WorldWideScience

Sample records for cereals

  1. BREAKFAST CEREALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter written for the Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition summarizes the Cereal Breakfast industry in world up to 2003. The areas covered are the brief history of cereal processing, their classification i.e., ready to eat or hot cereals and their processing methods. It covers the re...

  2. Classifying Cereal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DSQ includes questions about cereal intake and allows respondents up to two responses on which cereals they consume. We classified each cereal reported first by hot or cold, and then along four dimensions: density of added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium.

  3. Oxalate content of cereals and cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Roswitha; Hönow, Ruth; Voss, Susanne; Seidler, Ana; Hesse, Albrecht

    2006-04-19

    Detailed knowledge of food oxalate content is of essential importance for dietary treatment of recurrent calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Dietary oxalate can contribute considerably to the amount of urinary oxalate excretion. Because cereal foods play an important role in daily nutrition, the soluble and total oxalate contents of various types of cereal grains, milling products, bread, pastries, and pasta were analyzed using an HPLC-enzyme-reactor method. A high total oxalate content (>50 mg/100 g) was found in whole grain wheat species Triticum durum (76.6 mg/100 g), Triticum sativum (71.2 mg/100 g), and Triticum aestivum (53.3 mg/100 g). Total oxalate content was comparably high in whole grain products of T. aestivum, that is, wheat flakes and flour, as well as in whole grain products of T. durum, that is, couscous, bulgur, and pasta. The highest oxalate content was demonstrated for wheat bran (457.4 mg/100 g). The higher oxalate content in whole grain than in refined grain cereals suggests that oxalic acid is primarily located in the outer layers of cereal grains. Cereals and cereal products contribute to the daily oxalate intake to a considerable extent. Vegetarian diets may contain high amounts of oxalate when whole grain wheat and wheat products are ingested. Recommendations for prevention of recurrence of calcium oxalate stone disease have to take into account the oxalate content of these foodstuffs. PMID:16608223

  4. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  5. Cereals, Appropriability and Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Mayshar, Joram; Moav, Omer; Neeman, Zvika; Pascali, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We propose that the development of social hierarchy following the Neolithic Revolution was an outcome of the ability of the emergent elite to appropriate cereal crops from farmers and not a result of land productivity, as argued by conventional theory. We argue that cereals are easier to appropriate than roots and tubers, and that regional differences in the suitability of land for different crops explain therefore differences in the formation of hierarchy and states. A simple model illustrat...

  6. Modeling branching in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Jochem B. Evers; Vos, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level....

  7. Application of gamma-irradiation to cereals and cereals products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-irradiation may be used on cereals and cereal products to control insect infestation and microbiological problems. Such problems include mould growth, mycotoxin production, pathogens, spore-forming organisms and total microbial load. Deleterious effects of gamma-irradiation arise only at relatively high dose levels with consequences on germination rate, wheat flour dough properties, and cake and noodle quality. Radiation-induced changes to starch have greater impact on behaviour of cereal products than such changes to other cereal components

  8. Future cereal starch bioengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2013-01-01

    data from cereal ancestors can potentially allow for the reintroduction of cereal traits including, for example, health-promoting carbohydrates that may have been lost during domestication. Raw materials produced in this manner can be processed by clean enzyme-assisted techniques or thermal treatment...... in combination to further functionalize or stabilize the starch polymers. Importantly, such products can be multifunctional in the sense of combined food/material or food/pharma purposes, for example, edible plastics, shape memory materials, and cycloamylose carriers and stabilizers for diverse bioactives......The importance of cereal starch production worldwide cannot be overrated. However, the qualities and resulting values of existing raw and processed starch do not fully meet future demands for environmentally friendly production of renewable, advanced biomaterials, functional foods, and biomedical...

  9. Trichothecenes in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroud, Nora A; Eudes, François

    2009-01-01

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins associated with fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals, with worldwide economic and health impacts. While various management strategies have been proposed to reduce the mycotoxin risk, breeding towards FHB-resistance appears to be the most effective means to manage the disease, and reduce trichothecene contamination of cereal-based food products. This review provides a brief summary of the trichothecene synthesis in Fusarium species, their toxicity in plants and humans, followed by the current methods of screening and breeding for resistance to FHB and trichothecene accumulation.

  10. Cereal Box Totems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a multicultural project used with fourth-grade students in which they created a three-dimensional totem pole using leftover cereal boxes. Discusses in detail how to create the totem pole. Explains that students learned about Northwest American Indians in class. (CMK)

  11. Vernalization in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2009-01-01

    How vernalization – exposure to a period of cold – induces flowering in Arabidopsis has been intensively investigated at the genetic and moleular levels. Recent papers, including one in BMC Plant Biology, shed light on changes in gene regulation that occur on vernalization in cereals.

  12. Hyperphosphorylation of cereal starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    phosphate compared with potato tuber starch and in order to investigate the effect of increased endosperm starch phosphate, the potato starch phosphorylating enzyme glucan water dikinase (StGWD) was overexpressed specifically in the developing barley endosperm. StGWD overexpressors showed wild......Plant starch is naturally phosphorylated at a fraction of the C6 and the C3 hydroxyl groups during its biosynthesis in plastids. Starch phosphate esters are important in starch metabolism and they also generate specific industrial functionality. Cereal grains starch contains little starch bound......-type phenotype. Transgenic cereal grains synthesized starch with higher starch bound phosphate content (7.5 (±0.67) nmol/mg) compared to control lines (0.8 (±0.05) nmol/mg) with starch granules showing altered morphology and lower melting enthalpy. Our data indicate specific action of GWD during starch...

  13. Zinc biofortification of cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael; Clemens, Stephan; Williams, Lorraine E.;

    2008-01-01

    The goal of biofortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. Cereals serve as the main staple food for a large proportion of the world population but have the shortcoming, from a nutrition perspective, of being low in zinc...... and other essential nutrients. Major bottlenecks in plant biofortification appear to be the root-shoot barrier and - in cereals - the process of grain filling. New findings demonstrate that the root-shoot distribution of zinc is controlled mainly by heavy metal transporting P1B-ATPases and the metal...... tolerance protein (MTP) family. A greater understanding of zinc transport is important to improve crop quality and also to help alleviate accumulation of any toxic metals....

  14. More protein in cereals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ways in which the protein content of plant crops may be raised by the use of nuclear radiation are to be discussed at a symposium in Vienna in June next year, organized by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization/Agency Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Plant crops - especially cereal grains - are the basic food and protein source of most of the world's population, particularly in less-developed countries. But their natural protein content is low; increasing the quantity and nutritional quality of plant protein is potentially the most feasible way to combat widespread protein malnutrition. This improvement in seed stock can be achieved by plant breeding methods in which nuclear irradiation techniques are used to induce mutations in grain, and other isotopic techniques can be used to select only those mutants which have the desired properties. The scientists who attend the symposium will have an opportunity to review what mutation plant breeders have achieved, the application of nuclear techniques to screening for protein and amino-acid content and nutritional value, and isotopic methods which contribute to research in plant nutrition and physiology. (author)

  15. [Wholegrain cereals and sanitary benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena

    2015-07-18

    Objetivos: las guías alimentarias para conseguir una alimentación correcta establecen como aconsejable tomar tres o más raciones de cereales integrales de grano completo al día. Sin embargo, la norma es poco conocida en nuestro entorno, afectando el incumplimiento a la práctica totalidad de la población. Por ello, el objetivo de la presente revisión es analizar los beneficios nutricionales y sanitarios asociados al consumo de cereales de grano completo y las posibles ventajas que podrían derivarse del cumplimiento con consumo aconsejado para estos alimentos. Métodos: búsqueda bibliográfica en relación con el tema. Resultados: los cereales de grano completo aportan cantidades elevadas de hidratos de carbono, fibra, vitaminas y minerales, cuya contribución a la dieta media ayuda a alcanzar las ingestas recomendadas y los objetivos nutricionales vigentes, por lo que su consumo en la cantidad aconsejada supone un beneficio nutricional. Por otra parte, diversos estudios señalan que un aumento en el consumo de cereales de grano completo se asocia con una protección frente al padecimiento de diversas enfermedades crónico-degenerativas (cardiovasculares, diabetes, síndrome metabólico y cáncer), ayudando en el mantenimiento de la salud digestiva y del peso corporal. Estos resultados pueden ser debidos al aporte de nutrientes, fibra y fitoquímicos, procedente de estos alimentos, así como al desplazamiento de la dieta de otros productos con un perfil nutricional menos conveniente, teniendo en cuenta la composición de la dieta media española. De hecho, el consumo de cereales de grano completo ha sido relacionado con una posible mejora en la microbiota intestinal y una mayor protección antioxidante. Pese a estas ventajas, el consumo de cereales es mirado con recelo por diversos individuos, especialmente por aquellas personas preocupadas por el control de peso, y los beneficios adicionales asociados al consumo de cereales de grano completo no son

  16. Antioxidant Properties of Whole Grain Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Čukelj, Nikolina; Novotny, Dubravka; Ćurić, Duška

    2010-01-01

    Cereals have a long history of use by humans. Cereals and cereal products are staple foods, and are important source of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, vitamins (E, B) and minerals (Zn, Mg, Fe) in both developed and developing countries. The health aspects of whole grain cereals have long been known, but the antioxidant profile of whole grains has only recently been introduced to the antioxidant research community where mostly fruits and vegetables are in focus. In vitro experiments con...

  17. Detection methods for mycotoxins in cereal grains and cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Michelangelo N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods for mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based products require three major steps, including extraction, clean-up (to eliminate interferences from the extract and concentrate the analyte, and detection/determination of the toxin (by using suitable analytical instruments/technologies. Clean-up is essential for the analysis of mycotoxins at trace levels, and involves the use of solid phase extraction and multifunctional (e.g. MycoSep® or immunoaffinity columns. Different chromatographic methods are commonly used for quantitative determination of mycotoxins, including gas-chromatography (GC coupled with electron capture, flame ionization or mass spectrometry (MS detectors (mainly for type-A trichothecenes, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with ultraviolet, diode array, fluorescence or MS detectors. The choice of method depends on the matrix and the mycotoxin to be analyzed. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is spreading rapidly as a promising technique for simultaneous screening, identification and quantitative determination of a large number of mycotoxins. In addition, commercial immunometric assays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, are frequently used for screening purposes as well. Recently, a variety of emerging methods have been proposed for the analysis of mycotoxins in cereals based on novel technologies, including immunochromatography (i.e. lateral flow devices, fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIA, infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs and optical biosensors.

  18. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  19. [Development of cereal bar with pineapple skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Renata Siqueira; Del Santo, Victor Rogério; Souza, Gilberto Batista de; Pereira, Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci

    2011-06-01

    The cereal bars are multi-component products consisting of cereals, dried fruit and syrup binder and may be added to the consumable parts of fruits and vegetables which usually are not exploited and have high nutritional value, thereby reducing food waste. It was developed a jam with pineapple skin, which it was utilized in 13.5% in the cereal bar formulation. The cereal bar was sensorial evaluated and had its centesimal and mineral composition determined. The new product achieved average of 8.3 for global impression using 9 points hedonic scale, 91% of acceptance rate and 67% of purchase intent. In this first use of pineapple skin jam as food ingredient it can be concluded that its aggregation in the cereal bar formula is feasible, making an accepted product with fibers, proteins and minerals, as an alternative to traditional cereal bars.

  20. Knowledge of cereals among primary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Murko, Ana

    2015-01-01

    In human diet cereals represent an important source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and elements, which are needed for healthy growth and development. This thesis is thus focused on knowledge of cereals among primary school students. We were assessing the knowledge of different cereals among primary school students based on their age and type of environment they live in. Beside these two variables, we took into consideration also their gender. 240 primary school students from sixth ...

  1. Evaluation of Breakfast Cereals and Cereal Advertising by a Young Adult Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnard, Alice

    A study examined the knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition in general and specifically toward cold breakfast cereals and cereal advertising with different creative appeals. Subjects, 117 undergraduate university students, completed a questionnaire about their use of cold breakfast cereal and their sources of information about nutrition.…

  2. Shakespeare Cereals: A Popular Culture Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Offers an exercise involving popular culture to help students experience the contemporary power of Shakespeare. Explains that after reading a Shakespeare play, students develop new cereal brands based upon the work's plot, characters, or themes, afterward naming, designing, creating, and displaying the cereal package. Combines literary analysis,…

  3. Cereal grains and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truswell, A S

    2002-01-01

    Cereal grains and their products provide around 30% of total energy intake in British adults, (much more than any of the other major food groups). Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the largest single cause of death in Britain and many other Western countries. This review examines the question whether there is a relation between cereal consumption and CHD. Several of the nutrients in cereals have known potential for reducing risk factors for CHD: the linoleic acid, fibre, vitamin E, selenium and folate. Cereals also contain phytoestrogens of the lignan family and several phenolic acids with antioxidant properties. Processing generally reduces the content of these nutrients and bioprotective substances. Although cereals at the farm gate are very low in salt, processed cereal foods, eg bread and some breakfast cereals, are high-salt foods and thus could contribute to raising blood pressure. Human experiments have clearly shown that oat fibre tends to lower plasma total and LDL cholesterol but wheat fibre does not. Rice bran and barley may also lower cholesterol but most people do not eat enough barley to have an effect. Cereal foods with low glycaemic index such as pasta and oats are beneficial for people with diabetes and might lower plasma lipids. Between 1996 and 2001 an accumulation of five very large cohort studies in the USA, Finland and Norway have all reported that subjects consuming relatively large amounts of whole grain cereals have significantly lower rates of CHD. This confirms an earlier report from a small British cohort. The protective effect does not seem to be due to cholesterol-lowering. While cohort studies have shown this consistent protective effect of whole grain cereals, there has been (only one) randomised controlled secondary prevention trial of advice to eat more cereal fibre. In this there was no reduction of the rate of reinfarction. The trial had some weaknesses, eg there were eight different diets, compliance was not checked objectively

  4. Breakfast Cereals: The Extreme Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of my talk today is to review several aspects of the market structure, strategic rivalry, and economic performance of the ready-to-eat cereals industry. To do so, I will at times take a long historical view of the breakfast cereals industry because many of the behaviors we observe today seem to me to be imbedded in habits of business rivalry that were learned many decades ago and yet persist today. My perspective on the RTE breakfast cereals industry is informed by nearly twenty y...

  5. Iron in Breakfast Cereal. Demonstrations for National Chemistry Week 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Erica K.; Maynard, James

    2004-11-01

    Cereal manufacturers have a few choices for how they include iron in their products. Some cereal manufacturers prefer to add particles of pure iron metal (called elemental iron or reduced iron) because elemental iron is stable in storage and does not affect the cereal's flavor. General Mills' brand-name "Total" is one such cereal. The addition of this strongly magnetic form of iron allows "Total" cereal to be used in the two demonstrations described in this article. In the first, a flake of "Total" cereal is inserted between the two poles of a permanent magnet. The iron in the cereal allows the flake to remain suspended between the two poles. The second uses crushed "Total" cereal and a neodymium magnet. The crushed cereal is scattered over clear Plexiglas and the magnet can be moved around underneath. This drags the iron filings through the crushed cereal.

  6. Food Microscopy and the Nutritional Quality of Cereal Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Yiu, Suk Hing

    1993-01-01

    The nutritional quality of cereal foods is directly related to the nature of nutrient storage in cereal grains. Most cereal nutrients, such as carbohydrates and minerals , are st ructurally bound. Processing alters the structural organization of the cereal grain. Results obtained from many nutritional studies indicate that the structure and physical form of a cereal food greatly influence the availability of its nutrients. Using oats and wheat as examples, this review demonstrates how micr...

  7. Winter and Spring Cereal Production in the Maritimes

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Karen; MacKenzie, Joanna; Hammermeister, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Organic producers have expressed an interest in diversifying their crop rotations through the inclusion of winter cereals. Winter cereals have many potential benefits, as they provide soil cover over the winter months, can often out-compete weeds in the spring and can be harvested earlier than other cereal crops. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of management history on the performance of winter cereals versus spring cereals.

  8. Reactivity of lipids during cereal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    2003-01-01

    The study elucidates factors affecting the reactivity of lipids in multiphase food systems, such as processed cereal food products. By using oat and oat products as model materials, both enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid reactions were studied in aqueous suspensions and in dry flour. The information obtained can be used to improve existing cereal processing schemes and to develop new processing technologies for obtaining high quality food products with enhanced shelf stability. In aqueous...

  9. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  10. Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

  11. Predictive Modelling of Mycotoxins in Cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Liu, C.

    2015-01-01

    In dit artikel worden de samenvattingen van de presentaties tijdens de 30e bijeenkomst van de Werkgroep Fusarium weergegeven. De onderwerpen zijn: Predictive Modelling of Mycotoxins in Cereals.; Microbial degradation of DON.; Exposure to green leaf volatiles primes wheat against FHB but boosts produ

  12. Balkan cereals genetic resources in collection of Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry and main directions of cereals breeding in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    LOSKUTOV, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of information about Balkan cereals collection in VIR passport database is presented. The paper offers the long-term data on the collection of cereal forage crops (barley, oat) studied under diverse conditions at experiment stations of VIR. The selected sources of economically important traits that can be used for main direction of cereal forages breeding are presented

  13. Genetic erosion of diversity in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Sofija; Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Cereals play an important role in human nutrition. Consequently, one of the main goals in breeding is to obtain varieties with high genetic potential for yield. Modern agricultural production includes the expansion of intensive varieties over large areas that lead to narrow selection criteria in breeding programs. The consequence is a drastic reduction in the number of species and genotypes (genetic erosion), or harming biological diversity of local populat...

  14. Regulation of aleurone development in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becraft, Philip W; Yi, Gibum

    2011-03-01

    The aleurone layer of cereal grains is important biologically as well as nutritionally and economically. Here, current knowledge on the regulation of aleurone development is reviewed. Recent reports suggest that the control of aleurone development is more complex than earlier models portrayed. Multiple levels of genetic regulation control aleurone cell fate, differentiation, and organization. The hormones auxin and cytokinin can also influence aleurone development. New technical advances promise to facilitate future progress.

  15. Therapeutic Effect of Cereal Grains: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Poonam; Kaushik, Geetanjali

    2016-04-01

    Over the last few decades, life style changes have resulted in drastic increase in the incidence of diabetes all over the world, especially in the developing countries. Oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin form the main stay in controlling diabetes but they have prominent side effects and fail to significantly alter the course of diabetic complications. Appropriate diet and exercise programs that form a part of lifestyle modifications have proven to be greatly effective in the management of this disease. Dietary therapy is showing a bright future in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Cereal grains which form the staple diet for humans in most of the countries are increasingly being used to treat diabetes and other associated disorders in view of their anti-diabetic and anti-lipidemic potential. Given this background, this paper reviews the possible mechanisms of lowering blood sugar and cholesterol levels possessed by various commonly consumed cereal grains. It is concluded that cereal grains are not only the potential sources of energy but also possess the therapeutic role in preventing metabolic disorders and decreasing the risk factors for cardiovascular and renal diseases. PMID:25746052

  16. Genetic transformation of major cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Xu, Xing; Wang, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Of the more than 50,000 edible plant species in the world, at least 10,000 species are cereal grains. Three major cereal crops, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum sp.), provide two-thirds of the world's food energy intake. Although crop yields have improved tremendously thanks to technological advances in the past 50 years, population increases and climate changes continue to threaten the sustainability of current crop productions. Whereas conventional and marker-assisted breeding programs continue to play a major role in crop improvement, genetic engineering has drawn an intense worldwide interest from the scientific community. In the past decade, genetic transformation technologies have revolutionized agricultural practices and millions of hectares of biotech crops have been cultured. Because of its unique ability to insert well-characterized gene sequences into the plant genome, genetic engineering can also provide effective tools to address fundamental biological questions. This technology is expected to continue to be an indispensable approach for both basic and applied research. Here, we overview briefly the development of the genetic transformation in the top seven cereals, namely maize, rice, wheat, barley (Hordeum vulgare), sorghum (Sorghum sp.), oat (Avena sativa), and millets. The advantages and disadvantages of the two major transformation methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated and biolistic methods, are also discussed.

  17. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  18. Processing and storage of Indian cereal and cereal products alters its resistant starch content

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Ruchi H.; Sheth, Mini K.

    2010-01-01

    Resistant Starch (RS) is prebiotic in nature and is defined as the sum of starch and products of starch degradation not absorbed in small intestine of healthy individuals but later are fermented by natural microflora of the colon to produce short chain fatty acids. RS acts as a nutraceutical and its consumption leads to many health benefits. The aim of the study is to analyze the RS content in raw and processed cereals and cereal products and determine various processing and storage effects o...

  19. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in Finnish cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka, E-mail: tuukka.turtiainen@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Kostiainen, Eila, E-mail: eila.kostiainen@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja, E-mail: anja.hallikainen@evira.f [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean {sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 {mu}Sv per year, respectively.

  20. Next Generation Characterisation of Cereal Genomes for Marker Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Visendi; Jacqueline Batley; David Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Cereal crops form the bulk of the world’s food sources, and thus their importance cannot be understated. Crop breeding programs increasingly rely on high-resolution molecular genetic markers to accelerate the breeding process. The development of these markers is hampered by the complexity of some of the major cereal crop genomes, as well as the time and cost required. In this review, we address current and future methods available for the characterisation of cereal genomes, with an emphasis o...

  1. Organic Cereal Variety and Variety Mixture Trials 1999 - 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Aspray, Claire

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the productivity and stability of organic cereal production by identifying cereal varieties and variety mixtures that are best adapted to organic farming systems. The scientific question and objective was to evaluate the relative performance of cereal mixtures against single varieties in organic systems, in terms of consistency, robustness of yield and quality. The project has run over four years on six sites chosen to represent a range of soil types...

  2. Cereal Structure and Its Relationship to Nutritional Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Yiu, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    Factors that determine the digestibility of carbohydrates and minerals in cereals are examined . Most carbohydrates and minerals in cereals are structurally bound, either surrounded by or associated with cell wall components not easily digested by non-ruminant animals and humans. Treatments such as mechanical grinding and heat improve the digestibility of nutrient s . Further processing and cooking result in structural and physeochemical changes of cereal starch, phytate, and dietary fiber. S...

  3. Intercropping of Cereals and Legumes for Forage Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI; Ghanbari, Ahmad; Abdollah JAVANMARD

    2009-01-01

    Cereals are high important in feeding ruminant animals for their high dry matter production and low cost. However, cereals forage is poor in protein content which shows their low quality and nutritive value. Regarding to high feed costs of protein supplementations, legumes can be used in livestock nutrition for their high protein content and, thus, providing cost saving. Since legumes have low dry matter yield, acceptable forage yield and quality can obtained from intercropping of cereals and...

  4. Significance of coarse cereals in health and nutrition: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Kiran Deep; Jha, Alok; Sabikhi, Latha; A. K. Singh

    2012-01-01

    This review assesses the nutritional attributes of coarse cereals and also their utilization as food and as formulated foods. These cereals are laden with phytochemicals including phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, phytosterols, avenenathramides and policosanols. They possess high antioxidant properties in vitro than staple cereals and fruits by different purported pathways. There are also some anti-nutritional factors that may be reduced by certain processing treatments. Several epidemio...

  5. Programmed cell death in cereal aleurone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fath, A; Bethke, P; Lonsdale, J; Meza-Romero, R; Jones, R

    2000-10-01

    Progress in understanding programmed cell death (PCD) in the cereal aleurone is described. Cereal aleurone cells are specialized endosperm cells that function to synthesize and secrete hydrolytic enzymes that break down reserves in the starchy endosperm. Unlike the cells of the starchy endosperm, aleurone cells are viable in mature grain but undergo PCD when germination is triggered or when isolated aleurone layers or protoplasts are incubated in gibberellic acid (GA). Abscisic acid (ABA) slows down the process of aleurone cell death and isolated aleurone protoplasts can be kept alive in media containing ABA for up to 6 months. Cell death in barley aleurone occurs only after cells become highly vacuolated and is manifested in an abrupt loss of plasma membrane integrity. Aleurone cell death does not follow the apoptotic pathway found in many animal cells. The hallmarks of apoptosis, including internucleosomal DNA cleavage, plasma membrane and nuclear blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, are not observed in dying aleurone cells. PCD in barley aleurone cells is accompanied by the accumulation of a spectrum of nuclease and protease activities and the loss of organelles as a result of cellular autolysis.

  6. Lignan Content in Cereals, Buckwheat and Derived Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal foods are a fundamental part of a balanced diet and several studies have assigned to wholemeal cereal products a protective role in human health, due to their content of bioactive compounds. Within the phytochemicals, lignans are of increasing interest for their potential anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. The aim of this work is to contribute to the updating of food lignan databases by providing the profile and the amount of lignans in cereals, buckwheat and several cereal based foods commonly consumed in human diets. Values were taken from published papers. Items were divided in different groups, namely grains, brans and flours, bread, cereal staple foods, breakfast cereals and other cereal products, and values for secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, lariciresinol are given. For example, the total average values for the mentioned lignans in grains ranged between 23 μg/100 g and 401 μg/100 g dry weight. The contribution of each single lignan molecule to the total value of lignans appears to be different for every cereal species. Lignan content and typology in processed foods depends on the raw materials used, their degree of refinement and on processing conditions.

  7. Concern over ready-to-eat breakfast cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Research and Professional Brief published in the April 2008 issue of the Journal entitled "Examining the Nutritional Quality of Breakfast Cereals Marketed to Children" (1) is of concern. The authors concluded that the "the majority of children's cereals failed to meet national nutrition standard...

  8. Modeling Coupon Values for Ready-To-Eat Breakfast Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to highlight the significant determinants of coupon values. A fixed effects panel data model is fitted with data from the breakfast cereal industry. The explanatory variables include own retail price, brand loyalty, brand market share, rival coupon redemptions, and firm and product type indicators. Keywords: coupons, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals, panel data model

  9. The relationship between strigolactones and Striga hermonthica infection in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cereal production in Africa is under increasing constraint due to the obligate, out-crossing, hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth, a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. Striga parasitizes roots of cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, maize and upland rice. It has infested about 40%

  10. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    , the field-grown barleys per se differed too little for the accuracy to be confirmed. The other cereals tested, oats, rye, maize, wheat, and rice, gave unsatisfactory results with pepsin/pancreatin, and also with pepsin, pancreatin, or pronase used separately. The ranking of the cereals according to in vitro...

  11. DEMAND FOR HIGH FIBER AND LOW FIBER CEREALS

    OpenAIRE

    Binkley, James K.; Eales, James S.

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional considerations are of increasing importance in some foods. To address demand for nutrition, we estimate a demand system for cereals of different nutrient types, concentrating on fiber and focussing on five Kellogg's cereals with marked differences in fiber content. Results shed light on the role of price in who demands "healthy" foods.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment in the Cereal and Derived Products Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renzulli, Pietro A.; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Benedetto, Graziella;

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the application of life cycle assessment methodologies to rice, wheat, corn and some of their derived products. Cereal product systems are vital for the production of commodities of worldwide importance that entail particular environmental hot spots originating from...... their widespread use and from their particular nature. It is thus important for tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) to be tailored to such cereal systems in order to be used as a means of identifying the negative environmental effects of cereal products and highlighting possible pathways to overall...... environmental improvement in such systems. Following a brief introduction to the cereal sector and supply chain, this chapter reviews some of the current cereal-based life cycle thinking literature, with a particular emphasis on LCA. Next, an analysis of the LCA methodological issues emerging from...

  13. 2004 Cereals reveal an intriguing surprise: the performance of cereals on organic farms

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Martin; Hinchsliffe, Kay

    2005-01-01

    The great variability in the performance of cereals on organic farms that we have highlighted from past research trials has been confirmed in a new and more widely based trial. Participation from 20 producers gives the results a robust character and has enabled us to spot something we had not previously noted. EFRC researchers Prof Martin Wolfe AND Kay Hinchsliffe set out the results. Introduction EFRC is currently working on a Defra-funded project designed to use participatory resear...

  14. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.;

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...... and between years, underlines the need to try to select for specific adaptation in target environments. The difficulty of doing so can be helped by decentralised breeding with farmer participation and the use of crops buffered by variety mixtures or populations. Varieties for OA need efficient nutrient uptake...

  15. Mercury levels in cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mercury content of cereals and market vegetables was determined with the flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry cold vapor method. Except for one sample the values for rye and wheat are below 100 ppb related to plant dry matter. Significant differences in the mercury content during the growth period could not be established. The average Hg-concentration in the kernel was 11 ppb. Vegetables of the Viennese market varied in Hg content between 0.5 and 40.7 ppb (mean values on wet weight basis). Only a few samples of champignons exceeded the permitted 50 ppb Hg tolerance limit, but 89% of the samples showed values of less than or equal to 10 ppb. At per head level of 74 kg vegetables consumed in Austria and an accepted mercury level of 10 ppb the weekly mercury intake is less than 5% of the 300 μg total Hg dosis per week tolerated by the WHO/FAO. (author)

  16. Fusarium head blight of cereals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard Nielsen, Linda; Jensen, Jens Due; Nielsen, Ghita Cordsen;

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction differentiating 10 Fusarium spp. and Microdochium nivale or M. majus was applied to a total of 396 grain samples of wheat, barley, triticale, oat, and rye sampled across Denmark from 2003 to 2007, along with selected samples of wheat and barley from...... 1957 to 2000, to determine incidence and abundance of individual Fusarium spp. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, zearalenone, T-2, and HT-2 were quantified using liquid chromatography–double mass spectrometry. Major differences in the Fusarium species complex among the five cereals...... as well as great yearly variation were seen. Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in wheat, with DON as the dominant mycotoxin. F. langsethiae, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in barley and oat, leading to relatively high levels of the mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2. F...

  17. Optimal root arrangement of cereal crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeonsu; Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    The plant root absorbs water from the soil and supplies it to the rest part of the plant. It consists of a number of root fibers, through whose surfaces water uptake occurs. There is an intriguing observation that for most of cereal crops such as maize and wheat, the volume density of root in the soil declines exponentially as a function of depth. To understand this empirical finding, we construct a theoretical model of root water uptake, where mass transfer into root surface is modeled just as heat flux around a fin. Agreement between the theoretically predicted optimal root distribution in vertical direction and biological data supports the hypothesis that the plant root has evolved to achieve the optimal water uptake in competition with neighbors. This study has practical implication in the agricultural industry as well as optimal design of water transport networks in both micro- and macroscales. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

  18. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in Italian cereal and cereal products from organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Cristina; Ritieni, Alberto; Mañes, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, the occurrence of eighteen mycotoxins, nine trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, neosolaniol, diacetoxyscirpenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin), three zearalenones (zearalenone, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol), and six emergent mycotoxins, beauvericin and five enniatins (A, A1, B, B1 and B4), was monitored in different Italian organic cereals and cereal products by using a liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method. A total of 93 organic cereal samples (wheat, barley, rye and oat) were collected from Italy. Limits of quantification ranged from 5 to 15 μg/kg. 80% of analyzed samples contained mycotoxins. The occurrence was 33%, 6.5%, 2%, 27%, 7%, 10% and 43% for deoxynivalenol, HT-2, T-2, nivalenol, zearalenone, beauvericin and enniatins, respectively. The major mycotoxin found was enniatin B4; it was detected in 40% of all analyzed samples and its levels ranged from 5.7 to 284.2 μg/kg. Risk assessment was evaluated by EDI calculations which were lower than TDI for all legislated Fusarium mycotoxins.

  19. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheim, Leif; Brodal, Guro; Hofgaard, Inger S.; Rafoss, Trond

    2013-01-01

    Spring barley is grown on about half of the Norwegian cereal area. The rest of the area is equally divided between wheat and oats. Most years the domestic production provides 70%–80% of the domestic market for bread wheat. Barley and oats are mainly grown for animal feed. During the years 2008–2012, severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight have led to increased mycotoxin contamination of cereals. During that period, precipitation was above normal during anthesis and grain maturation. The most important mycotoxin producers have been F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae. Increased deoxynivalenol contamination of Norwegian cereals during recent years is due to severe F. graminearum epidemics.

  20. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H. P. S.; Dar, Basharat N.

    2011-01-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with...

  1. Production of Drought and Salt Tolerant Transgenic Cereal Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Garg; R. Wu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Genetic transformation of cereal plants is a powerful method for producing agronomically useful transgenic plants. Salt and drought stress result in substantial yield losses, which amounts to many billions of dollars each year.

  2. Phytase-mediated mineral solubilization from cereals underin vitrogastric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne V. F.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate) in cereals may improve mineral bioavailability in humans. This study quantified enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid by measuring inositol tri- to hexakisphosphate (InsP3-6) degradation and iron and zinc release...... cereal phytic acid at similar rates and to similar extents. Microbial phytase-catalysed phytate dephosphorylation was accompanied by increased iron and zinc release from the cereal substrates. For wheat bran at pH 5, the endogenous wheat phytase activity produced mineral release equal to or better than...... simulated gastric conditions. The data infer that acid stable microbial phytases can help improve iron bioavailability from phytate-rich cereal substrates via post-ingestion activity....

  3. How to Stabilize the Cereals Market in a Transition Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel, Iuliana

    2005-01-01

    The Romanian cereals market is in a state of transition, because the grain marketing system is characterized by high risk for market participants. The current situation of grain market is used to estimate the necessity solutions to stabilize the market.

  4. Preparation and Properties of Cereal-Metal Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Various kinds of biodegradable polymer materials have been researched[1]. In our previous papers,cereals such as wheat,buckwheat,glutinous rice and nonglutinous rice were polycondenced with citric acid and polysilicic acid to prepare copolymer films respectively[2,3].These copolymer fims have relatively good mechanical properties but the water proofness is not so good.Recently,some cereals such as wheat,glutinous rice,nonglutinous rice,kaoliang,millet and maize were reacted with copper chlorid...

  5. The relationship between strigolactones and Striga hermonthica infection in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, M

    2012-01-01

    Cereal production in Africa is under increasing constraint due to the obligate, out-crossing, hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth, a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. Striga parasitizes roots of cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, maize and upland rice. It has infested about 40% of the African agricultural land, resulting in severe yield losses or even complete crop failure worth US billion per annum. The subsistence farmers or approximately 300 million African people lose...

  6. Characteristic of grain contamination with weeds in some cereal varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Franciszek Pawłowski; Marian Wesołowski

    2013-01-01

    Grain contamination with weeds in winter wheat, winter rye, spring barley and seeding oats harvested with combines was examined. A different number of seeds and weed species was found to be present in 1 kg of grain of the cereal varieties compared. Certain similarities were noticed in the botanical composition and in the frequency of occurrence of weed seeds in the examined samples of cereal grains.

  7. Characteristic of grain contamination with weeds in some cereal varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Pawłowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain contamination with weeds in winter wheat, winter rye, spring barley and seeding oats harvested with combines was examined. A different number of seeds and weed species was found to be present in 1 kg of grain of the cereal varieties compared. Certain similarities were noticed in the botanical composition and in the frequency of occurrence of weed seeds in the examined samples of cereal grains.

  8. Modeling Household Preferences for Cereals and Meats in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Maria; Peel, Derrell S.

    2012-01-01

    Using 2008 household data and a two-step censored model, this article analyzes separability among preferences of the major food groups in Mexico. The main objective of the present paper was to determine if beans and potatoes are not separable from meats and cereals, respectively. Results indicate that beans belong to the protein source demand system and potatoes are not separable from cereals. Another major finding is that corn income elasticity very close to one might indicate a sensitive si...

  9. Determinants of household choice of breakfast cereals: healthy or unhealthy?

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Alla A.; Binkley, James K.

    2005-01-01

    We studied consumer demand for more and less healthy breakfast cereals. Using ACNielsen Homescan database and USDA food nutrition data, we developed three cereal nutrition indexes for each household in the data. In addition to the standard demographic characteristics of households and prices, we included variables representing differences between private labels and national brands. We found that the structure of the industry, through its effect on the product mix produced, affects consumer ch...

  10. China's projected cereals deficits in a world context

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandratos, Nikos

    1996-01-01

    Lester Brown's recent writings about trends in China's food consumption, production and rapidly rising import requirements and his predictions that the world is running out of potential to increase production of cereals received wide publicity in the press. They increased awareness of the problem among the public, which was stimulated by recent declines in world cereals production per capita, falling stocks and sharp rises in world market prices. This paper is an attempt on my part to extract...

  11. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality.

  12. Distribution patterns of segetal weeds of cereal crops in tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the literature data and field research conducted in 2009-2013 the distribution patterns, habitat conditions, phytogeographical characterisation and endangerment of weeds occurring in cereal crops in Tajikistan were analysed. We found out that Tajik weed flora of cereal crops counts 686 taxa. The most species rich families include Asteraceae, Poaceae and Fabaceae. The highest number of cereal weeds were noted in large river valleys of Syr-Daria, Amu-Daria and their tributaries in south-western and northern Tajikistan. This subregions have the warmest climate conditions and extensive arable lands. The greatest weed species richness was observed in submontane and montane elevations between approx. 700 and 1,900 m a.s. Cereal weeds occur frequently outside segetal communities in Tajikistan. They were noted usually in screes, wastelands, xerothermophilous grasslands, river gravel beds and in steppes habitats. The assessment of threat status reveals that ca. 33% of total cereal weed flora in Tajikistan are disappearing or occur very rarely. According to the chorological data we find that in the cereals of Tajikistan, 35 endemic and 14 subendemic species occur. The most numerous chorological elements of threatened weed flora of Tajikistan are Irano-Turanian (55%), pluriregional (16%), cosmopolitan (14,5%), Mediterranean (9%) and Eurosiberian (5%) species. Further research is suggested to explore the distribution patterns of all weed species in Tajikistan as it should be useful for economy and effectiveness of crop production as well as conservation of most valuable species. (author)

  13. Alternative cereal grains and cereal by-products as sources of energy in poultry diets- A review

    OpenAIRE

    C. I. Medugu,; A. O. Raji,; J. U. Igwebuike; E. Barwa

    2011-01-01

    The increase in the world population, high cost of conventional animal feed ingredients and low protein intake in most developing countries has necessitated animal scientists to search for alternative sources of feed ingredients. This can enhance the production of animals with short generation intervals such as poultry to overcome the protein deficiency. This paper reviews cereal grains and cereal by-products as alternative feed ingredients for formulating poultry diets. Results obtained from...

  14. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast. PMID:26788290

  15. Storage stability and quality assessment of processed cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Kaur, Satinder; Dar, B N; Singh, Baljit

    2014-03-01

    Quality improvement of cereal brans, a health promoting ingredient for functional foods is the emerging research concept due to their low shelf stability and presence of non-nutrient components. A study was conducted to evaluate the storage quality of processed milling industry byproducts so that these can be potentially utilized as a dietary fibre source. Different cereal brans (wheat, rice, barley and oat) were processed by dry, wet, microwave heating, extrusion cooking and chemical methods at variable conditions. Processed brans were stored in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pouches at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Quality assessments (moisture, free fatty acids, water activity and physical quality) of brans were done up to six months, at one month intervals. Free fatty acid content, moisture and water activity of the cereal brans remained stable during the entire storage period. Among treatments, extrusion processing is the most effective for stability. Processing treatments and storage temperature have the positive effect on extending the shelf life of all cereal brans. Therefore, processed cereal brans can be used as a dietary fortificant for the development of value added food products. PMID:24587536

  16. Molecular genetics and evolution of disease resistance in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krattinger, Simon G; Keller, Beat

    2016-10-01

    Contents 320 I. 320 II. 321 III. 321 IV. 322 V. 324 VI. 328 VII. 329 330 References 330 SUMMARY: Cereal crops produce a large part of the globally consumed food and feed. Because of the constant presence of devastating pathogens, the molecular characterization of disease resistance is a major research area and highly relevant for breeding. There has been recent and accelerating progress in the understanding of three distinct resistance mechanisms in cereals: resistance conferred by plasma membrane-localized receptor proteins; race-specific resistance conferred by intracellular immune receptors; and quantitative disease resistance. Intracellular immune receptors provide a particularly rich source for evolutionary studies, and have, for example, resulted in the recent discovery of a novel detection mechanism based on integrated decoy domains. Evolutionary studies have also revealed the origins of active resistance genes in both wild progenitors of today's cereals as well as in cultivated forms. In addition, independent evolution of orthologous genes in related cereals has resulted in resistance to different pathogen species. Quantitative resistance genes have been best characterized in wheat. The quantitative resistance genes identified so far in wheat encode transporter proteins or unusual kinase proteins. The recent discoveries in these three different resistance mechanisms have contributed to the basic molecular understanding of cereal immunity against pathogens and have suggested novel applications for resistance breeding.

  17. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes. PMID:27303632

  18. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:23915993

  19. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals.

  20. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spring barley is grown on about half of the Norwegian cereal area. The rest of the area is equally divided between wheat and oats. Most years the domestic production provides 70%–80% of the domestic market for bread wheat. Barley and oats are mainly grown for animal feed. During the years 2008–2012, severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight have led to increased mycotoxin contamination of cereals. During that period, precipitation was above normal during anthesis and grain maturation. The most important mycotoxin producers have been F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae. Increased deoxynivalenol contamination of Norwegian cereals during recent years is due to severe F. graminearum epidemics.

  1. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-01

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cereal products on the Turkish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacmaz, Sibel

    2016-09-01

    The contamination level of four EU marker polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some cereal-derived products was surveyed in this study. Thirty-eight samples, 20 bread and 18 breakfast cereals, were purchased from retail shops and local markets of East Black sea region in Turkey. The samples were analysed for four EU marker PAHs, using ultrasonic extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean up and stable-isotope dilution gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric (GC/MS) detection. The method was validated with the parameters linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and uncertainty. Total content of the four PAHs in bread varied from 0.19 to 0.46 µg kg(-1) and in breakfast cereals from 0.10 to 0.87 µg kg(-1). PMID:26986946

  3. Effects of processing on mycotoxin stability in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Jafar; Maleki, Gisoo

    2014-09-01

    The mycotoxins that generally occur in cereals and other products are not completely destroyed during food-processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most usually associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins. The various food processes that may have effects on mycotoxins include cleaning, milling, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, flaking, alkaline cooking, nixtamalization, and extrusion. Most of the food processes have variable effects on mycotoxins, with those that utilize high temperatures having the greatest effects. In general, the processes reduce mycotoxin concentrations significantly, but do not eliminate them completely. This review focuses on the effects of various thermal treatments on mycotoxins. PMID:24497303

  4. Molecular genetics of heat tolerance and heat shock proteins in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestri, Elena; Klueva, Natalya; Perrotta, Carla; Gulli, Mariolina; Nguyen, Henry T; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2002-01-01

    Heat stress is common in most cereal-growing areas of the world. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular and genetic basis of thermotolerance in vegetative and reproductive tissues of cereals. Significance of heat stress response and expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in thermotolerance of cereal yield and quality is discussed. Major avenues for increasing thermotolerance in cereals via conventional breeding or genetic modification are outlined. PMID:11999842

  5. Major Cereal Grain Fibers and Psyllium in Relation to Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Roizen, Michael F; Mladen Golubic; Kristin Kirkpatrick; Bernstein, Adam M.; Brigid Titgemeier

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. β-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oa...

  6. Projecting Meat and Cereals Demand for China Based on a Meta-Analysis of Income Elasticities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou; Yu, Xiaohua; Abler, David; Chen, Danhong

    2014-01-01

    There are many projections for China's food demand, and the projection results differ significantly from each other. Different values for income elasticities could be a major reason. This study projects meat and cereals demand for China based on a meta-analysis of the income elasticity estimates using a collection of 143 and 240 income elasticity estimates for cereals and meat products, respectively, from 36 primary studies. We find that income elasticities for most cereals (general cereals, ...

  7. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and

  8. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ready-to-Eat Cereal Subcategory § 406.90 Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory....

  9. Overview of vectors of cereal viruses in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Huusela-Veistola, Erja

    2007-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), Oat sterile dwarf virus (OSDV) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) are the most serious virus diseases of cereals in Finland. BYDV is transmitted by aphids, mainly by bird cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi. OSDV and WDV are leafhopper transmitted viruses.

