular consumption of breakfast cereals results in a lower BMI and a reduced likelihood of being overweight in children and adolescents. However, more evidence from long-term trials and investigations into mechanisms is needed to eliminate possible confounding factors and determine causality.

  1. Biological control as a strategy to reduce the impact of mycotoxins in peanuts, grapes and cereals in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chulze, S.N.; Palazzini, J.M.; Torres, A.M.; Barros, G.; Ponsone, M.L.; Geisen, R.; Schmidt-Heydt, M.; Köhl, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins including aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are among the main fungal secondary metabolites detected as natural contaminants in South America in different commodities such as peanuts (aflatoxins), cereals (deoxynivalenol and fumonisins) or grapes (ochratoxin A). Diff

  2. Two chaotic global models for cereal crops cycles observed from satellite in northern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain; Drapeau, Laurent; Letellier, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The dynamics underlying cereal crops in the northern region of Morocco is investigated using a global modelling technique applied to a vegetation index time series derived from satellite measurements, namely, the normalized difference vegetation index from 1982 to 2008. Two three-dimensional chaotic global models of reduced size (14-term and 15-term models) are obtained. The model validation is performed by comparing their horizons of predictability with those provided in previous studies. The attractors produced by the two global models have a complex foliated structure-evidenced in a Poincaré section-rending a topological characterization difficult to perform. Thus, the Kaplan-Yorke dimension is estimated from the synthetic data produced by our global models. Our results suggest that cereal crops in the northern Morocco are governed by a weakly dissipative three-dimensional chaotic dynamics.

  3. STRUCTURES AND PERSPECTIVES OF CEREAL SEEDS PRODUCTION AND USE, IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najah Naiem Mutlak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper regarding the situation of Iraq we are tackling the production issue and the use of seeds for the main cereal crops (wheat, barley, and maize. Based on a pertinent methodology, the paper starts from the stringent need to produce seed quantities, while the arguments are based on the processing results of the information in the annual dynamics. We are making knowledge references on the used quantities, but also on the seed provisioning. By means of presenting and extrapolating the production functions, we discover the limits and conditions for the production factors use extension on the production. It emerged that for the analyzed crops, the seed quantity factor is predominant in increasing the cereal production volume.

  4. Evaluation of anaerobic degradation, biogas and digestate production of cereal silages using nylon-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Marco; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Bocchi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the degradation efficiency and the biogas and digestate production during anaerobic digestion were evaluated for the cereal silages most used to feed biogas plants. To this purpose, silages of: maize from the whole plant, maize from the ear, triticale and wheat were digested, inside of nylon bags, in laboratory scale digesters, for 75days. Overall, the test involved 288 nylon bags. After 75days of digestion, the maize ear silage shows the highest degradation efficiency (about 98%) while wheat silage the lowest (about 83%). The biogas production ranges from 438 to 852Nm(3)/t of dry matter for wheat and ear maize silage, respectively. For all the cereal silages, the degradation as well as the biogas production are faster at the beginning of the digestion time. Digestate mass, expressed as percentage of the fresh matter, ranges from 38% to 84% for wheat and maize ear silage, respectively.

  5. Effect of Addition of Cereal Based Beta-glucan on Technological and Functional Properties of Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Şimşekli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays usage of dietary fibers in foods has been increasing duo to revealing of health benefits. Beta-glucans found especially in oats and barley, are polysaccharide and source of water-soluble dietary fiber. Positive effects of beta-glucans like healing coronary-heart disease, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level and preventing obesity, made beta-glucans widespread functional food components for producing various foods. In addition to beneficial physiological effects of beta-glucans, they texturize, gelatinize, emulsify and stabilize the foods. They increase viscosity, replace fat and enhance rheological properties in cereal, meat and dairy products. They are also used to produce packing material depending on their mechanical properties and molecular weights. In this review, effects of addition of cereal based beta-glucans on technological and functional properties of various foods are revealed based on previous studies.

  6. Bipolaris sorokiniana, a cereal pathogen of global concern: cytological and molecular approaches towards better controldouble dagger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jagdish; Schäfer, Patrick; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Langen, Gregor; Baltruschat, Helmut; Stein, Elke; Nagarajan, Subramaniam; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2002-07-01

    Summary Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph Cochliobolus sativus) is the causal agent of common root rot, leaf spot disease, seedling blight, head blight, and black point of wheat and barley. The fungus is one of the most serious foliar disease constraints for both crops in warmer growing areas and causes significant yield losses. High temperature and high relative humidity favour the outbreak of the disease, in particular in South Asia's intensive 'irrigated wheat-rice' production systems. In this article, we review the taxonomy and worldwide distribution, as well as strategies to counteract the disease as an emerging threat to cereal production systems. We also review the current understanding of the cytological and molecular aspects of the interaction of the fungus with its cereal hosts, which makes B. sorokiniana a model organism for studying plant defence responses to hemibiotrophic pathogens. The contrasting roles of cell death and H(2)O(2) generation in plant defence during biotrophic and necrotrophic fungal growth phases are discussed.

  7. Role of Cereal Secondary Metabolites Involved in Mediating the Outcome of Plant-Pathogen Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Du Fall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereal crops such as wheat, rice and barley underpin the staple diet for human consumption globally. A multitude of threats to stable and secure yields of these crops exist including from losses caused by pathogens, particularly fungal. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to resist pathogens including programmed cell death responses, the release of pathogenicity-related proteins and oxidative bursts. Another such mechanism is the synthesis and release of secondary metabolites toxic to potential pathogens. Several classes of these compounds have been identified and their anti-fungal properties demonstrated. However the lack of suitable analytical techniques has hampered the progress of identifying and exploiting more of these novel metabolites. In this review, we summarise the role of the secondary metabolites in cereal crop diseases and briefly touch on the analytical techniques that hold the key to unlocking their potential in reducing yield losses.

  8. Content of phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in 17 rye (Secale cereale L.) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Christensen, L P; Meyer, A S;

    2000-01-01

    of the analyzed components were observed among the different rye varieties and also between different harvest years. However, the content of phenolic acids in the analyzed rye varieties was narrow compared to cereals such as wheat and barley. The concentration of ferulic acid, the most abundant phenolic acid......The contents of pnenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers were quantified by HPLC analysis after alkaline hydrolysis in kernels of 17 rye (Secale cereale L.) varieties grown in one location in Denmark during 1997 and 1998. Significant variations (P ... ranged from 900 to 1170 microgram g(-1) dry matter. The content in sinapic acid ranged from 70 to 140 microgram g(-1) dry matter, p-coumaric acid ranged from 40 to 70 microgram g(-1) dry matter, and caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, and vanillic acids were all detected in concentrations less...

  9. Iminosugar inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes that underpin cereal grain germination and endosperm metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriotis, Vasilios M. E.; Rejzek, Martin; Rugen, Michael D.;

    2016-01-01

    limited knowledge about the nature and control of starch degradation in plants. Increased societal and commercial demand for enhanced yield and quality in starch crops requires a better understanding of starch metabolism as a whole. Here we review recent advances in understanding the roles of carbohydrate......-active enzymes in starch degradation in cereal grains through complementary chemical and molecular genetics. These approaches have allowed us to start dissecting aspects of starch degradation and the interplay with cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolysis during germination. With a view to improving and diversifying...... the properties and uses of cereal grains, it is possible that starch degradation may be amenable to manipulation through genetic or chemical intervention at the level of cell wall metabolism, rather than simply in the starch degradation pathway per se....

  10. Unraveling the major triticeae phytases – towards cereals with high grain phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh

    Phytic acid is the main storage form of phosphate in plant seeds. Phosphorus in this form is largely indigestible by monogastric animals due to insufficient activity of the hydrolytic enzyme phytase in their digestive tract and in most plant seeds. Moreover as a strong chelator, undigested phytic...... acid constitutes the most important anti nutritional factor for the bioavailability of minerals. However, the mature grain phytase activity varies considerably between plant species and between cultivars. Cereals like rye, wheat and barley possess significant phytase activity with the potential...... to contribute to the hydrolysis of phytic acid in food and feed. In contrast rice and maize possess insufficient phytase activity in the mature grain to have a notable effect on the phytic acid. The aim of the present study was to (1) uncover the genetic basis for the major phytases in cereal grains (2) explain...

  11. Host genotype is an important determinant of the cereal phyllosphere mycobiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2015-01-01

    The phyllosphere mycobiome in cereals is an important determinant of crop health. However, an understanding of the factors shaping this community is lacking. Fungal diversity in leaves from a range of cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), winter and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare......) and a smaller number of samples from oat (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale) and triticale (Triticum × Secale) was studied using next-generation sequencing. The effects of host genotype, fungicide treatment and location on fungal communities were explored. In total, 635 251 fungal internal transcribed spacer...... treatment (13%) and location (4%). Indicator species, including plant pathogens, responding to factors such as crop species, location and treatment were identified. Host genotype at both the species and cultivar level is important in shaping phyllosphere fungal communities, whereas fungicide treatment...

  12. Digestion site of starch from cereals and legumes in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2009-01-01

    The effect of grinding and rolling (i.e. processing) of cereals and legumes (i.e. source) on site of starch digestion in lactating dairy cows was tested according to a 2×2 factorial design using a dataset derived from an overall dataset compiled from four experiments conducted at our laboratory...... digestibility of starch was decreased by rolling for legumes, whereas the three other source by processing combinations did not differ. The duodenal flow of microbial starch was estimated to 276 g/d as the intercept in the regression analysis. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of starch seemed to underestimate...... true ruminal digestibility in rations with low starch intake due to a relatively higher contribution of microbial starch to total duodenal starch flow compared to rumen escape feed starch. The small intestinal and total tract digestibility of legume starch was lower compared with starch from cereals...

  13. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  14. Construction of Traceability System for Quality Safety of Cereal and Oil Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huoguo; Liu, Shihong; Meng, Hong; Hu, Haiyan

    After several significant food safety incident, global food industry and governments in many countries are putting increasing emphasis on establishment of food traceability systems. Food traceability has become an effective way in food quality and safety management. The traceability system for quality safety of cereal and oil products was designed and implemented with HACCP and FMECA method, encoding, information processing, and hardware R&D technology etc, according to the whole supply chain of cereal and oil products. Results indicated that the system provide not only the management in origin, processing, circulating and consuming for enterprise, but also tracing service for customers and supervisor by means of telephone, internet, SMS, touch machine and mobile terminal.

  15. Study on Full Supply Chain Quality and Safetytraceability Systems For Cereal And Oilproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shihong; Zheng, Huoguo; Meng, Hong; Hu, Haiyan; Wu, Jiangshou; Li, Chunhua

    Global food industry and Governments in many countries are putting increasing emphasis on establishment of food traceability systems. Food traceability has become an effective way in food safety management. Aimed at the major quality problems of cereal and oil products existing in the production, processing, warehousing, distribution and other links in the supply chain, this paper firstly proposes a new traceability framework combines the information flow with critical control points and quality indicators. Then it introduces traceability database design and data access mode to realize the framework. In practice, Code design for tracing goods is a challenge thing, so this paper put forward a code system based on UCC/EAN-128 standard.Middleware and Electronic terminal design are also briefly introduced to accomplish traceability system for cereal and oil products.

  16. Effect of cadmium on physiological parameters of cereal and millet plants-A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asopa, Prem Prakash; Bhatt, Ritika; Sihag, Santosh; Kothari, S L; Kachhwaha, Sumita

    2017-03-04

    Metal load is an abiotic stress that becomes stronger by continual industrial production, wastage, and long-range transport of contaminants. It deteriorates the conditions of agricultural soil that leads to lower growth of cereals as well as decreasing nutritional value of harvested grains. Cadmium (Cd) entry by food chain also affects the health of population. The present study is focused on finding out the superior cereal variety under increasing Cd regime. The plants were grown in increasing Cd levels (0-1000 µM) in the medium and were investigated on 15th day of the exposure. Various parameters like antioxidative enzymes and osmoprotectant levels were studied in both roots and shoots. Cd accumulation in plant organs was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Analysis of stress tolerance mechanisms through reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and better partitioning of Cd in roots indicated kodo millet to be more stress tolerant than wheat.

  17. Fermentation of cereals - Influence on digestibility of nutrients in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Sholly, Danielle; Pedersen, Anni Øyan;

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the impact of fermentation of two cereals, barley and wheat, on chemical composition and nutrient digestibility in the small intestine and the total tract of growing pigs. Fermented liquid cereals were prepared by mixing either barley or wheat and water (25 °C......) at a ratio of 1:2.75 (wt/wt). Four experimental diets consisting of either dry or fermented barley or wheat, supplemented with a protein mixture (not fermented) were formulated to contain recommended levels of nutrients. Eight pigs from two litters were surgically fitted with a T-cannula anterior to the ileo......-cecal junction and fed one of the four experimental diets according to a repeated 4 × 4 Latin-square design. The fermentation process was followed by measuring the changes in the major nutrients, microbial composition and organic acid concentrations. Fermentation caused a reduced concentration of carbohydrates...

  18. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    left on the soil as mulch. Animal manure was applied as slurry to the cereal crops in the rotation in rates corresponding to 40% of the N demand of the cereal crops. Application of 50 kg NH4-N ha-' in manure increased average wheatgrain yield by 0.4-0.9 Mg DM ha-1, whereas the use of catch crops did...... not significantly affect yield. The use of catch crops interacts with other management factors, including row spacing and weed control, and this may have contributed to the negligible effects of catch crops. There was considerable variation in the amount of N (100-600 kg N ha-1 year-1) accumulated in the mulched...

  19. La dieta cereal prehistórica y su supervivencia en el área mediterránea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Nuñez, Diego

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Mediterranean recipes for cooking and consuming cereal grains are examined with a view to developing models for better interpreting the vegetal remains from archaeological sites so as to reconstruct ancient diets.

    Se estudian diversas formas de preparar tradicionalmente los granos de cereales en la Cuenca Mediterránea, que pueden servir como modelos etnográficos para interpretar algunos restos arqueológicos.

  20. Developments on the cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua (iburu)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Research and development on these indigenous African cereal grains, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. iburua Stapf), is experiencing renewed interest not just in Africa but the rest of the world. It is believed that acha and iburu may have nutraceutical properties, as it is used in some areas for managing diabetes. Value addition and exploitation of fonio (acha and iburu) in the development of health or speciality foods like acha-bread, biscuit, cookies, sour dough, traditional drin...

  1. Anomericity of T-2 Toxin-glucoside: Masked Mycotoxin in Cereal Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Susan P. McCormick; Kato, Takayuki; Maragos, Chris M.; Busman, Mark; Lattanzio, Veronica M. T.; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall-Asta, Chiara; Crich, David; Price, Neil P. J.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.

    2014-01-01

    T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when Fusarium fungi infect grains, especially oats and wheat. Ingestion of T-2 toxin contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal in livestock. Cereal crops infected with mycotoxin-producing fungi form toxin glycosides, sometimes called masked mycotoxins, which are a potential food safety concern because they are not detectable by standard approaches and may be converted back to the parent toxin during digestion or food ...

  2. Extruded Flaxseed Meal Enhances the Nutritional Quality of Cereal-based Products

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomino, S.; Peñas, Elena; Ferreyra, V.; Pellegrino, N.; Fournier, M.; Apro, Nicolás; Olivera Carrión, Margarita; Frías, Juana

    2013-01-01

    Human consumption of flaxseed is increasing due to its health benefit properties and extrusion processes can enhance its nutritional quality. Extruded flaxseed meal (EFM) obtained in a pilot plant was characterized and incorporated in flour mixes and cereal-based bars to demonstrate its nutritious usefulness. Amino acid content was not affected by extrusion and, despite lysine was the limitating amino acid, the chemical score (CS) was 83 %. Thiamin and riboflavin decreased slightly as consequ...

  3. Source profiles of particulate organic matters emitted from cereal straw burnings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan-xun; SHAO Min; ZHANG Yuan-hang; ZENG Li-min; HE Ling-yan; ZHU Bin; WEI Yong-jie; ZHU Xian-lei

    2007-01-01

    Cereal straw is one of the most abundant biomass burned in China but its contribution to fine particulates is not adequately understood.In this study, three main kinds of cereal straws were collected from five grain producing areas in China. Fine particulate matters (PM2.5) from the cereal straws subjected to control burnings, both under smoldering and flaming status, were sampled by using a custom made dilution chamber and sampling system in the laboratory. Element carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) was analyzed.141 compounds of organic matters were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Source profiles of particulate organic matters emitted from cereal straw burnings were obtained. The results indicated that organic matters contribute a large fraction in fine particulate matters. Levoglucosan had the highest contributions with averagely 4.5% in mass of fine particulates and can be considered as the tracer of biomass burnings. Methyloxylated phenols from lignin degradation also had high concentrations in PM2.5,and contained approximately equal amounts of guaiacyl and syringyl compounds. β-Sitostrol also made up relatively a large fraction of PM2.5 compared with the other sterols (0.18%-0.63% of the total fine particle mass). Normal aikanes, PAHs, fatty acids, as well as normal alkanols had relatively lower concentrations compared with the compounds mentioned above. Carbon preference index (CPI) of normal alkanes and alkanoic acids showed characteristics of biogenic fuel burnings. Burning status significantly influenced the formations of EC and PAHs. The differences between the emission profiles of straw and wood combustions were displayed by the fingerprint compounds, which may be used to identify the contributions between wood and straw burnings in source apportionment researches.

  4. Raw Material Influence on the Formation of Light Induced Off-Flavors in Cereal Based Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Insa, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Flavor stability has always been of particular interest in the brewing industry. Sunstruck flavor may occur if beer is exposed to light without protection. This work evaluates the potential of different raw materials, malting and brewing process on modifying the content of sunstruck flavor initiators and inhibitors. Furthermore, the results achieved by this work provide a valuable basis for the design of light stable cereal-based beverages. Die Aromastabilität des Bieres ist von jeher von ...

  5. Reconsidering domestication of legumes versus cereals in the ancient near east.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua; Peleg, Zvi; Kerem, Zohar; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gopher, Avi

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss, from both biological and cultural perspectives, the ancient human-plant liaison that gave rise to Near Eastern agriculture. We explain the biological aspects of Near Eastern plant domestication by a comparative analysis of legume vs. cereal crop evolution. This comparison is illustrated by the natural distribution, ecological affinity, physiology, population structure, floral biology, growth habit, plant stature, seed dispersal mode, and seed dormancy of both wild and domesticated plants of these crop groups. We discuss the differences between Near Eastern legumes and cereals with regard to each of the above aspects, and we highlight the relevance of these differences with regard to Neolithic decision-making, adoption for farming, and subsequent evolution under domestication. We reached the following conclusions: (1) Near Eastern legumes underwent different evolutionary trajectories under domestication as compared with their companion cereals, despite apparent similarities between selection under domestication of both crop groups. (2) Careful comparison of pea, lentil, and chickpea shows that each of the Near Eastern legume crops has a unique evolutionary history in its own right, and this also holds true for the cereal crops. (3) The evolutionary history of each of the Near Eastern crops, prior to as well as after domestication, is well-reflected in its adaptation profile in present-day cropping systems, which determines each crop's relative economic importance in different world regions (e.g., chickpea is a major pulse in the Indian subcontinent, and pea is a more important crop in temperate regions, while barley has the widest adaptation, extending from high-latitude temperate regions to semi-arid Mediterranean systems). (4) Ancient choice-making as reflected in the founder crops repertoire, involved nutritional considerations that may have outweighed grain yield per area and/or time unit criteria.

  6. The Value to Consumers of Health Labeling Statements on Breakfast Foods and Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Muth, Mary K.; Zhen, Chen; Taylor, Justin; Cates, Sheryl; Kosa, Katherine M.; Zorn, David; Choiniere, Conrad J.

    2009-01-01

    Food manufacturers have an incentive to include nutrient content claims, health claims, or other types of labeling statements on foods if they believe that consumers will be willing to pay more for products with specific attributes. We estimated semi-log hedonic price regressions for five breakfast bar and cereal product categories using Nielsen ScanTrack scanner data for 2004 and found that labeling statements for these foods are often associated with substantial increases in consumer willin...

  7. Optimization of levels of seaweed japonica saccharine and chenopodium quinoa wild in developing cereal bar

    OpenAIRE

    Ana LÃvia Brasil Silva

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed japonica saccharine, popularly known as "Kombu" is a food rich in protein, fiber and micronutrients. This algae has antioxidant properties, anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is considered a pseudocereal whose main characteristic is the quality of its protein and is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an ideal food for its nutritional composition is higher than most cereals. The addition of these two ingredien...

  8. Consumption of Whole Grains, Refined Cereals, and Legumes and Its Association With Colorectal Cancer Among Jordanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; Al-Awwad, Narmeen J; Heath, Dennis D; Bani-Hani, Kamal E

    2016-09-01

    Background The role of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes in preventing or initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) is still uncertain. The aim of this study is to examine the possible association between the consumption of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes and the risk of developing CRC among Jordanian population. Methods A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data with regard to intake of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes. A total of 220 diagnosed CRC participants and 281 CRC-free control participants matched by age, gender, occupation, and marital status were recruited. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of developing CRC in relation to the consumption of different types of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes. Results The odds ratio (OR) for developing CRC among cases consumed refined wheat bread at all meals was 3.1 compared with controls (95% CI: 1.2-7.9, P-Trend = 0.001); whereas the OR associated with whole wheat bread was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.22-0.92, P-Trend = 0.001). The statistical evaluation for daily consumption of rice suggested a direct association with the risk of developing CRC, OR = 3.0 (95% CI: 0.27-33.4, P-Trend = 0.020). Weekly consumption of macaroni was associated with CRC with OR of 2.4 (95% CI: 1.1-5.3, P-Trend = 0.001). The consumption of corn, bulgur, lentils, and peas suggested a protective trend, although the trend was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study provides additional indicators of the protective role of whole grains and suggests a direct association between consumption of refined grains and higher possibility for developing CRC.

  9. Iron Bioavailability and Provitamin A from Sweet Potato- and Cereal-Based Complementary Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christides, Tatiana; Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Coad, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Iron and vitamin A deficiencies in childhood are public health problems in the developing world. Introduction of cereal-based complementary foods, that are often poor sources of both vitamin A and bioavailable iron, increases the risk of deficiency in young children. Alternative foods with higher levels of vitamin A and bioavailable iron could help alleviate these micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare iron bioavailability of β-carotene-rich sweet potato-based complementary foods (orange-flesh based sweet potato (OFSP) ComFa and cream-flesh sweet potato based (CFSP) ComFa with a household cereal-based complementary food (Weanimix) and a commercial cereal (Cerelac®), using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Iron bioavailability relative to total iron, concentrations of iron-uptake inhibitors (fibre, phytates, and polyphenols), and enhancers (ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and fructose) was also evaluated. All foods contained similar amounts of iron, but bioavailability varied: Cerelac® had the highest, followed by OFSP ComFa and Weanimix, which had equivalent bioavailable iron; CFSP ComFa had the lowest bioavailability. The high iron bioavailability from Cerelac® was associated with the highest levels of ascorbic acid, and the lowest levels of inhibitors; polyphenols appeared to limit sweet potato-based food iron bioavailability. Taken together, the results do not support that CFSP- and OFSP ComFa are better sources of bioavailable iron compared with non-commercial/household cereal-based weaning foods; however, they may be a good source of provitamin A in the form of β-carotene.

  10. Iron Bioavailability and Provitamin A from Sweet Potato- and Cereal-Based Complementary Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Christides

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and vitamin A deficiencies in childhood are public health problems in the developing world. Introduction of cereal-based complementary foods, that are often poor sources of both vitamin A and bioavailable iron, increases the risk of deficiency in young children. Alternative foods with higher levels of vitamin A and bioavailable iron could help alleviate these micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare iron bioavailability of β-carotene-rich sweet potato-based complementary foods (orange-flesh based sweet potato (OFSP ComFa and cream-flesh sweet potato based (CFSP ComFa with a household cereal-based complementary food (Weanimix and a commercial cereal (Cerelac®, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Iron bioavailability relative to total iron, concentrations of iron-uptake inhibitors (fibre, phytates, and polyphenols, and enhancers (ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and fructose was also evaluated. All foods contained similar amounts of iron, but bioavailability varied: Cerelac® had the highest, followed by OFSP ComFa and Weanimix, which had equivalent bioavailable iron; CFSP ComFa had the lowest bioavailability. The high iron bioavailability from Cerelac® was associated with the highest levels of ascorbic acid, and the lowest levels of inhibitors; polyphenols appeared to limit sweet potato-based food iron bioavailability. Taken together, the results do not support that CFSP- and OFSP ComFa are better sources of bioavailable iron compared with non-commercial/household cereal-based weaning foods; however, they may be a good source of provitamin A in the form of β-carotene.

  11. Iron Bioavailability and Provitamin A from Sweet Potato- and Cereal-Based Complementary Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Christides; Francis Kweku Amagloh; Jane Coad

    2015-01-01

    Iron and vitamin A deficiencies in childhood are public health problems in the developing world. Introduction of cereal-based complementary foods, that are often poor sources of both vitamin A and bioavailable iron, increases the risk of deficiency in young children. Alternative foods with higher levels of vitamin A and bioavailable iron could help alleviate these micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare iron bioavailability of β-carotene-rich sweet potato-based ...

  12. Finite element simulation of the compression behaviour of airy breakfast cereals

    KAUST Repository

    Mamlouk, Hedi

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we are concerned by the fragmentation study of five breakfast cereals from the market exhibiting differences in shape, formulation and texture. The experimental part of the study encompasses compression testing and fragment size evaluation using 2D image analysis. Structural information about the airy structure is then determined using X-ray tomography and related 3D image analysis. The numerical part has the ambition of assessing the fragmentation process using a damage-based mechanical model that simulates solid material rupture events as onset and growth of damage up to brittle failure. The model is based on a finite element scheme in which direct information of the 3D airy structure is encoded in the solid meshing. The force-displacement signature well shows competition between bending and compression driven failure depending on cereal shape. Our results show also large dispersion in the porous structure that affects significantly the result of the fragmentation. The numerical model is able to simulate the result of fragmentation at the cost of identifying two mechanical parameters, namely Young\\'s modulus and critical stress. These two quantities are proved to be product dependent and display a large range of variation. Industrial relevance The design of new food product becomes more and more based on functionality criteria. In a typical chewing process the need to understand the deformation mechanisms leading to fragmentation helps in understanding the role of the structure and, in turn, the processing conditions for building new transformed products. There is an increasing industrial demand in that sense especially knowing that some of the cereal products can be designed to meet these criteria for specific populations (old people with dental problems, infant feeding). Our work is, within this context, an attempt to set a numerical and experimental framework for studying the fragmentation of five selected breakfast cereals from the market.

  13. EFFECT OF MULTICOMPONENT CEREAL MIXTURES ON GLUCOSE LEVEL IN BLOOD OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Vloshchinskiy, Pavel; Berezovikova, Irina; Kolpakov, Arkadiy; Klebleeva, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    Recipes of multicomponent mixtures of cereals with proteins of high biological value were developed. In experiments, 35 adult male Wistar rats were used. Prior to the experiment, all animals were fed with powdered milk, grain or grain waste, germinated oats, and comprehensive multivitamin preparations, in addition to the standard balanced diet. Against this background, blood was collected from the animals for biochemical studies (control group, n = 20). Blood collection from tail vein was per...

  14. Long-term soil organic carbon changes in cereal and ley rotations: model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynding Borgen, Signe; Dörsch, Peter; Krogstad, Tore; Azzaroli Bleken, Marina

    2015-04-01

    Reliable modeling of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in agroecosystems is crucial to define mitigation strategies related to crop management on the farm scale as well as the regional scale. International climate agreements and national political decisions rely to a large extent on the National Greenhouse gas Inventory Reports that are submitted annually to the UNFCCC. However, lower tier methods are used to estimate SOC changes on cropland in most country reports. The application of mechanistic models in national greenhouse gas inventory estimation requires proper model testing against measurements in order to verify the estimated emissions. Few long-term field experiments measuring SOC stock changes have been conducted in Norway. We evaluate the performance of the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (ICBM) in simulating SOC changes over 60 years in a field experiment conducted in Ås from 1953-2013. The site is located in south-eastern Norway, on the boarder of the boreal and temperate climate zone, where the majority of the country's grain production occurs. The field trial consisted of four rotations: I) continuous cereal, II) cereal + row crops, III) 2 years of ley + 4 years of cereal, IV) 4 years of ley + 2 years of cereal, and four treatments per rotation: a) low NPK, b) high NPK, c) low NPK + FYM, and d) straw (on rotations I and II) or high NPK + FYM (on rotations III and IV). The annual external modifying factor of the decomposition rate was calculated based on daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed, and net radiation, and adjusted for soil type and crop management according to default ICBM calibration. We present results of simulated C changes for the long term plots and explore options to improve parameter calibration. Finally, we provide suggestions for how problems regarding model verification can be handled with when applying the model on a national scale for inventory reporting.

  15. Drought risk management for increased cereal production in Asian Least Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Rezaul Karim; Mohammed Ataur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress is a serious abiotic factor inhibiting nutrient acquisition by roots and limiting cereal crop production in Asian Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Many studies revealed that balanced fertilization can improve photosynthetic activity by stabilizing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, improve proline, abscisic acid (ABA) and make the crop drought tolerant with efficient root system and finally improve crop yield. To mitigate drought stress, along with the usage of resistant and...

  16. [Use of mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Shuntz) in the manufacturing of cereal bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Ugarte, V

    2000-06-01

    Cereal bars with peanut and walnut has shown to be snack foods of good organoleptic characteristics and high caloric value, due to their content of protein, lipids and carbohydrates. Cotyledons of mezquite seeds have a high protein content which biological quality improves with thermal processing like toasting, microwave or moist heat under pressure. The purposes of this research were to study the use of mezquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) in cereal bars with two different levels of peanut or walnut; and to determine the effect of two thermal treatment applied on the cotyledon upon the bar characteristics. Twelve different kind of bars were developed through the combination of two levels of peanut or walnut (15% and 18%); the use of mezquite cotyledon (0% and 6%); and the application of two thermal processing to the cotyledon (microwave and toasting). Cereal bars were analysed for chemical, physical and sensory characteristics: moisture, water activity, proximate chemical composition, sensory quality and acceptability. Moisture content of bars with peanut ranged between 10.4% and 10.9%; and for those with walnut, between 10.5% and 12.3%. Protein content was higher in the bars with mezquite cotiledon, being higher those with peanut. Thermal processing did not have any effect on the chemical composition. Bars with mezquite cotyledon treated by microwave showed a higher acceptability.

  17. Nitrogen-Use Efficiency, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, and Cereal Production in Brazil: Current Trends and Forecasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Viana Pires

    Full Text Available The agriculture sector has historically been a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions into the atmosphere. Although the use of synthetic fertilizers is one of the most common widespread agricultural practices, over-fertilization can lead to negative economic and environmental consequences, such as high production costs, depletion of energy resources, and increased GHG emissions. Here, we provide an analysis to understand the evolution of cereal production and consumption of nitrogen (N fertilizers in Brazil and to correlate N use efficiency (NUE with economic and environmental losses as N2O emissions. Our results show that the increased consumption of N fertilizers is associated with a large decrease in NUE in recent years. The CO2 eq. of N2O emissions originating from N fertilization for cereal production were approximately 12 times higher in 2011 than in 1970, indicating that the inefficient use of N fertilizers is directly related to environmental losses. The projected N fertilizer forecasts are 2.09 and 2.37 million ton for 2015 and 2023, respectively. An increase of 0.02% per year in the projected NUE was predicted for the same time period. However, decreases in the projected CO2 eq. emissions for future years were not predicted. In a hypothetical scenario, a 2.39% increase in cereal NUE would lead to $ 21 million savings in N fertilizer costs. Thus, increases in NUE rates would lead not only to agronomic and environmental benefits but also to economic improvement.

  18. Extruded flaxseed meal enhances the nutritional quality of cereal-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, S; Peñas, E; Ferreyra, V; Pellegrino, N; Fournier, M; Apro, N; Carrión, M Olivera; Frias, J

    2013-06-01

    Human consumption of flaxseed is increasing due to its health benefit properties and extrusion processes can enhance its nutritional quality. Extruded flaxseed meal (EFM) obtained in a pilot plant was characterized and incorporated in flour mixes and cereal-based bars to demonstrate its nutritious usefulness. Amino acid content was not affected by extrusion and, despite lysine was the limitating amino acid, the chemical score (CS) was 83 %. Thiamin and riboflavin decreased slightly as consequence of extrusion, phytic acid did not change and trypsin inhibitor activity was undetectable. Proximate composition and nutritional quality determined by biological and chemical indexes were compared among EFM, flour mixes (FM) and cereal bars (CB). They presented high protein levels (26, 20 and 17 %, respectively), good biological value (BV) (80, 79 and 65, respectively), acceptable true protein digestibility (TD) (73, 79 and 78, respectively), and high dietary fiber (33, 20.5 and 18 %, respectively). The ratio of ω6:ω3 for CB was within the WHO/FAO recommendations. These results open a new venue for the usefulsess of nutritious/healthy extruded flaxseed flours into ready-to-eat cereal-based products with improved nutritional quality.

