Enujiugha, Victor N; Badejo, Adebanjo A
Probiotics offer remarkable potential for the prevention and management of various infective and noninfective disorders. They are reported to play key roles in the suppression of gastrointestinal infections, antimicrobial activity, improvement in lactose metabolism, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system stimulation, antimutagenic properties, anticarcinogenic properties, anti-diarrheal properties, and improvement in inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotic foods are classically confined to beverages and cheese, containing live organisms of the lactic acid bacteria family, such health-promoting foods are traditionally dairy-based, comprising milk and its fermented products. However, recent research focuses on the probiotic potentials of fermented cereal-based beverages which are especially consumed in developing countries characterized by low nutritional security and high incidence of gut pathogen infections. Moreover, lactose intolerance and cholesterol content associated with dairy products, coupled with the vegetarian tendencies of diverse populations in the third world, tend to enforce the recent recourse to nondairy beverages. Probiotic microorganisms are mostly of human or animal origin; however, strains recognized as probiotics are also found in nondairy fermented substrates. This review examines the potentials of some traditional cereal-based beverages to serve as probiotic foods, their microbial and functional properties, as well as their process optimization and storage for enhanced utilization.
Waters, Deborah M; Mauch, Alexander; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele
In this review, we aim to describe the mechanisms by which LAB can fulfil the novel role of efficient cell factory for the production of functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of cereal-based beverages. LAB fermentation is a safe, economical, and traditional method of food preservation foremost, as well as having the additional benefits of flavor, texture, and nutrition amelioration. Additionally, LAB fermentation in known to render cereal-based foods and beverages safe, in a chemical-free, consumer-friendly manner, from an antinutrient and toxigenic perspective. Huge market opportunities and potential exist for food manufacturers who can provide the ideal functional beverage fulfilling consumer needs. Newly developed fermented cereal-based beverages must address markets globally including, high-nutrition markets (developing countries), lifestyle choice consumers (vegetarian, vegan, low-fat, low-salt, low-calorie), food-related non-communicable disease sufferers (cardiovascular disease, diabetes), and green label consumers (Western countries). To fulfil these recommendations, a suitable LAB starter culture and cereal-based raw materials must be developed. These strains would be suitable for the biopreservation of cereal beverages and, ideally, would be highly antifungal, anti-mycotoxigenic, mycotoxin-binding and proteolytic (neutralize toxic peptides and release flavor-contributing amino acids) with an ability to ferment cereals, whilst synthesizing oligosaccharides, thus presenting a major opportunity for the development of safe cereal-based prebiotic functional beverages to compete with and replace the existing dairy versions.
Munoz Insa, Alicia
Flavor stability has always been of particular interest in the brewing industry. Sunstruck flavor may occur if beer is exposed to light without protection. This work evaluates the potential of different raw materials, malting and brewing process on modifying the content of sunstruck flavor initiators and inhibitors. Furthermore, the results achieved by this work provide a valuable basis for the design of light stable cereal-based beverages. Die Aromastabilität des Bieres ist von jeher von ...
Full Text Available Fermented products are one of the important foodstuffs in many countries of the world. People have gradually recognized the nutritional, functional and therapeutic value of these products and this has made them even more popular. Today, almost all consumers have a significant portion of their nutritional requirements fulfilled through these products. Scientific and technological knowledge is quite well developed for some fermented products such as wine, beer, cheese, and bread. These products are produced universally. However, scientific knowledge for some traditional foods produced locally in Turkey is still poor and not thorough. Numerous traditional, cereal-based fermented foods are produced in Turkey. The aim of this paper is to provide knowledge regarding the characterization, raw materials used for production, production methods, fermentation conditions and microorganisms which are effective in the fermentation of traditional foods. The study will focus on Boza, Tarhana, and Chickpea bread which are foods widely produced in Turkey.
Coda, Rossana; Cagno, Raffaella Di; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe
Cereal-based foods represent a very important source of biological as well as of cultural diversity, as testified by the wide range of derived fermented products. A trend that is increasingly attracting bakery industries as well as consumers is the use of non-conventional flours for the production of novel products, characterised by peculiar flavour and better nutritional value. Lactic acid bacteria microbiota of several non-wheat cereals and pseudo-cereals has been recently deeply investigated with the aim of studying the biodiversity and finding starter cultures for sourdough fermentation. Currently, the use of ancient or ethnic grains is mainly limited to traditional typical foods and the bread making process is not well standardised with consequent negative effects on the final properties. The challenge in fermenting such grains is represented by the necessity to combine good technology and sensory properties with nutritional/health benefits. The choice of the starter cultures has a critical impact on the final quality of cereal-based products, and strains that dominate and outcompete contaminants should be applied for specific sourdough fermentations. In this sense, screening and characterisation of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota is very useful in the improvement of a peculiar flour, from both a nutritional and technological point of view.
Ogunremi, O R; Sanni, A I; Agrawal, R
To determine the starter culture and multifunctional potentials of yeast strains from some cereal-based Nigerian traditional fermented food products. Yeast isolates were screened for enzyme production and identified by sequencing the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. Pichia kluyveri LKC17, Issatchenkia orientalis OSL11, Pichia kudriavzevii OG32, Pichia kudriavzevii ROM11 and Candida tropicalis BOM21 exhibited the highest protease, lipase and phytase activity. They were selected and further evaluated for gastrointestinal survival and adherence ability. Although strain-specific, they retained viability at 37°C and showed survival at pH 2·0., I. orientalis OSL11 showed the highest survival at 2% bile salts concentration and P. kudriavzevii ROM11 showed the least survival. The yeast strains showed strong autoaggregation ability (81·24-91·85%) and hydrophobicity to n-hexadecane (33·61-42·30%). The highest co-aggregation ability was detected for P. kudriavzevii OG32 and Escherichia coli (71·57%). All the yeast strains removed cholesterol in the range of 49·03-74·05% over 48 h and scavenged for free radicals in methanol reaction system. In this study, we isolated new yeast strains with multifunctional potentials that can be used as functional starter cultures to produce cereal-based probiotic products. The development of probiotic yeast strains as starter culture to improve the quality attributes and confer functional value on cereal-based traditional fermented foods is beneficial. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.
People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy
Greppi, Anna; Saubade, Fabien; Botta, Cristian; Humblot, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre; Cocolin, Luca
With the aim of selecting starter cultures with interesting probiotic potential and with the ability to produce folate in a food matrix, yeast strains isolated from fermented cereal-based African foods were investigated. A total of 93 yeast strains were screened for their tolerance to pH 2 and 0.3% of bile salts. Pichia kudriavzevii isolates gave the best results. Selected P. kudriavzevii strains were tested for survival to the simulated human digestion and for adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Moreover, presence of folate biosynthesis genes was verified and production of extra and intra-cellular folate determined during growth in culture medium. 31% of yeast strains could tolerate pH 2, while 99% bile salts. Survival rate after simulated digestion ranged between 11 and 45%, while adhesion rate between 12 and 40%. Folate production was mainly intracellular, maximum after 24 h of growth. To be closer to traditional cereal-based fermentations, a P. kudriavzevii strain with good probiotic potential was co-inoculated with Lactobacillus fermentum strains in a pearl millet gruel. This resulted in in situ folate production that peaked after 4 h. The use of strains with both probiotic and nutritional enrichment properties may have a greater impact for the consumers. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Müller, Julia; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Birk, Florian; Schrenk, Dieter; Zorn, Holger
A cereal-based beverage was developed by fermentation of wort with the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. The beverage possessed a fruity, fresh, and slightly floral aroma. The volatiles of the beverage were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and additionally by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The aroma compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometer and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) followed by aroma (extract) dilution analysis. Thirty-four different odor impressions were perceived, and 27 corresponding compounds were identified. Fifteen key odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 to 128 were quantitated, and their respective odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Six key odorants were synthesized de novo by T. versicolor. Furthermore, quantitative changes during the fermentation process were analyzed. To prepare for the market introduction of the beverage, a comprehensive safety assessment was performed.
Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.
The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional foo
Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.
The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional
Rakin Marica B.