  10. Analysing lodging of the panicle bearing cereal teff (Eragrostis tef)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van S.H.; Vos, J.; Ennos, A.R.; Stomph, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    •Lodging, the permanent displacement of crop plants from their vertical because of root or shoot failure, is a major yield constraint of the gluten free, panicle bearing cereal teff. The objective of this paper was to analyse the causes of lodging of teff by using, modifying and validating conventio

  11. Prevention of ochratoxin A in cereals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Monica; Jonsson, Nils; Magan, Naresh;

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes objectives and activities of a major European Community project (OTA PREV) aimed at understanding sources of contamination of ochratoxin A in European cereals and related food-stuffs, and the development of strategies to minimise ochratoxin A in the food supply. The project ran...

  12. POTENTIAL OF CEREALS AND PSEUDOCEREALS FOR LACTIC ACID FERMENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Valík

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and pseudocereals play a significant role in human nutrition. They are source of specific carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, fibre and wide spectrum of vitamins and minerals. Moreover, pseudocereals have a higher content of essential amino acids, e.g. lysine and tryptophan. Cereals and pseudocereals may also contain some antinutrition factors, such as phytic acid, polyphenols, trypsin inhibitors and inhibitors of α-amylase. These are responsible for reducing of protein and carbohydrate digestibility and decreasing accessibility of minerals due to complex formation. This review assesses the applications of cereals and pseudocereals in fermentation technology including the effects of lactic acid bacteria on nutrition, sensory quality and shelf-life. This work is focusing also on fermentation process of cereal matrice leading in degradation of antinutritional factors increase of nutritional value and availability of minerals, proteins and carbohydrates. Lactic acid bacteria produce many aromatic compounds that are beneficial to organoleptic atributes of the products. However, a few questions have been not answered in experiments, yet. For eample, is there any space for evaluation of their suitability to act as carriers of probiotics? Could such the attempts lead in development some special formulae suitable for consumers with food allergies or deficiencies?doi:10.5219/127

  13. Sourdough and cereal fermentation in a nutritional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Kaisa; Flander, Laura; Katina, Kati

    2009-10-01

    Use of sourdough is of expanding interest for improvement of flavour, structure and stability of baked goods. Cereal fermentations also show significant potential in improvement and design of the nutritional quality and health effects of foods and ingredients. In addition to improving the sensory quality of whole grain, fibre-rich or gluten-free products, sourdough can also actively retard starch digestibility leading to low glycemic responses, modulate levels and bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds, and improve mineral bioavailability. Cereal fermentation may produce non-digestible polysaccharides, or modify accessibility of the grain fibre complex to gut microbiota. It has also been suggested that degradation of gluten may render bread better suitable for celiac persons. The changes in cereal matrix potentially leading to improved nutritional quality are numerous. They include acid production, suggested to retard starch digestibility, and to adjust pH to a range which favours the action of certain endogenous enzymes, thus changing the bioavailability pattern of minerals and phytochemicals. This is especially beneficial in products rich in bran to deliver minerals and potentially protective compounds in the blood circulation. The action of enzymes during fermentation also causes hydrolysis and solubilisation of grain macromolecules, such as proteins and cell wall polysaccharides. This changes product texture, which may affect nutrient and non-nutrient absorption. New bioactive compounds, such as prebiotic oligosaccharides or other metabolites, may also be formed in cereal fermentations.

  14. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  15. Algorithms for in-season nutrient management in cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for improved decision making products for cereal production systems has placed added emphasis on using plant sensors in-season, and that incorporate real-time, site specific, growing environments. The objective of this work was to describe validated in-season sensor based algorithms prese...

  16. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity: Rice versus other common cereal grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The consumption of whole cereal grains has been strongly recommended by many governmental and non-profit health organizations based on epidemiological studies associating whole-grain consumption with reduced incidences of chronic diseases. Bioactive phytochemicals, such as polyphenolic compounds, ri...

  17. Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N. Wegulo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed.

  18. Cecil Cereal's Supermarket Search. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Cynthia

    The document presents objectives, teaching methods, activities, and work sheets for a unit on choosing breakfast cereal. The unit is intended to be used as an integral part of the fifth grade health program. Activities take place in a classroom learning center and can be completed in approximately four to six hours of classroom time. Objectives…

  19. Modeling Coupon Values for Ready-To-Eat Breakfast Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Gregory K.; Connor, John M.; Fulton, Joan R.

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to highlight the significant determinants of coupon values. A fixed effects panel data model is fitted with data from the breakfast cereal industry. The explanatory variables include own retail price, brand loyalty, brand market share, rival coupon redemptions, and firm and product type indicators.

  20. Variety Recommended Lists of Organic Cereals in Emilia-Romagna

    OpenAIRE

    C. Piazza; Foutry, H.; Reggiani, R.; Poli, M.; Bolognesi, S

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of Emilia-Romagna’s technicians and farmers, specific trials on cereals (soft wheat, hard wheat, barley, corn) for organic production have been carried out since 1995. These trials helped draw up specific Variety Recommended Lists.

  1. Manuring and stable nitrogen isotope ratios in cereals and pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Rebecca A; Bogaard, Amy; Heaton, Tim;

    2011-01-01

    experiments and areas where ‘traditional’ farming is practised. Our aim is to ground-truth interpretation of δ15N values in archaeobotanical crop remains as evidence of past growing conditions and husbandry practices. The results confirm the potentially radical impact of manuring on δ15N values in cereals...

  2. Cereal and nonfat milk support muscle recovery following exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Yi-Hung

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compared the effects of ingesting cereal and nonfat milk (Cereal and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Drink immediately following endurance exercise on muscle glycogen synthesis and the phosphorylation state of proteins controlling protein synthesis: Akt, mTOR, rpS6 and eIF4E. Methods Trained cyclists or triathletes (8 male: 28.0 ± 1.6 yrs, 1.8 ± 0.0 m, 75.4 ± 3.2 kg, 61.0 ± 1.6 ml O2•kg-1•min-1; 4 female: 25.3 ± 1.7 yrs, 1.7 ± 0.0 m, 66.9 ± 4.6 kg, 46.4 ± 1.2 mlO2•kg-1•min-1 completed two randomly-ordered trials serving as their own controls. After 2 hours of cycling at 60–65% VO2MAX, a biopsy from the vastus lateralis was obtained (Post0, then subjects consumed either Drink (78.5 g carbohydrate or Cereal (77 g carbohydrate, 19.5 g protein and 2.7 g fat. Blood was drawn before and at the end of exercise, and at 15, 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. A second biopsy was taken 60 minutes after supplementation (Post60. Differences within and between treatments were tested using repeated measures ANOVA. Results At Post60, blood glucose was similar between treatments (Drink 6.1 ± 0.3, Cereal 5.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L, p Conclusion These results suggest that Cereal is as good as a commercially-available sports drink in initiating post-exercise muscle recovery.

  3. Phytotoxicity and Benzoxazinone Concentration in Field Grown Cereal Rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. La Hovary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter rye (Secale cereale L. is used as a cover crop because of the weed suppression potential of its mulch. To gain insight into the more effective use of rye as a cover crop we assessed changes in benzoxazinone (BX levels in rye shoot tissue over the growing season. Four rye varieties were planted in the fall and samples harvested at intervals the following spring. Two different measures of phytotoxic compound content were taken. Seed germination bioassays were used as an estimate of total phytotoxic potential. Dilutions of shoot extracts were tested using two indicator species to compare the relative toxicity of tissue. In addition, BX (DIBOA, DIBOA-glycoside, and BOA levels were directly determined using gas chromatography. Results showed that rye tissue harvested in March was the most toxic to indicator species, with toxicity decreasing thereafter. Likewise the BX concentration in rye shoot tissue increased early in the season and then decreased over time. Thus, phytotoxicity measured by bioassay and BX levels measured by GC have a similar but not identical temporal profile. The observed decrease in phytotoxic potential and plant BX levels in rye later in the season appears to correlate with the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth.

  4. Alternative cereal grains and cereal by-products as sources of energy in poultry diets- A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Medugu,

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the world population, high cost of conventional animal feed ingredients and low protein intake in most developing countries has necessitated animal scientists to search for alternative sources of feed ingredients. This can enhance the production of animals with short generation intervals such as poultry to overcome the protein deficiency. This paper reviews cereal grains and cereal by-products as alternative feed ingredients for formulating poultry diets. Results obtained from various sources indicate that diets formulated with alternative cereal grains and cereal by-products had no adverse effects on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and carcass quality of broiler chickens, cockerels and egg quality of laying hens. Inclusion of different levels of brewers’ dried grain, maize offal, rice bran and broken rice are quite acceptable in poultry diets. Therefore, sorghum, millet, maize offal, rice bran and wheat offal, millet bran, spent sorghum grain and broken rice could be recommended as alternative sources of feed ingredients in poultry diets.

  5. Novel Approach for the Analysis and the Optimization of the Cereal Stock Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKHOUA Mohamed Najeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After a presentation of the process of thecereals mixture, we present a methodology for theoptimization problem and we validate it through apractical case of the cereals stock mobility process. Infact, the cereal transaction in Tunisia is conditioned bythe quality of the cereals determining the price of thetransaction (purchase or sale. With regards to theimportance of the cereal stock mobility, we werecommitted to study the way to optimize the process ofthe cereals mixture and to reduce disparity in deliveredcereal quality through the use of blinding techniquesand optimization methods.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree; Kim, Kwan-Soo; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2008-03-01

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwan-Soo [Research and Development Department, Greenpia Technology, Yeoju 469-811 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-03-15

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  8. Prediction of cereal feed value using spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Gislum, René

    2009-01-01

    Feed value in form of FEsv (Feed unit / kg dry matter, for piglets) and FEso (Feed unit / kg dry matter, for sows), EDOM (Enzyme Degradable Organic Matter) and EDOMi (Enzyme Degradable Organic Matter, Ileum) is used in the feed evaluation system for pigs. Analysis of feed value have highlighted...... of EDOM, EDOMi, FEso and FEsv. The outcome of a successful NIRS calibration will be a relatively cheap tool to monitor, diversify and evaluate the quality of cereals for animal feed, a possible tool to assess the feed value of new varieties in the variety testing and a useful, cheap and rapid tool...... for cereal breeders. A collection of 1213 grain samples of wheat, triticale, barley and rye, and related chemical reference analyses to describe the feed value have been established. The samples originate from available field trials over a three-year period. The chemical reference analyses are dry matter...

  9. Glycemic index of cereals and tubers produced in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Xin Yang; Hong-Wei Wang; Hong-Mei Cui; Yan Wang; Lian-Da Yu; Shi-Xue Xiang; Shui-Ying Zhou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the GI of some cereals and tubers produced in China in an effort to establish the database of glycemic index (GI) of Chinese food.METHODS: Food containing 50 g carbohydrate was consumed by 8-12 healthy adults after they have been fasted for 10 h and blood glucose was monitored for 2 h.Glucose was used as reference food. GI of food was calculated according to a standard method.RESULTS: GI of 9 types of sugar and 60 kinds of food were determined.CONCLUSION: Food GI is mainly determined by nature of carbohydrate and procession. Most of cereals and tubers produced in China have similar GI with their counterparts produced in other countries.

  10. Cereal Grains: Their Impacts on Health and Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Rayas-Duarte; J Uriyapongson

    2006-01-01

    Cereal grains can contribute to maintain health and prevent chronic diseases by supplying biologically active components. The exact mechanism of action of these components is not completely understood, but extensive evidence suggests the antioxidants that are present in the grains are the likely source of benefits. These activities or properties might protect against coronary heart disease and diabetes. The relationships of complex carbohydrates, whole grain products and the prevention of diseases, including type2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease continue to challenge the scientific community. Though cereal grains contribute to a healthy diet there are some people that can not tolerate the proteins present in the grain. This can lead to food allergies and when severe can be diagnosed as celiac disease.

  11. Genetics of cereal adaptation to the man-made habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wild progenitor species of all cereals are known with various degrees of certainty. Wild and cultivated taxa of the same species cross and their hybrids are generally fertile. This allows for a study of the genetics of domestication. A survey of the literature, however, reveals few such studies. The adaptation to disturbed habitats is genetically complex, and colonizing ability seems to have been a prerequisite for successful domestication. Natural seed dispersal is controlled by one to several linked genes, and behaves genetically as an overall dominant over loss of efficient seed dispersal mechanisms. Apical dominance, synchronized tillering, and increase in fecundity are complex, recessive genetic traits associated with cereal domestication. Racial evolution resulted from conscious selection by man and involves numerous loci. (author). 43 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  12. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in cereal breakfast products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Chrachol, Lucyna

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants formed by incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of several organic materials. PAHs occur as complex mixtures, never as individual components. They are chemically stable and highly lipophilic in nature and occur as contaminants in different food categories: vegetables, fruit, cereals, oils and fats, especially barbecued and smoked food. The present study was carried out to determine 16 PAHs in cereal products: musli, corn, oats and barley flakes, and crunchy. The analytical procedure was based on alkaline digestion, extraction with n-hexane and cleaned up in a florisil cartridge. Chromatographic separation was performed using gas chromatography (HP 6890) coupled to mass spectrometry (HP 5973). The levels of PAHs in most samples were generally low and excepting one sample of bred varied between 4.2 to 169 microg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene, was detected in all samples, at level 0.02 microg/kg to 16 microg/kg. PMID:19143427

  13. Multiple Adoption of Pest Management Technologies in UK cereal Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Iain; Sharma, Abhijit; Bailey, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the adoption of pest management technologies by farmers in UK cereal crop systems. While for the majority of UK farmers chemical control of pest outbreaks remains important, there are a range of non-chemical approaches and management practices that can be used to control pest populations. However, few of these alternatives produce levels of control that compare with chemical use in isolation. In this paper we consider the determinants of adoption of different combina...

  14. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel; Hebelstrup, Kim; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphospho...

  15. Quantitative estimation of sampling uncertainties for mycotoxins in cereal shipments

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Florent; Lyman, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Many countries receive shipments of bulk cereals from primary producers. There is a volume of work that is ongoing that seeks to arrive at appropriate standards for the quality of the shipments and the means to assess the shipments as they are out-loaded. Of concern are mycotoxin and heavy metal levels, pesticide and herbicide residue levels, and contamination by genetically modified organisms (GMOs). As the ability to quantify these contaminants improves through improved analytical technique...

  16. Impacts of cereal ergot in food animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eCoufal-Majewski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops such as wheat, barley and rye, favouring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements which may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety and genotype. Considerable animal to animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome.

  17. SOME STUDIES ABOUT CEREALS BEHAVIOR DURING FREEZE DRYING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA-VICTORIA MNERIE; D. MNERIE; D. ŢUCU

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents some special method and equipment and the principal advantages of freeze-dried food. The freeze drying is a good method of freeze-drying for make some experiments with many kind of cereals, for the improvement that in food production. It is necessary and is possible to study the corn oil extract, wheat flour, the maltodextrin from corn, modified cornstarch, spice extracts, soy sauce, hydrolyzed wheat gluten, partially hydrogenated soybean and cottonseed oil etc. That is ver...

  18. A cross-cultural study of cereal foods' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Costa, Ana I. A.

    information and price were the most important for Danes. The cues and dimensions Portuguese found relevant were fairly different and more category-dependent. Cues like store type for bread, brand for breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka, country-of-origin for vodka, and price for cookies, pasta and vodka were...... more often assessed by the Portuguese as relevant for decision-making at the point-of-purchase. This highlights the need for further cross-cultural research on food quality perception....

  19. Zinc and iron speciation in the cereal grain

    OpenAIRE

    Schjoerring, Jan K.; Persson, Daniel P.; Hansen, Thomas H.; Laursen, Kristian H; Husted, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Phytic acid and proteins are believed to be important for the distribution and bio-availability of zinc and iron in the cereal grain, but little quantitative information is available on the relative importance of different organic ligands. We have used several chromatographic techniques including size exclusion chromatography (SEC) hyphenated to ICP-MS to analyse the molecular speciation of Fe and Zn in tissues of barley and rice seeds. The majority of Fe in barley embryos co-eluted with P as...

  20. Prospects for India's cereal supply and demand to 2020:

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalla, G. S.; Hazell, P. B. R.; John M. Kerr

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of an emerging cereal gap of serious proportions by the year 2020, is a useful illustration of the kind of constructive dialogue IFPRI hopes to encourage. It responds to several quite recent developments, notably the rapid expansion of India's industrial and service sectors since the 1991 structural reforms, the improved prospects for continued growth over the next few decades, and the likelihood of rising per capita incomes that could generate substantially increased demand f...

  1. Supply and demand for cereals in Pakistan 2010-2030:

    OpenAIRE

    Nazli, Hina; Haider, Syed Hamza; Tariq, Asjad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the projections of future demand and supply for these two main cereals for 2010, 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030. For projecting household demand, the Almost Ideal Demand System (LA-AIDS) is estimated for eight food items using the data of nationally representative household survey. The results are used to project the household demand under three different scenarios. These scenarios are: a business-as-usual situation (per capita income is assumed to grow at a rate of 3 percent ...

  2. Application of roasted rice bran in cereal bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of using microwave-roasted rice bran as an ingredient in high-fiber cereal bars to obtain a product with good acceptability. The influence of the rice flakes, corn flakes, and roasted rice bran levels on the physical and chemical characteristics of the cereal bars was studied. The overall acceptability of three selected formulations was also evaluated. An increase in the roasted rice bran level in the formulation reduced the force of rupture and water activity, resulted in intermediate density, and caused darkening of the bars. The contents of lipid and total dietary fiber were higher in the formulation with the highest rice bran content, which was therefore classified as functional food. The formulation containing 0.34; 0.32; and 0.34 roasted rice bran, rice flakes, and corn flakes, respectively, seemed to be the best outcome. Cereal bars with roasted rice bran levels between 10 and 20% were accepted by consumers.

  3. Assessment of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Rabbani, Tehmeena; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Jinap, S

    2014-08-15

    Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analysed in 237 breakfast cereal samples collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. According to the results, 41% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 16% and 8% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 48% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 30% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The results have shown that 53% samples of breakfast cereals were found contaminated with ZEN and 8% samples were found to be above the permissible limit of EU. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in semolina i.e. 3.60 and 4.55 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly, semolina was the highest contaminated breakfast cereal for OTA (3.90 μg/kg), while cornflakes (brand B) was found highest contaminated with ZEN (13.45 μg/kg).

  4. Possible Roles for Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 in Cereal Endosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru eTonosaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2 is an evolutionarily conserved multimeric protein complex in both plants and animals. In contrast to animals, plants have evolved a range of different components of PRC2 and form diverse complexes that act in the control of key regulatory genes at many stages of development during the life cycle. A number of studies, particularly in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, have highlighted the role of PRC2 and of epigenetic controls via parent-of-origin specific gene expression for endosperm development. However, recent research in cereal plants has revealed that although some components of PRC2 show evolutionary conservation with respect to parent-of-origin specific gene expression patterns, the identity of the imprinted genes encoding PRC2 components is not conserved. This disparity may reflect the facts that cereal plant genomes have undergone different patterns of duplication during evolution compared to Arabidopsis thaliana and that the endosperm development program is not identical in monocots and eudicots. In this context, we focus this review on the expression of imprinted PRC2 genes and their roles in endosperm development in cereals.

  5. Cold acclimation and vegetative/reproductive transition in winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereals display a broad capacity range to survive low temperatures (LT and frost condition. Exposure of winter cereals to low, nonfreezing temperatures during the autumn and before freezing injury occurs can induces various changes in genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolom levels in plant cells, by which plants are able to adjust their metabolism to LT and improve their freezing tolerance (FT. The difference between the cultivars can be interpreted by hardening conditions and the different mode and severity of changes occurred in each levels during cold acclimation. FT in cereals is dependent upon phonological development and the highest level of FT only acquires during the vegetative stage and plants by initiation of the reproductive phase lose the ability for hardening. Phonological growth is controlled by the developmental genes (vernalization, photoperiod, etc. which regulate the vegetative/reproductive transition and consequently determine the duration and level of FT expression. Furthermore under filed condition winter survival is also determined by the acclimation temperature of locations that may affect phenological development and delay the beginning of reproductive growth.

  6. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:25075608

  7. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (60Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples

  8. Development of Combined Drought Indicator in Cereals to use its predictive value in the Agricultural Insurances: CDI_Cereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Donaire, Pilar; Tarquis, Ana M.; Giráldez, Juan V.

    2015-04-01

    The agrometeorological or agricultural drought is one of the most severe problems of agriculture. Drought damage is defined in terms of harvest loss due to precipitation shortage that limits soil moisture availability for the crops, substantially reducing crop yield. A method is proposed to identify the rain fed cereal agricultural drought in several Andalusian regions, based on the combination of three indices or anomalies: (i) standard precipitation index (SPI-3) based on Mishra and Desai (2005), (ii) soil moisture described with a water balance model based on the hydrological model by Brocca et al., 2008, and (iii) the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on Kogan (1995). Coupling the three anomalies, a Combined Drought Indicator -for rain fed cereals- (CDI) has been obtained. This indicator characterizes different warning levels of agricultural drought, which has been successfully assessed with the data of the period 2003-2013 (Jiménez-Donaire, 2014). The final aim of the proposed CDI is to design a warning system based on its components' combination to forecast the drought risk helping both farmers and agricultural insurance agencies. Keywords: drought, SPI, soil moisture, NDVI. References Brocca, L., Melone, F., Moramarco, T.(2008) On the estimation of antecedent wetness conditions in rainfall-runoff modelling. Hydrol. Process. 22, 629-642. Jiménez-Donaire, M.P. (2014) Indicador combinado de sequía para cereales y su valor predictivo en los seguros agrarios: ICS_CEREAL. Master thesis, UCO (In Spanish). Kogan, F.N., 1995. Droughts of the Late 1980s in the United States as Derived from NOAA Polar-Orbiting Satellite Data. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 655-668. Mishra, A.K., Desai, V.R., 2005. Drought forecasting using stochastic models. Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assess. 19, 326-339. Acknowledgements First author acknowledges the Research Grant obtained from CEIGRAM in 2014

  9. The Effect of Retail Grocery Coupons for Breakfast Cereals on Household Purchasing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua P. Berning; Zheng, Hualu

    2011-01-01

    We examine the affect of retail and manufacturer coupons on the nutritional quality of breakfast cereal purchases made by households. Using household level purchase data we find that coupon usage has a significant impact on the nutritional quality of cereals purchased by households. Specifically, we find that the average sugar content decreases and the fiber content increases. This suggests that coupons have a positive impact on the nutritional quality of cereals purchased by households, hold...

  10. How will conversion to organic cereal production affect carbon stocks in Swedish agricultural soils?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Olof; Kätterer, Thomas; Kirchmann, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Soil carbon changes were modelled over 30 years with the focus on cereal crops, since leys are often managed similarly in organic and conventional agriculture. Other crops were not considered due to difficulties in large-scale cropping of oilseed rape and potatoes organically because of pest problems. Four scenarios were used: 0%, 8% (current), 20% and 100% organic cereal production. Conversion to organic cereal crop production was found to reduce the amount of carbon stored as organic matter...

  11. Yield and nutritive value for ruminants of organic Winter cereals-bard vetch intercrops

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, A.; Carro Travieso, María Dolores; Palacios, Carlos; Saro, C.; Mateos, I; Tejido, M. L.; Ranilla, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Organic livestock in the European Union must be fed with organic feed, and forage should be at least 60% of the diet of herbivorous animals. However, the productivity of crops in organic farming is frequently lower than that in conventional farming, and organic cultivation of winter cereals often reduces forage CP content. Intercropping of winter cereals with legumes can provide both higher forage yield and quality compared with winter cereal monocultures, but the results may differ with ...

  12. MRI texture analysis as means for addressing rehydration and milk diffusion of cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Melado Herreros, Angela; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Fernandez Valle, M. Encarnacion; Ruiz Cabello Osuna, Jesus Maria; Chassagne-Berces, Sophie; Chanvrier, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Cereals microstructure is one of the primary quality attributes of cereals. Cereals rehydration and milk diffusion depends on such microstructure and thus, the crispiness and the texture, which will make it more palatable for the final consumer. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a very powerful topographic tool since acquisition parameter leads to a wide possibility for identifying textures, structures and liquids mobility. It is suited for non-invasive imaging of water and fats. Rehydratio...

  13. MRI texture analysis as means for addressing rehydration and milk diffusion in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Melado Herreros, Angela; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Fernandez Valle, M. Encarnacion; Ruiz Cabello Osuna, Jesus Maria; Chassagne-Berces, Sophie; Chanvrier, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Cereals microstructure is one of the primary quality attributes of cereals. Cereals rehydration and milk diffusion depends on such microstructure and thus, the crispiness and the texture, which will make it more palatable for the final consumer. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a very powerful tomographic tool since acquisition parameter leads to a wide possibility for identifying textures, structures and liquids mobility. It is suited for noninvasive imaging of water and fats. Rehydration...

  14. The nutritional and physiological impact of cereal products in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, K; Lee, V A

    1977-03-01

    There is a need for reeducation of the population, especially in developed countries, as to the value of cereals in the diet. Cereals provide calories and important nutrients to the diet. Refined cereal products and unrefined cereals have certain advantages and disadvantages. With refinement, some nutrients and fiber are removed, but the body is better able to make use of certain nutrients. Essential nutrients are being replaced through fortification to compensate for losses in processing. The high fiber content of unrefined cereal products is believed to aid in the prevention of certain diseases. Special dietary bakery products have been introduced for the treatment of conditions generally exacerbated by standard food items. The increased consumption of cereal products appears warranted as a means of decreasing the saturated fat and cholesterol consumption. Cereals and cereal products have been mentioned in connection with allergies, celiac disease, schizophrenia, obesity, dental caries, cancer, atherosclerosis, goiter, and diverticulosis. This review discusses the possible role of cereals in the prevention or cause of these health problems. PMID:338251

  15. Carotenoids in Staple Cereals: Metabolism, Regulation, and Genetic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shengnan; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grains. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1) seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, phytoene synthase, β-cyclase, and ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and orange gene conditioning sequestration sink; (2) provitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3) quantitative trait loci for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and 10 gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be beneficial in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for provitamin A biofortification. PMID:27559339

  16. Carotenoids in Staple Cereals: Metabolism, Regulation, and Genetic Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shengnan; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grains. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1) seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, phytoene synthase, β-cyclase, and ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and orange gene conditioning sequestration sink; (2) provitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3) quantitative trait loci for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and 10 gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be beneficial in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for provitamin A biofortification. PMID:27559339

  17. ANALYSIS OF FREE AND BOUND CHLOROPHENOXY ACIDS IN CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Extraction of the chlorophenoxy acids 2,4-D and dichlorprop in cereals has been examined by analyzing barley from spraying experiments. A procedure has been set up by combination of acid hydrolysis and enzymatic degradation followed by extraction and clean up on either silica gel or basic aluminum...... oxide. The final determination is based on reaction with diazomethane and subsequently GLC with ECD. This procedure was compared with two different extraction procedures previously described in the literature. The one comparative procedure uses a mixture of 50% diethyl ether/hexane in presence...

  18. SOME STUDIES ABOUT CEREALS BEHAVIOR DURING FREEZE DRYING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-VICTORIA MNERIE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some special method and equipment and the principal advantages of freeze-dried food. The freeze drying is a good method of freeze-drying for make some experiments with many kind of cereals, for the improvement that in food production. It is necessary and is possible to study the corn oil extract, wheat flour, the maltodextrin from corn, modified cornstarch, spice extracts, soy sauce, hydrolyzed wheat gluten, partially hydrogenated soybean and cottonseed oil etc. That is very porous, since it occupies the same volume as the original and so rehydrates rapidly. There is less loss of flavour and texture than with most other methods of drying.

  19. Fusarium head blight of winter rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on Fusarium head blight of rye were carried out in the years 2005-2007 on 10 production fields in the Lublin region. The percentage of heads showing the fusariosis symptoms in the years 2005-2007 ranged from 0 to 7%. Mycological analysis of kernels and chaff obtained from heads with Fusarium blight (scab symptoms showed that Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium sporotrichioides were the largest threat to heads of this cereal. The species of Fusarium poae and Fusarium crookwellense were also isolated from infected rye heads. The dominance of particular species in infecting rye heads was determined by weather conditions.

  20. A cross-cultural study of cereal food quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I. A.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    information and price were the most important for Danes. The cues and dimensions Portuguese found relevant were fairly different and more category-dependent. Cues like store type for bread, brand for breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka, country-of-origin (CoO) for vodka, and price for cookies, pasta and vodka...... were more often assessed by the Portuguese as relevant for decision-making at the point-of-purchase. This highlights the need for further cross-cultural research on food quality perception....

  1. DEMAND FOR BREAKFAST CEREALS: WHOLE GRAINS GUIDANCE AND FOOD CHOICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ishdorj, Ariun; Jensen, Helen H.

    2010-01-01

    When using household-level data to examine consumer demand it is common to find that consumers purchase only a subset of the available goods, setting the demand for the remaining goods to zero. Ignoring such censoring of the dependent variables can lead to estimators with poor statistical properties and estimates that lead to poor policy decisions. In this paper we investigate household demand for four types of breakfast cereals, such as whole grain ready-to-eat, non-whole grain ready-to-eat,...

  2. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  3. Quantification of sugars in breakfast cereals using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounji, Michelle R; Van Leeuwen, Matthew P; Oliver, James D; Shrestha, Ashok K; Castignolles, Patrice; Gaborieau, Marianne

    2015-05-18

    About 80% of the Australian population consumes breakfast cereal (BC) at least five days a week. With high prevalence rates of obesity and other diet-related diseases, improved methods for monitoring sugar levels in breakfast cereals would be useful in nutrition research. The heterogeneity of the complex matrix of BCs can make carbohydrate analysis challenging or necessitate tedious sample preparation leading to potential sugar loss or starch degradation into sugars. A recently established, simple and robust free solution capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was used in a new application to 13 BCs (in Australia) and compared with several established methods for quantification of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates identified in BCs by CE included sucrose, maltose, glucose and fructose. The CE method is simple requiring no sample preparation or derivatization and carbohydrates are detected by direct UV detection. CE was shown to be a more robust and accurate method for measuring carbohydrates than Fehling method, DNS (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid) assay and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography).

  4. CEREALS AS BASIS OF PREVENTING NUTRITION AGAINST OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Still more alarming obesity studies show in fact that it is largely due to incorrect diet and lifestyle. For suitable alternative for prevention of this disease are now considered cereal foods, mainly based on increased fiber content. The importance of dietary fiber for human organism consist primarily in its protective function before civilization diseases. It has beneficial effects on digestive physiology and it is therefore an important factor in the prevention of obesity, but also other diseases. Fiber consumption in developed countries is low and it is below the lower limit of the recommended dose. Slovaks per day take only 10-12 g of fiber, which represents only 47% of the recommended dose. Recent large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of wholegrain cereals can reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers by 30 percent. One of the factors that increase the functionality of foods is the so-called indigestible resistant starch. For its the positive impact on the physiology of digestion is referred to as prebiotics new generation of dietary fiber. The increasing availability of tasty, whole grain products rich in fiber could be health benefits. doi:10.5219/76

  5. Prospects for advancing defense to cereal rusts through genetical genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballini, Elsa; Lauter, Nick; Wise, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Rusts are one of the most severe threats to cereal crops because new pathogen races emerge regularly, resulting in infestations that lead to large yield losses. In 1999, a new race of stem rust, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt TTKSK or Ug99), was discovered in Uganda. Most of the wheat and barley cultivars grown currently worldwide are susceptible to this new race. Pgt TTKSK has already spread northward into Iran and will likely spread eastward throughout the Indian subcontinent in the near future. This scenario is not unique to stem rust; new races of leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) have also emerged recently. One strategy for countering the persistent adaptability of these pathogens is to stack complete- and partial-resistance genes, which requires significant breeding efforts in order to reduce deleterious effects of linkage drag. These varied resistance combinations are typically more difficult for the pathogen to defeat, since they would be predicted to apply lower selection pressure. Genetical genomics or expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis enables the identification of regulatory loci that control the expression of many to hundreds of genes. Integrated deployment of these technologies coupled with efficient phenotyping offers significant potential to elucidate the regulatory nodes in genetic networks that orchestrate host defense responses. The focus of this review will be to present advances in genetical genomic experimental designs and analysis, particularly as they apply to the prospects for discovering partial disease resistance alleles in cereals.

  6. Manufacturing cereal bars with high nutritional value through experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Covino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations responsible for public health throughout the world have been increasingly worrying about how to feed populations encouraging a nutritious and balanced diet in order to decrease the occurrence of chronic diseases, which are constantly related to an inadequate diet. Still, due to matters of modern lifestyle consumers are increasingly seeking convenient products. This being so, cereal bars have been an option when the matter is low calorie fast food which is also source of fiber. This study aimed at developing a cereal bar with high dietary fiber, iron, vitamins A and vitamin E, in order to easily enable adult population achieve the daily recommendation for such nutrients. Eight formulations plus the focal point were conducted through experimental planning; sensory analysis with 110 tasters for each block and texture. Afterwards, we conducted centesimal analysis for all three formulations presenting the best sensory results. After statistical analysis and comparison to the means for products available in the market, it was possible to conclude that the product developed presented great acceptance and fiber level more than twice as much as the means for commercial products.

  7. Reduced fungicide doses in cereals: Which parameters to consider?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:A long tradition for using reduced fungicides rates in cereals have been exploited successfully in Denmark for more than 20 years and a similar trend has also been seen in other Northern European countries. The use of reduced and appropriate dose rates have been driven by field trials wi...... that reduced fungicide rates select less for fungicide resistance and can help to delay development of resistance.......Abstract:A long tradition for using reduced fungicides rates in cereals have been exploited successfully in Denmark for more than 20 years and a similar trend has also been seen in other Northern European countries. The use of reduced and appropriate dose rates have been driven by field trials...... to be controlled successfully at rates down to quarter rates. Fungicides, in general, show highly variable dose responses for specific diseases, which is important to know when specific advice is given. Preventive treatments generally require less input compared with treatments during the latent period or later...

  8. A comparison of methods to quantify prolamin contents in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Giuberti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic prolamins are endosperm storage proteins accounting for about 40% of the total protein in most cereals seeds. Despite the absence of a reference method, several procedures have been periodically published to quantify prolamins in cereals. The aim of this study was to compare a conventional fractionation assay (LND vs three other methods: one based on sequential extractions (HAM and two rapid turbidimetric procedures (L&H and DRO. Prolamins were extracted in duplicate on barley, corn and wheat samples. For the turbidimetric prolamin evaluation in barley and wheat, a universally available purified gliadin, as alternative to purified zein, was also tested as standard reference material (SRM. The extraction prolamin values were different among grain types (P0.05. LND agreed sufficiently well both with HAM and with L&H methods (R2=0.664 and R2=0.703, respectively, P0.05, whereas a higher prolamin quantification was obtained using HAM (P<0.05. Overall, DRO did not provide similar comparison and performance parameters with respect to other method comparisons. The effect of changing purified zein with purified gliadin was noteworthy only for L&H, both for wheat and barley samples (P<0.01. Considering the increasing attention of animal nutritionists on prolamins, our results could get useful information for routine laboratories analysis.

  9. Impacts of Cereal Ergot in Food Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coufal-Majewski, Stephanie; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim; Blakley, Barry; McKinnon, John; Chaves, Alexandre Vieira; Wang, Yuxi

    2016-01-01

    The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the fifth century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine, and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety, and genotype. Considerable animal-to-animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors, such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome. PMID:26942186

  10. Simple and efficient methodology to determine mycotoxins in cereal syrups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Huertas-Pérez, José F; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2015-06-15

    Consumption of cereal syrups is increasing nowadays. Mycotoxins may be found in syrups resulting from the use of contaminated raw material or invading microorganisms in the final manufactured product. However, these matrices have been scarcely explored regarding their mycotoxin content. A sensitive, simple and rapid method for the determination of ten mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 and HT-2 toxin, citrinin, sterigmatocystin and zearalenone) in cereal syrups (rice, wheat and barley) has been developed and characterised using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and a sample treatment based on QuEChERS procedure. Matrix-matched calibration curves were established and limits of quantification were below the limits usually established by current legislation in different foodstuff. The relative standard deviation of the whole analytical method was lower than 12% in all cases, while recoveries ranged from 70.2% to 100.6%, therefore fulfilling the current requirements for mycotoxins analysis.

  11. Increased understanding of the cereal phytase complement for better mineral bio-availability and resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holme, Inger Bæksted;

    2014-01-01

    for the bio-availability of micronutrients in human nutrition. The composition and levels of mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) in cereals is of central importance for efficient phytate hydrolysis. The MGPA varies considerably between species. Substantial activity is present in Triticeae tribe cereals like...

  12. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. 406.80 Section 406.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory §...

  13. Changes in time of sowing, flowering and maturity of cereals in Europe under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olesen, J.E.; Borgesen, C.D.; Elsgaard, L.; Palosuo, T.; Rötter, R.P.; Skjelväg, A.O.; Peltonen-Sainio, P.; Bórjesson, T.; Trnka, M.; Ewert, F.; Siebert, S.; Brisson, N.; Eitzinger, J.; Asselt, van E.D.; Oberforster, M.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2012-01-01

    The phenological development of cereal crops from emergence through flowering to maturity is largely controlled by temperature, but also affected by day length and potential physiological stresses. Responses may vary between species and varieties. Climate change will affect the timing of cereal crop

  14. Effect of infant cereals on zinc and copper absorption during weaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk-cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning

  15. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF CEREALS AND METHODS OF STUDYING THEIR BIOMORPHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the article, the main issues of development of perennial cereals (morphology, phenology, formation of buds, physiology, biochemistry and research methods) are discussed. Peculiarities of regulation of development and the character of their evolution are considered. Problems of evolution of the cereals with widespread use of the data of Russian and foreign authors are discussed

  16. Effect of infant cereals on zinc and copper absorption during weaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.; Loennerdal, B.

    1987-10-01

    Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk-cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning.

  17. Exploring the Boundaries of N2-Fixation in Cereals and Grasses: A Hypothetical and Experimental Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.

    2003-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of research on free-living and endophytic bacteria associated with cereals and grasses, conclusive examples of impacts of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in agriculture are lacking. All available methods for measurement of N2-fixation associated with cereals and grasses have bee

  18. Cereal area and nitrogen use efficiency are drivers of future nitrogen fertilizer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobermann, Achim; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2005-12-01

    At a global scale, cereal yields and fertilizer N consumption have increased in a near-linear fashion during the past 40 years and are highly correlated with one another. However, large differences exist in historical trends of N fertilizer usage and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) among regions, countries, and crops. The reasons for these differences must be understood to estimate future N fertilizer requirements. Global nitrogen needs will depend on: (i) changes in cropped cereal area and the associated yield increases required to meet increasing cereal demand from population and income growth, and (ii) changes in NUE at the farm level. Our analysis indicates that the anticipated 38% increase in global cereal demand by 2025 can be met by a 30% increase in N use on cereals, provided that the steady decline in cereal harvest area is halted and the yield response to applied N can be increased by 20%. If losses of cereal cropping area continue at the rate of the past 20 years (-0.33% per year) and NUE cannot be increased substantially, a 60% increase in global N use on cereals would be required to meet cereal demand. Interventions to increase NUE and reduce N losses to the environment must be accomplished at the farm- or field-scale through a combination of improved technologies and carefully crafted local policies that contribute to the adoption of improved N management; uniform regional or national directives are unlikey to be effective at both sustaining yield increases and improving NUE. Examples from several countries show that increases in NUE at rates of 1% per year or more can be achieved if adequate investments are made in research and extension. Failure to arrest the decrease in cereal crop area and to improve NUE in the world's most important agricultural systems will likely cause severe damage to environmental services at local, regional, and global scales due to a large increase in reactive N load in the environment.

  19. Cereal area and nitrogen use efficiency are drivers of future nitrogen fertilizer consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achim; Dobermann; Kenneth; G.; Cassman

    2005-01-01

    At a global scale, cereal yields and fertilizer N consumption have increased in a near-linear fashion during the past 40 years and are highly correlated with one another. However,large differences exist in historical trends of N fertilizer usage and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)among regions, countries, and crops. The reasons for these differences must be understood to estimate future N fertilizer requirements. Global nitrogen needs will depend on: (i) changes in cropped cereal area and the associated yield increases required to meet increasing cereal demand from population and income growth, and (ii) changes in NUE at the farm level. Our analysis indicates that the anticipated 38% increase in global cereal demand by 2025 can be met by a 30% increase in N use on cereals, provided that the steady decline in cereal harvest area is halted and the yield response to applied N can be increased by 20%. If losses of cereal cropping area continue at the rate of the past 20 years (-0.33% per year) and NUE cannot be increased substantially, a 60% increase in global N use on cereals would be required to meet cereal demand. Interventions to increase NUE and reduce N losses to the environment must be accomplished at the farm- or field-scale through a combination of improved technologies and carefully crafted local policies that contribute to the adoption of improved N management; uniform regional or national directives are unlikey to be effective at both sustaining yield increases and improving NUE. Examples from several countries show that increases in NUE at rates of 1% per year or more can be achieved if adequate investments are made in research and extension. Failure to arrest the decrease in cereal crop area and to improve NUE in the world's most important agricultural systems will likely cause severe damage to environmental services at local, regional, and global scales due to a large increase in reactive N load in the environment.

  20. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel;

    2014-01-01

    -amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal......Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...... structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics...

  1. DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN CEREAL MILLING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts of grain - substances from these parts can be isolated and after treatment, which causes their efficiently usable for human body, they can be used for fortification of wide range of food products.

  2. Variability in nutrient composition of cereal grains from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinyoung; Nam, Doo Seok; Kong, Changsu

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient composition of individual feed ingredient in mixed feed is important for accurate formulation of animal feeds. However, each feed ingredient can be different depending on its origin. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the variability in nutrient compositions of corn, wheat, and barley grains from different origins. Cereal grains used in this study were from 5 countries for 432 corn samples, 5 countries for 65 wheat samples, and 3 countries for 60 barley samples. They were imported to Korea between 2006 and 2015. These grain samples were subjected to analysis for moisture, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), ash, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and gross energy (GE). The concentrations of moisture, CP, EE, CF, ash, Ca, P, and GE of corn differed (P formulating animal feeds.

  3. Conservation and improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of preserving the genetic resources of the local races of pseudo cereals 'red Chia' (Chenopodium berlandieri subspecies nuttalliae), Chia blanca or alegria and Chia negra (belonging to Amaranths hypochondriacus), its were carried out exploration, characterization in situ, collects and conservation activities in the Opopeo and Santa Maria Huiramangaro communities, Michoacan. Field journeys were made and collections were carried out. The morphological typification and of physical and bromatologic characters of the seed were carried out. Parcels for the In situ conservation and the collections have also settled down in two towns of the Toluca Valley for multiplication and ex situ characterization. Seed has been redistributed among the in study area producers to foment the interest of the cultivation. (Author)

  4. Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals harvested from Hungarian fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tima, Helga; Brückner, Andrea; Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla; Kiskó, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 frequently contaminate grain crops in Middle and Eastern Europe. In this survey, 116 cereal samples (maize, wheat, barley and oat) were examined for DON, ZEN and T-2 mycotoxins. Samples were collected from different areas in two Hungarian regions (North and South Transdanubia). The method of analysis was indirect competitive ELISA. Maize was the most contaminated grain regarding DON (86%), ZEN (41%) and T-2 (55%) toxins. The average results of the deoxynivalenol and zearalenone tests of maize proved to be significantly higher than those of barley or oat. DON was the most represented Fusarium mycotoxin followed by T-2 and ZEN. The examination of these mycotoxins would be necessary at a larger scale as to re-evaluate permissible levels, so increase of the monitoring programme would be advisable for the future. PMID:26892197

  5. Parallel Domestication of the Heading Date 1 Gene in Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Hangqin; Zhou, Leina; Zhang, Zhihai; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Mingli; Li, Haixia; Lin, Zhongwei

    2015-10-01

    Flowering time is one of the key determinants of crop adaptation to local environments during domestication. However, the genetic basis underlying flowering time is yet to be elucidated in most cereals. Although staple cereals, such as rice, maize, wheat, barley, and sorghum, have spread and adapted to a wide range of ecological environments during domestication, it is yet to be determined whether they have a common genetic basis for flowering time. In this study, we show, through map-based cloning, that flowering time in sorghum is controlled by a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) Heading Date 1 (HD1), located on chromosome 10. The causal gene encodes the CONSTANS gene family which contains a CCT domain. A 5-bp deletion of a minor allele present in the coding sequence leads to a gene frameshift that delays flowering in sorghum. In contrast, in foxtail millet, association mapping of HD1 showed a common causal site with a splicing variant from "GT" to "AT" that was highly correlated with flowering time. In addition, the rice HD1 gene is known to harbor several causal variants controlling flowering time. These data indicate that the major flowering time QTL HD1 was under parallel domestication in sorghum, foxtail millet, and rice. The pattern of common mixed minor, or even rare, causal alleles in HD1 across different species may be representative of the genetic basis of the domestication syndrome. Furthermore, large DNA sequence analysis of HD1 revealed multiple origins for domesticated sorghum and a single origin for domesticated foxtail millet.