  19. Occurrence of Toxigenic Fusarium vorosii among Small Grain Cereals in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Theresa; Paek, Ji-Seon; Lee, Kyung Ah; Lee, Soohyung; Choi, Jung-Hye; Ham, Hyeonheui; Hong, Sung Kee; Ryu, Jae-Gee

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) causes Fusarium head blight in small grain cereals. To date, four species (F. graminearum, F. asiaticum, F. boothii, and F. meridionale ) belonging to FGSC frequently occur in Korean cereals. In addition, we first reported the occurrence of additional species (F. vorosii ) within FGSC, which was isolated from barley, corn, and rice in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of the Fusarium isolates of this group using combined multi-gene sequences confirmed species identification. Moreover, the macroconidia produced by these isolates were morphologically similar to those of the F. vorosii holotype. Chemical analysis indicated that the F. vorosii isolates produced various trichothecenes such as nivalenol and deoxynivalenol with their acetyl derivatives along with zearalenone. Pathogenicity tests demonstrated that all of the F. vorosii isolates examined were pathogenic on barley, corn, and rice with variation in aggressiveness. This study is the first report of F. vorosii in Korean cereals, their pathogenicity towards barley and corn, and their ability to produce trichothecenes and zearalenone. PMID:27721690

  20. [Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in cereals and legumes cultivated in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Ayala, C; Vera, G; Pennacchiotti, I; Araya, H

    1990-03-01

    Insoluble, soluble and total dietary fiber (DF) were determined in 35 varieties of certified whole seeds (without processing) of cereals (rice, oat, rye, and wheat) and legumes (pea, cowpea, beans, chikpea, lentil and lupine). The enzymatic method of Asp, Johansson and Siljestrom was used, with modifications in relation to time of incubation with alpha amylase, filtration system and volumes of the filtrates. Results were expressed as g/100 g dry weight. Total DF for cereals showed a range from 10.1 (wheat var. Chasqui) to 22.2 (rice var Quella). Rye, var. Tetra Baer and oats var. Pony Baer presented the highest soluble fiber content (3.3 and 3.9, respectively). In legumes, total DF fluctuated between 12.7 (pea, var. yellow) and 36.6 (lupine, var. Multolupa). Bean, var. Pinto INIA and lupine var. Multolupa presented the highest soluble fiber values (5.8 for both). Based on the results of this research work, it might be concluded that great variation exists in regard to the amount of total soluble and insoluble DF in cereals and legumes, a fact which impedes generalization as to its content in each food item.

  1. Benzoxazinoids: Cereal phytochemicals with putative therapeutic and health-protecting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Khem B; Tanwir, Fariha; Gregersen, Per L; Steffensen, Stine K; Jensen, Bettina M; Poulsen, Lars K; Nielsen, Claus H; Høyer, Søren; Borre, Michael; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2015-07-01

    Benzoxazinoids (BXs) are a group of natural chemical compounds with putative pharmacological and health-protecting properties. BXs were formerly identified in and isolated from selected dicot medicinal plants and young cereal plants. Recently, BXs were found to be present in mature cereal grains and bakery products, such that knowledge about the pharmacological properties of BXs, which until now have unknowingly been consumed through the daily bread and breakfast cereals, has come into new focus. This review discusses published results from in vitro studies and a few human and animal model studies on the health effects and pharmacological responses of various BX compounds. Many of these studies have reported antimicrobial, anticancer, reproductive system stimulatory, central nervous system stimulatory, immunoregulatory, and appetite- and weight-reducing effects of BXs and/or BX derivatives. The health benefits of wholegrain intake may be associated with the solitary and/or overlapping biological effects of fibers, lignans, phenolic acids, alkylresorcinols, BXs, and other bioactive compounds. In the context of BXs as dietary ingredients, further comprehensive investigations are required to understand their biological functions, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, to explore their potential contribution on the health effects associated with wholegrain consumption, and to examine their potential as functional food ingredients.

  2. [Storage of cereal bars with mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Guiñez, M A

    2000-06-01

    The use of walnut or peanut in the elaboration of cereal bars represents a possible risk of undesirable changes during their storage due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil; oxidizing of the fatty acids is one of the main causes of deterioration. Development of new snack products implies the use of packages that should protect the food against the damage caused by light and reduce the oxygen concentration of in their interior. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory changes in the storage of cereal bars with peanut or walnut and mezquite cotyledon subjected to two thermal treatments, packed in cellophane or milky polypropilene. Four types of bars were elaborated with 6% of mezquite cotyledon, treated by microwaves or toasted, and with 18% of peanut or walnut. The bars were stored for 90 days at room temperature; and each 30 days it was measured moisture content, peroxides index, water activity, sensory quality and acceptability. The peroxides values (4.9-13.8 meq/kg of oil) indicates that the shelf life of the bars in all the studied treatments was 90 days. The packaging materials used allows to maintain in good conditions, for 3 months, the cereals bars of moisture (7.4-11.2%), water activity (0.50-0.65) and sensory acceptability.

  3. Challenges to develop nitrogen-fixing cereals by direct nif-gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatti, Leonardo; Rubio, Luis M

    2014-08-01

    Some regions of the developing world suffer low cereal production yields due to low fertilizer inputs, among other factors. Biological N2 fixation, catalyzed by the prokaryotic enzyme nitrogenase, is an alternative to the use of synthetic N fertilizers. The molybdenum nitrogenase is an O2-labile metalloenzyme composed of the NifDK and NifH proteins, which biosyntheses require a number of nif gene products. A challenging strategy to increase cereal crop productivity in a scenario of low N fertilization is the direct transfer of nif genes into cereals. The sensitivity of nitrogenase to O2 and the apparent complexity of nitrogenase biosynthesis are the main barriers identified so far. Expression of active NifH requires the products of nifM, nifH, and possibly nifU and nifS, whereas active NifDK requires the products of nifH, nifD, nifK, nifB, nifE, nifN, and possibly nifU, nifS, nifQ, nifV, nafY, nifW and nifZ. Plastids and mitochondria are potential subcellular locations for nitrogenase. Both could provide the ATP and electrons required for nitrogenase to function but they differ in their internal O2 levels and their ability to incorporate ammonium into amino acids.

  4. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2015-03-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counterpart. A sharp increase in moisture content was observed in the bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, above aw 0.6, whereas a gradual increase in aw was observed in the case of bar prepared with sugar. The ERH (Equilibrium relative humidity) value for bar with sugar was 50 %, and for bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, it was about 60 %. Low sugar cereal bar prepared with sorbitol + maltitol (SM) syrup scored higher sensory quality compared to other product prepared with sorbitol + nutriose (SN) as the former retained softness and chewiness on storage. Thus, it was observed that bars with alternative sweeteners will be more stable as their ERH is closer to normal ambient conditions compared to that prepared with sugar.

  5. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinborn, Valerie; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Arredondo, Miguel; Flores, Sebastián; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2015-10-30

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe) absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study). Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin) and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil) on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control), study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05). In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption.

  6. Haemoglobin-fortified cereal: an alternative weaning food with high iron bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, E; Hertrampf, E; de Pablo, S; Amar, M; Stekel, A

    1989-04-01

    Extruded rice flour was fortified with 5 per cent bovine haemoglobin concentrate (BHC). The amino acid score of the product was 59 per cent. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) for the fortified cereal alone was 1.4; however, when given as a mixed diet of cereal and humanized milk (providing 41 and 59 per cent of the protein, respectively) PER was 2.6 (casein standard = 2.5). Iron absorption studies were performed with a double isotope technique, on 10 infants 8-10 months of age. Geometric mean absorption of the rice-BHC iron was 14.2 per cent, as measured with a tag of 55Fe-haemoglobin. The 59Fe-ferrous ascorbate reference dose had a mean absorption of 38.5 per cent. The use of a haem-iron fortified cereal as a weaning food seems feasible and advantageous, supplying an appropriate amount of absorbed iron, an adequate energy density, and a protein which could complement milk protein.

  7. Nitrogen-Use Efficiency, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, and Cereal Production in Brazil: Current Trends and Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Marcel Viana; da Cunha, Dênis Antônio; de Matos Carlos, Sabrina; Costa, Marcos Heil

    2015-01-01

    The agriculture sector has historically been a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere. Although the use of synthetic fertilizers is one of the most common widespread agricultural practices, over-fertilization can lead to negative economic and environmental consequences, such as high production costs, depletion of energy resources, and increased GHG emissions. Here, we provide an analysis to understand the evolution of cereal production and consumption of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in Brazil and to correlate N use efficiency (NUE) with economic and environmental losses as N2O emissions. Our results show that the increased consumption of N fertilizers is associated with a large decrease in NUE in recent years. The CO2 eq. of N2O emissions originating from N fertilization for cereal production were approximately 12 times higher in 2011 than in 1970, indicating that the inefficient use of N fertilizers is directly related to environmental losses. The projected N fertilizer forecasts are 2.09 and 2.37 million ton for 2015 and 2023, respectively. An increase of 0.02% per year in the projected NUE was predicted for the same time period. However, decreases in the projected CO2 eq. emissions for future years were not predicted. In a hypothetical scenario, a 2.39% increase in cereal NUE would lead to $ 21 million savings in N fertilizer costs. Thus, increases in NUE rates would lead not only to agronomic and environmental benefits but also to economic improvement. PMID:26252377

  8. Ancient hypogeous manufactures: the cereal pits in San Giovanni in Marignano (Rimini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia De Nicolò

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the analysis of the hypogeous pits for the conservation of cereals in the historical center of San Giovanni in Marignano (Rimini. This small town in the low Valle del Conca (Conca Valley, on the border between Marche and Romagna, 3 km away from the sea, has a high concentration of underground silos protected by a fortified enclosure, this was known already in the late Middle Ages. Those silos were used to store the cereal products of a very productive territory, it is a sort of “wheat bank”, a huge container for cereals that was the reason why the castle in modern times was called: “The barn of the Malatesta family” (noble family. Some research was carried out in archives and according to notarial sources of the XIV-XVI centuries, and it was confirmed by other information from ancient city statutes and printed texts (XV-XIX centuries concerning the problems on the conservation of wheat and on the making of underground silos. That research provided interesting information on the making, the placing and the capacity of these pits, furthermore recently a diagnostic exploration was executed in the underground of San Giovanni in Marignano, analyzing high-frequency electromagnetic waves penetrating into the ground (Ground Penetrating Radar, such exploration located and detected precisely the pits.

  9. Development and characterization of cereal bars made with flour of jabuticaba peel and okara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Appelt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cereal bars are foods that stand out for practicality in consumption and nutritional quality and new formulations have been developed and introduced to the market by large corporations. In the present work, flours obtained from jabuticaba peel and okara were employed as ingredients in the development of three cereal bars formulations. The products obtained were characterized for physico-chemical parameters, microbiological quality and sensory acceptance. The bars showed high protein content (8.9 to 9.2 g 100-1 g and fiber (7.25 to 9.05 g 100-1 g, microbiological parameters according to Brazilian legislation and high sensory acceptance. The average scores assigned by the judges in acceptance testing by hedonic scale were higher than 7 in all attributes (color, taste, texture, flavor and overall impression. The obtained results showed that cereal bar production can be a viable alternative for the technological use of jabuticaba peel and okara. The use of these ingredients can contribute to obtaining products with high nutritional quality and to the valuation of biomasses that are often regarded as agro-industrial waste.

  10. Development and chemical and sensory characterization of pumpkin seed flour-based cereal bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovane Santana Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, popularly known as squash, is a widely grown vegetable in Brazil. In this study, pumpkin seed flours (PSF with different granulometries were used: PSF 1 (medium granulometry and PSF 2 (coarse granulometry in the preparation of cereal bars (CB with different combinations with brown oats. Five formulations were prepared: CB-1 (control - 25% brown oats and 0% PSF; CB-2 (12.5% PSF 1 and 12.5% brown oats; CB-3 (25% PSF 1 and 0% brown oats; CB-4 (12.5% PSF 2 and 12.5% brown oats; and CB-5 (25% PSF 2 and 0% brown oats. The acceptance test results were analyzed in a conventional preference mapping which indicated that the bars CB-2 and CB-5 received mostly the maximum hedonistic score. With the objective of developing a cereal bar replacing oats with PSF, the bars CB-2 and CB-5 were compared to the conventional bar CB-1. The cereal bars CB-2 and CB-5 showed an increase in crude protein (87.5% and 62.5% and in dietary fiber (77% and 44%, respectively. These results allowed the classification of CB-2 and CB-5 as fiber sources; they can, therefore, be classified as light products according to the Brazilian legislation.

  11. Biology and management of economically important lepidopteran cereal stem borers in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfir, Rami; Overholt, W A; Khan, Z R; Polaszek, A

    2002-01-01

    Cereals (maize, sorghum, millet, rice) are extremely important crops grown in Africa for human consumption. Of the various insect pests attacking cereal crops in Africa, lepidopteran stem borers are by far the most injurious. All 21 economically important stem borers of cultivated grasses in Africa are indigenous except Chilo partellus, which invaded the continent from India, and C. sacchariphagus, which has recently been found in sugarcane in Mozambique. C. partellus is competitively displacing indigenous stem borers in East and southern Africa. A parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes, was introduced from Pakistan for biological control of C. partellus and caused a 32-55% decrease in stem borer densities. This article is an attempt to summarize the status of knowledge about economically important cereal stem borers in Africa with emphasis on their distribution, pest status and yield losses, diapause, natural enemies, cultural control, host plant resistance, and biological control. Special attention is given to Busseola fusca and C. partellus, the most important pests of maize and grain sorghum.

  12. Potential of Phytase-Mediated Iron Release from Cereal-Based Foods: A Quantitative View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne S. Meyer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate. Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via enzyme-catalysed dephosphorylation of phytate, indicating the potential of this strategy for preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia. Despite the immense promise of this strategy and the prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide, the number of human studies elucidating the significance of phytase-mediated improvements in iron absorption and ultimately in iron status in particularly vulnerable groups is still low. A more detailed understanding of (1 the uptake mechanism for iron released from partially dephosphorylated phytate chelates, (2 the affinity of microbially derived phytases towards insoluble iron phytate complexes, and (3 the extent of phytate dephosphorylation required for iron release from inositol phosphates is warranted. Phytase-mediated iron release can improve iron absorption from plant foods. There is a need for development of innovative strategies to obtain better effects.

  13. Protein accumulation in aleurone cells, sub-aleurone cells and the center starch endosperm of cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yankun; Wang, Zhong

    2014-10-01

    There are mainly three endosperm storage tissues in the cereal endosperm: aleurone cells, sub-aleurone cells and the center starch endosperm. The protein accumulation is very different in the three endosperm storage tissues. The aleurone cells accumulate protein in aleurone granules. The sub-aleurone cells and the center starch endosperm accumulate protein in endoplasmic reticulum-derived protein bodies and vacuolar protein bodies. Proteins are deposited in different patterns within different endosperm storage tissues probably because of the special storage properties of these tissues. There are several special genes and other molecular factors to mediate the protein accumulation in these tissues. Different proteins have distinct functions in the protein body formation and the protein interactions determine protein body assembly. There are both cooperation and competition relationships between protein, starch and lipid in the cereal endosperm. This paper reviews the latest investigations on protein accumulation in aleurone cells, sub-aleurone cells and the center starch endosperm. Useful information will be supplied for future investigations on the cereal endosperm development.

  14. Gibberellins and flowering of grasses and cereals: prizing open the lid of the "florigen" black box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rod W; Evans, Lloyd T

    2003-01-01

    Comprehensive studies in grasses show that gibberellins (GAs) play a role as a florigen. For Lolium temulentum, which flowers in response to a single long day (LD), GAs are a transmitted signal, their content increasing in the leaf early in the LD and then, hours later, at the shoot apex. There is a continuous trail of evidence of hormonal action of these GAs for L. temulentum and support for a similar role in the flowering of other LD-responsive temperate grasses and cereals. A characteristic of the initial flowering responses of grasses and cereals is their limited stem elongation. Interestingly, it is GAs with low effectiveness for stem elongation, GA5 and GA6, that reach the shoot apex and, structurally, are probably not degraded by 2-oxidase enzymes. By contrast, GA1 and GA4 cause stem elongation, may be inactive for floral evocation, and do not reach the vegetative shoot apex apparently because of susceptibility to degradation. However, GA4 can be florally active if protected against 2-oxidases either structurally or by using a 2-oxidase inhibitor. Later in inflorescence development, GA1 and GA4 can be detected at the shoot apex and are florally active if applied. The 2-oxidase restricting accessibility to the apex has probably declined at this time so there is a second florigenic, LD-regulated GA action. A growing body of molecular evidence supporting these actions of GA may provide a future basis for manipulating flowering of grasses and cereals.

  15. Marketing sugary cereals to children in the digital age: a content analysis of 17 child-targeted websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew D; Dorfman, Lori; Bukofzer, Eliana; Harris, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has warned of the harm of food marketing to children from television to new media channels such as the Internet. The authors identified and analyzed the techniques used to engage children on websites from cereal companies--the third largest food marketer to children. The authors found that top breakfast cereal manufacturers maintain child-oriented websites, using strategies unique to the Internet to capture and maintain children's attention. These include branded engagement techniques such as advergames, videos, site registration, and viral marketing, including inviting friends to join the site. The authors found 3 progressive levels of telepresence on child-targeted cereal websites: sites with more than 1 engaging feature, multiple techniques present on individual pages, and the construction of a virtual world. Using Internet traffic data, the authors confirm that these techniques work: cereal marketers reach children online with lengthier and more sophisticated engagements than are possible with traditional, passive media such as television advertisements or product packaging. Despite the cereal manufacturer's self-regulatory pledge to improve their marketing to children, their marketing practices exploit children's susceptibility to advertising by almost exclusively promoting high-sugar cereals using deeply engaging techniques.

  16. Desenvolvimento e caracterização de cereal matinal extrudado de mandioca enriquecido com concentrado protéico de soro de leite Development and characterization of an extruded breakfast cereal from cassava enriched with milk whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Andrade Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e caracterizar um cereal matinal extrudado de mandioca enriquecido com concentrado protéico de soro de leite. O extrudado foi formulado adicionando-se 15% de concentrado protéico de soro de leite à farinha de mandioca. As matérias primas e o cereal matinal obtido foram analisados quanto às características físico-químicas. Para o cereal matinal desenvolvido, avaliaram-se também suas características microbiológicas e sensoriais. O extrudado estudado apresentou índice de expansão de 11,49 e densidade aparente de 0,21g.cm-3. Quanto à análise sensorial, o cereal matinal avaliado obteve notas médias de aceitação, para todos os atributos avaliados, situadas no intervalo de 7,63 a 8,05 que corresponde às categorias "gostei moderadamente" e "gostei muito". Para a intenção de compra, 91,70% dos provadores opinaram que certamente ou possivelmente comprariam o produto. O emprego de mandioca e concentrado protéico de soro de leite é uma alternativa para a elaboração de cereal matinal extrudado, obtendo-se um produto final com boas características sensoriais e nutricionais.The objective of this study was to develop and characterize an extruded cassava breakfast cereal enriched with milk whey protein concentrate. The extruded product was formulated by adding 15% of milk whey protein concentrate to cassava flour. The raw materials and the cassava flour breakfast cereal obtained were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics. The breakfast cereal was also evaluated for its microbiological and sensory characteristics. The extruded product presented an expansion index of 11.49 and apparent density of 0.21g.cm-3. With respect to the sensory analysis, the breakfast cereal obtained hedonic ratings in the range from 7.63 to 8.05 for all the attributes evaluated, corresponding to the categories "I liked moderately" and "I liked a lot". For purchase intention, 91.70% of the panelists said they

  17. Caterpillar cereal as a potential complementary feeding product for infants and young children: nutritional content and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauserman, Melissa; Lokangaka, Adrien; Kodondi, Kule-Koto; Gado, Justin; Viera, Anthony J; Bentley, Margaret E; Engmann, Cyril; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl

    2015-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is an important cause of growth stunting. To avoid micronutrient deficiency, the World Health Organization recommends complementary feeding with animal-source foods. However, animal-source foods are not readily available in many parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In such areas, caterpillars are a staple in adult diets and may be suitable for complementary feeding for infants and young children. We developed a cereal made from dried caterpillars and other locally available ingredients (ground corn, palm oil, sugar and salt), measured its macro- and micronutrient contents and evaluated for microbiologic contamination. Maternal and infant acceptability was evaluated among 20 mothers and their 8-10-month-old infants. Mothers were instructed in the preparation of the cereal and asked to evaluate the cereal in five domains using a Likert scale. Mothers fed their infants a 30-g portion daily for 1 week. Infant acceptability was based on cereal consumption and the occurrence of adverse events. The caterpillar cereal contained 132 kcal, 6.9-g protein, 3.8-mg iron and 3.8-mg zinc per 30 g and was free from microbiologic contamination. Mothers' median ratings for cereal characteristics were (5 = like very much): overall impression = 4, taste = 5, smell = 4, texture = 4, colour = 5, and consistency = 4. All infants consumed more than 75% of the daily portions, with five infants consuming 100%. No serious adverse events were reported. We conclude that a cereal made from locally available caterpillars has appropriate macro- and micronutrient contents for complementary feeding, and is acceptable to mothers and infants in the DRC.

  18. Effect of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholly, D M; Jørgensen, H; Sutton, A L; Richert, B T; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to study the impact of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the small intestine and total tract of growing pigs. Eight pigs (initial BW, 34.5 ± 0.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Pigs were cannulated and housed individually in metabolism pens during sample collection. The 4 cereal-based diets were nonfermented liquid barley (NFLB), nonfermented liquid wheat (NFLW), fermented liquid barley (FLB), and fermented liquid wheat (FLW). The fermented feeds were prepared by storing the dietary cereals (barley and wheat) and water [1:2.75 (wt/wt)] in a closed tank at 25 °C for 2 d, after which 50% of the volume was removed and replaced with an equal amount of fresh cereals and water after each afternoon meal. At the time of feeding (0730 and 1430 h), the remaining dietary ingredients were added. Water was added to the dry nonfermented feeds [1:1 (wt/wt)] immediately before feeding. The fermentation process reduced the amount of DM in both cereals (Pfermented cereals. There was an interaction of cereal and treatment for ileal flow of DM (P=0.014), OM (P=0.013), and protein (P=0.006), which were less in pigs fed the NFLB than the FLB diets, but unchanged in pigs fed the NFLW and FLW diets. Conversely, the ileal flow of protein was similar (P=0.605) in pigs fed the barley diets (average, 47.5 ± 1.7 g/kg of DMI) and increased with the FLW diet compared with the NFLW diet (43 vs. 35 g/kg of DMI, respectively). Ileal fat and CH(2)O digestibilities were 7.6 (P=0.002) and 8.9% (Pfermented than nonfermented diets (86.5 vs. 84.5%, respectively; PFermentation reduced (PFermentation had no effect (P=0.243) on the fecal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides in either of the cereals but their digestibility was 10.0% greater (Pfermentation of cereal before feeding altered the dietary composition and influenced flow and composition of polysaccharides

  19. Impact of selected antagonistic fungi on Fusarium species – toxigenic cereal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfina Popiel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium-ear blight is a destructive disease in various cereal-growing regions and leads to significant yield and quality losses for farmers and to contamination of cereal grains with mycotoxins, mainly deoxynivalenol and derivatives, zearalenone and moniliformin. Fusarium pathogens grow well and produce significant inoculum on crop resiudues. Reduction of mycotoxins production and pathogen sporulation may be influenced by saprophytic fungi, exhibiting antagonistic effect. Dual culture bioassays were used to examine the impact of 92 isolates (belonging to 29 fungal species against three toxigenic species, i.e. Fusarium avenaceum (Corda Saccardo, F. culmorum (W.G.Smith Saccardo and F. graminearum Schwabe. Both F.culmorum and F. graminearum isolates produce trichothecene mycotoxins and mycohormone zearalenone and are considered to be the most important cereal pathogens worldwide. Infection with those pathogens leads to accumulation of mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEA in grains. Fusarium avenaceum isolates are producers of moniliformin (MON and enniatins. Isolates of Trichoderma sp. were found to be the most effective ones to control the growth of examined Fusarium species. The response of Fusarium isolates to antagonistic activity of Trichoderma isolates varied and also the isolates of Trichoderma differed in their antagonistic activity against Fusarium isolates. The production of MON by two isolates of F. avenaceum in dual culture on rice was reduced by 95% to 100% by T. atroviride isolate AN 35. The same antagonist reduced the amount of moniliformin from 100 μg/g to 6.5 μg/g when inoculated to rice culture contaminated with MON, which suggests the possible decomposition of this mycotoxin.

  20. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future.

  1. Bioactive peptides in cereals and legumes: agronomical, biochemical and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguti, Marco; Dinelli, Giovanni; Leoncini, Emanuela; Bregola, Valeria; Bosi, Sara; Cicero, Arrigo F G; Hrelia, Silvana

    2014-11-14

    Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation). Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory) effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo.

  2. Brachypodium distachyon as a model system for studies of copper transport in cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-il eJung

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an essential micronutrient that performs a remarkable array of functions in plants including photosynthesis, cell wall remodeling, flowering, and seed set. Of the world's major cereal crops, wheat, barley, and oat are the most sensitive to Cu deficiency. Cu deficient soils include alkaline soils, which occupy approximately 30% of the world’s arable lands, and organic soils that occupy an estimated 19% of arable land in Europe. We used Brachypodium distachyon (brachypodium as a proxy for wheat and other grain cereals to initiate analyses of the molecular mechanisms underlying their increased susceptibility to Cu deficiency. In this report, we focus on members of the CTR/COPT family of Cu transporters because their homologs in A. thaliana are transcriptionally upregulated in Cu-limited conditions and are involved either in Cu uptake from soils into epidermal cells in the root, or long-distance transport and distribution of Cu in photosynthetic tissues. We found that of five COPT proteins in brachypodium, BdCOPT3 and BdCOPT4 localize to the plasma membrane and are transcriptionally upregulated in roots and leaves by Cu deficiency. We also found that BdCOPT3, BdCOPT4, and BdCOPT5 confer low affinity Cu transport, in contrast to their counterparts in A. thaliana that confer high affinity Cu transport. These data suggest that increased sensitivity to Cu deficiency in some grass species may arise from lower efficiency and, possibly, other properties of components of Cu uptake and tissue partitioning systems and reinforce the importance of using brachypodium as a model for the comprehensive analyses of Cu homeostasis in cereal crops.

  3. Improving starch yield in cereals by over-expression of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase: expectations and unanticipated outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Aytug; Okita, Thomas W

    2013-10-01

    Significant improvements in crop productivity are required to meet the nutritional requirements of a growing world population. This challenge is magnified by an increased demand for bioenergy as a means to mitigate carbon inputs into the environment. Starch is a major component of the harvestable organs of many crop plants, and various endeavors have been taken to improve the yields of starchy organs through the manipulation of starch synthesis. Substantial efforts have centered on the starch regulatory enzyme ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) due to its pivotal role in starch biosynthesis. These efforts include over-expression of this enzyme in cereal plants such as maize, rice and wheat as well as potato and cassava, as they supply the bulk of the staple food worldwide. In this perspective, we describe efforts to increase starch yields in cereal grains by first providing an introduction about the importance of source-sink relationship and the motives behind the efforts to alter starch biosynthesis and turnover in leaves. We then discuss the catalytic and regulatory properties of AGPase and the molecular approaches used to enhance starch synthesis by manipulation of this process during grain filling using seed-specific promoters. Several studies have demonstrated increases in starch content per seed using endosperm-specific promoters, but other studies have demonstrated an increase in seed number with only marginal impact on seed weight. Potential mechanisms that may be responsible for this paradoxical increase in seed number will also be discussed. Finally, we describe current efforts and future prospects to improve starch yield in cereals. These efforts include further enhancement of starch yield in rice by augmenting the process of ADPglucose transport into amyloplast as well as other enzymes involved in photoassimilate partitioning in seeds.

  4. Bioactive Peptides in Cereals and Legumes: Agronomical, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguti, Marco; Dinelli, Giovanni; Leoncini, Emanuela; Bregola, Valeria; Bosi, Sara; Cicero, Arrigo F. G.; Hrelia, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation). Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory) effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo. PMID:25405741

  5. Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Harris, Jennifer; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children.

  6. Bioactive Peptides in Cereals and Legumes: Agronomical, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Malaguti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation. Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo.

  7. Programmed cell death (PCD an essential process of cereal seed development and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eDomínguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of cereal seeds can be divided into two phases, development and germination, separated by a quiescent period. Seed development and germination require the growth and differentiation of new tissues, but also the ordered disappearance of cells, which takes place by a process of programmed cell death (PCD. For this reason, cereal seeds have become excellent model systems for the study of developmental PCD in plants. At early stages of seed development, maternal tissues such as the nucellus, the pericarp and the nucellar projections undergo a progressive degeneration by PCD, which allows the remobilization of their cellular contents for nourishing new filial tissues such as the embryo and the endosperm. At a later stage, during seed maturation, the endosperm undergoes PCD, but these cells remain intact in the mature grain and their contents will not be remobilized until germination. Thus, the only tissues that remain alive when seed development is completed are the embryo axis, the scutellum and the aleurone layer. In germinating seeds, both the scutellum and the aleurone layer play essential roles in producing the hydrolytic enzymes for the mobilization of the storage compounds of the starchy endosperm, which serve to support early seedling growth. Once this function is completed, scutellum and aleurone cells undergo PCD; their contents being used to support the growth of the germinated embryo. PCD occurs with tightly controlled spatial-temporal patterns allowing coordinated fluxes of nutrients between the different seed tissues. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the tissues undergoing PCD in developing and germinating cereal seeds, focussing on the biochemical features of the process. The effect of hormones and redox regulation on PCD control will be discussed.

  8. Narrowing the harvest: Increasing sickle investment and the rise of domesticated cereal agriculture in the Fertile Crescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Osamu; Lucas, Leilani; Silva, Fabio; Tanno, Ken-Ichi; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2016-08-01

    For the first time we integrate quantitative data on lithic sickles and archaeobotanical evidence for domestication and the evolution of plant economies from sites dated to the terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene (ca. 12000-5000 cal. BCE) from throughout the Fertile Crescent region of Southwest Asia. We find a strong correlation in some regions, throughout the Levant, for increasing investment in sickles that tracks the evidence for increasing reliance on cereal crops, while evidence for morphological domestication in wheats (Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) was delayed in comparison to sickle use. These data indicate that while the co-increase of sickle blades and cereal crops support the protracted development of agricultural practice, sickles did not drive the initial stages of the domestication process but rather were a cultural adaptation to increasing reliance on cereals that were still undergoing selection for morphological change. For other regions, such as the Eastern Fertile Crescent and Cyprus such correlations are weaker or non-existent suggesting diverse cultural trajectories to cereal domestication. We conclude that sickles were an exaptation transferred to cereal harvesting and important in signalling a new cultural identity of "farmers". Furthermore, the protracted process of technological and agricultural evolution calls into question hypotheses that the transition to agriculture was caused by any particular climatic event.

  9. Enzymatic method for determination of (1-->3)(1-->4)-beta-D-glucans in grains and cereals: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmunt, L C; Paisley, S D

    1993-01-01

    The McCleary enzymatic assay for mixed linkage (1-->3)(1-->4)-beta-D-glucans has been modified to apply to oat and barley fractions and ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals. The proposed method involves lower sample concentrations; stirring the samples; a longer, warmer lichenase digestion; and longer beta-glucosidase digestion. These changes result in higher recovery of beta-glucan. This modification expands on the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) Method 32-22 by the addition of a desugaring procedure, which is necessary for RTE cereals. Results from collaborative studies sponsored by AACC and AOAC demonstrate good precision for an enzymatic assay. The average relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR, a measure of interlaboratory variation) for 20 oat, barley, and cereal samples was 9.7%. The average RSD for repeatability (RSDr, intralaboratory variation) was 5.0%. The enzymatic method has been adopted first action by AOAC International for determination of beta-glucans in oat and barley fractions, and ready-to-eat cereals.

  10. Barley callus: a model system for bioengineering of starch in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Nielsen, Morten M

    2012-01-01

    . In this way starch is adapted to a variety of specific end-uses. Recombinant DNA technologies offers an alternative to starch industrial processing. The plant biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated to design starches with novel structure and improved technological properties. In the future this may reduce......Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties...

  11. Cossack Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cossack Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Cossack Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Cossack Star.

  12. Analysis of glyphosate residues in cereals using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Johannesen, S.; Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2003-01-01

    A fast and specific method for the determination of glyphosate in cereals is described. The method is based on extraction with water by ultrasonication. The samples are cleaned up and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a polystyrene-based reverse-phase column (clean......-up) in series with an ion chromatography column (separation) using NaHCO3 as eluent. A micro-membrane suppressor was inserted after the separator column to remove the Na + ions before detection by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the negative-ion mode. In MS/MS, mode the following transitions were...