Full Text Available One of the most economical ways of whey processing is the production of beverages, that represents a single process that exploits all the potential of whey as a raw material. Functional and sensory characteristics of whey based beverages are a criterion that is crucial to the marketing of products and win over consumers. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional and functional characteristics of fermented whey beverage with milk and commercial ABY-6 culture. The results showed that the applied starter culture can be used for the production of fermented whey based beverage with satisfactory nutritional properties. Addition of milk was important not only in the nutritional quality of the resulting product, but also improved the taste, the homogeneity and stability. Analysis of the chemical composition of fermented whey based beverage and nutritional information about it indicates that the product is a good source of protein and calcium. Fermented beverage contained 8.07 log (CFU/mL, showed antioxidant activity of at least 38.1% and the titratable acidity of 28.2°SH corresponding to the acidity of the product in this category. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31017 i br. 451-03-00605/2012-16/85
Full Text Available Background. Production of fermented probiotic beverages can be a good method for acid whey usage. The obtained products combine a high nutritional value of whey with health beneﬁts claimed for probiotic bac- teria. The aim of the study was to deﬁne quality properties of beverages based on fresh acid whey and milk with addition of buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder. Material and methods. Samples were inoculated with two strains of commercial probiotic cultures: Lac- tobacillus acidophilus La-5 or Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. After fermentation, samples were stored at refrigerated conditions. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days sensory characteristics, hardness, acetaldehyde content, titratable acidity, pH acidity and count of bacteria cells were evaluated. Results. Throughout all storage period, the number of bacteria was higher than 8 log cfu/ml in the all sam- ples. Beverages with La-5 strain had higher hardness and acidity, whilst samples with Bb-12 contained more acetaldehyde. Samples with buttermilk powder had better sensory properties than with sweet whey powder. Conclusions. Obtained products made of acid whey combined with milk and fortiﬁed with buttermilk pow- der or sweet whey powder, are good medium for growth and survival of examined probiotic bacteria strains. The level of bacteria was sufﬁcient to provide health beneﬁts to consumers.
Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende
Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The study was conducted utilizing a 2(3) central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g(-1)), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L(-1). These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L(-1)), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L(-1) and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.
Patrick E. McGovern; Juzhong Zhang; Jigen Tang; Zhiqing Zhang; Gretchen R. Hall; Robert A. Moreau; Alberto Nuñez; Eric D. Butrym; Michael P. Richards; Chen-shan Wang; Guangsheng Cheng; Zhijun Zhao; Changsui Wang; Ofer Bar-Yosef
Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the early Neolithic village of Jiahu in Henan province in China have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit...
Lacorn, Markus; Weiss, Thomas
In 2008, the AACC International Protein Technical Committee (now Protein and Enzymes Technical Committee) initiated a collaborative study of a method for determining gluten in fermented products, using an R5 competitive ELISA system. The method has been approved as AACCI Approved Method AACCI 38-55.02. The new method has been validated for testing fermented foods and beverages to determine that they conform to the Codex threshold of 20 mg of gluten/kg in total for gluten-free products. It is recommended that the method be accepted by AOAC as Official First Action.
Graeme M Walker
Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages are produced following the fermentation of sugars by yeasts, mainly (but not exclusively strains of the species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sugary starting materials may emanate from cereal starches (which require enzymatic pre-hydrolysis in the case of beers and whiskies, sucrose-rich plants (molasses or sugar juice from sugarcane in the case of rums, or from fruits (which do not require pre-hydrolysis in the case of wines and brandies. In the presence of sugars, together with other essential nutrients such as amino acids, minerals and vitamins, S. cerevisiae will conduct fermentative metabolism to ethanol and carbon dioxide (as the primary fermentation metabolites as the cells strive to make energy and regenerate the coenzyme NAD+ under anaerobic conditions. Yeasts will also produce numerous secondary metabolites which act as important beverage flavour congeners, including higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulphur compounds. These are very important in dictating the final flavour and aroma characteristics of beverages such as beer and wine, but also in distilled beverages such as whisky, rum and brandy. Therefore, yeasts are of vital importance in providing the alcohol content and the sensory profiles of such beverages. This Introductory Chapter reviews, in general, the growth, physiology and metabolism of S. cerevisiae in alcoholic beverage fermentations.
Henkel, Terry W
The alcoholic beverage parakari is a product of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation by Amerindians of Guyana. While fermented beverage production is nearly universal among indigenous Amazonians, parakari is unique among New World beverages because it involves the use of an amylolytic mold (Rhizopus sp., Mucoraceae, Zygomycota) followed by a solid substratum ethanol fermentation. The mycological significance of this dual fermentation process previously was unrecognized. A detailed study of parakari fermentation was made in the Wapisiana Amerindian village of Aishalton, South Rupununi, Guyana. Thirty steps were involved in parakari manufacture, and these exhibited a high degree of sophistication, including the use of specific cassava varieties, control of culture temperature and boosting of Rhizopus inoculum potential with purified starch additives. During the fermentation process, changes in glucose content, pH, flavor, odor and culture characteristics were concomitant with a desirable finished product. Parakari is the only known example of an indigenous New World fermentation that uses an amylolytic mold, likely resulting from domestication of a wild Rhizopus species in the distant past. Parakari production is remarkably similar to dual fermentations of Asia, yet it was independently derived.
Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....
The Effects of Technological Modifications on the Fermentation of Borde, an Ethiopian ... information on the effects of various process ... earthenware pot with plastic jar; 2) maize fermented ..... Yeast and mould colonies were counted on YGC.
Cousin, Fabien J; Le Guellec, Rozenn; Schlusselhuber, Margot; Dalmasso, Marion; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Cretenet, Marina
Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. 'French ciders' refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind of product are scarce compared to wine, especially on phenomena associated with microbial activities. The wine fermentation microbiome and its dynamics, organoleptic improvement for healthy and pleasant products and development of starters are now widely studied. Even if both beverages seem close in terms of microbiome and process (with both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations), the inherent properties of the raw materials and different production and environmental parameters make research on the specificities of apple fermentation beverages worthwhile. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cider microbial ecosystem, associated activities and the influence of process parameters. In addition, available data on cider quality and safety is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the future role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the development of even better or new beverages made from apples.
Full Text Available The characteristics of fermented plant beverages based on a sensory test, physico-chemical properties, enumeration of microorganisms present and their microbiological quality were investigated. A total of 19 samples of beverages collected from various sources in southern Thailand were examined. It was found that odor, color and clarity and the presence of Cu, Zn, K and Na were mainly dependent on the types of plant used and the additive of sugar or honey. Therefore, the appearance of the beverages was light brown and dark brown. An ester smell was occasionally detected. The fermented plant beverages had sour flavor that developed during fermentation and a little sweetness from residual sugar. The taste was related to the amounts of organic acid and sugar as measured in the ranges of 0.98-7.13% (pH 2.63-3.72 and 0.21-4.20%, respectively. The levels of alcohols measured as ethanol were between 0.03-3.32% and methanol in a range of 0.019 0.084%. Methanol production was dependent on both the fermentation process and the plant used. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were not detected in any sample, whereas other microbes were detected in some samples as were total bacterial count, lactic acid bacteria, yeast and mold in amounts that differed depending on the fermentation time and also the level of sanitation of the production process.
McGovern, Patrick E; Zhang, Juzhong; Tang, Jigen; Zhang, Zhiqing; Hall, Gretchen R; Moreau, Robert A; Nuñez, Alberto; Butrym, Eric D; Richards, Michael P; Wang, Chen-Shan; Cheng, Guangsheng; Zhao, Zhijun; Wang, Changsui
Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the early Neolithic village of Jiahu in Henan province in China have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit (hawthorn fruit and/or grape) was being produced as early as the seventh millennium before Christ (B.C.). This prehistoric drink paved the way for unique cereal beverages of the proto-historic second millennium B.C., remarkably preserved as liquids inside sealed bronze vessels of the Shang and Western Zhou Dynasties. These findings provide direct evidence for fermented beverages in ancient Chinese culture, which were of considerable social, religious, and medical significance, and help elucidate their earliest descriptions in the Shang Dynasty oracle inscriptions.