  6. Prospects for Advancing Defense to Cereal Rusts through Genetical Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa eBallini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rusts are one of the most severe threats to cereal crops because new pathogen races emerge regularly, resulting in infestations that lead to large yield losses. In 1999, a new race of stem rust, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt TTKSK or Ug99, was discovered in Uganda. Most of the wheat and barley cultivars grown currently worldwide are susceptible to this new race. Pgt TTKSK has already spread northward into Iran and will likely spread eastward throughout the Indian subcontinent in the near future. This scenario is not unique to stem rust; new races of leaf rust (Puccinia triticina and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis have also emerged recently. One strategy for countering the persistent adaptability of these pathogens is to stack complete- and partial-resistance genes, which requires significant breeding efforts in order to reduce deleterious effects of linkage drag. These varied resistance combinations are typically more difficult for the pathogen to defeat, since they would be predicted to apply lower selection pressure. Genetical genomics or expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL analysis enables the identification of regulatory loci that control the expression of many to hundreds of genes. Integrated deployment of these technologies coupled with efficient phenotyping offers significant potential to elucidate the regulatory nodes in genetic networks that orchestrate host defense responses. The focus of this review will be to present advances in genetical genomic experimental designs and analysis, particularly as they apply to the prospects for discovering partial disease resistance alleles in cereals.

  7. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-01-01

    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading. PMID:24175878

  8. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one. PMID:23414530

  9. The Cereal Pollen Sensitivity and Effect of the Asthma Clinics in Sanliurfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ceylan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim in this study was to detect the kinds of cereal that cause cereal pollens sensitivity, and to investigate the effects of cereal pollen sensitivity on the asthma clinic. Material and Method: In this study 140 cases from Sanliurfa with asthma (83 women, 57 men, with the mean age of 26.3-7.9 year and sensitivity against cereal pollen demonstrated by skin prick test, who applied to OSM Ortadogu Hospital Chest Diseases Outpatient Clinic in the period of March-June were evaluated prospectively. The patients’ peak expiratory flow (PEF values measured in the morning and evening, changes in PEF, asthma symptom score and the symptom-relieving therapy used during the 16-weeks study period were recorded and evaluated in the clinic with FEV1 results at the beginning, month 1, 2, 3 and 4. Results: Of the patients with sensitivity against cereals pollens, 25.4% had allergy against Hordeum vulgare, 23.6% against Secale cereale, 20.7% against Triticum sativum, 19,3% against Zea mays and 18.6% against Avena sativa. Prior to the study and at the end of follow up period, morning and evening PEF values, asthma scores and symptom relieving drug usage were same cereals pollens sensitivity (p>0.05. Discussion: Accordance to the vegetation of Sanliurfa region, important ratio of the sensitivities were detected with prick test against Hordeum vulgare, Secale cereale, Triticum sativum, Zea mays and Avena sativa pollens. The effects of cereals pollens were similar rates of asthma clinics.

  10. The benefits of breakfast cereal consumption: a systematic review of the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter G

    2014-09-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. PMID:25225349

  11. Influence of host and geographic locale on the distribution of Colletotrichum cereale lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Beirn

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum cereale is an ascomycete inhabitant of cool-season Pooideae grasses. The fungus has increased in frequency over the past decade as a destructive pathogen of Poa annua and Agrostis stolonifera turfgrass. Colletotrichum cereale exists as two lineages, designated clades A and B, but little is known about the distribution of these clades in natural environments, or what role these subdivisions may play in the trajectory of disease outbreaks. In this study, our objective was to determine the frequency of C. cereale clades A and B. To rapidly discriminate between the two C. cereale clades, a real-time PCR assay was developed based on the Apn2 gene. A collection of 700 C. cereale pathogens and endophytes from twenty Pooideae grass genera were genotyped. 87% of the collection was identifed as part of clade A, 11.7% as part of clade B, and 1.3% was a mixture. Colletotrichum cereale from turfgrass hosts in North America were most commonly members of clade A (78%. The overabundance of clade A in turfgrass isolates was directly attributable to the dominance of this lineage from southern sampling sites, irrespective of host. In contrast, 111 C. cereale turfgrass isolates collected from northern sampling sites were evenly distributed between clades A and B. Only 28% of C. cereale from A. stolonifera at northern sampling sites were part of clade A. These data show that environmental factors such as geographic location and host identity likely played a role in the distribution of the major C. cereale clades in North American turfgrass.

  12. THE USE OF PSEUDO-CEREALS FLOURS IN BAKERY / UTILISATION DE FARINES DES PSEUDO-CEREALES DANS LA BOULANGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMULUS MARIAN BURLUC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a special attention should be given to the nutritional properties of foods. In the bakery industry there is a tendency to develop innovative range of bakery products by using the therapeutic role of cereals that are not used at their true potential (buckwheat, millet, rice, oats. Among bioactive components present in the pseudocereal flours, flavones group is highlighted, in particular rutine, the most important ramnoglicosid with multiple beneficial effects on health. The aims of this study were the obtention of different bakery products (bread, biscuits from raw materials with high therapeutic potential (fiber, antioxidant capacity, minerals, the optimization of process parameters and recipes, and the characterization of finished products in terms of sensory and physico-chemical properties. The results confirm that the use of unusual raw materials for the Romanian market led to obtaining high quality finished products with special therapeutic features.

  13. Cereals Market in Romania under the Impact of the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina CONSTANTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyses the cereals market after Romania accession to European Union. Thus, I considered necessary and appropriate to achieve the dynamic analysis of production, prices, trade, consumption, and self-sufficiency that provides an overview on the evolution of the cereals market in Romania, in the European context, starting from resources representing the demand, to the uses that represent the supply. I also point out the main mechanisms and support instruments for the cereals market under the Common Agriculture Policy, in the period 2007-2013 and towards 2014-2020.

  14. Assessment of mixtures of mycotoxins in cereal based foods available in Portuguese market

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Carla; Assunção, Ricardo; Cunha, S.; Jager, A.; Alvito, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that cause toxic and carcinogenic outcomes in humans exposed to them1. Mycotoxins affect several commodities including cereal grains and their finished products, infant formula and baby foods2. This study aimed to determine the incidence and levels of 20 mycotoxins and metabolites (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1, OTA, NIV, NEO, DAS, FUS-X, DON, 15-AC-DON, 3-AC-DON, HT-2, T-2, VER, T-2 TETROL, T-2 TRIOL), in breakfast cereals and cereal based baby fo...

  15. Semi-dwarf cereal mutants and their use in cross-breeding III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Co-ordinated Research Programme on the ''Evaluation of semi-dwarf mutants as cross-breeding material in cereals'' was initiated in 1980, with the main objective to provide cereal breeders with new, alternative sources of genes for semi-dwarf, lodging resistant plant types. The present publication includes papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting. Papers presented by participants in the Co-ordinated Research Programme demonstrate that these objectives were successfully achieved. As an additional result of this programme more improved genotypes of cereals with other desirable characters as earliness, better harvest index and improved plant architecture have become available for practical breeding. Refs, figs, tabs

  16. Distribution of carotenoids in endosperm, germ, and aleurone fractions of cereal grain kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndolo, Victoria U; Beta, Trust

    2013-08-15

    To compare the distribution of carotenoids across the grain, non-corn and corn cereals were hand dissected into endosperm, germ and aleurone fractions. Total carotenoid content (TCC) and carotenoid composition were analysed using spectrophotometry and HPLC. Cereal carotenoid composition was similar; however, concentrations varied significantly (paleurone layer had zeaxanthin levels 2- to 5-fold higher than lutein among the cereals. Positive significant correlations (paleurone layer. Our findings suggest that the aleurone of wheat, oat, corn and germ of barley have significantly enhanced carotenoid levels.

  17. Using fuzzy logic for automatic control: Case study of a problem of cereals samples classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhoua Najeh Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the use of fuzzy logic for automatic control of industrial systems particularly the way to approach a problem of classification. We present a case study of a grading system of cereals that allows us to determine the price of transactions of cereals in Tunisia. Our contribution in this work consists in proposing not only an application of the fuzzy logic on the grading system of cereals but also a methodology enabling the proposing of a new grading system based on the concept of 'Grade' while using the fuzzy logic techniques. .

  18. Relative severity of aflatoxin contamination of cereal crops in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Kumar, Manjula; Leslie, John F

    2007-10-01

    Aflatoxins are a common contaminant of cereals that can cause cancer, liver disease, immune suppression, retarded growth and development, and death, depending on the level and duration of exposure. Maize is an introduced crop to Africa and there have been efforts over the last 20 years or so to replace traditional cereal crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), with maize. We found that maize was significantly more heavily colonized by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. than either sorghum or millet, with overall aflatoxin levels being correspondingly higher. On average, Nigerians consume 138 kg cereals annually. If the primary cereal is sorghum instead of maize, then the risk of aflatoxin-related problems is reduced 4-fold; if it is pearl millet, then the risks are reduced 8-fold. Development programs and other ventures to increase maize production in marginal cropping areas of Africa should be reconsidered and, instead, efforts to improve/maintain traditional crops encouraged.

  19. Rich nutrition from the poorest - Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia involve mainly the processing of maize, rice, sorghum and the millets. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus), Enterobacter spp., yeasts (Candida, Debaryomyces, Endomycopsis, Hansenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Trichosporon spp.) and filamentous fu

  20. The prevalence and distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.;

    2003-01-01

    In the period 1994-1996 a post-harvest survey was conducted in wheat, barley and oats to assess the occurrence and geographic distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals. The number of samples investigated was adjusted proportionally to the production of each cereal species within...... the regions. A total of 695 grain samples were analysed. The amount of Fusarium infection varied with cereal species and region of origin. The most frequently isolated Fusarium spp. from all samples were F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. culmorum. Other important toxigenic Fusarium spp. were F...... and F. culmorum demonstrated in this study , corresponded to previously reported DON-distribution, although DON seems to be produced by different species in different regions. Distribution of the isolated Fusarium species and comparison between cereals and locations are discussed....

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  2. Ochratoxin A and ochratoxin-producing fungi on cereal grain in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihong, Liang; Kunlun, Huang; Yunbo, Luo

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is known to be the main contaminant of cereal grain and has become increasingly important in recent years. Therefore, a survey of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA contamination in China is a special challenge. This paper summarises data on cereals and moulds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus ochraceus, for example) and on grain and OTA from 1973 by searching Chinese information databases (NCKI, VIP, DuXiu etc.), calculating the OTA-producing mould detection rate, referring to sampling locations, latitude and temperature, and also combining six grain-producing areas of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA positive rate through a comprehensive analysis. It is concluded that in China rice (excluding shell rice) has less OTA contamination than wheat or maize. The contamination of cereal grains with Aspergillus section Nigri (formerly of the A. niger group) is a serious problem in China, and these fungi may be the main ochratoxigenic fungi on cereals.

  3. Ochratoxin A and ochratoxin-producing fungi on cereal grain in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihong, Liang; Kunlun, Huang; Yunbo, Luo

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is known to be the main contaminant of cereal grain and has become increasingly important in recent years. Therefore, a survey of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA contamination in China is a special challenge. This paper summarises data on cereals and moulds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus ochraceus, for example) and on grain and OTA from 1973 by searching Chinese information databases (NCKI, VIP, DuXiu etc.), calculating the OTA-producing mould detection rate, referring to sampling locations, latitude and temperature, and also combining six grain-producing areas of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA positive rate through a comprehensive analysis. It is concluded that in China rice (excluding shell rice) has less OTA contamination than wheat or maize. The contamination of cereal grains with Aspergillus section Nigri (formerly of the A. niger group) is a serious problem in China, and these fungi may be the main ochratoxigenic fungi on cereals. PMID:25571918

  4. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties in Cereals: Study of Some Traditional Italian Wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole grain cereals contain a wide range of phytochemicals and it is often difficult to ascribe protective effects on metabolic health to any one particular constituent. The interactions among bioactive components, which contribute highly to the total antioxidant capacity of cereals, represent the first step in the evaluation of food potential health benefits. This research focused on the determination of antioxidant properties in grains and whole flours of some traditional Italian wheats. Results showed that hydrolysable polyphenols in grains are 85% of total polyphenols and contribute 95% of the total antioxidant properties, which indicates that hydrolysable polyphenols represent an important fraction of polyphenols in cereals. The distinction between extractable and non-extractable antioxidants was shown to be of paramount importance for an adequate determination of antioxidant capacity in cereals and represents a key element in the definition of potential nutritional value of the food matrix under consideration.

  5. Preference Heterogeneity and Habit Persistence: The Case of Breakfast Cereal Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Thunström, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the strength and heterogeneity across households in state dependence associated with breakfast cereal consumption, where positive state dependence implies habit persistence and negative state dependence implies variety-seeking in consumption. The analysis relies on a discrete choice model and finds that breakfast cereal consumption is generally highly habitual, but the degree of habit persistence exhibits heterogeneity across households. In addition, some households can b...

  6. U.S. READY-TO-EAT BREAKFAST CEREALS' EXPANSION IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fang

    1999-01-01

    US ready-to-eat breakfast cereals entered the Chinese market in the mid-1990s. In the past years, this all-American food has been generating business losses. Such underperformance calls for prompt strategic modification by the cereal investors. This study focuses on foreign entry strategy and product strategy, and characterizes a combination of literature review and case study. Literature review seeks appropriate theories and frameworks, and therefore renders a sound conceptual foundation for...

  7. Material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastio, Michael Joseph, Jr.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly seventy-five years ago, the single screw extruder was introduced as a means to produce metal products. Shortly after that, the extruder found its way into the plastics industry. Today much of the world's polymer industry utilizes extruders to produce items such as soda bottles, PVC piping, and toy figurines. Given the significant economical advantages of extruders over conventional batch flow systems, extruders have also migrated into the food industry. Food applications include the meat, pet food, and cereal industries to name just a few. Cereal manufacturers utilize extruders to produce various forms of Ready-to-Eat (RTE) cereals. These cereals are made from grains such as rice, oats, wheat, and corn. The food industry has been incorrectly viewed as an extruder application requiring only minimal energy control and performance capability. This misconception has resulted in very little research in the area of material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruders. Breakfast cereal extruder barrels and individual screw elements are subjected to the extreme pressures and temperatures required to shear and cook the cereal ingredients, resulting in excessive material wear and catastrophic failure of these components. Therefore, this project focuses on the material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements, modeled as a Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC) process in which historical data is used to predict future failures. Such predictive analysis will yield cost savings opportunities by providing insight into extruder maintenance scheduling and interchangeability of screw elements. In this DTMC wear analysis, four states of wear are defined and a probability transition matrix is determined based upon 24,041 hours of operational data. This probability transition matrix is used to predict when an extruder component will move to the next state of wear and/or failure. This information can be used to determine

  8. Simultaneous determination of nitrogen and phosphorus in cereals using 14 MeV Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis was developed form non-destructive simultaneous determination of N and P in cereals. The samples were irradiated 5 min. after 0,5 min. decay time. The induced activities were measured using gamma spectrometry with Nal(Tl) well type detector. The accuracy, precision and detection limits obtained are discussed as well as the analytical results for different types of cereals. (Author) 10 refs., 8 tab., 1 fig

  9. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela ePeukert; Johannes eThiel; Hans-Peter eMock; Doris eMarko; Winfriede eWeschke; Andrea eMatros

    2016-01-01

    Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water–soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds) and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages (ß(2,1); ß(2,6)-fructans) or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, whic...

  10. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Mock, Hans-Peter; Marko, Doris; Weschke, Winfriede; Matros, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water–soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds) and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages [β(2,1); β(2,6)-fructans] or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, whic...

  11. Impact of selected antagonistic fungi on Fusarium species – toxigenic cereal pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Delfina Popiel; Hanna Kwaśny; Jerzy Chełkowski; Łukasz Stępień; Magdalena Laskowska

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium-ear blight is a destructive disease in various cereal-growing regions and leads to significant yield and quality losses for farmers and to contamination of cereal grains with mycotoxins, mainly deoxynivalenol and derivatives, zearalenone and moniliformin. Fusarium pathogens grow well and produce significant inoculum on crop resiudues. Reduction of mycotoxins production and pathogen sporulation may be influenced by saprophytic fungi, exhibiting antagonistic effect. Dual culture bioass...

  12. Cereals Market in Romania under the Impact of the Common Agricultural Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin, Florentina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyses the cereals market after Romania accession to European Union. Thus, I considered necessary and appropriate to achieve the dynamic analysis of production, prices, trade, consumption, and self-sufficiency that provides an overview on the evolution of the cereals market in Romania, in the European context, starting from resources representing the demand, to the uses that represent the supply. I also point out the main mechanisms and support instruments for th...

  13. Suitability of cereal porridges as substrate for probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubomír Valík; Monika Kocková

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find new substrates suitable for growth and metabolism of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which would be interesting for development of new functional food. The growth and metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG in cereal (rye, barley, oat and millet) porridges were monitored during fermentation process. Cereal and porridges, were inoculated with this strain at two initial levels to obtain approximately 5 or 6 log colony form units per gram of suspensio...

  14. Ochratoxin A producing Penicillium verrucosum isolates from cereals reveal large AFLP fingerprinting variability

    OpenAIRE

    Frisvad, J C; Lund, F; Elmholt, S.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To examine if molecular amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting of the only ochratoxin A-producing species in European cereals, Penicillium verrucosum, can be used as a method in hazard analysis using critical control points (HACCP). Methods and Results: A total of 321 isolates of P. verrucosum were isolated from ochratoxin A contaminated cereals from Denmark (oats), UK (wheat and barley) and Sweden (wheat). Of these, 236 produced ochratoxin A as determined by t...

  15. EFFECTS GENERATED BY THE ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE FIELD OF TRADING CEREAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DONA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European consumer exigencies, the mechanisms of the Common Agricultural Policy, the European norms and standards, the ecological productions are as many challenges to which the producers, processors, traders and decision makers in the agro food field, and specifically for our research, in the cereals field, must face in order for the Romanian products to be present on an external market, as well as on an internal market that are increasingly competitive.In this paper we have concluded a brief analysis of the cereals market nationally and on a European level, and of the common support policies in this sector, of the common market organizations, as well as of the implications of the accession over the trade of cereal products. Also, we have made several recommendations within this paper targeting the specific sectorial aspects of the cereals sector: in order to fully profit from the possibilities offered by the Common Agricultural Policy instruments and from the demand and prices growth its necessary that Romanian producers organize and make, together, major investments in cereals conditioning and storage systems; the majority of Romanian producers sell the cereals immediately after harvest, when prices are at their lowest level; storage in good conditions of the harvest could allow a substantial increase of profit.

  16. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Rela, P. R.; Mancini-Filho, J.

    2007-11-01

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in São Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at "Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares" (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  17. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in Sao Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares' (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process

  18. APPLICATION OF WESTERN BLOT ANALYSIS FOR DETECTION OF PROLAMIN PROTEINS IN CEREAL GRAINS AND BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Cieślik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an inflammatory condition of the small intestine in genetically susceptible individuals caused by ingestion of wheat gluten and corresponding proteins from barley and rye. Cereal storage proteins (prolamins are responsible for immunological response of patients with celiac disease. Prolamins are alcohol soluble fractions, namely gliadins (wheat, hordeins (barley and secalins (rye. The main triggering factor is wheat fraction with low molecular weight (20-30 kDa called α-gliadins. Immunochemical detection of celiac active proteins is based on reactivity of gluten-detecting antibodies with prolamins extracted from cereals. In our study, we used Western blot analysis for detection of prolamin complex in cereal grains and processed foods (breads. Western blot was carried out by polyclonal antibody raised against wheat gluten. Reaction was positive for all kind of cereal grains. The samples of wheat and spelt wheat show much more positive affinity to antibody than rye and oat. As well as for cereal grains, all samples of bread showed positive immunological reaction with used antibody. Western blot analysis with gluten polyclonal antibody is suitable method for qualitative detection of prolamin complex in cereal grains and processed foods.doi:10.5219/115

  19. The gluten-free diet: testing alternative cereals tolerated by celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Isabel; Moreno, María de Lourdes; Real, Ana; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Barro, Francisco; Sousa, Carolina

    2013-10-01

    A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs) from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition. PMID:24152755

  20. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Lab. de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Travessa R. No. 400, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-910, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Araujo, M.M.; Fanaro, G.B.; Rela, P.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Lab. de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Travessa R. No. 400, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-910, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mancini-Filho, J. [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas-FCF/USP, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental, Lab. de Lipides, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: jmancini@usp.br

    2007-11-15

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in Sao Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares' (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a {sup 60}Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  1. The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sousa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A strict gluten-free diet (GFD is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition.

  2. From the concept of totipotency to biofortified cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    I was a college teacher when opportunity opened a path into academia. A fascination with totipotency channeled me into research on tissue culture. As I was more interested in contributions to food security than in scientific novelty, I turned my attention to the development of genetic modification technology for cereals. From my cell culture experience, I had reasons not to trust Agrobacterium for that purpose, and I developed direct gene transfer instead. In the early 1990s, I became aware of the problem of micronutrient deficiency, particularly vitamin A deficiency in rice-eating populations. Golden Rice, which contains increased amounts of provitamin A, was probably instrumental for the concept of biofortification to take off. I realized that this rice would remain an academic exercise if product development and product registration were not addressed, and this is what I focused on after my retirement. Although progress is slowly being made, had I known what this pursuit would entail, perhaps I would not have started. Hopefully Golden Rice will reach the needy during my lifetime. PMID:25423078

  3. A tradeoff frontier for global nitrogen use and cereal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen fertilizer use across the world’s croplands enables high-yielding agricultural production, but does so at considerable environmental cost. Imbalances between nitrogen applied and nitrogen used by crops contributes to excess nitrogen in the environment, with negative consequences for water quality, air quality, and climate change. Here we utilize crop input-yield models to investigate how to minimize nitrogen application while achieving crop production targets. We construct a tradeoff frontier that estimates the minimum nitrogen fertilizer needed to produce a range of maize, wheat, and rice production levels. Additionally, we explore potential environmental consequences by calculating excess nitrogen along the frontier using a soil surface nitrogen balance model. We find considerable opportunity to achieve greater production and decrease both nitrogen application and post-harvest excess nitrogen. Our results suggest that current (circa 2000) levels of cereal production could be achieved with ∼50% less nitrogen application and ∼60% less excess nitrogen. If current global nitrogen application were held constant but spatially redistributed, production could increase ∼30%. If current excess nitrogen were held constant, production could increase ∼40%. Efficient spatial patterns of nitrogen use on the frontier involve substantial reductions in many high-use areas and moderate increases in many low-use areas. Such changes may be difficult to achieve in practice due to infrastructure, economic, or political constraints. Increases in agronomic efficiency would expand the frontier to allow greater production and environmental gains

  4. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS

  5. Molecular Approaches to Understand Nutritional Potential of Coarse Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Rakesh; Subramani, Rajkumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Wankhede, Dhammaprakash P

    2016-06-01

    Coarse grains are important group of crops that constitutes staple food for large population residing primarily in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Coarse grains are designated as nutri-cereals as they are rich in essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins. In spite of having several nutritional virtues in coarse grain as mentioned above, there is still scope for improvement in quality parameters such as cooking qualities, modulation of nutritional constituents and reduction or elimination of anti-nutritional factors. Besides its use in traditional cooking, coarse grains have been used mainly in the weaning food preparation and other malted food production. Improvement in quality parameters will certainly increase consumer's preference for coarse grains and increase their demand. The overall genetic gain in quality traits of economic importance in the cultivated varieties will enhance their industrial value and simultaneously increase income of farmers growing these varieties. The urgent step for improvement of quality traits in coarse grains requires a detailed understanding of molecular mechanisms responsible for varied level of different nutritional contents in different genotypes of these crops. In this review we have discussed the progresses made in understanding of coarse grain biology with various omics tool coupled with modern breeding approaches and the current status with regard to our effort towards dissecting traits related to improvement of quality and nutritional constituents of grains. PMID:27252585

  6. Irradiation on cereal bars incorporated with pineapple skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major current concerns to the food industry is the management of residues generated in its production processes. Thus, several studies have been developed, seeking alternative uses for these residues, in order to minimize environmental impacts and add value to products previously discarded. Combining this idea with the increasingly search for healthy and practical products, by consumers, this study aimed the characterization of cereal bars irradiated with doses of 0 kGy, 1 kGy, and 2 kGy, incorporated with dried pineapple skin. The following analyses were carried out: moisture, proteins, lipids, ashes, carbohydrates, energetic value, antioxidant potential, phenolic content, organic acids, and fatty acids profile. The results observed for the centesimal composition did not vary as a function of the radiation doses used, reducing only the levels of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, and organic acids. The product showed potential for becoming an effective way of reusing a food industry residue and the irradiation interfered on the nutritional characteristics of the final product. (author)

  7. A tradeoff frontier for global nitrogen use and cereal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nathaniel D.; West, Paul C.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; Polasky, Stephen; Foley, Jonathan A.

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer use across the world’s croplands enables high-yielding agricultural production, but does so at considerable environmental cost. Imbalances between nitrogen applied and nitrogen used by crops contributes to excess nitrogen in the environment, with negative consequences for water quality, air quality, and climate change. Here we utilize crop input-yield models to investigate how to minimize nitrogen application while achieving crop production targets. We construct a tradeoff frontier that estimates the minimum nitrogen fertilizer needed to produce a range of maize, wheat, and rice production levels. Additionally, we explore potential environmental consequences by calculating excess nitrogen along the frontier using a soil surface nitrogen balance model. We find considerable opportunity to achieve greater production and decrease both nitrogen application and post-harvest excess nitrogen. Our results suggest that current (circa 2000) levels of cereal production could be achieved with ˜50% less nitrogen application and ˜60% less excess nitrogen. If current global nitrogen application were held constant but spatially redistributed, production could increase ˜30%. If current excess nitrogen were held constant, production could increase ˜40%. Efficient spatial patterns of nitrogen use on the frontier involve substantial reductions in many high-use areas and moderate increases in many low-use areas. Such changes may be difficult to achieve in practice due to infrastructure, economic, or political constraints. Increases in agronomic efficiency would expand the frontier to allow greater production and environmental gains.

  8. Where do Protein Bodies of Cereal Seeds Come From?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzini, Emanuela; Mainieri, Davide; Marrano, Claudia A.; Vitale, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Protein bodies of cereal seeds consist of ordered, largely insoluble heteropolymers formed by prolamin storage proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of developing endosperm cells. Often these structures are permanently unable to traffic along the secretory pathway, thus representing a unique example for the use of the ER as a protein storage compartment. In recent years, marked progress has been made in understanding what is needed to make a protein body and in formulating hypotheses on how protein body formation might have evolved as an efficient mechanism to store large amounts of protein during seed development, as opposed to the much more common system of seed storage protein accumulation in vacuoles. The major key evolutionary events that have generated prolamins appear to have been insertions or deletions that have disrupted the conformation of the eight-cysteine motif, a protein folding motif common to many proteins with different functions and locations along the secretory pathway, and, alternatively, the fusion between the eight-cysteine motif and domains containing additional cysteine residues. PMID:27540384

  9. Effects of cereal bars for breakfast and mid-morning snacks on mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Wilds, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of consuming cereal bars, given either for breakfast or a mid-morning snack, on mood and memory. Thirty-two volunteers (16 males, 16 females; mean age, 20 years 9 months) were randomly assigned to one of four groups formed by combining breakfast (cereal bar versus no breakfast) and snack (cereal bar versus no snack) conditions. A baseline session was completed at 08:30 h followed by breakfast at 9:00 h, another test at 10:00 h, followed by a mid-morning snack and then a final test at 12:00 h. In each session, volunteers rated their mood and carried out four memory tasks: free recall; recognition memory; a verbal reasoning task; and a semantic processing task. The results showed that volunteers who consumed a cereal bar for breakfast felt more alert, happy and sociable and less anxious. In addition, they also recalled more words in a free recall task. When the cereal bar was consumed as a mid-morning snack, alertness and hedonic tone increased, especially in the group who received no breakfast. The group who had no breakfast reported reduced anxiety after consumption of the snack. Recall was also improved after the snack. These findings show that consuming cereal bars in the early and mid-morning leads to beneficial behavioural effects. The results confirm earlier research on effects of breakfast and extend our knowledge of effects of snacks. Consumption of cereal bars may have important practical applications especially in situations where preparation of breakfast is difficult.

  10. Prehistoric cereal foods from Greece and Bulgaria: investigation of starch microstructure in experimental and archaeological charred remains

    OpenAIRE

    Valamoti, Soultana-Maria; Samuel, Delwen; Bayram, Mustafa; Elena MARINOVA

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In order to investigate ancient cereal cooking practices, the microstructure of preserved starch in charred ground cereal remains recovered from prehistoric sites in Greece and Bulgaria has been analysed. A comparative modern set of cooked and subsequently charred cereals was produced. By scanning electron microscopy it is demonstrated that, under some conditions, distinctive cooked starch structure survives the charring process. Charring alone can occasionall...

  11. Investigation of lactic acid bacteria mediated bioprotection with applications in cereal industry. Case-study: malting process

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Pedro Miguel Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal compounds produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) metabolites can be natural and reliable alternative for reducing fungal infections pre- and post-harvest with a multitude of additional advantages for cereal-base products. Toxigenic and spoilage fungi are responsible for numerous diseases and economic losses. This thesis includes an overview of the impact fungi have on aspects of the cereal food chain. The applicability of LAB in plant protection and cereal industry is discussed in ...

  12. Active oxygen and cell death in cereal aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fath, Angelika; Bethke, Paul; Beligni, Veronica; Jones, Russell

    2002-05-01

    The cereal aleurone layer is a secretory tissue whose function is regulated by gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Aleurone cells lack functional chloroplasts, thus excluding photosynthesis as a source of active oxygen species (AOS) in cell death. Incubation of barley aleurone layers or protoplasts in GA initiated the cell death programme, but incubation in ABA delays programmed cell death (PCD). Light, especially blue and UV-A light, and H(2)O(2) accelerate PCD of GA-treated aleurone cells, but ABA-treated aleurone cells are refractory to light and H(2)O(2) and are not killed. It was shown that light elevated intracellular H(2)O(2), and that the rise in H(2)O(2) was greater in GA-treated cells compared to cells in ABA. Experiments with antioxidants show that PCD in aleurone is probably regulated by AOS. The sensitivity of GA-treated aleurone to light and H(2)O(2) is a result of lowered amounts of enzymes that metabolize AOS. mRNAs encoding catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase are all reduced during 6-18 h of incubation in GA, but these mRNAs were present in higher amounts in cells incubated in ABA. The amounts of protein and enzyme activities encoded by these mRNAs were also dramatically reduced in GA-treated cells. Aleurone cells store and metabolize neutral lipids via the glyoxylate cycle in response to GA, and glyoxysomes are one potential source of AOS in the GA-treated cells. Mitochondria are another potential source of AOS in GA-treated cells. AOS generated by these organelles bring about membrane rupture and cell death.

  13. Progress of cereal transformation technology mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukoh eHiei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monocotyledonous plants were believed to be not transformable by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens until two decades ago, although convenient protocols for infection of leaf disks and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants had been well established in a number of dicotyledonous species by then. This belief was reinforced by the fact that monocotyledons are mostly outside the host range of crown gall disease caused by the bacterium and by the failures in trials in monocotyledons to mimic the transformation protocols for dicotyledons. However, a key reason for the failure could have been the lack of active cell divisions at the wound sites, which are the basis of tissue culture and transformation in dicotyledons, in monocotyledons. The complexity and narrow optimal windows of critical factors, such as genotypes of plants, conditions of the plants from which explants are prepared, tissue culture methods and culture media, pre-treatments of explants, strains of A. tumefaciens, inducers of virulence genes, transformation vectors, selection marker genes and selective agents, kept technical hurdles high. Eventually it was determined that rice and maize could be transformed by co-cultivating cells of callus cultures or immature embryos, which are actively dividing or about to divide, with A. tumefaciens. Subsequently, these initial difficulties were resolved one by one by many research groups, and the major cereals are now transformed quite efficiently. As many as 15 independent transgenic events may be regenerated from a single piece of immature embryo of rice. Maize transformation protocols are well established, and almost all transgenic events deregulated for commercialization after 2003 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Wheat, barley and sorghum are also among those plants that can be efficiently transformed by A. tumefaciens.

  14. Advances in functional genomics for investigating salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C Shelden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as low water availability and high salinity are major causes of cereal crop yield losses and significantly impact on sustainability. Wheat and barley are two of the most important cereal crops (after maize and rice and are grown in increasingly hostile environments with soil salinity and drought both expected to increase this century, reducing the availability of arable land. Barley and wheat are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive, yet they are more salt-tolerant than other cereal crops such as rice and so are good models for studying salt-tolerance in cereals. The exploitation of genetic variation of phenotypic traits through plant breeding could significantly improve growth of cereals in salinity-affected regions, thus leading to improved crop yields. Genetic variation in phenotypic traits for abiotic stress tolerance have been identified in land races and wild germplasm but the molecular basis of these differences is often difficult to determine due to the complex genetic nature of these species. High-throughput functional genomics technologies, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics and ionomics are powerful tools for investigating the molecular responses of plants to abiotic stress. The advancement of these technologies has allowed for the identification and quantification of transcript /metabolites in specific cell types and/or tissues. Using these new technologies on plants will provide a powerful tool to uncovering genetic traits in more complex species such as wheat and barley and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of salinity stress tolerance.

  15. Major Cereal Grain Fibers and Psyllium in Relation to Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roizen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. β-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in β-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake.

  16. Discrimination of Repetitive Sequences Polymorphism in Secale cereale by Genomic In Situ Hybridization-Banding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping Zhou; Zu-Jun Yang; Guang-Rong Li; Cheng Liu; Zheng-Long Ren

    2008-01-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization banding (GISH-banding), a technique slightly modified from conventional GISH, was used to probe the Chinese native rye (Secale cereale L.) DNA, and enabled us to visualize the Individual rye chromosomes and create a universal reference karyotype of the S. cereale chromosome 1R to 7R. The GISH-banding approach used in the present study was able to discriminate S. cereale chromosomes or segments in the wheat (Triticum aeativum L.) background, including the Triticale, wheat-rye addition and translocation lines. Moreover, the GISH-banding pattern of S.cereale subsp. Afghanicum chromosomes was consistent with that of Chinese native rye cv. Jingzhou rye; whereas the GISH-banding pattem of Secale vavilovli was different from that of S. cereale, indicating that GISH-banding can be used to study evolutionary polymorphism in species or subspecies of Secale. In addition, the production and application of GISH-banding to the study of adenine-thymine-riched heterochromatin is discussed.

  17. THE SUPPLEMENTARY RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PROTEINS OF MOTTLED GRAM BEAN AND CERTAIN OTHER CEREALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗登义

    2006-01-01

    @@ It has been well understood that a mixture of vegetable and animal proteins is of higher quality than the former alone, and also there are some remarkable instances of effective supplementing between the proteins of certain cereals and certain legume seeds[1]. In practice, it is very valuable for the selection of human diets and farm-animal relations. This question is especially important in China where the protein of the average diet are mainly of vegetable origin, in which about 83 percent are derived from cereals and 11 percent from beans[2]. However, a review of the literature indicates that no work has been done on the supplementary relationships of the protein of mottled gram bean with those of other cereals. The writer purchased, therefore, from the Peiping market some cheaper cereals commonly used in China, namely, yellow corn(黄玉米), red kaoliang(红高粱),oat meal(油麦面),panicled glutinous and non-glutinous millets(黄米及糜子米); and determined the supplementary values between the proteins of mottled gram bean and these cereals. The experimental details are communicated in the present paper.

  18. Effect of flaxseed flour incorporation on the physical properties and consumer acceptability of cereal bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouryieh, H; Aramouni, F

    2013-12-01

    Extensive research has revealed numerous nutritional and health benefits of flaxseed due primarily to its nutrients content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flaxseed flour addition on the physical and sensory characteristics of cereal bars. Four formulations of the flaxseed cereal bars were prepared by partially replacing oats with flaxseed flour added at levels of 0 (control), 6%, 12% and 18%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in water activity, moisture and firmness values between the flaxseed bars and control. Flaxseed addition significantly (p bars. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the 12% flax cereal bars and the control with respect to sensory attributes and overall acceptability. The overall acceptability for both 12% flax bars and the control was in between 'like moderately' and 'like slightly' on the 9-point hedonic scale. The overall acceptability was most highly correlated with flavor acceptability for both control (r = 0.80) and 12% flax (r = 0.82) cereal bars. Flaxseed bars provided 12% dietary fiber of the daily recommended value. These results indicated that flaxseed flour incorporation up to 12% substantially enhanced the nutritional qualities of the cereal bars without affecting their sensory and quality properties.

  19. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Booij, C J H

    2010-06-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges. Mycotoxin contamination in cereal grain-based feed and food products is currently managed and controlled by good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices, hazard analysis critical control points, and by checking and more recently by notification systems and predictive mathematical models. Most of the predictive models for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains focus on deoxynivalenol in wheat and aim to help growers make decisions about the application of fungicides during cultivation. Future developments in managing Fusarium mycotoxins should include the linkage between predictive mathematical models and geographical information systems, resulting into region-specific predictions for mycotoxin occurrence. The envisioned geographically oriented decision support system may incorporate various underlying models for specific users' demands and regions and various related databases to feed the particular models with (geographically oriented) input data. Depending on the user requirements, the system selects the best fitting model and available input information. Future research areas include organizing data management in the cereal grain supply chain, developing predictive models for other stakeholders (taking into account the period up to harvest), other Fusarium mycotoxins, and cereal grain types, and understanding the underlying effects of the regional component in the models.

  20. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  1. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Booij, C J H

    2010-06-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges. Mycotoxin contamination in cereal grain-based feed and food products is currently managed and controlled by good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices, hazard analysis critical control points, and by checking and more recently by notification systems and predictive mathematical models. Most of the predictive models for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains focus on deoxynivalenol in wheat and aim to help growers make decisions about the application of fungicides during cultivation. Future developments in managing Fusarium mycotoxins should include the linkage between predictive mathematical models and geographical information systems, resulting into region-specific predictions for mycotoxin occurrence. The envisioned geographically oriented decision support system may incorporate various underlying models for specific users' demands and regions and various related databases to feed the particular models with (geographically oriented) input data. Depending on the user requirements, the system selects the best fitting model and available input information. Future research areas include organizing data management in the cereal grain supply chain, developing predictive models for other stakeholders (taking into account the period up to harvest), other Fusarium mycotoxins, and cereal grain types, and understanding the underlying effects of the regional component in the models. PMID:20537276

  2. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Hyman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes.

  3. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Hyman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes.

  4. Major cereal grain fibers and psyllium in relation to cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Adam M; Titgemeier, Brigid; Kirkpatrick, Kristin; Golubic, Mladen; Roizen, Michael F

    2013-05-01

    Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. β-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in β-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake.

  5. Significance of Ochratoxin A in Breakfast Cereals from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-11-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been found in all major cereal grains including oat, wheat, and barley worldwide and considered as a potential concern in food safety. A total of 489 samples of corn-, rice-, wheat-, and oat-based breakfast cereal were collected from U.S. retail marketplaces over a two-year period, and OTA was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Overall, 205 samples (42%) were contaminated with OTA in the range from 0.10 to 9.30 ng/g. The levels OTA were mostly below of the European Commission Regulation (3 ng/g) except in 16 samples of oat-based cereals. The incidence of OTA was highest in oat-based breakfast cereals (70%, 142/203), followed by wheat-based (32%, 38/117), corn-based (15%, 15/103), and rice-based breakfast cereals (15%, 10/66). On the basis of the incidence and concentration of OTA, oats and oat-based products may need greater attention in further surveillance programs and development of intervention strategies to reduce health risks in consumers.

  6. Characterisation of dietary fibre components in cereals and legumes used in Serbian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodevska, Margarita S; Djordjevic, Brizita I; Sobajic, Sladjana S; Miletic, Ivanka D; Djordjevic, Predrag B; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna S

    2013-12-01

    The typical Serbian diet is characterised by high intake of cereal products and also legumes are often used. The content of total fibre as well as certain fibre fractions was determined in cereals, cereal products, and cooked legumes. The content of total fibre in cooked cereals and cereal products ranged from 2.5 to 20.8 g/100 g, and in cooked legumes from 14.0 to 24.5 g/100 g (on dry matter basis). Distribution of analysed fibre fractions and their quantities differed significantly depending on food groups. Fructans and arabinoxylans were the most significant fibre fractions in rye flakes, and β-glucan in oat flakes, cellulose and resistant starch were present in significant amounts in peas and kidney beans. When the size of regular food portions was taken into consideration, the best sources of total dietary fibre were peas and kidney beans (more than 11 g/serving). The same foods were the best sources of cellulose (4.98 and 3.56 g/serving) and resistant starch (3.90 and 2.83 g/serving). High intake of arabinoxylans and fructans could be accomplished with cooked wheat (3.20 g and 1.60 g/serving, respectively). Oat (1.39 g/serving) and barley flakes (1.30 g/serving) can be recommended as the best sources of β-glucan. PMID:23870869

  7. Legume-Cereal Intercropping Improves Forage Yield, Quality and Degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yin, Binjie; Xie, Yuhuai; Li, Jing; Yang, Zaibin; Zhang, Guiguo

    2015-01-01

    Intercropping legume with cereal is an extensively applied planting pattern in crop cultivation. However, forage potential and the degradability of harvested mixtures from intercropping system remain unclear. To investigate the feasibility of applying an intercropping system as a forage supply source to ruminants, two consecutive experiments (experiments 1 and 2) involving a field cultivation trial and a subsequent in vivo degradable experiment were conducted to determine the forage production performance and the ruminally degradable characteristics of a harvested mixture from an alfalfa/corn-rye intercropping system. In experiment 1, the intercropping system was established by alternating alfalfa and corn or rye with a row ratio of 5:2. Dry matter (DM) and nutrient yields were determined. In experiment 2, forages harvested from the different treatments were used as feedstuff to identify nutrient degradation kinetics and distribution of components between the rapidly degradable (a), potentially degradable (b) and the degradation rate constant (c) of 'b' fraction by in sacco method in Small-Tail Han wether Sheep. The intercropping system of alfalfa and corn-rye provided higher forage production performance with net increases of 9.52% and 34.81% in DM yield, 42.13% and 16.74% in crude protein (CP) yield, 25.94% and 69.99% in degradable DM yield, and 16.96% and 5.50% in degradable CP yield than rotation and alfalfa sole cropping systems, respectively. In addition, the harvest mixture from intercropping system also had greater 'a' fraction, 'b' fraction, 'c' values, and effective degradability (E value) of DM and CP than corn or rye hay harvested from rotation system. After 48-h exposure to rumen microbes, intercropping harvest materials were degraded to a higher extent than separately degraded crop stems from the sole system as indicated by visual microscopic examination with more tissues disappeared. Thus, the intercropping of alfalfa and corn-rye exhibited a greater

  8. A potent bidirectional promoter from the monocot cereal Eleusine coracana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Saswati; Dutta, Samir Kr

    2016-09-01

    Ragi bifunctional α-amylase-trypsin inhibitor (RBI) of Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. (finger millet) simultaneously inhibits α-amylase and trypsin. In continuation of previous work on the cloning, expression and characterization of RBI, a bidirectional promoter from finger millet was explored on the basis of experimental observations. Two trypsin inhibitors were identified while purifying RBI from a trypsin-Sepharose column eluent. Using an FPLC gel filtration column, these three inhibitors were purified to homogeneity and subjected to MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Both ragi trypsin inhibitors (RTIs) showed the same N-terminal sequence and considerable sequence similarity to RBI, indicating the presence of a multigene protease inhibitor family in finger millet. To gain insight into the evolution of these genes, the upstream region of RBI was explored by Genome Walking. Interestingly, on sequencing, a genome walking product of ∼1 Kb showed presence of an N-terminal RBI specific primer sequence twice but in opposite directions and leaving an intervening region of ∼0.9 Kb. The intervening region was presumed to represent an E. coracana bidirectional promoter (EcBDP), intuitively having a divergent RBI-RTI gene pair at two sides. For assaying the bidirectionality of promoter activity, a dual reporter GUS-GFP vector construct was made for plant expression containing the reporter genes at two ends of EcBDP, which was used to transform Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA 4404. Transient plant transformation by recombinant Agrobacterium cells was carried out in onion scale epidermal cells and finger millet seedling leaves. Simultaneous expression of GUS and GFP under EcBDP established it as a potent natural bidirectional promoter from monocot origin, thereby potentially having vast application in cereal gene manipulations. In addition, inducibility of the EcBDP by either abscisic acid or cold treatment, as determined by transient

  9. Exploring the potential of symbiotic fungal endophytes in cereal disease suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hanlon, Karen; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup;

    2012-01-01

    Cereal crops are an essential source of nutrition worldwide. The incidence and severity of fungal diseases, in particular foliar diseases such as leaf spots, mildews and rusts, is a serious challenge to cereal production, and this problem is likely to escalate with the changing global climate......, and environmental and health concerns surrounding the use of chemical treatments. There is currently a demand for new disease control strategies, and one such strategy involves the use of symbiotic fungal endophytes as biological control agents against fungal pathogens in cereals. Despite the fact that biological....... Traditional and current methods for controlling fungal pathogens include the use of fungicides, good farming practices, and increasing plant resistance through conventional breeding. While effective, these strategies also carry limitations, mainly due to fungicide-resistance, breakdown of plant resistance...