  13. Harina de Marolo (fruto brasileño) como ingrediente saludable para formular barritas de cereales

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Actualmente la preservación de la biodiversidad en sistemas agrícolas es uno de los objetivos prioritarios de ERA (European Research Area), enfocada en la protección del medio-ambiente y en la sostenibilidad de Europa, además de en la bio-economía global. El objetivo de este proyecto de cooperación ha sido caracterizar un cultivo de frutos autóctono de Brasil, y explorar su posible utilización como ingrediente en barritas de cereales. El fruto en cuestión es el marolo, que se cultiva en el su...

  14. Calidad tecnológica de la harina de trigo obtenida a partir de cereales ozonizados

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Lobo Paes; Lêda Rita D'Antonino Faroni; Joseane Erbice dos Santos; Wilfredo Irrazabal Urruchi

    2010-01-01

    El cloro es uno de los principales agentes antimicrobianos utilizados en la industria molinera, pero debido a la formación de organoclorados tóxicos o incluso cancerígenos su uso no ha sido considerado seguro. El proceso de ozonización puede considerarse como uno de los más modernos y eficientes, tanto en la desinfección de insectos-plaga como en los microorganismos. Sin embargo, es necesario evaluar su efecto sobre la calidad de cereales y subproductos. Así, el objetivo de este trabajo fue e...

  15. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  16. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  17. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, M.E., E-mail: marney.isaac@utoronto.ca [CIRAD, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France); University of Toronto, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Canada M1C 1A4 (Canada); Hinsinger, P. [INRA, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France); Harmand, J.M. [CIRAD, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France)

    2012-09-15

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N{sub 2}-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N{sub 2}-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 15}N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems

  18. Cereal Processing Influences Postprandial Glucose Metabolism as Well as the GI Effect

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Technological processes may influence the release of glucose in starch. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic response and the kinetics of appearance of exogenous glucose from 2 cereal products consumed at breakfast. Methods: Twenty-five healthy men were submitted to a randomized, open, crossover study that was divided into 2 parts: 12 of the 25 subjects were included in the “isotope part,” and the 13 other subjects were included in the “glycemic part.” On test days, s...

  19. Food-borne fungi in fruit and cereals and their production of mycotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    it is possible to predict which fungi and mycotoxins a given product may contain, when the type of food product and the history of production and storage are known. In Europe, fruit has received minor attention in relation to fungal spoilage, whereas fungal spoilage of cereals has been studied extensively......, but often with the focus on only one or two fungal genera. Apple juice is one of the few commodities that has caught the attention of the European authorities and regulation of patulin will be in force by the end of 2003 in Denmark (EC, 2004)....

  20. SISTEMAS OVINO-CEREAL Y SU REPERCUSIÓN SOBRE EL MEDIO NATURAL

    OpenAIRE

    CORREAL, E.; Sotomayor, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Las explotaciones ovinas ligadas al aprovechamiento de subproductos de cultivos cerealistas (rastrojeras y barbechos) constituyen sistemas agropastorales de gran peso en la España semi-árida y seca, así como en otros países de la Cuenca Mediterránea de similar climatología. En el presente trabajo se analiza a nivel regional, nacional y Mediterráneo, los sistemas ovino-cereal-monte, su pasado, su problemática actual y posibles soluciones futuras, teniendo en cuenta la PAC de la UE y sus reperc...

  1. Soluble carbohydrates in cereal (wheat, rye, triticale) seed after storage under accelerated ageing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak; Maciej Niedzielski; Dariusz J. Michalczyk; Wiesław Łuczak; Barbara Adomas

    2011-01-01

    Germinability and the content of soluble carbohydrates were analysed in cereal seed (winter rye, cv. Warko; spring wheat, cv. Santa; hexaploid winter triticale, cv. Fidelio and cv. Woltario). Seed moisture content (mc) was equilibrated over silica gel to 0.08 g H2O/g dry mass and stored in a desiccator at 20oC for up to 205 weeks or were equilibrated to mc 0.06, 0.08 or 0.10 g H2O/g dm and subjected to artificial aging at 35oC in air-tight laminated aluminium foil packages for 205 weeks. It w...

  2. Sensory characterization of a ready-to-eat sweetpotato breakfast cereal by descriptive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansby, M. A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam], an important industry in the United States, has been selected as a candidate crop to be grown on future long-duration space missions by NASA. Raw sweetpotato roots were processed into flour, which was used to formulate ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEBC). Twelve trained panelists evaluated the sensory attributes of the extruded RTEBC using descriptive analysis. The samples were significantly different (Psensory attributes, which could be used to differentiate the appearance, texture, and flavor of sweetpotato RTEBC, were described. The data could be used to optimize the RTEBC and for designing studies to test its consumer acceptance.

  3. Extraction of light filth from barley, oatmeal, and mixed dry infant cereals: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, R G

    1980-03-01

    A new method has been developed for the extraction of light filth from oatmeal, barley, and mixed dry infant cereals which involves HCl digestion followed by wet sieving. The residue is defatted in a paper cup, using isopropanol, and transferred to a 2 L Wildman trap flask with 40% isopropanol. Filth elements are extracted with light mineral oil. Interlaboratory studies resulted in 92 and 86% average recoveries of rodent hairs and insect fragments, respectively. The proposed method has been adopted as official first action.

  4. Differentiation mechanism and function of the cereal aleurone cells and hormone effects on them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yankun; Wang, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    The cereal aleurone cells differentiate from the endosperm epidermis with the exception of endosperm transfer cells. Aleurone cells contain proteins, lipids, and minerals, and are important for digesting the endosperm storage products to nurse the embryo under effects of several hormones during the seed germination. The differentiation of aleurone cells is related to location effect and special gene expression. Moreover, the differentiation of aleurone cells is probably affected by the cues from maternal tissues. In the paper, differentiation mechanism and function of aleurone cells and hormone effects on them are reviewed. Some speculations about the differentiation mechanism of aleurone cells are given here.

  5. UCE: A uracil excision (USERTM)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim H; Christiansen, Michael W; Carciofi, Massimiliano;

    2010-01-01

    Background Cloning of gene casettes and other DNA sequences into the conventional vectors for biolistic or Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is hampered by a limited amount of unique restriction sites and by the difficulties often encountered when ligating small single strand DNA overhangs...... (USER cereal), ready for use in cloning of complex constructs into the T-DNA. A series of the vectors were tested and shown to perform successfully in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as well as in biolistic transformation of endosperm cells conferring transient...

  6. Weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park. Part I. Winter and spring cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of RPN was conducted in the years 1991-1995. The characterization of weed infestation of winter and spring cereals was based on 306 phytosociological records. made with the use of Braun-Blanquet method. The degree of weed infestation in the fields in the protective zone of RPN depended on environment conditions. Both winter and spring cereals in majority of soils were most infested by: Cenaturea cyanus, Apera spica-venti and Vicia hirsta. In the lightest podsolic soils, made of loose sand and slightly loamy sand. winter and spring cereals were additionally infested by Equisetum arvense and two acidophylic species: Seleranthus annuus and Spergula arvensis. The crops in brown loess soil were infested by Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora. The most difficult weed species in brown soil formed from gaizes and limestone soil were: Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas and Galium aparine. Moreover winter cercals in limestone soil showed high or medium infestation with Consolida regalis, Aethusa cynapium, Lathyrus tuberosus and low infestation with Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus. Spring cereals were less infested than winter cereals. Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus were less common with spring cereals than with winter cereals. Also, spring cereals showed high or medium infestation with Convolvulus arvensis. Spring cereals in some soil units were infested by Chenopodium album and Stellaria media. There was also higher infestation of spring cereals in limestone soils with Avena fatua, Veronica persica, Sinapis arvensis and Sonchus arvensis, compared to winter cereals in limestone soils.

  7. Intake of dietary fiber, especially from cereal foods, is associated with lower incidence of colon cancer in the HELGA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Skeie, Guri; Landberg, Rikard

    2012-01-01

    fiber per 2 g day(-1) was also associated with lower risk of colon cancer, 0.97 (0.93-1.00). No clear associations were seen for rectal cancer. Our data indicate a protective role of total and cereal fiber intake, particularly from cereal foods with high fiber content, in the prevention of colon cancer.......The role of dietary fiber on the risk of colon and rectal cancer has been investigated in numerous studies, but findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between intake of dietary fiber and risk of incident colon (including distal and proximal colon......) and rectal cancer in the prospective Scandinavian HELGA cohort and to determine if fiber source (vegetables, fruits, potatoes, cereals) impacted the association. We included 1,168 incident cases (691 colon, 477 rectal cancer), diagnosed during a median of 11.3 years, among 108,081 cohort members. Sex...

  8. Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassman, K G

    1999-05-25

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets, and four major cropping systems in which these cereals are grown represent the foundation of human food supply. Yield per unit time and land has increased markedly during the past 30 years in these systems, a result of intensified crop management involving improved germplasm, greater inputs of fertilizer, production of two or more crops per year on the same piece of land, and irrigation. Meeting future food demand while minimizing expansion of cultivated area primarily will depend on continued intensification of these same four systems. The manner in which further intensification is achieved, however, will differ markedly from the past because the exploitable gap between average farm yields and genetic yield potential is closing. At present, the rate of increase in yield potential is much less than the expected increase in demand. Hence, average farm yields must reach 70-80% of the yield potential ceiling within 30 years in each of these major cereal systems. Achieving consistent production at these high levels without causing environmental damage requires improvements in soil quality and precise management of all production factors in time and space. The scope of the scientific challenge related to these objectives is discussed. It is concluded that major scientific breakthroughs must occur in basic plant physiology, ecophysiology, agroecology, and soil science to achieve the ecological intensification that is needed to meet the expected increase in food demand.

  9. Occurrence of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops and Processed Products (Ogi from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Adaku Chilaka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, maize, sorghum, and millet are very important cash crops. They are consumed on a daily basis in different processed forms in diverse cultural backgrounds. These crops are prone to fungi infestation, and subsequently may be contaminated with mycotoxins. A total of 363 samples comprising of maize (136, sorghum (110, millet (87, and ogi (30 were collected from randomly selected markets in four agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. Samples were assessed for Fusarium mycotoxins contamination using a multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method. Subsequently, some selected samples were analysed for the occurrence of hidden fumonisins. Overall, 64% of the samples were contaminated with at least one toxin, at the rate of 77%, 44%, 59%, and 97% for maize, sorghum, millet, and ogi, respectively. Fumonisins were the most dominant, especially in maize and ogi, occurring at the rate of 65% and 93% with mean values of 935 and 1128 μg/kg, respectively. The prevalence of diacetoxyscirpenol was observed in maize (13%, sorghum (18%, and millet (29%, irrespective of the agro-ecological zone. Other mycotoxins detected were deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and their metabolites, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, HT-2 toxin, and hidden fumonisins. About 43% of the samples were contaminated with more than one toxin. This study suggests that consumption of cereals and cereal-based products, ogi particularly by infants may be a source of exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins.

  10. Simultaneous separation of ergot alkaloids by capillary electrophoresis after cloud point extraction from cereal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felici, Emiliano; Wang, Chien C; Fernández, Liliana P; Gomez, María R

    2015-01-01

    A new and sensitive analytical methodology for ergot alkaloids (EA) determination from cereal samples based on cloud point extraction (CPE) prior to CE-UV absorbance was developed. The methodology involves extraction under acid conditions and subsequent preconcentration by applying a simple, rapid and environmentally friendly low volume surfactant extraction procedure. After extraction, CE analysis was carried out by performing dilutions on preconcentrated surfactant rich phase, achieving a single peak or simultaneous alkaloids determination. A real preconcentration factor of 22 of total EA was obtained, demonstrating the efficiency of this methodology. The limits of detection were 2.6 and 2.2 μg/kg for ergotamine and ergonovine, respectively. Validation procedure revealed suitable linearity, accuracy and precision. The average extraction and clean-up recoveries were compared with the theoretical values and were better than 92%. This method was successfully applied to the determination of EA in different varieties of commercial flour samples, two grain samples and one of the leading brands cereal-based product for infant feeding. The high sensitivity achieved for EA determinations in real samples suggests CPE procedure as an interesting approach to improve CE-UV visible detection limits. Moreover, the whole process could be considered as a contribution to green chemistry because nonorganic solvents were involved, demonstrating its great potential over conventional techniques.

  11. DID THE 2004 CAP REFORM AFFECT PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CEREALS? INSIGHTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL INPUT SUPPLIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MARKOPOULOS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-term review of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003/2004 has strengthened the multifunctional role of agriculture by implementing “decoupling”, “modulation” and “cross-compliance” and created a number of significant changes in agricultural production in all EU member states. Specifically, the reform shifted emphasis away from commodity support towards environmental contracts, diversified production practices and rural development. In the case of cereals, a full decoupling was applied in subsidies and integration through rights in the Single Payment Scheme, except rice, which was one of the few crop cases in which part of the subsidy remained coupled, particular in countries with significant production like Greece. Within this context, the present study aims to analyze the impact that the reformed CAP measures had on agricultural production and more specifically variations in production diversification. The novelty of this study is that instead of focusing on the producers, it targeted the agricultural input stores, so as to get better insights of the CAP reform impacts on a larger scale of the regional economy. Accordingly, primary data were collected through personal interviews (structured questionnaire from 209 owners of agricultural input stores in the region of Anatoliki Makedonia and Thraki and were analyzed through multivariate data analysis. The results identify important antecedents for the regional economy and the viability of agricultural input stores, which include factors of the reformed CAP, environmental issues, financial measures and CAP effects on cereal production and marketing.

  12. Understanding the complex nature of salinity and drought-stress response in cereals using proteomics technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngara, Rudo; Ndimba, Bongani K

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide, crop productivity is drastically reduced by drought and salinity stresses. In order to develop food crops with increased productivity in marginal areas, it is important to first understand the nature of plant stress response mechanisms. In the past decade, proteomics tools have been extensively used in the study of plants' proteome responses under experimental conditions mimicking drought and salinity stresses. A lot of proteomic data have been generated using different experimental designs. However, the precise roles of these proteins in stress tolerance are yet to be elucidated. This review summarises the applications of proteomics in understanding the complex nature of drought and salinity stress effects on plants, particularly cereals and also highlights the usefulness of sorghum as the next logical model crop for use in understanding drought and salinity tolerance in cereals. With the vast amount of proteomic data that have been generated to date, a call for integrated efforts across the agricultural, biotechnology, and molecular biology sectors is also highlighted in an effort to translate proteomics data into increased food productivity for the world's growing population.

  13. Progress and prospects of studies on Polymyxa graminis and its transmitted cereal viruses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianping

    2005-01-01

    Polymyxa graminis is a eukaryotic obligate biotrophic parasite of plant roots that belongs to a poorly studied discrete taxonomic unit informally called "plasmodiophorids". P. graminis is nonpathogenic, but has the ability to acquire and transmit nine plant viruses which belong to genera Bymovirus and Furovirus and cause serious diseases in cereal crop species and also result in significant yield reductions in China and elsewhere. Genus Bymovirus contains barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV), barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV), wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV), and oat mosaic virus (OMV), and genus Furovirus contains soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV), oat golden stripe virus (OGSV), and newly identified Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV) and soil-borne cereal mosaic virus (SBCMV). All these viruses have been sequenced and their worldwide distributions have been studied. The viruses are protected by the environment within P. graminis resting spores that may remain dormant but viable for decades (probably until a suitable host plant is encountered). Spontaneous deletion mutants of SBWMV, OGSV and OMV are detected, and these deletion mutants are not transmissible by the fungus. The persistent, soil-borne nature of these diseases makes the use of virus-resistant crop varieties currently the only practical and environmentally friendly means to control them, and a large number of disease resistant germplasms have been screened.

  14. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P.; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation.

  15. Effect of Heat Treatment and Digestive Enzymes on Cereal Water-Retention Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Caprita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment of cereal grains affects carbohydrate and micronutrient content and bioavailability. Water-retention capacity (WRC is an important index for the effects of fiber in the diet and the metabolic activity of fiber along the gut. This study evaluated the effect of thermal treatment and digestive enzymes on wheat and barley WRC. Ground wheat and barley samples were heated for different time periods at 150ºC before in vitro gastric and intestinal digestion. WRC values in heat treated wheat and barley are at higher levels as compared to the values of untreated cereals. WRC in barley ranged from 1.026 g water/g DM (untreated to 1.36 g water/g DM (heated at 150ºC for 15 minute. The increase was much lower in heat treated wheat, from 0.973 g water/g DM up to 1.03 g water/g DM at 5 minutes heating time.

  16. Land Use Cover Mapping of Water Melon and Cereals in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Fiorentino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new high-resolution images from the satellites as IKONOS, SPOT5, Quickbird2 give us the opportunity to map ground features, which were not detectable in the past, by using medium resolution remote sensed data (LANDSAT. More accurate and reliable maps of land cover can then be produced. However, classification procedure with these images is more complex than with the medium resolution remote sensing data for two main reasons: firstly, because of their exiguous number of spectral bands, secondly, owing to high spatial resolution, the assumption of pixel independence does not generally hold. It is then necessary to have a multi-temporal series of images or to use classifiers taking into account also proximal information. The data in this study were (i a remote sensing image taken by SPOT5 satellite in July 2007 and used to discriminate the water melon cover class and, (ii three multi-temporal remote sensing images taken by SPOT5 satellite in May, June and July 2008 used to discriminate water melon and cereal crop cover classes. For water melon recognition, providing a single image in 2007, an object-oriented technique was applied instead of a traditional, per pixel technique obtaining an increase of overall accuracy of 15%. In 2008, since it was available a multi-temporal data set, a traditional ‘Maximum Likelihood’ technique was applied for both water melon and cereal crop cover class. The overall accuracy is greater than 95%.

  17. Influences of extreme weather, climate and pesticide use on invertebrates in cereal fields over 42 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Julie A; Wheatley, Christopher J; Aebischer, Nicholas J; Moreby, Stephen J; Duffield, Simon J; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Morecroft, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Cereal fields are central to balancing food production and environmental health in the face of climate change. Within them, invertebrates provide key ecosystem services. Using 42 years of monitoring data collected in southern England, we investigated the sensitivity and resilience of invertebrates in cereal fields to extreme weather events and examined the effect of long-term changes in temperature, rainfall and pesticide use on invertebrate abundance. Of the 26 invertebrate groups examined, eleven proved sensitive to extreme weather events. Average abundance increased in hot/dry years and decreased in cold/wet years for Araneae, Cicadellidae, adult Heteroptera, Thysanoptera, Braconidae, Enicmus and Lathridiidae. The average abundance of Delphacidae, Cryptophagidae and Mycetophilidae increased in both hot/dry and cold/wet years relative to other years. The abundance of all 10 groups usually returned to their long-term trend within a year after the extreme event. For five of them, sensitivity to cold/wet events was lowest (translating into higher abundances) at locations with a westerly aspect. Some long-term trends in invertebrate abundance correlated with temperature and rainfall, indicating that climate change may affect them. However, pesticide use was more important in explaining the trends, suggesting that reduced pesticide use would mitigate the effects of climate change.

  18. Bioavailability of Fe and Zn in selected legumes, cereals, meat and milk products consumed in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Prasad, Surendra; Aalbersberg, William

    2016-09-15

    The present study reports contents and the bioavailability of Fe and Zn from 25 selected raw and cooked food samples. The results showed highest variation of Fe content in raw food samples ranging from 2.19 ± 0.04 to 0.93 ± 0.03 mg/100g in legumes. The raw black eye bean, cheese and fish showed high Zn content up to 8.85 ± 0.01, 12.93 ± 0.26 and 172.03 ± 5.09 mg/100g, respectively. Pulses and cereals showed high level of ionizable Fe. Zn bioavailability was quite low in cereals as compared to pulses; 4.02% in yellow split to 17.40% in Bengal gram. Zn bioavailability of 17.40% is in cheese. Fe bioavailability is high in cooked rice 160.60%, white bread 428.30% and milk powder 241.67% showing that Fe bioavailability increased after cooking whereas the lowest in fish 0.84%. The multivariate and cluster analysis categorized studied foods into two main groups.

  19. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Cereal Production: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anslem Bawayelaazaa Nyuor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic impacts of climate change on cereal crop production in Northern Ghana using 240 households comprising maize and sorghum farmers. The Ricardian regression approach was used to examine the economic impacts of climate change based on data generated from a survey conducted in the 2013/2014 farming seasons. Forty-year time-series data of rainfall and temperature from 1974 to 2013, together with cross-sectional data, were used for the empirical analysis. The Ricardian regression estimates for both maize and sorghum showed varying degrees of climate change impacts on net revenues. The results indicated that early season precipitation was beneficial for sorghum, but harmful for maize. However, mid-season precipitation tended to promote maize production. Temperature levels for all seasons impacted negatively on net revenue for both crops, except during the mid-season, when temperature exerted a positive effect on net revenue for sorghum. Our findings suggest that appropriate adaptation strategies should be promoted to reduce the negative impacts of prevailing climate change on cereal crop production.

  20. Early and Late Heat Shock Proteins in Wheats and Other Cereal Species 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necchi, Ada; Pogna, Norberto E.; Mapelli, Sergio

    1987-01-01

    Coleoptiles and roots of 3-day-old seedlings from five cereal species (Triticum aestivum L., T. durum Desf., Hordeum vulgare L., Secale cereale L., and Triticale) respond to heat shock at 40°C by synthesizing a new set of 13 strong bands (as revealed by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis) as well as some 20°C proteins. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) belong to three different size groups: high molecular mass HSPs in the 103 to 70 kilodalton range, intermediate molecular mass HSPs in the 62 to 32 kilodalton range, and low molecular mass HSPs about 17 to 16 kilodalton in size. At the beginning of the heat shock coleoptiles show a reduced ability to synthesize intermediate molecular mass HSPs but after 4 hours at 40°C they exhibit fully developed HSP patterns identical to that found in roots. Synthesis of early HSPs declines after 7 hours of treatment followed by the appearance of a new set of 12 protein bands (late HSPs) in the ranges 99 to 83, 69 to 35, and 15 to 14 kilodaltons. After 12 hours at 40°C, three other late HSPs of 89, 45, and 38 kilodalton are induced. The induction of late HSPs after 7 hours at 40°C appears to be associated with an enhancement of radioactive methionine incorporation into proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:16665614

  1. Anomericity of T-2 toxin-glucoside: masked mycotoxin in cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Susan P; Kato, Takayuki; Maragos, Chris M; Busman, Mark; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall-Asta, Chiara; Crich, David; Price, Neil P J; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2015-01-21

    T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when Fusarium fungi infect grains, especially oats and wheat. Ingestion of T-2 toxin contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal in livestock. Cereal crops infected with mycotoxin-producing fungi form toxin glycosides, sometimes called masked mycotoxins, which are a potential food safety concern because they are not detectable by standard approaches and may be converted back to the parent toxin during digestion or food processing. The work reported here addresses four aspects of T-2 toxin-glucosides: phytotoxicity, stability after ingestion, antibody detection, and the anomericity of the naturally occurring T-2 toxin-glucoside found in cereal plants. T-2 toxin-β-glucoside was chemically synthesized and compared to T-2 toxin-α-glucoside prepared with Blastobotrys muscicola cultures and the T-2 toxin-glucoside found in naturally contaminated oats and wheat. The anomeric forms were separated chromatographically and differ in both NMR and mass spectrometry. Both anomers were significantly degraded to T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin under conditions that mimic human digestion, but with different kinetics and metabolic end products. The naturally occurring T-2 toxin-glucoside from plants was found to be identical to T-2 toxin-α-glucoside prepared with B. muscicola. An antibody test for the detection of T-2 toxin was not effective for the detection of T-2 toxin-α-glucoside. This anomer was produced in sufficient quantity to assess its animal toxicity.

  2. Lactic acid bacteria producing B-group vitamins: a great potential for functional cereals products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Dueñas, María Teresa; López, Paloma; Spano, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Wheat contains various essential nutrients including the B group of vitamins. However, B group vitamins, normally present in cereals-derived products, are easily removed or destroyed during milling, food processing or cooking. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as starter cultures for the fermentation of a large variety of foods and can improve the safety, shelf life, nutritional value, flavor and overall quality of the fermented products. In this regard, the identification and application of strains delivering health-promoting compounds is a fascinating field. Besides their key role in food fermentations, several LAB found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals are commercially used as probiotics and possess generally recognized as safe status. LAB are usually auxotrophic for several vitamins although certain strains of LAB have the capability to synthesize water-soluble vitamins such as those included in the B group. In recent years, a number of biotechnological processes have been explored to perform a more economical and sustainable vitamin production than that obtained via chemical synthesis. This review article will briefly report the current knowledge on lactic acid bacteria synthesis of vitamins B2, B11 and B12 and the potential strategies to increase B-group vitamin content in cereals-based products, where vitamins-producing LAB have been leading to the elaboration of novel fermented functional foods. In addition, the use of genetic strategies to increase vitamin production or to create novel vitamin-producing strains will be also discussed.

  3. Trace level determination of acrylamide in cereal-based foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Alain; Périsset, Adrienne; Oberson, Jean-Marie

    2004-04-30

    A quantitative method has been developed for the determination of trace levels (acrylamide in cereal-based foods. The method is based on extraction of acrylamide with water, acidification and purification with Carrez I and II solutions, followed by bromination of the acrylamide double bond. The reaction product (2,3-dibromopropionamide) is extracted with ethyl acetate/hexane (4:1, v/v), dried over sodium sulfate, and cleaned up through a Florisil column. The derivative is then converted to 2-bromopropenamide by dehydrobromination with triethylamine and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), employing (13C3)acrylamide as internal standard. In-house validation data for commercial and experimental cereal products showed good precision of the method, with repeatability and intermediate reproducibility relative standard deviations below 10%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation are estimated at 2 and 5 microg/kg, respectively, and recoveries of acrylamide from samples spiked at levels of 5-500 microg/kg ranged between 93 and 104% after correction of analyte loss by the internal standard. Finally, a comparative test organized with two independent laboratories provided additional confidence in the good performance of the method, particularly at very low concentration levels.

  4. Cereal Yield Modeling in Finland Using Optical and Radar Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Kleemola

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During 1996–2006, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Finland (MAFF, MTT Agrifood Research and the Finnish Geodetic Institute performed a joint remote sensing satellite research project. It evaluated the applicability of optical satellite (Landsat, SPOT data for cereal yield estimations in the annual crop inventory program. Four Optical Vegetation Indices models (I: Infrared polynomial, II: NDVI, III: GEMI, IV: PARND/FAPAR were validated to estimate cereal baseline yield levels (yb using solely optical harmonized satellite data (Optical Minimum Dataset. The optimized Model II (NDVI yb level was 4,240 kg/ha (R2 0.73, RMSE 297 kg/ha for wheat and 4390 kg/ha (R2 0.61, RMSE 449 kg/ha for barley and Model I yb was 3,480 kg/ha for oats (R2 0.76, RMSE 258 kg/ha. Optical VGI yield estimates were validated with CropWatN crop model yield estimates using SPOT and NOAA data (mean R2 0.71, RMSE 436 kg/ha and with composite SAR/ASAR and NDVI models (mean R2 0.61, RMSE 402 kg/ha using both reflectance and backscattering data. CropWatN and Composite SAR/ASAR & NDVI model mean yields were 4,754/4,170 kg/ha for wheat, 4,192/3,848 kg/ha for barley and 4,992/2,935 kg/ha for oats.

  5. Phytotoxicity of pathogenic fungi and their mycotoxins to cereal seedling viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, H A

    2001-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum were found to be the pathogenic fungi mostly reducing cereal (barley, sorghum and wheat) seedlings. The pathogens have the ability to produce aflatoxin B1 and G1, diacetoxyscirpenol, kojic acid and tenuazonic acid that reduced seedling viability. The inhibition dose for 50% reduction (LD50) was recorded by aflatoxins at 0.83 mg L-1 for barley, 1.74 mg L-1 for wheat and 2.75 mg L-1 for sorghum. Diacetoxyscirpenol produced its inhibition at 1.26 mg L-1 for barley, 3.98 mg L-1 for wheat and 10 mg L-1 for sorghum. Kojic acid induced 50% inhibition at 63 mg L-1 for barley, 105 mg L-1 for wheat and 251 mg L-1 for sorghum. However, tenuazonic acid was less toxic where, the toxicity was ranged between 79-550 mg L-1. The inhibition in germination was more pronounced in barley followed by wheat and negligible in sorghum to all tested mycotoxins. This inhibition attributed to the reduction in seedling amylase activity. Amylase was also reduced in the same trend: barley > wheat > sorghum. Grain treatment with carboxin-captan and thiophanatemethyl-thiram at 1 g kg-1 grain increased seedlings vigour of wheat in sterilized soil by 45 and 22%, barley by 24 and 33% and sorghum by 15 and 30%, respectively. These fungicides have also a positive effect on cereal when soil was inoculated with A. flavus, A. alternata and F. oxysporum.

  6. NanoSIMS analysis of arsenic and selenium in cereal grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Katie L.; Schröder, Markus; Lombi, Enzo; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Shewry, Peter R.; Grovenor, Chris R.M. (Rothamsted); (UCopenhagen); (Oxford)

    2012-09-05

    Cereals are an important source of selenium (Se) to humans and many people have inadequate intakes of this essential trace element. Conversely, arsenic (As) is toxic and may accumulate in rice grain at levels that pose a health risk. Knowledge of the localization of selenium and arsenic within the cereal grain will aid understanding of their deposition patterns and the impact of processes such as milling. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) was used to determine the localization of Se in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and As in rice (Oryza sativa). Combined synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) and NanoSIMS analysis utilized the strengths of both techniques. Selenium was concentrated in the protein surrounding the starch granules in the starchy endosperm cells and more homogeneously distributed in the aleurone cells but with Se-rich hotspots. Arsenic was concentrated in the subaleurone endosperm cells in association with the protein matrix rather than in the aleurone cells. NanoSIMS indicated that the high intensity of As identified in the S-XRF image was localized in micron-sized hotspots near the ovular vascular trace and nucellar projection. This is the first study showing subcellular localization in grain samples containing parts per million concentrations of Se and As. There is good quantitative agreement between NanoSIMS and S-XRF.

  7. Risk Assessment of Arsenic in Rice Cereal and Other Dietary Sources for Infants and Toddlers in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Meng, Can; Umoren, Josephine; West, Heidi

    2016-03-25

    Currently, there are no set standards or quantitative guidelines available in the U.S. for arsenic levels in rice cereal, one of the most common first solid foods for infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the detected levels of inorganic arsenic (As(i)) in rice cereal in the U.S. market are safe for consumption by infants and toddlers. A risk assessment was conducted based on literature reviews of the reported As(i) in rice cereal from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) survey and the recommended daily intake of rice cereal by body weight, for infants and toddlers between four and 24 months old. As a part of risk management, a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for Asi in rice cereal was computed considering overall exposure sources including drinking water, infant formula, and other infant solid foods. Hazard quotients (HQs) for acute and chronic exposures were calculated based on the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR) Minimal Risk Level (MRL)(acute) (5.0 × 10(-3) mg/kg/day) and MRL(chronic) (3.0 × 10(-4) mg/kg/day). A cancer slope or potency factor of 1.5 mg/kg/day was used to predict an incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). Exposure assessment showed that the largest source of As(i) for infants and toddlers between four and 24 months old was rice cereal (55%), followed by other infant solid food (19%), and drinking water (18%). Infant formula was the smallest source of As(i) for babies (9%) at the 50th percentile based on Monte Carlo simulations. While HQ(acute) were consistently below 1.0, HQ(chronic) at the 50 and 75th percentiles exceeded 1.0 for both rice cereal and total sources. ILCR ranged from 10(-6) (50th) to 10(-5) (75th percentile). MCLs for As(i) in rice cereal ranged from 0.0 (chronic) to 0.4 mg/kg (acute exposures).

  8. Intake of whole grains from different cereal and food sources and incidence of colorectal cancer in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    A high intake of whole grains has been associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer, but few studies are available on the association with whole grains from different cereals, for example, wheat, rye and oats, and none has addressed these separately. The objective of this study was to i......A high intake of whole grains has been associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer, but few studies are available on the association with whole grains from different cereals, for example, wheat, rye and oats, and none has addressed these separately. The objective of this study...... was to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and colorectal cancer....

  9. Prediction of apparent metabolisable energy content of cereal grains and by-products for poultry from its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Losada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the metabolisable energy content of ninety batches of cereal grains and cereal by-products for poultry, regression models derived from different sample aggregations and using chemical components as independent variables were compared. Several statistics have been calculated to estimate the error of prediction. The results indicate that the highest levels of significance and coefficients of determination were obtained for equations derived from the larger data sets. However, the lowest prediction errors were associated to equations calculated for data or groups of data closer to the ingredient ­studied.

  10. Prediction of apparent metabolisable energy content of cereal grains and by-products for poultry from its chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losada, B.; Blas, C. de; Garcia-Rebollar, P.; Cachaldora, P.; Mendez, J.; Ibañez, M.