McGovern, Patrick E.; Zhang, Juzhong; Tang, Jigen; Zhang, Zhiqing; Hall, Gretchen R.; Moreau, Robert A.; Nuñez, Alberto; Butrym, Eric D.; Richards, Michael P.; Wang, Chen-shan; Cheng, Guangsheng; Zhao, Zhijun; Wang, Changsui
Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the early Neolithic village of Jiahu in Henan province in China have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit (hawthorn fruit and/or grape) was being produced as early as the seventh millennium before Christ (B.C.). This prehistoric drink paved the way for unique cereal beverages of the proto-historic second millennium B.C., remarkably preserved as liquids inside sealed bronze vessels of the Shang and Western Zhou Dynasties. These findings provide direct evidence for fermented beverages in ancient Chinese culture, which were of considerable social, religious, and medical significance, and help elucidate their earliest descriptions in the Shang Dynasty oracle inscriptions. PMID:15590771
Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu
Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted in the need for food products with versatile health-benefiting properties. Cereal- and cereal component-based food products offer opportunities to include probiotics, prebiotics, and fibers in the human diet. Various growth studies using probiotic Lactic acid bacteria on cereal-based substrates and utilization of whole grain or components as high-fiber foods in developing novel food products lend support to the idea that cereal-based media may well be good probiotic carriers. It is essential that science and traditional knowledge should go together to find mutually beneficial results. In the Indian subcontinent, making use of fermented food and beverages using local food crops and other biological resources are very common. But the nature of the products and the base material vary from region to region.
Kantachote, Duangporn; Charernjiratrakul, Wilawan
The effects of 3 different methods for removing the initial air on the properties of fermented plant beverages produced from phom-nang seaweed (Gracilaria fisheri) and wild forest noni (Morinda coreia Ham.) were investigated. Only method M which covered the space above the fermentation liquid with a water filled plastic bag produced no surface film of yeast, had the highest acidity and also antibacterial activity from both plants after 90 days of fermentation. However, the yeast count still exceeded the standard guidelines for plant beverages. The fermented beverage from wild forest noni showed more antibacterial activity against 3 of 4 pathogenic bacteria tested than that from the phomnang seaweed, probably for its higher levels of acidity and ethanol content. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from the fermentation samples from days 1-5 using the method M from both fermented plant beverages were Leuconostoc mesenteroides supsp. mesenteroides and Leu. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum while presence of Lactobacilus plantarum was only recorded at days 4-5 in the wild forest noni beverage. From days 6-14 the isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus brevis from wild forest noni beverage, whereas only L. brevis was not detected in the seaweed beverage. During days 21-45 both beverages had a similar LAB population of L. plantarum and L. brevis while L. coryniformis was only found in the wild forest noni beverage. Between days 60-90 in both plant beverages only L. plantarum and Lactobacillius sp. were detected.
Monereo Megías, Susana; Arnoriaga Rodríguez, María; Olmedilla Ishishi, Yoko Lucía; Martínez de Icaya, Purificación
Obesity is a very prevalent disease with multiple chronic complications that decrease or disappear after a small (5-10%) but maintained weight loss. Nevertheless, maintaining weight loss after the treatment is very difficult and it involves one of the biggest challenges to control this epidemic. Although the reasons that contribute to regain the lost weight are diverse and related to the biological response to caloric restriction and the lack of adherence to treatment, up to 20% of the patients are able to keep it off. The keys to success, involve the maintenance of healthy habits, exercise and a reasonable daily calorie intake to allow a normal way of life, without sacrificing the social life. At this point, learning to distinguish food and drink options in a society where social life often revolves around the table is very important. We review the keys to keep the weight off after a diet as well as the role of fermented beverages such as beer, in this process. In conclusion, maintenance the weight loss is harder than losing it. The mild-to-moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as beer is not associated with weight increase.
Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira María; Mozzi, Fernanda; de Valdez, Graciela Font
Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is employed as functional food ingredient because of its nutritional value and emulsifying properties. However, the major whey protein beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the main cause of milk allergy. The aim of this study was to formulate a fermented whey beverage using selected lactic acid bacteria and WPC35 (WPC containing 35% of proteins) to obtain a fermented product with low lactose and BLG contents and high essential amino acid concentration. Cell viability, lactose consumption, lactic acid production, proteolytic activity, amino acid release and BLG degradation by the selected strains Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 and Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 804, as single or mixed (SLaB) cultures were evaluated in WPC35 (10%, w/v) incubated at 37 degrees C for 24h. Then, the fermented WPC35 was mixed with peach juice and calcium lactate (2%, w/v) and stored at 10 degrees C for 28 days. During fermentation, single cultures grew 1.7-3.1 log CFU/ml and produced 25.1-95.0 mmol/l of lactic acid as consequence of lactose consumption (14.0-41.8 mmol/l) after 12h fermentation. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 was the most proteolytic strain (626 microg/ml Leu) and released the branched-chain essential amino acids Leu (16 microg/ml), Ile (27 microg/ml) and Val (43 microg/ml). All strains were able to degrade BLG in a range of 41-85% after 12h incubation. The starter culture SLaB grew 3.0 log CFU/ml, showed marked pH reduction, produced 122.0 mmol/l of lactic acid, displayed high proteolytic activity (484 microg/ml Leu) releasing Leu (13 microg/ml), Ile (18 microg/ml) and Val (35 microg/ml), and hydrolyzed 92% of BLG. The addition of calcium lactate to WPC35 maintained the drink pH stable during shelf life; no contamination was detected during this period. After 28 days, a decrease in cell viability of all strains was observed being more pronounced for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus
McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S
Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future.
Soro-Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Brou, Kouakou; Amani, Georges; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi Marcelin
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the primary microorganisms used to ferment maize-, sorghum- or millet-based foods that are processed in West Africa. Fermentation contributes to desirable changes in taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility and texture in gruels (ogi, baca, dalaki), doughs (agidi, banku, komé) or steam-cooked granulated products (arraw, ciacry, dégué). Similar to other fermented cereal foods that are available in Africa, these products suffer from inconsistent quality. The use of LAB starter cultures during cereal dough fermentation is a subject of increasing interest in efforts to standardise this step and guaranty product uniformity. However, their use by small-scale processing units or small agro-food industrial enterprises is still limited. This review aims to illustrate and discuss major issues that influence the use of LAB starter cultures during the processing of fermented cereal foods in West Africa.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a new technology for making traditional Lithuanian non-alcoholic beverage kvass from fermented cereals by extending the spectrum of raw materials (extruded rye and applying new biotechnological resources (xylanolytic enzymes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB to improve its functional properties. Arabinoxylans in extruded rye were very efficiently hydrolysed into oligosaccharides by xylanolytic complex Ceremix Plus MG. Using Ceremix Plus MG and LAB fermentation, the yield of arabinoxylooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides in beverage was increased to 300 and 1100 mg/L, respectively. Beverages fermented by LAB had lower pH values and ethanol volume fraction compared to the yeast-fermented beverage. The acceptability of the beverage fermented by Lactobacillus sakei was higher than of Pediococcus pentosaceus- or yeast-fermented beverages and similar to the acceptability of commercial kvass made from malt extract. The results showed that extruded rye, xylanolytic enzymes and LAB can be used for production of novel and safe high-value non-alcoholic beverages.
Loreta Basinskiene; Grazina Juodeikiene; Daiva Vidmantiene; Maija Tenkanen; Tomas Makaravicius; Elena Bartkiene
The aim of this study is to develop a new technology for making traditional Lithuanian non-alcoholic beverage kvass from fermented cereals by extending the spectrum of raw materials (extruded rye...
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collecte...
.... (2) Methyl bromide is used to fumigate corn grits and cracked rice in the production of fermented... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed...
Cho, Young-Hee; Shin, Il-Seung; Hong, Sung-Moon; Kim, Cheol-Hyun
The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 10(9) CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties.
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate some microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of fermented milk beverages collected at the main supermarkets in Belo Horizonte (MG. 40 samples of the products corresponding to five distinct brands were collected. They were submitted to the following analyses: Most Probable Number (MPN of total (30ºC and thermal tolerant coliforms (45ºC, Salmonella spp., coagulase positive Staphylococcus, molds and yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, pH, titratable acidity and contents of moisture, total solids, protein and fat. The analyses were carried out during the last week of shelf life. The microbiological quality of the samples was good and the counts of lactic bacteria were above the minimum established by the official legislation. Streptococcus and Lactobacillus were isolated and identified from the products and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was molecularly identified in three samples. The mean values for the contents of fat and protein, titratable acidity, pH, moisture and total solids ranged from 1.24 to 1.98%; 1.88 to 2.22%; 0.54 to 0.66%; 3.91 to 4.16; 81.18 to 83.25% and 16.75 to 18.82%, respectively. All samples had protein content in agreement with the official legislation.
Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio
The aim of this work was to investigate on the functional features of a donkey milk probiotic berevage as a novel food. Particularly, it was to study the decrease of lactose content and the antioxidant activity of standard yogurt (YC) and probiotic yogurt (YP; Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei) from donkey milk during the storage up to 30 d at 4 ºC. The evolution of lactose content using enzymatic-spectrophotometric kits was analyzed. Antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and thiol assays. Parallel consumer sensory studies were carried out as consumer test in order to gain information about the impact of these novel fermented beverages on sensory perceptions. The statistical analysis has shown significant effect of studied factors. The results showed that the lactose content gradually decreased during storage in both yogurts, reaching values of 2.36% and 2.10% in YC and YP, respectively, at 30 d (P donkey milk could be configured as health and nutraceutical food, which aims to meet nutritional requirements of certain consumers groups with lactose or cow milk protein intolerance.
Nursiwi, A.; Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Sari, A. M.; Laksono, P. W.; Aprilia, E. N.
Whey is the liquid resulting from the coagulation of milk from cheese manufacture. The availability of lactose in whey and presence of other essential nutrients for the growth of microorganisms makes it one of the potential substrate for the production of different bio-products through fermentation process. Lactic acid production through fermentation from lactic acid bacteria could be an alternative processing route for whey lactose utilization. However, a problem with such approaches is the low total solids content. Sucrose and tomato juice added to increases the total solids content. The aim of this work was to study the characteristic of fermented whey beverage with different tomato juice concentration (5, 10, 15%) using probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Lactic acid content, pH, antioxidant activity, and sensory properties of fermented whey beverage samples were examined after 18hours fermentation. Fermented whey beverage with 5% tomato juice obtained the highest scores for color, aroma, flavor, texture and overall attributes. The lactic acid content and pH of fermented whey beverage ranged from 0.326 to 0.437% and from 4.13 to 4.64, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity (9.073%) was found in sample with 15% tomato juice concentration. The best formulation is the sample with 5% of tomato juice concentration.
Zulu, R M; Dillon, V M; Owens, J D
A typical munkoyo beverage was made by fermenting Rhynchosia heterophylla root extract-cooked maize meal mixture with Lactobacillus confusus LZI and Saccharomyces cerevisiae YZ20. The fermented munkoyo beverage had a pH of 3.3, lactic acid content of 60 mmol/l, ethanol 320-410 mmol/l and a characteristic 'munkoyo' aroma. L. confusus, used alone, produced a beverage with a faint munkoyo flavour note whilst beverage produced with S. cerevisiae alone seemed not to have a typical munkoyo note. R. heterophylla root extract converted 75% of the starch in sterile cooked maize meat to maltose (80% of total sugars), maltotriose (17%) and glucose (3%) in I h at 45 degrees C. During fermentation by the mixed culture or the yeast alone most of the maltose was utilised but little or none of the maltotriose. The ratio of yeast to lactic acid bacteria in the starter culture affected the rate of production of ethanol but had no effect on the growth or acid production by the bacterium. To obtain a munkoyo beverage with the desired low alcohol concentration (culture should be 1:1000 or less and the beverage should be fermented for 24 h only.
Kenya, P R; Odongo, H W; Oundo, G; Waswa, K; Muttunga, J; Molla, A M; Nath, S K; Molla, A; Greenough, W B; Juma, R
A total of 257 boys (age range 4-55 months), who had acute diarrhoea with moderate to severe dehydration, were randomly assigned to treatment with either the World Health Organisation/United Nations Childrens Fund (WHO/Unicef) recommended oral rehydration solution or cereal based oral rehydration solution made either of maize, millet, sorghum, or rice. After the initial rehydration was achieved patients were offered traditional weaning foods. Treatment with oral rehydration solution continued until diarrhoea stopped. Accurate intake and output was maintained throughout the study period. Efficacy of the treatment was compared between the different treatment groups in terms of intake of the solution, stool output, duration of diarrhoea after admission, and weight gain after 24, 48, and 72 hours, and after resolution of diarrhoea. Results suggest that all the cereal based solutions were as effective as glucose based standard oral rehydration solution in the treatment of diarrhoea.
Juliana Tensol PINTO
Full Text Available Abstract Hovenia dulcis pseudofruits have underexplored properties for food purposes, despite their pleasant sensory characteristics and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this study was the elaboration and chemical characterization of the alcoholic fermented beverage of H. dulcis, using selected strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CCMA 0200. The resulting fermented beverage presented high content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity when compared to other fruits and beverages (DPPH and ABTS assay. The alcohol content was 12.9 oGL and total sugars 3.57g/L. By the GC-MS analysis, 39 compounds were identified including metabolites with therapeutic potential such as eugenol, trans-farnesol salicylates. The flavonoid dihidromyricetin was identified and quantified (75.17 mg/L by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-MS/MS. The results reinforce the interest on nutraceutical and functional properties of this beverage and opens perspectives for new studies that value this underexplored pseudofruit.
Full Text Available Cheese whey level and caseinomacropeptide (CMP index of fermented milk beverages added with four levels of cheese whey (0, 10, 20, and 40% and stored at 8-10oC for 0, 7, 14 and 21 days were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-gel filtration (HPLC-GF. Additionally, the interference of the starter culture and the storage time on the detection of cheese whey and CMP were investigated. Refrigerated storage up to 21 days did not affect (P>0.05 cheese whey and CMP amounts in milk (0% of cheese whey and in fermented milk beverages added with 10 and 20% of cheese whey (P>0.05. However, cheese whey and CMP amounts were higher than expected (P<0.05 in fermented milk beverages added with 40% of cheese whey and stored for 21 days.
Mokoena, Mduduzi Paul; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O
Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics.
Mduduzi Paul Mokoena
Full Text Available Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics.
Mokoena, Mduduzi Paulos; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O.
Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popul...
This study was aimed at providing fundamental information con ern ing the manufacture, composition, and consumption of the major Kenyan traditional fermented beverages.In Chapter 1, the reader is introduced to Kenya, its population and climate, and several aspects of its agriculture
This study was aimed at providing fundamental information con ern ing the manufacture, composition, and consumption of the major Kenyan traditional fermented beverages.In Chapter 1, the reader is introduced to Kenya, its population and climate, and several aspects of its agriculture underl
Several starter cultures used in the production of fermented beverages were screened for lactic acid bacteria that produced water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose. The strain producing the greatest amount was identified as Lactobacillus satsumensis by its 16S RNA sequence. This strain produc...
Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-il; Lee, Jee-yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung
Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888
马先红; 许海侠; 孙丽卓
The types and process formula of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverage were reviewed. The current situation and development prospect of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverages were also analyzed,in order to provide some theoretical reference for the research of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverage.%对国内黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料的种类和工艺配方进行了综述。对黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料目前的状况与发展前景进行了分析，以期为黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料的研究提供一些理论参考。
KAMILLA SOARES MENDONÇA
Full Text Available The Technical Regulation on Identity and Quality of Whey-based Drinks establish few parameters to dairy beverages, which may impair standardized product providing to the consumer. The ingathering of the physicochemical characteristics provides information that allow the standardization of the product and provide safety to the consumer, whereas the rheological characterization in important for the processing. Samples of five commercial brands of strawberry flavored dairy beverages, with ten to fourteen days of manufacture, from three different batches were analyzed in triplicate in order to study the percentage of protein, fat, pH, titratable acidity, total dry extract, fixed mineral residue and lactose. It was performed a colorimetric determination and verification of the presence of starch .The rheological tests were carried out in a rotational rheometer and the data was adjusted by Herschel-Bulkley’s model. The statistical analysis was executed by an analysis of variance and the Tukey’s test with 5% significance. The analysis showed that the percentages of lipids of three brands were below the required by legislation. Furthermore, the presence of starch in the composition was detected for all analyzed beverages. Both for the physicochemical and rheological parameters the brands of dairy beverage examined differed between themselves in several parameters. These results indicated the need to establish well-defined identity and quality standards aiming at product quality control and consumer safety improvement.