  10. Effect of primary processing of cereals and legumes on its nutritional quality: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Oghbaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are important part of dietaries and contribute substantially to nutrient intake of human beings. They are significant source of energy, protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Primary processing of cereals and legumes is an essential component of their preparation before use. For some grains, dehusking is an essential step, whereas for others, it could be milling the grain into flour. Grains are subjected to certain processing treatments to impart special characteristics and improve organoleptic properties such as expanded cereals. All these treatments result in alteration of their nutritional quality which could either be reduction in nutrients, phytochemicals and antinutrients or an improvement in digestibility or availability of nutrients. It is important to understand these changes occurring in grain nutritional quality on account of pre-processing treatments to select appropriate techniques to obtain maximum nutritional and health benefits. This review attempts to throw light on nutritional alterations occurring in grains due to pre-processing treatments.

  11. Bound phytophenols from ready-to-eat cereals: comparison with other plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, M; McMonagle, J; Fletcher, R J; Scobbie, L; Duncan, G J; Cantlay, L; de Roos, B; Duthie, G G; Russell, W R

    2013-12-01

    Whole-grain diets are linked to reduced risk of several chronic diseases (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome) and all-cause mortality. There is increasing evidence that these benefits are associated with the gut microbiota and that release of fibre-related phenolic metabolites in the gut is a contributing factor. Additional sources of these metabolites include fruits and vegetables, but the evidence for their protective effects is less well established. With respect to the availability of bound phytophenols, ready-to-eat cereals are compared with soft fruits (considered rich in antioxidants) and other commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The results demonstrated that when compared with an equivalent serving of fruits or vegetables, a recommended portion of whole-grain cereals deliver substantially higher amounts of bound phytophenols, which are available for metabolism in the colon. The increased amount of these phenolic metabolites may, in part, explain the evidence for the protective effects of whole-grain cereals.

  12. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  13. Ochratoxin A in Danish cereals 1986-1992 and daily intake by the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Rasmussen, Gitte; Thorup, Inger

    1996-01-01

    Ochratoxin A is a common contaminant in Danish cereals, and surveillance of ochratoxin A in cereals has been a part of the Danish monitoring system since 1986. Occurrence of ochratoxin A is highly related to the climatic conditions during harvest. Rye is the crop which is most often contaminated...... and contains the highest levels of ochratoxin A. The result of the survey period from 1986 to 1992 (total of 1431 samples) together with food consumption data is the basis of intake calculations. Especially in years with wet weather during harvest, the daily intake of ochratoxin A for some individuals...... in the Danish population could reach levels which exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for ochratoxin A of 5 ng/kg bw suggested by The Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation. A maximum limit of 5 mu g ochratoxin A per kg cereal would keep the daily intake below 5 ng/kg bw....

  14. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  15. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela ePeukert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water–soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages (ß(2,1; ß(2,6-fructans or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, which are possibly related to the different phases of grain development, such as cellular differentiation of grain tissues and storage product accumulation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation kinetics in cereal grains. We focus on the spatiotemporal dynamics and regulation of oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation in developing barley grains (deduced from a combination of metabolite, transcript and proteome analyses. Finally, putative physiological functions of oligofructans in developing grains are discussed.

  16. High resolution melting analysis as a new approach to discriminate gluten-containing cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Begoña; Costa, Joana; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; López-Ruiz, Beatriz; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2016-11-15

    With this work, it is intended to propose a novel approach based on high resolution melting (HRM) analysis to detect wheat and discriminate it from other gluten-containing cereals. The method consisted of a real-time PCR assay targeting the gene encoding for the germ agglutinin isolectin A protein (Tri a 18 allergen), using the fluorescent Evagreen dye combined with HRM analysis. The results enabled wheat differentiation from other phylogenetically related cereals, namely barley, rye and oat with high level of confidence. Additionally, a quantitative real-time PCR approach was proposed, allowing detecting and quantifying wheat down to 20mg/kg in rice flour and 20pg of wheat DNA (∼1.1 DNA copies). Its application was successfully achieved in the analysis of processed foods to verify labelling compliance, being considered as a cost-effective tool for the specific detection of cereals in gluten-free foods. PMID:27283646

  17. Potential of phytase-mediated iron release from cereal-based foods: a quantitative view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Tetens, Inge; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate). Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism...... phytate complexes, and (3) the extent of phytate dephosphorylation required for iron release from inositol phosphates is warranted. Phytase-mediated iron release can improve iron absorption from plant foods. There is a need for development of innovative strategies to obtain better effects....... to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via...

  18. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t−1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. - Highlights: • English arable farmer survey to determine potential supply for straw based biofuel. • Two-thirds of farmers would supply wheat straw for bioenergy. • Farmers willing to sell 1.65 Mt of cereal straw from the main cereal producing regions. • Farmer preference for a fixed area of straw supply for a contracted fixed price. • £50 t−1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price farmers find acceptable

  19. Aspects of the selection, design and use of high lysine cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of the need for and the considerations involved in the breeding of high lysine cereals is presented. Progress in the discovery and exploitation of genotypes with high lysine characters in maize and barley are briefly reviewed. The role and some of the characteristics of the dye-binding capacity (DBC) methods are evaluated along with the ways in which DBC results should be used in combination with other information. Lastly, the changes in attitudes and procedures associated with the acceptance of a product of a new technology such as nutritionally improved cereals is discussed. (author)

  20. Resistant starch content of conventionally boiled and pressure-cooked cereals, legumes and tubers

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, B. S.; Sharma, A.; Yadav, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) content was determined in the conventionally boiled (H1) and pressure-cooked (H2) cereals, legumes and tubers using enzymatic method. Both H1 and H2 legumes contained higher amount of RS as compared to cereals and tubers. H1 and H2 lentils showed highest RS content of 5.0 and 4.9% (dwb), respectively. Higher RS content in legumes can be attributed to the presence of intact tissue/cell structures enclosing starch granules and high level of amylose (26–33%) and high conten...

  1. Content of phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in 17 rye (Secale cereale L.) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Christensen, L P; Meyer, A S;

    2000-01-01

    The contents of pnenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers were quantified by HPLC analysis after alkaline hydrolysis in kernels of 17 rye (Secale cereale L.) varieties grown in one location in Denmark during 1997 and 1998. Significant variations (P ... of the analyzed components were observed among the different rye varieties and also between different harvest years. However, the content of phenolic acids in the analyzed rye varieties was narrow compared to cereals such as wheat and barley. The concentration of ferulic acid, the most abundant phenolic acid...

  2. Organic dairy production based on rapeseed, rapeseed cake or cereals as supplement to silage ad libitum

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Ingvartsen, Klaus L; Kristensen, Troels; Seested, Susanne; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment presents the effect of 100% organic feed rations grown at an equal area per cow on milk production performance and metabolic responses. A total of 174 Danish Holstein cows were included in two experiments on two commercial organic dairy farms during the winter 2000/2001. Three types of supplementary feed were examined: 5 kg cereals, 3 kg rapeseed/cereal pellet or 1 kg rapeseed cake fed with a mixture of clover grass silage, whole crop silage and grass pellets ad libitum. The s...

  3. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental...... and applying the material to the cereals in the rotation, possibly after digestion in a biogas reactor. Cereal grain protein content was increased more by the N in the grass-clover than from manure application, probably due to different timing ofN availability. Green-manure crops or manures with a relatively...

  4. Development of cereal and legume based food products for the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Satusap, Pruet; Chavasit, Visith; Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Judprasong, Kunchit

    2014-01-01

    Diets for elderly must contain nutritious foods, fit their physiological limitations, and match with their food culture. Cereals and legumes are suggested food choices regardless of their cultures and beliefs. Ready-to-eat products containing suitable macronutrient patterns from cereals and legumes were developed. Energy distributions from carbohydrate (60 kcal/100 kcal), protein (15 kcal/100 kcal), and fat (25 kcal/100 kcal), protein quality, and percent energy from saturated fatty acid and ...

  5. A Study on the Stability of Deoxynivalenol during the Production of Selected Flour-Based Foods and Wheat Flake Cereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that is commonly found in cereals and cereal-based products. Some processing methods reduce its concentrations in the finished products whereas others do not. The concentrations of DON in flour, wheat and a selection of food products prepared from them using co...

  6. 9 CFR 318.15 - Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tagging chemicals, preservatives...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.15 Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” When any chemical, preservative, cereal, spice, or other substance is...

  7. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...

  8. On the fuel quality of cereal grains - Impact of soil composition, cereal species and variety; Braensleegenskaper hos spannmaalskaerna. Betydelsen av jordart, saedesslag och sort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadders, G.; Arshadi, M.; Nilsson, Calle; Burvall, J.

    2001-07-01

    105 samples of seven cereal varieties from winter wheat, winter triticale, barley and oats were analysed. The samples were collected from some hundred locations with varying soil composition in southern Sweden (regions of Goetaland and Svealand). The samples were analysed concerning - the content of ashes (all samples) - the main components in the ashes (all samples) - the heat value (21 samples) - the melting behaviour of the ashes (21 samples). The results from the laboratory has been statistically analysed using multivariate data analysis. Multivariate data analysis is based on advanced mathematical and statistical calculations to gain information from large amounts of data. The models used try to describe data, not by analysing one variable at a time, but by simultaneously take into consideration all variables and also interactions between these, which usually leads to a considerable increase in the amount of relevant information from measured chemical data. The soil composition at the growing site seem to be of little importance for the fuel quality of cereal grains, in contradiction to what is reported for Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris arundinacea) and straw from cereal grains. Relatively large differences in fuel quality between the cereal species studied were found. The differences were particularly large comparing wheat and oats. This was mainly true for the composition of the ashes and its melting behaviour, but to some extent also for the heat value. Most striking is that oats differs from the other species by having considerably higher contents of silica, and lower content of potassium and phosphorus. These circumstances have in other corresponding contexts been of positive impact on the melting behaviour of the ashes. The result also shows that it is possible to predict several parameters by multivariate data analysis. It is possible to some extent to predict the content of ashes in the fuel and the contents of the four main metal oxides in the ashes (K

  9. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  10. The effect of perennials as green manure on cereal productivity and disease incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuodiene, R.; Nekrosiene, R.

    2012-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Vezaiciai Branch of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry during the period 2002-2007. They were designed to ascertain the effects of phytomass of different perennial pre-crops used for green manure on the productivity and on the occurrence of foliar fungal diseases of cereal agrocenoses. Plant residues and phytomass ploughed down as green manures positively affected cereal indices of crop productivity not only for the first but for the second year as well. It influenced the productivity of cereal segments. The largest amount of metabolizable energy was in the yield of cereal sequence under white clover (Trifolium repens L.) 83.23-84.76% GJ ha{sup 1}. The potential accumulated by perennials of the second year of development was more efficiently utilised by winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) cv. Tevo, and that of perennials of the third year of development was more efficiently utilised by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Ula. Perennials had a significant effect on the spread of foliar diseases in winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) agrocenoses. The severity of the disease was 1.1-1.3 times higher in the winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) treatments with white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pre-crops. Foliar disease incidence and severity was 1.1-1.2 times higher in the agrocenoses of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after legumes of the third year of development, especially after lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). (Author) 28 refs.

  11. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Weinborn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study. Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control, study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05. In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05. These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption.

  12. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glithero, N J; Ramsden, S J; Wilson, P

    2013-08-01

    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t(-1) the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. PMID:24926116

  13. Occurrence of free and conjugated Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal based food

    OpenAIRE

    Vendl, O.; Crews, C.; MacDonald, S; R. Krska; Berthiller, F.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A collection of 84 cereal based food products in 25 composites, including beer, was screened for the presence of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and their respective metabolites deoxynivalenol-3-glucopyranoside, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, zearalenol-4-glucopyranoside, ?-zearalenol, ?-zearalenol, ?-zearalenol-4-glucopyranoside, ?-zearalenol-4-glucopyranoside and zearalenone-4-sulfate. The most abundant analyte was zearalenone-4-sulfate, which was found in 13 composites, albeit in...

  14. Cereal bar with added chayote peel flour: physico-chemical and sensory characteristics among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Wendler de Cristo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to verify the sensory acceptability of traditional cereal bars and cereal bars added with chayote peel flour, and determine the physico-chemical compositions of their formulations. Five cereal bars formulas were prepared and analyzed as follows: F1: standard (0% and with the addition of chayote peel flour in the proportions of 6.75% (F2; 13.5% (F3; 20.25% (F4 and 27% (F5. Sixty tasters, aged 7-10 took part in the sensorial analysis. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05 regarding appearance, aroma, texture and color among formulations. For the attributes taste, overall acceptance and purchase intention, higher scores were given towards the standard sample when compared to F5, but no differences were observed among the other sample scores. There was no statistical difference (p>0.05 for moisture, protein, fat and calories between F1 and F4 formulations. However, higher levels of ash and dietary fiber and lower level of carbohydrates were observed in F4 compared to F1. The formulas preparation demonstrated that a level of addition of up to 20.25% of chayote peel flour in cereal bars was well accepted by the panel, with a sensory acceptance similar to the standard product and good trading expectation.

  15. Innovaciones Tecnológicas y Tendencias de Desarrollo en las cosechadoras de Cereales

    OpenAIRE

    Moya Gonzalez, Adolfo; Valero Ubierna, Constantino

    2012-01-01

    Revisamos en este artículo los temas en los que ingenieros y científicos están trabajando para aportar innovaciones a la cosecha de cereal. Además se revisa el mercado español y las últimas novedades comerciales presentadas por los fabricantes.

  16. Sourdough lactic acid bacteria: exploration of non-wheat cereal-based fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Cagno, Raffaella Di; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Cereal-based foods represent a very important source of biological as well as of cultural diversity, as testified by the wide range of derived fermented products. A trend that is increasingly attracting bakery industries as well as consumers is the use of non-conventional flours for the production of novel products, characterised by peculiar flavour and better nutritional value. Lactic acid bacteria microbiota of several non-wheat cereals and pseudo-cereals has been recently deeply investigated with the aim of studying the biodiversity and finding starter cultures for sourdough fermentation. Currently, the use of ancient or ethnic grains is mainly limited to traditional typical foods and the bread making process is not well standardised with consequent negative effects on the final properties. The challenge in fermenting such grains is represented by the necessity to combine good technology and sensory properties with nutritional/health benefits. The choice of the starter cultures has a critical impact on the final quality of cereal-based products, and strains that dominate and outcompete contaminants should be applied for specific sourdough fermentations. In this sense, screening and characterisation of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota is very useful in the improvement of a peculiar flour, from both a nutritional and technological point of view.

  17. Cereal crops as viable production and storage systems for pharmaceutical scFv antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, E; Vaquero, C; Torres, E; Sack, M; Nicholson, L; Drossard, J; Williams, S; Keen, D; Perrin, Y; Christou, P; Fischer, R

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the stable expression of a medically important antibody in the staple cereal crops rice and wheat. We successfully expressed a single-chain Fv antibody (ScFvT84.66) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a well characterized tumor-associated marker antigen. scFv constructs were engineered for recombinant antibody targeting to the plant cell apoplast and ER. Up to 30 microg/g of functional recombinant antibody was detected in the leaves and seeds of wheat and rice. We confirmed that transgenic dry seeds could be stored for at least five months at room temperature, without significant loss of the amount or activity of scFvT84.66. Our results represent the first transition from model plant expression systems, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis, to widely cultivated cereal crops, such as rice and wheat, for expression of an antibody molecule that has already shown efficacy in clinical applications. Thus, we have established that molecular pharming in cereals can be a viable production system for such high-value pharmaceutical macromolecules. Our findings provide a strong foundation for exploiting alternative uses of cereal crops both in industrialized and developing countries.

  18. NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS LIMITED PRODUCTION OF CEREALS AND SEMINATURAL ANNUAL-TYPE PASTURES IN SW SPAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esselink, Peter; VANGILS, H

    1994-01-01

    Nutrient limited primary production of semi-natural pastures dominated by annuals and of cereals grown in rotation with grazing was surveyed in Extremadura (Spain), using the N and P concentration and the P/N ratio of plant tissue. The N concentration varied between 2.0-3.2 % in pasture legumes and

  19. The Profile and Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Compounds in Cereals Influenced by Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zicong; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Shunjing; Chen, Jun; Gong, Ersheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment (IECT) on the phenolics and its bioaccessibility in cereals, represented by brown rice, wheat, and oat. Data showed that total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in free form were significantly decreased, while the bound form was increased after IECT. After IECT, the total free phenolic acids of brown rice and wheat were significantly decreased by 5.88% and 45.66%, respectively, while the total bound phenolic acids of brown rice, wheat, and oat were significantly increased by 6.45%, 8.78%, and 9.10%, respectively. Brown rice provided the most bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant compounds, followed by oat and wheat. IECT significantly decreased the bioaccessible phenolics of brown rice and oat by 31.09% and 30.95%, while it had minimal effect on the bioaccessible phenolics of wheat. These results showed that IECT greatly affected the phenolics and its bioaccessibiltiy of cereals, with the effect depending on cereal matrix and the sensitivity of free and bound phenolics. Furthermore, bioaccessible phenolic acids of raw and processed cereals were considerably low, and it slightly contributed to the bioaccessible phenolics. PMID:27513581

  20. Development and Life History of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Adebayo Ojo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals. Knowledge of the life history and biology is important to the development of an integrated pest management program. Investigation was carried out on developmental biology of S. zeamais on four main cereal crops, maize, rice, sorghum, and millet, under laboratory conditions. Egg incubation, oviposition periods, and larval instar development were not different significantly among the food hosts. Number of eggs laid varied significantly among the cereal grains; mean fecundity was highest on maize (67.2±3.16 and lowest on millet (53.8±0.17. Number of immature (larva and pupa and adult stages varied significantly among the cereal grains. There exist four larval instars with a varied mean head capsule width, with a mean total instar larval developmental period of 23.1, 22.2, 22.2, and 21.6 d on maize, rice, sorghum, and millet, respectively. There was linear relationship and significant correlation between the stages of larval development and head capsule width. The mean developmental period from egg to adult varied, being highest on maize (34.7 d and lowest on sorghum (33.5 d.

  1. Identification of secreted proteins of Aspergillus oryzae associated with growth on solid cereal substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, R. te; Boussier, A.; Biezen, N. van; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Filamentous growth of Aspergillus oryzae on solid cereal substrates involves secretion of substrate converting enzymes and a solid substrate specific polarised hyphal growth phenotype. To identify proteins produced under these specific conditions, the extracts of A. oryzae grown on wheat-based media

  2. Breakfast Eating Pattern and Ready-to-Eat Cereals Consumption among Schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur

    OpenAIRE

    KOO, Hui-Chin; ABDUL JALIL, Siti Nurain; Ruzita, ABD TALIB

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies from the West have demonstrated that ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) are a common form of breakfast and more likely to be consumed by children. This study aimed to investigate the breakfast eating pattern and RTECs consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur.

  3. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinborn, Valerie; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Arredondo, Miguel; Flores, Sebastián; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe) absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study). Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin) and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil) on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control), study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05). In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05). These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption. PMID:26529009

  4. Legume N2 fixation - An efficient source of nitrogen for cereal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen deficiency is a major factor limiting yields of cereals. With wheat, the most commonly-grown cereal in rain-fed agriculture, the soil must supply 30-40 kg N/ha in a plant-available form (usually as nitrate) for each tonne of grain produced. In some of the developed countries and energy-rich LDC's, N is supplied in sufficient amounts as fertilizers. In the majority of countries, however, this is not possible principally because of the high cost. Research has shown that the soil following an annual crop legume often contains 30-60 kg N/ha more than after a cereal crop and that this increased plant-available N is converted into increased cereal grain yield. The N benefits are due to the legume's capacity to fix atmospheric N2. Amounts fixed by the annual crop legumes range from zero to more than 400 kg/ha. There is, however, scope to manage legume N2 fixation for maximum benefit, through practices that optimize crop growth and minimize the suppressive effects of soil nitrate. One possible aid to management may come through the development and use of simple mathematical functions (models) that will allow farmers to estimate amounts of N2 fixed by a legume crop and the potential net N benefit resulting from that crop. (author). 42 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  5. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower me

  6. Understanding mechanisms of host resistance against greenbug in cereal crops - an interdisciplinary, collaborative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    At Texas AgriLife Research - Amarillo, we have an ongoing research program focusing on elucidating the mechanisms of interactions between the phloem-feeding aphid pests and cereal crop hosts using the wheat-greenbug as a model system. During this workshop, recent results from our research on the fo...

  7. Monitoring the Expression Profiles of Cereal Crops Seedlings by Using Rice cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNLiang-xian; DONGHai-tao; LIDe-bao

    2004-01-01

    Through exploiting the high homology of cereal crop genes, membranous cDNA microarrays containing 3311 unique rice transcripts (including 1 639 cndosperm-derived transcripts and 1 672 mature stem-derived transcripts) were used for monitoring the expression profiles of l-leaf stage seedlings of 4 cereal crop species: rice, maize, sorghum and barley. After hybridizing with [P] labeled probes, 73.6 % of the arrayed genes generated reliable signals in all of the four cereal crops. Further analysis revealed that among the arrayed genes, a higher percentage of the endosperm-derived transcripts (86.6%) expressed than that of the mature stem-derived genes (60.9 %), indicating that most of the endosperm expressed genes functioned in young seedlings whilc considerable amount of mature stem tissue expressed genes did not express. These results also inferred that some genes might function only at certain developmental stages. By comparing the obtained profdes, 84 genes were identified constantly expressed in all the four cereal crops. Many housekeeping genes, such as polyubiquitin, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and ribosomal proteins were included in this catalogue. The experiment also identified 14 rice seedling specifically expressed genes, including 3 biotic and abiotic stress induced genes and 1 apoptosis suppressor encoding gene Bax inhibitor-1. This investigation provided invaluable information for comparative genomics of gramineae members.

  8. Monitoring the Expression Profiles of Cereal Crops Seedlings by Using Rice cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang-xian; DONG Hai-tao; LI De-bao

    2004-01-01

    Through exploiting the high homology of cereal crop genes, membranous cDNA microarrays containing 3 311 unique rice transcripts (including 1 639 endosperm-derived transcripts and 1 672 mature stem-derived transcripts) were used for monitoring the expression profiles of 1-leaf stage seedlings of 4 cereal crop species: rice, maize, sorghum and barley. After hybridizing with [α-33p] labeled probes, 73.6 % of the arrayed genes generated reliable signals in all of the four cereal crops. Further analysis revealed that among the arrayed genes, a higher percentage of the endosperm-derived transcripts (86.6 %) expressed than that of the mature stem-derived genes (60.9 %), indicating that most of the endosperm expressed genes functioned in young seedlings while considerable amount of mature stem tissue expressed genes did not express. These results also inferred that some genes might function only at certain developmental stages. By comparing the obtained profiles, 84 genes were identified constantly expressed in all the four cereal crops. Many housekeeping genes, such as polyubiquitin, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and ribosomal proteins were included in this catalogue. The experiment also identified 14 rice seedling specifically expressed genes, including 3 biotic and abiotic stress induced genes and 1 apoptosis suppressor encoding gene Bax inhibitor-1. This investigation provided invaluable information for comparative genomics of gramineae members.

  9. Anomericity of T-2 toxin-glucosides; masked mycotoxins in cereal crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when the fungus Fusarium infects small grains, especially oats. Ingestion of T-2 toxin contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal. Cereal crops infected with mycotoxin-producing fungi form toxin glycosides, sometimes called m...

  10. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Booij, C.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges.

  11. Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commidities in relation to climate in North West Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Klemsdal, S.S.; Hietaniemi, V.; lindblad, M.; Ioannou-Kakouri, E.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commodities for feed and food production in North Western Europe during the last two decades, including trends over time and co-occurrence between toxins, and to assess possible effects of climate on the presence of mycotoxins.

  12. The Profile and Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Compounds in Cereals Influenced by Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zicong; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Shunjing; Chen, Jun; Gong, Ersheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment (IECT) on the phenolics and its bioaccessibility in cereals, represented by brown rice, wheat, and oat. Data showed that total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in free form were significantly decreased, while the bound form was increased after IECT. After IECT, the total free phenolic acids of brown rice and wheat were significantly decreased by 5.88% and 45.66%, respectively, while the total bound phenolic acids of brown rice, wheat, and oat were significantly increased by 6.45%, 8.78%, and 9.10%, respectively. Brown rice provided the most bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant compounds, followed by oat and wheat. IECT significantly decreased the bioaccessible phenolics of brown rice and oat by 31.09% and 30.95%, while it had minimal effect on the bioaccessible phenolics of wheat. These results showed that IECT greatly affected the phenolics and its bioaccessibiltiy of cereals, with the effect depending on cereal matrix and the sensitivity of free and bound phenolics. Furthermore, bioaccessible phenolic acids of raw and processed cereals were considerably low, and it slightly contributed to the bioaccessible phenolics. PMID:27513581

  13. Beyond whole grain: The European HEALTHGRAIN project aims at healthier cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutanen, K.; Shepherd, R.; Shewry, P.R.; Delcour, J.A.; Björck, I.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2008-01-01

    Cereal foods are an important source of carbohydrates and dietary fiber in our diet. Epidemiological evidence increasingly demonstrates that a diet rich in whole grain is protective against development of diet-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The majority of cere

  14. Country of origin (COO) effect in cereal products: A comparative study of Danish and Lithuanian consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I.A.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey which aimed at uncovering the influence of COO information on the perceptions of 281 Danish and Lithuanian consumers regarding several cereal foods and their marketing characteristics, such as price, place-of-purchase, brand, packaging, and labelling...

  15. Host genotype is an important determinant of the cereal phyllosphere mycobiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup;

    2015-01-01

    ) and a smaller number of samples from oat (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale) and triticale (Triticum × Secale) was studied using next-generation sequencing. The effects of host genotype, fungicide treatment and location on fungal communities were explored. In total, 635 251 fungal internal transcribed spacer...

  16. Diversity of tri-functional histidine biosynthesis gene (his) in cereal Phaeosphaeria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The full length genomic sequences of tri-functional histidine biosynthesis (his) gene were obtained and compared from cereal Phaeosphaeria species by PCR amplification. The his gene coding sequence in wheat-biotype P. nodorum (PN-w) was 2697 bp in size. The his genes in barley-biotype P. nodorum (PN...

  17. INFLUENCE DE LA PROPOLIS SUR LA MITOSE DANS LE MERYSTEME DE SECALE CEREALE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara Navrotescu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche présente l’influence de propolis sur la mitose dans le merysteme de Secale cereale L. (2n=14. On confirme l’utilisation de plus en plus large de ce produit apicole - propolis - au niveau de la thérapeutique.

  18. Colour and shape analysis techniques for weed detection in cereal fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, A.J; López, F; Benlloch, J.V.;

    2000-01-01

    Information on weed distribution within the field is necessary to implement spatially variable herbicide application. This paper deals with the development of near-ground image capture and processing techniques in order to detect broad-leaved weeds in cereal crops under actual field conditions. T...

  19. Suitability of cereal porridges as substrate for probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Valík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find new substrates suitable for growth and metabolism of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which would be interesting for development of new functional food. The growth and metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG in cereal (rye, barley, oat and millet porridges were monitored during fermentation process. Cereal and porridges, were inoculated with this strain at two initial levels to obtain approximately 5 or 6 log colony form units per gram of suspension after sterilization and cooling,. Fermentation was led stationary at 37 °C for 48 hours and viable cell count, pH value, titratable acidity and organic acids were analysed. Metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG was influenced by inoculation level and by the type of cereal used. The cereals fermented by lactic acid bacteria, especially probiotic strains, might broaden the offer of probiotic products for those suffering from milk allergy.doi:10.5219/242 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  20. Genetic Engineering of Cereal Grains with Starch Consisting of More Than 99% Amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Numerous textbooks tell us that plant starches are a mix of two starch types: amylopectin and amylose. We recently succeeded in engineering a cereal crop – a barley line – producing grain starch consisting of more than 99% amylose1. This amylose-only starch contains a high residual fraction that ...

  1. Food safety of cereals: a chain wide approach to reduce Fusarium mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Ruckenbauer, P.; Visconti, A.; Osenburggen, W.A.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley and Fusarium ear rot in maize is caused by several Fusarium species. The disease reduces the quality of the seed since several of these fungi produce mycotoxins. From a food safety point of view, consumption of mycotoxin-infected cereals is dangerous as

  2. CerealsDB 2.0: an integrated resource for plant breeders and scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Paul A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food security is an issue that has come under renewed scrutiny amidst concerns that substantial yield increases in cereal crops are required to feed the world’s booming population. Wheat is of fundamental importance in this regard being one of the three most important crops for both human consumption and livestock feed; however, increase in crop yields have not kept pace with the demands of a growing world population. In order to address this issue, plant breeders require new molecular tools to help them identify genes for important agronomic traits that can be introduced into elite varieties. Studies of the genome using next-generation sequencing enable the identification of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be used by breeders to identify and follow genes when breeding new varieties. The development and application of next-generation sequencing technologies has made the characterisation of SNP markers in wheat relatively cheap and straightforward. There is a growing need for the widespread dissemination of this information to plant breeders. Description CerealsDB is an online resource containing a range of genomic datasets for wheat (Triticum aestivum that will assist plant breeders and scientists to select the most appropriate markers for marker assisted selection. CerealsDB includes a database which currently contains in excess of 100,000 putative varietal SNPs, of which several thousand have been experimentally validated. In addition, CerealsDB contains databases for DArT markers and EST sequences, and links to a draft genome sequence for the wheat variety Chinese Spring. Conclusion CerealsDB is an open access website that is rapidly becoming an invaluable resource within the wheat research and plant breeding communities.

  3. The content of mercury in various types of cereals that were grown in the model conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of cereals in Slovakia but also worldwide is increasing by every year. From 30000 to 50000 tons of mercury circulates throught the biosphere that gets into the atmosphere degassing of the earth's crust and world oceans. Mercury affects CNS and causes its disorders. The high doses of mercury causes a lot of different changes of personality as well as increased agitation, memory lossorinsomnia. It can also affect other organ systems such as the kidney. The exposure level is reflected in the concentration of mercury in blood and urine. The aim of our work was the evaluation of transfer of mercury from sludge to edible part of chosen cereals. The objectives were achieved in simulated conditions of growing pot experiment. We used agricultural soil from the location of Výčapy - Opatovce for the realization of the experiment. The sludge, which was added atvarious doses, was taken from Central Spiš area from locality of Rudňany near the village where minedironore that contains mainly copperand mercury during last few decades was. We used three types of cereals: barley (Hordeum sativum L. variety PRESTIGE, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. variety ISJARISSA and oat (Avena sativa L. variety TATRAN. The length of growing season was 90 days. From the obtained results of two years can be concluded that the accumulation of mercury by seed follows wheat ˂ barley ˂ oat. Even though that the oat is characterized by the highest accumulation of mercuryin the seeds, the content did not exceed the maximum level sspecified by The Codex Alimentarius of Slovak Republic. The results shows that the suitable cultivation of the cereals in localities, which are contaminated with heavy metals, especially by mercury, that the high content of mercury in soil do not pose a risk of accumulation of the metal into the cereal grain.

  4. Calidad tecnológica de la harina de trigo obtenida a partir de cereales ozonizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lobo Paes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El cloro es uno de los principales agentes antimicrobianos utilizados en la industria molinera, pero debido a la formación de organoclorados tóxicos o incluso cancerígenos su uso no ha sido considerado seguro. El proceso de ozonización puede considerarse como uno de los más modernos y eficientes, tanto en la desinfección de insectos-plaga como en los microorganismos. Sin embargo, es necesario evaluar su efecto sobre la calidad de cereales y subproductos. Así, el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del gas ozono en la calidad tecnológica de la harina de trigo obtenidos a partir de cereales ozonizados. Los cereales de trigo fueron ozonizado con una concentración de 200 ppm por períodos de 0, 48, 96, 144, 192 y 240 h, y posteriormente molidos para obtener harina. Para evaluar el efecto del gas en la harina de trigo fueron realizados los análisis físico químicos (tasa de extracción, la composición y la Falling number y reológicas (alveógrafia, farinógrafia y extensografia. El gas ozono se ha obtenido mediante el generador de ozono desarrollado por el Ozone & Life y la concentración fue cuantificada por el método Yodométrica. La harina de trigo obtenidas a partir de cereales ozonizados no presento diferencia significativa en la tasa de extracción, composición y Falling Number, alveografia, farinógrafia y extensoggrafia cuando fue comparada con la harina obtenida de granos no ozonizados. Se concluye que el gas de ozono puede ser considerado una alternativa para ser implementada en la industria molinera, ya que no afecta la calidad tecnológica de harinas procedentes de cereales ozonizada.

  5. Cereal Crops Are not Created Equal: Wheat Consumption Associated with Obesity Prevalence Globally and Regionally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng You

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cereals have been extensively advocated as the beneficial food group in terms of body weight management, but each staple cereal crop may contribute in different ways. Studies of the association between wheat availability and risk of obesity are controversial. This study aimed to test the global and regional association between wheat availability as reported by FAO and obesity prevalence at a population level. FAO does not distinguish between whole grain wheat and refined wheat. Methods: Population-specific data from 170 countries on prevalence of obesity, availabilities of mixed cereals, wheat, rice, maize, meat, sugar, fat, soy and calories and GDP are obtained from the UN agencies. All variables were measured as per capita per day (or per year. Each country is treated as an individual subject. SPSS v. 22 is used to analyse these data for all the 170 countries and official country groupings (regions using non parametric and parametric correlations, including partial correlation analysis. Results: Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis showed that obesity prevalence is positively associated with wheat availability (r = 0.500, p < 0.001, but is inversely associated with availabilities of total cereals (r = -0.132, p = 0.087, rice (r = -0.405, p < 0.001 and maize (r = -0.227, p = 0.004. These associations remain in partial correlation model when we keep availabilities of meat, fat, sugar, soy, caloric intake and GDP statistically constant. Overall, positive associations between wheat availability and obesity prevalence remain in different regions. Maize and mixed cereal availabilities do not show independent associations with the obesity prevalence. Conclusions: Our study suggests that wheat availability is an independent predictor of the obesity prevalence both worldwide and with special regard to the regions of Africa, Americas and Asia. Future studies should distinguish between possible influence of whole grain and ultra

  6. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp.) respectively (P ingredient in diets for both pigs and chickens. PMID:24341997

  7. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-12-17

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp.) respectively (P ingredient in diets for both pigs and chickens.

  8. Quantitative estimation of sampling uncertainties for mycotoxins in cereal shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, F S; Lyman, G J

    2012-01-01

    Many countries receive shipments of bulk cereals from primary producers. There is a volume of work that is on-going that seeks to arrive at appropriate standards for the quality of the shipments and the means to assess the shipments as they are out-loaded. Of concern are mycotoxin and heavy metal levels, pesticide and herbicide residue levels, and contamination by genetically modified organisms (GMOs). As the ability to quantify these contaminants improves through improved analytical techniques, the sampling methodologies applied to the shipments must also keep pace to ensure that the uncertainties attached to the sampling procedures do not overwhelm the analytical uncertainties. There is a need to understand and quantify sampling uncertainties under varying conditions of contamination. The analysis required is statistical and is challenging as the nature of the distribution of contaminants within a shipment is not well understood; very limited data exist. Limited work has been undertaken to quantify the variability of the contaminant concentrations in the flow of grain coming from a ship and the impact that this has on the variance of sampling. Relatively recent work by Paoletti et al. in 2006 [Paoletti C, Heissenberger A, Mazzara M, Larcher S, Grazioli E, Corbisier P, Hess N, Berben G, Lübeck PS, De Loose M, et al. 2006. Kernel lot distribution assessment (KeLDA): a study on the distribution of GMO in large soybean shipments. Eur Food Res Tech. 224:129-139] provides some insight into the variation in GMO concentrations in soybeans on cargo out-turn. Paoletti et al. analysed the data using correlogram analysis with the objective of quantifying the sampling uncertainty (variance) that attaches to the final cargo analysis, but this is only one possible means of quantifying sampling uncertainty. It is possible that in many cases the levels of contamination passing the sampler on out-loading are essentially random, negating the value of variographic quantitation of

  9. Dating the introduction of cereal cultivation to the British Isles: early palaeoecological evidence from the Isle of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Davey, Peter J.

    2003-10-01

    The adoption of cereal cultivation is a key benchmark in the transition from Mesolithic hunter-gatherer foraging to Neolithic farming economies, but the nature, timing and ecological-cultural context of the earliest cereal use in the British Isles and northwest Europe is still uncertain. We present AMS radiocarbon dating and fine-resolution pollen evidence from the Isle of Man for cereal growing in the latter stages of a distinct episode of forest disturbance at almost 6000 yr BP (uncalibrated). The coherent ecological structure of this phase at the fine resolution level suggests that it records cereal cultivation well before the Ulmus decline, rather than wild grass pollen grains. This example is one of a cluster of early dates for cereal-type pollen near the start of the sixth millenium BP, including several around the Irish Sea, which indicate that the introduction of cereal agriculture probably occurred as early in the central British Isles as in the northern European plain. This early cereal phase is followed later by a probable phase of pre-Ulmus decline pastoral activity. We also report Mesolithic age woodland disturbance around 7000 yr BP (uncalibrated) and the first radiocarbon dates for mid-Holocene forest history of the Isle of Man. Copyright

  10. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  11. Changes in time of sowing, flowering and maturity of cereals in Europe under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, J E; Børgesen, C D; Elsgaard, L; Palosuo, T; Rötter, R P; Skjelvåg, A O; Peltonen-Sainio, P; Börjesson, T; Trnka, M; Ewert, F; Siebert, S; Brisson, N; Eitzinger, J; van Asselt, E D; Oberforster, M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2012-01-01

    The phenological development of cereal crops from emergence through flowering to maturity is largely controlled by temperature, but also affected by day length and potential physiological stresses. Responses may vary between species and varieties. Climate change will affect the timing of cereal crop development, but exact changes will also depend on changes in varieties as affected by plant breeding and variety choices. This study aimed to assess changes in timing of major phenological stages of cereal crops in Northern and Central Europe under climate change. Records on dates of sowing, flowering, and maturity of wheat, oats and maize were collected from field experiments conducted during the period 1985-2009. Data for spring wheat and spring oats covered latitudes from 46 to 64°N, winter wheat from 46 to 61°N, and maize from 47 to 58°N. The number of observations (site-year-variety combinations) varied with phenological phase, but exceeded 2190, 227, 2076 and 1506 for winter wheat, spring wheat, spring oats and maize, respectively. The data were used to fit simple crop development models, assuming that the duration of the period until flowering depends on temperature and day length for wheat and oats, and on temperature for maize, and that the duration of the period from flowering to maturity in all species depends on temperature only. Species-specific base temperatures were used. Sowing date of spring cereals was estimated using a threshold temperature for the mean air temperature during 10 days prior to sowing. The mean estimated temperature thresholds for sowing were 6.1, 7.1 and 10.1°C for oats, wheat and maize, respectively. For spring oats and wheat the temperature threshold increased with latitude. The effective temperature sums required for both flowering and maturity increased with increasing mean annual temperature of the location, indicating that varieties are well adapted to given conditions. The responses of wheat and oats were largest for the

  12. Evidence of mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A) using the radioimmunoassay (RIA) in naturally contaminated cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to gain starting information on the aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A levels in cereals and feed mixtures which are in poultry breeding. To ascertain the presence of mycotoxins, we examined the cultivars of cereals (maize and wheat) and the feed mixtures. The cereals came from different regions of eastern Slovakia. In all cereals examined, the low mycotoxin levels did not exceed the tolerance limit set by hygienic standard (Sv. 61, 1986, No. 69). In wheat, the contamination by aflatoxin B1 ranged from 0.028 to 0.125 μg·kg-1. In maize, the contamination by aflatoxin B1 ranged from 0.166 to 0.707 μg·kg-1. The results enhance our knowledge of feedstuff and feed mixture contamination in poultry breeding

  13. Biological control as a strategy to reduce the impact of mycotoxins in peanuts, grapes and cereals in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chulze, S.N.; Palazzini, J.M.; Torres, A.M.; Barros, G.; Ponsone, M.L.; Geisen, R.; Schmidt-Heydt, M.; Köhl, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins including aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are among the main fungal secondary metabolites detected as natural contaminants in South America in different commodities such as peanuts (aflatoxins), cereals (deoxynivalenol and fumonisins) or grapes (ochratoxin A). Diff

  14. Geographical origin of cereal grains based on element analyser-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-SIRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuluan; Luo, Donghui; Dong, Hao; Wan, Juan; Luo, Haiying; Xian, Yanping; Guo, Xindong; Qin, Fangfang; Han, Wanqing; Wang, Li; Wang, Bin

    2015-05-01

    The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (δ(13)C and δ(13)N) of different cereal grains from different regions were determined, using element analyser-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-SIRMS) as the key method. Systematically, δ(13)C and δ(13)N of 5 kinds of cereal grains of different origins, 30 wheat samples from different cultivation areas and 160 rice samples of different cultivars from Guangdong province of China were examined. The results indicated that the δ(13)C values of rice, soybean, millet, wheat and corn were significantly (P 0.05), which indicated that the cultivar of cereal grains was not significant based on δ(13)C value. Thus, the comparison of δ(13)C would be potentially useful for rapid and routine discrimination of geographical origin of cereal grains. PMID:25529718

  15. Does Regular Breakfast Cereal Consumption Help Children and Adolescents Stay Slimmer? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne de la Hunty

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review systematically the evidence on breakfast cereal consumption and obesity in children and adolescents and assess whether the regular consumption of breakfast cereals could help to prevent excessive weight gain. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies relating breakfast cereal consumption to BMI, BMI z-scores and prevalence of obesity as the outcomes. Results: 14 papers met the inclusion criteria. The computed effect size for mean BMI between high consumers and low or non-consumers over all 25 study subgroups was -1.13 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.81, -1.46, p Conclusion: Overall, the evidence reviewed is suggestive that regular consumption of breakfast cereals results in a lower BMI and a reduced likelihood of being overweight in children and adolescents. However, more evidence from long-term trials and investigations into mechanisms is needed to eliminate possible confounding factors and determine causality.