    2015-07-01

    In order to predict the metabolisable energy content of ninety batches of cereal grains and cereal by-products for poultry, regression models derived from different sample aggregations and using chemical components as independent variables were compared. Several statistics have been calculated to estimate the error of prediction. The results indicate that the highest levels of significance and coefficients of determination were obtained for equations derived from the larger data sets. However, the lowest prediction errors were associated to equations calculated for data or groups of data closer to the ingredient studied. (Author)

  11. Protein value of cereals and cereal by-products for ruminants: a comparison between crude protein and protein-based estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Javier; Mouhbi, Rabiaa; Guevara-González, Jesús Alberto; Rodríguez, Carlos Alberto; Arroyo, José María

    2015-01-01

    In situ estimates of ruminal undegraded fraction (RU) and effective intestinal digestibility (EID, corrected for microbial colonisation) of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and total analysed amino acids (TAA) of rye, wheat and corn grains, wheat bran, wheat and barley distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and corn gluten feed were measured on three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers using (15)N labelling techniques and considering ruminal rates of particle comminution (kc) and outflow. Results indicate that not considering kc and microbial colonisation led to considerable overestimations of RU which increased with feed ruminal degradation. Microbial colonisation may be also associated with overestimations of EID, whose estimates for DM, CP and TAA were predicted from parameters related with the ruminal escape of intestinally indigestible materials. The RU estimates were higher for TAA than for CP in grains, but the opposite was observed in by-products, whereas EID estimates were higher for TAA in all feeds. To obtain accurate protein values in these feedstuffs, it is required to consider both kc and ruminal microbial colonisation. The CP-based results underestimate the intestinally digested protein in grains and the opposite is evidenced in cereal by-products. Microbial protein synthesised in the rumen is largely the major fraction of the feedstuff protein value with the exception of DDGS.

  12. Barley callus: a model system for bioengineering of starch in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carciofi Massimiliano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties. In this way starch is adapted to a variety of specific end-uses. Recombinant DNA technologies offers an alternative to starch industrial processing. The plant biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated to design starches with novel structure and improved technological properties. In the future this may reduce or eliminate the economical and environmental costs of industrial modification. Recently, many advances have been achieved to clarify the genetic mechanism that controls starch biosynthesis. Several genes involved in the synthesis and modification of complex carbohydrates in many organisms have been identified and cloned. This knowledge suggests a number of strategies and a series of candidate genes for genetic transformation of crops to generate new types of starch-based polymers. However transformation of cereals is a slow process and there is no easy model system available to test the efficiency of candidate genes in planta. Results We explored the possibility to use transgenic barley callus generated from immature embryo for a fast test of transgenic modification strategies of starch biosynthesis. We found that this callus contains 4% (w/w dw starch granules, which we could modify by generating fully transgenic calli by Agrobacterium-transformation. A Green Fluorescent Protein reporter protein tag was used to identify and propagate only fully transgenic callus explants. Around 1 – 1.5 g dry weight of fully transgenic callus could be produced in 9 weeks. Callus starch granules were smaller than endosperm starch granules and contained less amylose. Similarly the expression profile of starch biosynthesis genes were slightly different in callus

  13. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Acevedo-Pacheco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. Objective: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS, and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER, biological values (BV, and net protein utilization (NPU values of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. Design: To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. Results: The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. Conclusions: The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly

  14. Sum Insured Determination for Cereal, Citrus and Vineyards in the Spanish Agricultural Insurance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gómez-Barona, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    In general, insurance is a form of risk management used to hedge against a contingent loss. The conventional definition is the equitable transfer of a risk of loss from one entity to another in exchange for a premium or a guaranteed and quantifiable small loss to prevent a large and possibly devastating loss being agricultural insurance a special line of property insurance. Agriculture insurance, as actually are designed in the Spanish scenario, were established in 1978. At the macroeconomic insurance studies scale, it is necessary to know a basic element for the insurance actuarial components: sum insured. When a new risk assessment has to be evaluated in the insurance framework, it is essential to determinate venture capital in the total Spanish agriculture. In this study, three different crops (cereal, citrus and vineyards) cases are showed to determinate sum insured as they are representative of the cases found in the Spanish agriculture. Crop sum insured is calculated by the product of crop surface, unit surface production and crop price insured. In the cereal case, winter as spring cereal sowing, represents the highest Spanish crop surface, above to 6 millions of hectares (ha). Meanwhile, the four citrus species (oranges, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits) occupied an extension just over 275.000 ha. On the other hand, vineyard target to wine process shows almost one million of ha in Spain. A new method has been applied to estimate crop sum insured in these three cases. Under the maximum economic impact assumption, the maximum market price has been used to insurance each species. Depending on crop and reliability of the data base available, the insured area or insured production has been used in this estimation. When for a certain crop varieties or type of varieties show different insurance prices a geometric average was used as average insurance price for that particular crop. One extreme difficult case was vineyards, where differentiate prices based on

  15. Effects of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food for infants and children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micronutrient deficiency is a common public health problem in developing countries, especially for infants and children in the first two years of life. As this is an important time window for child development, micronutrient fortified complementary feeding after 6 months of age, for example with milk or cereals products, in combination with continued breastfeeding, is recommended. The overall effect of this approach is unclear. Methods We performed a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to assess the impact of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food on the health of infants and little children (aged 6 months to 5 years compared to non-fortified food. We reviewed randomized controlled trials using electronic databases (MEDLINE and Cochrane library searches through FEB 2011, reference list screening and hand searches. Three reviewers assessed 1153 studies for eligibility and extracted data. One reviewer assessed risk of bias using predefined forms. Results We included 18 trials in our analysis (n = 5’468 children; range of mean hemoglobin values: 9.0 to 12.6 g/dl. Iron plus multi micronutrient fortification is more effective than single iron fortification for hematologic outcomes. Compared to non-fortified food, iron multi micronutrient fortification increases hemoglobin levels by 0.87 g/dl (95%-CI: 0.57 to 1.16; 8 studies and reduces risk of anemia by 57% (relative risk 0.43; 95%-CI 0.26 to 0.71; absolute risk reduction 22%; number needed to treat 5 [95%-CI: 4 to 6]; 6 Studies. Compared to non-fortified food, fortification increases serum levels of vitamin A but not of zinc. Information about functional health outcomes (e.g. weight gain and morbidity was scarce and evidence is inconclusive. Risk of bias is unclear due to underreporting, but high quality studies lead to similar results in a sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Multi micronutrient fortified milk and cereal products can be an effective option to

  16. Effects of Ready-to-Eat-Cereals on Key Nutritional and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Marion G.; McMonagle, Jolene R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are investigated as well as health promoting properties of RTEC. Method The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL have been searched up till 16th of June 2015. Randomized controlled trials were excluded if RTEC were used during hypocaloric diets, if RTEC were eaten at other times than breakfast and if breakfasts included other products than RTEC, milk and fruit. Observational studies were excluded when “breakfast cereals” were not defined or their definition included cooked cereals. From cross-sectional studies only data concerning energy and nutrient intake as well as micronutrient status were used. Results From 4727 identified citations 64 publications met the inclusion criteria of which 32 were cross-sectional studies, eight prospective studies and 24 randomized controlled trials. Consumption of RTEC is associated with a healthier dietary pattern, concerning intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, fat and micronutrients, however total sugar intake is higher. Persons consuming RTEC frequently (≥ 5 times/week) have a lower risk of inadequate micronutrient intake especially for vitamin A, calcium, folate, vitamin B 6, magnesium and zinc. Evidence from prospective studies suggests that whole grain RTEC may have beneficial effects on hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Consumption of RTEC with soluble fiber helps to reduce LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men and RTEC fortified with folate can reduce plasma homocysteine. Discussion One of the review’s strengths is its thorough ex/inclusion of studies. Limitations are that results of observational studies were based on self-reported data and that many studies were funded by food

  17. Ecological principles underlying the increase of productivity achieved by cereal-grain legume intercrops in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    -functional intensification in organic farming by intercropping cereal and grain legume species sown and harvested together. Our review is based on a literature analysis reinforced with integration of an original dataset of 58 field experiments conducted since 2001 in contrasted pedo-climatic European conditions in order...

  18. Concentrations and apparent digestibility of lignin and carbohydrate fractions in cell walls of whole-crop cereal silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-crop cereal silage (WCCS) of oats generally has lower fiber digestibility than WCCS of barley. When investigated more closely, the difference seems mainly to be in the digestibility of the hemicellulosic fraction (HC), where HC is calculated as neutral detergent fibre (NDF) – acid detergent fi...

  19. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  20. Ferulic Acid Dehydrodimer and –Dehydrotrimer Profiles of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles from Different Cereal Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Bunzel, Mirko; Schäfer, Judith

    2015-01-01

    of the plant cell wall. Corn-, wheat-, and mixed cereal distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were investigated for composition of DFAs and TriFAs by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet detection. Corn DDGS contained 5.3 and 5.9 times higher contents of total DFAs...

  1. Effect of irradiation and storage time on the content of thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin A in feeds based on cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanis, T.; Pospisil, M.; Klir, P.; Bondy, R. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Fyziologicky Ustav); Mnukova, J. (Institut Hygieny a Epidemiologie, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1985-01-01

    Two diets for laboratory rat, based on cereals, were either irradiated with 25 or 50 kGy or untreated and stored under free access of air and day light at ambient temperature for 79 d. At the beginning of the experiment and at one month intervals the changes in moisture and vitamin A, thiamine and riboflavin content were evaluated.

  2. Effect of dephytinization on bioavailability of iron, calcium and zinc from infant cereals assessed in the Caco-2 cell model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carmen Frontela; Maria Laura Scarino; Simonetta Ferruzza; Gaspar Ros; Carmen Martínez

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To test the effect of the dephytinization of three different commercial infant cereals on iron, calcium,and zinc bioavailability by estimating the uptake, retention,and transport by Caco-2 cells.METHODS: Both dephytinized (by adding an exogenous phytase) and non-dephytinized infant cereals were digested using an in vitro digestion protocol adapted to the gastrointestinal conditions of infants younger than 6 mo. Mineral cell retention, transport,and uptake from infant cereals were measured using the soluble fraction of the simulated digestion and the Caco-2 cells.RESULTS: Dephytinization of infant cereals significantly increased ( P < 0.05) the cell uptake efficiency (from 0.66%-6.05% to 3.93%-13%), retention (from 6.04%-16.68% to 14.75%-20.14%) and transport efficiency (from 0.14%-2.21% to 1.47%-6.02%), of iron, and the uptake efficiency (from 5.0%-35.4% to 7.3%-41.6%) and retention (from 4.05%-20.53% to 14.45%-61.3%) of zinc, whereas calcium only cell uptake showed a significant increase ( P < 0.05) after removing phytate from most of the samples analyzed.A positive relationship ( P < 0.05) between mineral solubility and the cell uptake and transport efficiencies was observed.

  3. Phosphorus Utilization and Characterization of Excreta From Swine Fed Diets Containing A Variety of Cereal Grains Balanced For Total Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrinsic phytase in swine feeds may alter phytate utilization and solubility of excreted phosphorus. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to quantify changes in fecal phosphorus composition from swine fed various cereal grains with a range of phytate concentrations and endogenous phytase...

  4. Morphological and molecular observations on the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi from the Volga and South Ural regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2010-2012, a survey was conducted to determine the distribution and species diversity of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi within the Volga and South Ural regions of the Russian Federation. A total of 270 soil samples were collected. Seven populations of CCN were found in the rhiz...

  5. Evolution of Gluten Content in Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Products: An Overview from 1998 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, María Ángeles; Fernández-Gil, María Pilar; Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Navarro, Virginia; Simón, Edurne

    2017-01-03

    The treatment of Celiac disease consists in a strict lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet. As the ingestion of small amounts can have damaging complications, there has been an ongoing discussion regarding the safe threshold for dietary residual gluten. The aim was to analyze the evolution of gluten content in cereal-based GF foodstuffs (n = 3141) from 1998 to 2016 measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Eight categories were defined: flours, breakfast cereals/bars, bakery, pasta, breads, dough, snacks, and yeasts, and these were divided into GF labeled-foods (GF-L) or reportedly GF foodstuffs, but not certified (GF-NC). Gluten-detection was decreased over time in line with the evolving European regulations about food information and gluten content claims. This decline started sooner in GF-L products than in GF-NC. As a whole, gluten was detected in 371 samples, with breakfast cereals/bars being the most contaminated group. Snacks and yeasts changed from being high gluten-detected samples to being totally GF over the years. The downside is that, of contaminated samples, those in the low levels of gluten detection range have decreased while flour samples containing over 100 mg/kg gluten have risen in the 2013-2016 period. Obtained data confirm that GF cereal-based foods are becoming safer but gluten control must be maintained.

  6. Legumes or nitrification inhibitors to reduce N2O emissions in subtropical cereal cropping systems? A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DAYCENT biogeochemical model was used to investigate how the use of fertilisers coated with nitrification inhibitors and the introduction of legumes in the crop rotation can affect subtropical cereal production and N2O emissions. The model was validated using comprehensive multi-seasonal, high-f...

  7. BIOTECHNOLOGY AS A USEFUL TOOL FOR NUTRITIONAL IMPROVEMENT OF CEREAL-BASED MATERIALS ENRICHED WITH POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND PIGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čertík

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals represent a major food supply for humanity. Although these sources are rich in proteins and carbohydrates, many of them are deficient in several essential nutrients, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and carotenoid pigments. One possible approach how to enhance the content of PUFAs or carotenoids in cereal diet is based on biotechnological transformation of cereal materials by solid state fermentations. This technique is powerful tool for effective valorisation of these resources to various types of value-added bioproducts with demanded properties and functions. Selected filamentous Mucorales fungi were applied for conversion of numerous agroindustrial substrates to bioproducts enriched with PUFAs, such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, arachidonic acid (AA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. On the other hand, a range of yeast species utilizing agroindustrial substrates were employed for formation of carotenoids, such as β-carotene, torulene, torularhodine and astaxanthin. Such naturally prepared cereal based bioproducts enriched with either PUFAs or carotenoid pigments may be used as an inexpensive food and feed supplement. The work was supported by grant VEGA No. 1/0747/08 from the Grant Agency of Ministry of Education, Slovak Republic.

  8. An ALMT1 gene cluster controlling aluminium (aluminum) tolerance at the Alt4 locus of rye (Secale cereale L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al-tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes...

  9. Evolution of Gluten Content in Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Products: An Overview from 1998 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, María Ángeles; Fernández-Gil, María Pilar; Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Navarro, Virginia; Simón, Edurne

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of Celiac disease consists in a strict lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet. As the ingestion of small amounts can have damaging complications, there has been an ongoing discussion regarding the safe threshold for dietary residual gluten. The aim was to analyze the evolution of gluten content in cereal-based GF foodstuffs (n = 3141) from 1998 to 2016 measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Eight categories were defined: flours, breakfast cereals/bars, bakery, pasta, breads, dough, snacks, and yeasts, and these were divided into GF labeled-foods (GF-L) or reportedly GF foodstuffs, but not certified (GF-NC). Gluten-detection was decreased over time in line with the evolving European regulations about food information and gluten content claims. This decline started sooner in GF-L products than in GF-NC. As a whole, gluten was detected in 371 samples, with breakfast cereals/bars being the most contaminated group. Snacks and yeasts changed from being high gluten-detected samples to being totally GF over the years. The downside is that, of contaminated samples, those in the low levels of gluten detection range have decreased while flour samples containing over 100 mg/kg gluten have risen in the 2013–2016 period. Obtained data confirm that GF cereal-based foods are becoming safer but gluten control must be maintained. PMID:28054938

  10. Evolution of Gluten Content in Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Products: An Overview from 1998 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Celiac disease consists in a strict lifelong gluten-free (GF diet. As the ingestion of small amounts can have damaging complications, there has been an ongoing discussion regarding the safe threshold for dietary residual gluten. The aim was to analyze the evolution of gluten content in cereal-based GF foodstuffs (n = 3141 from 1998 to 2016 measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. Eight categories were defined: flours, breakfast cereals/bars, bakery, pasta, breads, dough, snacks, and yeasts, and these were divided into GF labeled-foods (GF-L or reportedly GF foodstuffs, but not certified (GF-NC. Gluten-detection was decreased over time in line with the evolving European regulations about food information and gluten content claims. This decline started sooner in GF-L products than in GF-NC. As a whole, gluten was detected in 371 samples, with breakfast cereals/bars being the most contaminated group. Snacks and yeasts changed from being high gluten-detected samples to being totally GF over the years. The downside is that, of contaminated samples, those in the low levels of gluten detection range have decreased while flour samples containing over 100 mg/kg gluten have risen in the 2013–2016 period. Obtained data confirm that GF cereal-based foods are becoming safer but gluten control must be maintained.

  11. CELLULOSIC PULPS OF CEREAL STRAWS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF ECOLOGICAL PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Vargas,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the potential application of four types of cereal straws: oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley, in order to obtain cellulose pulp through the Specel® process for use in the manufacture of 100% biodegradable and ecological packaging. Raw materials were chemically characterized to determine alcohol-extractives, ash, lignin, holocellulose, and α-cellulose. Cellulosic pulps obtained from raw materials were characterized to determine yield, Kappa number, and viscosity. Paper sheets made from cellulosic pulps were characterized to determine beating degree, tensile index, stretch, burst index, tear index, and brightness. Finally, the results were compared to the raw material used in the industrial manufacturing of packaging (wheat. The four studied raw materials (oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley were judged to be suitable for use in the Specel® process to obtain cellulosic pulp suitable for production of ecological containers.

  12. Effect of temperature and precipitation on nitrate leaching from organic cereal cropping systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabloun, Mohamed; Schelde, Kirsten; Tao, F;

    2015-01-01

    management. There were significant effects on annual N concentration and NO3single bondN leaching of location, rotation, previous crop and crop cover during autumn and winter. The relative effects of temperature and precipitation differed between seasons and cropping systems. A sensitivity analysis revealed......The effect of variation in seasonal temperature and precipitation on soil water nitrate (NO3single bondN) concentration and leaching from winter and spring cereals cropping systems was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotation cycles from 1997 to 2008 in an organic farming crop...... rotation experiment in Denmark. Three experimental sites, varying in climate and soil type from coarse sand to sandy loam, were investigated. The experiment included experimental treatments with different rotations, manure rate and cover crop, and soil nitrate concentrations was monitored using suction...

  13. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  14. Variation in chemical composition and physical characteristics of cereal grains from different genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodehutscord, Markus; Rückert, Christine; Maurer, Hans Peter;

    2016-01-01

    . The mean lysine concentration of protein was the highest in oats (4.2 g/16 g N) and the lowest in wheat (2.7 g/16 g N). Significant differences were also detected in the concentrations of macro elements as well as iron, manganese, zinc and copper. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and lead were below...... the limit of detection. The concentration of lower inositol phosphates was low, but some inositol pentaphosphates were detected in all grains. In barley, relatively high inositol tetraphosphate concentration also was found. Intrinsic phytase activity was the highest in rye, followed by triticale, wheat......, barley and maize, and it was not detectable in oats. Substantial differences were seen in the thousand seed weight, test weight, falling number and extract viscoelasticity characteristics. The study is a comprehensive overview of the composition of different cereal grain genotypes when grown on the same...

  15. Wheat Nitrogen Fertilisation Effects on the Performance of the Cereal Aphid Metopolophium dirhodum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. J. Gash

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of five rates of nitrogen fertiliser applications on the performance of the cereal aphid Metopolophium dirhodum on winter wheat, within the range of rates recommended for UK crops, were investigated over two seasons in field-grown crops and also on plants grown in the glasshouse. Longevity was unaffected by the level of fertilisation, but aphid intrinsic rate of increase and fecundity increased with each level applied. In the second field season, when a higher upper limit was used, many of these increases were significant. A previously unreported finding for this species was that there was a significant decrease in fecundity for the highest rate of fertilisation. Results for the glasshouse-reared aphids followed a similar pattern to those in the field, and overall they underline recent reports in the literature of the negative effects of high nutrient concentrations on the performance of herbivorous insects. The underlying reasons for these are discussed.

  16. EFFECT OF PHYTATECONTENTS OF CEREAL BY-PRODUCTS ON BIOAVAILABILITY OF TOT AL PHOSPHORUS IN POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishtiaq Ahmad

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Four cereal by-products were examined for their total and phytate phosphorus contents. Feeding trial for bioavailability was conducted on 18 weeks old cockerels of White Leg Horn breed which were starved for24 hours and were forced-fed 30 grams of finely ground single feedstuff and droppings were collected at pre-determined time intervals. The bioavailability of total phosphorus for wheat bran, rice polishing, wheat middling and gram kara was 37.11 , 15.37,61.32 and 62.64%, respectively while phytate phosphorus contents were 0.66, 1.16, 0.24 and 0.17%, respectively. The bioavailability of total phosphorus was negatively correlated with the phytate phosphorus contents of these feed stuffs (P< 0.01 .

  17. An assessment of the biotechnological use of hemoglobin modulation in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Shah, Jay K; Simpson, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Non-symbiotic hemoglobin (nsHb) genes are ubiquitous in plants, but their biological functions have mostly been studied in model plant species rather than in crops. nsHb influences cell signaling and metabolism by modulating the levels of nitric oxide (NO). Class 1 nsHb is upregulated under hypoxia...... the effects of overexpression of class 1 nsHb in the monocotyledonous crop plant barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise). nsHb was shown to be involved in NO metabolism in barley, as ectopic overexpression reduced the amount of NO released during hypoxia. Further, as in Arabidopsis, nsHb overexpression...... in cereal crops. These findings highlight the necessity for using actual crop plants rather than laboratory model plants when assessing the effects of biotechnological approaches to crop improvement....

  18. Traditional Turkish Fermented Cereal Based Products: Tarhana, Boza and Chickpea Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tangüler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fermented products are one of the important foodstuffs in many countries of the world. People have gradually recognized the nutritional, functional and therapeutic value of these products and this has made them even more popular. Today, almost all consumers have a significant portion of their nutritional requirements fulfilled through these products. Scientific and technological knowledge is quite well developed for some fermented products such as wine, beer, cheese, and bread. These products are produced universally. However, scientific knowledge for some traditional foods produced locally in Turkey is still poor and not thorough. Numerous traditional, cereal-based fermented foods are produced in Turkey. The aim of this paper is to provide knowledge regarding the characterization, raw materials used for production, production methods, fermentation conditions and microorganisms which are effective in the fermentation of traditional foods. The study will focus on Boza, Tarhana, and Chickpea bread which are foods widely produced in Turkey.

  19. Bioactive Components and Functional Properties of Biologically Activated Cereal Grains: A Bibliographic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita

    2015-10-14

    Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. A wide range of these compounds is affected by germination. While some compounds, such as β-glucans are degraded, others, like antioxidants and total phenolics are increased by means of biological activation of grains. The water and oil absorption capacity as well as emulsion and foaming capacity of biologically activated grains are also improved. Application of biological activation of grains is of emerging interest, which may significantly enhance the nutritional, functional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability of grain foods in a natural way. Therefore, biological activation of cereals can be a way to produce food grains enriched with health promoting compounds and enhanced functional attributes.

  20. Cereal Straw Production Analysis, Availability of Materials, and Provincial Map for Manufacturing of Sustainable Prefabricated Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cobreros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, energy consumption and the demand for resources have gradually increased. The construction industry, by direct or indirect actions, consumes over 50% of the energy produced, is responsible for 30% of the CO2 emissions, and consumes more raw material than any other industrial activity. Architecture alone cannot solve global environmental problems, but it can contribute significantly. A high recyclability rate can be achieved through the management of renewable natural materials or waste. The application of prefabricated building systems can be an economical solution, saving energy and reducing waste. This work presents the prefabricated compressed straw panel as part of a paradigm shift toward sustainable architecture, which offers the opportunity to use new materials and construction systems but takes local and specific circumstances into account. The density of cereal straw for use in prefabricated compressed straw panel production in Badajoz, Spain was also studied.

  1. Thorium contents in soils, vegetables, cereals, and fruits. Thorium in Boeden, Gemuese, Getreide und Obst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frindik, O. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Zentrallaboratorium fuer Isotopentechnik)

    1989-09-01

    Thorium contents ({alpha}-activities of the naturally occurring isotopes Th-228, Th-230, and Th-232) were determined in soils, vegetables, cereals, and fruits. The thorium content of plants depends on the degree of contamination by soil resuspension and thus on the specific surface of the plants. The activity of the isotope Th-230 is almost the same as that of the main isotope Th-232. Th-228, with about the same activity as Th-232 in soil, increases to about 10-fold the activity in vegetables, 29-fold in sweet chestnuts and 740-fold in Brazil nuts. Thorium concentration factors from the soil to these vegetable products are calculated; they include the total concentration, not only the soluble portion of thorium. (orig.).

  2. Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Cultured Immature Embryos of Rye (Secale cereale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C Y; Chandler, S F; Vasil, I K

    1984-07-01

    Somatic embryogenesis was initiated in immature embryos of rye (Secale cereale L.) cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-D and sucrose. The developmental stage of the embryo (optimal embryo length 0.5-2.0 mm) and concentration of 2,4-D (optimal concentration 2.5 mg · l(-1)) were found to be critical in determining embryo response. The phenoxyacetic acids, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, and MCPA were more effective in initiating embryogenic callus and embryoid formation than other auxins (NAA, IBA, IAA, IPA). Embryogenic callus and embryoid production was greater in embryos cultured scutellum up, and more embryoids were formed in the dark than in the light. Embryoids germinated after transfer to basal medium with/without cytokinin or GA3. The regenerated plants were grown to maturity in soil and were shown to have the normal diploid chromosome number of 14.

  3. Monitoring Food Security Indicators from Remote Sensing and Predicting Cereal Production in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, M. S.; Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.

    2015-12-01

    We extract percent of basin snow covered areas above 2500m elevation from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 500-meter 8-day snow cover composites to monitor accumulation and depletion of snow in the basin. While the accumulation and depletion of snow cover extent provides an indication of the temporal progression of the snow pack, it does not provide insight into available water for irrigation. Therefore, we use snow model results from the National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center to quantify snow water equivalent and volume of water available within the snowpack for irrigation. In an effort to understand how water availability, along with its inter-annual variability, relates to the food security of the country, we develop a simple, effective, and easy-to-implement model to identify irrigated areas across the country on both annual and mid-season basis. The model is based on applying thresholds to peak growing season vegetation indices—derived from 250-meter MODIS images—in a decision-tree classifier to separate irrigated crops from non-irrigated vegetation. The spatial distribution and areal estimates of irrigated areas from these maps compare well with irrigated areas classified from multiple snap shots of the landscape from Landsat 5 optical and thermal images over selected locations. We observed that the extents of irrigated areas varied depending on the availability of snowmelt and can be between 1.35 million hectares in a year with significant water deficit and 2.4 million hectares in a year with significant water surplus. The changes in the amount of available water generally can contribute up to a 30% change in irrigated areas. We also observed that the strong correlation between inter-annual variability of irrigated areas and the variability in the country's cereal production could be utilized to predict an annual estimate of cereal production, providing early indication of food security scenarios for the country.

  4. Xerophiles and other fungi associated with cereal baby foods locally produced in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mady A. Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifty samples from five baby food products mainly made of cereal flour(s were analyzed. The moisture contents of these products were between 11.14% and 11.9%, a level below 14.0%, the recommended level for safe storage of cereal grains and their products. The mycological analysis was carried out using the dilution plate method and two isolation media (DG18 for isolation of xerophilic fungi and DRBC for fungi in general. A total of 80 species related to 37 genera in addition to some unidentified fungal and yeast species were recorded on both media from the five products. The products were contaminated abundantly by xerophilic fungi which were occurring in 88% of food samples and accounting for 18.1% of the total CFU as recorded on DG18. The highest contamination level by xerophiles was registered in Mwebaza rice porridge (a component of rice flour and the lowest in Mukuza (a product of maize, soyabean and sorghum flours. 11 xerophilic species were recorded of which Aspergillus and Eurotium (4 species each were the predominant giving rise to 9.1% and 8.9% of the total CFU, with A. wentii, A. candidus, E. cristatum and E. repens were the most contaminating species. Of the fungi recorded other than xerophiles, species of Aspergillus (particularly A. flavus followed by A. niger, Penicillium (P. citrinum, P. oxalicum, Fusarium (F. solani, F. tricinctum, Cladosporium (C. sphaerospermum and yeasts were the most predominant. Contamination of such foods is a matter of health hazard as these foods are for babies. So, the use of fresh, well-dried and uncontaminated flours for production of such foods is recommended.

  5. Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Inland Pacific Northwest Cereal Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenbrode, S. D.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Burke, I. C.; Capalbo, S.; Gessler, P.; Huggins, D. R.; Johnson-Maynard, J.; Kruger, C.; Lamb, B. K.; Machado, S.; Mote, P.; Painter, K.; Pan, W.; Petrie, S.; Paulitz, T. C.; Stockle, C.; Walden, V. P.; Wulfhorst, J. D.; Wolf, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The long-term environmental and economic sustainability of agriculture in the Inland Pacific Northwest (northern Idaho, north central Oregon, and eastern Washington) depends upon improving agricultural management, technology, and policy to enable adaptation to climate change and to help realize agriculture's potential to contribute to climate change mitigation. To address this challenge, three land-grant institutions (Oregon State University, the University of Idaho and Washington State University) (OSU, UI, WSU) and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) units are partners in a collaborative project - Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH-PNA). The overarching goal of REACCH is to enhance the sustainability of Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) cereal production systems under ongoing and projected climate change while contributing to climate change mitigation. Supporting goals include: - Develop and implement sustainable agricultural practices for cereal production within existing and projected agroecological zones throughout the region as climate changes, - Contribute to climate change mitigation through improved fertilizer, fuel, and pesticide use efficiency, increased sequestration of soil carbon, and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions consistent with the 2030 targets set by the USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), - Work closely with stakeholders and policymakers to promote science-based agricultural approaches to climate change adaptation and mitigation, - Increase the number of scientists, educators, and extension professionals with the skills and knowledge to address climate change and its interactions with agriculture. In this poster, we provide an overview of the specific goals of this project and activities that are underway since its inception in spring of 2011.

  6. [Determination of aflatoxins in cereals and oils by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiupin; Li, Peiwu; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qi; Fan, Sufang; Yu, Li; Wang, Lin; Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Ying; Jiang, Jun

    2011-06-01

    The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry was applied for the determination of the aflatoxins: B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2), in cereals and oils. The samples were first extracted by ultrasonic method. The optimized conditions of ultrasonic extraction were as follows: temperature of 50 degrees C, extraction time of 3 min, methanol-water (containing 40 g/L NaCl) (80: 20, v/v) solution as the medium and a ratio of sample to solvent of 1 : 3 (g: mL). The extracts were then purified using an immunoaffinity column. The separation was performed on a C18 column with mobile phases of 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate and methanol in gradient elution. The sensitive detection of the four AFT compounds by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was carried out in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) as the internal standard. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 0.002, 0.004, 0.004 and 0.012 microg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of aflatoxins in different spiked cereals and oils were in the range from 87% to 111%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were not more than 6.7% and 5.6%, respectively. In comparison with the external standard method, this method can effectively inhibit the matrix effects, and greatly improve the accuracy.

  7. Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers deplete soil nitrogen: a global dilemma for sustainable cereal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, R L; Khan, S A; Ellsworth, T R

    2009-01-01

    Cereal production that now sustains a world population of more than 6.5 billion has tripled during the past 40 yr, concurrent with an increase from 12 to 104 Tg yr(-1) of synthetic N applied largely in ammoniacal fertilizers. These fertilizers have been managed as a cost-effective form of insurance against low yields, without regard to the inherent effect of mineral N in promoting microbial C utilization. Such an effect is consistent with a net loss of soil organic C recently observed for the Morrow Plots, America's oldest experiment field, after 40 to 50 yr of synthetic N fertilization that substantially exceeded grain N removal. A similar decline in total soil N is reported herein for the same site and would be expected from the predominantly organic occurrence of soil N. This decline is in agreement with numerous long-term baseline data sets from chemical-based cropping systems involving a wide variety of soils, geographic regions, and tillage practices. The loss of organic N decreases soil productivity and the agronomic efficiency (kg grain kg(-1) N) of fertilizer N and has been implicated in widespread reports of yield stagnation or even decline for grain production in Asia. A major global evaluation of current cereal production systems should be undertaken, with a view toward using scientific and technological advances to increase input efficiencies. As one aspect of this strategy, the input of ammoniacal N should be more accurately matched to crop N requirement. Long-term sustainability may require agricultural diversification involving a gradual transition from intensive synthetic N inputs to legume-based crop rotations.