Escalante, Adelfo; López Soto, David R.; Velázquez Gutiérrez, Judith E.; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; López-Munguía, Agustín
Pulque is a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage produced from the fermentation of the fresh sap known as aguamiel (mead) extracted from several species of Agave (maguey) plants that grow in the Central Mexico plateau. Currently, pulque is produced, sold and consumed in popular districts of Mexico City and rural areas. The fermented product is a milky white, viscous, and slightly acidic liquid beverage with an alcohol content between 4 and 7° GL and history of consumption that dates back to pre-Hispanic times. In this contribution, we review the traditional pulque production process, including the microbiota involved in the biochemical changes that take place during aguamiel fermentation. We discuss the historical relevance and the benefits of pulque consumption, its chemical and nutritional properties, including the health benefits associated with diverse lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential isolated from the beverage. Finally, we describe the actual status of pulque production as well as the social, scientific and technological challenges faced to preserve and improve the production of this ancestral beverage and Mexican cultural heritage. PMID:27446061
Escalante, Adelfo; López Soto, David R; Velázquez Gutiérrez, Judith E; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; López-Munguía, Agustín
Pulque is a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage produced from the fermentation of the fresh sap known as aguamiel (mead) extracted from several species of Agave (maguey) plants that grow in the Central Mexico plateau. Currently, pulque is produced, sold and consumed in popular districts of Mexico City and rural areas. The fermented product is a milky white, viscous, and slightly acidic liquid beverage with an alcohol content between 4 and 7° GL and history of consumption that dates back to pre-Hispanic times. In this contribution, we review the traditional pulque production process, including the microbiota involved in the biochemical changes that take place during aguamiel fermentation. We discuss the historical relevance and the benefits of pulque consumption, its chemical and nutritional properties, including the health benefits associated with diverse lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential isolated from the beverage. Finally, we describe the actual status of pulque production as well as the social, scientific and technological challenges faced to preserve and improve the production of this ancestral beverage and Mexican cultural heritage.
Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K
The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall.
Full Text Available Hardaliye is a non-alcoholic fermented beverage produced in a traditional way in Thrace, the European part of Turkey. The nutritional value of hardaliye is derived from the grapes and the fermentation process. Health benefits of hardaliye are also related to etheric oils present in mustard seeds. Hardaliye is a lactic acid fermented traditional beverage produced from grape juice and crushed grapes with the addition of different concentrations of whole/ground or heat-treated mustard seeds and sour cherry leaves. The color of hardaliye reflects the original color of the grapes and has a characteristic aroma. Dark red grape is preferred. Benzoic acid is used as preservative during production. Benzoic acid inhibits or decreases alcohol production by affecting the yeast. Fermentation occurs at room temperature for 7–10 days. If the ambient temperature is low, fermentation process can be extended until 20 days. Once fermented, the hardaliye is stored at 4 °C for three to four months. The hardaliye is consumed either fresh or aged. If it is aged, hardaliye may contain alcohol. The industrial production is just in small-scale and it must be developed. More studies are required to determine characteristic properties of hardaliye. Identification of the product properties will supply improvement for industrial production.
Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz
Mixture of pomegranate juice and whey was evaluated as a potential substrate for production of a novel beverage by kefir grains. The effects of two different variables, fermentation, temperature (19 and 25 °C) and kefir grain amount (5 %w/v and 8 %w/v), on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities of beverage were examined during a fermentation time of 32 h. TPC and antioxidant activities including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, inhibition effect upon linoleic acid autoxidation and inhibition effect upon ascorbate autoxidation increased significantly (p kefir grain amount of 8 %w/v were applied. Results proved antioxidant activities of beverages were desirable and fermentation by kefir grains has the ability to enhance these antioxidant activities, as compared with unfermented beverage. Also pomegranate juice and whey were suitable media for producing a novel dairy-juice beverage.
Jung, Suhan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Sun; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, So Young; Ko, Kwang Suk
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collected at 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h after alcohol consumption. The plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was highest in the placebo group. Compared with the control group, the AQL and AQF groups showed decreased ALT activity at 5 h after alcohol consumption. Plasma ethanol concentration was increased after alcohol intake and peaked at 3 h after alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, the A group showed a higher plasma ethanol concentration at 1 h (PAQF group showed the lowest mean plasma ethanol concentration compared to the other groups; however, there were no statistical differences. After 5 h of alcohol consumption, the AQL and AQF groups showed lower plasma ethanol concentrations compared with the B group. The sensory evaluation score for the fermented A. quinata fruit extract was lower than for the commercial hangover beverages. In conclusion, the present intervention study results suggest that fermented A. quinata extracts alleviate alcoholic hangover and reduce plasma ethanol concentrations.
Teodora Emilia Coldea
Full Text Available The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L. syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was used elderflower syrup both to improve the product s sensorial properties, and for their multiple benefits to health. The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower syrup was produced by fermentation in the bottle (after Champenoise method, with the addition of wine yeast. The novelty brought by this paper is the use of elderflower syrup in alcoholic-beverage industry.
Ordóñez, José Luis; Troncoso, Ana Maria; García-Parrilla, Maria Del Carmen; Callejón, Raquel Maria
Biogenic amines (BA) are generally considered as a food hazard, even though there is not a threshold for these biomolecules in the European legislation, except for histamine in fishery products. These compounds are formed during the storage and processing of certain foods through microbiological activity, and when present in high concentrations, could have toxicological effects, causing health problems in consumers, especially to sensitive persons. This fact, in addition to the economical concern involved, makes it necessary to control the amounts of biogenic amines in foods. For all these reasons, literature on biogenic amines in different food products, especially in fermented beverages, is extensive. This review provides an overview of the most recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages focusing on novelty, improvement and optimization of analytical methods. Hence, the different sample treatment procedures (including derivatization), the most important analytical techniques and the most frequent applications are described and discussed. Although biogenic amines have been determined in wine and other fermented beverages for decades, new advancements and technical possibilities have allowed to increase the accuracy and sensitivity of analytical methods, in order to overcome the challenges posed by the complex matrices and their high intrinsic variability. Thus, the different purposes of BA determination (food safety, production process or food microbiology research) and the most widely employed analytical techniques have been reviewed.
Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz
Mixture of pomegranate juice and whey was evaluated as a potential substrate for production of a novel probiotic beverage by kefir grains. Different fermentation conditions were used as viz: two fermentation temperature (19 ºC and 25 ºC) and two levels of kefir grains inoculum (5 % and 8%w/v). pH, acidity, lactose consumption as well as organic acids formation were determined during 32 hours of fermentation. Results showed that kefir grains were able to utilize lactose and decrease pH, increase acidity, produce lactic acid and acetic acid, while the level of citric acid decreased. It was observed these change depended on temperature and level of kefir grains with the highest changes at the temperature of 25 ºC and kefir grains inoculum of 8%w/v. Pomegranate juice and whey mixture therefore may serve as a suitable substrate for the production of novel probiotic dairy-fruit juice beverage by kefir grains and the sensory characteristics of this beverage were shown desirable results.
Full Text Available The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd, and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.
Luana, Nionelli; Rossana, Coda; Curiel, José Antonio; Kaisa, Poutanen; Marco, Gobbetti; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe
This study aimed at investigating the suitability of oat flakes for making functional beverages. Different technological options were assayed, including the amount of flakes, the inoculum of the starter and the addition of enzyme preparations. The beverage containing 25% (wt/wt) of oat flakes and fermented with L. plantarum LP09 was considered optimal on the basis of sensory and technological properties. The enzyme addition favored the growth of the starter, shortened the time needed to reach pH4.2 to ca. 8h, and favored a decrease of the quotient of fermentation. Fermentation increased the polyphenols availability and the antioxidant activity (25 and 70% higher, respectively) and decreased the hydrolysis index in vitro. Sensory analyses showed that fermented oat flakes beverage had the typical features of a yogurt-like beverage, enhancing the overall intensity of odor and flavor compared to the non-fermented control. Selection of proper processing and fermentation condition allowed the obtainment of a beverage with better nutritional and sensory properties.
Chiang Y. W.