  16. Role of Cereal Secondary Metabolites Involved in Mediating the Outcome of Plant-Pathogen Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Du Fall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereal crops such as wheat, rice and barley underpin the staple diet for human consumption globally. A multitude of threats to stable and secure yields of these crops exist including from losses caused by pathogens, particularly fungal. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to resist pathogens including programmed cell death responses, the release of pathogenicity-related proteins and oxidative bursts. Another such mechanism is the synthesis and release of secondary metabolites toxic to potential pathogens. Several classes of these compounds have been identified and their anti-fungal properties demonstrated. However the lack of suitable analytical techniques has hampered the progress of identifying and exploiting more of these novel metabolites. In this review, we summarise the role of the secondary metabolites in cereal crop diseases and briefly touch on the analytical techniques that hold the key to unlocking their potential in reducing yield losses.

  17. STRUCTURES AND PERSPECTIVES OF CEREAL SEEDS PRODUCTION AND USE, IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najah Naiem Mutlak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper regarding the situation of Iraq we are tackling the production issue and the use of seeds for the main cereal crops (wheat, barley, and maize. Based on a pertinent methodology, the paper starts from the stringent need to produce seed quantities, while the arguments are based on the processing results of the information in the annual dynamics. We are making knowledge references on the used quantities, but also on the seed provisioning. By means of presenting and extrapolating the production functions, we discover the limits and conditions for the production factors use extension on the production. It emerged that for the analyzed crops, the seed quantity factor is predominant in increasing the cereal production volume.

  18. Effect of Addition of Cereal Based Beta-glucan on Technological and Functional Properties of Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Şimşekli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays usage of dietary fibers in foods has been increasing duo to revealing of health benefits. Beta-glucans found especially in oats and barley, are polysaccharide and source of water-soluble dietary fiber. Positive effects of beta-glucans like healing coronary-heart disease, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level and preventing obesity, made beta-glucans widespread functional food components for producing various foods. In addition to beneficial physiological effects of beta-glucans, they texturize, gelatinize, emulsify and stabilize the foods. They increase viscosity, replace fat and enhance rheological properties in cereal, meat and dairy products. They are also used to produce packing material depending on their mechanical properties and molecular weights. In this review, effects of addition of cereal based beta-glucans on technological and functional properties of various foods are revealed based on previous studies.

  19. Allelic variation at a single gene increases food value in a drought-tolerant staple cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilding, Edward K; Frère, Celine H; Cruickshank, Alan; Rada, Anna K; Prentis, Peter J; Mudge, Agnieszka M; Mace, Emma S; Jordan, David R; Godwin, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The production of adequate agricultural outputs to support the growing human population places great demands on agriculture, especially in light of ever-greater restrictions on input resources. Sorghum is a drought-adapted cereal capable of reliable production where other cereals fail, and thus represents a good candidate to address food security as agricultural inputs of water and arable land grow scarce. A long-standing issue with sorghum grain is that it has an inherently lower digestibility. Here we show that a low-frequency allele type in the starch metabolic gene, pullulanase, is associated with increased digestibility, regardless of genotypic background. We also provide evidence that the beneficial allele type is not associated with deleterious pleiotropic effects in the modern field environment. We argue that increasing the digestibility of an adapted crop is a viable way forward towards addressing food security while maximizing water and land-use efficiency. PMID:23403584

  20. Ecology and Control of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R H

    1984-07-01

    The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is due largely to movement of cysts by wind during dust storms. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani frequently is associated with the nematode in a disease complex in wheat, and disease symptoms are most severe on lighter or well structured soils. Crop rotations which include periods of fallow, or of nonhost crop reduce population levels of H. avenae and improve yields. Early-sown crops (April-May) are less severely damaged than late-sown crops (June-July). The resowing of damaged wheat crops or the application of nitrogenous fertilizers rarely improve grain yields. 'Katyil,' the world's first wheat cultivar bred specifically with resistance to H. avenae, has been released in Victoria. Chemical control of the nematode in cereals is now commercially feasible, and five nematicides are registered for use by growers. PMID:19294014

  1. Changes in time of sowing, flowering and maturity of cereals in Europe under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Elsgaard, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    , flowering, and maturity of wheat, oats and maize were collected from field experiments conducted during the period 1985–2009. Data for spring wheat and spring oats covered latitudes from 46 to 64°N, winter wheat from 46 to 61°N, and maize from 47 to 58°N. The number of observations (site......–year–variety combinations) varied with phenological phase, but exceeded 2190, 227, 2076 and 1506 for winter wheat, spring wheat, spring oats and maize, respectively. The data were used to fit simple crop development models, assuming that the duration of the period until flowering depends on temperature and day length......The phenological development of cereal crops from emergence through flowering to maturity is largely controlled by temperature, but also affected by day length and potential physiological stresses. Responses may vary between species and varieties. Climate change will affect the timing of cereal...

  2. Methods for analysis of the distribution and speciation of iron and zinc in the cereal grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj

    certified reference materials. This enabled high-throughput analysis of different grain tissue fractions and the variability in between them.. Moreover two methods for quantitative hyphenated ICP-MS analysis were developed. One enabled quantification of species in a chromatographic separation and the other......-localization and identification of P and S with mineral micronutrients can therefore be a circumstantial evidence for their chemical speciation. The focus of this PhD has therefore been on the analysis of mineral micronutrients as well as S and P. In this PhD, four methods for elemental analysis of the cereal grain have been......, a novel high-throughput micro digestion method was developed, enabling the analysis of total element concentrations in small tissue fractions, such as the embryo of cereal grains. The method is based on small closed bombs that are microwaved and was validated for sample amounts between 1-20 mg using...

  3. Cereal bioengineering: amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were engineered by transgenic methods. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch branching enzymes (SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI) by a chimeric hairpin...... for the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom where phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation by endogenous enzymes. Together this work shows two new strategies for in planta starch bioengineering of cereals....... It demonstrates that bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches, and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes....

  4. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly....... This provides support for the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom that phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation executed by endogenous enzymes. Our work demonstrates two new strategies for in planta starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news...

  5. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly....... This provides support for the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom that phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation executed by endogenous enzymes. Our work demonstrates two new strategies for in planta starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news...

  6. Bipolaris sorokiniana, a cereal pathogen of global concern: cytological and molecular approaches towards better controldouble dagger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jagdish; Schäfer, Patrick; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Langen, Gregor; Baltruschat, Helmut; Stein, Elke; Nagarajan, Subramaniam; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2002-07-01

    Summary Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph Cochliobolus sativus) is the causal agent of common root rot, leaf spot disease, seedling blight, head blight, and black point of wheat and barley. The fungus is one of the most serious foliar disease constraints for both crops in warmer growing areas and causes significant yield losses. High temperature and high relative humidity favour the outbreak of the disease, in particular in South Asia's intensive 'irrigated wheat-rice' production systems. In this article, we review the taxonomy and worldwide distribution, as well as strategies to counteract the disease as an emerging threat to cereal production systems. We also review the current understanding of the cytological and molecular aspects of the interaction of the fungus with its cereal hosts, which makes B. sorokiniana a model organism for studying plant defence responses to hemibiotrophic pathogens. The contrasting roles of cell death and H(2)O(2) generation in plant defence during biotrophic and necrotrophic fungal growth phases are discussed.

  7. Study on Full Supply Chain Quality and Safetytraceability Systems For Cereal And Oilproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shihong; Zheng, Huoguo; Meng, Hong; Hu, Haiyan; Wu, Jiangshou; Li, Chunhua

    Global food industry and Governments in many countries are putting increasing emphasis on establishment of food traceability systems. Food traceability has become an effective way in food safety management. Aimed at the major quality problems of cereal and oil products existing in the production, processing, warehousing, distribution and other links in the supply chain, this paper firstly proposes a new traceability framework combines the information flow with critical control points and quality indicators. Then it introduces traceability database design and data access mode to realize the framework. In practice, Code design for tracing goods is a challenge thing, so this paper put forward a code system based on UCC/EAN-128 standard.Middleware and Electronic terminal design are also briefly introduced to accomplish traceability system for cereal and oil products.

  8. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  9. Consumer Values of Health-Related Food Symbols and Chemical Food Additives - The Case of Breakfast Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Thunström, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyze consumers’ revealed values of food symbols indicating nutritious and organic food, as well as consumers’ revealed values for chemical food additives. We do so by estimating a hedonic price function based on a rich data set on breakfast cereal purchases. Our findings suggest that consumers positively value chemical food additives in breakfast cereals, suggesting that the positive taste effect from e.g. chemical taste enhancers, emulsifiers, colourings and preservatives...

  10. La dieta cereal prehistórica y su supervivencia en el área mediterránea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Nuñez, Diego

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Mediterranean recipes for cooking and consuming cereal grains are examined with a view to developing models for better interpreting the vegetal remains from archaeological sites so as to reconstruct ancient diets.

    Se estudian diversas formas de preparar tradicionalmente los granos de cereales en la Cuenca Mediterránea, que pueden servir como modelos etnográficos para interpretar algunos restos arqueológicos.

  11. The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base 1 2 3 4

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A...

  12. Replacement of Cereal with Low Starch Fibrous By-Products on Nutrients Utilization and Methane Emissions in Dairy Goats

    OpenAIRE

    IBÁÑEZ SANCHIS, CARLA; Moya, V.J.; Arriaga, Haritz; López, Diana; Merino, Pilar; Fernández Martínez, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Feeding systems for dairy ruminants need to ensure high intake of energy to achieve maximum milk production potential. This might be accomplished by raising the dietary concentration of cereal grain. Increasing the concentration of starch in diets can lead to undesirable ruminal fermentation, and to prevent it, the partial replacement of cereal grain with low starch by-product feeds is recommended. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of fed two mixed di...

  13. Source profiles of particulate organic matters emitted from cereal straw burnings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan-xun; SHAO Min; ZHANG Yuan-hang; ZENG Li-min; HE Ling-yan; ZHU Bin; WEI Yong-jie; ZHU Xian-lei

    2007-01-01

    Cereal straw is one of the most abundant biomass burned in China but its contribution to fine particulates is not adequately understood.In this study, three main kinds of cereal straws were collected from five grain producing areas in China. Fine particulate matters (PM2.5) from the cereal straws subjected to control burnings, both under smoldering and flaming status, were sampled by using a custom made dilution chamber and sampling system in the laboratory. Element carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) was analyzed.141 compounds of organic matters were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Source profiles of particulate organic matters emitted from cereal straw burnings were obtained. The results indicated that organic matters contribute a large fraction in fine particulate matters. Levoglucosan had the highest contributions with averagely 4.5% in mass of fine particulates and can be considered as the tracer of biomass burnings. Methyloxylated phenols from lignin degradation also had high concentrations in PM2.5,and contained approximately equal amounts of guaiacyl and syringyl compounds. β-Sitostrol also made up relatively a large fraction of PM2.5 compared with the other sterols (0.18%-0.63% of the total fine particle mass). Normal aikanes, PAHs, fatty acids, as well as normal alkanols had relatively lower concentrations compared with the compounds mentioned above. Carbon preference index (CPI) of normal alkanes and alkanoic acids showed characteristics of biogenic fuel burnings. Burning status significantly influenced the formations of EC and PAHs. The differences between the emission profiles of straw and wood combustions were displayed by the fingerprint compounds, which may be used to identify the contributions between wood and straw burnings in source apportionment researches.

  14. Gibberellin Deficiency Confers Both Lodging and Drought Tolerance in Small Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia ePlaza-Wüthrich; Regula eBloesch; Abiel eRindisbacher; Gina eCannarozzi; Zerihun eTadele

    2016-01-01

    Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] and finger millet [Eleusine coracana Gaertn] are staple cereal crops in Africa and Asia with several desirable agronomic and nutritional properties. Tef is becoming a life-style crop as it is gluten-free while finger millet has a low glycemic index which makes it an ideal food for diabetic patients. However, both tef and finger millet have extremely low grain yields mainly due to moisture scarcity and susceptibility of the plants to lodging. In this study,...

  15. Technical Efficiency in Organic Farming: an Application on Italian Cereal Farms using a Parametric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Madau, Fabio Albino

    2005-01-01

    A stochastic frontier production model was applied to estimate technical efficiency in a sample of Italian organic and conventional cereal farms. The main purpose was to assess which production technique revealed higher efficiency. Statistical tests on the pool sample model suggested that differences between the two cultivation methods were significant from a technological viewpoint. Separate analyses of two sub-samples (93 and 138 observations for organic and conventional farms, ...

  16. Reconsidering domestication of legumes versus cereals in the ancient near east.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua; Peleg, Zvi; Kerem, Zohar; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gopher, Avi

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss, from both biological and cultural perspectives, the ancient human-plant liaison that gave rise to Near Eastern agriculture. We explain the biological aspects of Near Eastern plant domestication by a comparative analysis of legume vs. cereal crop evolution. This comparison is illustrated by the natural distribution, ecological affinity, physiology, population structure, floral biology, growth habit, plant stature, seed dispersal mode, and seed dormancy of both wild and domesticated plants of these crop groups. We discuss the differences between Near Eastern legumes and cereals with regard to each of the above aspects, and we highlight the relevance of these differences with regard to Neolithic decision-making, adoption for farming, and subsequent evolution under domestication. We reached the following conclusions: (1) Near Eastern legumes underwent different evolutionary trajectories under domestication as compared with their companion cereals, despite apparent similarities between selection under domestication of both crop groups. (2) Careful comparison of pea, lentil, and chickpea shows that each of the Near Eastern legume crops has a unique evolutionary history in its own right, and this also holds true for the cereal crops. (3) The evolutionary history of each of the Near Eastern crops, prior to as well as after domestication, is well-reflected in its adaptation profile in present-day cropping systems, which determines each crop's relative economic importance in different world regions (e.g., chickpea is a major pulse in the Indian subcontinent, and pea is a more important crop in temperate regions, while barley has the widest adaptation, extending from high-latitude temperate regions to semi-arid Mediterranean systems). (4) Ancient choice-making as reflected in the founder crops repertoire, involved nutritional considerations that may have outweighed grain yield per area and/or time unit criteria.

  17. Finite element simulation of the compression behaviour of airy breakfast cereals

    KAUST Repository

    Mamlouk, Hedi

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we are concerned by the fragmentation study of five breakfast cereals from the market exhibiting differences in shape, formulation and texture. The experimental part of the study encompasses compression testing and fragment size evaluation using 2D image analysis. Structural information about the airy structure is then determined using X-ray tomography and related 3D image analysis. The numerical part has the ambition of assessing the fragmentation process using a damage-based mechanical model that simulates solid material rupture events as onset and growth of damage up to brittle failure. The model is based on a finite element scheme in which direct information of the 3D airy structure is encoded in the solid meshing. The force-displacement signature well shows competition between bending and compression driven failure depending on cereal shape. Our results show also large dispersion in the porous structure that affects significantly the result of the fragmentation. The numerical model is able to simulate the result of fragmentation at the cost of identifying two mechanical parameters, namely Young\\'s modulus and critical stress. These two quantities are proved to be product dependent and display a large range of variation. Industrial relevance The design of new food product becomes more and more based on functionality criteria. In a typical chewing process the need to understand the deformation mechanisms leading to fragmentation helps in understanding the role of the structure and, in turn, the processing conditions for building new transformed products. There is an increasing industrial demand in that sense especially knowing that some of the cereal products can be designed to meet these criteria for specific populations (old people with dental problems, infant feeding). Our work is, within this context, an attempt to set a numerical and experimental framework for studying the fragmentation of five selected breakfast cereals from the market.

  18. Social networks and farmer exposure to improved cereal varieties in central Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Muange, Elijah Nzula; Schwarze, Stefan; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    This study uses probit and Poisson models to analyse the determinants of social network links for the exchange of information among 345 cereal farmers and the effects of social networks on farmer exposure to improved varieties in Central Tanzania. Results show that network links are determined by education, wealth, association membership, geographical proximity, kinship ties, community leadership role, and links to extension officers. Further, farmer networks positively affect the intensity o...

  19. Weed harrowing in organically grown cereal crops avoids yield losses without reducing weed diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Armengot, Laura; José-María, Laura; Chamorro, Lourdes; Sans, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    This report shows that weed harrowing in organic cereal fields is an efficient alternative to herbicides since weed harrowing does not reduce yields compared to weed-free plots. Arable weeds provide resources and habitat to many organisms. However, weeds are the most important constraint to crop production. Indeed, the potential crop losses of the eight major crops due to weed–crop competition amount to about 30 %. New ways of food production are needed due to the current severe biodiversity ...

  20. Ecology and Control of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is due largely to movement of cysts by wind during dust storms. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani frequently is associated with the nematode in a disease complex in wheat, and disease symptoms are most severe on lighter or well structured soils. Crop rotations which include periods of fallow, or of nonhost crop reduce population levels of H....

  1. Optimised procedure to analyse maillard reaction-associated fluorescence in cereal-based products

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Andrade, Cristina; Rufián Henares, J. A.; Morales, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescent Maillard compounds measurement provides more specific information on the extent of the Maillard reaction than other unspecific tools to monitor the reaction, and is suitable, as the first approach, to assess the nutritional quality of foods as related to protein damage. This work presents an optimised laboratory procedure for the measurement of total fluorescent intermediate compounds (FIC) associated with Maillard reaction, described and evaluated in a cereal-based product. Total...

  2. Technical efficiency in organic and conventional farming: evidence from Italian cereal farms

    OpenAIRE

    Madau, Fabio Albino

    2007-01-01

    A stochastic frontier production model was applied to estimate technical efficiency in a sample of Italian organic and conventional cereal farms. The main purpose was to assess which production technique revealed higher efficiency. Statistical tests on the common production function model suggested that the two cultivation methods might lie on different frontiers. Separate analyses of two sub-samples (93 and 138 observations for organic and conventional farms, respectively) found that convent...

  3. The omnivorous Tyrolean Iceman: colon contents (meat, cereals, pollen, moss and whipworm) and stable isotope analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, J H; Oeggl, K; Holden, T.G.; Handley, L.L.; O'Connell, T C; Preston, T

    2000-01-01

    The contents of the colon of the Tyrolean Iceman who lived Ga. 5300 years ago include muscle fibres, cereal remains, a diversity of pollen, and most notably that of the hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) retaining cellular contents, as well as a moss leaf (Neckera complanata) and eggs of the parasitic whipworm (Trichuris trichiura). Based almost solely on stable isotope analyses and ignoring the work on the colon contents, two recently published papers on the Iceman's diet draw ill- founded c...

  4. Ready-to-eat cereals improve nutrient, milk and fruit intake at breakfast in European adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Michels, Nathalie; De Henauw, Stefaan; BEGHIN, Laurent; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Hallstrom, Lena; Kafatos, Anthony; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Roccaldo, Romana; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Sjostrom, Michael; Reye, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Breakfast consumption has been recommended as part of a healthy diet. Recently, ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) became more popular as a breakfast item. Our aim was to analyse the dietary characteristics of an RTEC breakfast in European adolescents and to compare them with other breakfast options. Methods From the European multi-centre HELENA study, two 24-h dietary recalls of 3137 adolescents were available. Food items (RTEC or bread, milk/yoghurt, fruit) and macro- and micronutrient int...

  5. Microstructure of Extruded Mixtures of Cereals and Oil Seed Processing Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Salgo, A.; Torok, Sz.; Sandor, Sz.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of valuable by-products of seed processing residues as coextrusion materials was investigated. By mixing sunflower, pumpkin, corn or rice germ presscake with cereals (wheat, corn, rice), the good protein quality of the former group might improve the biological value of the resulting coextrudates. The microstructure of such coextruded products was analysed with reference to their chemical compositions, nutritional characteristics and functional properties. As seed processin...

  6. INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN FORMS ON TILLERING, CYTOKININ TRANSLOCATION AND YIELD IN CEREAL CROP PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Bernhard; Bangerth, Fritz; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2009-01-01

    Urea, ammonium and nitrate are the most important nitrogen forms employed in agricultural plant production. Although nitrate has been shown to act as a signal for metabolism and plant development in physiological studies, so far no use is made of the signalling effect of different N forms in cereal plant production. To investigate the effect of different N forms on shoot development, we performed nutrient solution experiments with spring barley and observed that shoot biomass product...

  7. An Empirical Analysis of Equilibrium Pricing and Advertising in the Ready-To-Eat Cereal Market

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Cohen; Adam Rabinowitz

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a model of dynamic price and advertising competition and use the model to investigate a popular segment of the Ready-To-Eat Cereal Market. It is well understood that advertising is a key non-price strategic demand determinant in differentiated product markets. Two popular and compatible models for the role of advertising have emerged. One model specifies advertising as a determinant of a consumer's level of product awareness (informative) and the other model specifies advertising...

  8. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    OpenAIRE

    Kerlen, Dirk; Naunheim, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl) is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation), brome grass (Bromus spec.), ryegrass (Lolium spec.), wild oat (Avena fatua), loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L.), annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L.) and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The p...

  9. Efficient Use of Plant Nutrients by Cereal Crops via Optimizing Soil Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guodong; Li, Yuncong; Alva, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    The price of nitrogen (N) fertilizer has increased by 5 fold during the last decade. This has led to a significant decline in net returns. However, the increase in cereal grain price for the same period of time was negligible compared to that of N fertilizer price. Poorly managed N fertilization can cause potential ammonia emission and nitrate contamination of groundwater, in addition to being waste of natural resources. Thus, improving N uptake efficiency in crop production is important to m...

  10. Food safety of cereals: a chain wide approach to reduce Fusarium mycotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, O.E.; Ruckenbauer, P.; Visconti, A.; Osenburggen, W.A.; Nijs, den, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley and Fusarium ear rot in maize is caused by several Fusarium species. The disease reduces the quality of the seed since several of these fungi produce mycotoxins. From a food safety point of view, consumption of mycotoxin-infected cereals is dangerous as it threatens the health of men and animals. This project looked at a chain-wide approach to reduce Fusarium Mycotoxins.

  11. Barley callus:a model system for bioengineering of starch in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Carciofi Massimiliano; Blennow Andreas; Nielsen Morten M; Holm Preben B; Hebelstrup Kim H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties. In this way starch is adapted to a variety of specific end-uses. Recombinant DNA technologies offers an alternative to starch industrial processing. The plant biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated...

  12. Anomericity of T-2 Toxin-glucoside: Masked Mycotoxin in Cereal Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Susan P. McCormick; Kato, Takayuki; Maragos, Chris M.; Busman, Mark; Lattanzio, Veronica M. T.; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall-Asta, Chiara; Crich, David; Price, Neil P. J.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.

    2014-01-01

    T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when Fusarium fungi infect grains, especially oats and wheat. Ingestion of T-2 toxin contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal in livestock. Cereal crops infected with mycotoxin-producing fungi form toxin glycosides, sometimes called masked mycotoxins, which are a potential food safety concern because they are not detectable by standard approaches and may be converted back to the parent toxin during digestion or food ...

  13. Long-term organic crop rotation experiments for cereal production – yield development and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2005-01-01

    A crop rotation experiment was established in 1996/97 at three locations representing different soil types and climates. Three factors were tested: i) crop rotation with different proportions of N2-fixing crops, ii) with and without a catch crop, and iii) with and without animal manure. A green manure crop increased yields in the following cereal crops, but at the rotational level, total yields were larger in crop rotations without a green manure crop. There were positive effects of animal ma...

  14. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxyl...

  15. Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commodities in relation to climate in North West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Fels-Klerx, H J; Klemsdal, S; Hietaniemi, V; Lindblad, M; Ioannou-Kakouri, E; Van Asselt, E D

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commodities for feed and food production in North Western Europe during the last two decades, including trends over time and co-occurrence between toxins, and to assess possible effects of climate on the presence of mycotoxins. For these aims, analytical results related to mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commodities, collected in the course of national monitoring programmes in Finland, Sweden, Norway and the Netherlands during a 20-year period, were gathered. Historical observational weather data, including daily relative humidity, rainfall and temperature, were obtained from each of these four countries. In total 6382 records, referring to individual sample results for mycotoxin concentrations (one or more toxins) in cereal grains were available. Most records referred to wheat, barley, maize and oats. The most frequently analysed mycotoxins were deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and zearalenone. Deoxynivalenol had the highest overall incidence of 46%, and was mainly found in wheat, maize and oats. Mycotoxins that showed co-occurrence were: deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol in oats; deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in maize and wheat; and T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in oats. The presence of both deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in wheat increased with higher temperatures, relative humidity and rainfall during cultivation, but the presence of nivalenol was negatively associated with most of these climatic factors. The same holds for both nivalenol and deoxynivalenol in oats. This implies that climatic conditions that are conducive for one toxin may have a decreasing effect on the other. The presence of HT-2 toxin in oats showed a slight decreasing trends over time, but significant trends for other toxins showed an increasing presence during the last two decades. It is therefore useful to continue monitoring of mycotoxins. Obtained results can be

  16. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; BARREAU, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of ...

  17. Effect of extrusion variables (temperature, moisture) on the antinutrient components of cereal brans

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Satinder; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit; Dar, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out, to explore the potentiality of extrusion technology for elimination of antinutritional components of cereal brans. Extrusion variables were moisture content (14, 17 and 20 %) and temperatures (115 °C, 140 °C, 165 °C). Phytic acid, polyphenols, oxalates, trypsin inhibitor, bulk density and color of brans after extrusion were analyzed. All four raw bran samples had high concentration of phytic acid, polyphenols, oxalates and trypsin inhibitors. Extrusion cooking was f...

  18. Consumption of Whole Grains, Refined Cereals, and Legumes and Its Association With Colorectal Cancer Among Jordanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; Al-Awwad, Narmeen J; Heath, Dennis D; Bani-Hani, Kamal E

    2016-09-01

    Background The role of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes in preventing or initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) is still uncertain. The aim of this study is to examine the possible association between the consumption of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes and the risk of developing CRC among Jordanian population. Methods A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data with regard to intake of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes. A total of 220 diagnosed CRC participants and 281 CRC-free control participants matched by age, gender, occupation, and marital status were recruited. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of developing CRC in relation to the consumption of different types of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes. Results The odds ratio (OR) for developing CRC among cases consumed refined wheat bread at all meals was 3.1 compared with controls (95% CI: 1.2-7.9, P-Trend = 0.001); whereas the OR associated with whole wheat bread was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.22-0.92, P-Trend = 0.001). The statistical evaluation for daily consumption of rice suggested a direct association with the risk of developing CRC, OR = 3.0 (95% CI: 0.27-33.4, P-Trend = 0.020). Weekly consumption of macaroni was associated with CRC with OR of 2.4 (95% CI: 1.1-5.3, P-Trend = 0.001). The consumption of corn, bulgur, lentils, and peas suggested a protective trend, although the trend was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study provides additional indicators of the protective role of whole grains and suggests a direct association between consumption of refined grains and higher possibility for developing CRC. PMID:26631260

  19. Cadou FORTE – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadou FORTE (flufenacet; flurtamone; diflufenican is a new cereal herbicide with efficacy against blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and a broad spectrum of dicot weeds. Cadou FORTE can be used in winter wheat, winter barley, winter rye, winter triticale and spelt for pre and post emergence application in autumn. This publication focuses on efficacy trials from three years of autumn application with Cadou FORTE.

  20. Marketing sugary cereals to children in the digital age: a content analysis of 17 child-targeted websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew D; Dorfman, Lori; Bukofzer, Eliana; Harris, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has warned of the harm of food marketing to children from television to new media channels such as the Internet. The authors identified and analyzed the techniques used to engage children on websites from cereal companies--the third largest food marketer to children. The authors found that top breakfast cereal manufacturers maintain child-oriented websites, using strategies unique to the Internet to capture and maintain children's attention. These include branded engagement techniques such as advergames, videos, site registration, and viral marketing, including inviting friends to join the site. The authors found 3 progressive levels of telepresence on child-targeted cereal websites: sites with more than 1 engaging feature, multiple techniques present on individual pages, and the construction of a virtual world. Using Internet traffic data, the authors confirm that these techniques work: cereal marketers reach children online with lengthier and more sophisticated engagements than are possible with traditional, passive media such as television advertisements or product packaging. Despite the cereal manufacturer's self-regulatory pledge to improve their marketing to children, their marketing practices exploit children's susceptibility to advertising by almost exclusively promoting high-sugar cereals using deeply engaging techniques. PMID:23421722

  1. Marketing sugary cereals to children in the digital age: a content analysis of 17 child-targeted websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew D; Dorfman, Lori; Bukofzer, Eliana; Harris, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has warned of the harm of food marketing to children from television to new media channels such as the Internet. The authors identified and analyzed the techniques used to engage children on websites from cereal companies--the third largest food marketer to children. The authors found that top breakfast cereal manufacturers maintain child-oriented websites, using strategies unique to the Internet to capture and maintain children's attention. These include branded engagement techniques such as advergames, videos, site registration, and viral marketing, including inviting friends to join the site. The authors found 3 progressive levels of telepresence on child-targeted cereal websites: sites with more than 1 engaging feature, multiple techniques present on individual pages, and the construction of a virtual world. Using Internet traffic data, the authors confirm that these techniques work: cereal marketers reach children online with lengthier and more sophisticated engagements than are possible with traditional, passive media such as television advertisements or product packaging. Despite the cereal manufacturer's self-regulatory pledge to improve their marketing to children, their marketing practices exploit children's susceptibility to advertising by almost exclusively promoting high-sugar cereals using deeply engaging techniques.

  2. [Storage of cereal bars with mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Guiñez, M A

    2000-06-01

    The use of walnut or peanut in the elaboration of cereal bars represents a possible risk of undesirable changes during their storage due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil; oxidizing of the fatty acids is one of the main causes of deterioration. Development of new snack products implies the use of packages that should protect the food against the damage caused by light and reduce the oxygen concentration of in their interior. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory changes in the storage of cereal bars with peanut or walnut and mezquite cotyledon subjected to two thermal treatments, packed in cellophane or milky polypropilene. Four types of bars were elaborated with 6% of mezquite cotyledon, treated by microwaves or toasted, and with 18% of peanut or walnut. The bars were stored for 90 days at room temperature; and each 30 days it was measured moisture content, peroxides index, water activity, sensory quality and acceptability. The peroxides values (4.9-13.8 meq/kg of oil) indicates that the shelf life of the bars in all the studied treatments was 90 days. The packaging materials used allows to maintain in good conditions, for 3 months, the cereals bars of moisture (7.4-11.2%), water activity (0.50-0.65) and sensory acceptability.

  3. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Cereal Grain Volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinara, Giacinto Salvatore; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by the host's food would be the first signals used by parasitoids in the host location process and are thought to play an important role in host habitat location. In this study, the olfactory responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood), a Pteromalid wasp that parasitizes immature stages of stored-product insect pests developing inside cereal or leguminous grains, to volatiles emitted by healthy wheat grains, their hexane extracts, and different doses of three individual compounds previously identified in cereal grain odors were investigated in Y-tube olfactometer and Petri dish arena behavioral bioassays and electroantennogram recordings. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, odors from healthy wheat grains and their hexane extracts were attractive to both sexes of T. elegans. Moreover, hexane extracts elicited arresting effects in Petri dish arena. The three synthetic compounds valeraldehyde, maltol, and vanillin elicited dose-dependent responses in both male and female adult wasps confirming the capability of the peripheral olfactory systems to perceive cereal volatiles. In behavioral bioassays, different doses of vanillin were significantly attractive to both sexes. PMID:26904680

  4. Challenges to develop nitrogen-fixing cereals by direct nif-gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatti, Leonardo; Rubio, Luis M

    2014-08-01

    Some regions of the developing world suffer low cereal production yields due to low fertilizer inputs, among other factors. Biological N2 fixation, catalyzed by the prokaryotic enzyme nitrogenase, is an alternative to the use of synthetic N fertilizers. The molybdenum nitrogenase is an O2-labile metalloenzyme composed of the NifDK and NifH proteins, which biosyntheses require a number of nif gene products. A challenging strategy to increase cereal crop productivity in a scenario of low N fertilization is the direct transfer of nif genes into cereals. The sensitivity of nitrogenase to O2 and the apparent complexity of nitrogenase biosynthesis are the main barriers identified so far. Expression of active NifH requires the products of nifM, nifH, and possibly nifU and nifS, whereas active NifDK requires the products of nifH, nifD, nifK, nifB, nifE, nifN, and possibly nifU, nifS, nifQ, nifV, nafY, nifW and nifZ. Plastids and mitochondria are potential subcellular locations for nitrogenase. Both could provide the ATP and electrons required for nitrogenase to function but they differ in their internal O2 levels and their ability to incorporate ammonium into amino acids.

  5. Nitrogen-Use Efficiency, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, and Cereal Production in Brazil: Current Trends and Forecasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Viana Pires

    Full Text Available The agriculture sector has historically been a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions into the atmosphere. Although the use of synthetic fertilizers is one of the most common widespread agricultural practices, over-fertilization can lead to negative economic and environmental consequences, such as high production costs, depletion of energy resources, and increased GHG emissions. Here, we provide an analysis to understand the evolution of cereal production and consumption of nitrogen (N fertilizers in Brazil and to correlate N use efficiency (NUE with economic and environmental losses as N2O emissions. Our results show that the increased consumption of N fertilizers is associated with a large decrease in NUE in recent years. The CO2 eq. of N2O emissions originating from N fertilization for cereal production were approximately 12 times higher in 2011 than in 1970, indicating that the inefficient use of N fertilizers is directly related to environmental losses. The projected N fertilizer forecasts are 2.09 and 2.37 million ton for 2015 and 2023, respectively. An increase of 0.02% per year in the projected NUE was predicted for the same time period. However, decreases in the projected CO2 eq. emissions for future years were not predicted. In a hypothetical scenario, a 2.39% increase in cereal NUE would lead to $ 21 million savings in N fertilizer costs. Thus, increases in NUE rates would lead not only to agronomic and environmental benefits but also to economic improvement.

  6. [Use of mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Shuntz) in the manufacturing of cereal bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Ugarte, V

    2000-06-01

    Cereal bars with peanut and walnut has shown to be snack foods of good organoleptic characteristics and high caloric value, due to their content of protein, lipids and carbohydrates. Cotyledons of mezquite seeds have a high protein content which biological quality improves with thermal processing like toasting, microwave or moist heat under pressure. The purposes of this research were to study the use of mezquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) in cereal bars with two different levels of peanut or walnut; and to determine the effect of two thermal treatment applied on the cotyledon upon the bar characteristics. Twelve different kind of bars were developed through the combination of two levels of peanut or walnut (15% and 18%); the use of mezquite cotyledon (0% and 6%); and the application of two thermal processing to the cotyledon (microwave and toasting). Cereal bars were analysed for chemical, physical and sensory characteristics: moisture, water activity, proximate chemical composition, sensory quality and acceptability. Moisture content of bars with peanut ranged between 10.4% and 10.9%; and for those with walnut, between 10.5% and 12.3%. Protein content was higher in the bars with mezquite cotiledon, being higher those with peanut. Thermal processing did not have any effect on the chemical composition. Bars with mezquite cotyledon treated by microwave showed a higher acceptability.

  7. Occurrence of Toxigenic Fusarium vorosii among Small Grain Cereals in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Theresa; Paek, Ji-Seon; Lee, Kyung Ah; Lee, Soohyung; Choi, Jung-Hye; Ham, Hyeonheui; Hong, Sung Kee; Ryu, Jae-Gee

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) causes Fusarium head blight in small grain cereals. To date, four species (F. graminearum, F. asiaticum, F. boothii, and F. meridionale ) belonging to FGSC frequently occur in Korean cereals. In addition, we first reported the occurrence of additional species (F. vorosii ) within FGSC, which was isolated from barley, corn, and rice in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of the Fusarium isolates of this group using combined multi-gene sequences confirmed species identification. Moreover, the macroconidia produced by these isolates were morphologically similar to those of the F. vorosii holotype. Chemical analysis indicated that the F. vorosii isolates produced various trichothecenes such as nivalenol and deoxynivalenol with their acetyl derivatives along with zearalenone. Pathogenicity tests demonstrated that all of the F. vorosii isolates examined were pathogenic on barley, corn, and rice with variation in aggressiveness. This study is the first report of F. vorosii in Korean cereals, their pathogenicity towards barley and corn, and their ability to produce trichothecenes and zearalenone. PMID:27721690

  8. Development and chemical and sensory characterization of pumpkin seed flour-based cereal bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovane Santana Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, popularly known as squash, is a widely grown vegetable in Brazil. In this study, pumpkin seed flours (PSF with different granulometries were used: PSF 1 (medium granulometry and PSF 2 (coarse granulometry in the preparation of cereal bars (CB with different combinations with brown oats. Five formulations were prepared: CB-1 (control - 25% brown oats and 0% PSF; CB-2 (12.5% PSF 1 and 12.5% brown oats; CB-3 (25% PSF 1 and 0% brown oats; CB-4 (12.5% PSF 2 and 12.5% brown oats; and CB-5 (25% PSF 2 and 0% brown oats. The acceptance test results were analyzed in a conventional preference mapping which indicated that the bars CB-2 and CB-5 received mostly the maximum hedonistic score. With the objective of developing a cereal bar replacing oats with PSF, the bars CB-2 and CB-5 were compared to the conventional bar CB-1. The cereal bars CB-2 and CB-5 showed an increase in crude protein (87.5% and 62.5% and in dietary fiber (77% and 44%, respectively. These results allowed the classification of CB-2 and CB-5 as fiber sources; they can, therefore, be classified as light products according to the Brazilian legislation.

  9. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (Poats, but greater (Pcereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (Pcereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains.

  10. Vertical distribution of dry mass in cereals straw and its loss during harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajaç, T.; Oleksy, A.; Stokłosa, A.; Klimek-Kopyra, A.; Macuda, J.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the distribution of mass in the straw of cereal species and also at assessing the straw yield and its losses resulting from the amount of the stubble left in the field. It was found empirically that the wheat culms are composed of five internodes, and in barley, triticale and oats of six. The highest straw mass per 1 cm was found in the second internode in both forms of wheat and winter triticale, whereas barley and oats gathered the highest weight in the first internode. In the southern part of Silesia species and forms of cereals differed in the straw yield, which can be arranged as follows, from the highest: winter wheat > spring wheat, winter triticale, winter barley, and oats > spring barley. Due to the specific distribution of dry matter in each of internodes of both wheat forms - winter and spring, they loose less stubble mass (22 and 24%, respectively), comparing to other cereals, especially spring barley, which loose 31% yield of straw in the stubble of 15 cm height.

  11. Potential of Phytase-Mediated Iron Release from Cereal-Based Foods: A Quantitative View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne S. Meyer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate. Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via enzyme-catalysed dephosphorylation of phytate, indicating the potential of this strategy for preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia. Despite the immense promise of this strategy and the prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide, the number of human studies elucidating the significance of phytase-mediated improvements in iron absorption and ultimately in iron status in particularly vulnerable groups is still low. A more detailed understanding of (1 the uptake mechanism for iron released from partially dephosphorylated phytate chelates, (2 the affinity of microbially derived phytases towards insoluble iron phytate complexes, and (3 the extent of phytate dephosphorylation required for iron release from inositol phosphates is warranted. Phytase-mediated iron release can improve iron absorption from plant foods. There is a need for development of innovative strategies to obtain better effects.

  12. [Storage of cereal bars with mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Guiñez, M A

    2000-06-01

    The use of walnut or peanut in the elaboration of cereal bars represents a possible risk of undesirable changes during their storage due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil; oxidizing of the fatty acids is one of the main causes of deterioration. Development of new snack products implies the use of packages that should protect the food against the damage caused by light and reduce the oxygen concentration of in their interior. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory changes in the storage of cereal bars with peanut or walnut and mezquite cotyledon subjected to two thermal treatments, packed in cellophane or milky polypropilene. Four types of bars were elaborated with 6% of mezquite cotyledon, treated by microwaves or toasted, and with 18% of peanut or walnut. The bars were stored for 90 days at room temperature; and each 30 days it was measured moisture content, peroxides index, water activity, sensory quality and acceptability. The peroxides values (4.9-13.8 meq/kg of oil) indicates that the shelf life of the bars in all the studied treatments was 90 days. The packaging materials used allows to maintain in good conditions, for 3 months, the cereals bars of moisture (7.4-11.2%), water activity (0.50-0.65) and sensory acceptability. PMID:11048587

  13. Protein accumulation in aleurone cells, sub-aleurone cells and the center starch endosperm of cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yankun; Wang, Zhong

    2014-10-01

    There are mainly three endosperm storage tissues in the cereal endosperm: aleurone cells, sub-aleurone cells and the center starch endosperm. The protein accumulation is very different in the three endosperm storage tissues. The aleurone cells accumulate protein in aleurone granules. The sub-aleurone cells and the center starch endosperm accumulate protein in endoplasmic reticulum-derived protein bodies and vacuolar protein bodies. Proteins are deposited in different patterns within different endosperm storage tissues probably because of the special storage properties of these tissues. There are several special genes and other molecular factors to mediate the protein accumulation in these tissues. Different proteins have distinct functions in the protein body formation and the protein interactions determine protein body assembly. There are both cooperation and competition relationships between protein, starch and lipid in the cereal endosperm. This paper reviews the latest investigations on protein accumulation in aleurone cells, sub-aleurone cells and the center starch endosperm. Useful information will be supplied for future investigations on the cereal endosperm development.

  14. Nitrogen-Use Efficiency, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, and Cereal Production in Brazil: Current Trends and Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Marcel Viana; da Cunha, Dênis Antônio; de Matos Carlos, Sabrina; Costa, Marcos Heil

    2015-01-01

    The agriculture sector has historically been a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere. Although the use of synthetic fertilizers is one of the most common widespread agricultural practices, over-fertilization can lead to negative economic and environmental consequences, such as high production costs, depletion of energy resources, and increased GHG emissions. Here, we provide an analysis to understand the evolution of cereal production and consumption of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in Brazil and to correlate N use efficiency (NUE) with economic and environmental losses as N2O emissions. Our results show that the increased consumption of N fertilizers is associated with a large decrease in NUE in recent years. The CO2 eq. of N2O emissions originating from N fertilization for cereal production were approximately 12 times higher in 2011 than in 1970, indicating that the inefficient use of N fertilizers is directly related to environmental losses. The projected N fertilizer forecasts are 2.09 and 2.37 million ton for 2015 and 2023, respectively. An increase of 0.02% per year in the projected NUE was predicted for the same time period. However, decreases in the projected CO2 eq. emissions for future years were not predicted. In a hypothetical scenario, a 2.39% increase in cereal NUE would lead to $ 21 million savings in N fertilizer costs. Thus, increases in NUE rates would lead not only to agronomic and environmental benefits but also to economic improvement. PMID:26252377

  15. Desenvolvimento e caracterização de cereal matinal extrudado de mandioca enriquecido com concentrado protéico de soro de leite Development and characterization of an extruded breakfast cereal from cassava enriched with milk whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Andrade Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e caracterizar um cereal matinal extrudado de mandioca enriquecido com concentrado protéico de soro de leite. O extrudado foi formulado adicionando-se 15% de concentrado protéico de soro de leite à farinha de mandioca. As matérias primas e o cereal matinal obtido foram analisados quanto às características físico-químicas. Para o cereal matinal desenvolvido, avaliaram-se também suas características microbiológicas e sensoriais. O extrudado estudado apresentou índice de expansão de 11,49 e densidade aparente de 0,21g.cm-3. Quanto à análise sensorial, o cereal matinal avaliado obteve notas médias de aceitação, para todos os atributos avaliados, situadas no intervalo de 7,63 a 8,05 que corresponde às categorias "gostei moderadamente" e "gostei muito". Para a intenção de compra, 91,70% dos provadores opinaram que certamente ou possivelmente comprariam o produto. O emprego de mandioca e concentrado protéico de soro de leite é uma alternativa para a elaboração de cereal matinal extrudado, obtendo-se um produto final com boas características sensoriais e nutricionais.The objective of this study was to develop and characterize an extruded cassava breakfast cereal enriched with milk whey protein concentrate. The extruded product was formulated by adding 15% of milk whey protein concentrate to cassava flour. The raw materials and the cassava flour breakfast cereal obtained were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics. The breakfast cereal was also evaluated for its microbiological and sensory characteristics. The extruded product presented an expansion index of 11.49 and apparent density of 0.21g.cm-3. With respect to the sensory analysis, the breakfast cereal obtained hedonic ratings in the range from 7.63 to 8.05 for all the attributes evaluated, corresponding to the categories "I liked moderately" and "I liked a lot". For purchase intention, 91.70% of the panelists said they

  16. Caterpillar cereal as a potential complementary feeding product for infants and young children: nutritional content and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauserman, Melissa; Lokangaka, Adrien; Kodondi, Kule-Koto; Gado, Justin; Viera, Anthony J; Bentley, Margaret E; Engmann, Cyril; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl

    2015-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is an important cause of growth stunting. To avoid micronutrient deficiency, the World Health Organization recommends complementary feeding with animal-source foods. However, animal-source foods are not readily available in many parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In such areas, caterpillars are a staple in adult diets and may be suitable for complementary feeding for infants and young children. We developed a cereal made from dried caterpillars and other locally available ingredients (ground corn, palm oil, sugar and salt), measured its macro- and micronutrient contents and evaluated for microbiologic contamination. Maternal and infant acceptability was evaluated among 20 mothers and their 8-10-month-old infants. Mothers were instructed in the preparation of the cereal and asked to evaluate the cereal in five domains using a Likert scale. Mothers fed their infants a 30-g portion daily for 1 week. Infant acceptability was based on cereal consumption and the occurrence of adverse events. The caterpillar cereal contained 132 kcal, 6.9-g protein, 3.8-mg iron and 3.8-mg zinc per 30 g and was free from microbiologic contamination. Mothers' median ratings for cereal characteristics were (5 = like very much): overall impression = 4, taste = 5, smell = 4, texture = 4, colour = 5, and consistency = 4. All infants consumed more than 75% of the daily portions, with five infants consuming 100%. No serious adverse events were reported. We conclude that a cereal made from locally available caterpillars has appropriate macro- and micronutrient contents for complementary feeding, and is acceptable to mothers and infants in the DRC. PMID:23557509

  17. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Martens Maria; Schnoor Heidi J; Malling Hans-Jørgen; Poulsen Lars K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 ye...