  8. Effects of different nonionic surfactants on in vitro fermentation characteristics of cereal straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Z H; Tang, S X; Tan, Z L; Sun, Z H; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Ren, G P

    2009-03-01

    The effects of 3 nonionic surfactants (NIS), including alkyl polyglucoside (APG), sorbitan trioleate (Span85), and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate (Tween80), on in vitro fermentation characteristics of maize stover, rice straw, and wheat straw were examined using an in vitro gas production technique. Four levels each of APG, Span85, and Tween80 [0, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.1% (vol/vol) of incubation solution] were tested in a 4 x 4 x 4 factorial arrangement. The NIS generally increased the in vitro maximal gas production (A), but decreased the lag time of cereal straws. The effects of NIS on the rate of gas production (B) were related to the surfactant type and fermented substrate. The NIS generally increased IVDMD and in vitro OM disappearance (IVOMD) of cereal straws, but responses were dose dependent. The NIS increased total VFA concentration of in vitro fermentation supernatant for maize stover and wheat straw, but decreased total VFA concentration for rice straw. The effects of NIS on the molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate were dependent on the dose and type of NIS and on fermented substrate. Several interactive effects were noted between or among 3 surfactants (APG, Span85, and Tween80) on in vitro gas production variables, IVD-MD, IVOMD, and VFA for each straw; the optimal combinations of 2 or 3 types of NIS were determined according to the responses of IVDMD and IVOMD to NIS addition. The results of this study suggest that NIS may improve in vitro fermentation of low quality roughages and have potential application as feed additives in ruminant production.

  9. Absorption of plant lignans from cereals in an experimental pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Adlercreutz, Herman; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2016-05-28

    Plant lignans are diphenolic compounds ingested with whole grains and seeds and converted to enterolignans by the colonic microbiota. In the present study, we investigated absorption and metabolism of plant lignans and enterolignans in vivo after consumption of cereal-based diets. Six pigs fitted with catheters in the mesenteric artery and portal vein and with a flow probe attached to the portal vein along with twenty pigs for quantitative collection of urine were used for this study. The animals were fed bread based on wheat flour low in plant lignans and three lignan-rich breads based on whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone flour or rye aleurone flour. Plant lignans and enterolignans in plasma were monitored daily at fast after 0-3 d of lignan-rich intake, and on the 4th day of lignan-rich intake a 10-h profile was completed. Urine samples were collected after 11 d of lignan-rich diet consumption. The concentrations of plant lignans were low at fast, and was 1·2-2·6 nmol/l after switching from the low-lignan diet to the lignan-rich diets. However, on the profile day, the concentration and quantitative absorption of plant lignans increased significantly from 33 nmol/h at fast to 310 nmol/h 0-2·5 h after ingestion with a gradual increase in the following periods. Quantitatively, the absorption of plant lignans across diets amounted to 7 % of ingested plant lignans, whereas the urinary excretion of plant lignans was 3 % across diets. In conclusion, there is a substantial postprandial uptake of plant lignans from cereals, suggesting that plant lignans are absorbed from the small intestine.

  10. Prospects for exploitation of disease resistance from Hordeum chilense in cultivated cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, D; Niks, R E; Carver, T L; Ballesteros, J; Martín, A

    2001-01-01

    Hordeum chilense is a South American wild barley with high potential for cereal breeding given its high crossability with other members of the Triticeae. In the present paper we consider the resistance of H. chilense to several fungal diseases and the prospects for its transference to cultivated cereals. All H. chilense accessions studied are resistant to the barley, wheat and rye brown rusts, the powdery mildews of wheat, barley, rye and oat, to Septoria leaf blotch, common bunt and to loose smuts, which suggests that H. chilense is a non-host of these diseases. There are also lines resistant to wheat and barley yellow rust, stem rust and to Agropyron leaf rust, as well as lines giving moderate levels of resistance to Septoria glume blotch, tan spot and Fusarium head blight. Some H. chilense lines display pre-appressorial avoidance to brown rust. Lines differ in the degree of haustorium formation by rust and mildew fungi they permit, and in the degree to which a hypersensitive response occurs after haustoria are formed. Unfortunately, resistance of H. chilense to rust fungi is not expressed in tritordeum hybrids, nor in chromosome addition lines in wheat. In tritordeum, H. chilense contributes quantitative resistance to wheat powdery mildew, tan spot and loose smut. The resistance to mildew, expressed as a reduced disease severity, is not associated with macroscopically visible necrosis. Hexaploid tritordeums are immune to Septoria leaf blotch and to common bunt although resistance to both is slightly diluted in octoploid tritordeums. Studies with addition lines in wheat indicate that the resistance of H. chilense to powdery mildew, Septoria leaf blotch and common bunt is of broad genetic basis, conferred by genes present on various chromosomes.

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of the Cereal Cyst Nematode, Heterodera avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Thakur, Prasoon Kumar; Banakar, Prakash; Shukla, Rohit N.; Jones, Michael G. K.; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp) that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy) revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs) but more glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million) value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb) for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction. PMID:24802510

  12. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

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    Mukesh Kumar

    Full Text Available The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs but more glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction.

  13. Multiplex dipstick immunoassay for semi-quantitative determination of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattanzio, Veronica M.T., E-mail: veronica.lattanzio@ispa.cnr.it [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy); Nivarlet, Noan [UNISENSOR S.A., Zoning industriel du Dossay, Rue du Dossay no 3, B-4020 Liege (Belgium); Lippolis, Vincenzo; Gatta, Stefania Della [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy); Huet, Anne-Catherine; Delahaut, Philippe [Centre d' Economie Rurale (CER Groupe), Rue du Point du Jour no 8, B-6900 Marloie (Belgium); Granier, Benoit [UNISENSOR S.A., Zoning industriel du Dossay, Rue du Dossay no 3, B-4020 Liege (Belgium); Visconti, Angelo [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed a rapid method based on a multiplex dipstick immunoassay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay allowed the determination of major Fusarium toxins in wheat, oats, maize. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained cut off levels close to EU regulatory levels. - Abstract: A multiplex dipstick immunoassay based method for the simultaneous determination of major Fusarium toxins, namely zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in wheat, oats and maize has been developed. The dipstick format was based on an indirect competitive approach. Four test lines (mycotoxin-BSA conjugates) and one control line were located on the strip membrane. Labelled antibodies were freeze-dried within the microwell. Two matrix-related sample preparation protocols have been developed for wheat/oats (not containing fumonisins) and maize (containing fumonisins) respectively. The use of a methanol/water mixture for sample preparation allowed recoveries in the range 73-109% for all mycotoxins in all tested cereals, with relative standard deviation less than 10%. The optimized immunoassay was able to detect target mycotoxins at cut off levels equal to 80% of EU maximum permitted levels, i.e. 280, 400, 1400 and 3200 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in maize, and 80, 400 and 1400 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins and deoxynivalenol in wheat and oats. Analysis of naturally contaminated samples resulted in a good agreement between multiplex dipstick and validated confirmatory LC-MS/MS. The percentage of false positive results was less than or equal to 13%, whereas no false negative results were obtained. Data on the presence/absence of 6 mycotoxins at levels close to EU regulatory levels were obtained within 30 min. The proposed immunoassay protocol is rapid, inexpensive, easy-to-use and fit for purpose of rapid screening of mycotoxins

  14. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

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    Vessela eATANASOVA-PENICHON

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation.

  15. Life cycle assessment of waste prevention in the delivery of pasta, breakfast cereals, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Giovanni; Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Waste prevention is the top priority of the European waste management strategy. In fact, as indicated in the latest Waste Framework Directive, the best option to deal with waste is not to generate it at all. In this framework, the distribution of loose dry food products through self-dispensing systems (so-called "loose distribution") is being considered worldwide as a practice to reduce the generation of packaging waste. This life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluates the environmental convenience of the loose distribution of dry pasta, breakfast cereals, and rice, in comparison with the traditional method of distribution. For each product, several baseline scenarios based on single-use packaging were compared with different waste prevention scenarios in which the product is distributed loose. The comparison addressed waste generation, 13 impact categories on the environment and human health, and the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) indicator. The results are significantly different for the 3 products. The loose distribution of pasta allows a 50% waste reduction and a decrease in the potential impacts only when compared with single-use cartonboard boxes. Conversely, when the comparison is made with single-use polypropylene bags, the loose distribution can even cause an increase in waste generation (up to 15%) and in the potential life cycle impacts. For breakfast cereals, the loose distribution allows a significant reduction in both the amount of waste (up to 84%) and the potential impacts, compared to the sale of traditional single-use bag-in-box packages. Finally, the loose distribution of rice permits a reduction in both waste generation (up to 86%) and most of the potential impacts. In particular, the impact reduction is higher when the reference single-use packaging that is replaced includes a cartonboard box. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:445-458. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. Respuesta de diferentes variedades de cereales a la inoculación con Bradyrhizobium sp. Response of different varieties of cereals to inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp.

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    Carlos José Bécquer Granados

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo dos experimentos de campo durante 2009, en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Sancti Spiritus, Cuba (2 1º 53' 00" latitud norte, 79° 21' 25" longitud oeste y 40 msnm, para determinar la respuesta de diferentes variedades de cereales a la biofertilización con Bradyrhizobium sp. La preparación de los inóculos y la inoculación de las semillas, se efectuaron según metodologías prestablecidas para este campo de estudio. El diseño experimental fue a través de parcelas divididas y 4 réplicas por tratamiento. Al control fertilizado se le aplicó nitrógeno (150 kg N ha-¹ y se evaluaron diferentes variables agronómicas. Se aplicó análisis de varianza bifactorial; las diferencias entre medias se determinaron por la dócima de comparación de Duncan y t-student. En el experimento con Triticum se concluye que los tratamientos con mejores respuestas, fueron Triticale-inoculado y a IRM37-inoculado y que Triticum secale superó en peso seco raíz y en longitud del tallo a T. aestivum, lo que hace a esta primera especie promisoria para condiciones de sequía. En el experimento con Zea mays se concluye que aunque en peso seco aéreo los mejores tratamientos correspondieron a la fertilización química, en peso seco de la mazorca el tratamiento Canilla-inoculado, presentó valores estadísticamente iguales al de los tratamientos fertilizados, por lo que se considera positiva la respuesta de esta variedad a la biofertilización. No obstante, no se descarta la influencia de las bacterias rizosféricas autóctonas en algunas de las variables estudiadas.Two field experiments were performed in 2009 at the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages Sancti Spiritus, Cuba (21° 53' 00" north, 79° 21' 25" west longitude and 40 m to determine the response of different varieties of cereals to bio-fertilization with Bradyrhizobium sp. The preparations of inocula and seed inoculation were made according to preset methodologies

  17. La importancia de los ingredientes funcionales en las leches y cereales infantiles The importance of functional ingredients in pediatric milk formulas and cereals

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    M. Rivero Urgell

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La alimentación durante los primeros meses de vida tiene una influencia decisiva no sólo en las fases tempranas del desarrollo del niño sino también en su salud a largo plazo. Por ello, la incorporación de nuevos ingredientes funcionales a las leches infantiles es hoy objeto de numerosos estudios, dando cada vez productos más novedosos y semejantes a la leche humana, patrón de oro, que los contiene en forma natural. Hoy día, los avances tecnológicos han permitido la obtención de estos ingredientes a partir de fuentes de tipo animal o vegetal para su adición en leches y cereales infantiles. En el presente estudio se revisa el interés nutricional y funcional de los principales ingredientes funcionales de interés en la alimentación del lactante, como son los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, beta-palmitato, nucleótidos, oligosacáridos con efecto prebiótico, probióticos, carnitina y taurina. Su incorporación en los alimentos infantiles ha sido posible tras la realización de estudios en animales y estudios clínicos que proporcionan una sólida base científica que garantiza tanto su correcta biodisponibilidad como su eficacia en el recién nacido. En el futuro, gracias a un mayor conocimiento de la composición de la leche materna y a la realización de estudios adicionales será posible la incorporación de nuevos ingredientes que permitan la obtención de leches infantiles cada vez más similares a nivel nutricional y funcional a la leche materna.Feeding during the first months of life has a decisive influence not only in early developmental phases of children but also in their long-term health. Therefore, inclusion of new functional ingredients to pediatric milk formulas is, nowadays, the matter of a number of studies, incorporating day-by-day newer products and more similar to human milk, the gold standard, which contains them in a natural way. Nowadays, technological advances have made possible to obtain these ingredients from

  18. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

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    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  19. Lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for the delivery of functional biomolecules and ingredients in cereal-based beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Deborah M; Mauch, Alexander; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we aim to describe the mechanisms by which LAB can fulfil the novel role of efficient cell factory for the production of functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of cereal-based beverages. LAB fermentation is a safe, economical, and traditional method of food preservation foremost, as well as having the additional benefits of flavor, texture, and nutrition amelioration. Additionally, LAB fermentation in known to render cereal-based foods and beverages safe, in a chemical-free, consumer-friendly manner, from an antinutrient and toxigenic perspective. Huge market opportunities and potential exist for food manufacturers who can provide the ideal functional beverage fulfilling consumer needs. Newly developed fermented cereal-based beverages must address markets globally including, high-nutrition markets (developing countries), lifestyle choice consumers (vegetarian, vegan, low-fat, low-salt, low-calorie), food-related non-communicable disease sufferers (cardiovascular disease, diabetes), and green label consumers (Western countries). To fulfil these recommendations, a suitable LAB starter culture and cereal-based raw materials must be developed. These strains would be suitable for the biopreservation of cereal beverages and, ideally, would be highly antifungal, anti-mycotoxigenic, mycotoxin-binding and proteolytic (neutralize toxic peptides and release flavor-contributing amino acids) with an ability to ferment cereals, whilst synthesizing oligosaccharides, thus presenting a major opportunity for the development of safe cereal-based prebiotic functional beverages to compete with and replace the existing dairy versions.

  20. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

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    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  1. Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption Patterns: The Relationship to Nutrient Intake, Whole Grain Intake, and Body Mass Index in an Older American Population

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    Ann M. Albertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between ready-to-eat (RTE breakfast cereal consumption patterns and body mass index (BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake in an older American population. Design. A cross-sectional survey of US households, collected by the NPD Group via the National Eating Trends (NET survey. Main outcome measures include BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake. Subjects/Setting. The sample included 1759 participants age 55 and older, which was divided into approximate quartiles based on intake of RTE breakfast cereal for the 2-week period (0 servings, 1–3 servings, 4–7 servings, and ≥8 servings. Results. In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for energy and age; intake of dietary fiber, whole grains, and the majority of micronutrients examined were found to be positively associated with frequent RTE cereal consumption. The proportion of participants consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR was lower for the highest quartile of RTE cereal consumers compared to nonconsumers, for the majority of vitamins and minerals examined. Significant differences in BMI between RTE breakfast cereal intake groups were found for men. Conclusion. Results suggest that ready-to-eat breakfast cereals may contribute to the nutritional quality of the diets of older Americans. Prospective studies and experimental trials are needed to better evaluate the role of RTE cereal consumption in energy balance.

  2. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  3. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

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    Yekimova V. B.

    2014-12-01

    according to the procedures used a method of washing and centrifugation, seeds, embryos analysis method, biological method based on the stimulation of development and growth of pathogens in the infected seeds during seed germination in nutrient media. We analyzed 200 samples of wheat and barley grain with 8 games on the definition of the infestation and root rot spores solid and smut. In all the samples studied was dominated latent form of infection grains (outwardly healthy, germinating, well executed seeds had normal luster, patina fungus was absent; but sometimes observed apparent lesion (plaque formation, a different degree of deformation of grains. When the microscope isolated fungi was established dominance of species such as fungi of the genera Alternaria, Helmintosporium, Fusarium, smut fungi. The research of cereal seeds showed that all the tested party for the harvest in 2014 were infected with different pathogens in different degrees. On the basis of literature data and our own observations, comparing infection rates average cereal seeds complex fungal diseases, it may be noted that in 2014 the percentage of infestation was higher than in previous years, there is a trend of growth in incidence. The results showed that the overall percentage of infected root rots seeds of spring wheat in 2014 was 55.5 %, the infestation of spring barley was 64.7 %. Compared to previous years the trend increase in the prevalence of fungal diseases on cereals: wheat infestation grew by 12.8 %, barley - 2.13 %. Smut infected - 11.2 % wheat, barley - 37.4 %. Infection bunt was 4.6 %, including 3.3 % of wheat; Barley 17.6 %. The growth and development of root rot during the growing season depended on the presence of soil infection. Infection of grain crops by smut diseases depend on the quality of seed sown. Reducing the prevalence of smut disease is possible at early winter and late spring sowing to prevent the spore germination at low temperature.

  4. Estudio de los parámetros que afectan al contenido de deoxinivalenol en cereales o alimentos a base de cereales obtenidos en comercios de Valencia (España.

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    PJ Hernández-Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las micotoxinas son metabolitos fúngicos que aparecen comúnmente como contaminantes de muchos cereales y pueden causar una amplia variedad de efectos tóxicos. En el presente estudio, se analizó un total de 182 muestras de diferentes cereales (arroz, trigo, maíz, avena, espelta, soja y tapioca obtenidos en establecimientos de la Comunidad Valenciana (España. Se examina la presencia de deoxinivalenol (DON y se realiza un estudio estadístico de las muestras según el tipo de cultivo (orgánico o convencional, su composición, el tipo de producto y la marca (comercial o blanca para estimar si estos parámetros influyen en la concentración de DON. Del total de muestras, 111 estaban contaminadas con DON, pero en concentraciones inferiores a los límites permitidos por la legislación europea. Se observó mayor incidencia de DON en muestras de trigo (80% seguidas de maíz (35% y arroz (13%, pero sin diferencia significativa (p>0,05 entre el tipo de cereal; ni con la práctica agrícola. Sin embargo, los resultados demostraron que el tipo de producto en el cereal procesado (p<0,001; los productos a base de lluvia y sémola presentaran valores mayores de DON que los fideos, los componentes del alimento procesado (p<0,01; los niveles de DON eran superiores en las rosquilletas de pan simples respecto a las rosquilletas con queso y con chocolate y la marca (p<0,05; las marcas blancas contienen más DON que las comerciales si influyen en los niveles de DON hallados en las muestras de trigo.

  5. ArylexTM active – new herbicide active and base for new cereals herbicides: ZyparTM and Pixxaro™ EC to control wide range of broadleaf weeds in cereals in Europe

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    Dzikowski, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Arylex™ active is a new auxinic herbicide for postemergence control of a range of important broadleaf weeds in cereals. It has been discovered and developed by Dow AgroSciences globally as a first member of the new ‘arylpicolinate‘ structural class. Arylex applied together with safener brings excellent crop safety and due to the rapid degradation in soil and plant tissue it does not limit the following crop choice. In Europe the first two herbicides containing this active are Zypar™ and Pixxaro™ EC. Zypar is a premix of Arylex and florasulam, delivering at the 1 L/ha maximum use rate 6 g ae/ha of Arylex and 5 g/ha of florasulam. It can be applied to all cereals, apart from oats, in autumn and spring. Spring application is allowed from BBCH 13 till BBCH 45, however the best performance is reached up to BBCH 32. Zypar’s spectrum of controlled weeds is very wide. Pixxaro EC is a combination of Arylex and fluroxypyr and at 0.5 l/ha dose rate delivers 6 g ae/ha of Arylex and 140 g ae/ha of fluroxypyr. It can be applied in all cereals, apart from oats, in spring from BBCH 13 till BBCH 45, while the best performance is observed between BBCH 30 and 45. Pixxaro EC shows excellent efficacy against key weeds, especially Galium aparine and at all growth stages. This herbicide brings a novel non-ALS solution and will be a key component of anti-resistance strategies for broadleaf weeds in cereals.

  6. Metal uptake via phosphate fertilizer and city sewage in cereal and legume crops in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, G; Javed, W; Hussain, A; Wahid, A; Murtaza, B; Owens, G

    2015-06-01

    Crop irrigation with heavy metal-contaminated effluents is increasingly common worldwide and necessitates management strategies for safe crop production on contaminated soils. This field study examined the phytoavailability of three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) in two cereal (wheat, maize) and legume (chickpea, mungbean) crops in response to the application of either phosphatic fertilizer or sewage-derived water irrigation over two successive years. Five fertilizer treatments, i.e. control, recommended nitrogen (N) applied alone and in combination of three levels of phosphorus (P), half, full and 1.5 times of recommended P designated as N0P0, N1P0, N1P0.5, N1P1.0, and N1P1.5, respectively. Tissue concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, and P were determined in various plant parts, i.e., root, straw, and grains. On the calcareous soils studied while maximum biomass production was obtained with application of P at half the recommended dose, the concentrations of metals in the crops generally decreased with increasing P levels. Tissue metal concentrations increased with the application of N alone. Translocation and accumulation of Zn and Cu were consistently higher than Cd. And the pattern of Cd accumulation differed among plant species; more Cd being accumulated by dicots than monocots, especially in their grains. The order of Cd accumulation in grains was maize > chickpea > mungbean > wheat. Mungbean and chickpea straws also had higher tissue Cd concentration above permissible limits. The two legume species behaved similarly, while cereal species differed from each other in their Cd accumulation. Metal ion concentrations were markedly higher in roots followed by straw and grains. Increasing soil-applied P also increased the extractable metal and P concentrations in the post-harvest soil. Despite a considerable addition of metals by P fertilizer, all levels of applied P effectively decreased metal phytoavailability in sewage-irrigated soils, and applying half of the

  7. Simple, spatial and predictive approach for cereal yield prediction in the semi-arid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Jihad; Khabba, Said; Er-Raki, Salah; Le page, Michel; Chahbi Bellakanji, Aicha; Lili Chabaane, Zohra; Ezzahar, Jamal; Zribi, Mehrez; Jarlan, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    The objective is to develop a simple, spatial and predictive approach of dry matter (DM) and grain yield (GY) of cereal in the semi-arid areas. The proposed method is based on the three efficiencies model of Monteith (1972). This approach summarizes the transformation of solar radiation to the dry matter (DM) by the climate (ɛc), interception (ɛi) and conversion (ɛconv) efficiencies. The method combines the maximum of ɛi and ɛconv (noted ɛimax and ɛconvmax) into a single parameter denoted ɛmax, calculating as a function of cumulating growing degree day (CGDD). Also, the stress coefficient ks, which affects the conversion of solar radiation to the biomass was calculated by the surface temperature or the water balance at the root zone. In addition, the expression of ks has been improved by the consideration of the results achieved by deficit irrigation (AquaCrop and STICS models) which showed that the value of ks from 0.7 to 1 didn't affect significantly the cereal production. For the partitioning of the dry matter developed, between straw and grain, the method proposed calculates a variable Harvest Index coefficient (HI). HI is deducted from CGDD and HI0max (maximal final harvest Index in the region of study). Finally, the approach calculates DM depending Satellite Information (NDVI and surface temperature Ts) and climatic data (solar radiation and air temperature). In the case of no availability of Ts, the amount of irrigation is required to calculate ks. Until now, the developed model has been calibrated and validated on the irrigated area R3, located 40 Km east of Marrakech. The evolutions of DM and GY were reproduced satisfactorily. R2 and RMSE are respectively 0.98 and 0.35 t/ha and 0.98 and 0.19 t/ha, respectively. Currently, additional tests are in progress on data relating to the Kairouan plain of Tunisia.

  8. Drought risk management for increased cereal production in Asian Least Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a serious abiotic factor inhibiting nutrient acquisition by roots and limiting cereal crop production in Asian Least Developed Countries (LDCs. Many studies revealed that balanced fertilization can improve photosynthetic activity by stabilizing superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, improve proline, abscisic acid (ABA and make the crop drought tolerant with efficient root system and finally improve crop yield. To mitigate drought stress, along with the usage of resistant and efficient genotypes, soil and foliar applications of macro- and micro-nutrients are being used in Asia. According to drought sensitivity index, the efficient genotypes are found more drought-tolerant than the inefficient ones. Studies revealed that irrigation alone is not sufficient to obtain satisfactory grain yield without balanced fertilization. At drought stress, the efficient genotypes accumulate higher quantities of ABA and proline, and exhibit higher activities of SOD, as compared with inefficient genotypes through greater nutrient accumulation by their longer and thinner root systems with high efficiency. Under severe drought with low nutritional status, the rate of photosynthesis, particularly water-use efficiency (WUE increases in the efficient genotypes than in the inefficient ones. Consequently, these physiological and morphological parameters result in better yield performance by efficient use of water. Under drought, soil application of NPK along with foliar application of zinc (Zn, boron (B and manganese (Mn increase grain yield as well as micronutrients concentration of the grain. The rate of photosynthesis, pollen viability, number of fertile spikes, number of grains per spike, and WUE are increased by late foliar application of these micronutrients. This indicates that, by increasing WUE foliar application of Zn, B and Mn at booting to anthesis can reduce the harmful effects of drought that often occur during the late stages of cereal

  9. Identification of the chromosome complement and the spontaneous 1R/1V translocations in allotetraploid Secale cereale × Dasypyrum villosum hybrids through cytogenetic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książczyk, Tomasz; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kulak-Książczyk, Sylwia; Wiśniewska, Halina; Stojałowski, Stefan; Łapiński, Mirosław

    2011-08-01

    Genome modifications that occur at the initial interspecific hybridization event are dynamic and can be consolidated during the process of stabilization in successive generations of allopolyploids. This study identifies the number and chromosomal location of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites between Secale cereale, Dasypyrum villosum, and their allotetraploid S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids. For the first time, we show the advantages of FISH to reveal chromosome rearrangements in the tetraploid Secale × Dasypyrum hybrids. Based on the specific hybridization patterns of ribosomal 5S, 35S DNA and rye species-specific pSc200 DNA probes, a set of genotypes with numerous Secale/Dasypyrum translocations of 1R/1V chromosomes were identified in successive generations of allotetraploid S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids. In addition we analyse rye chromosome pairs using FISH with chromosome-specific DNA sequences on S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids.

  10. Validated LC-MS/MS Method for the Quantification of Free and Bound Lignans in Cereal-Based Diets and Feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2016-01-01

    lignans (matairesinol, hydroxymatairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, syringaresinol, medioresinol, and pinoresinol) and two enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) in cereal-based diets/bread and feces. The method consisted of alkaline methanolic extraction combined...

  11. Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars using cold atmospheric plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Nisoa, Mudtorlep; Matan, Nirundorn

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize the operating parameters of cold atmospheric plasma treatment to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars. The effects of argon plasma jet treatment on the growth of A. flavus on malt extract agar (MEA) at powers of 20 W and 40 W with exposure times at 5, 15 and 25 min were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite face-centered (CCF) design. Multiple regression analysis indicated that plasma treatment at 40 W for 25 min is most effective for inhibiting growth of A. flavus on the agar medium. On brown rice cereal bars, plasma powered at 40 W for 20 min was capable of giving protection against A. flavus growth for up to 20 days under storage conditions of 25°C and 100% RH. These results demonstrated the potential of cold atmospheric plasma jet treatment to control mold growth on various food products.

  12. The impact of a high versus a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal on verbal episodic memory in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Foster, Jonathan K

    2008-10-01

    In this study, healthy adolescents consumed either (i) a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal or (ii) a high glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal, before completing a test of verbal episodic memory in which the memory materials were encoded under conditions of divided attention. Analysis of remembering/forgetting indices revealed that the high glycaemic index breakfast group remembered significantly more items relative to the low glycaemic index breakfast group after a long delay. The superior performance observed in the high glycaemic index group, relative to the low glycaemic index group, may be due to the additional glucose availability provided by the high glycaemic index meal at the time of memory encoding. This increased glucose availability may be necessary for effective encoding under dual task conditions.

  13. Prebiotic and other health-related effects of cereal-derived arabinoxylans, arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides, and xylooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekaert, Willem F; Courtin, Christophe M; Verbeke, Kristin; Van de Wiele, Tom; Verstraete, Willy; Delcour, Jan A

    2011-02-01

    Arabinoxylans (AX) from cereals are cell wall components that constitute an important part of the dietary fiber intake in humans. Enzymatic hydrolysis of AX yields arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS), consisting of arabinoxylooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides (XOS). This reaction takes place in the production of AXOS and of cereal-derived food products such as bread and beer, as well as in the colon upon ingestion of AX. This review mainly focuses on the available evidence that AXOS and XOS exert prebiotic effects in the colon of humans and animals through selective stimulation of beneficial intestinal microbiota. In addition, in vitro experiments and in vivo intervention studies on animals or humans are discussed that have investigated potential health-related effects resulting from the dietary intake of AX, AXOS, or XOS.

  14. Antioxidative effect of Assam Tea (Camellia sinesis Var. Assamica) extract on rice bran oil and its application in breakfast cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama-Ang, Niramon; Phawatwiangnak, Kamonyanun; Naruenartwongsakul, Srisuwan; Samakradhamrongthai, Rajnibhas

    2017-04-15

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the antioxidant effect of Assam tea extract (ATE) and whether it is fit to utilise ATE by fortification in rice bran breakfast cereal (RBC). The increasing ATE powder from 0.1 to 0.3mg/g affected to be decreased. The ATE powder at 0.3mg/g was proved to have decreased the hexanal content (0.21μg/ml) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (2.56μg/g) within 28days, and provided the highest antioxidant ability (EC50) (2481.44mg/kg). The fortified 0.3mg/g of ATE powder showed that increasing ATE significantly increased the total phenolic content and decreased TBARS and EC50 of breakfast cereal (ppurchase intention at 98.0% and 89.0%, respectively.

  15. Investigation of the herbicide glyphosate and the plant growth regulators chlormequat and mepiquat in cereals produced in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2001-01-01

    An LC-MS/ MS method for analysing glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in cereals was developed. The method is based on extraction with water and detection of the ions from the fragmentation m/z 170 --> 88 (glyphosate) and m/z 112 --> 30 (AMPA), using electrospray interface...... in the positive mode. Investigation from the harvests of 1998 and 1999 showed residues of glyphosate and/or its degradation product AMPA in more than half of the cereal samples produced in Denmark. The average concentration of glyphosate in 46 samples from the 1999 harvest was 0.11 mg/kg compared with 0.08 mg...... estimated to comprise 0.04% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for glyphosate and 1% of the ADI for chlormequat for an adult Dane....

  16. Diet supplementation for 5 weeks with polyphenol-rich cereals improves several functions and the redox state of mouse leucocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Pedro; Alvarado, Carmen; Mathieu, Florence; Jiménez, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    Background Cereals naturally contain a great variety of polyphenols, which exert a wide range of physiological effects both in vitro and in vivo. Many of their protective effects, including an improvement of the function and redox state of immune cells in unhealthy or aged subjects come from their properties as powerful antioxidant compounds. However, whether cereal-based dietary supplementation positively affects the immune function and cellular redox state of healthy subjects remains unclear. Aim of the study To investigate the effects of supplementation (20% wt/wt) for 5 weeks with four different cereal fractions on healthy mice. Methods Several parameters of function and redox state of peritoneal leukocytes were measured. The cereals, named B (wheat germ), C (buckwheat flour), D (fine rice bran) and E (wheat middlings) contained different amounts of gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, catechin, rutin and oryzanol as major polyphenols. Results In general, all cereal fractions caused an improvement of the leukocyte parameters studied such as chemotaxis capacity, microbicidal activity, lymphoproliferative response to mitogens, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) release, as well as oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSSG/GSH ratio, catalase (CAT) activity and lipid oxidative damage. We observed similar effects among the cereal fractions. Conclusions The results suggest that some of these effects may due, at least partially, to the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols naturally present in cereals. Since an appropriate function of the leukocytes has been proposed as marker of the health state, a short-term intake of cereals seems to be sufficient to exert a benefit in the health of the general population. However, further studies are needed to assess the optimal doses and to find out which active polyphenols are able to mediate the observed physiological effects before

  17. Synergistic effect of electrolyzed water and citric Acid against bacillus cereus cells and spores on cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Bae; Guo, Jin Yong; Rahman, S M E; Ahn, Juhee; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW), 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and 1% citric acid (CA) alone, and combinations of AcEW with 1% CA (AcEW + CA) and AlEW with 1% CA (AlEW + CA) against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and spores was evaluated as a function of temperature (25, 30, 40, 50, or 60 degrees C) and dipping time (3 or 6 h). A 3-strain cocktail of Bacillus cereus cells or spores of approximately 10(7) CFU/g was inoculated in various cereal grains (brown rice, Job's tear rice, glutinous rice, and barley rice). B. cereus vegetative cells and spores were more rapidly inactivated at 40 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. Regardless of the dipping time, all treatments reduced the numbers of B. cereus vegetative cells and spore by more than 1 log CFU/g, except the deionized water (DIW), which showed approximately 0.7 log reduction. The reductions of B. cereus cells increased with increasing dipping temperature (25 to 60 degrees C). B. cereus vegetative cells were much more sensitive to the combined treatments than spores. The effectiveness of the combined electrolyzed water (EW) and 1% CA was considerable in inhibiting B. cereus on cereal grains. The application of combined EW and CA for controlling B. cereus cells and spores on cereal grains has not been previously reported. Therefore, the synergistic effect of EW and CA may provide a valuable insight on reducing foodborne pathogens on fruits, vegetables, and cereal grains.