Full Text Available Tapai is a well-known indigenous fermented alcoholic beverage among Kadazan-Dusun-Murut (KDM ethnics during festive occasions and gatherings in East Malaysia. Unfortunately, very little research has been done on this beverage. The objective of this study was to identify functional microfloras involved in the production of tapai. Samples from local producers were obtained for microbiological and proximate analysis. The fermentation process was predominated by yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB with initial numbers (CFU/g of 10^5 and 10^6, respectively, which gradually increased during the first 2 weeks fermentation but decreased thereafter. The yeasts were identified as Sacchromyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei, C. pelliculosa, C. guillermondii, C. magnoliae and Rhodotorula glutinis, whereas the LAB were Lactobacillus brevis, L. plantarum, L. collinoides and Pediococcus sp. Moulds and Enterobacteriaceae were only present during the first 2 days of fermentation. Acetic acid bacteria were not detected throughout the entire process. The pH of tapai declined slowly from 6.6 to 3.4 in 14 days, and then showed an increment to 4.0. On the other hand, titratable acidity (as % lactic acidincreased from 0.06 to 0.86 in 10 days, and then decreased to 0.82 at the end of the fermentation process. Alcohol was produced and the content can reach as high as 12.3% after 3 weeks fermentation. Proximate composition analysis showed that the moisture content in the end product was 61.8±6.1% whereas ash, protein, fat and crude fiber (of dried samples were 0.50±0.1%, 8.7±0.1%, 0.29±0.01% and 0.56±0.03%, respectively.
Full Text Available A characteristic property of mare milk is its low fat and protein content and high lactose content. Whey proteins account for approximately 40% total protein content, while casein content is below 50%. For this reason mare milk is defined as albumin milk in contrast to casein-type cow milk. The aim of the study was to modify cow milk composition to imitate that of mare milk using the microfiltration process. Fermented drinks were produced from modified cow milk with the use of two different starter cultures. Produced drinks were subjected to organoleptic examination, as well as physico-chemical and microbiological analyses. Analyses were performed after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days of cold storage. It was found that active acidity, density, colour and dynamic viscosity changed during storage. Counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts decreased. Drinks differed in terms of their taste, as well as aroma and consistency.
Fermentative microorganisms in the yeast genera Debaryomyces, Hyphopichia, Kluyveromyces, Lachancea, Saccharomyces, and Wickerhamomyces (and in the bacterial genus Lactobacillus) have been isolated from a variety of fermented beverages. These same microorganisms were very likely unknowingly utilized...
Choi, B; Ryu, D; Kim, C-I; Lee, J-Y; Choi, A; Koh, E
The occurrence of ethyl carbamate was investigated in fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the Korean total diet study. The concentrations of ethyl carbamate ranged from not detected to 166.5 μg kg(-1). Dietary exposure to ethyl carbamate was estimated by the probabilistic method. Estimated intakes of ethyl carbamate from foods and alcoholic beverages were 4.12 ng kg(-1) body weight (bw) per day for average consumers and 12.37 ng kg(-1) bw/day for 95th percentile high consumers. The major foods contributing to ethyl carbamate exposure were soy sauce (63%), followed by maesilju (plum liqueur, 30%), whisky (5%), and bokbunjaju (black raspberry wine, 2%). On the basis of the benchmark dose lower confidence limit 10% (BMDL10) of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw/day, margins of exposure were 128,000 for mean exposure and 40,000 for 95th percentile exposure. This indicates that the exposure of the Korean general population for ethyl carbamate is of low concern. However, careful vigilance should be continued for high consumers of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages.
Adriana Carla Santos de Menezes Ramos
Full Text Available This work aims to develop formulations of fermented dairy beverages with probiotic cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus e Bifidobacterium bifidum yellow monbin flavored, to characterize the chemical composition and to evaluate the stability during refrigerated storage for 28 days.The dairy beverages were developed from an experimental design 3x3, with two factors and three levels each: yellow monbin pulp (15, 20 and 25% and whey (20, 30 and 40%. Nine formulations were produced and submitted to a sensory acceptability test. Thereafter three selected formulations were evaluated based on their microbiological characteristics, proximate composition, pH and titratable acidity. As the acceptance was higher than 70% in all the formulations, were selected that had a higher proportion of whey. Thus, the formulations F3, F6 e F9 were selected. Considering the proximate composition, the selected formulations not differed regarding for carbohydrates. The dairy beverages showed stability with respect to pH and acidity during the shelf life of 28 days and satisfactory results as the investigation of pathogenic microorganisms within the standards established. Quantification of lactic acid bacteria evidenced high numbers to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus, values between 11.6 to 10.2 CFU log/mL and 8.9 to 11 CFU log/mL, respectively. The species Bifidobacterium bifidum presented less than 6 log/ mL CFU for the formulations. Based on these results, the selected dairy beverages formulations had nutrition, technology and sensorial feasibility.
Indigenous fermented foods and beverages play a major role in the diet of African people. The predominant yeast species seen is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, involved in basically three groups of indigenous fermented products: non-alcoholic starchy foods, alcoholic beverages and fermented milk. These products are to a great extent made by spontaneous fermentation and consequently S. cerevisiae often coexists with other microorganisms even though a microbiological succession usually takes place both between and within species. The functions of S. cerevisiae are mainly related to formation of alcohols and other aroma compounds, but stimulation of e.g. lactic acid bacteria, improvement of nutritional value, probiotic effects, inhibition of undesired microorganisms and production of tissue-degrading enzymes may also be observed. Several different isolates of S. cerevisiae have been shown to be involved in the fermentations and some of the isolates show pheno- and genotypic characteristics that deviate from those normally recognised for S. cerevisiae.
E.H.P. Andrade; M.R. Souza; Fonseca,L.M.; C.F.A.M. Penna; M.M.O.P. Cerqueira; T. Roza; Seridan,B.; M.F.S. Resende; Pinto, F. A.; C.N.B.C. Villanoeva; Leite,M.O.
Cheese whey level and caseinomacropeptide (CMP) index of fermented milk beverages added with four levels of cheese whey (0, 10, 20, and 40%) and stored at 8-10oC for 0, 7, 14 and 21 days were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-gel filtration (HPLC-GF). Additionally, the interference of the starter culture and the storage time on the detection of cheese whey and CMP were investigated. Refrigerated storage up to 21 days did not affect (P>0.05) cheese whey and CMP amounts in mi...
Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Kilcawley, Kieran; O'Sullivan, Orla; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Claesson, Marcus J; Cotter, Paul D
Kefir is a putatively health-promoting dairy beverage that is produced when a kefir grain, consisting of a consortium of microorganisms, is added to milk to initiate a natural fermentation. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out to determine how the microbial population, gene content, and flavor of three kefirs from distinct geographic locations change over the course of 24-h fermentations. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the dominant bacterial species in kefir during early stages of fermentations but that Leuconostoc mesenteroides became more prevalent in later stages. This pattern is consistent with an observation that genes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis were absent from L. kefiranofaciens but were present in L. mesenteroides. Additionally, these shifts in the microbial community structure, and associated pathways, corresponded to changes in the levels of volatile compounds. Specifically, Acetobacter spp. correlated with acetic acid; Lactobacillus spp. correlated with carboxylic acids, esters and ketones; Leuconostoc spp. correlated with acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione; and Saccharomyces spp. correlated with esters. The correlation data suggest a causal relationship between microbial taxa and flavor that is supported by observations that addition of L. kefiranofaciens NCFB 2797 increased the levels of esters and ketones whereas addition of L. mesenteroides 213M0 increased the levels of acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione. Finally, we detected genes associated with probiotic functionalities in the kefir microbiome. Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of kefir fermentations and microbial succession patterns therein and can be applied to optimize the fermentation processes, flavors, and health-related attributes of this and other fermented foods. IMPORTANCE Traditional fermented foods represent relatively low-complexity microbial environments that can be used as model microbial communities to understand
Full Text Available Fermented foods share an integral part of age-old wisdom from ancient Indian civilization. Over the generations, this pioneering practice of food fermentation has expanded and improved to preserve and fortify the available food resources, particularly to meet the hidden hunger. India, being the second largest producer of rice, has a great history of traditional rice-based fermented foods with different tastes and textures linked with cultural diversity and mostly prepared by rural women following village art techniques. Some of them have been scientifically investigated and it has been revealed that microflora in natural or starter culture plays imperative roles to bio-embolden the rice with varieties of health promoting macronutrients and micronutrients, phytochemicals, and other functional components during fermentation. In this review, some explorative information on traditional rice-based foods and beverages has been assembled to illustrate the global interest in Indian food heritage and their functional aspects. The review also deals with the preparation of raw materials, traditional processing, composition, and ethno-medicinal importance of each food to encourage entrepreneurs to develop large-scale production to meet the growing market demand of functional foods.