  18. The Influence Of Cereal Share In Crop Rotations On The Grain Yield And Quality Of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babulicová Mária

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to find out the influence of different share of cereals and various fertilisation on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The long-term field trial with 40, 60 and 80% share of the cereals and two levels of fertilisation (H1 mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget®; H2 mineral fertilisation only were carried out in the very warm and dry area of continental weather on luvi-haplic chernozem. In the years 2010–2013, the grain yield, the wet gluten content, gluten index, the falling number and sedimentation index of winter wheat according to Zeleny were investigated. The significantly higher grain yield of winter wheat was recorded after preceding crop of common pea. The yield of cereals in crop rotation with 60% share of cereals (7.00 t/ha was significantly higher than in crop rotation with 80% share of cereals (6.78 t/ha.The statistically higher wet gluten content after pea fore-crop was found out when the mineral fertilisation and organic fertiliser Veget® were applied (33.4% with comparison to the treatment with mineral fertilisation only (30.08%.

  19. Narrowing the harvest: Increasing sickle investment and the rise of domesticated cereal agriculture in the Fertile Crescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Osamu; Lucas, Leilani; Silva, Fabio; Tanno, Ken-Ichi; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2016-08-01

    For the first time we integrate quantitative data on lithic sickles and archaeobotanical evidence for domestication and the evolution of plant economies from sites dated to the terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene (ca. 12000-5000 cal. BCE) from throughout the Fertile Crescent region of Southwest Asia. We find a strong correlation in some regions, throughout the Levant, for increasing investment in sickles that tracks the evidence for increasing reliance on cereal crops, while evidence for morphological domestication in wheats (Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) was delayed in comparison to sickle use. These data indicate that while the co-increase of sickle blades and cereal crops support the protracted development of agricultural practice, sickles did not drive the initial stages of the domestication process but rather were a cultural adaptation to increasing reliance on cereals that were still undergoing selection for morphological change. For other regions, such as the Eastern Fertile Crescent and Cyprus such correlations are weaker or non-existent suggesting diverse cultural trajectories to cereal domestication. We conclude that sickles were an exaptation transferred to cereal harvesting and important in signalling a new cultural identity of "farmers". Furthermore, the protracted process of technological and agricultural evolution calls into question hypotheses that the transition to agriculture was caused by any particular climatic event.

  20. Relative severity of fumonisin contamination of cereal crops in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismer, Hester F; Shephard, Gordon S; Rheeder, John P; van der Westhuizen, Liana; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2015-01-01

    Traditional and improved varieties of maize, pearl millet and sorghum were planted by small-scale farmers under the direction of the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture in two Nigerian agro-ecological zones: the Sudan Savanna and the Northern Guinea Savanna. Samples were collected for the determination of Fusarium infection and fumonisin (B1, B2 and B3) contamination. A previous paper reported Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin contamination of these samples. Fusarium infection levels, measured by per cent kernels infected, were modest with mean levels for the above cereals of 16% ± 11% (SD), 12% ± 7% and 13% ± 16%, respectively. However, the Fusarium species recovered from maize were predominantly the fumonisin producers F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, together making an infection rate of 15% ± 10%, whereas these species were present to a limited extent only in the other two cereals, 1% ± 1% for pearl millet and 2% ± 6% for sorghum. Fumonisin contamination was variable but reflected the diversity of Fusarium producers in these three cereals. Mean levels were 228 ± 579 µg kg(-1) (range practices. Of the Fusarium species present, those in maize consisted mainly of fumonisin producers, the opposite of what was observed in pearl millet and sorghum. It is concluded that replacement of maize by pearl millet and sorghum could improve food safety with regards to aflatoxin B and fumonisin B exposure. PMID:26372791

  1. Bioactive Peptides in Cereals and Legumes: Agronomical, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Malaguti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation. Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo.

  2. Variation in chemical composition and physical characteristics of cereal grains from different genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehutscord, Markus; Rückert, Christine; Maurer, Hans Peter; Schenkel, Hans; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Schollenberger, Margit; Laux, Meike; Eklund, Meike; Siegert, Wolfgang; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Genotypes of cereal grains, including winter barley (n = 21), maize (n = 27), oats (n = 14), winter rye (n = 22), winter triticale (n = 21) and winter wheat (n = 29), were assayed for their chemical composition and physical characteristics as part of the collaborative research project referred to as GrainUp. Genotypes of one grain species were grown on the same site, except maize. In general, concentrations of proximate nutrients were not largely different from feed tables. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the ether extract concentration of maize was high because the data pool comprised speciality maize bred for its high oil content. A subset of 8 barley, 20 rye, 20 triticale and 20 wheat samples was analysed to differ significantly in several carbohydrate fractions. Gross energy concentration of cereal grains could be predicted from proximate nutrient concentration with good accuracy. The mean lysine concentration of protein was the highest in oats (4.2 g/16 g N) and the lowest in wheat (2.7 g/16 g N). Significant differences were also detected in the concentrations of macro elements as well as iron, manganese, zinc and copper. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and lead were below the limit of detection. The concentration of lower inositol phosphates was low, but some inositol pentaphosphates were detected in all grains. In barley, relatively high inositol tetraphosphate concentration also was found. Intrinsic phytase activity was the highest in rye, followed by triticale, wheat, barley and maize, and it was not detectable in oats. Substantial differences were seen in the thousand seed weight, test weight, falling number and extract viscoelasticity characteristics. The study is a comprehensive overview of the composition of different cereal grain genotypes when grown on the same location. The relevance of the variation in composition for digestibility in different animal species will be subject of other communications.

  3. Effects of genotype and environment on the contents of betaine, choline, and trigonelline in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corol, Delia-Irina; Ravel, Catherine; Raksegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Charmet, Gilles; Beale, Michael H; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L

    2012-05-30

    This study examined the environmental and genetic variation in methyl donor contents and compositions of 200 cereal genotypes. Glycine betaine, choline, and trigonelline contents were determined by (1)H NMR, and significant differences were observed between cereal types (G) and across harvesting years and growing locations (E). Glycine betaine was the most abundant methyl donor in all of the 200 lines grown on a single site, and concentrations ranged from 0.43 ± 0.09 mg/g dm in oats to 2.57 ± 0.25 mg/g dm in diploid Einkorn varieties. In bread wheat genotypes there was a 3-fold difference in glycine betaine content. Choline contents, in the same lines, were substantially lower, and mean concentrations ranged from 0.17 mg/g dm in oats to 0.27 mg/g dm in durum wheat. Trigonelline was by far the least abundant of the methyl donors studied. Despite this, however, there were large differences between cereal types. Twenty-six wheat genotypes were grown in additional years at four European locations. The average glycine betaine content was highest in grains grown in Hungary and lowest in those grown in the United Kingdom. Across the six environments, there was a 3.8-fold difference in glycine betaine content. Glycine betaine levels, although moderately heritable (0.36), were found to be the most susceptible to the environmental conditions. Free choline concentrations were less variable across genotypes, but heritability of this component was the lowest of all methyl donor components (0.25) and showed a high G × E interaction. Trigonelline showed the most variation due to genotype. Heritability of this metabolite was the highest (0.59), but given that it is at a very low concentration in wheat, it is probably not attractive to plant breeders.

  4. Reasoned opinion on the setting of new MRLs for pyriofenone in cereals, grapes and animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from ISK Biosciences Europe SA to set new MRLs for the active substance pyriofenone in cereal grains and grapes. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of pyriofenone in northern and southern EU, the United Kingdom proposed to set an MRL of 0.01* mg/kg in wheat and rye, 0.05 mg/kg in barley and oats and 0.3 mg/kg in grapes. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.01* mg/kg for the intended uses on wheat and rye, 0.03 mg/kg for barley and oats reflecting the intended NEU uses and 0.3 mg/kg for grapes. The MRL proposal of 0.01* mg/kg derived for wheat is also applicable to triticale and spelt. Based on the intended uses, the setting of MRLs for animal products is not necessary. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of pyriofenone in cereals and grapes. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of pyriofenone on cereal grains and grapes will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore, are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  5. Brachypodium distachyon as a model system for studies of copper transport in cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-il eJung

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an essential micronutrient that performs a remarkable array of functions in plants including photosynthesis, cell wall remodeling, flowering, and seed set. Of the world's major cereal crops, wheat, barley, and oat are the most sensitive to Cu deficiency. Cu deficient soils include alkaline soils, which occupy approximately 30% of the world’s arable lands, and organic soils that occupy an estimated 19% of arable land in Europe. We used Brachypodium distachyon (brachypodium as a proxy for wheat and other grain cereals to initiate analyses of the molecular mechanisms underlying their increased susceptibility to Cu deficiency. In this report, we focus on members of the CTR/COPT family of Cu transporters because their homologs in A. thaliana are transcriptionally upregulated in Cu-limited conditions and are involved either in Cu uptake from soils into epidermal cells in the root, or long-distance transport and distribution of Cu in photosynthetic tissues. We found that of five COPT proteins in brachypodium, BdCOPT3 and BdCOPT4 localize to the plasma membrane and are transcriptionally upregulated in roots and leaves by Cu deficiency. We also found that BdCOPT3, BdCOPT4, and BdCOPT5 confer low affinity Cu transport, in contrast to their counterparts in A. thaliana that confer high affinity Cu transport. These data suggest that increased sensitivity to Cu deficiency in some grass species may arise from lower efficiency and, possibly, other properties of components of Cu uptake and tissue partitioning systems and reinforce the importance of using brachypodium as a model for the comprehensive analyses of Cu homeostasis in cereal crops.

  6. Programmed cell death (PCD an essential process of cereal seed development and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eDomínguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of cereal seeds can be divided into two phases, development and germination, separated by a quiescent period. Seed development and germination require the growth and differentiation of new tissues, but also the ordered disappearance of cells, which takes place by a process of programmed cell death (PCD. For this reason, cereal seeds have become excellent model systems for the study of developmental PCD in plants. At early stages of seed development, maternal tissues such as the nucellus, the pericarp and the nucellar projections undergo a progressive degeneration by PCD, which allows the remobilization of their cellular contents for nourishing new filial tissues such as the embryo and the endosperm. At a later stage, during seed maturation, the endosperm undergoes PCD, but these cells remain intact in the mature grain and their contents will not be remobilized until germination. Thus, the only tissues that remain alive when seed development is completed are the embryo axis, the scutellum and the aleurone layer. In germinating seeds, both the scutellum and the aleurone layer play essential roles in producing the hydrolytic enzymes for the mobilization of the storage compounds of the starchy endosperm, which serve to support early seedling growth. Once this function is completed, scutellum and aleurone cells undergo PCD; their contents being used to support the growth of the germinated embryo. PCD occurs with tightly controlled spatial-temporal patterns allowing coordinated fluxes of nutrients between the different seed tissues. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the tissues undergoing PCD in developing and germinating cereal seeds, focussing on the biochemical features of the process. The effect of hormones and redox regulation on PCD control will be discussed.

  7. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future. PMID:27002810

  8. In vitro estimation of the rate and extent of ruminal digestion of cereal feed fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahir, M.N.; Lund, Peter; Hetta, M.;

    2011-01-01

    loss and microbial contaminations during incubations are associated with this technique, consequentially, leading to over- or under-predictions (Huhtanen and Sveinbjörnsson, 2006). The in vitro gas production (GP) technique, on the other hand, has some advantages over the in sacco method. The GP......, forage intake, and animal performance (Nocek and Tamminga, 1991; Mills et al., 1999). It would, therefore, be useful to reliably determine the differences in rumen fermentation characteristics of cereals. Part of the variation can be attributed to the methods used for evaluation (Stensig et al., 1998b...

  9. Semi-dwarf cereal mutants and their use in cross-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings include 12 papers presented at the Research Co-ordination Meeting organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development and held in Vienna, 2-6 March 1981. At the meeting, participants reviewed the present status of genetic studies and several aspects of breeding for semi-dwarf plant type in cereals, discussed methods of evaluating semi-dwarfing genes for use in cross-breeding programmes and took decisions regarding future work plans. Nine papers give information on radiation induced semi-dwarf mutants of wheat, barley and rice and are input into INIS

  10. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  11. Cereal food commodities in Eastern Africa: consumption - production gap trends and projections for 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Mkumbwa, Solomon S.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper presents the supply and demand trends of maize, rice and wheat. It provides the supply and demand projections for 2015 and 2020. These projections have been based on change in productivity levels, changes in price, growth of population and income growth. The future supply-demand gap that has been mapped and projected for 2015 and 2020, has been discussed in the light of policy requirements. It is concluded as postulated by Dyson (2009) that an increase in total cereal demand...

  12. Calidad tecnológica de la harina de trigo obtenida a partir de cereales ozonizados

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Lobo Paes; Lêda Rita D' Antonino Faroni; Joseane Erbice dos Santos; Wilfredo Irrazabal Urruchi

    2010-01-01

    El cloro es uno de los principales agentes antimicrobianos utilizados en la industria molinera, pero debido a la formación de organoclorados tóxicos o incluso cancerígenos su uso no ha sido considerado seguro. El proceso de ozonización puede considerarse como uno de los más modernos y eficientes, tanto en la desinfección de insectos-plaga como en los microorganismos. Sin embargo, es necesario evaluar su efecto sobre la calidad de cereales y subproductos. Así, el objetivo de este trabajo fue e...

  13. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N2-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N2-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature (δ15N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems. -- Highlights:

  14. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  15. Cossack Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cossack Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Cossack Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Cossack Star.

  16. Estimation of leaf area index in cereal crops using red-green images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Kristian; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Thomsen, Anton G;

    2009-01-01

    A new method for estimating the leaf area index (LAI) in cereal crops based on red-green images taken from above the crop canopy is introduced. The proposed method labels pixels into vegetation and soil classes using a combination of greenness and intensity derived from the red and green colour...... bands. The intensity feature is included to give better separation of the classes, especially under difficult sunny conditions. The performance of the method was investigated in three field experiments during the period 2004-2006. LAI was estimated using gap fraction inversion with an exponential gap...

  17. Harina de Marolo (fruto brasileño) como ingrediente saludable para formular barritas de cereales

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo, E. de; Vilas Boas, E.V.B.; Cristina M. Rosell

    2012-01-01

    Actualmente la preservación de la biodiversidad en sistemas agrícolas es uno de los objetivos prioritarios de ERA (European Research Area), enfocada en la protección del medio-ambiente y en la sostenibilidad de Europa, además de en la bio-economía global. El objetivo de este proyecto de cooperación ha sido caracterizar un cultivo de frutos autóctono de Brasil, y explorar su posible utilización como ingrediente en barritas de cereales. El fruto en cuestión es el marolo, que se cultiva en el su...

  18. Crop rotation and crop management effects on cereal yields in arable organic farming in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    J. E. Olesen; Askegaard, M.; Rasmussen, I. A.; K. Kristensen

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges in organic crop production is to ensure high and stable crop yields. In this study we used data from a 12 year old crop rotation experiment in Denmark to estimate the contribution of various management factors to yields of winter and spring cereals. The experiment included three factors in two replicates: 1) Grass-clover green manure crop (with and without), 2) catch crop (with and without), and 3) animal manure (with and without). Animal manure was the most importa...

  19. Estimation of leaf area index in cereal crops using red–green images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Kirk; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Thomsen, Anton;

    2009-01-01

    A new method for estimating the leaf area index (LAI) in cereal crops based on red–green images taken from above the crop canopy is introduced. The proposed method labels pixels into vegetation and soil classes using a combination of greenness and intensity derived from the red and green colour b....... Conclusions Acknowledgements Appendix. Modelling the correlation between greenness and brightness References   Fig. 1. Simulated image of a vegetation canopy (left), with distribution of pixel greenness and brightness (right). View Within Article...

  20. Development and chemical and sensory characterization of pumpkin seed flour-based cereal bars

    OpenAIRE

    Jovane Santana Silva; Tamara Rezende Marques; Anderson Assaid Simão; Angelita Duarte Corrêa; Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro; Renato Leal Silva

    2014-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), popularly known as squash, is a widely grown vegetable in Brazil. In this study, pumpkin seed flours (PSF) with different granulometries were used: PSF 1 (medium granulometry) and PSF 2 (coarse granulometry) in the preparation of cereal bars (CB) with different combinations with brown oats. Five formulations were prepared: CB-1 (control - 25% brown oats and 0% PSF); CB-2 (12.5% PSF 1 and 12.5% brown oats); CB-3 (25% PSF 1 and 0% brown oats); CB-4 (12.5% PSF 2 and 1...

  1. Cereal Processing Influences Postprandial Glucose Metabolism as Well as the GI Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Vinoy, Sophie; Normand, Sylvie; Meynier, Alexandra; Sothier, Monique; Louche-Pelissier, Corinne; Peyrat, Jocelyne; Maitrepierre, Christine; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Brand-Miller, Jeannie; Laville, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Technological processes may influence the release of glucose in starch. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic response and the kinetics of appearance of exogenous glucose from 2 cereal products consumed at breakfast. Methods: Twenty-five healthy men were submitted to a randomized, open, crossover study that was divided into 2 parts: 12 of the 25 subjects were included in the “isotope part,” and the 13 other subjects were included in the “glycemic part.” On test days, s...

  2. An assessment of the biotechnological use of hemoglobin modulation in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Shah, Jay K.; Simpson, Catherine;

    2014-01-01

    Non-symbiotic hemoglobin (nsHb) genes are ubiquitous in plants, but their biological functions have mostly been studied in model plant species rather than in crops. nsHb influences cell signaling and metabolism by modulating the levels of nitric oxide (NO). Class 1 nsHb is upregulated under hypox...... in cereal crops. These findings highlight the necessity for using actual crop plants rather than laboratory model plants when assessing the effects of biotechnological approaches to crop improvement. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society....

  3. Unraveling the major triticeae phytases – towards cereals with high grain phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh

    Phytic acid is the main storage form of phosphate in plant seeds. Phosphorus in this form is largely indigestible by monogastric animals due to insufficient activity of the hydrolytic enzyme phytase in their digestive tract and in most plant seeds. Moreover as a strong chelator, undigested phytic...... contribute to the hydrolysis of phytic acid in food and feed. In contrast rice and maize possess insufficient phytase activity in the mature grain to have a notable effect on the phytic acid. The aim of the present study was to (1) uncover the genetic basis for the major phytases in cereal grains (2) explain...

  4. Value Sharing and Food System Dynamics for Milk, Tomato, and Cereals Food Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Bertazzoli; Rino Ghelfi; Sergio Rivaroli; Antonella Samoggia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse value sharing and food system dynamics of milk, tomato, and cereals food chains, so to explore the agro-food enterprises capacity to be competitive and sustainable. The paper is based on the functionalist approach of Malassis and the notion of the system of the General Systems Theory. The methodology is aimed at creating a consolidated financial statement for each food chain so to re-create the chain value and identify how this is shared among the different ...

  5. Iminosugar inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes that underpin cereal grain germination and endosperm metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriotis, Vasilios M. E.; Rejzek, Martin; Rugen, Michael D.;

    2016-01-01

    limited knowledge about the nature and control of starch degradation in plants. Increased societal and commercial demand for enhanced yield and quality in starch crops requires a better understanding of starch metabolism as a whole. Here we review recent advances in understanding the roles of carbohydrate...... the properties and uses of cereal grains, it is possible that starch degradation may be amenable to manipulation through genetic or chemical intervention at the level of cell wall metabolism, rather than simply in the starch degradation pathway per se....

  6. Extraction of light filth from barley, oatmeal, and mixed dry infant cereals: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, R G

    1980-03-01

    A new method has been developed for the extraction of light filth from oatmeal, barley, and mixed dry infant cereals which involves HCl digestion followed by wet sieving. The residue is defatted in a paper cup, using isopropanol, and transferred to a 2 L Wildman trap flask with 40% isopropanol. Filth elements are extracted with light mineral oil. Interlaboratory studies resulted in 92 and 86% average recoveries of rodent hairs and insect fragments, respectively. The proposed method has been adopted as official first action.

  7. Determination of mineral content of some cereals by k0 neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental concentrations of a few varieties of cereals are determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using single comparator method (K0 NAA method). A total of 16 elements are measured. The method was validated by analysing the Standard Reference Material (SRM-1571) of NIST. The applicability of the method in nutritional studies has been made by analysing the results on the measured concentrations of major and minor elements in terms of the average intake of mineral content and the role of these elements. (author)

  8. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of zearalenone in cereals with a europium chelate as label

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马智鸿; 黄飚; 张珏; 张艺; 朱岚; 屠蔷

    2009-01-01

    A competitive indirect time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay(TRFIA) was developed for detection of zearalenone(ZEN) in cereals,in which ZEN conjugated to bovine serum albumin(BSA) is used as solid-phase antigen.A competitive indirect TRFIA was conducted by simultaneously incubating ZEN in standard or extracted samples with anti-ZEN monoclonal antibody over ZEN-BSA coated plates,and then determining the bound ZEN monoclonal antibody with goat anti-mouse europium conjugate.Samples were extracted with methanol/water...

  9. Product Differentiation and Brand Competition in the Italian Breakfast Cereal Market: a Distance Metric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sckokai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article employs a nation-wide sample of supermarket scanner data to study product and brand competition in the Italian breakfast cereal market. A modified Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS, that includes Distance Metrics (DMs as proposed by Pinkse, Slade and Brett (2002, is estimated to study demand responses, substitution patterns, own-price and cross-price elasticities. Estimation results provide evidence of some degree of brand loyalty, while consumers do not seem loyal to the product type. Elasticity estimates point out the presence of patterns of substitution within products sharing the same brand and similar nutritional characteristics.

  10. Extraction of light filth from barley, oatmeal, and mixed dry infant cereals: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, R G

    1980-03-01

    A new method has been developed for the extraction of light filth from oatmeal, barley, and mixed dry infant cereals which involves HCl digestion followed by wet sieving. The residue is defatted in a paper cup, using isopropanol, and transferred to a 2 L Wildman trap flask with 40% isopropanol. Filth elements are extracted with light mineral oil. Interlaboratory studies resulted in 92 and 86% average recoveries of rodent hairs and insect fragments, respectively. The proposed method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:7053199

  11. Differentiation mechanism and function of the cereal aleurone cells and hormone effects on them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yankun; Wang, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    The cereal aleurone cells differentiate from the endosperm epidermis with the exception of endosperm transfer cells. Aleurone cells contain proteins, lipids, and minerals, and are important for digesting the endosperm storage products to nurse the embryo under effects of several hormones during the seed germination. The differentiation of aleurone cells is related to location effect and special gene expression. Moreover, the differentiation of aleurone cells is probably affected by the cues from maternal tissues. In the paper, differentiation mechanism and function of aleurone cells and hormone effects on them are reviewed. Some speculations about the differentiation mechanism of aleurone cells are given here.

  12. UCE: A uracil excision (USERTM)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim H; Christiansen, Michael W; Carciofi, Massimiliano;

    2010-01-01

    Background Cloning of gene casettes and other DNA sequences into the conventional vectors for biolistic or Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is hampered by a limited amount of unique restriction sites and by the difficulties often encountered when ligating small single strand DNA overhangs...... (USER cereal), ready for use in cloning of complex constructs into the T-DNA. A series of the vectors were tested and shown to perform successfully in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as well as in biolistic transformation of endosperm cells conferring transient...

  13. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, M.E., E-mail: marney.isaac@utoronto.ca [CIRAD, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France); University of Toronto, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Canada M1C 1A4 (Canada); Hinsinger, P. [INRA, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France); Harmand, J.M. [CIRAD, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France)

    2012-09-15

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N{sub 2}-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N{sub 2}-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 15}N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems

  14. Weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park. Part I. Winter and spring cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of RPN was conducted in the years 1991-1995. The characterization of weed infestation of winter and spring cereals was based on 306 phytosociological records. made with the use of Braun-Blanquet method. The degree of weed infestation in the fields in the protective zone of RPN depended on environment conditions. Both winter and spring cereals in majority of soils were most infested by: Cenaturea cyanus, Apera spica-venti and Vicia hirsta. In the lightest podsolic soils, made of loose sand and slightly loamy sand. winter and spring cereals were additionally infested by Equisetum arvense and two acidophylic species: Seleranthus annuus and Spergula arvensis. The crops in brown loess soil were infested by Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora. The most difficult weed species in brown soil formed from gaizes and limestone soil were: Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas and Galium aparine. Moreover winter cercals in limestone soil showed high or medium infestation with Consolida regalis, Aethusa cynapium, Lathyrus tuberosus and low infestation with Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus. Spring cereals were less infested than winter cereals. Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus were less common with spring cereals than with winter cereals. Also, spring cereals showed high or medium infestation with Convolvulus arvensis. Spring cereals in some soil units were infested by Chenopodium album and Stellaria media. There was also higher infestation of spring cereals in limestone soils with Avena fatua, Veronica persica, Sinapis arvensis and Sonchus arvensis, compared to winter cereals in limestone soils.

  15. Cereal yield and quality as affected by N availability in organic and conventional crop rotations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2011-01-01

    systems. Scenario analyses conducted with the FASSET model indicated the possibility of increasing N fertilization without significantly affecting N leaching if there is an adequate catch crop management. This would also improve yields of cereal production of organic farming in Denmark......The effects of nitrogen (N) availability related to fertilizer type, catch crop management, and rotation composition on cereal yield and grain N were investigated in four organic and one conventional cropping systems in Denmark using the FASSET model. The four-year rotation studied was: spring...... loamy soil. DM yield and grain N content were mainly influenced by the type and amount of fertilizer-N at all three locations. Although a catch crop benefit in terms of yield and grain N was observed in most of the cases, a limited N availability affected the cereal production in the four organic...

  16. Cereal Killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Judith Brody

    1995-01-01

    Advocates of the federally subsidized school breakfast program see a strong link between nutrition and learning. However, some opponents believe that the breakfast program is an intrusion into family life and is not cost-effective for a school district. School board members on both sides of the issue discuss the reasons for their stand. (MLF)

  17. DID THE 2004 CAP REFORM AFFECT PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CEREALS? INSIGHTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL INPUT SUPPLIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MARKOPOULOS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-term review of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003/2004 has strengthened the multifunctional role of agriculture by implementing “decoupling”, “modulation” and “cross-compliance” and created a number of significant changes in agricultural production in all EU member states. Specifically, the reform shifted emphasis away from commodity support towards environmental contracts, diversified production practices and rural development. In the case of cereals, a full decoupling was applied in subsidies and integration through rights in the Single Payment Scheme, except rice, which was one of the few crop cases in which part of the subsidy remained coupled, particular in countries with significant production like Greece. Within this context, the present study aims to analyze the impact that the reformed CAP measures had on agricultural production and more specifically variations in production diversification. The novelty of this study is that instead of focusing on the producers, it targeted the agricultural input stores, so as to get better insights of the CAP reform impacts on a larger scale of the regional economy. Accordingly, primary data were collected through personal interviews (structured questionnaire from 209 owners of agricultural input stores in the region of Anatoliki Makedonia and Thraki and were analyzed through multivariate data analysis. The results identify important antecedents for the regional economy and the viability of agricultural input stores, which include factors of the reformed CAP, environmental issues, financial measures and CAP effects on cereal production and marketing.

  18. Understanding the complex nature of salinity and drought-stress response in cereals using proteomics technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngara, Rudo; Ndimba, Bongani K

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide, crop productivity is drastically reduced by drought and salinity stresses. In order to develop food crops with increased productivity in marginal areas, it is important to first understand the nature of plant stress response mechanisms. In the past decade, proteomics tools have been extensively used in the study of plants' proteome responses under experimental conditions mimicking drought and salinity stresses. A lot of proteomic data have been generated using different experimental designs. However, the precise roles of these proteins in stress tolerance are yet to be elucidated. This review summarises the applications of proteomics in understanding the complex nature of drought and salinity stress effects on plants, particularly cereals and also highlights the usefulness of sorghum as the next logical model crop for use in understanding drought and salinity tolerance in cereals. With the vast amount of proteomic data that have been generated to date, a call for integrated efforts across the agricultural, biotechnology, and molecular biology sectors is also highlighted in an effort to translate proteomics data into increased food productivity for the world's growing population.

  19. Effect of Heat Treatment and Digestive Enzymes on Cereal Water-Retention Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Caprita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment of cereal grains affects carbohydrate and micronutrient content and bioavailability. Water-retention capacity (WRC is an important index for the effects of fiber in the diet and the metabolic activity of fiber along the gut. This study evaluated the effect of thermal treatment and digestive enzymes on wheat and barley WRC. Ground wheat and barley samples were heated for different time periods at 150ºC before in vitro gastric and intestinal digestion. WRC values in heat treated wheat and barley are at higher levels as compared to the values of untreated cereals. WRC in barley ranged from 1.026 g water/g DM (untreated to 1.36 g water/g DM (heated at 150ºC for 15 minute. The increase was much lower in heat treated wheat, from 0.973 g water/g DM up to 1.03 g water/g DM at 5 minutes heating time.

  20. Determination of optimal doses of radiation for the plant breeding of pseudo cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of promoting the use of the radiations for the plant breeding of pseudo cereals, it was determined a simple and economic method that allows the quick selection of radiation dose that induce in the vegetable organisms the changes wanted. For it it was work with quinua seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) an Andean pseudo cereal that, due to their nutritious and physiologic characteristics it is considered by the FAO like one of the foods of the future and for the NASA like an organism that is good to remove the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and at the same time, to generate food, oxygen and water for the crew during the space missions of long duration and that it has already improved by means of the radiation application. The proposed method consists on the evaluation, of the embryonic structures (radicule, hypocotyl and cotyledons) in the irradiated seeds as well as of the development of root, primary shaft and true leaves in the plants. The changes in the growth, form, number and color of the structures as well as the time of appearance of each one, allow to predict the morphological changes and inclusive some physiologic ones that will have the mature organisms, so that in only three weeks it is possible to select the doses more appropriate. (Author)

  1. Comparative study of radio sensibility between local breeds native of Mexico pseudo cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having in mind the objective of assessing the gamma radiation effect in two species of pseudo cereals, April 2012 to August 2013 in the National Institute of Nuclear Research Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores, seeds from different collections of Amaranthus hypochondria cus and Chenopodium berlandieri nuttalliae, were subjected to different doses of irradiation (from 0 to 450 Gy, within an interval of 50 Gy) that were compared with a control of (0 Gy). For amaranth, the collection A1 showed the best feedback among 0 and 300 Gy in the 15 studied variables, the one that stood out was the 200 Gy doses in seed weight per plant (SWP) with 1.33 g. Huauzontle H3 to 50 Gy showed the best results for weight and seed diameter. High doses (from 300 to 450 Gy) showed higher percentage of mortality in spite of the fact that in some cases germination was stimulated. It is advisable for future studies about these pseudo cereals doses among 50 and 250 Gy. (Author)

  2. Influences of extreme weather, climate and pesticide use on invertebrates in cereal fields over 42 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Julie A; Wheatley, Christopher J; Aebischer, Nicholas J; Moreby, Stephen J; Duffield, Simon J; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Morecroft, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Cereal fields are central to balancing food production and environmental health in the face of climate change. Within them, invertebrates provide key ecosystem services. Using 42 years of monitoring data collected in southern England, we investigated the sensitivity and resilience of invertebrates in cereal fields to extreme weather events and examined the effect of long-term changes in temperature, rainfall and pesticide use on invertebrate abundance. Of the 26 invertebrate groups examined, eleven proved sensitive to extreme weather events. Average abundance increased in hot/dry years and decreased in cold/wet years for Araneae, Cicadellidae, adult Heteroptera, Thysanoptera, Braconidae, Enicmus and Lathridiidae. The average abundance of Delphacidae, Cryptophagidae and Mycetophilidae increased in both hot/dry and cold/wet years relative to other years. The abundance of all 10 groups usually returned to their long-term trend within a year after the extreme event. For five of them, sensitivity to cold/wet events was lowest (translating into higher abundances) at locations with a westerly aspect. Some long-term trends in invertebrate abundance correlated with temperature and rainfall, indicating that climate change may affect them. However, pesticide use was more important in explaining the trends, suggesting that reduced pesticide use would mitigate the effects of climate change. PMID:26149473

  3. Progress and prospects of studies on Polymyxa graminis and its transmitted cereal viruses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianping

    2005-01-01

    Polymyxa graminis is a eukaryotic obligate biotrophic parasite of plant roots that belongs to a poorly studied discrete taxonomic unit informally called "plasmodiophorids". P. graminis is nonpathogenic, but has the ability to acquire and transmit nine plant viruses which belong to genera Bymovirus and Furovirus and cause serious diseases in cereal crop species and also result in significant yield reductions in China and elsewhere. Genus Bymovirus contains barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV), barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV), wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV), and oat mosaic virus (OMV), and genus Furovirus contains soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV), oat golden stripe virus (OGSV), and newly identified Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV) and soil-borne cereal mosaic virus (SBCMV). All these viruses have been sequenced and their worldwide distributions have been studied. The viruses are protected by the environment within P. graminis resting spores that may remain dormant but viable for decades (probably until a suitable host plant is encountered). Spontaneous deletion mutants of SBWMV, OGSV and OMV are detected, and these deletion mutants are not transmissible by the fungus. The persistent, soil-borne nature of these diseases makes the use of virus-resistant crop varieties currently the only practical and environmentally friendly means to control them, and a large number of disease resistant germplasms have been screened.

  4. Physicochemical characteristics of the rhizosphere soils of some cereal crops in Ambo Woreda, West Shoa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis E. Attah

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physicochemical properties of rhizosphere soils of some cereal crops in Ambo Woreda, West Shoa in Ethiopia have been investigated. Soil samples were collected from four different localities, viz. Awaro, Senkele, Meja and Guder, and their edaphic characteristics are determined. The soils are dominated by clay (40.4-45.8% along with coarse particles of sand. Bulk density, organic carbon (1.52-1.81% and electrical conductivity (1.3-1.9 dSm are low in all the soil samples. The soils are acidic with pH varying from 6.2 to 6.7. There are similarities in the relatively low content of available phosphorus (1.4-2.4 mg kg-1 and high available nitrogen content (480-986 mg kg-1 in all the soil samples while available potassium content (240-496 mg kg-1 is found to be medium in Awaro soil but high in the other three soil samples. Deficiencies are observed in the levels of available micro-nutrients (Cu: 1.2-1.8 µg g-1, Zn: 1.2-1.8 µg g-1 and Mn: 3.2-3.8 µg g-1 while the Fe content is sufficient in all the soil samples (340-496 µg g-1. With proper soil management, the farmlands studied are recommended for the cultivation of cereal crops.

  5. Simultaneous separation of ergot alkaloids by capillary electrophoresis after cloud point extraction from cereal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felici, Emiliano; Wang, Chien C; Fernández, Liliana P; Gomez, María R

    2015-01-01

    A new and sensitive analytical methodology for ergot alkaloids (EA) determination from cereal samples based on cloud point extraction (CPE) prior to CE-UV absorbance was developed. The methodology involves extraction under acid conditions and subsequent preconcentration by applying a simple, rapid and environmentally friendly low volume surfactant extraction procedure. After extraction, CE analysis was carried out by performing dilutions on preconcentrated surfactant rich phase, achieving a single peak or simultaneous alkaloids determination. A real preconcentration factor of 22 of total EA was obtained, demonstrating the efficiency of this methodology. The limits of detection were 2.6 and 2.2 μg/kg for ergotamine and ergonovine, respectively. Validation procedure revealed suitable linearity, accuracy and precision. The average extraction and clean-up recoveries were compared with the theoretical values and were better than 92%. This method was successfully applied to the determination of EA in different varieties of commercial flour samples, two grain samples and one of the leading brands cereal-based product for infant feeding. The high sensitivity achieved for EA determinations in real samples suggests CPE procedure as an interesting approach to improve CE-UV visible detection limits. Moreover, the whole process could be considered as a contribution to green chemistry because nonorganic solvents were involved, demonstrating its great potential over conventional techniques.

  6. Bioavailability of Fe and Zn in selected legumes, cereals, meat and milk products consumed in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Prasad, Surendra; Aalbersberg, William

    2016-09-15

    The present study reports contents and the bioavailability of Fe and Zn from 25 selected raw and cooked food samples. The results showed highest variation of Fe content in raw food samples ranging from 2.19 ± 0.04 to 0.93 ± 0.03 mg/100g in legumes. The raw black eye bean, cheese and fish showed high Zn content up to 8.85 ± 0.01, 12.93 ± 0.26 and 172.03 ± 5.09 mg/100g, respectively. Pulses and cereals showed high level of ionizable Fe. Zn bioavailability was quite low in cereals as compared to pulses; 4.02% in yellow split to 17.40% in Bengal gram. Zn bioavailability of 17.40% is in cheese. Fe bioavailability is high in cooked rice 160.60%, white bread 428.30% and milk powder 241.67% showing that Fe bioavailability increased after cooking whereas the lowest in fish 0.84%. The multivariate and cluster analysis categorized studied foods into two main groups. PMID:27080888

  7. Drought tolerance in potato (S. tuberosum L.): Can we learn from drought tolerance research in cereals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monneveux, Philippe; Ramírez, David A; Pino, María-Teresa

    2013-05-01

    Drought tolerance is a complex trait of increasing importance in potato. Our knowledge is summarized concerning drought tolerance and water use efficiency in this crop. We describe the effects of water restriction on physiological characteristics, examine the main traits involved, report the attempts to improve drought tolerance through in vitro screening and marker assisted selection, list the main genes involved and analyze the potential interest of native and wild potatoes to improve drought tolerance. Drought tolerance has received more attention in cereals than in potato. The review compares these crops for indirect selection methods available for assessment of drought tolerance related traits, use of genetic resources, progress in genomics, application of water saving techniques and availability of models to anticipate the effects of climate change on yield. It is concluded that drought tolerance improvement in potato could greatly benefit from the transfer of research achievements in cereals. Several promising research directions are presented, such as the use of fluorescence, reflectance, color and thermal imaging and stable isotope techniques to assess drought tolerance related traits, the application of the partial root-zone drying technique to improve efficiency of water supply and the exploitation of stressful memory to enhance hardiness.

  8. Influence of species composition of biocorridors on the abundance of aphids in cereal fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. C. C. Ameixa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture intensification in most European countries over the last 50 years resulted in a significant loss of biodiversity in agro-ecosystems. Attempts are now being made to restore originally complex agricultural landscapes by splitting large fields into smaller units using biocorridors, which are linear elements consisting of trees and shrubs. Such non-crop habitats can act as refuges both for insect predators that may potentially act as biocontrol agents and for insect pests. Bird cherry, Prunus padus (L., is a winter host of a cereal pest and vector of cereal virus, the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (L., and is commonly planted in these biocorridors. The question arises, whether and to what extent the presence and distribution of P. padus in biocorridors influences the abundance of R. padi in nearby fields. This was addressed by monitoring spatial and temporal population dynamics of R. padi in two fields each adjacent to the newly established biocorridor but adjacent to parts of the corridor with different species compositions (only one with P. padus. Our results showed that this aphid colonized the field adjacent to that part of the corridor with P. padus but not the other field. In the second field colonization started close to one edge distant from the corridor and with no P. padus in the vicinity. After excluding the variability explained by spatial and temporal factors we also tested for the effect of environmental factors (weather conditions on the remaining variability. Of the environmental factors tested, humidity accounted for most of the variability.

  9. Land Use Cover Mapping of Water Melon and Cereals in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Fiorentino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new high-resolution images from the satellites as IKONOS, SPOT5, Quickbird2 give us the opportunity to map ground features, which were not detectable in the past, by using medium resolution remote sensed data (LANDSAT. More accurate and reliable maps of land cover can then be produced. However, classification procedure with these images is more complex than with the medium resolution remote sensing data for two main reasons: firstly, because of their exiguous number of spectral bands, secondly, owing to high spatial resolution, the assumption of pixel independence does not generally hold. It is then necessary to have a multi-temporal series of images or to use classifiers taking into account also proximal information. The data in this study were (i a remote sensing image taken by SPOT5 satellite in July 2007 and used to discriminate the water melon cover class and, (ii three multi-temporal remote sensing images taken by SPOT5 satellite in May, June and July 2008 used to discriminate water melon and cereal crop cover classes. For water melon recognition, providing a single image in 2007, an object-oriented technique was applied instead of a traditional, per pixel technique obtaining an increase of overall accuracy of 15%. In 2008, since it was available a multi-temporal data set, a traditional ‘Maximum Likelihood’ technique was applied for both water melon and cereal crop cover class. The overall accuracy is greater than 95%.

  10. Rich nutrition from the poorest - cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nout, M J Rob

    2009-10-01

    Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia involve mainly the processing of maize, rice, sorghum and the millets. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus), Enterobacter spp., yeasts (Candida, Debaryomyces, Endomycopsis, Hansenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Trichosporon spp.) and filamentous fungi (Amylomyces, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Rhizopus spp.) contribute to desirable modifications of taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility, and texture in non-alcoholic beverages (e.g., uji, and ben-saalga), porridges (e.g., mawè) and cooked gels (e.g., kenkey, idli, and mifen). In addition, alcoholic beverages (beers such as tchoukoutou and jnard; and spirits e.g. jiu) are obtained using malt, or using amylolytic mixed microbial starter cultures as generators of fermentable substrates. Wet processing, marketing of multi-purpose intermediate products, co-fermentation for texture and nutrition, and mixed culture fermentations as practiced in indigenous fermentation processes are of interest for industrial innovation and for better control of natural mixed culture fermentation systems. On the other hand, the nutritional properties of traditional cereal fermented products can be enhanced by increasing their nutrient and energy density, as well as by increasing their mineral status by combining mineral fortification and dephytinization. PMID:19747601

  11. Sipha maydis: distribution and host range of a new aphid pest of winter cereals in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, C E; Castro, A M; Ricci, M; Dixon, A F G

    2007-12-01

    Sipha maydis (Passerini) is a new aphid pest of cereals and cultivated and wild grasses in Argentina. This species was recently introduced into America, and nothing is known of its distribution or host range in South America. A better understanding of its biology is likely to facilitate control. This article records 1) the distribution and 2) the host range of S. maydis in Argentina. Over the period 2004-2006 samples were collected from 32 populations at several localities in Argentina. The number of S. maydis, accompanying aphid species, and the host from which they were collected were recorded. The distribution of S. maydis ranged from 32 degrees 52' to 42 degrees 03' S, and from 57 degrees 41' to 71 degrees 24' W, bounded by isothermals 18 and 10 degrees C and isohyets 200-400 and Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. No aphids were found on maize, Zea mays L. Most of the damage to winter cereal crops occurred at the seedling stage in early autumn and of adult plants when infestations occurred in late spring. In the 4 yr after the first record of S. maydis in Argentina, it colonized a huge area similar to that colonized by Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) in 10 yr. The wide range of regions, hosts and climatic conditions this species is adapted to is likely to make the control of this pest very difficult.