  18. Country-wise differences in perception of health-related messages in cereal-based food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saba, A.; Vassallo, M.; Sheperd, R.;

    2010-01-01

    collected from a sample of 2392 members of the public in Finland, Germany, Italy and the UK. The results from a conjoint task with a main effects additive model were reported. In general, the presence of a health claim on foods had positive influence on respondents perception of healthiness...... the four countries, suggesting that different cultures, traditions, and eating habits have to be taken into account before positioning cereal-based products containing beneficial compounds from grains on the market....

  19. Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, R; Matito, S.; Cubero, J.; Paredes, S.D.; De Franco, L.; Rivero, M.; Rodríguez, A. B.; Barriga, C.

    2012-01-01

    Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals ...

  20. The compositional mosaic of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in unprocessed cereals, food and feed products in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Adriaan; Audenaert, Kris; De Boevre, Marthe; Landschoot, Sofie; Bekaert, Boris; Munaut, Françoise; Eeckhout, Mia; Höfte, Monica; De Saeger, Sarah; Haesaert, Geert

    2014-07-02

    Global food safety depends on continuous monitoring of food contaminants such as mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-derived products. Here, we combine this type of investigation with quantitative occurrence data on Fusarium infestation of these products in extensive correlation studies. Finally, this contributes to a thorough understanding of the presence, origin and physiology of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) related mycotoxins and the correlations within their ranks. Two hundred and thirty-seven samples were analyzed from diverse cereal matrices, representing the most important stages of the cereal food and feed chain in Belgium. Food, feed and non-processed field samples were investigated, with a strong emphasis on whole-grain food products. Two approaches were pursued to estimate the full scope of FHB and its repercussions: UPLC-MS/MS was applied to detect twelve different mycotoxins, and Q-PCR was used to measure the presence of ten Fusarium species. We found that different matrices have different characteristic contamination profiles, and extensive correlation studies identified certain mycotoxins for future assessment (e.g. moniliformin produced by the Fusarium avenaceum/Fusarium tricinctum species group). The investigated harvest year of 2012 yielded many non-processed field materials containing elevated levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), while even in a so-called DON-year less prevalent toxins such as T-2 and HT-2 might be considered problematic due to their consistent co-occurrence with related mycotoxins. Our data illustrate complex interactions between the many Fusarium species that are responsible for FHB and their mycotoxins. Correlation studies demonstrate that consistent co-occurrence of mycotoxins is not to be neglected, and pinpoint issues for future surveillance and legislation.

  1. Exposure assessment to ochratoxin A in Catalonia (Spain) based on the consumption of cereals, nuts, coffee, wine, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, M B; Marín, S; Cano-Sancho, G; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) was analysed in composite samples of cereal-based baby foods, beer, breakfast cereals (corn- and rice and wheat-based), loaf bread, peanuts and pistachios. Foodstuffs were collected in hypermarkets and supermarkets from 12 cities in the Spanish region of Catalonia, and composite samples were prepared for analysis involving liquid-liquid extraction, followed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Consumption data for the selected foodstuffs were collected by means of a food-frequency questionnaire. The studied population was grouped by age in infants, children, adolescents and adults; and exposure to OTA through the specified foodstuffs, and through wine and coffee, was assessed. Exposure assessment was done through deterministic and probabilistic modelling of the contamination and consumption data. OTA occurrence and mean of positive samples (ng g(-1) or ng ml(-1), for beer) were the following: 8.7% and 0.233 in baby foods; 88.7% and 0.022 in beer; 2.8% and 0.728 in corn-based breakfast cereals; 25% and 0.293 in wheat-based breakfast cereals; 12.9% and 0.283 in loaf bread; 41.7% and 0.241 in peanuts; and 2.9% and 0.228 in pistachios. The median estimated daily intake of OTA through the foodstuffs by each age group were below the latest provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDIs) of 17 and 14 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2006 and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 2007, respectively, ranging from 1% and 2% of those values in adolescents and children, to 3% and 11% in adults and infants.

  2. Daily methane production pattern of Welsh ponies fed a roughage diet with or without a cereal mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dansen, O.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.; Jacobs, M.P.T.; Everts, H.; Doorn, van D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Methane production from Welsh ponies fed 2 isoenergetic diets (NE basis) at maintenance was studied in a crossover design with 4 mature geldings (230 ± 10.5 kg BW, mean ± SE). Treatments included a roughage-only (R) diet (5.1 kg DM/d) or a roughage plus cereal mix (RC) diet (2.5 kg DM hay/d plus 1.1

  3. Total 'shrink' losses, and where they occur, in commercially sized silage piles constructed from immature and mature cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P H; Swanepoel, N; Heguy, J M; Price, P; Meyer, D M

    2016-07-15

    Silage 'shrink' (i.e., fresh chop crop lost between ensiling and feedout) represents losses of potential animal nutrients which degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds. Regulatory efforts have, in some cases, resulted in semi-mandatory mitigations (i.e., dairy farmers select a minimum number of mitigations from a list) to reduce silage shrink, mitigations often based on limited data of questionable relevance to large commercial silage piles where silage shrink may or may not be a problem of a magnitude equal to that assumed. Silage 'shrink' is generally ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost during oven drying (vcoDM). As no research has documented shrink in large cereal silage piles, 6 piles ranging from 1456 to 6297tonnes (as built) were used. Three used cereal cut at an immature stage and three at a mature stage. Physiologically immature silages had generally higher (Pshrink (as well as from where in the piles it occurred) was little impacted by crop maturity, and whole pile vcoDM shrink was only ~35g/kg. Overall, real shrink losses (vcoDM) of large well managed cereal silage piles were relatively low, and a lower potential contributor to aerosol emissions of volatile carbon compounds than has often been assumed. Losses from the silage mass and the exposed silage face were approximately equal contributors to vcoDM shrink. Mitigations to reduce these relatively low emission levels of volatile organic compounds from cereal silage piles should focus on the ensiled mass and the exposed silage face.

  4. Oxidative stability of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalia da Silva Rodrigues Mendes; Cristiane Rodrigues Gomes-Ruffi; Moacir Evandro Lage; Fernanda Salamoni Becker; Adriane Alexandre Machado de Melo; Flávio Alves da Silva; Clarissa Damiani

    2013-01-01

    Food industries have been concerned about managing the waste generated by their production processes in order to minimize environmental impacts and also about the development of formulations with different and innovative ingredients such as fruits from the Brazilian savanna. Seeking to meet the expectations of consumers who desire healthy and practical products, this study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability and the variations in chemical composition and antioxidant potential of cereal ...

  5. Investigation of the herbicide glyphosate and the plant growth regulators chlormequat and mepiquat in cereals produced in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granby, K; Vahl, M

    2001-10-01

    An LC-MS/MS method for analysing glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in cereals was developed. The method is based on extraction with water and detection of the ions from the fragmentation m/z 170-->88 (glyphosate) and m/z 112-->30 (AMPA), using electrospray interface in the positive mode. Investigation from the harvests of 1998 and 1999 showed residues of glyphosate and/or its degradation product AMPA in more than half of the cereal samples produced in Denmark. The average concentration of glyphosate in 46 samples from the 1999 harvest was 0.11 mg/kg compared with 0.08 mg/kg for the 1998 harvest (n = 49). Thus, the figures were well below the maximum residue limit (MRL) and no violations were observed. The plant growth regulators chlormequat and/or mepiquat were investigated in cereals from the Danish harvest of 1999 where 83% of the samples contained chlormequat (n = 46) compared with 87% of the samples from the 1997 harvest (n = 52). The average concentration of chlormequat in 1999 was 0.32 mg/kg compared with 0.23 mg/kg in 1997. At 2.9 mg/kg, one sample of wheat bran was exceeding the MRL of 2 mg/kg for wheat. The intakes of the pesticides through the diet of cereals were estimated to comprise 0.04% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for glyphosate and 1% of the ADI for chlormequat for an adult Dane.

  6. Fate of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal product supply chain: the DON case within industrial bread-making technology

    OpenAIRE

    BERGAMINI, Elena; Catellani, Dante; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Galaverna, Gianni; Dossena, Arnaldo; Marchelli, Rosangela; Suman, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Fusarium mycotoxins are a relevant problem in the cereal supply chain at a worldwide level, being wheat, maize and barley the main contaminated crops; mould growth could happen in the pre-harvest phase and also during transport and storage due to ineffective drying conditions. Among Fusarium toxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) is considered the most important contaminant in wheat, due to its wide-spread occurrence. In the last years the European Food Safety Authority and the Euro...

  7. Analysis of the Fusarium mycotoxin moniliformin in cereal samples using 13C2-moniliformin and high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bargen, Katharina Walburga; Lohrey, Lilia; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-04-11

    Moniliformin is a mycotoxin produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus and occurs as a contaminant of different cereals worldwide. This study describes the first application of isotopically labeled (13)C(2)-moniliformin for the analysis of moniliformin in cereals. Moniliformin is a small and ionic molecule that forms only a single sensitive fragment ion in the collision cell of a tandem mass spectrometer. Therefore, the methods described in the literature for this kind of instrument observe only a single mass transition and show a relatively poor sensitivity. The use of high-resolution mass spectrometry was described to be a suitable alternative technique for the detection of this compound and was therefore applied in this study. The developed method is based on the use of strong anion exchange columns for cleanup prior to HPLC analysis and has a recovery rate of 75.3%, a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.7 μg/kg, and a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 2.5 μg/kg. Twenty-three different cereal samples were analyzed for their moniliformin content. Twenty of them showed positive results with levels up to 126 ± 12.2 μg/kg.

  8. CORRELACIÓN DE MODELOS MATEMÁTICOS DE ADSORCIÓN DE HUMEDAD EN CEREALES PARA DESAYUNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Prieto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo ha sido aplicar los modelos de GAB para evaluar isotermas de adsorción según niveles de actividad de agua (aW en tres variedades de cereales para desayuno y su correlación con otros modelos matemáticos. Se concluye que en el cereal hojuelas de maíz, los incrementos de masa por adsorción de agua son más marcados que en los demás cereales, aunque se produce a velocidades menores; le siguen las hojuelas de trigo y de arroz. Esto se explica, por los más altos contenidos de azúcares en las hojuelas de maíz y por los contenidos de almidones más altos tanto en maíz como en trigo. Corrobora que en productos alimenticios ricos en azúcares no se presentan altas velocidades de adsorción de agua a bajos niveles de aW, pero suelen presentar altas capacidades de adsorción, sólo que lo hacen de manera más lenta, por la higroscopicidad de los azúcares.

  9. Determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals by pressurized liquid extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Rangel, M; Delgado-Zamarreño, M M; Sánchez-Pérez, A; Carabias-Martínez, R

    2007-03-28

    A rapid analytical method including pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) has been developed for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals. The pressurized liquid extraction parameters were optimized in order to maximize the extraction efficiency. The use of methanol as extraction solvent at a temperature of 50 degrees C and a pressure of 110 bar, using one cycle of extraction with a static time of 5 min, provided the best results. A good LC separation was achieved using a C(18) column and a solution of 6.0 mM ammonia in methanol/water (97:3, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min(-1). MS coupling with an ESI interface in the negative ion mode was used as the detection technique. In the present work, it is shown that the addition of a base to the mobile phase is required to enhance the ionization of tocopherols and tocotrienols in negative ion mode electrospray ionization. The applicability of the method to cereal samples was confirmed. The reproducibility of the procedure was good, with relative standard deviations in the 6-10% range. The recoveries of added tocopherols from cereal samples ranged from 91 to 109%.

  10. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children.

  11. Oxidative stability of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia da Silva Rodrigues Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food industries have been concerned about managing the waste generated by their production processes in order to minimize environmental impacts and also about the development of formulations with different and innovative ingredients such as fruits from the Brazilian savanna. Seeking to meet the expectations of consumers who desire healthy and practical products, this study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability and the variations in chemical composition and antioxidant potential of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging. The bars formulated were packed in four different types of packaging: laminated without vacuum (LWV, transparent without vacuum (TWV, transparent under vacuum (TV, and laminated under vacuum (LV; they were subsequently analyzed for proximate composition, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant activity, and oxidative capacity. The results showed that the cereal bars made with fruit peel and baru are sources of protein, dietary fiber, and fat, especially unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acids. The cereal bars exhibited oxidative stability up to 120 days of storage, and the type of packaging was not significant for the variables evaluated; therefore, they can be stored in low cost packaging such as transparent packaging without vacuum for a period of 120 days.

  12. Commercial breakfast cereals available in Mexican markets and their contribution in dietary fiber, β-glucans and protein quality by rat bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Villa, María R; Barrón-Hoyos, Jesús M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J

    2014-09-01

    The beneficial effect of dietary fiber (DF) consumption has long been recognized. The global economy and open market trade policies have increased the availability of food products in Mexican markets, resulting in a wide variety of ready-to-eat commercial breakfast cereals classified as 'high fiber'. This research was aimed to evaluate the total dietary fiber contents, its fractions (soluble and insoluble) and β-glucan in 13 commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals, as well as to evaluate their protein quality by rat bioassays. Commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals had 7.42-39.82% insoluble dietary fiber, 2.53-12.85% soluble dietary fiber, and 0.45-4.96% β-glucan. These ready-to-eat commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals differed significantly in their total dietary fiber, their soluble and insoluble DF fractions, and also in their β-glucan contents. When supplied as experimental diets, in 14-day rat feeding trials, the 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals showed an adverse effect on the % N digestibility but protein utilization, as measured as net protein ratio (NPR), was not significantly affected. The consumption of these commercial breakfast cereals, especially those made of oats as the basic ingredient, is highly recommended, since these products, being a concentrated source of dietary fiber, do not affect their protein quality.

  13. Cereal bars enriched with antioxidant substances and rich in fiber, prepared with flours of acerola residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Tamara Rezende; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; de Carvalho Alves, Ana Paula; Simão, Anderson Assaid; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; de Oliveira Ramos, Vinicius

    2015-08-01

    In the processing for obtaining acerola juice, a large amount of residues, which is usually discharged, is generated (seeds and bagasse). Adding value to these by-products is of great interest, since their use can enrich human food as a good source of nutrients and dietary fiber. In this study, acerola seed flours (ASF) and acerola bagasse flours (ABF) were used to develop cereal bars (CB) in different combinations with brown oats: CB 1: control - with the addition of 25% brown oats, CB 2: with the addition of 12.5% ASF and 12.5% ABF, CB 3: with the addition of 6.25% ASF and 18.75% ABF, CB 4: with the addition of 12.5% ASF and 12.5% brown oats and CB 5: with the addition of 12.5% ABF and 12.5% brown oats. These bars were sensorially evaluated and CB 1, CB 4 and CB 5 received the highest scores. We conclude that CB 4 and CB 5 can be considered as products with enhanced nutritional value, containing iron with a low energetic value and high levels of dietary fibre, besides being enriched with antioxidants.

  14. Sensitive detection of ochratoxin A in wine and cereals using fluorescence-based immunosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Simón, Beatriz; Karube, Isao; Saiki, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin found in a wide range of food and feedstuffs. Intake of OTA-contaminated food causes health concern due to the harmful effects reported on humans and animals. Much effort is currently devoted to set up and optimise highly sensitive and accurate methods of OTA analysis. This work describes the comparison of fluorescence-based immunosensing strategies for the analysis of OTA. First, an indirect competitive fluoroimmunoassay was designed and optimised. The assay enabled the quantification of the toxin at the levels set by the European legislation. Then, a flow-immunoassay based on kinetic exclusion measurements was developed. It showed the theoretical lowest limit of detection enabled by the affinity of the anti-OTA antibody (IC(80)=12ngL(-1) in the assay solution). Wine and cereal samples were analysed using the optimised flow system. No significant matrix effects were observed after simple pre-treatment of wine and OTA extraction from corn-flakes samples. This simple and highly sensitive automated biosensing-system allows OTA quantification in food and beverages. It is envisaged as a powerful tool for rapid and reliable toxin screening.

  15. Differentiation of shoot elements from the rachis of Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Rybczyński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro culture of young Secale cereale spikes is described with special attention given to changes in development of the rachis. 7 mm explants were cultivated on a modified M u r a s h i g e and S k o o g (1962 medium (MS supplemented with 2,4-D (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, NAA (α-naph-thaleneacetic acid, IAA (β-indoleacetic acid, 2,4,5-T (trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and ZEA (zeatin, KIN (kinetin, BAP (6-benzylaminopurine, IPA (izopentenyladenine or 2 iP in numerous combinations and concentrations. Rachises differentiated branches with node construction in the presence of synthetic auxin. Rhizogenesis of explants was stimulated by 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. 2,4,5-T + IPA appeared to be the best combination for callus regeneration. Many meristematic centres were found previously and combinations of NAA + KIN stimulated direct, whereas 2,4-D + ZEA indirect, differentiation of shoot elements. Development was observed from plantlets to flowering plants.

  16. Value Sharing and Food System Dynamics for Milk, Tomato, and Cereals food Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Bertazzoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse value sharing and food system dynamics of milk, tomato, and cereals food chains, so to explore the agro-food enterprises capacity to be competitive and sustainable. The paper is based on the functionalist approach of Malassis and the notion of the system of the General Systems Theory. The methodology is aimed at creating a consolidated financial statement for each food chain so to re-create the chain value and identify how this is shared among the different food chain stages. The analysis is carried out on primary and secondary data: around 2400 financial statements concerning 480 enterprises from 2003 to 2007 and stakeholders’ interviews. Results show that value is usually created in the processing and distribution stages, to the detriment of the primary sector, and that the retail managing practices tend to impose damaging structural changes on farms whose profitability is at times becoming sustainable only thanks to European subsidies. To conclude, there is evidence of inadequate definition of strategic and network alliance along the chain. Competitiveness is still a concept achieved by single food chain stages against others and food chain internal competition entails a declining sustainability of small farms and enterprises.

  17. Comparative analysis of multiple disease resistance in ryegrass and cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Ki; Barker, Reed; Pfender, William; Warnke, Scott; Sim, Sung-Chur; Jung, Geunhwa

    2008-08-01

    Ryegrass (Lolium spp.) is among the most important forage crops in Europe and Australia and is also a popular turfgrass in North America. Previous genetic analysis based on a three-generation interspecific (L. perennexL. multiflorum) ryegrass population identified four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to gray leaf spot (Magneporthe grisea) and four QTLs for resistance to crown rust (Puccinia coronata). The current analysis based on the same mapping population detected seven QTLs for resistance to leaf spot (Bipolaris sorokiniana) and one QTL for resistance to stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in ryegrass for the first time. Three QTLs for leaf spot resistance on linkage groups (LGs) 2 and 4 were in regions of conserved synteny to the positions of resistance to net blotch (Drechslera teres) in barley (Hordeum vulgare). One ryegrass genomic region spanning 19 cM on LG 4, which contained three QTLs for resistance to leaf spot, gray leaf spot, and stem rust, had a syntenic relationship with a segment of rice chromosome 3, which contained QTLs for resistance to multiple diseases. However, at the genome-wide comparison based on 72 common RFLP markers between ryegrass and cereals, coincidence of QTLs for disease resistance to similar fungal pathogens was not statistically significant.

  18. Emerging and Established Technologies to Increase Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilizers are one of the most expensive inputs in agricultural settings. Additionally, the loss of N increases costs, contributes to soil acidification, and causes off-site pollution of the air, groundwater and waterways. This study reviews current knowledge about technologies for N fertilization with potential to increase N use efficiency and reduce its negative effects on the environment. Classic inorganic sources such as urea and ammonium sulfate are the major sources utilized, while controlled N release fertilizers have not been significantly adopted for cereals and oil crops. Microorganisms, with the exception of Rhizobium sp. in soybeans, are also not widely used nowadays (e.g., plant growth-promoting bacteria and cynobacteria. The interest in implementing new N fertilization knowledge is stimulating the development of sensors to diagnose the N status and decision support systems for integrating several variables to optimize sources, rates and methods of application. Among potential new technologies we identified the incipient development of nanofertilizers, nutrient formulations to coat seeds, and recycled nutrients. Furthermore, increasing concern about the environmental consequences of N may facilitate the implementation of innovations outside the farm such as more effective regulations to guide N fertilization and methods to manufacture N fertilizers that are more energy-efficient and less CO2 equivalent emitting.

  19. Composition and Physico-Chemical Properties of Meat from Capons Fed Cereals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga Díaz; Luisana Rodríguez; Alexandr Torres; Ángel Cobos

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of breast and drumstick meat from capons (castrated male cockerels) fed cereals were studied. Three groups of capons were reared. One group was fed ad libitum the same commercial diet until the 4th mon of life. The last month of its life, the capons of this group were fed corn. The second and third group of capons were fed the same diet from caponization. The second group was fed mixture of corn (50%) and wheat (50%). The third group of capons was fed 2/3 corn and 1/3 mixture of corn (50%) and barley (50%). Capons were reared under free-range conditions and slaughtered at 150 d of age. Caponization was performed at 48 d. No signiifcant effects of feeding in chemical composition, pH, water holding capacity, drip and cooking losses and texture of the meat were observed. The meat of the third group (capons fed 83%corn) was more yellow and showed higher content of C18:2 than that of the other capons.

  20. Proteomic profiling of 16 cereal grains and the application of targeted proteomics to detect wheat contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2015-06-01

    Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification. Subsequently, candidate wheat-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. The selected markers were unique to wheat, yet present in a wide range of wheat varieties that represent up to 80% of the bread wheat genome. The final analytical method was rapid (15 min) and robust (CV 0.98) spanning over 3 orders of magnitude, and was highly selective and sensitive with detection down to 15 mg/kg in intentionally contaminated soy flour. Furthermore, application of this technology revealed wheat contamination in commercially sourced flours, including rye, millet, oats, sorghum, buckwheat and three varieties of soy.

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in the presence of cereal soluble fibre polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Dolan, Grace; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    The in vitro amylolysis of both granular and cooked maize starch and the diffusion of glucose in the presence of 1% and 2% cereal soluble fibre polysaccharides (arabinoxylan and mixed linkage beta-glucan) were studied at various levels of shear mixing in order to identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying observed glycemia-reducing effects of soluble fibres in vivo. The presence of soluble fibres increased viscosity by ca. 10× and 100× for 1% and 2% concentrations respectively. Despite this large difference in viscosity, measured digestion and mass transfer coefficients were only reduced by a factor of 1.5 to 2.5 at the same mixing speed. In contrast, introduction of mixing in the digesting and diffusing medium significantly increased the rate of amylolytic starch digestion and mass transfer of glucose. This effect is such that mixing at high speeds negates the hindering effect of the 100× increased viscosity imparted by the presence of 2% soluble fibre; this is essentially captured by the Reynolds number (the ratio of inertial and viscous forces) that defines the flow kinematics. The modest reduction of in vitro starch hydrolysis and glucose diffusion at increased viscosity suggests that the established benefits of soluble fibres on post-prandial glycaemia, in terms of attenuation of the overall rate and extent of dietary starch conversion to blood glucose, are not primarily due to a direct effect of viscosity. Alternative hypotheses are proposed based on gastric emptying, restriction of turbulent flow, and/or stimulation of mucus turnover.

  2. The Potential for Cereal Rye Cover Crops to Host Corn Seedling Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Matthew G; Acharya, Jyotsna; Moorman, Thomas B; Robertson, Alison E; Kaspar, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil and water quality. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn may diminish beneficial rotation effects because two grass species are grown in succession. Here, we show that rye cover crops host pathogens capable of causing corn seedling disease. We isolated Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, Pythium sylvaticum, and P. torulosum from roots of rye and demonstrate their pathogenicity on corn seedlings. Over 2 years, we quantified the densities of these organisms in rye roots from several field experiments and at various intervals of time after rye cover crops were terminated. Pathogen load in rye roots differed among fields and among years for particular fields. Each of the four pathogen species increased in density over time on roots of herbicide-terminated rye in at least one field site, suggesting the broad potential for rye cover crops to elevate corn seedling pathogen densities. The radicles of corn seedlings planted following a rye cover crop had higher pathogen densities compared with seedlings following a winter fallow. Management practices that limit seedling disease may be required to allow corn yields to respond positively to improvements in soil quality brought about by cover cropping.

  3. Mycotoxin Contamination in the EU Feed Supply Chain: A Focus on Cereal Byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pinotti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins represent a risk to the feed supply chain with an impact on economies and international trade. A high percentage of feed samples have been reported to be contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. In most cases, the concentrations were low enough to ensure compliance with the European Union (EU guidance values or maximum admitted levels. However, mycotoxin co-contamination might still exert adverse effects on animals due to additive/synergistic interactions. Studies on the fate of mycotoxins during cereal processing, such as milling, production of ethanol fuels, and beer brewing, have shown that mycotoxins are concentrated into fractions that are commonly used as animal feed. Published data show a high variability in mycotoxin repartitioning, mainly due to the type of mycotoxins, the level and extent of fungal contamination, and a failure to understand the complexity of food processing technologies. Precise knowledge of mycotoxin repartitioning during technological processes is critical and may provide a sound technical basis for feed managers to conform to legislation requirements and reduce the risk of severe adverse market and trade repercussions. Regular, economical and straightforward feed testing is critical to reach a quick and accurate diagnosis of feed quality. The use of rapid methods represents a future challenge.

  4. Contribution of intestinal- and cereal-derived phytase activity on phytate degradation in young broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, N K; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Burton, E J

    2015-07-01

    There is little consensus as to the capability of poultry to utilize dietary phytate without supplemental phytase. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to examine the extent to which endogenous phytase of intestinal and cereal origin contributes to phytate degradation in birds aged 0 to 14 d posthatch. Ross 308 broilers (n = 720) were fed one of 4 experimental diets with differing dietary ingredient combinations and approximate total phytate levels of 10 g/kg, dietary phytase activity analyzed at 460 U/kg, dietary calcium (Ca) levels of 11 g/kg, and nonphytate-phosphorus (P) levels of 4 g/kg. Broiler performance, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum and ileum pH, Ca and P digestibility and solubility, amount of dietary phytate hydrolyzed in the gizzard, jejunum, and ileal digesta phytase activity were analyzed at d 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 posthatch. Intestinal endogenous phytase activity increased significantly (P Phytase activity and phytate hydrolysis continued to increase with age, with a greater phytase activity and associated increase in phytate hydrolysis and mineral utilization between d 10 and 12. Gizzard and jejunum Ca and P solubility and ileal Ca and P digestibility increased significantly (P phytase activity recovered in the ileum was approximately 45 U/kg. There were strong correlations between phytase activity measured in the ileum and phytate hydrolyzed in the gizzard (r = 0.905, P phytase activity is responsible for phytate-P hydrolysis in broilers.

  5. Influence of some packaging materials and of natural tocopherols on the sensory properties of breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito M; Caponio, Francesco; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

    2014-04-01

    The combined effect of natural antioxidants and packaging materials on the quality decay of breakfast cereals during storage was evaluated. Corn flakes were produced on industrial scale, using different packages and adding natural tocopherols to the ingredients, and stored for 1 year. The samples were then submitted to sensory analysis and HS-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) analysis. The packaging had a significant influence on the sensory profile of the aged product: metallized polypropylene gave the highest levels of oxidation compounds and sensory defects. The sensory profile was improved using polypropylene and especially high-density polyethylene. Natural tocopherols reduced the sensory decay of the flakes and the oxidative evolution of the volatile profile. They gave the most remarkable improvement in polypropylene (either metallized or not) packs. Polypropylene showed a barrier effect on the scalping of volatiles outside of the pack. This led to higher levels of oxidation volatiles and faster rates of the further oxidative processes involving the volatiles.

  6. [Cereal bars with peanut and puffed amaranthus: chemical composition and stability in accelerated storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Vásquez, M; Castillo, E; Yañez, E

    1994-03-01

    Three different cereal bars, CM3A-CM3B and CM3C were prepared following the flow sheat of Escobar et al: different amount of oat, wheat germ, and puffed amaranthus were used: to stick them together, natural sweeteners and fats were added. Proximate analysis, were run on raw materials and snack bars. They were evaluated organoleptically to know their quality and acceptability. Bars were kept in accelerated storage at 37 degrees C during 15 days to know their stability. Every 5 days were measured the water activity (Aw), moisture, and peroxides development; also appearance of organoleptic randicity. Acceptability of bar CM3B was 91.67% with 0.0% of rejection; CM3A and CM3C got the same acceptability (66.67%) and 8.33% of rejection. In accelerate storage, Aw and moisture content decreased until reaching a value of 0.48 and 5.9 in the CM3B bar, respectively. Peroxide content of CM3B and CM3C increased gradually up to 12 and 17 meq/kg respectively at 15 days. Rancyd aroma appearance was not the same in the bars, CM3A and CM3B had a decreasing at 15 days, while CM3C showed an increasing at the same time. In brief, CM3B showed the best sensory quality, the higher acceptability and the greater stability in accelerated storage.

  7. Evolutionary Agroecology: the potential for cooperative, high density, weed-suppressing cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jacob; Andersen, Sven B; Wille, Wibke K-M; Griepentrog, Hans W; Olsen, Jannie M

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary theory can be applied to improve agricultural yields and/or sustainability, an approach we call Evolutionary Agroecology. The basic idea is that plant breeding is unlikely to improve attributes already favored by millions of years of natural selection, whereas there may be unutilized potential in selecting for attributes that increase total crop yield but reduce plants' individual fitness. In other words, plant breeding should be based on group selection. We explore this approach in relation to crop-weed competition, and argue that it should be possible to develop high density cereals that can utilize their initial size advantage over weeds to suppress them much better than under current practices, thus reducing or eliminating the need for chemical or mechanical weed control. We emphasize the role of density in applying group selection to crops: it is competition among individuals that generates the 'Tragedy of the Commons', providing opportunities to improve plant production by selecting for attributes that natural selection would not favor. When there is competition for light, natural selection of individuals favors a defensive strategy of 'shade avoidance', but a collective, offensive 'shading' strategy could increase weed suppression and yield in the high density, high uniformity cropping systems we envision.

  8. Tarhana as a traditional Turkish fermented cereal food. Its recipe, production and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglioglu, O

    2000-04-01

    As a fermented product tarhana is the dry form of yogurt-cereal mixture and represents an important part of the diets of many people in Turkey. It is prepared by mixing wheat flour, yogurt, yeast and a variety of cooked vegetables (tomatoes, onions, green pepper etc.), salt, and spices (mint, paprika) followed by fermentation for one to seven days. Generally one part yogurt is mixed with two parts of wheat flour (w/w). In commercial production there are two methods for tarhana making. First method is called straight method and ingredients in the recipe is mixed and kneaded, fermented, dried and finally sieved. Second method is called sour dough method that contains three steps, each one has a different recipe. Throughout fermentation lactic acid bacteria and yeast give the characteristic taste and flavour of tarhana by producing lactic acid, ethanol, carbondioxide and some other organic compounds. Organic acids composed in fermentation period lower the pH (3.4-4.2), and low moisture content (6-10%) is a poor medium for pathogens and spoilage organisms. The nutrient content of tarhana depends upon yogurt and flour ratios as well as some other ingredients, and it is also considered to be a useful high-protein dietary supplement with average 15% protein content. Addition of set yogurt due to high dry matter content and baker's yeast increase protein content and enhances it's amino acid composition.

  9. Mycotoxin Contamination in the EU Feed Supply Chain: A Focus on Cereal Byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Luciano; Ottoboni, Matteo; Giromini, Carlotta; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Cheli, Federica

    2016-02-15

    Mycotoxins represent a risk to the feed supply chain with an impact on economies and international trade. A high percentage of feed samples have been reported to be contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. In most cases, the concentrations were low enough to ensure compliance with the European Union (EU) guidance values or maximum admitted levels. However, mycotoxin co-contamination might still exert adverse effects on animals due to additive/synergistic interactions. Studies on the fate of mycotoxins during cereal processing, such as milling, production of ethanol fuels, and beer brewing, have shown that mycotoxins are concentrated into fractions that are commonly used as animal feed. Published data show a high variability in mycotoxin repartitioning, mainly due to the type of mycotoxins, the level and extent of fungal contamination, and a failure to understand the complexity of food processing technologies. Precise knowledge of mycotoxin repartitioning during technological processes is critical and may provide a sound technical basis for feed managers to conform to legislation requirements and reduce the risk of severe adverse market and trade repercussions. Regular, economical and straightforward feed testing is critical to reach a quick and accurate diagnosis of feed quality. The use of rapid methods represents a future challenge.

  10. Sterility Caused by Floral Organ Degeneration and Abiotic Stresses in Arabidopsis and Cereal Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Rae Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural floral organ degeneration or abortion results in unisexual or fully sterile flowers, while abiotic stresses lead to sterility after initiation of floral reproductive organs. Since normal flower development is essential for plant sexual reproduction and crop yield, it is imperative to have a better understanding of plant sterility under regular and stress conditions. Here, we review the functions of ABC genes together with their downstream genes in floral organ degeneration and the formation of unisexual flowers in Arabidopsis and several agriculturally significant cereal grains. We further explore the roles of hormones, including auxin, brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, gibberellic acid, and ethylene, in floral organ formation and fertility. We show that alterations in genes affecting hormone biosynthesis, hormone transport and perception cause loss of stamens/carpels, abnormal floral organ development, poor pollen production, which consequently result in unisexual flowers and male/female sterility. Moreover, abiotic stresses, such as heat, cold, and drought, commonly affect floral organ development and fertility. Sterility is induced by abiotic stresses mostly in male floral organ development, particularly during meiosis, tapetum development, anthesis, dehiscence, and fertilization. A variety of genes including those involved in heat shock, hormone signaling, cold tolerance, metabolisms of starch and sucrose, meiosis, and tapetum development are essential for plants to maintain normal fertility under abiotic stress conditions. Further elucidation of cellular, biochemical and molecular mechanisms about regulation of fertility will improve yield and quality for many agriculturally valuable crops.