The main aim of this project was to devise an alternative method for ethanol assay, employing an electrochemical fuel cell sensor. Thus, the early part of this thesis describes the work carried out in the development of a new analytical technique for this purpose. This work resulted in the production of a successful prototype unit which has led to the development of a commercial instrument, vis., the Lion Drinks Alcolmeter (DA-1) available from Lion Laboratories Ltd. The problem of determining the ethanol content of a fermenting liquor at any point during a fermentation process was also broached and a novel technique combining a flow dilution system, dynamic headspace analysis and a fuel cell sensor was developed. This procedure, suitably automated, will enable the ethanolic content of a fermenting beverage to be determined at any stage during a fermentation, the results obtained in this manner being in excellent agreement with those obtained gas chromatographically. Methods of extending the linear working range of a fuel cell-based sampling system are reported in the hope that the encouraging results obtained may initiate further progress in this field. Finally, the sensing system used in this work has also been utilized with an alternative sampling procedure for the determination of ethanol in biological fluids, mainly for clinical and forensic applications. This work has also led to the production of a commercial instrument, viz. the Lion AE-D3 Alcolmeter.
Baschali, Aristea; Tsakalidou, Effie; Kyriacou, Adamantini; Karavasiloglou, Nena; Matalas, Antonia-Leda
Fermented beverages hold a long tradition and contribution to the nutrition of many societies and cultures worldwide. Traditional fermentation has been empirically developed in ancient times as a process of raw food preservation and at the same time production of new foods with different sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavour and aroma, as well as nutritional value. Low-alcoholic fermented beverages (LAFB) and non-alcoholic fermented beverages (NAFB) represent a subgroup of fermented beverages that have received rather little attention by consumers and scientists alike, especially with regard to their types and traditional uses in European societies. A literature review was undertaken and research articles, review papers and textbooks were searched in order to retrieve data regarding the dietary role, nutrient composition, health benefits and other relevant aspects of diverse ethnic LAFB and NAFB consumed by European populations. A variety of traditional LAFB and NAFB consumed in European regions, such as kefir, kvass, kombucha and hardaliye, are presented. Milk-based LAFB and NAFB are also available on the market, often characterised as 'functional' foods on the basis of their probiotic culture content. Future research should focus on elucidating the dietary role and nutritional value of traditional and 'functional' LAFB and NAFB, their potential health benefits and consumption trends in European countries. Such data will allow for LAFB and NAFB to be included in national food composition tables.
Thaís Rodrigues MOREIRA
Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Constipation is a chronic problem in many patients all over the world. OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the effect of consumption of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Bifidobacterium animalis on the symptoms of constipation. METHODS - This randomized, double-blind controlled trial included 49 female patients aged 20 to 50 years and diagnosed with constipation according to the ROME III criteria (Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and the Bristol Stool Form Scale. The patients were randomized into two groups: the intervention group received the probiotic fermented milk beverage and the control group received non-probiotic milk. Participants were instructed to ingest 150 mL of the beverages during 60 days. At the end of this period, patients were assessed again by the ROME III criteria and Bristol scale. The Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate pre and post-intervention results of the ROME III criteria and Bristol scale. The statistical significance level was considered as 5% ( P ≤0.05. RESULTS - The intervention group showed improvement in the following criteria: straining during a bowel movement ( P <0.001, feeling of incomplete evacuation ( P <0.001 and difficulty in passing stool ( P <0.014, in addition to Bristol scale results ( P <0.001. In the control group, improvements were observed in the following criteria: straining during a bowel movement ( P <0.001, feeling of incomplete evacuation ( P <0.001 and difficulty in passing stool ( P <0.025, in addition to Bristol scale results ( P <0.001. No statistically significant post-intervention differences were observed between the two groups for the Rome III criteria and Bristol scale. CONCLUSION - The results show that the consumption of milk resulted in the improvement of constipation symptoms, regardless of the probiotic culture.
José Luiz Parada
Full Text Available Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract as a natural ingredient which would also be hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective. Among different strains used, Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected as the best for fermentation. The addition of honey positively affected the development of L. acidophilus and the formulated beverage maintained microbial stability during shelf life. Key ingredients in the extract included xanthines, polyphenols and other antioxidants with potential health benefits for the consumer. Caffeine levels and antioxidant activity were also studied. Acceptable levels of caffeine and large antioxidant capacity were observed for the formulation when compared to other antioxidant beverages. An advantage of this product is the compliance to organic claims, while providing caffeine, other phyto-stimulants and antioxidant compounds without the addition of synthetic components or preservatives in the formulation. Sensorial analysis demonstrated that the beverage had good consumer acceptance in comparison to two other similar commercial beverages. Therefore, this beverage could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for probiotic consumption, especially by vegetarians and lactose intolerant consumers. It is expected that such a product will have good market potential in an era of functional foods.
Lima, Isabela Ferrari Pereira; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Parada, José Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo
Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract as a natural ingredient which would also be hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective. Among different strains used, Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected as the best for fermentation. The addition of honey positively affected the development of L. acidophilus and the formulated beverage maintained microbial stability during shelf life. Key ingredients in the extract included xanthines, polyphenols and other antioxidants with potential health benefits for the consumer. Caffeine levels and antioxidant activity were also studied. Acceptable levels of caffeine and large antioxidant capacity were observed for the formulation when compared to other antioxidant beverages. An advantage of this product is the compliance to organic claims, while providing caffeine, other phyto-stimulants and antioxidant compounds without the addition of synthetic components or preservatives in the formulation. Sensorial analysis demonstrated that the beverage had good consumer acceptance in comparison to two other similar commercial beverages. Therefore, this beverage could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for probiotic consumption, especially by vegetarians and lactose intolerant consumers. It is expected that such a product will have good market potential in an era of functional foods.
Full Text Available Plant-based beverages and milk alternatives produced from cereals and legumes have grown in popularity in recent years due to a range of consumer concerns over dairy products. These plant-based products can often have undesirable physiochemical properties related to flavour, texture, and nutrient availability and/or deficiencies. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB fermentation offers potential remediation for many of these issues, and allows consumers to retain their perception of the resultant products as natural and additive-free. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS or omics approaches to characterize LAB isolates to find those that will improve properties of plant-based beverages is the most direct way to product improvement. Although NGS/omics approaches have been extensively used for selection of LAB for use in the dairy industry, a comparable effort has not occurred for selecting LAB for fermenting plant raw substrates, save those used in producing wine and certain types of beer. Here we review the few and recent applications of NGS/omics to profile and improve LAB fermentation of various plant-based substrates for beverage production. We also identify specific issues in the production of various LAB fermented plant-based beverages that such NGS/omics applications have the power to resolve.
Chiou, Tai-Ying; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Takahashi, Tomoya
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Lactobacillus farciminis strain NBRC 111452, isolated from kôso, a Japanese sugar-vegetable fermented beverage. This genome information is of potential use in studies of Lactobacillus farciminis as a probiotic.
The blueberry as raw materials, production of Lactobacillus fermented beverage, the optimal parameters for this beverage was determined by single factor and orthogonal experiment.The optimal fermentation conditions for:blueberry juice and skim milk ratio of 1:1.5,fermentation time 20 h, fermentation temperature 40 ℃, amount of vaccination 4 %. The optimum formula of blueberry lactobacillus fermented beverage was blueberry fermented original juice 80%, sugar 5%, citric acid 0.01%;composed of blueberry Lactobacillus fermented beverage a stabilizer of 0.15%xanthan gum,0.06%CMC-Na,0.07%sodium alginate.%以蓝莓为原料,制作乳酸菌发酵饮料,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了该饮料的各项最佳工艺参数.发酵最佳工艺条件为蓝莓汁:脱脂牛奶的比例为1:1.5,发酵时间为20 h,发酵温度为40℃,菌种接种量为4%.蓝莓乳酸菌饮料最佳配方为原发酵汁添加量80%,白糖添加量5%,柠檬酸添加量0.01%;蓝莓乳酸菌饮料稳定剂添加量为黄原胶添加0.15%、CMC-Na添加0.06%、海藻酸钠添加0.07%.