  12. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Cereal Production: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anslem Bawayelaazaa Nyuor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic impacts of climate change on cereal crop production in Northern Ghana using 240 households comprising maize and sorghum farmers. The Ricardian regression approach was used to examine the economic impacts of climate change based on data generated from a survey conducted in the 2013/2014 farming seasons. Forty-year time-series data of rainfall and temperature from 1974 to 2013, together with cross-sectional data, were used for the empirical analysis. The Ricardian regression estimates for both maize and sorghum showed varying degrees of climate change impacts on net revenues. The results indicated that early season precipitation was beneficial for sorghum, but harmful for maize. However, mid-season precipitation tended to promote maize production. Temperature levels for all seasons impacted negatively on net revenue for both crops, except during the mid-season, when temperature exerted a positive effect on net revenue for sorghum. Our findings suggest that appropriate adaptation strategies should be promoted to reduce the negative impacts of prevailing climate change on cereal crop production.

  13. The promoter of the cereal VERNALIZATION1 gene is sufficient for transcriptional induction by prolonged cold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M Alonso-Peral

    Full Text Available The VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1 gene of temperate cereals is transcriptionally activated by prolonged cold during winter (vernalization to promote flowering. To investigate the mechanisms controlling induction of VRN1 by prolonged cold, different regions of the VRN1 gene were fused to the GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP reporter and expression of the resulting gene constructs was assayed in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare. A 2 kb segment of the promoter of VRN1 was sufficient for GFP expression in the leaves and shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. Fluorescence increased at the shoot apex prior to inflorescence initiation and was subsequently maintained in the developing inflorescence. The promoter was also sufficient for low-temperature induction of GFP expression. A naturally occurring insertion in the proximal promoter, which is associated with elevated VRN1 expression and early flowering in some spring wheats, did not abolish induction of VRN1 transcription by prolonged cold, however. A translational fusion of the promoter and transcribed regions of VRN1 to GFP, VRN1::GFP, was localised to nuclei of cells at the shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. The distribution of VRN1::GFP at the shoot apex was similar to the expression pattern of the VRN1 promoter-GFP reporter gene. Fluorescence from the VRN1::GFP fusion protein increased in the developing leaves after prolonged cold treatment. These observations suggest that the promoter of VRN1 is targeted by mechanisms that trigger vernalization-induced flowering in economically important temperate cereal crops.

  14. Host genotype is an important determinant of the cereal phyllosphere mycobiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; O'Hanlon, Karen A; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-09-01

    The phyllosphere mycobiome in cereals is an important determinant of crop health. However, an understanding of the factors shaping this community is lacking. Fungal diversity in leaves from a range of cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), winter and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) and a smaller number of samples from oat (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale) and triticale (Triticum × Secale) was studied using next-generation sequencing. The effects of host genotype, fungicide treatment and location on fungal communities were explored. In total, 635 251 fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) reads were obtained from 210 leaf samples. Visual disease assessments and relative read abundance of Zymoseptoria tritici and Ramularia collo-cygni were strongly positively related. Crop genotype at the species level explained 43% of the variance in the total dataset, followed by fungicide treatment (13%) and location (4%). Indicator species, including plant pathogens, responding to factors such as crop species, location and treatment were identified. Host genotype at both the species and cultivar level is important in shaping phyllosphere fungal communities, whereas fungicide treatment and location have minor effects. We found many host-specific fungal pathogens, but also a large diversity of fungi that were relatively insensitive to host genetic background, indicating that host-specific pathogens live in a 'sea' of nonspecific fungi.

  15. The role of climatic variables in winter cereal yields: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qunying; Wen, Li

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effects of observed climate including [CO2] on winter cereal [winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and oat (Avena sativa)] yields by adopting robust statistical analysis/modelling approaches (i.e. autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average, generalised addition model) based on long time series of historical climate data and cereal yield data at three locations (Moree, Dubbo and Wagga Wagga) in New South Wales, Australia. Research results show that (1) growing season rainfall was significantly, positively and non-linearly correlated with crop yield at all locations considered; (2) [CO2] was significantly, positively and non-linearly correlated with crop yields in all cases except wheat and barley yields at Wagga Wagga; (3) growing season maximum temperature was significantly, negatively and non-linearly correlated with crop yields at Dubbo and Moree (except for barley); and (4) radiation was only significantly correlated with oat yield at Wagga Wagga. This information will help to identify appropriate management adaptation options in dealing with the risk and in taking the opportunities of climate change.

  16. Monitoring of Fusarium trichothecenes in Canadian cereal grain shipments from 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Gaba, Don; Chan, Jason M

    2013-07-31

    A method involving dry grinding, rotary sample dividing, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was evaluated for the analysis of eight Fusarium trichothecenes in cereal grains. Processing of whole cereal grains by the method produced representative test portions for the analysis of deoxynivalenol (DON). Method validation data, as well as the successful participation in various international proficiency tests, demonstrated the analytical method produced accurate and precise results. The evaluated method was used to monitor DON, 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, and fusarenon-X in shipments of Canadian wheat, durum, barley, corn, rye, and oats transported between August 1, 2010, and July 31, 2012. DON was the most frequently measured trichothecene, found in 231 of the 303 samples at concentrations up to 2.34 mg/kg; NIV was the next most frequently observed trichothecene, but its occurrence was limited to barley. Concentrations of DON were significantly associated with wheat class and grade. The median DON concentration in durum (0.09 mg/kg) was lower than that for hard red spring (0.21 mg/kg). Lower grades of wheat also contained higher median concentrations of DON than higher grades, supporting the current use of Fusarium damaged kernels as a grading factor to manage DON.

  17. Cereal Yield Modeling in Finland Using Optical and Radar Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Kleemola

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During 1996–2006, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Finland (MAFF, MTT Agrifood Research and the Finnish Geodetic Institute performed a joint remote sensing satellite research project. It evaluated the applicability of optical satellite (Landsat, SPOT data for cereal yield estimations in the annual crop inventory program. Four Optical Vegetation Indices models (I: Infrared polynomial, II: NDVI, III: GEMI, IV: PARND/FAPAR were validated to estimate cereal baseline yield levels (yb using solely optical harmonized satellite data (Optical Minimum Dataset. The optimized Model II (NDVI yb level was 4,240 kg/ha (R2 0.73, RMSE 297 kg/ha for wheat and 4390 kg/ha (R2 0.61, RMSE 449 kg/ha for barley and Model I yb was 3,480 kg/ha for oats (R2 0.76, RMSE 258 kg/ha. Optical VGI yield estimates were validated with CropWatN crop model yield estimates using SPOT and NOAA data (mean R2 0.71, RMSE 436 kg/ha and with composite SAR/ASAR and NDVI models (mean R2 0.61, RMSE 402 kg/ha using both reflectance and backscattering data. CropWatN and Composite SAR/ASAR & NDVI model mean yields were 4,754/4,170 kg/ha for wheat, 4,192/3,848 kg/ha for barley and 4,992/2,935 kg/ha for oats.

  18. Anomericity of T-2 toxin-glucoside: masked mycotoxin in cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Susan P; Kato, Takayuki; Maragos, Chris M; Busman, Mark; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall-Asta, Chiara; Crich, David; Price, Neil P J; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2015-01-21

    T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when Fusarium fungi infect grains, especially oats and wheat. Ingestion of T-2 toxin contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal in livestock. Cereal crops infected with mycotoxin-producing fungi form toxin glycosides, sometimes called masked mycotoxins, which are a potential food safety concern because they are not detectable by standard approaches and may be converted back to the parent toxin during digestion or food processing. The work reported here addresses four aspects of T-2 toxin-glucosides: phytotoxicity, stability after ingestion, antibody detection, and the anomericity of the naturally occurring T-2 toxin-glucoside found in cereal plants. T-2 toxin-β-glucoside was chemically synthesized and compared to T-2 toxin-α-glucoside prepared with Blastobotrys muscicola cultures and the T-2 toxin-glucoside found in naturally contaminated oats and wheat. The anomeric forms were separated chromatographically and differ in both NMR and mass spectrometry. Both anomers were significantly degraded to T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin under conditions that mimic human digestion, but with different kinetics and metabolic end products. The naturally occurring T-2 toxin-glucoside from plants was found to be identical to T-2 toxin-α-glucoside prepared with B. muscicola. An antibody test for the detection of T-2 toxin was not effective for the detection of T-2 toxin-α-glucoside. This anomer was produced in sufficient quantity to assess its animal toxicity.

  19. [Monitoring programme of T-2 and HT-2 toxins level in cereal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postupolski, Jacek; Rybińska, Krystyna; Ledzion, Ewa; Kurpińska-Jaworska, Jolanta; Szczesna, Małgorzata; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    In framework of the national monitoring program in Poland HPLC method for determination of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal products was developed, validated and accredited. Simply, one-step extraction and HPLC MS/MS ESI+ method was used for determination both toxins. Performance of method (recovery, precision and uncertainty of results) is in line with Commission Regulation No 401/2006. Limit of detection for T-2 and HT-2 toxins is 3 ad 4 microg/kg, respectively. Samples were taken by sanitary inspection from all region of country. 107 samples cereal products (mainly from oats) were tested. T-2 and HT-2 toxins were detected in 43% samples, mean level in oats products was 22.5 microg/kg (maximum level 109 microg/kg in oat flakes), in other samples (wheat and barley flakes, grouts, flours) - 7.0 microg/kg. Intake of T-2/HT-2 toxin by the consumer in Poland is much lower than the TDI. PMID:19227254

  20. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P.; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation.

  1. Phytotoxicity of pathogenic fungi and their mycotoxins to cereal seedling viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, H A

    2001-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum were found to be the pathogenic fungi mostly reducing cereal (barley, sorghum and wheat) seedlings. The pathogens have the ability to produce aflatoxin B1 and G1, diacetoxyscirpenol, kojic acid and tenuazonic acid that reduced seedling viability. The inhibition dose for 50% reduction (LD50) was recorded by aflatoxins at 0.83 mg L-1 for barley, 1.74 mg L-1 for wheat and 2.75 mg L-1 for sorghum. Diacetoxyscirpenol produced its inhibition at 1.26 mg L-1 for barley, 3.98 mg L-1 for wheat and 10 mg L-1 for sorghum. Kojic acid induced 50% inhibition at 63 mg L-1 for barley, 105 mg L-1 for wheat and 251 mg L-1 for sorghum. However, tenuazonic acid was less toxic where, the toxicity was ranged between 79-550 mg L-1. The inhibition in germination was more pronounced in barley followed by wheat and negligible in sorghum to all tested mycotoxins. This inhibition attributed to the reduction in seedling amylase activity. Amylase was also reduced in the same trend: barley > wheat > sorghum. Grain treatment with carboxin-captan and thiophanatemethyl-thiram at 1 g kg-1 grain increased seedlings vigour of wheat in sterilized soil by 45 and 22%, barley by 24 and 33% and sorghum by 15 and 30%, respectively. These fungicides have also a positive effect on cereal when soil was inoculated with A. flavus, A. alternata and F. oxysporum.

  2. NanoSIMS analysis of arsenic and selenium in cereal grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Katie L.; Schröder, Markus; Lombi, Enzo; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Shewry, Peter R.; Grovenor, Chris R.M. (Rothamsted); (UCopenhagen); (Oxford)

    2012-09-05

    Cereals are an important source of selenium (Se) to humans and many people have inadequate intakes of this essential trace element. Conversely, arsenic (As) is toxic and may accumulate in rice grain at levels that pose a health risk. Knowledge of the localization of selenium and arsenic within the cereal grain will aid understanding of their deposition patterns and the impact of processes such as milling. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) was used to determine the localization of Se in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and As in rice (Oryza sativa). Combined synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) and NanoSIMS analysis utilized the strengths of both techniques. Selenium was concentrated in the protein surrounding the starch granules in the starchy endosperm cells and more homogeneously distributed in the aleurone cells but with Se-rich hotspots. Arsenic was concentrated in the subaleurone endosperm cells in association with the protein matrix rather than in the aleurone cells. NanoSIMS indicated that the high intensity of As identified in the S-XRF image was localized in micron-sized hotspots near the ovular vascular trace and nucellar projection. This is the first study showing subcellular localization in grain samples containing parts per million concentrations of Se and As. There is good quantitative agreement between NanoSIMS and S-XRF.

  3. Sensory characteristics and volatile composition of a cereal beverage fermented with Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702257.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Ivan; Rozada, Raquel; Thomas, Keith; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Pandiella, Severino S

    2014-04-01

    Most of the commercialized lactic acid fermented products are dairy-based. Hence, the development of non-dairy fermented products with probiotic properties draws significant attention within the functional foods industry. The microorganisms used in such products have complex enzyme systems through which they generate diverse metabolites (volatile and non-volatile) that provide significant flavour attributes of importance for fermented foods. The correlation of the volatile flavour compounds of a malt beverage fermented with a Bifidobacterium breve strain with its unique sensory characteristics was performed. The volatile composition analysis exposed the presence of 12 components. Eight of these flavour volatiles were produced through the metabolic activity of the bifidobacteria strain. Notably acetic acid, of reported sour flavour characteristics, exhibited the greatest intensity. Four components of considerable organoleptic characteristics were identified as Maillard-derived products, namely maltol, pyranone, 2 (5H)-furanmethanol and 3-furanmethanol. The sensory evaluation exhibited that the fermented cereal beverage had a sour flavour with mild sweet and malty notes. These results indicate that the volatile compounds identified can be appointed as significant flavour markers of the novel fermented cereal beverage. PMID:23744118

  4. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation.

  5. Risk Assessment of Arsenic in Rice Cereal and Other Dietary Sources for Infants and Toddlers in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Meng, Can; Umoren, Josephine; West, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are no set standards or quantitative guidelines available in the U.S. for arsenic levels in rice cereal, one of the most common first solid foods for infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the detected levels of inorganic arsenic (Asi) in rice cereal in the U.S. market are safe for consumption by infants and toddlers. A risk assessment was conducted based on literature reviews of the reported Asi in rice cereal from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) survey and the recommended daily intake of rice cereal by body weight, for infants and toddlers between four and 24 months old. As a part of risk management, a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for Asi in rice cereal was computed considering overall exposure sources including drinking water, infant formula, and other infant solid foods. Hazard quotients (HQs) for acute and chronic exposures were calculated based on the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’s (ATSDR) Minimal Risk Level (MRL)acute (5.0 × 10−3 mg/kg/day) and MRLchronic (3.0 × 10−4 mg/kg/day). A cancer slope or potency factor of 1.5 mg/kg/day was used to predict an incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). Exposure assessment showed that the largest source of Asi for infants and toddlers between four and 24 months old was rice cereal (55%), followed by other infant solid food (19%), and drinking water (18%). Infant formula was the smallest source of Asi for babies (9%) at the 50th percentile based on Monte Carlo simulations. While HQacute were consistently below 1.0, HQchronic at the 50 and 75th percentiles exceeded 1.0 for both rice cereal and total sources. ILCR ranged from 10−6 (50th) to 10−5 (75th percentile). MCLs for Asi in rice cereal ranged from 0.0 (chronic) to 0.4 mg/kg (acute exposures). PMID:27023581

  6. Sobre moléculas, genes y plantas. Biología molecular del endospermo de los cereales

    OpenAIRE

    García Olmedo, Francisco; Carbonero Zalduegui, Pilar; Aragoncillo Ballesteros, Cipriano; Salcedo Duran, Gabriel; Hernandez Lucas, Carlos; Sánchez-Monge Laguna de Rins, Rosa; Delibes Castro, Angeles; Paz Ares, Javier; Ponz Ascaso, Fernando

    1985-01-01

    El presente articulo revisa sucintamente un conjunto de investigaciones sobre la biología molecular de un tejido vegetal, el endospermo de los cereales, que puede considerarse el producto comestible mas importante a escala mundial. en dichas investigaciones se han utilizado técnicas bioquímicas, citogeneticas y de ingeniería genética para el conocimiento básico y la manipulación practica del conjunto de especies cultivadas denominadas cereales. los estudios realizados han abarcado los siguien...

  7. Genetica del trigo. Los cereales. Biología Molecular e Ingeniería Genética

    OpenAIRE

    García Olmedo, Francisco; Sanchez Monge, Enrique

    1986-01-01

    El presente artículo revisa sucintamente un conjunto de investigaciones sobre los cereales, realizadas en el Departamento de Bioquímica de la E.T.S. de Ingenieros Agrónomos de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. En dichas investigaciones se han utilizado técnicas bioquímicas, citogenéticas y de ingeniería genética para el conocimiento básico y la manipulación práctica del conjunto de especies cultivadas denominadas cereales. Los estudios realizados han abarcado los siguientes aspectos princ...

  8. Risk Assessment of Arsenic in Rice Cereal and Other Dietary Sources for Infants and Toddlers in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Meng, Can; Umoren, Josephine; West, Heidi

    2016-03-25

    Currently, there are no set standards or quantitative guidelines available in the U.S. for arsenic levels in rice cereal, one of the most common first solid foods for infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the detected levels of inorganic arsenic (As(i)) in rice cereal in the U.S. market are safe for consumption by infants and toddlers. A risk assessment was conducted based on literature reviews of the reported As(i) in rice cereal from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) survey and the recommended daily intake of rice cereal by body weight, for infants and toddlers between four and 24 months old. As a part of risk management, a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for Asi in rice cereal was computed considering overall exposure sources including drinking water, infant formula, and other infant solid foods. Hazard quotients (HQs) for acute and chronic exposures were calculated based on the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR) Minimal Risk Level (MRL)(acute) (5.0 × 10(-3) mg/kg/day) and MRL(chronic) (3.0 × 10(-4) mg/kg/day). A cancer slope or potency factor of 1.5 mg/kg/day was used to predict an incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). Exposure assessment showed that the largest source of As(i) for infants and toddlers between four and 24 months old was rice cereal (55%), followed by other infant solid food (19%), and drinking water (18%). Infant formula was the smallest source of As(i) for babies (9%) at the 50th percentile based on Monte Carlo simulations. While HQ(acute) were consistently below 1.0, HQ(chronic) at the 50 and 75th percentiles exceeded 1.0 for both rice cereal and total sources. ILCR ranged from 10(-6) (50th) to 10(-5) (75th percentile). MCLs for As(i) in rice cereal ranged from 0.0 (chronic) to 0.4 mg/kg (acute exposures).

  9. Prediction of apparent metabolisable energy content of cereal grains and by-products for poultry from its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Losada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the metabolisable energy content of ninety batches of cereal grains and cereal by-products for poultry, regression models derived from different sample aggregations and using chemical components as independent variables were compared. Several statistics have been calculated to estimate the error of prediction. The results indicate that the highest levels of significance and coefficients of determination were obtained for equations derived from the larger data sets. However, the lowest prediction errors were associated to equations calculated for data or groups of data closer to the ingredient ­studied.

  10. Efecto de diferentes cereales sobre la morfología intestinal de lechones recién destetados

    OpenAIRE

    Tércia Cesária Reis de Souza; María de Jesús Guerrero Carrillo; Araceli Aguilera Barreyro; Gerardo Mariscal Landín

    2005-01-01

    Veinte lechones destetados (LD) a los 20.4 días, se sacrificaron a los 15 días posdestete para evaluar el efecto de diferentes cereales sobre la morfología intestinal. Los tratamientos fueron: dieta testigo (DT) con almidón de maíz, y cuatro dietas con cereales (avena, maíz y dos híbridos de sorgo) substituyendo el almidón. Al destete se sacrificaron cuatro lechones lactantes (LL) como control. El peso del intestino delgado (ID) en gramos o en g/kg de peso fue mayor (P0.001) en los LD (383 g ...

  11. The Influence Of Cereal Share In Crop Rotations On The Grain Yield And Quality Of Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Babulicová Mária; Gavurníková Soňa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study is to find out the influence of different share of cereals and various fertilisation on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The long-term field trial with 40, 60 and 80% share of the cereals and two levels of fertilisation (H1 mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget®; H2 mineral fertilisation only) were carried out in the very warm and dry area of continental weather on luvi-haplic chernozem. In the years 2010–2013, the grain yield, the wet gluten content, g...

  12. ARE LOWER-INCOME SHOPPERS AS PRICE SENSITIVE AS HIGHER-INCOME ONES?: A LOOK AT BREAKFAST CEREALS

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Eugene; Chern, Wen S.; Mustiful, Barry K.

    1994-01-01

    Scanner data for breakfast cereals are used to estimate demand elasticities for six supermarket stores in two distinct socio-economic areas. Three stores are in low-income locations and three are in high-income locations. A time series cross-section model is estimated for five product categories across six cross sections over forty-two weeks. Results show lower-income shoppers to have more elastic demands for four of the five product categories: private label cold cereals, the top ten brands ...

  13. Effect of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sholly, D.M.; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Sutton, A.L.;

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to study the impact of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the small intestine and total tract of growing pigs. Eight pigs (initial BW, 34.5 ± 0.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin.......243) on the fecal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides in either of the cereals but their digestibility was 10.0% greater (P ... of polysaccharides and other macronutrients at the ileum and in feces to a larger extent for barley than wheat....

  14. Combustion of cereal grains - a survey of technical an environmental obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Arkeloev, Olof [Aelvdalens Fastbraensleteknik AB, Lidkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    Combustion of grain is increasing in Sweden. The price is low, and dry cereal grains are homogeneous, 'pelletised', and easily handled and fired. At least thirty suppliers are found in Sweden providing burners and boilers from about 20 kW to several MW. Cereal grains has, compared to wood fuel, a higher ash content, and a higher content of nitrogen, chlorine, sulphur and alkali. To make it possible to expand cereals as an energy source, especially in urban areas, obstacles in the form of sintering, corrosion and emissions must be addressed. Today, experience from the field as well as scientific knowledge of agricultural fuels is limited. Therefore, a survey of the technical and environmental problems associated with firing of grain, together with a survey of experience from suppliers and users, has been made. Based on this study, recommendations for further work have been made. Sintering, leading to reduced availability, is mainly reported from other cereals than oats. To increase the ash fusion temperature, lime is added. The ash melting behaviour is complex and the knowledge limited. Additives may involve also in the chemistry of sulphur, chlorine and alkalis. Co-firing may have similar effects as additives. Basic knowledge of the choice and effect of additives, and relevant methods to predict ash melting behaviour, are needed. Severe corrosion damages have been reported, as well as plants operating with no such problems at all. To avoid corrosion, temperatures are kept high to avoid condensation of hydrochloric acid, HCl, and sulphuric acid, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. These acids are also acidifying if they reach the environment. Also, the choice of material in the chimney is important. An investigation and evaluation of available materials in contact with flue gas, together with alternative ways of flue gas transportation, is recommended. The possibilities (technical and economical) to adapt use of additives well known from larger plants should be

  15. Effects of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food for infants and children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micronutrient deficiency is a common public health problem in developing countries, especially for infants and children in the first two years of life. As this is an important time window for child development, micronutrient fortified complementary feeding after 6 months of age, for example with milk or cereals products, in combination with continued breastfeeding, is recommended. The overall effect of this approach is unclear. Methods We performed a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to assess the impact of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food on the health of infants and little children (aged 6 months to 5 years compared to non-fortified food. We reviewed randomized controlled trials using electronic databases (MEDLINE and Cochrane library searches through FEB 2011, reference list screening and hand searches. Three reviewers assessed 1153 studies for eligibility and extracted data. One reviewer assessed risk of bias using predefined forms. Results We included 18 trials in our analysis (n = 5’468 children; range of mean hemoglobin values: 9.0 to 12.6 g/dl. Iron plus multi micronutrient fortification is more effective than single iron fortification for hematologic outcomes. Compared to non-fortified food, iron multi micronutrient fortification increases hemoglobin levels by 0.87 g/dl (95%-CI: 0.57 to 1.16; 8 studies and reduces risk of anemia by 57% (relative risk 0.43; 95%-CI 0.26 to 0.71; absolute risk reduction 22%; number needed to treat 5 [95%-CI: 4 to 6]; 6 Studies. Compared to non-fortified food, fortification increases serum levels of vitamin A but not of zinc. Information about functional health outcomes (e.g. weight gain and morbidity was scarce and evidence is inconclusive. Risk of bias is unclear due to underreporting, but high quality studies lead to similar results in a sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Multi micronutrient fortified milk and cereal products can be an effective option to

  16. Sum Insured Determination for Cereal, Citrus and Vineyards in the Spanish Agricultural Insurance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gómez-Barona, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    In general, insurance is a form of risk management used to hedge against a contingent loss. The conventional definition is the equitable transfer of a risk of loss from one entity to another in exchange for a premium or a guaranteed and quantifiable small loss to prevent a large and possibly devastating loss being agricultural insurance a special line of property insurance. Agriculture insurance, as actually are designed in the Spanish scenario, were established in 1978. At the macroeconomic insurance studies scale, it is necessary to know a basic element for the insurance actuarial components: sum insured. When a new risk assessment has to be evaluated in the insurance framework, it is essential to determinate venture capital in the total Spanish agriculture. In this study, three different crops (cereal, citrus and vineyards) cases are showed to determinate sum insured as they are representative of the cases found in the Spanish agriculture. Crop sum insured is calculated by the product of crop surface, unit surface production and crop price insured. In the cereal case, winter as spring cereal sowing, represents the highest Spanish crop surface, above to 6 millions of hectares (ha). Meanwhile, the four citrus species (oranges, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits) occupied an extension just over 275.000 ha. On the other hand, vineyard target to wine process shows almost one million of ha in Spain. A new method has been applied to estimate crop sum insured in these three cases. Under the maximum economic impact assumption, the maximum market price has been used to insurance each species. Depending on crop and reliability of the data base available, the insured area or insured production has been used in this estimation. When for a certain crop varieties or type of varieties show different insurance prices a geometric average was used as average insurance price for that particular crop. One extreme difficult case was vineyards, where differentiate prices based on

  17. Barley callus: a model system for bioengineering of starch in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carciofi Massimiliano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties. In this way starch is adapted to a variety of specific end-uses. Recombinant DNA technologies offers an alternative to starch industrial processing. The plant biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated to design starches with novel structure and improved technological properties. In the future this may reduce or eliminate the economical and environmental costs of industrial modification. Recently, many advances have been achieved to clarify the genetic mechanism that controls starch biosynthesis. Several genes involved in the synthesis and modification of complex carbohydrates in many organisms have been identified and cloned. This knowledge suggests a number of strategies and a series of candidate genes for genetic transformation of crops to generate new types of starch-based polymers. However transformation of cereals is a slow process and there is no easy model system available to test the efficiency of candidate genes in planta. Results We explored the possibility to use transgenic barley callus generated from immature embryo for a fast test of transgenic modification strategies of starch biosynthesis. We found that this callus contains 4% (w/w dw starch granules, which we could modify by generating fully transgenic calli by Agrobacterium-transformation. A Green Fluorescent Protein reporter protein tag was used to identify and propagate only fully transgenic callus explants. Around 1 – 1.5 g dry weight of fully transgenic callus could be produced in 9 weeks. Callus starch granules were smaller than endosperm starch granules and contained less amylose. Similarly the expression profile of starch biosynthesis genes were slightly different in callus

  18. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Acevedo-Pacheco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. Objective: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS, and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER, biological values (BV, and net protein utilization (NPU values of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. Design: To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. Results: The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. Conclusions: The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly

  19. Effects of Ready-to-Eat-Cereals on Key Nutritional and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Marion G.; McMonagle, Jolene R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are investigated as well as health promoting properties of RTEC. Method The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL have been searched up till 16th of June 2015. Randomized controlled trials were excluded if RTEC were used during hypocaloric diets, if RTEC were eaten at other times than breakfast and if breakfasts included other products than RTEC, milk and fruit. Observational studies were excluded when “breakfast cereals” were not defined or their definition included cooked cereals. From cross-sectional studies only data concerning energy and nutrient intake as well as micronutrient status were used. Results From 4727 identified citations 64 publications met the inclusion criteria of which 32 were cross-sectional studies, eight prospective studies and 24 randomized controlled trials. Consumption of RTEC is associated with a healthier dietary pattern, concerning intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, fat and micronutrients, however total sugar intake is higher. Persons consuming RTEC frequently (≥ 5 times/week) have a lower risk of inadequate micronutrient intake especially for vitamin A, calcium, folate, vitamin B 6, magnesium and zinc. Evidence from prospective studies suggests that whole grain RTEC may have beneficial effects on hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Consumption of RTEC with soluble fiber helps to reduce LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men and RTEC fortified with folate can reduce plasma homocysteine. Discussion One of the review’s strengths is its thorough ex/inclusion of studies. Limitations are that results of observational studies were based on self-reported data and that many studies were funded by food

  20. Morphological and molecular observations on the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi from the Volga and South Ural regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2010-2012, a survey was conducted to determine the distribution and species diversity of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi within the Volga and South Ural regions of the Russian Federation. A total of 270 soil samples were collected. Seven populations of CCN were found in the rhiz...

  1. Intake of whole grains from different cereal and food sources and incidence of colorectal cancer in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen;

    2013-01-01

    A high intake of whole grains has been associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer, but few studies are available on the association with whole grains from different cereals, for example, wheat, rye and oats, and none has addressed these separately. The objective of this study was to i...

  2. An ALMT1 gene cluster controlling aluminium (aluminum) tolerance at the Alt4 locus of rye (Secale cereale L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al-tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes...

  3. Investigation of the herbicide glyphosate and the plant growth regulators chlormequat and mepiquat in cereals produced in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2001-01-01

    /kg for the 1998 harvest (n=49). Thus, the figures were well below the maximum residue limit (MRL) and no violations were observed. The plant growth regulators chlormequat and/or mepiquat were investigated in cereals from the Danish harvest of 1999 where 83% of the samples contained chlormequat (n=46) compared...

  4. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in rice and maize staple cereals in Northern Vietnam and dietary exposure in different ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Huong Mai; Tuyen, Le Dahn; Do, Tran Thanh;

    2016-01-01

    and 1019 ng/kg bw/day for children. The calculated excess risk of liver cancer incidence by ingestion of cereals containing AFB1 was 1.5 per 100,000 adults and 2.3 per 100,000 children per year. The average intake of FB was calculated to be lower than the tolerable diet intake (TDI). Our findings highlight...

  5. BIOTECHNOLOGY AS A USEFUL TOOL FOR NUTRITIONAL IMPROVEMENT OF CEREAL-BASED MATERIALS ENRICHED WITH POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND PIGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čertík

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals represent a major food supply for humanity. Although these sources are rich in proteins and carbohydrates, many of them are deficient in several essential nutrients, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and carotenoid pigments. One possible approach how to enhance the content of PUFAs or carotenoids in cereal diet is based on biotechnological transformation of cereal materials by solid state fermentations. This technique is powerful tool for effective valorisation of these resources to various types of value-added bioproducts with demanded properties and functions. Selected filamentous Mucorales fungi were applied for conversion of numerous agroindustrial substrates to bioproducts enriched with PUFAs, such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, arachidonic acid (AA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. On the other hand, a range of yeast species utilizing agroindustrial substrates were employed for formation of carotenoids, such as β-carotene, torulene, torularhodine and astaxanthin. Such naturally prepared cereal based bioproducts enriched with either PUFAs or carotenoid pigments may be used as an inexpensive food and feed supplement. The work was supported by grant VEGA No. 1/0747/08 from the Grant Agency of Ministry of Education, Slovak Republic.

  6. Ferulic Acid Dehydrodimer and –Dehydrotrimer Profiles of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles from Different Cereal Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Bunzel, Mirko; Schäfer, Judith;

    2015-01-01

    of the plant cell wall. Corn-, wheat-, and mixed cereal distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were investigated for composition of DFAs and TriFAs by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet detection. Corn DDGS contained 5.3 and 5.9 times higher contents of total DFAs...

  7. Legumes or nitrification inhibitors to reduce N2O emissions in subtropical cereal cropping systems? A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DAYCENT biogeochemical model was used to investigate how the use of fertilisers coated with nitrification inhibitors and the introduction of legumes in the crop rotation can affect subtropical cereal production and N2O emissions. The model was validated using comprehensive multi-seasonal, high-f...

  8. The Effects of Television Advertising on Children: Parent-Child Communication in Supermarket Breakfast Cereal Selection. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Charles K.

    In this study, naturalistic patterns of parent-child interaction were unobtrusively observed in supermarkets to describe characteristics of breakfast cereal selection by 516 family units. The interaction sequence was summarized into five dimensions: initiating party, tone of initial message, type of response, type of consequence, and references to…

  9. Impact of Dry Solids and Bile Acid Concentrations on Bile Acid Binding Capacity of Extruded Oat Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extruded breakfast cereals (EBC), processed from two oat lines, N979-5-2-4 (N979) and ‘Jim’, with beta-glucan concentrations of 8.7 and 4.9%, respectively, were used to determine the impact of dry solids (DS) and bile acid (BA) concentrations on in vitro BA binding efficiency. A full fractional fact...

  10. Centralised electricity production from winter cereals biomass grown under central-northern Spain conditions: Global warming and energy yield assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals biomass. • Productivity ranks are generated from different genotypes cultivated in real farms. • GHG and energy balances show better performance compared to natural gas electricity. • Cereals yields below 8 odt/ha do not accomplish objective 60% of GHG savings. • Marginal yields and sustainability criteria are discussed suggesting optimization. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals grown in one of the most important Spanish agricultural areas, Castilla y León Region, situated in central-northern Spain. This study analyses greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and energy balances of electricity production in a 25 MWe power plant that was powered using straw biomass from three annual winter cereals (rye, triticale and oat) grown as dedicated energy crops. The results of these analyses were compared with those of electricity produced from natural gas in Spanish power plants. Assessments were performed using a wide range of scenarios, mainly based on the biomass yield variability obtained in demonstration plots of twelve different winter cereal genotypes. Demonstration plots were established in two different locations (provinces of Soria and León) of the Castilla y León Region during two crop seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) using common management practices and input rates for rain-fed agriculture in these regions. Our results suggest that production of electricity from winter cereals biomass combustion yielded considerable reductions in terms of GHG emissions when compared to electricity from natural gas. Nevertheless, the results show that low biomass yields that are relatively frequent for Spanish farmers on low productivity lands may produce no significant reductions in GHG in comparison with electricity from natural gas. Consequently, the agronomic management of winter cereals should be re

  11. Wheat Nitrogen Fertilisation Effects on the Performance of the Cereal Aphid Metopolophium dirhodum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. J. Gash

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of five rates of nitrogen fertiliser applications on the performance of the cereal aphid Metopolophium dirhodum on winter wheat, within the range of rates recommended for UK crops, were investigated over two seasons in field-grown crops and also on plants grown in the glasshouse. Longevity was unaffected by the level of fertilisation, but aphid intrinsic rate of increase and fecundity increased with each level applied. In the second field season, when a higher upper limit was used, many of these increases were significant. A previously unreported finding for this species was that there was a significant decrease in fecundity for the highest rate of fertilisation. Results for the glasshouse-reared aphids followed a similar pattern to those in the field, and overall they underline recent reports in the literature of the negative effects of high nutrient concentrations on the performance of herbivorous insects. The underlying reasons for these are discussed.

  12. In vitro evaluation of the activity of thiosemicarbazone derivatives against mycotoxigenic fungi affecting cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degola, Francesca; Morcia, Caterina; Bisceglie, Franco; Mussi, Francesca; Tumino, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Roberta; Pelosi, Giorgio; Terzi, Valeria; Buschini, Annamaria; Restivo, Francesco Maria; Lodi, Tiziana

    2015-05-01

    With a steadily increasing world population, a more efficient system of food production is of paramount importance. One of the major causes of food spoilage is the presence of fungal pathogens and the production and accumulation of mycotoxins. In the present work we report a study on the activity of a series of functionalized thiosemicarbazones (namely cuminaldehyde, trans-cinnamaldehyde, quinoline-2-carboxyaldehyde, 5-fluoroisatin thiosemicarbazone and 5-fluoroisatin N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone), as antifungal and anti-mycotoxin agents, against the two major genera of cereal mycotoxigenic fungi, i.e. Fusarium and Aspergillus. These thiosemicarbazones display different patterns of efficacy on fungal growth and on mycotoxin accumulation depending on the fungal species. Some of the molecules display a greater effect on mycotoxin synthesis than on fungal growth. PMID:25702884

  13. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  14. Interactions between pre- and post-emergence weed harrowing in spring cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsæter, L.O.; Mangerud, K.; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Pre- and post-emergence weed harrowing were studied in spring cereals in different environments and with two types of harrows in Norway during 2004–2006. The objectives were to investigate interactions between pre- and post-emergence weed harrowing and the importance of harrow type. We hypothesised...... that pre- and post-emergence harrowing interact positively, that a combination gives more stable weed control effects than pre- and post-emergence weed harrowing used alone, and that a harrow type with bent tines is more aggressive and suitable on hard-packed soils than a harrow with strait tines. The...... results only supported the last of these hypotheses. Post-emergence weed harrowing controlled a certain percentage of the present weeds, and this percentage was not dependent on pre-emergence weed harrowing. On average, pre-emergence harrowing reduced weed density by 26% and weed biomass by 22%, while the...

  15. Agronomic behavior of pseudo cereals genotypes subjected to drought and salinity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of evaluating the response to the salinity and drought of 7 genotypes of pseudo cereals that include to the variety of quinua Barandales (M7-0) and to the lines obtained by the radioinduced mutagenesis ININ 110 and ININ 333, two collections of red chia (Opopeo and Huiramangaro) and two collections of 'Huauzontle' of Atlacomulco (H1 and H3), were evaluated under a factorial experimental design two levels of humidity: normal watering and drought and three salinity levels 0, 50 and 100 mMhos. It was found a bigger yield in grams by plant in the drought subjected material (without salinity) and a bigger tolerance to the salinity in the genotypes H3, ININ M7-0, and ININ 110, exhibiting the 'Chia red' bigger susceptibility to the evaluated factors. (Author)

  16. Physico-chemical and nutritional properties of cereal-pulse blends for bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Shfali; Jood, Sudesh

    2002-01-01

    Supplementation of soy (full fat and defatted) and barley flours to wheat flour at 51 10, 15 and 20% levels were carried out to see their effect on physico-chemical and nutritional properties of blends for bread making. The gluten content and sedimentation value of flour blends decreased and water absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of soybean and barley flour separately and in combinations to bread flour. All the blends at 20% levels were found nutritionally superior but breads prepared from them found organoleptically unacceptable. However, addition of 15% barley flour, 10% full fat soy flour, 10% defatted soy flour, 15% full fat soy flour + barley flour and 15% defatted soy flour + barley flour to wheat flour not only increased the total protein, glutelin (protein fraction), total lysine, dietary fibre and beta-glucan contents of cereal-pulse blends for bread making, but could also produce a product of acceptable quality. PMID:12418802

  17. CELLULOSIC PULPS OF CEREAL STRAWS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF ECOLOGICAL PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Vargas,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the potential application of four types of cereal straws: oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley, in order to obtain cellulose pulp through the Specel® process for use in the manufacture of 100% biodegradable and ecological packaging. Raw materials were chemically characterized to determine alcohol-extractives, ash, lignin, holocellulose, and α-cellulose. Cellulosic pulps obtained from raw materials were characterized to determine yield, Kappa number, and viscosity. Paper sheets made from cellulosic pulps were characterized to determine beating degree, tensile index, stretch, burst index, tear index, and brightness. Finally, the results were compared to the raw material used in the industrial manufacturing of packaging (wheat. The four studied raw materials (oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley were judged to be suitable for use in the Specel® process to obtain cellulosic pulp suitable for production of ecological containers.

  18. Effect of temperature and precipitation on nitrate leaching from organic cereal cropping systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabloun, Mohamed; Schelde, Kirsten; Tao, F;

    2015-01-01

    management. There were significant effects on annual N concentration and NO3single bondN leaching of location, rotation, previous crop and crop cover during autumn and winter. The relative effects of temperature and precipitation differed between seasons and cropping systems. A sensitivity analysis revealed......The effect of variation in seasonal temperature and precipitation on soil water nitrate (NO3single bondN) concentration and leaching from winter and spring cereals cropping systems was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotation cycles from 1997 to 2008 in an organic farming crop...... rotation experiment in Denmark. Three experimental sites, varying in climate and soil type from coarse sand to sandy loam, were investigated. The experiment included experimental treatments with different rotations, manure rate and cover crop, and soil nitrate concentrations was monitored using suction...

  19. Metabolomics study of cereal grains reveals the discriminative metabolic markers associated with anatomical compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Moazzami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used NMR-based metabolomics to compare the metabolic profile of different anatomical compartments of cereal grains i.e. bran and endosperm in order to gain further insightsinto their possible role in the beneficial health effects of whole grain products (WG. Polar watersoluble metabolites in 64 bran and endosperm, samples from rye and wheat were observed using600 MHz NMR. Bran samples had higher contents of 12 metabolites than endosperm samples. A comparative approach revealed higher contents of azelaic acid and sebacic acid in bran than in endosperm. In a pilot study, the consumption of WG rye bread (485 g caused NMR signals in 24h urine corresponding to azelaic acid. The relatively high abundance, anatomical specificity, patternof metabolism, urinary excretion in human, antibacterial, and anticancer activities suggest further studying of azelaic acid when exposure to WG or beneficial effects of WG are investigated.

  20. Traditional Turkish Fermented Cereal Based Products: Tarhana, Boza and Chickpea Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tangüler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fermented products are one of the important foodstuffs in many countries of the world. People have gradually recognized the nutritional, functional and therapeutic value of these products and this has made them even more popular. Today, almost all consumers have a significant portion of their nutritional requirements fulfilled through these products. Scientific and technological knowledge is quite well developed for some fermented products such as wine, beer, cheese, and bread. These products are produced universally. However, scientific knowledge for some traditional foods produced locally in Turkey is still poor and not thorough. Numerous traditional, cereal-based fermented foods are produced in Turkey. The aim of this paper is to provide knowledge regarding the characterization, raw materials used for production, production methods, fermentation conditions and microorganisms which are effective in the fermentation of traditional foods. The study will focus on Boza, Tarhana, and Chickpea bread which are foods widely produced in Turkey.