  11. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CZECHOSLOVAK ORIGIN RYE VARIETIES (SECALE CEREALE L. BASED ON PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Petrovičová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the electrophoretic profiles of storage proteins of seven genotypes of rye (Secale cereale L., which were obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS (SDS-PAGE. Electrophoretic separation of storage proteins was conducted according to the methodology recommended by an international organization ISTA, with some own modifications. Results showed, that all analyzed materials were multiline and there were from 4 (Valtické to 9 (Keřkovské and Zenit lines. Content of high molecular weight glutelin subunits varied from 6.67 % (variety České to 10.86 % (variety Valtické. The highest proportion of storage proteins with low molecular weight glutelin subunits and prolamins was detected in Keřkovské (69.89 % and the lowest one in variety Tešovské (61.96 %. The highest percentage of albumins and globulins associated with high nutritional value of grain was detected in variety Tešovské (31.02% and lowest one in variety Valtické (20.97 %. The Jacquard coefficient of similarity and UPGMA algorithm was used for construction of dendrogram of similarity.

  12. WHAT IS BEHIND BIASED TECHNICAL CHANGE IN PRODUCTION OF CEREAL AND OILSEED CROPS IN SLOVAKIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter FANDEL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the productivity change in the production of cereal and oilseed crops in Slovakia with special emphasis on technical change analysis. It employs a non-parametric distance function approach to measure Malmquist productivity index which is decomposed into technical efficiency change and technical change. Technical change is further decomposed into technical change magnitude and input- and output-bias indices. The productivity change components provide more detailed information about character of productivity change itself and its sources. Our results indicate that productivity in the analysed sector decreased approximately by 20% within the examined period of 1998-2007. The decrease was caused mostly by worsening the technical change (-41,6%. Indices of input- and output bias of technical change were various from unity what suggests that technical change was not Hicks’- neutral. Results of further analysis of the direction of technical change bias indicate that farms in average tend to apply fertilizers-using/seed-saving, seed-using/labour-saving, and fertilizers-using/labour-saving technical change bias over the whole sample period, as well as in the EU pre-accession and EU post-accession periods.

  13. Microbiological community analysis of vermicompost tea and its influence on the growth of vegetables and cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, J I; Franke-Whittle, I H; Haindl, S; Insam, H; Braun, R

    2012-07-01

    Vermicompost, the digestion product of organic material by earthworms, has been widely reported to have a more positive effect on plant growth and plant health than conventional compost. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different vermicompost elutriates (aerated compost teas) on soils and plant growth. The teas were analyzed by chemical, microbiological, and molecular methods accompanied by plant growth tests at laboratory and field scale. The number of microorganisms in the teas increased during the extraction process and was affected by substrate addition. The vermicompost tea found to increase plant growth best under laboratory tests was applied to cereals (wheat and barley) and vegetables (Raphanus sativus, Rucola selvatica, and Pisum sativum) in a field study. The results revealed no effects of tea application on plant yield; however, sensoric tests indicated an improvement in crop quality. The soils from laboratory and field studies were investigated to detect possible microbial or chemical changes. The results indicated that minor changes to the soil microbial community occurred following tea application by foliar spray in both the laboratory-scale and field-scale experiments.

  14. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Based Protein Assay for Cereal Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Banu; Bilge, Gonca; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-12-14

    Protein content is an important quality parameter in terms of price, nutritional value, and labeling of various cereal samples. However, conventional analysis methods, namely, Kjeldahl and Dumas, have major drawbacks such as long analysis time, titration mistakes, and carrier gas dependence with high purity. For this reason, there is an urgent need for rapid, reliable, and environmentally friendly technologies for protein analysis. The present study aims to develop a new method for protein analysis in wheat flour and whole meal by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), which is a multielemental, fast, and simple spectroscopic method. Unlike the Kjeldahl and Dumas methods, it has potential to analyze a high number of samples in considerably short time. In the study, nitrogen peaks in LIBS spectra of wheat flour and whole meal samples with different protein contents were correlated with results of the standard Dumas method with the aid of chemometric methods. A calibration graph showed good linearity with the protein content between 7.9 and 20.9% and a 0.992 coefficient of determination (R(2)). The limit of detection was calculated as 0.26%. The results indicated that LIBS is a promising and reliable method with its high sensitivity for routine protein analysis in wheat flour and whole meal samples.

  15. Wolbachia Occurrence in Planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Vectors of Cereal Viruses in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattio, M F; Argüello Caro, E B; Rodriguero, M S; Dumón, A D; Alemandri, V M; Truol, G

    2015-08-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are the most important cereal crops for the Argentinean economy and are affected by several diseases. Different planthopper species transmit causal agents of some of those diseases, including Mal de Río Cuarto virus, barley yellow striate mosaic virus, and the recently proposed maize yellow striate virus. Many planthopper species are sap feeders and therefore are expected to host bacteria providing essential nutrients lacking in the diet. Previous studies have evidenced that some of these bacterial symbionts are involved in the virus transmission. Wolbachia is a group of obligate intracellular bacteria infecting numerous arthropod species and causing reproductive alterations in their hosts. These bacteria have been detected in planthopper species, considered rice pests in various regions of the world. To date, Wolbachia infection status of planthopper species of Argentina is unknown. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA, wsp- and ftsZ-specific genes demonstrated Wolbachia infection in Caenodelphax teapae (Fowler), Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah, Pyrophagus tigrinus Remes Lenicov & Varela, Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir), and Toya propinqua (Fieber). This is the first report of Wolbachia in delphacid vectors of viruses affecting maize and wheat. An understanding of the bacterial diversity harbored by these insect vectors could lead to new options for future management of diseases of economically important crops in a developing country.

  16. Effects of {gamma}-radiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata in artificially inoculated cereal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braghini, R. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas II, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: raquelbraghini@yahoo.com.br; Pozzi, C.R. [Instituto de Zootecnia, Rua Heitor Penteado 56, CEP 13460-000, Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Aquino, S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355 , CEP 01246-902, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, L.O.; Correa, B. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas II, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different {gamma}-radiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata in artificially inoculated cereal samples. Seeds and grains were divided into four groups: Control Group (not irradiated), and Groups 1, 2 and 3, inoculated with an A. alternata spore suspension (1x10{sup 6} spores/mL) and exposed to 2, 5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Serial dilutions of the samples were prepared and seeded on DRBC (dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar) and DCMA (dichloran chloramphenicol malt extract agar) media, after which the number of colony-forming units per gram was determined in each group. In addition, fungal morphology after irradiation was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that ionizing radiation at a dose of 5 kGy was effective in reducing the growth of A. alternata. However, a dose of 10 kGy was necessary to inhibit fungal growth completely. SEM made it possible to visualize structural alterations induced by the different {gamma}-radiation doses used.

  17. Quantitative trait loci and comparative genomics of cereal cell wall composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Samuel P; Hawley, Robin M; Davis, Georgia L; Henrissat, Bernard; Walton, Jonathan D

    2003-05-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting sugar composition of the cell walls of maize (Zea mays) pericarp were mapped as an approach to the identification of genes involved in cereal wall biosynthesis. Mapping was performed using the IBM (B73 x Mo17) recombinant inbred line population. There were statistically significant differences between B73 and Mo17 in content of xylose (Xyl), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), and glucose. Thirteen QTLs were found, affecting the content of Xyl (two QTLs), Ara (two QTLs), Gal (five QTLs), Glc (two QTLs), Ara + Gal (one QTL), and Xyl + Glc (one QTL). The chromosomal regions corresponding to two of these, affecting Ara + Gal and Ara on maize chromosome 3, could be aligned with a syntenic region on rice (Oryza sativa) chromosome 1, which has been completely sequenced and annotated. The contiguous P1-derived artificial chromosome rice clones covering the QTLs were predicted to encode 117 and 125 proteins, respectively. Two of these genes encode putative glycosyltransferases, displaying similarity to carbohydrate-active enzyme database family GT4 (galactosyltransferases) or to family GT64 (C-terminal domain of animal heparan synthases). The results illustrate the potential of using natural variation, emerging genomic resources, and homeology within the Poaceae to identify candidate genes involved in the essential process of cell wall biosynthesis.

  18. Production and evaluation of breakfast cereals from blends of acha and fermented soybean paste (okara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, I E; Uchendu, N O

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast cereals was formulated from blends of acha and fermented okara (soybean residue). Acha grains were cleaned, winnowed, washed, dried (at 50 °C for 4 h) and milled into flour. Okara was processed from soybean seed through the stepwise procedure of cleaning, soaking, washing, milling and sieving. The residue was divided into five portions, fermented differently for 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h and then dried at 50 °C for 6 h. Acha flour (UFAC) was milled and blended at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 % ratio with milled okara flour. Functional properties (bulk density, water absorption capacity, swelling capacity, wettability, viscosity and particle size distribution, microbial load, and proximate composition were carried out on the individual flour samples. The blended flours were conditioned, partially heat treated (for 10 min), aged (4 °C for 6 h), cut, toasted (120 °C for 1 h), cooled and packaged. The different toasted breakfast cereals, TBFC, were subjected to sensory evaluation, proximate composition, micronutrient composition (vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc) and microbial analyses (mould count and total viable count). The proximate composition of the unfermented okara (UFOK) and fermented okara (FEOK 1, 2, 3, and 4 fermented at 12, 24, 36, 48 h respectively) flour samples showed that fermentation increased moisture from 4.71 ± 0.06 to 6.11 ± 0.05, crude fibre from 36.62 ± 0.01 to 46.18 ± 0.55, and carbohydrate from 2.50 ± 0.18 to 2.71 ± 0.34 contents. There was a decrease in the fat content from 16.29 ± 0.04 to 13.27 ± 0.22, ash from 1.41 ± 0.17 to 6.36 ± 0.17 and crude protein from 30.32 ± 0.21 to 33.53 ± 0.11 contents. From the sensory evaluation, the result showed that 70:30 acha-unfermented okara TBFC, FEOK 1D 60:40 acha-12 h FEOK TBFC, 70:30 acha-24 h FEOK TBFC, 50:50 acha-36 h FEOK TBFC, and 70:30 acha-48 h FEOK TBFC had the best overall acceptability

  19. Operational methods for minimising soil compaction and diffuse pollution risk from wheelings in winter cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bob; Silgram, Martyn; Quinton, John

    2010-05-01

    Recent UK government-funded research has shown that compacted, unvegetated tramlines wheelings can represent an important source and transport pathway, which can account for 80% of surface runoff, sediment and phosphorus losses to edge-of-field from cereals on moderate slopes. For example, recent research found 5.5-15.8% of rainfall lost as runoff, and losses of 0.8-2.9 kg TP/ha and 0.3-4.8 T/ha sediment from tramline wheelings. When compaction was released by shallow cultivation, runoff was reduced to 0.2-1.7% of rainfall with losses of 0.0-0.2 kg TP/ha and 0.003-0.3 T/ha sediment respectively i.e. close to reference losses from control areas without tramlines. Recent independent assessments using novel tracer techniques have also shown that tramline wheelings can represent important sediment sources at river catchment scale. In response to these latest findings, a new project is now underway investigating the most cost-effective and practical ways of operationalising methods for managing tramline wheelings in autumn-sown cereal systems to reduce the risk of soil compaction from the autumn spray operation and the associated risk of surface runoff and diffuse pollution loss of sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen to edge of field. Research is focusing on the over-winter period when soils are close to field capacity and the physical protection of the soil surface granted by growing crop is limited. This paper outlines this new multi-disciplinary project and associated methodologies, which include hillslope-scale event-based evaluations of the effectiveness of novel mitigation methods on surface runoff and diffuse pollution losses to edge of field, assessments of the economic and practical viability of mitigation methods, and modelling the impact on water quality of implementation of the most promising techniques at both farm and catchment scale. The study involves a large consortium with 20 partners, including many industrial organisations representing tractor, crop

  20. Soil and Nitrogen redistribution in a small Mediterranean cereal field: modelling predictions and field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel, , Dr.; Quijano, M. Sc. Laura; Gaspar, Leticia, , Dr.; Palazón, M. Sc. Leticia; Navas, Ana, , Dr.

    2015-04-01

    Cultivation is one of the main factors triggering soil erosion and the loss of fertile soil accelerates and in some cases causes soil degradation and crop yield reduction. Patterns of erosion, delivery and deposition of soil particles appear to be closely linked to that of soil nutrients. In this study, we assess the rates of soil and nutrient (soil nitrogen) redistribution and budget in a rain-fed cereal experimental plot (0.65 ha; Ebro river basin, NE Spain) caused by water erosion. The study area has a mean slope of 7%, it is classed as a closed-hydrological unit due to the cutting-connectivity effect of the landscape linear elements (LLEs), it has only one outlet and runoff directly reach La Reina gully. Climate is continental Mediterranean with two humid periods (average annual rainfall depth of 556 mm). Rainfall events of high intensity happen in June, July, September and October, with average values of maximum rainfall intensity in 30 min higher than 4 mm h-1 and above 6 mm h-1 in October. Soils are classified as Haplic Calcisols with an average and maximum values of soil organic matter of 1.5% and 2.4% respectively, high carbonate contents (ca. 39%) and texture is silt loam. The field has been cultivated for more than 150 years and consequently the soil is thoroughly mixed in the plough layer (25-30 cm). The cereal field was last harvested in June 2007 and from that date onwards the field has remained fallow for research purposes. Before fallowing the field was managed with minimum tillage during 15 years. Vegetation clearance practices were implemented to prevent scrub growth and so the soil surface has remained almost bare since that date. A total of 222 topsoil (5 cm depth) samples were collected following a regular 5x5 metre grid. Soil nitrogen content (%) was determined by the dry combustion method using a Leco TruSpec carbon and nitrogen analyzer (LECO Corporation, St. Joseph, MI, USA). Soil nitrogen was detected by determining the NOx gas evolved

  1. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, M E; Hinsinger, P; Harmand, J M

    2012-09-15

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N(2)-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N(2)-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature (δ(15)N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems.

  2. Isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from Northern Thailand and their production in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Thet Thet; Suwannarach, Nakarin; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2012-12-01

    Spore productivity in six entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from insect cadavers at four locations in Chiang Mai province was evaluated in five cereal grains: white-rice, wheat, rye, corn and sorghum. According to sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of these isolates, they were closely related to Beauveria bassiana (2 isolates), Metarhizium flavoviride (1 isolate), Metarhizium anisopliae (1 isolate), Paecilomyces lilacinus (1 isolate) and Isaria tenuipes (1 isolate). Among all fungal isolates, the maximum amount of spores (530.0 × 10(9) conidia/g) was yielded P. lilacinus CMUCDMT02 on sorghum grain followed by white-rice (399.3 × 10(9) conidia/g). Moreover, the highest number of spore in M. flavoviride was 102.8 × 10(9) conidia/g sorghum whereas white-rice yielded the greatest amount of spore for B. bassiana CMUCDMF03 (141.0 × 10(9) conidia/g) after 60 days incubation. The fungal growth rate was found highest in corn for all strains and rye showed the lowest with the exception of P. lilacinus CMUCDMT02 among the tested grains. Spore viability was over 80 % for all isolates that had been inoculated for 60 days. Fungal conidia suspension of P. lilacinus obtained highest virulence against Bactrocera spp. at a concentration of 1 × 10(6) spore/ml. The strains isolated, exhibited good production of conidia suggesting a promising strategy for the mass production of inoculum as biocontrol agents with low production cost.

  3. Gibberellin Deficiency Confers Both Lodging and Drought Tolerance in Small Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Wüthrich, Sonia; Blösch, Regula; Rindisbacher, Abiel; Cannarozzi, Gina; Tadele, Zerihun

    2016-01-01

    Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] and finger millet [Eleusine coracana Gaertn] are staple cereal crops in Africa and Asia with several desirable agronomic and nutritional properties. Tef is becoming a life-style crop as it is gluten-free while finger millet has a low glycemic index which makes it an ideal food for diabetic patients. However, both tef and finger millet have extremely low grain yields mainly due to moisture scarcity and susceptibility of the plants to lodging. In this study, the effects of gibberellic acid (GA) inhibitors particularly paclobutrazol (PBZ) on diverse physiological and yield-related parameters were investigated and compared to GA mutants in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The application of PBZ to tef and finger millet significantly reduced the plant height and increased lodging tolerance. Remarkably, PBZ also enhanced the tolerance of both tef and finger millet to moisture deficit. Under moisture scarcity, tef plants treated with PBZ did not exhibit drought-related symptoms and their stomatal conductance was unaltered, leading to higher shoot biomass and grain yield. Semi-dwarf rice mutants altered in GA biosynthesis, were also shown to have improved tolerance to dehydration. The combination of traits (drought tolerance, lodging tolerance and increased yield) that we found in plants with altered GA pathway is of importance to breeders who would otherwise rely on extensive crossing to introgress each trait individually. The key role played by PBZ in the tolerance to both lodging and drought calls for further studies using mutants in the GA biosynthesis pathway in order to obtain candidate lines which can be incorporated into crop-breeding programs to create lodging tolerant and climate-smart crops.

  4. Drought-resistant cereals: impact on water sustainability and nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, W T B

    2015-08-01

    This review uses production and climate data to examine global and local production trends that can be related to events such as drought. UK grain quality data is also available and provides an overview of trends in protein content. Literature surveys show a consistent reduction in grain size due to the effects of temperature and/or drought. A review of gene expression studies showed that most genes involved in starch synthesis are down regulated under heat stress. Net protein production is also reduced under heat and/or drought stress but apparently to a lesser degree as the reduction in grain mass is larger, resulting in an increase in protein concentration. Modelling has suggested that adaptation could be achieved by moving production to more extreme latitudes but other research suggests that simply transferring germplasm from one region to another is unlikely to be successful. Another review has identified drought tolerance phenotypes that could be used to breed more drought tolerant crops. At the time of the review, the authors concluded that phenotypic selection was generally preferable to forms of marker-assisted breeding and have used the approach to produce drought tolerant wheat cultivars. Transgenic approaches have also been shown to improve drought tolerance under controlled environment conditions but there are no results to show how well these results translate into improved crop performance under field conditions. The recent advances in genomic data and detecting marker-trait associations suggest that marker-assisted breeding will play a much more important role in breeding drought tolerant cereals in the future.

  5. Cereal Feeding in Fishes Nutrition for Fishery in Fresh Water from Banat Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Mnerie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries have traditionally been managed by direct restrictions, including seasonal and area closures, minimum mesh size, and access limitations. In recent years, licensing and an individual quota system were introduced as effortcontrol measures, in order to bring fishing effort more in line with the available resources. The overall responsibility for fisheries policy in Romania falls under auspices of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Rural Development through its Directorate of Fisheries. The major objectives of Romanian fisheries are to bring the national fisheries legislation closer to the European Union (EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP and to set up the administrative capacity and institutional building needed to cope with EU accession in 2007. In June 2001, Romania completed negotiations with EU in the area of fisheries, accepting the entire acquis communautaire without requesting any derogation or transition periods. The European Fisheries Fund will support Romania as a new EU Member State to develop a competitive, modern and dynamic fisheries sector, based on sustainable fishing and aquaculture activities, while also taking account of other important aspects such as environmental protection, the demands of the consumers and the food industry. The program is also expected to increase the competitiveness of the fisheries sector, encourage job creation and promote the growth of the aquaculture industry. The paper shows some aspects about Romanian fishery policy, an important opportunity for development research in fishery in fresh water from Banat region. Also, it is presents some research results about using the cereal feeding as fish’s nutrition, in special for common carp.

  6. Elucidating the impact of temperature variability and extremes on cereal croplands through remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, John M A; Dash, Jadunandan; Atkinson, Peter M

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing-derived wheat crop yield-climate models were developed to highlight the impact of temperature variation during thermo-sensitive periods (anthesis and grain-filling; TSP) of wheat crop development. Specific questions addressed are: can the impact of temperature variation occurring during the TSP on wheat crop yield be detected using remote sensing data and what is the impact? Do crop critical temperature thresholds during TSP exist in real world cropping landscapes? These questions are tested in one of the world's major wheat breadbaskets of Punjab and Haryana, north-west India. Warming average minimum temperatures during the TSP had a greater negative impact on wheat crop yield than warming maximum temperatures. Warming minimum and maximum temperatures during the TSP explain a greater amount of variation in wheat crop yield than average growing season temperature. In complex real world cereal croplands there was a variable yield response to critical temperature threshold exceedance, specifically a more pronounced negative impact on wheat yield with increased warming events above 35 °C. The negative impact of warming increases with a later start-of-season suggesting earlier sowing can reduce wheat crop exposure harmful temperatures. However, even earlier sown wheat experienced temperature-induced yield losses, which, when viewed in the context of projected warming up to 2100 indicates adaptive responses should focus on increasing wheat tolerance to heat. This study shows it is possible to capture the impacts of temperature variation during the TSP on wheat crop yield in real world cropping landscapes using remote sensing data; this has important implications for monitoring the impact of climate change, variation and heat extremes on wheat croplands.

  7. Cultivation of cereals for starch and bio-ethanol production in Saxony-Anhalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boese, L. [State Research Center of Agriculture, Forestry, and Horticulture Saxony-Anhalt, Center of Agronomy, Bernburg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The capacity for ethanol production in Germany has strongly increased in the last few years. In addition to more than 1,000 old small agricultural and commercial distilleries with an output of 220,000 m{sup 3} there were built up three big factories and a rather small one with a capacity of 600,000 m{sup 3}/a. The new plants produce ethanol exclusively for fuel or fuel additives. Input material are cereal grains, preferably wheat, rye, and triticale. The demand of the new plants for grain amounts to more than 1.5 million tons per year. Further plants are in stage of construction or planning. The grain for ethanol production in general should be well, usual in trade, and free of pests, chemicals for conservation, and mycotoxins. Well-formed kernels and a high starch concentration in the grain are desired. Particularly suitable are high-yielding varieties of good agronomic features, high level in resistance against deseases, and of low grain protein concentration. Agronomic practices should be adjusted to a healthy crop, which produces high grain yield and grain quality, focussed on high starch concentration in the grain. Special attention has to be paid to nitrogen fertilization. Moderate rates of fertilizers should be applied in order to reach high grain yield and high grain starch concentration, as show field trials in Saxony-Anhalt. First nitrogen rate in early spring should be emphasized. Late rates in stage of shoo-ting or heading have to be rejected. (orig.)

  8. Gibberellin Deficiency Confers Both Lodging and Drought Tolerance in Small Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia ePlaza-Wüthrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc. Trotter] and finger millet [Eleusine coracana Gaertn] are staple cereal crops in Africa and Asia with several desirable agronomic and nutritional properties. Tef is becoming a life-style crop as it is gluten-free while finger millet has a low glycemic index which makes it an ideal food for diabetic patients. However, both tef and finger millet have extremely low grain yields mainly due to moisture scarcity and susceptibility of the plants to lodging. In this study, the effects of gibberellic acid (GA inhibitors particularly paclobutrazol (PBZ on diverse physiological and yield-related parameters were investigated and compared to GA mutants in rice (Oryza sativa L.. The application of PBZ to tef and finger millet significantly reduced the plant height and increased lodging tolerance. Remarkably, PBZ also enhanced the tolerance of both tef and finger millet to moisture deficit. Under moisture scarcity, tef plants treated with PBZ did not exhibit drought-related symptoms and their stomatal conductance was unaltered, leading to higher shoot biomass and grain yield. Semi-dwarf rice mutants altered in GA biosynthesis, were also shown to have improved tolerance to dehydration. The combination of traits (drought tolerance, lodging tolerance and increased yield that we found in plants with altered GA pathway is of importance to breeders who would otherwise rely on extensive crossing to introgress each trait individually. The key role played by PBZ in the tolerance to both lodging and drought calls for further studies using mutants in the GA biosynthesis pathway in order to obtain candidate lines which can be incorporated into crop-breeding programs to create lodging tolerant and climate-smart crops.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION OF CEREALS FOR PREPARATION AND UTILIZATION OF FERMENTED FIBER-BETAGLUCAN PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Duchoňová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole grains flours of diverse colored wheat species (Triticum sp. and various varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare and oat (Avena sativa were analysed for their nutritional composition. The highest protein values were observed in wheat yellow variety BONA DEA (14% and also in blue variety UC 66049 (13%. Lower content of starch was determined in barley and oat varieties in compared to wheat varieties. The lowest levels of betaglucans were observed in wheat (0.3 – 0.6% and the highest content was assessed in barley and oat (2.5 – 3.8%. Variation in dietary fiber was considerable in barley and oat varieties. Barley varieties possessed significantly the highest content of total dietary fiber among all monitored cereals (≈17%, while oat grains showed significantly the lowest values (≤7%. Knowledge of the composition of healthy substances was used to select the best variety for the development of fermented product which was developed using specially prepared oat flour and potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum. The series of fermentation experiments resulted in a final gelatinous product with vital bacterial cell count about 1010 CFU.g-1, significantly reduced level of starch (1.7% and following nutritional characteristics: dry matter of 12.91%, water activity of 0.977, pH value 4.6 and lactic acid content of 2.95 g/l. Final product was added into the dough in different quantities and served also as a starter culture. Rheological properties of dough were evaluated for the purpose of finding a suitable recipe.

  10. Phenolic acids in some cereal grains and their inhibitory effect on starch liquefaction and saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Amin; Li, Jihong; Vasanthan, Thava; Bressler, David C

    2012-08-29

    The presence of phenolic acids in cereal grain is thought to influence starch hydrolysis during liquefaction and saccharification of grain flours in the bioethanol industry. As a basis for remodeling starch hydrolysis systems and understanding inhibition mechanisms, the composition and concentration of phenolic acids in whole grain flours of triticale, wheat, barley, and corn were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic acid contents (sum of nine phenolic acids) in the four grains were 1.14, 1.70, 0.90, and 1.25 mg/g, respectively, with more than 90% found in the bound form. Ferulic, coumaric, and protocatechuic acids were the major phenolic acids in triticale and wheat. Gallic acid was also rich in triticale. Ferulic, coumaric, hydroxybenzoic, and gallic acids were predominant in barley. In corn, ferulic, coumaric, gallic, and syringic acids were abundant. On the basis of these profiles, pure phenolic acids were added individually and collectively to isolated starches at amounts either equivalent to or 3 times those in the whole grains for hydrolysis. The degree of starch hydrolysis with α-amylase and amyloglucosidase decreased up to 8% when individual phenolic acids were present in cooked starch slurry. The decreases were more pronounced when phenolic acids were added collectively (4-5% with α-amylase and 9-13% with sequential α-amylase and amyloglucosidase). The study of a phenolic acid-starch-enzyme model system indicated that the interactions of phenolic acid-enzyme and phenolic acid-starch significantly contributed to the inhibitory effect of starch hydrolysis. Heating facilitated the interactions. Phenolic acids thus play a significant role in the resistance of starch to enzyme and/or the loss of enzyme activity during starch hydrolysis.

  11. Natural enemies act faster than endophytic fungi in population control of cereal aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härri, Simone A; Krauss, Jochen; Müller, Christine B

    2008-05-01

    1. Fast-growing populations of phytophagous insects can be limited by the presence of natural enemies and by alkaloids that are produced by symbiotic associations of many temperate grass species with endophytic fungi. It is unclear if and how acquired plant defences derived from endophytic fungi interact with natural enemies to affect phytophagous insect populations. 2. To assess the relative importance of endophytic fungi compared to that of natural enemies on the population dynamics of phytophagous insects, we carried out a fully factorial field experiment, in which the presence of natural enemies and the presence of endophytic fungi were manipulated simultaneously. Target colonies of aphids were monitored for 8 weeks starting from their natural appearance in the field to the end of the aphid season. 3. We show that on Lolium perenne increased natural enemy densities reduced the individual numbers of two common cereal aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium festucae. 4. The presence of the endophytic fungi Neotyphodium lolii reduced the number of M. festucae but did not affect the number of R. padi. The reduction in R. padi numbers by predators and parasitoids was not influenced by the presence of endophytes. For adult M. festucae, however, the negative effects of natural enemies were significant only in the absence of endophytes. 5. Over the duration of the experiment, the effect of natural enemies on aphid colony growth was much stronger than the effect of the endophytic fungi N. lolii, presumably because predator and parasitoid action on aphid colonies is much faster than any effects of endophytes. 6. Our results demonstrate that with simultaneous action of acquired endosymbionts and natural enemies, both factors can control aphid colony growth but they generally act independently of each other.

  12. Exploiting phytochemicals for developing a 'push-pull' crop protection strategy for cereal farmers in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeyaur R; Midega, Charles A O; Bruce, Toby J A; Hooper, Antony M; Pickett, John A

    2010-10-01

    Lepidopteran stemborers and parasitic weeds in the genus Striga are major constraints to efficient production of cereals, the most important staple food crops in Africa. Smallholder farmers are resource constrained and unable to afford expensive chemicals for crop protection. Development of a push-pull approach for integrated pest and weed management is reviewed here. Appropriate plants were discovered that naturally emit signalling chemicals (semiochemicals). Plants highly attractive for egg laying by stemborer pests were selected and employed as trap crops (pull), to draw pests away from the main crop. Of these, Napier grass, Pennisetum purpureum (Schumach), despite its attractiveness, supported minimal survival of the pests' immature stages. Plants that repelled stemborer pests, notably molasses grass, Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv., and forage legumes in the genus Desmodium, were selected as intercrops (push). Desmodium intercrops suppress Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. through an allelopathic mechanism. Their root exudates contain novel flavonoid compounds, which stimulate suicidal germination of S. hermonthica seeds and dramatically inhibit its attachment to host roots. The companion crops provide valuable forage for farm animals while the leguminous intercrops also improve soil fertility and moisture retention. The system is appropriate as it is based on locally available plants, not expensive external inputs, and fits well with traditional mixed cropping systems in Africa. To date it has been adopted by more than 30,000 smallholder farmers in East Africa where maize yields have increased from ∼1 t ha(-1) to 3.5 t ha(-1). Future directions for semiochemical delivery by plants including biotechnological opportunities are discussed.

  13. Fluorescence, PRI and canopy temperature for water stress detection in cereal crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, C.; Rossini, M.; Meroni, M.; Cilia, C.; Busetto, L.; Amaducci, S.; Boschetti, M.; Cogliati, S.; Picchi, V.; Pinto, F.; Marchesi, A.; Colombo, R.

    2014-08-01

    Narrow-band multispectral remote sensing techniques and thermal imagery were investigated for water stress detection in cereal crops. Visible and near infrared AISA Eagle (Specim, Finland) and thermal AHS-160 (Sensytech Inc., USA) imageries were acquired with an airborne survey on a farm-level experimental site where maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) were grown with three different irrigation treatments. Vegetation biophysical and eco-physiological measurements were collected concurrently with the airborne campaign. Leaf fluorescence yield (ΔF/Fm‧) resulted to be a good indirect measure of water stress. Therefore, ΔF/Fm‧ measurements were compared against remotely sensed indicators: (i) the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), (ii) the sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence at 760 nm (F760), retrieved by the Fraunhofer line depth method and (iii) the canopy temperature (TC) calculated decoupling soil and vegetation contributions. TC was related to ΔF/Fm‧ with the highest determination coefficient (R2 = 0.65), followed by PRI586 (reference band at 586 nm) (R2 = 0.51). The relationship with F760 was significant but weaker (R2 = 0.36). The coefficient of determination increased up to 0.54 when pigment concentration was considered by multiplying ΔF/Fm‧ and chlorophyll content, confirming the close relationship between passive fluorescence signal, pigment content and light photosystem efficiency. PRI586, F760 and TC maps were produced in maize and sorghum plots. The differences in the average values of PRI586, F760 and TC extracted from the plots with different water treatments showed that water treatments were well discriminated in maize plots by the three remotely sensed indicators. This was confirmed by the visual observation of the PRI586, F760 and TC maps, while in sorghum plots, F760 and TC appeared more sensitive to water stress compared to PRI586.

  14. Could behaviour and not physiological thermal tolerance determine winter survival of aphids in cereal fields?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Alford

    Full Text Available Traits of physiological thermotolerance are commonly measured in the laboratory as predictors of the field success of ectotherms at unfavourable temperatures (e.g. during harsh winters, heatwaves, or under conditions of predicted global warming. Due to being more complicated to measure, behavioural thermoregulation is less commonly studied, although both physiology and behaviour interact to explain the survival of ectotherms. The aphids Metopolophium dirhodum, Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae are commercially important pests of temperate cereal crops. Although coexisting, these species markedly differ in winter success, with R. padi being the most abundant species during cold winters, followed by S. avenae and lastly M. dirhodum. To better understand the thermal physiology and behavioural factors contributing to differential winter success, the lethal temperature (physiological thermotolerance and the behaviour of aphids in a declining temperature regime (behavioural thermotolerance of these three species were investigated. Physiological thermotolerance significantly differed between the three species, with R. padi consistently the least cold tolerant and S. avenae the most cold tolerant. However, although the least cold tolerant of the study species, significantly more R. padi remained attached to the host plant at extreme sub-zero temperatures than S. avenae and M. dirhodum. Given the success of anholocyclic R. padi in harsh winters compared to its anholocyclic counterparts, this study illustrates that behavioural differences could be more important than physiological thermotolerance in explaining resistance to extreme temperatures. Furthermore it highlights that there is a danger to studying physiological thermotolerance in isolation when ascertaining risks of ectotherm invasions, the establishment potential of exotic species in glasshouses, or predicting species impacts under climate change scenarios.

  15. Segetal flora of cereal crop agrocenoses in the Suwałki Landscape Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiewicz Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Segetal flora of cereal crop agrocenoses in the Suwałki Landscape Park was studied in between the years 2012 and 2013. One hundred phytosociological Braun-Blanquet releves were taken, documenting the occurrence of 152 species of vascular plants that represented 29 botanic families. Analysis of the contributions of geographic-historical groups revealed the dominance of the native species, apophytes (87 species, making 57.2%, over anthropophytes (65 species, 42.8%. The number of short-lived species was twice greater (103 species, 67.8% than the perennial ones (49 species, 32.2%. As regards the lifeforms, the therophytes were dominant (96 species, 63.2% over hemicryptophytes (44 species, 28.9% and geophytes (12 species, 7.9%. Among the species of segetal flora in the area studied, 23 valuable species classified to different categories of protection, were identified. The presence of Consolida regalis, Centaurea cyanus and Bromus secalinus, belonging to threatened species in other regions of Poland, was abundant. Also the species: Anthemis tinctoria, Echium vulgare and Anchusa officinalis were met with high frequency. The species: Agrostemma githago, Papaver argemone and Papaver dubium were represented by single plants, which can suggest their dying out. In the Park area, expansive species, threatening the biodiversity, such as Myosotis arvensis, Viola arvensis, Galeopsis tetraehit, Stellaria media, Artemisia vulgaris, Galinsoga parviflora, Elymus repens, Capsella bursa pastoris, Erodium cicutarium, Chamomilla recutita, Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora, Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum persicaria, Polygonum lapathifolium subsp. pallidum and Polygonum lapathifolium subsp. lapathifolium, were commonly seen in the crop land.

  16. Weight indicators and nutrient intake in children and adolescents do not vary by sugar content in ready-to-eat cereal: results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas R; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have explored the relationship between sugar content in cereal and health outcome among children and adolescents. This study was designed to investigate the associations between ready-to-eat cereals, categorized by sugar content, with weight indicators and nutrient intake profiles. Data collected from 6- to 18-year-old US children and adolescents (N = 9660) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-06 were used to analyze cereal consumption. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age, waist-to-height ratio, percent overweight or obese, mean day-1 intake, and usual daily intake of macronutrients and micronutrients were the dependent variables; day-1 cereal intake, categorized by tertiles of sugar content, was the main independent variable. Weighted regression with adjustment for the survey design was used to model the dependent variables as a function of day-1 cereal intake, adjusting for age group, sex, race/ethnicity, total day-1 intake of energy, calcium and sugar, the Healthy Eating Index-2005 total score, and household income. For all tertiles of sugar classifications of cereal, children who consumed cereal had significantly lower BMI compared with children who consumed no cereal (P's sugar, whole grains, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B(6), folic acid, vitamin B(12), vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Lower weight and positive nutrient profiles were associated with cereal consumption regardless of sugar content.

  17. Integration of root phenes revealed by intensive phenotyping of root system architecture, anatomy, and physiology in cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Larry

    2015-04-01

    Food insecurity is among the greatest challenges humanity will face in the 21st century. Agricultural production in much of the world is constrained by the natural infertility of soil which restrains crops from reaching their yield potential. In developed nations, fertilizer inputs pollute air and water and contribute to climate change and environmental degradation. In poor nations low soil fertility is a primary constraint to food security and economic development. Water is almost always limiting crop growth in any system. Increasing the acquisition efficiency of soil resources is one method by which crop yields could be increased without the use of more fertilizers or irrigation. Cereals are the most widely grown crops, both in terms of land area and in yield, so optimizing uptake efficiency of cereals is an important goal. Roots are the primary interface between plant and soil and are responsible for the uptake of soil resources. The deployment of roots in space and time comprises root system architecture (RSA). Cereal RSA is a complex phenotype that aggregates many elemental phenes (elemental units of phenotype). Integration of root phenes will be determined by interactions through their effects on soil foraging and plant metabolism. Many architectural, metabolic, and physiological root phenes have been identified in maize, including: nodal root number, nodal root growth angle, lateral root density, lateral root length, aerenchyma, cortical cell size and number, and nitrate uptake kinetics. The utility of these phenes needs confirmation in maize and in other cereals. The maize root system is composed of an embryonic root system and nodal roots that emerge in successive whorls as the plant develops, and is similar to other cereals. Current phenotyping platforms often ignore the inner whorls and instead focus on the most visible outer whorls after excavating a maize root crown from soil. Here, an intensive phenotyping platform evaluating phenes of all nodal root

  18. The Effects of CO2 Injection and Barrel Temperatures on the Physiochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, Thazin; Myat, Lin; Ryu, Gi-Hyung

    2016-09-01

    The effects of CO2 injection and barrel temperatures on the physiochemical and antioxidant properties of extruded cereals (sorghum, barley, oats, and millet) were studied. Extrusion was carried out using a twin-screw extruder at different barrel temperatures (80, 110, and 140°C), CO2 injection (0 and 500 mL/min), screw speed of 200 rpm, and moisture content of 25%. Extrusion significantly increased the total flavonoid content (TFC) of extruded oats, and β-glucan and protein digestibility (PD) of extruded barley and oats. In contrast, there were significant reductions in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, PD of extruded sorghum and millet, as well as resistant starch (RS) of extruded sorghum and barley, and total phenolic content (TPC) of all extrudates, except extruded millet. At a barrel temperature of 140°C, TPC in extruded barley was significantly increased, and there was also an increase in DPPH and PD in extruded millet with or without CO2 injection. In contrast, at a barrel temperature of 140°C, the TPC of extruded sorghum decreased, TFC of extruded oats decreased, and at a barrel temperature of 110°C, PD of extruded sorghum without CO2 decreased. Some physical properties [expansion ratio (ER), specific length, piece density, color, and water absorption index] of the extrudates were significantly affected by the increase in barrel temperature. The CO2 injection significantly affected some physical properties (ER, specific length, piece density, water solubility index, and water absorption index), TPC, DPPH, β-glucan, and PD. In conclusion, extruded barley and millet had higher potential for making value added cereal-based foods than the other cereals.

  19. Development of hyperbranched polymers with non-covalent interactions for extraction and determination of aflatoxins in cereal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Huihui; Xu, Zhigang; Peng, Jialin; Zhu, Shuqiang; Zhang, Haixia

    2013-10-01

    A novel approach for assembling homogeneous hyperbranched polymers based on non-covalent interactions with aflatoxins was developed; the polymers were used to evaluate the extraction of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) in simulant solutions. The results showed that the extraction efficiencies of three kinds of synthesized polymers for the investigated analytes were not statistically different; as a consequence, one of the representative polymers (polymer I) was used as the solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent to evaluate the influences of various parameters, such as desorption conditions, pH, ionic strength, concentration of methanol in sample solutions, and the mass of the sorbent on the extraction efficiency. In addition, the extraction efficiencies for these aflatoxins were compared between the investigated polymer and the traditional sorbent C18. The results showed that the investigated polymer had superior extraction efficiencies. Subsequently, the proposed polymer for the SPE packing material was employed to enrich and analyze four aflatoxins in the cereal powder samples. The limits of detection (LODs) at a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3 were in the range of 0.012-0.120 ng g(-1) for four aflatoxins, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) calculated at S/N=10 were from 0.04 to 0.40 ng g(-1) for four aflatoxins. The recoveries of four aflatoxins from cereal powder samples were in the range of 82.7-103% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 10%. The results demonstrate the suitability of the SPE approach for the analysis of trace aflatoxins in cereal powder samples.

  20. Occurrence of ochratoxin A and citrinin in Czech cereals and comparison of two HPLC methods for ochratoxin A detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisenska, I; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A; Hadjeba, K; Dohnal, V; Jirsa, O; Denesova, O; Jezkova, A; Macharackova, P

    2010-11-01

    The aims of the study were to obtain information about the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) in cereals harvested in the Czech Republic and to compare two analytical procedures for detecting OTA. A total of 34 cereal samples, including two matrix reference materials (R-Biopharm, Germany), were analysed. The results were compared with the limit for raw cereal grains used as a foodstuff according to Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006, which allows a maximum OTA level of 5 µg kg(-1). Compared were two methods based on the high-performance liquid chromatography principle, one using the immunoaffinity columns OchraTest (VICAM) and the second based on solvent partition (PART), both followed by fluorescence detection. The highest OTA contents were found in two barley samples. According to the method employed, the results for the first sample (malting barley) were VICAM = 31.43 µg kg(-1) and PART = 44.74 µg kg(-1). For the second sample (feeding barley) they were VICAM = 48.63 µg kg(-1) and PART = 34.40 µg kg(-1). Two samples of bread wheat had an OTA content approaching the legal limit (VICAM = 4.71 µg kg(-1) and PART = 6.03 µg kg(-1); VICAM = 4.12 µg kg(-1) and PART = 3.95 µg kg(-1)). CIT was analysed using the PART method only, and its highest content (93.64 µg kg(-1)) was found for the malting barley sample with high OTA content (44.74 µg kg(-1) as analysed using PART).

  1. The Effects of CO2 Injection and Barrel Temperatures on the Physiochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, Thazin; Myat, Lin; Ryu, Gi-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The effects of CO2 injection and barrel temperatures on the physiochemical and antioxidant properties of extruded cereals (sorghum, barley, oats, and millet) were studied. Extrusion was carried out using a twin-screw extruder at different barrel temperatures (80, 110, and 140°C), CO2 injection (0 and 500 mL/min), screw speed of 200 rpm, and moisture content of 25%. Extrusion significantly increased the total flavonoid content (TFC) of extruded oats, and β-glucan and protein digestibility (PD) of extruded barley and oats. In contrast, there were significant reductions in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, PD of extruded sorghum and millet, as well as resistant starch (RS) of extruded sorghum and barley, and total phenolic content (TPC) of all extrudates, except extruded millet. At a barrel temperature of 140°C, TPC in extruded barley was significantly increased, and there was also an increase in DPPH and PD in extruded millet with or without CO2 injection. In contrast, at a barrel temperature of 140°C, the TPC of extruded sorghum decreased, TFC of extruded oats decreased, and at a barrel temperature of 110°C, PD of extruded sorghum without CO2 decreased. Some physical properties [expansion ratio (ER), specific length, piece density, color, and water absorption index] of the extrudates were significantly affected by the increase in barrel temperature. The CO2 injection significantly affected some physical properties (ER, specific length, piece density, water solubility index, and water absorption index), TPC, DPPH, β-glucan, and PD. In conclusion, extruded barley and millet had higher potential for making value added cereal-based foods than the other cereals. PMID:27752504

  2. Sistema automatizado para la organización racional del proceso cosecha-transporte de cereales (SAORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanoy Morejón Mesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigacióntrata sobrela organización racional del proceso Cosecha-Transporte-Recepción (CTR de cereales. A partir de la necesidad que tienen las empresas productoras de cereales en Cuba y otros países, así como necesidad de agilizar, centralizar y dinamizar la organización racional de la composición de los medios mecanizados que intervienen en el proceso de forma automatizada, posibilitando reducir las pérdidas de tiempo en el ciclo de transportación, de recursos humanos y materiales propiciando ventajas económicas a través de la reducción de los costos implicados en la cadena productiva, incurriendo de este modo en una acertada toma de decisiones a cargo de los directivos. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo general: implementar un sistema automatizado que gestione mediante la Teoría de Colas el carácter probabilístico, la composición racional y los parámetros técnicos y de explotación del flujo continuodel proceso de cosecha- transporte-recepción de cereales, asegurando el control, confiabilidad, integridad y disponibilidad de la información, así como una disminución considerable del tiempo de procesamiento de la información. Como principal resultado se puede mencionar la implementación de una aplicación software libre, multiplataforma que gestiona la composición racional del proceso a través del estudio probabilístico que proporciona ventajas considerables a los directivos. También brinda un conjunto de salidas y gráficos que permiten mejorar el análisis y distribución de la información.

  3. Study of EDTA intake of children for potential use of FeNaEDTA for breakfast cereal fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Maria G; Cagnasso, Carolina E; Drago, Silvina R

    2012-09-01

    EDTA is used as disodium salt or disodium-calcium in foods, to prevent lipid oxidation or as color and flavor stabilizer. In some countries, FeNaEDTA is also used as a source of iron for fortification. However, EDTA has an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 2.5 mg/kg/day. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of EDTA in children of school age and the potential use of FeNaEDTA as iron source for breakfast cereal fortification. A qualitative-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was conducted on 225 schoolchildren of both sexes, aged between 4 and 13, from school canteens, public and private schools, from the city of Santa Fe (Argentina). Only those foods which EDTA addition is allowed in Argentina: packaged ice cream, soda, soft drinks and powdered soft drinks (upper limit of Na2EDTA or Na2CaEDTA: 35 mg/kg) and dressings and margarines (upper limit of Na2CaEDTA: 75 mg/kg) were considered. EDTAAverage Daily Consumption (ADC) was 0.06 mg/kg/day with a median of 0.011 mg/kg/day, representing 2.4% of the ADI. In the hypothetical case that FeNaEDTA would be used as iron source for breakfast cereal fortification at level of 11 mg Fe%, the potential EDTA ADC would be 0.46 +/- 0.32 mg/kg/day, representing 18.4% of the ADI (2.5 mg/kg/day). Results indicate that children from Santa Fe city have an EDTA ADC currently well below the maximum ADI of EDTA, which would remain low even if FeNaEDTA is used for breakfast cereal fortification.

  4. Application of Hplc-Pda Method Using Two Different Extraction Procedures for the Determination of Alkylresorcinols in Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gailāne Natālija

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, especially barley, are an important source of vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and various phytochemicals, such as alkylresorcinols (ARs. Cereal ARs are a group of phenolic lipids located in the outer parts of grain, particularly in rye and wheat, but not found in refined flour or in refined products from cereals. This study focuses on the comparison of different extraction procedures applied for the determination of the content of ARs (C15:0 - C23:0 in grain of Latvian barley genotypes. The content of ARs in 1 rye and 16 barley samples grown with different amounts of fertilier was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography method with Photodiode Array detection (HPLC-PDA developed by us. Two different extraction methods were compared: accelerated Soxhlet extraction and 24-hour extraction. Aside from validation of the extraction procedures, validation parameters for the HPLC-PDA based quantitation method were provided. The coefficients of variation for repeatability and intermediate precision were < 9% and < 3%, respectively. The content of ARs determined with the HPLC-PDA method in conjunction with accelerated Soxhlet extraction was up to 1.5 times higher than using 24-hour extraction. AR content varied from 2.11 ± 0.04 to 3.80 ± 0.10 mg·100 g-1 for 24-hour extraction and from 2.66 ± 0.06 to 5.70 ± 0.20 mg·100 g-1 for accelerated Soxhlet extraction, indicating the increased efficiency of this procedure in analysis of ARs.

  5. Analysis of ethanol cereals in German site conditions. NIRS calibration for ethanol yield; Bewertung von Ethanolgetreide unter den Standortbedingungen in Deutschland. NIRS-Kalibration fuer Ethanolausbeute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Ferdinand [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Lebensmittelwissenschaft und Biotechnologie

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol production has been growing significantly during the past few years. In Europe, most of it is produced from cereals. The demand for cereals therefore is expected to grow but so far there are no species specially cultivated for ethanol production. The project therefore focused on a screening process in which requirements on ethanol cereals from plant operators and raw material producers were to be verified or falsified, quality criteria apart from the starch content were to be defined, and indirect cultivation-relevant parameters were to be identified. The focus was on potential yields and on the corresponding ethanol yield per unit area. The screening covered 10 species of wheat, 10 species of triticale, and 6 species of rye. Additionally, 14 species of triticale were analyzed that were among the species tested by the Federal Species Office at the beginning of the project. The species to be investigated were cultivated orthogonally in ten German sites in 2006 - 2008. This resulted in a representative cross section of all quality grades of winter cereals and all German regions relevant for cultivation of cereals.

  6. The role of viscous soluble fiber in the metabolic control of diabetes. A review with special emphasis on cereals rich in beta-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würsch, P; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1997-11-01

    Recent recommendations for the dietary management of diabetes mellitus state that diet needs to be individualized so that there is improved glucose and lipid control in the patient. In a majority of individuals with diabetes, this is best done with a diet that is low in fat and high in carbohydrate, particularly that of cereal origin. However, symptoms of hyper- and hypoglycemia must be averted. Most cereal products, however, tend to have a high glycemic index Cereals such as Prowashonupana barley or fractions of oat bran are particularly high in the soluble fiber beta-glucan, which when taken with a meal increases the viscosity of the meal bolus once it has reached the small intestine, where the absorption of nutrients occurs. This high viscosity delays absorption. A 50% reduction in glycemic peak can be achieved with a concentration of 10% beta-glucan in a cereal food. A significant lowering of plasma LDL cholesterol concentrations can also be anticipated with the daily consumption of > or = 3 g of beta-glucan. Diabetic individuals can benefit from diets that are high in beta-glucan, which, as a component of oats and barley, can be incorporated into breakfast cereals and other products.

  7. Cereal Bars With Soy Protein And Wheat Germ, Physicochemical Characteristics And Texture During The Storage [barras De Cereals Elaboradas Com Proteína De Soja E Gérmen De Trigo, Características Físico-químicas E Textura Durante Armazenamento

    OpenAIRE

    De Grandi Castro Freitas D.; Roberto Moretti H.

    2005-01-01

    Studies analyzing cereal bars have reported on consumer characteristics and preferences in sensory analyses and on their market growth, however little has been published on their physicochemical data and texture properties. Thus the objective of this research was to provide information about the storage of a cereal bar formulation with high protein and vitamin levels based on soy protein and wheat germ, packaged in 3 different films (A: PET/PEBD; B: PETmet/PEBD; C: PET/PEBD/AL/PEBD), during 6...

  8. Daily methane production pattern of Welsh ponies fed a roughage diet with or without a cereal mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansen, O; Pellikaan, W F; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J; Jacobs, M P T; Everts, H; van Doorn, D A

    2015-04-01

    Methane production from Welsh ponies fed 2 isoenergetic diets (NE basis) at maintenance was studied in a crossover design with 4 mature geldings (230 ± 10.5 kg BW, mean ± SE). Treatments included a roughage-only (R) diet (5.1 kg DM/d) or a roughage plus cereal mix (RC) diet (2.5 kg DM hay/d plus 1.1 kg DM cereal mix/d). For both diets, the same grass hay was used (898 g DM/kg and 4.5 MJ NE/kg DM) and a commercial cereal mix was used in the RC diet (890 g DM/kg and 9.6 MJ NE/kg DM). Ponies were housed in pairs in climate-controlled respiration chambers. Carbon dioxide production (CO2), oxygen (O2) consumption, and CH4 production were measured over 3 consecutive days. Heat production (HP) rates were calculated from gaseous exchange. Feces were collected quantitatively to determine dietary nutrient digestibility. Dry matter intake differed between diets (P Methane production was higher (P = 0.014) on the R diet (29.8 L · pony(-1) · d(-1)) compared to the RC diet (23.2 L · pony(-1) · d(-1)). Methane production expressed in liters/kilogram metabolic body weight (BW0.75) per day tended (P = 0.064) to decrease with 21% for the RC group compared with the R group. Heat production, O2 consumption, and CO2 production were not affected by diet. Diurnal patterns of CH4 production and HP were similar for both diets. Methane production increased slightly (P < 0.652) after feeding and was numerically lower for the RC diet for all time points throughout the day. For both diets, HP was higher after feeding than before feeding and decreased again within approximately 3 h after feeding. Isoenergetic replacement of roughage by a cereal mix reduces CH4 production in ponies. No clear diurnal pattern in CH4 emission can be discerned in ponies fed at maintenance.

  9. The protein quality value of two homemade cereals legume mixtures compare to a commercial baby food sample

    OpenAIRE

    Zatollah Asemi; Mohsen Taghizade

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mixed cereals and legumes products enhance protein quality. This study has been conducted to compare the protein value of two homemade foods (a mixture of beans and rice and a mixture of vetch and rice) with a commercial baby food (wheat- based Cerelac) in rats. Methods: An experimental study has been conducted on 80 male rats, which divided into 8 subgroups. Five different diets including3 3 test diets (Cerelac and two of the homemade foods), 1 standard diet (casein) and 1 basic ...

  10. Robust modelling of heat-induced reactions in an industrial food production process exemplified by acrylamide generation in breakfast cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Lennox, Martin; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Data from an industrial case study of breakfast cereal production indicated that the generated amounts of acrylamide are greatly dependent upon the combined effects of temperature and heating time in a roasting step process. Two approaches to obtain process models for acrylamide generation were...... the importance of robustness in the developed models. The correlations obtained for predicting acrylamide generation in the case study present a useful tool for food processing industry to minimize acrylamide generation. In the present case it was possible by lowering process temperature and prolonging residence...

  11. Cereal straw management: a trade-off between energy and agronomic fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation is the most important driving force for bioenergy development. Consequently, the environmental design of bioenergy value chains should address the actual savings of both primary energy demand and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. According to the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC, no direct impacts and no GHG emissions should be attributed to crop residues (like cereal straws when they are removed from agricultural land for the purpose of bioenergy utilisation. The carbon neutral assumption applied to crop residues is, however, a rough simplification. Crop residues, indeed, should not be viewed simply as a waste to be disposed, because they play a critical role in sustaining soil organic matter and therefore have an inherent C-capturing value. Moreover, considering straws as an energy feedstock, its status of co-product is clearly recognised and its availability could be obtained according to different cropping systems, corresponding to different primary energy costs and GHG emissions. This paper highlights some hidden features in the assessment of agricultural energy and carbon balance, still very difficult to be detected and accounted for. Although they are frequently disregarded, these features (such as long term dynamic trend of soil organic carbon and annual nitrous oxide emissions from the soil should be carefully considered in assembling the energy and emission balance. By using a crop simulation model, the long-term soil organic matter and annual N2O soil emissions were estimated. Consequently, a comprehensive energy and GHG balance was determined in accordance with the life cycle assessment methodology. Contrasting methods of straw management and wheat cultivation were compared: straw retention vs removal from the soil; conventional vs conservation tillage; wheat cropping system as a single-crop or in rotation. The resulting carbon footprint of straws has different magnitudes with respect to the several

  12. Competition among warm season C4-cereals influence water use efficiency and competition ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water use efficiency (WUE and competition ratio (CR response of three warm season C4-cereals (grasses viz. corn (Zea mays L., cv. Hybrid-5393 VT3, grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, cv. Hybrid-84G62 PAT, and foxtail millets (Setaria italic, cv. German Strain R in pure and mixed stands under low and high water levels was investigated. The experiment was conducted in pot experiment at Dryland Agriculture Institute, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, Texas, USA, during spring 2010. The objective of this study was to know whether the differences in the competitive ability of different crop species influence WUE or not? The planned mean comparison indicated that the corn WUE was 20, 11, and 6% higher in the mixed stand than in pure stand at 30, 60, and 90 days after emergence (DAE, respectively. The corn plants in pure stand had 91, 72, and 81% higher WUE than the average WUE of sorghum and millets in pure stand at 30, 60, and 90 DAE, respectively. Grain sorghum in pure stand had 70, 32, and 36% higher WUE than that of millets in pure stand at 30, 60, and 90 DAE, respectively. The WUE of three crops in mixed stand was 10 and 8% higher than the two crops mixed stand at the two early stages; but the WUE was 24% less in the three crops mixed stand than the two crops mixed stand at 90 DAE. Corn-mixed stand in two crops (average of corn + sorghum and corn + millets had 78, 74, and 74% higher WUE than the mixed stand of sorghum and millets at 30, 60, and 90 DAE, respectively. Corn and millets mixed stand had 14, 10, and 26% higher WUE than the corn and sorghum mixed stand at 30, 60, and 90 DAE, respectively. The increase in water level decreased WUE at the two late growth stages in all three crop plants. At the early growth stage (30 DAE, WUE increased in all crops at the higher water level. On the basis of CR, corn was found the best competitor, while millets was declared the least competitor in the mixed stands (corn

  13. Hypolipidaemic effect of vegetable and cereal dietary mixtures from Egyptian sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashed, M. M.; Shallan, M.; Mohamed, D. A.; Fouda, K.; Hanna, L. M.

    2010-07-01

    Hyperlipidaemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD; however, only limited data are available on the benefits of vegetable consumption on CVD risk factors. The aim of this study was to prepare two powder mixtures containing vegetables and cereals and to evaluate their effect in hyperlipidaemic rats. The first mixture was prepared from whole wheat, cabbage, parsley and pepper, while the second mixture was prepared from whole wheat, red beet root, parsley and pepper. Whole wheat was used as a source of dietary fiber, while cabbage and beetroot were used as sources of glucosinolates (GLS) and betalains respectively as well as dietary fiber. The chemical compositions of these mixtures were determined. The safety of these mixtures was also evaluated by examining liver and kidney functions. The chemical compositions of the powder mixtures revealed that mixtures (1) and (2) contain 19.1% and 13.3% protein, 2.1% and 2.5 % fat, 69.6% and 77.5% carbohydrates, 1.8% and 1.2% crude fibers, 7.4% and 5.5% ash and 18.3% and 16.8% dietary fibers respectively. Vitamin E was 7.4 and 4.5 mg/100g in mixtures (1) and (2) respectively. {beta}-carotene was 830 and 786{mu}g/100g in mixtures (1) and (2) respectively. Total phenolic compounds were 1910 and 1710 mg as gallic acid equivalents/100g in mixtures (1) and (2) respectively. The results of the animal experiment showed a non-significant reduction in final body weight and body weight gain in rats fed the control diet containing mixture (1) or (2) when compared with different groups. Rats fed the control diet containing mixture (1) or (2) showed a significant reduction in plasma total lipids, T-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG and the ratio of T-Ch /HDLCh in different degrees, while HDL-Ch increased

  14. Experimental tests on winter cereal: Sod seeding compared to minimum tillage and traditional plowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniotto Guidobono Cavalchini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to traditional plowing and minimum tillage, the sod seeding technique has been tested in order to evaluate the differences in energy consumption, labor and machinery requirement and CO2 emission reduction. The experiments were conducted on winter cereal seeding in a Po valley farm in October 2011. The tests were carried out as follows: wheat variety seeding, over corn and alfalfa crops, in large plots with three repetitions for each thesis. They included: sod seeding anticipated by round up weeding in the case of the plots over alfalfa; traditional plowing at 35 cm followed by rotary tillage and combined seeding (seeder plus rotary tiller; minimum tillage based on ripping at the same depth (35 cm and combined seeder ( seeder plus rotary tiller. The following farm operations - fertilizer, and other agrochemical distributionshave been the same in all the considered theses. The results, statistically significant (P<0.001 in terms of yields, highlighted slight differences: the best data in the case of the traditional plowing both in the case of wheat crop over corn and alfalfa (84.43 and 6.75 t/ha; slightly lower yields for the sod seeding (6.23 and 79.9 t/ha for corn and alfalfa respectively; lower in the case of minimum tillage (5.87; 79.77 t/ha in the two situations. Huge differences in energy and oil consumption have been recorded: in the case of succession to corn 61.47; 35.31; 4.27 kg oil/ha respectively for, traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding; in the case of alfalfa 61.2; 50.96; 5.14 kg oil/ha respectively for traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding. The innovative technique, highlighted huge energy saving with an oil consumption equal to 92% and 89% (P<0.001 of what happens in traditional plowing and minimum tillage. Large differences concern labor and machine productivity. These parameters together with oil consumption and machine size [power (kW and weight (t] lead to even greater differences in

  15. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures during the Processing of Fermented Cereal-based Foods in West Africa: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro-Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Brou, Kouakou; Amani, Georges; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi Marcelin

    2014-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the primary microorganisms used to ferment maize-, sorghum- or millet-based foods that are processed in West Africa. Fermentation contributes to desirable changes in taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility and texture in gruels (ogi, baca, dalaki), doughs (agidi, banku, komé) or steam-cooked granulated products (arraw, ciacry, dégué). Similar to other fermented cereal foods that are available in Africa, these products suffer from inconsistent quality. The use of LAB starter cultures during cereal dough fermentation is a subject of increasing interest in efforts to standardise this step and guaranty product uniformity. However, their use by small-scale processing units or small agro-food industrial enterprises is still limited. This review aims to illustrate and discuss major issues that influence the use of LAB starter cultures during the processing of fermented cereal foods in West Africa.

  16. Studies on Amylase Application in Infant Cereal Production%酶在婴儿米粉生产中的应用及研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昊; 曹燕

    2011-01-01

    In this article we use amylase to hydrolyze the main component of infant cereal--starch in part and achieve dextrine, oligosaccharide and maltose etc. This solves successfully defections in the traditional technology of cereal pro- duction and offers very important reference for infant cereal production.%本文中采用酶解技术将组成婴儿米粉的主要成分一淀粉部分水解成糊精和低聚糖、麦芽糖等,从而成功地解决了传统米粉生产工艺中存在的缺陷,对婴儿营养米粉的生产具有重大参考价值。

  17. Cereal starch, protein, and fatty acid pre-caecaldisappearance is affected by both feed technological treatment and efficiency of the chewing action in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Dickow, Mia Schødt; Brøkner, Christine;

    2012-01-01

    due to shifts in the environment of the digestive tract and the digestion profiles of various dietary constituents, due to limited secretion of amylase and a short passage time through the small intestine, which limits the capacity for starch digestion in horses. To enhance the starch digestibility......Horses have a digestive tract adapted for digesting a continuous flow of grasses with high fibre and low starch contents. However, to meet the energy requirements of performance horses, diets often contain energy dense and starch rich cereals. This is a practise, which can cause digestive disorders...... of cereals in horses, different feedtechnologicaltreatments can be applied which alter the physical properties of cereal kernels, including starch granules, and change their site and/or course of digestion. In the present study a mobile nylon bag technique was used to study pre-caecaldisappearance of dry...

  18. Development of a breakfast cereal using waste from cassava processing industry - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.12012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyne Ellen Dischsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast cereals are extruded products with high content of protein and carbohydrates, and can be enriched to increase their nutritional value. The study aimed to develop a high-fiber breakfast cereal from cassava residue, and to analyze the texture, fiber content and overall acceptability. The extrusion was performed in an extruder. Formulations were developed containing 0 and 20% of cassava meal. The fiber analysis was performed based on the Adolfo Lutz Institute methodology, the texture was analyzed in a texturometer, and the sensory analysis by affective testing was used to determine its acceptability. The formulation with cassava residue had an increase of over 10% in the fiber content. The formulations have showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 in texture, and in the sensory analysis, in which cereals with cassava residue had an average of 7.54 of acceptability – the most accepted formulation.

  19. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni in selected Nigerian tubers, legumes and cereals and estimates of the adult daily intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyele, I O; Shokunbi, O S

    2015-04-15

    This study was designed to determine the levels of microminerals (manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr)) and heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni)) in some tubers, legumes and cereals obtained from the markets in Abeokuta city, South-West Nigeria. The food samples were digested by dry ashing procedure and their minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results show mean values of 1.67-32.00, 7.25-61.58, 1.59-10.56, 6.65-46.99, 0.02-0.58, legumes and cereals from various parts of the world. The daily intakes of the metals through tubers, legumes and cereals were found to be lower than the provisional tolerable daily intakes proposed by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

  20. Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Food: How to Reconcile Nutritional and Technological Properties of Wheat Proteins with Safety for Celiac Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Lamacchia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The gluten-free diet is, to date, the only efficacious treatment for patients with Celiac Disease. In recent years, the impressive rise of Celiac Disease incidence, dramatically prompted changes in the dietary habit of an increasingly large population, with a rise in demand of gluten-free products. The formulation of gluten-free bakery products presents a formidable challenge to cereal technologists. As wheat gluten contributes to the formation of a strong protein network, that confers visco-elasticity to the dough and allows the wheat flour to be processed into a wide range of products, the preparation of cereal-based gluten-free products is a process somehow difficult process. This review focuses on nutritional and technological quality of products made with gluten-free cereals available on the market. The possibility of using flour from naturally low toxic ancient wheat species or detoxified wheat for the diet of celiacs is also discussed.