  1. Efficiency of cold hardiness induction by desiccation stress in four winter cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Y; Andrews, C J

    1984-11-01

    A number of defined desiccation treatments without low temperature exposure were able to induce freezing tolerance in 20 cultivars of winter cereals. A maximal degree of freezing tolerance was induced in epicotyls at 24 degrees C in 24 hours at 40% relative humidity in rye and wheat, 7 days at 54% RH in barley, and 4 days at 70% RH in oats. Freezing tolerance was not correlated to water content of the plants after desiccation treatment but was related to the genetic capacity of the cultivars to frost harden. Levels of freezing tolerance induced by desiccation were similar to those induced by cold acclimation in rye and wheat, but considerably less in barley and oats. This is associated with a more rapid desiccation injury in barley and oats, precluding the completion of the hardening process. PMID:16663889

  2. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  3. Multiplex dipstick immunoassay for semi-quantitative determination of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We developed a rapid method based on a multiplex dipstick immunoassay. ► The assay allowed the determination of major Fusarium toxins in wheat, oats, maize. ► We obtained cut off levels close to EU regulatory levels. - Abstract: A multiplex dipstick immunoassay based method for the simultaneous determination of major Fusarium toxins, namely zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in wheat, oats and maize has been developed. The dipstick format was based on an indirect competitive approach. Four test lines (mycotoxin–BSA conjugates) and one control line were located on the strip membrane. Labelled antibodies were freeze-dried within the microwell. Two matrix-related sample preparation protocols have been developed for wheat/oats (not containing fumonisins) and maize (containing fumonisins) respectively. The use of a methanol/water mixture for sample preparation allowed recoveries in the range 73–109% for all mycotoxins in all tested cereals, with relative standard deviation less than 10%. The optimized immunoassay was able to detect target mycotoxins at cut off levels equal to 80% of EU maximum permitted levels, i.e. 280, 400, 1400 and 3200 μg kg−1, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in maize, and 80, 400 and 1400 μg kg−1, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins and deoxynivalenol in wheat and oats. Analysis of naturally contaminated samples resulted in a good agreement between multiplex dipstick and validated confirmatory LC–MS/MS. The percentage of false positive results was less than or equal to 13%, whereas no false negative results were obtained. Data on the presence/absence of 6 mycotoxins at levels close to EU regulatory levels were obtained within 30 min. The proposed immunoassay protocol is rapid, inexpensive, easy-to-use and fit for purpose of rapid screening of mycotoxins in cereals.

  4. Life cycle assessment of waste prevention in the delivery of pasta, breakfast cereals, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Giovanni; Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Waste prevention is the top priority of the European waste management strategy. In fact, as indicated in the latest Waste Framework Directive, the best option to deal with waste is not to generate it at all. In this framework, the distribution of loose dry food products through self-dispensing systems (so-called "loose distribution") is being considered worldwide as a practice to reduce the generation of packaging waste. This life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluates the environmental convenience of the loose distribution of dry pasta, breakfast cereals, and rice, in comparison with the traditional method of distribution. For each product, several baseline scenarios based on single-use packaging were compared with different waste prevention scenarios in which the product is distributed loose. The comparison addressed waste generation, 13 impact categories on the environment and human health, and the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) indicator. The results are significantly different for the 3 products. The loose distribution of pasta allows a 50% waste reduction and a decrease in the potential impacts only when compared with single-use cartonboard boxes. Conversely, when the comparison is made with single-use polypropylene bags, the loose distribution can even cause an increase in waste generation (up to 15%) and in the potential life cycle impacts. For breakfast cereals, the loose distribution allows a significant reduction in both the amount of waste (up to 84%) and the potential impacts, compared to the sale of traditional single-use bag-in-box packages. Finally, the loose distribution of rice permits a reduction in both waste generation (up to 86%) and most of the potential impacts. In particular, the impact reduction is higher when the reference single-use packaging that is replaced includes a cartonboard box. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:445-458. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26762500

  5. [Determination of aflatoxins in cereals and oils by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiupin; Li, Peiwu; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qi; Fan, Sufang; Yu, Li; Wang, Lin; Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Ying; Jiang, Jun

    2011-06-01

    The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry was applied for the determination of the aflatoxins: B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2), in cereals and oils. The samples were first extracted by ultrasonic method. The optimized conditions of ultrasonic extraction were as follows: temperature of 50 degrees C, extraction time of 3 min, methanol-water (containing 40 g/L NaCl) (80: 20, v/v) solution as the medium and a ratio of sample to solvent of 1 : 3 (g: mL). The extracts were then purified using an immunoaffinity column. The separation was performed on a C18 column with mobile phases of 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate and methanol in gradient elution. The sensitive detection of the four AFT compounds by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was carried out in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) as the internal standard. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 0.002, 0.004, 0.004 and 0.012 microg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of aflatoxins in different spiked cereals and oils were in the range from 87% to 111%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were not more than 6.7% and 5.6%, respectively. In comparison with the external standard method, this method can effectively inhibit the matrix effects, and greatly improve the accuracy.

  6. Prospects for exploitation of disease resistance from Hordeum chilense in cultivated cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, D; Niks, R E; Carver, T L; Ballesteros, J; Martín, A

    2001-01-01

    Hordeum chilense is a South American wild barley with high potential for cereal breeding given its high crossability with other members of the Triticeae. In the present paper we consider the resistance of H. chilense to several fungal diseases and the prospects for its transference to cultivated cereals. All H. chilense accessions studied are resistant to the barley, wheat and rye brown rusts, the powdery mildews of wheat, barley, rye and oat, to Septoria leaf blotch, common bunt and to loose smuts, which suggests that H. chilense is a non-host of these diseases. There are also lines resistant to wheat and barley yellow rust, stem rust and to Agropyron leaf rust, as well as lines giving moderate levels of resistance to Septoria glume blotch, tan spot and Fusarium head blight. Some H. chilense lines display pre-appressorial avoidance to brown rust. Lines differ in the degree of haustorium formation by rust and mildew fungi they permit, and in the degree to which a hypersensitive response occurs after haustoria are formed. Unfortunately, resistance of H. chilense to rust fungi is not expressed in tritordeum hybrids, nor in chromosome addition lines in wheat. In tritordeum, H. chilense contributes quantitative resistance to wheat powdery mildew, tan spot and loose smut. The resistance to mildew, expressed as a reduced disease severity, is not associated with macroscopically visible necrosis. Hexaploid tritordeums are immune to Septoria leaf blotch and to common bunt although resistance to both is slightly diluted in octoploid tritordeums. Studies with addition lines in wheat indicate that the resistance of H. chilense to powdery mildew, Septoria leaf blotch and common bunt is of broad genetic basis, conferred by genes present on various chromosomes.

  7. Automated regenerable microarray-based immunoassay for rapid parallel quantification of mycotoxins in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, S; Karsunke, X Y Z; Dietrich, R; Märtlbauer, E; Niessner, R; Knopp, D

    2013-08-01

    An automated flow-through multi-mycotoxin immunoassay using the stand-alone Munich Chip Reader 3 platform and reusable biochips was developed and evaluated. This technology combines a unique microarray, prepared by covalent immobilization of target analytes or derivatives on diamino-poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized glass slides, with a dedicated chemiluminescence readout by a CCD camera. In a first stage, we aimed for the parallel detection of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and fumonisins in cereal samples in a competitive indirect immunoassay format. The method combines sample extraction with methanol/water (80:20, v/v), extract filtration and dilution, and immunodetection using horseradish peroxidase-labeled anti-mouse IgG antibodies. The total analysis time, including extraction, extract dilution, measurement, and surface regeneration, was 19 min. The prepared microarray chip was reusable for at least 50 times. Oat extract revealed itself as a representative sample matrix for preparation of mycotoxin standards and determination of different types of cereals such as oat, wheat, rye, and maize polenta at relevant concentrations according to the European Commission regulation. The recovery rates of fortified samples in different matrices, with 55-80 and 58-79%, were lower for the better water-soluble fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol and with 127-132 and 82-120% higher for the more unpolar aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Finally, the results of wheat samples which were naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol were critically compared in an interlaboratory comparison with data obtained from microtiter plate ELISA, aokinmycontrol® method, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and found to be in good agreement. PMID:23620369

  8. [Determination of aflatoxins in cereals and oils by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiupin; Li, Peiwu; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qi; Fan, Sufang; Yu, Li; Wang, Lin; Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Ying; Jiang, Jun

    2011-06-01

    The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry was applied for the determination of the aflatoxins: B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2), in cereals and oils. The samples were first extracted by ultrasonic method. The optimized conditions of ultrasonic extraction were as follows: temperature of 50 degrees C, extraction time of 3 min, methanol-water (containing 40 g/L NaCl) (80: 20, v/v) solution as the medium and a ratio of sample to solvent of 1 : 3 (g: mL). The extracts were then purified using an immunoaffinity column. The separation was performed on a C18 column with mobile phases of 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate and methanol in gradient elution. The sensitive detection of the four AFT compounds by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was carried out in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) as the internal standard. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 0.002, 0.004, 0.004 and 0.012 microg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of aflatoxins in different spiked cereals and oils were in the range from 87% to 111%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were not more than 6.7% and 5.6%, respectively. In comparison with the external standard method, this method can effectively inhibit the matrix effects, and greatly improve the accuracy. PMID:22032163

  9. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    Full Text Available The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs but more glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction.

  10. Xerophiles and other fungi associated with cereal baby foods locally produced in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mady A. Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifty samples from five baby food products mainly made of cereal flour(s were analyzed. The moisture contents of these products were between 11.14% and 11.9%, a level below 14.0%, the recommended level for safe storage of cereal grains and their products. The mycological analysis was carried out using the dilution plate method and two isolation media (DG18 for isolation of xerophilic fungi and DRBC for fungi in general. A total of 80 species related to 37 genera in addition to some unidentified fungal and yeast species were recorded on both media from the five products. The products were contaminated abundantly by xerophilic fungi which were occurring in 88% of food samples and accounting for 18.1% of the total CFU as recorded on DG18. The highest contamination level by xerophiles was registered in Mwebaza rice porridge (a component of rice flour and the lowest in Mukuza (a product of maize, soyabean and sorghum flours. 11 xerophilic species were recorded of which Aspergillus and Eurotium (4 species each were the predominant giving rise to 9.1% and 8.9% of the total CFU, with A. wentii, A. candidus, E. cristatum and E. repens were the most contaminating species. Of the fungi recorded other than xerophiles, species of Aspergillus (particularly A. flavus followed by A. niger, Penicillium (P. citrinum, P. oxalicum, Fusarium (F. solani, F. tricinctum, Cladosporium (C. sphaerospermum and yeasts were the most predominant. Contamination of such foods is a matter of health hazard as these foods are for babies. So, the use of fresh, well-dried and uncontaminated flours for production of such foods is recommended.

  11. Estimation of Nutritive Value, Organoleptic Properties and Consumer Acceptability of Fermented Cereal Gruel (OGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Opere

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A gruel, locally called Ogi in Nigeria and prepared by bacterial fermentation from cereals such as maize (Zea mays and (Sorghum bicolor of the Poaeceae Gramineae family remain a major source of calorie, nutrient and probiotic factors in human diets in many West African countries including Nigeria. Therefore, knowledge on nutritive, organoleptic and safety values of OGI is hugely essential to justify its dietary utilization and fortification as weaning diets and staples and the need for improvement in cereal fermentation. In this study, we determined the indices of nutrition, palatability and preservation in Ogi made from cultivars of maize and sorghum in Nigeria using Lactobacillus pentosus and L. acidophilus as starter cultures during fermentation. Eleven cultivars of corn and sorghum sold in Nigerian markets were used for the preparation of fermented gruels using L. pentosus and L. acidophilus as single and mixed starter cultures. Gruels from these cultivars were also prepared under uncontrolled fermentation conditions and used as control. These gruels were compared by proximate composition, probiotic and organaoleptic values using standard chemical, chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. The biochemical analysis of the fermented samples showed the concentration of acid, acetoin and diacetyl to increase in comparison to the controls indicating improved organoleptic properties. All samples showed increased levels of reducing sugars, proteins, and amino acids. Essential amino acids, lysine, isoleucine, and arginine were elicited in all fermented samples, showing desirable nutritional status. All these fermented samples exhibited some degree of inhibition on all the test bacterial cultures. The mixed culture fermented samples had higher values than the single culture fermented samples for all parameters tested indicating higher efficacy.

  12. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation. PMID:27148243

  13. Monitoring Food Security Indicators from Remote Sensing and Predicting Cereal Production in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, M. S.; Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.

    2015-12-01

    We extract percent of basin snow covered areas above 2500m elevation from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 500-meter 8-day snow cover composites to monitor accumulation and depletion of snow in the basin. While the accumulation and depletion of snow cover extent provides an indication of the temporal progression of the snow pack, it does not provide insight into available water for irrigation. Therefore, we use snow model results from the National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center to quantify snow water equivalent and volume of water available within the snowpack for irrigation. In an effort to understand how water availability, along with its inter-annual variability, relates to the food security of the country, we develop a simple, effective, and easy-to-implement model to identify irrigated areas across the country on both annual and mid-season basis. The model is based on applying thresholds to peak growing season vegetation indices—derived from 250-meter MODIS images—in a decision-tree classifier to separate irrigated crops from non-irrigated vegetation. The spatial distribution and areal estimates of irrigated areas from these maps compare well with irrigated areas classified from multiple snap shots of the landscape from Landsat 5 optical and thermal images over selected locations. We observed that the extents of irrigated areas varied depending on the availability of snowmelt and can be between 1.35 million hectares in a year with significant water deficit and 2.4 million hectares in a year with significant water surplus. The changes in the amount of available water generally can contribute up to a 30% change in irrigated areas. We also observed that the strong correlation between inter-annual variability of irrigated areas and the variability in the country's cereal production could be utilized to predict an annual estimate of cereal production, providing early indication of food security scenarios for the country.

  14. Absorption of plant lignans from cereals in an experimental pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Adlercreutz, Herman; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2016-05-28

    Plant lignans are diphenolic compounds ingested with whole grains and seeds and converted to enterolignans by the colonic microbiota. In the present study, we investigated absorption and metabolism of plant lignans and enterolignans in vivo after consumption of cereal-based diets. Six pigs fitted with catheters in the mesenteric artery and portal vein and with a flow probe attached to the portal vein along with twenty pigs for quantitative collection of urine were used for this study. The animals were fed bread based on wheat flour low in plant lignans and three lignan-rich breads based on whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone flour or rye aleurone flour. Plant lignans and enterolignans in plasma were monitored daily at fast after 0-3 d of lignan-rich intake, and on the 4th day of lignan-rich intake a 10-h profile was completed. Urine samples were collected after 11 d of lignan-rich diet consumption. The concentrations of plant lignans were low at fast, and was 1·2-2·6 nmol/l after switching from the low-lignan diet to the lignan-rich diets. However, on the profile day, the concentration and quantitative absorption of plant lignans increased significantly from 33 nmol/h at fast to 310 nmol/h 0-2·5 h after ingestion with a gradual increase in the following periods. Quantitatively, the absorption of plant lignans across diets amounted to 7 % of ingested plant lignans, whereas the urinary excretion of plant lignans was 3 % across diets. In conclusion, there is a substantial postprandial uptake of plant lignans from cereals, suggesting that plant lignans are absorbed from the small intestine.

  15. Multiplex dipstick immunoassay for semi-quantitative determination of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattanzio, Veronica M.T., E-mail: veronica.lattanzio@ispa.cnr.it [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy); Nivarlet, Noan [UNISENSOR S.A., Zoning industriel du Dossay, Rue du Dossay no 3, B-4020 Liege (Belgium); Lippolis, Vincenzo; Gatta, Stefania Della [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy); Huet, Anne-Catherine; Delahaut, Philippe [Centre d' Economie Rurale (CER Groupe), Rue du Point du Jour no 8, B-6900 Marloie (Belgium); Granier, Benoit [UNISENSOR S.A., Zoning industriel du Dossay, Rue du Dossay no 3, B-4020 Liege (Belgium); Visconti, Angelo [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed a rapid method based on a multiplex dipstick immunoassay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay allowed the determination of major Fusarium toxins in wheat, oats, maize. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained cut off levels close to EU regulatory levels. - Abstract: A multiplex dipstick immunoassay based method for the simultaneous determination of major Fusarium toxins, namely zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in wheat, oats and maize has been developed. The dipstick format was based on an indirect competitive approach. Four test lines (mycotoxin-BSA conjugates) and one control line were located on the strip membrane. Labelled antibodies were freeze-dried within the microwell. Two matrix-related sample preparation protocols have been developed for wheat/oats (not containing fumonisins) and maize (containing fumonisins) respectively. The use of a methanol/water mixture for sample preparation allowed recoveries in the range 73-109% for all mycotoxins in all tested cereals, with relative standard deviation less than 10%. The optimized immunoassay was able to detect target mycotoxins at cut off levels equal to 80% of EU maximum permitted levels, i.e. 280, 400, 1400 and 3200 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in maize, and 80, 400 and 1400 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins and deoxynivalenol in wheat and oats. Analysis of naturally contaminated samples resulted in a good agreement between multiplex dipstick and validated confirmatory LC-MS/MS. The percentage of false positive results was less than or equal to 13%, whereas no false negative results were obtained. Data on the presence/absence of 6 mycotoxins at levels close to EU regulatory levels were obtained within 30 min. The proposed immunoassay protocol is rapid, inexpensive, easy-to-use and fit for purpose of rapid screening of mycotoxins

  16. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vessela eATANASOVA-PENICHON

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation.

  17. Life cycle assessment of waste prevention in the delivery of pasta, breakfast cereals, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Giovanni; Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Waste prevention is the top priority of the European waste management strategy. In fact, as indicated in the latest Waste Framework Directive, the best option to deal with waste is not to generate it at all. In this framework, the distribution of loose dry food products through self-dispensing systems (so-called "loose distribution") is being considered worldwide as a practice to reduce the generation of packaging waste. This life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluates the environmental convenience of the loose distribution of dry pasta, breakfast cereals, and rice, in comparison with the traditional method of distribution. For each product, several baseline scenarios based on single-use packaging were compared with different waste prevention scenarios in which the product is distributed loose. The comparison addressed waste generation, 13 impact categories on the environment and human health, and the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) indicator. The results are significantly different for the 3 products. The loose distribution of pasta allows a 50% waste reduction and a decrease in the potential impacts only when compared with single-use cartonboard boxes. Conversely, when the comparison is made with single-use polypropylene bags, the loose distribution can even cause an increase in waste generation (up to 15%) and in the potential life cycle impacts. For breakfast cereals, the loose distribution allows a significant reduction in both the amount of waste (up to 84%) and the potential impacts, compared to the sale of traditional single-use bag-in-box packages. Finally, the loose distribution of rice permits a reduction in both waste generation (up to 86%) and most of the potential impacts. In particular, the impact reduction is higher when the reference single-use packaging that is replaced includes a cartonboard box. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:445-458. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Respuesta de diferentes variedades de cereales a la inoculación con Bradyrhizobium sp. Response of different varieties of cereals to inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Bécquer Granados

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo dos experimentos de campo durante 2009, en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Sancti Spiritus, Cuba (2 1º 53' 00" latitud norte, 79° 21' 25" longitud oeste y 40 msnm, para determinar la respuesta de diferentes variedades de cereales a la biofertilización con Bradyrhizobium sp. La preparación de los inóculos y la inoculación de las semillas, se efectuaron según metodologías prestablecidas para este campo de estudio. El diseño experimental fue a través de parcelas divididas y 4 réplicas por tratamiento. Al control fertilizado se le aplicó nitrógeno (150 kg N ha-¹ y se evaluaron diferentes variables agronómicas. Se aplicó análisis de varianza bifactorial; las diferencias entre medias se determinaron por la dócima de comparación de Duncan y t-student. En el experimento con Triticum se concluye que los tratamientos con mejores respuestas, fueron Triticale-inoculado y a IRM37-inoculado y que Triticum secale superó en peso seco raíz y en longitud del tallo a T. aestivum, lo que hace a esta primera especie promisoria para condiciones de sequía. En el experimento con Zea mays se concluye que aunque en peso seco aéreo los mejores tratamientos correspondieron a la fertilización química, en peso seco de la mazorca el tratamiento Canilla-inoculado, presentó valores estadísticamente iguales al de los tratamientos fertilizados, por lo que se considera positiva la respuesta de esta variedad a la biofertilización. No obstante, no se descarta la influencia de las bacterias rizosféricas autóctonas en algunas de las variables estudiadas.Two field experiments were performed in 2009 at the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages Sancti Spiritus, Cuba (21° 53' 00" north, 79° 21' 25" west longitude and 40 m to determine the response of different varieties of cereals to bio-fertilization with Bradyrhizobium sp. The preparations of inocula and seed inoculation were made according to preset methodologies

  19. La importancia de los ingredientes funcionales en las leches y cereales infantiles The importance of functional ingredients in pediatric milk formulas and cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rivero Urgell

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La alimentación durante los primeros meses de vida tiene una influencia decisiva no sólo en las fases tempranas del desarrollo del niño sino también en su salud a largo plazo. Por ello, la incorporación de nuevos ingredientes funcionales a las leches infantiles es hoy objeto de numerosos estudios, dando cada vez productos más novedosos y semejantes a la leche humana, patrón de oro, que los contiene en forma natural. Hoy día, los avances tecnológicos han permitido la obtención de estos ingredientes a partir de fuentes de tipo animal o vegetal para su adición en leches y cereales infantiles. En el presente estudio se revisa el interés nutricional y funcional de los principales ingredientes funcionales de interés en la alimentación del lactante, como son los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, beta-palmitato, nucleótidos, oligosacáridos con efecto prebiótico, probióticos, carnitina y taurina. Su incorporación en los alimentos infantiles ha sido posible tras la realización de estudios en animales y estudios clínicos que proporcionan una sólida base científica que garantiza tanto su correcta biodisponibilidad como su eficacia en el recién nacido. En el futuro, gracias a un mayor conocimiento de la composición de la leche materna y a la realización de estudios adicionales será posible la incorporación de nuevos ingredientes que permitan la obtención de leches infantiles cada vez más similares a nivel nutricional y funcional a la leche materna.Feeding during the first months of life has a decisive influence not only in early developmental phases of children but also in their long-term health. Therefore, inclusion of new functional ingredients to pediatric milk formulas is, nowadays, the matter of a number of studies, incorporating day-by-day newer products and more similar to human milk, the gold standard, which contains them in a natural way. Nowadays, technological advances have made possible to obtain these ingredients from

  20. Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption Patterns: The Relationship to Nutrient Intake, Whole Grain Intake, and Body Mass Index in an Older American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Albertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between ready-to-eat (RTE breakfast cereal consumption patterns and body mass index (BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake in an older American population. Design. A cross-sectional survey of US households, collected by the NPD Group via the National Eating Trends (NET survey. Main outcome measures include BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake. Subjects/Setting. The sample included 1759 participants age 55 and older, which was divided into approximate quartiles based on intake of RTE breakfast cereal for the 2-week period (0 servings, 1–3 servings, 4–7 servings, and ≥8 servings. Results. In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for energy and age; intake of dietary fiber, whole grains, and the majority of micronutrients examined were found to be positively associated with frequent RTE cereal consumption. The proportion of participants consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR was lower for the highest quartile of RTE cereal consumers compared to nonconsumers, for the majority of vitamins and minerals examined. Significant differences in BMI between RTE breakfast cereal intake groups were found for men. Conclusion. Results suggest that ready-to-eat breakfast cereals may contribute to the nutritional quality of the diets of older Americans. Prospective studies and experimental trials are needed to better evaluate the role of RTE cereal consumption in energy balance.

  1. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

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    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  2. Lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for the delivery of functional biomolecules and ingredients in cereal-based beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Deborah M; Mauch, Alexander; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we aim to describe the mechanisms by which LAB can fulfil the novel role of efficient cell factory for the production of functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of cereal-based beverages. LAB fermentation is a safe, economical, and traditional method of food preservation foremost, as well as having the additional benefits of flavor, texture, and nutrition amelioration. Additionally, LAB fermentation in known to render cereal-based foods and beverages safe, in a chemical-free, consumer-friendly manner, from an antinutrient and toxigenic perspective. Huge market opportunities and potential exist for food manufacturers who can provide the ideal functional beverage fulfilling consumer needs. Newly developed fermented cereal-based beverages must address markets globally including, high-nutrition markets (developing countries), lifestyle choice consumers (vegetarian, vegan, low-fat, low-salt, low-calorie), food-related non-communicable disease sufferers (cardiovascular disease, diabetes), and green label consumers (Western countries). To fulfil these recommendations, a suitable LAB starter culture and cereal-based raw materials must be developed. These strains would be suitable for the biopreservation of cereal beverages and, ideally, would be highly antifungal, anti-mycotoxigenic, mycotoxin-binding and proteolytic (neutralize toxic peptides and release flavor-contributing amino acids) with an ability to ferment cereals, whilst synthesizing oligosaccharides, thus presenting a major opportunity for the development of safe cereal-based prebiotic functional beverages to compete with and replace the existing dairy versions. PMID:24915367

  3. TRI12 based quantitative real-time PCR assays reveal the distribution of trichothecene genotypes of F. graminearum and F. culmorum isolates in Danish small grain cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.K.; Jensen, Jens Due; Rodriguez, A.;

    2012-01-01

    species complex, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis and Fusarium pseudograminearum. These assays were applied on a total of 378 field samples of cereal grain of wheat, barley, triticale, rye and oats collected from 2003 to 2007 to study the trichothecene genotype composition in Danish cereals. The three...... genotypes, 3ADON, 15ADON and NIV were found in all five cereal species, great annual variation in the occurrence of the trichothecene genotypes was evident with considerable variation between the samples. 3ADON was the dominant genotype in barley, triticale, rye and oats while 15ADON was most dominant...

  4. Increasing the Profitability of Energy Cereals by Modifying the Cultivation System; Spannmaal till energi - oekad loensamhet genom anpassning av odlingssystemet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Carina; Olsson, Johanna; Lundin, Gunnar; Toro, Alfredo de

    2008-09-15

    The use of cereals and other agricultural crops for energy purposes and the increased demand for food world-wide have increased cereal prices. However since energy prices have also increased, it can still be profitable to use cereals for energy production. To date, the cereals used for bioenergy have usually been grown in the same way as food and feed cereals, but there is scope to tailor the cultivation system to the end product. The overall objective of this project was to improve the profitability of cereal cultivation for energy purposes. Changes to the cultivation system in terms of e.g. choice of crop and cultivar, strategies for fertilisation and crop protection and transport/handling of cereals for bioethanol production or combustion were studied. Timeliness costs associated with bioenergy cereals were also examined. The financial impact of changes in the cultivation system for bioenergy cereals was then examined for three typical farms, located in the provinces of Skaane, Oestergoetland and Uppland. Based on the results obtained, concrete guidelines for farmers were formulated. The average arable area of the typical farms was 203 ha, the farms had a seven-year crop rotation and for all locations winter wheat was the dominant crop but triticale and oats were also included. Two cultivation systems, Traditional and Energy, were examined. In the Energy cultivation system, the winter wheat and triticale were used for bioethanol production in an ethanol plant located in Norrkoeping (Oestergoetland), while the oats were used for combustion in plants close to the typical farms. The results showed that cultivation of bioenergy cereals did not differ greatly from cultivation of food/feed cereals. However, when cultivating cereals for bioethanol production it is important to adapt the nitrogen fertilisation strategy to achieve high starch content together with high yields of the specific cultivar grown. The most important change in the Energy system proved to be

  5. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  6. ArylexTM active – new herbicide active and base for new cereals herbicides: ZyparTM and Pixxaro™ EC to control wide range of broadleaf weeds in cereals in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikowski, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Arylex™ active is a new auxinic herbicide for postemergence control of a range of important broadleaf weeds in cereals. It has been discovered and developed by Dow AgroSciences globally as a first member of the new ‘arylpicolinate‘ structural class. Arylex applied together with safener brings excellent crop safety and due to the rapid degradation in soil and plant tissue it does not limit the following crop choice. In Europe the first two herbicides containing this active are Zypar™ and Pixxaro™ EC. Zypar is a premix of Arylex and florasulam, delivering at the 1 L/ha maximum use rate 6 g ae/ha of Arylex and 5 g/ha of florasulam. It can be applied to all cereals, apart from oats, in autumn and spring. Spring application is allowed from BBCH 13 till BBCH 45, however the best performance is reached up to BBCH 32. Zypar’s spectrum of controlled weeds is very wide. Pixxaro EC is a combination of Arylex and fluroxypyr and at 0.5 l/ha dose rate delivers 6 g ae/ha of Arylex and 140 g ae/ha of fluroxypyr. It can be applied in all cereals, apart from oats, in spring from BBCH 13 till BBCH 45, while the best performance is observed between BBCH 30 and 45. Pixxaro EC shows excellent efficacy against key weeds, especially Galium aparine and at all growth stages. This herbicide brings a novel non-ALS solution and will be a key component of anti-resistance strategies for broadleaf weeds in cereals.

  7. Estudio de los parámetros que afectan al contenido de deoxinivalenol en cereales o alimentos a base de cereales obtenidos en comercios de Valencia (España.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ Hernández-Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las micotoxinas son metabolitos fúngicos que aparecen comúnmente como contaminantes de muchos cereales y pueden causar una amplia variedad de efectos tóxicos. En el presente estudio, se analizó un total de 182 muestras de diferentes cereales (arroz, trigo, maíz, avena, espelta, soja y tapioca obtenidos en establecimientos de la Comunidad Valenciana (España. Se examina la presencia de deoxinivalenol (DON y se realiza un estudio estadístico de las muestras según el tipo de cultivo (orgánico o convencional, su composición, el tipo de producto y la marca (comercial o blanca para estimar si estos parámetros influyen en la concentración de DON. Del total de muestras, 111 estaban contaminadas con DON, pero en concentraciones inferiores a los límites permitidos por la legislación europea. Se observó mayor incidencia de DON en muestras de trigo (80% seguidas de maíz (35% y arroz (13%, pero sin diferencia significativa (p>0,05 entre el tipo de cereal; ni con la práctica agrícola. Sin embargo, los resultados demostraron que el tipo de producto en el cereal procesado (p<0,001; los productos a base de lluvia y sémola presentaran valores mayores de DON que los fideos, los componentes del alimento procesado (p<0,01; los niveles de DON eran superiores en las rosquilletas de pan simples respecto a las rosquilletas con queso y con chocolate y la marca (p<0,05; las marcas blancas contienen más DON que las comerciales si influyen en los niveles de DON hallados en las muestras de trigo.

  8. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Yekimova

    2014-11-01

    according to the procedures used a method of washing and centrifugation, seeds, embryos analysis method, biological method based on the stimulation of development and growth of pathogens in the infected seeds during seed germination in nutrient media. We analyzed 200 samples of wheat and barley grain with 8 games on the definition of the infestation and root rot spores solid and smut. In all the samples studied was dominated latent form of infection grains (outwardly healthy, germinating, well executed seeds had normal luster, patina fungus was absent; but sometimes observed apparent lesion (plaque formation, a different degree of deformation of grains. When the microscope isolated fungi was established dominance of species such as fungi of the genera Alternaria, Helmintosporium, Fusarium, smut fungi. The research of cereal seeds showed that all the tested party for the harvest in 2014 were infected with different pathogens in different degrees. On the basis of literature data and our own observations, comparing infection rates average cereal seeds complex fungal diseases, it may be noted that in 2014 the percentage of infestation was higher than in previous years, there is a trend of growth in incidence. The results showed that the overall percentage of infected root rots seeds of spring wheat in 2014 was 55.5 %, the infestation of spring barley was 64.7 %. Compared to previous years the trend increase in the prevalence of fungal diseases on cereals: wheat infestation grew by 12.8 %, barley - 2.13 %. Smut infected - 11.2 % wheat, barley - 37.4 %. Infection bunt was 4.6 %, including 3.3 % of wheat; Barley 17.6 %. The growth and development of root rot during the growing season depended on the presence of soil infection. Infection of grain crops by smut diseases depend on the quality of seed sown. Reducing the prevalence of smut disease is possible at early winter and late spring sowing to prevent the spore germination at low temperature. Keywords: seeds, disease, infection

  9. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekimova V. B.

    2014-12-01

    according to the procedures used a method of washing and centrifugation, seeds, embryos analysis method, biological method based on the stimulation of development and growth of pathogens in the infected seeds during seed germination in nutrient media. We analyzed 200 samples of wheat and barley grain with 8 games on the definition of the infestation and root rot spores solid and smut. In all the samples studied was dominated latent form of infection grains (outwardly healthy, germinating, well executed seeds had normal luster, patina fungus was absent; but sometimes observed apparent lesion (plaque formation, a different degree of deformation of grains. When the microscope isolated fungi was established dominance of species such as fungi of the genera Alternaria, Helmintosporium, Fusarium, smut fungi. The research of cereal seeds showed that all the tested party for the harvest in 2014 were infected with different pathogens in different degrees. On the basis of literature data and our own observations, comparing infection rates average cereal seeds complex fungal diseases, it may be noted that in 2014 the percentage of infestation was higher than in previous years, there is a trend of growth in incidence. The results showed that the overall percentage of infected root rots seeds of spring wheat in 2014 was 55.5 %, the infestation of spring barley was 64.7 %. Compared to previous years the trend increase in the prevalence of fungal diseases on cereals: wheat infestation grew by 12.8 %, barley - 2.13 %. Smut infected - 11.2 % wheat, barley - 37.4 %. Infection bunt was 4.6 %, including 3.3 % of wheat; Barley 17.6 %. The growth and development of root rot during the growing season depended on the presence of soil infection. Infection of grain crops by smut diseases depend on the quality of seed sown. Reducing the prevalence of smut disease is possible at early winter and late spring sowing to prevent the spore germination at low temperature.

  10. Quantitative assessment of moniliformin in cereals via alternative precipitation pathways, aided by LC-LIT-MS and LC-Q-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Wei; Lai, Kit Yee; Yeo, Jie Fang; Tai, Siew Hoon; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2015-05-01

    The availability of a simple chemical precipitation workflow aided by targeted and untargeted mass spectrometry would provide an accurate diagnostic platform for the direct determination of moniliformin in cereals for food safety control. In-house method validation was performed at six concentration levels of 8, 40, 80, 200, 400, and 600 ng g(-1) in cereal flours of wheat, corn, rye, oats and barley. Spiking experiments were made at three concentration levels of 20, 40 and 100 ng g(-1). Protein precipitation and "PHREE" column cleanup strategy provided recoveries of 81-108% for all cereals matrices using external calibrants. "PHREE" purification provided significant (p cereals becomes available to support prospective regulatory function.

  11. Integrating Vegetation Indices Models and Phenological Classification with Composite SAR and Optical Data for Cereal Yield Estimation in Finland (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Laurila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1996–2006 the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Finland, MTT Agrifood Research Finland and the Finnish Geodetic Institute carried out a joint remote sensing satellite research project. It evaluated the applicability of composite multispectral SAR and optical satellite data for cereal yield estimations in the annual crop inventory program. Three Vegetation Indices models (VGI, Infrared polynomial, NDVI and Composite multispetral SAR and NDVI were validated to estimate cereal yield levels using solely optical and SAR satellite data (Composite Minimum Dataset. The average R2 for cereal yield (yb was 0.627. The averaged composite SAR modeled grain yield level was 3,750 kg/ha (RMSE = 10.3%, 387 kg/ha for high latitude spring cereals (4,018 kg/ha for spring wheat, 4,037 kg/ha for barley and 3,151 kg/ha for oats.

  12. Metal uptake via phosphate fertilizer and city sewage in cereal and legume crops in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, G; Javed, W; Hussain, A; Wahid, A; Murtaza, B; Owens, G

    2015-06-01

    Crop irrigation with heavy metal-contaminated effluents is increasingly common worldwide and necessitates management strategies for safe crop production on contaminated soils. This field study examined the phytoavailability of three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) in two cereal (wheat, maize) and legume (chickpea, mungbean) crops in response to the application of either phosphatic fertilizer or sewage-derived water irrigation over two successive years. Five fertilizer treatments, i.e. control, recommended nitrogen (N) applied alone and in combination of three levels of phosphorus (P), half, full and 1.5 times of recommended P designated as N0P0, N1P0, N1P0.5, N1P1.0, and N1P1.5, respectively. Tissue concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, and P were determined in various plant parts, i.e., root, straw, and grains. On the calcareous soils studied while maximum biomass production was obtained with application of P at half the recommended dose, the concentrations of metals in the crops generally decreased with increasing P levels. Tissue metal concentrations increased with the application of N alone. Translocation and accumulation of Zn and Cu were consistently higher than Cd. And the pattern of Cd accumulation differed among plant species; more Cd being accumulated by dicots than monocots, especially in their grains. The order of Cd accumulation in grains was maize > chickpea > mungbean > wheat. Mungbean and chickpea straws also had higher tissue Cd concentration above permissible limits. The two legume species behaved similarly, while cereal species differed from each other in their Cd accumulation. Metal ion concentrations were markedly higher in roots followed by straw and grains. Increasing soil-applied P also increased the extractable metal and P concentrations in the post-harvest soil. Despite a considerable addition of metals by P fertilizer, all levels of applied P effectively decreased metal phytoavailability in sewage-irrigated soils, and applying half of the

  13. Drought risk management for increased cereal production in Asian Least Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a serious abiotic factor inhibiting nutrient acquisition by roots and limiting cereal crop production in Asian Least Developed Countries (LDCs. Many studies revealed that balanced fertilization can improve photosynthetic activity by stabilizing superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, improve proline, abscisic acid (ABA and make the crop drought tolerant with efficient root system and finally improve crop yield. To mitigate drought stress, along with the usage of resistant and efficient genotypes, soil and foliar applications of macro- and micro-nutrients are being used in Asia. According to drought sensitivity index, the efficient genotypes are found more drought-tolerant than the inefficient ones. Studies revealed that irrigation alone is not sufficient to obtain satisfactory grain yield without balanced fertilization. At drought stress, the efficient genotypes accumulate higher quantities of ABA and proline, and exhibit higher activities of SOD, as compared with inefficient genotypes through greater nutrient accumulation by their longer and thinner root systems with high efficiency. Under severe drought with low nutritional status, the rate of photosynthesis, particularly water-use efficiency (WUE increases in the efficient genotypes than in the inefficient ones. Consequently, these physiological and morphological parameters result in better yield performance by efficient use of water. Under drought, soil application of NPK along with foliar application of zinc (Zn, boron (B and manganese (Mn increase grain yield as well as micronutrients concentration of the grain. The rate of photosynthesis, pollen viability, number of fertile spikes, number of grains per spike, and WUE are increased by late foliar application of these micronutrients. This indicates that, by increasing WUE foliar application of Zn, B and Mn at booting to anthesis can reduce the harmful effects of drought that often occur during the late stages of cereal

  14. Simple, spatial and predictive approach for cereal yield prediction in the semi-arid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Jihad; Khabba, Said; Er-Raki, Salah; Le page, Michel; Chahbi Bellakanji, Aicha; Lili Chabaane, Zohra; Ezzahar, Jamal; Zribi, Mehrez; Jarlan, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    The objective is to develop a simple, spatial and predictive approach of dry matter (DM) and grain yield (GY) of cereal in the semi-arid areas. The proposed method is based on the three efficiencies model of Monteith (1972). This approach summarizes the transformation of solar radiation to the dry matter (DM) by the climate (ɛc), interception (ɛi) and conversion (ɛconv) efficiencies. The method combines the maximum of ɛi and ɛconv (noted ɛimax and ɛconvmax) into a single parameter denoted ɛmax, calculating as a function of cumulating growing degree day (CGDD). Also, the stress coefficient ks, which affects the conversion of solar radiation to the biomass was calculated by the surface temperature or the water balance at the root zone. In addition, the expression of ks has been improved by the consideration of the results achieved by deficit irrigation (AquaCrop and STICS models) which showed that the value of ks from 0.7 to 1 didn't affect significantly the cereal production. For the partitioning of the dry matter developed, between straw and grain, the method proposed calculates a variable Harvest Index coefficient (HI). HI is deducted from CGDD and HI0max (maximal final harvest Index in the region of study). Finally, the approach calculates DM depending Satellite Information (NDVI and surface temperature Ts) and climatic data (solar radiation and air temperature). In the case of no availability of Ts, the amount of irrigation is required to calculate ks. Until now, the developed model has been calibrated and validated on the irrigated area R3, located 40 Km east of Marrakech. The evolutions of DM and GY were reproduced satisfactorily. R2 and RMSE are respectively 0.98 and 0.35 t/ha and 0.98 and 0.19 t/ha, respectively. Currently, additional tests are in progress on data relating to the Kairouan plain of Tunisia.

  15. Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars using cold atmospheric plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Nisoa, Mudtorlep; Matan, Nirundorn

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize the operating parameters of cold atmospheric plasma treatment to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars. The effects of argon plasma jet treatment on the growth of A. flavus on malt extract agar (MEA) at powers of 20 W and 40 W with exposure times at 5, 15 and 25 min were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite face-centered (CCF) design. Multiple regression analysis indicated that plasma treatment at 40 W for 25 min is most effective for inhibiting growth of A. flavus on the agar medium. On brown rice cereal bars, plasma powered at 40 W for 20 min was capable of giving protection against A. flavus growth for up to 20 days under storage conditions of 25°C and 100% RH. These results demonstrated the potential of cold atmospheric plasma jet treatment to control mold growth on various food products.

  16. Effects of Cereal, Fruit and Vegetable Fibers on Human Fecal Weight and Transit Time: A Comprehensive Review of Intervention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Birkett, Anne; Hulshof, Toine; Verbeke, Kristin; Gibes, Kernon

    2016-03-01

    Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comparable effects on fecal weight; both contributed to it more than fruit fibers. Less fermentable fibers increased fecal weight to a greater degree than more fermentable fibers. Dietary fiber did not change transit time in those with an initial time of food sources of fiber on bowel function and regularity since 1993. PMID:26950143

  17. Conducting ethanobotanical surveys: an example from Ghana on plants used for the protection of stored cereals and pulses (NRI Bulletin 77)

    OpenAIRE

    Cobbinah, J.R.; Moss, C.; Golob, P.; Belmain, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    A survey was undertaken in the Ashanti Region of Ghana to assess the use of plant materials with insecticidal and repellent properties on local farms. Emphasis was placed on plant materials used to protect stores containing cereals and pulses. A total of 27 plant species were recorded as having protective qualities against storage pests of cereals and pulses. The species Chromolaena odorata (L.) [siam weed], Azadirachta indica A. Juss [neem] and Capsicum annuum L. [chilli pepper] were the mos...

  18. Diet supplementation for 5 weeks with polyphenol-rich cereals improves several functions and the redox state of mouse leucocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Pedro; Alvarado, Carmen; Mathieu, Florence; Jiménez, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    Background Cereals naturally contain a great variety of polyphenols, which exert a wide range of physiological effects both in vitro and in vivo. Many of their protective effects, including an improvement of the function and redox state of immune cells in unhealthy or aged subjects come from their properties as powerful antioxidant compounds. However, whether cereal-based dietary supplementation positively affects the immune function and cellular redox state of healthy subjects remains unclear. Aim of the study To investigate the effects of supplementation (20% wt/wt) for 5 weeks with four different cereal fractions on healthy mice. Methods Several parameters of function and redox state of peritoneal leukocytes were measured. The cereals, named B (wheat germ), C (buckwheat flour), D (fine rice bran) and E (wheat middlings) contained different amounts of gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, catechin, rutin and oryzanol as major polyphenols. Results In general, all cereal fractions caused an improvement of the leukocyte parameters studied such as chemotaxis capacity, microbicidal activity, lymphoproliferative response to mitogens, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) release, as well as oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSSG/GSH ratio, catalase (CAT) activity and lipid oxidative damage. We observed similar effects among the cereal fractions. Conclusions The results suggest that some of these effects may due, at least partially, to the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols naturally present in cereals. Since an appropriate function of the leukocytes has been proposed as marker of the health state, a short-term intake of cereals seems to be sufficient to exert a benefit in the health of the general population. However, further studies are needed to assess the optimal doses and to find out which active polyphenols are able to mediate the observed physiological effects before

  19. Fluoride content of several breakfast cereals and snacks found in Brazil Conteúdo de flúor em diversos cereais matinais e salgadinhos encontrados no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Eid da Silva Cardoso; Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio; José Mauro Granjeiro; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

    2003-01-01

    Breakfast cereals and snacks are foodstuffs highly appreciated by children, and the possibility that they contain substantial amounts of fluoride, associated with their widespread consume, may make them important contributors to the total daily fluoride intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the fluoride content on several breakfast cereals (A) and snacks (B) purchased in Brazil. The analysis were made after HMDS-facilitated diffusion (Taves) using the ion-specific electrode (9609). Mea...

  20. Effects of Acute Heat Stress on Lipid Peroxidation and Glutathione Levels in Liver and Muscle Tissues of Kars Native Geese which Feeding Different Cereal Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil Kalaycı; Ökkeş Yılmaz

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute heat stress on lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels in liver and muscle tissues of Kars native geese which feeding different cereal grains. Geese were randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups (7 animals/ group) which feeding different cereal grains. The first group was used as the control group. The second group was only fed with barley, the third group with wheat, the fourth group with rye and the fifth group with...