Nsogning Dongmo, Sorelle; Sacher, Bertram; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Becker, Thomas
This study aims to define the aroma composition and key aroma compounds of barley malt wort beverages produced from fermentation using six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry-olfactometry and flame ionization detection was employed; key aroma compounds were determined by means of aroma extract dilution analysis. Fifty-six detected volatile compounds were similar among beverages. However, significant differences were observed in the concentration of individual compounds. Key aroma compounds (flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥16) were β-damascenone, furaneol, phenylacetic acid, 2-phenylethanol, 4-vinylguaiacol, sotolon, methional, vanillin, acetic acid, nor-furaneol, guaiacol and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. Furthermore, acetaldehyde had the greatest odor activity value of up to 4266. Sensory analyses revealed large differences in the flavor profile. Beverage from L. plantarum Lp. 758 showed the highest FD factors in key aroma compounds and was correlated to fruity flavors. Therefore, we suggest that suitable LAB strain selection may improve the flavor of malt based beverages.
Torres-Rodríguez, Ingrid; Rodríguez-Alegría, María Elena; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Conca Morales, Rodrigo; López-Munguía, Agustín; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo
We report the screening and characterization of EPS produced by LAB identified as Leuconostoc kimchii isolated from pulque, a traditional Mexican fermented, non-distilled alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the sap extracted from several (Agave) maguey species. EPS-producing LAB constitutes an abundant bacterial group relative to total LAB present in sap and during fermentation, however, only two EPS-producing colony phenotypes (EPSA and EPSB, respectively) were detected and isolated concluding that despite the high number of polymer-producing LAB their phenotypic diversity is low. Scanning electron microcopy analysis during EPS-producing conditions revealed that both types of EPS form a uniform porous structure surrounding the bacterial cells. The structural characterization of the soluble and cell-associated EPS fractions of each polymer by enzymatic and acid hydrolysis, as by 1D- and 2D-NMR, showed that polymers produced by the soluble and cell-associated fractions of EPSA strain are dextrans consisting of a linear backbone of linked α-(1→6) Glcp in the main chain with α-(1→2) and α-(1→3)-linked branches. The polymer produced by the soluble fraction of EPSB strain was identified as a class 1 dextran with a linear backbone containing consecutive α-(1→6)-linked D-glucopyranosyl units with few α-(1→3)-linked branches, whereas the cell-associated EPS is a polymer mixture consisting of a levan composed of linear chains of (2→6)-linked β-D-fructofuranosyl residues with β-(2→6) connections, and a class 1 dextran. According to our knowledge this is the first report of dextrans and a levan including their structural characterization produced by L. kimchii isolated from a traditional fermented source.
Freire, Ana Luiza; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; da Costa Souza, Patrícia Nirlane; Cardoso, Mauro Guilherme Barros; Schwan, Rosane Freitas
This work aimed to develop a nondairy fermented beverage from a blend of cassava and rice based on Brazilian indigenous beverage cauim using probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast. The indigenous strains Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0743 (from cauim) and Torulaspora delbrueckii CCMA 0235 (from tarubá), and the commercial probiotic, L. acidophilus LAC-04, were used as starter cultures in single and co-cultivations. The bacteria populations were around 8.0 log (CFU/mL) at the end of all fermentations as recommended for probiotic products. Higher residual starch contents were noted in the single LAB cultures (10.6% [w/w]) than in co-cultures (1.6g/L) and ethanol was lower than 0.5% (w/v) consisting in a non-alcoholic beverage. The assays containing yeast showed the highest antioxidant activity (around 10% by DPPH and ABTS methods). Therefore, a nondairy fermented beverage was successfully obtained, and the co-culture of LAB and T. delbrueckii could increase the product's functional properties.
The influence of different combinations of probiotic bacteria and fermentation temperatures on the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of fermented lactic beverages containing soybean hydrosoluble extract during refrigerated storage
Ângela Maria Fiorentini
Full Text Available Lactic beverages containing probiotics were prepared with whole UHT milk, whey of Mozzarella cheese, soybean hydrosoluble extract and sugar. Three formulations were studied, each one containing a different combination of probiotic/starter bacteria, fermented at two different temperatures (37 and 45 °C. The aim of this work was to verify the influence of these variables on the viability of probiotic microorganisms and on the physicochemical stability of lactic beverages during storage under refrigeration (21 days at 7 °C. The results indicated that the fermentation temperature had a significant effect on the viability of probiotic bacteria. Counts for Lactobacillus acidophilus were affected by storage time, resulting appropriate after 21 days only for the beverage fermented at 37 °C. Physicochemical parameters did not exhibit drastic variations - proving the stability of formulations during storage. Cells of Bifidobacterium spp. showed high survival ability, probably due to the presence of growth promoters from soybean and cheese whey. The fermentation temperature of 37 °C allowed counts above the minimum limit for all the studied microorganisms, being preferred to the temperature of 45 °C. The inclusion of soybean hydrosoluble extract, a prebiotics source, resulted in a symbiotic product with more benefits to the health of consumers.
Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Garg, Faqir Chand; Pal, Dharam
Studies were conducted to extend the shelf life of sorghum based fermented milk beverage (referred to SSL) developed at our Institute. In the first approach preservatives namely nisin (N) @ 400RU/ml, MicroGARD (M) @ (1%), potassium sorbate (PS) @ (0.15%) were added to the beverage before packaging and in the second approach thermization (65 °C/5 min) of the packaged samples containing above mentioned preservatives was adopted. The shelf life was assessed on the basis of sensory, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. Total plate count and lactic acid bacterial count increased till 7th day of storage and afterwards decreased significantly (p thermization treatment helped in improving the microbiological and chemical quality of the beverage, the sensory and physical quality was adversely affected. Addition of PS without thermization was found to be the best preservation technique for enhancing the shelf life of SSL at refrigeration conditions.
Fiorda, Fernanda A; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto V; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Rakshit, Sudip K; Soccol, Carlos R
The aim of this work was to study the fermentation process of honey with kefir grains through a comprehensive understanding of its rheological properties, probiotic cell viability, instrumental color parameters and kinetic aspects in a batch bioreactor and during storage. The results showed that kefir grains were well adapted to bioreactor conditions, reaching high levels of cell viability (over 10(6) CFU mL(-1) for total yeast and bacteria), phenolic compounds content (190 GAE/100 g) and acidification after 24 h of fermentation at 30 ℃. Colorimetric analysis showed that lightness (L*) and redness (a*) remained constant, while yellowness intensities (b*) decreased during fermentation time. After 35 days of storage, honey kefir beverage maintained its chemical characteristics and microbial viability as required to be classified as a probiotic product. The Ostwald-de-Waele (R(2 )≥ 0.98) and Herschel-Bulkley (R(2 )≥ 0.99) models can be used to predict the behavior of honey kefir beverage. The parameters analyzed in this study should be taken into account for industrial production of this novel non-dairy beverage. © The Author(s) 2016.
Maryati, Yati; Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) has a relatively high nutrient content, especially as a source of vitamins, minerals and fiber and contain bioactive compounds that act as antioxidants. In order to increase the nutritional value and innovate new products, fermentation process involving rich-antioxidants lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was done. The aim of this study is to determine the content of bioactive components, such as total polyphenols, total acid and antioxidant activity of the mixed culture of LAB (L. bulgaricus, S. thermophulus, L. acidophilus, Bd. bifidum)-fermented broccoli extracts. Ratio of fermented broccoli extract and concentration of starter cultureLAB was varied in the range of 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v/v), and the alterations of characteristics of the fermented broccoli extract, before and after fermentation (0 and 24 hours), were evaluated. The results showed that fermentation functional beverage broccoli with different concentrations of LAB cultures affect the antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, total acid and total cell of LAB generated. The optimum conditions obtained for the highest antioxidant activity of 6.74%, at aculture concentration of 20% during fermentation time of 24 h with a pH value of 4.29, total sugar of 10.89%, total acids of 0.97%, total polyphenols of 0.076%, and total LAB of 13.02 + 0.05 log cfu /ml.
Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun
The strain Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was isolated from fermented beverage Marcha of Sikkim and explored for its antagonistic activity against food-borne pathogens. The cell-free supernatant of L. plantarum DM5 showed antibacterial activity of 6,400 AU/mL in MRS medium (pH 6.0) against the indicator strain Staphylococcus aureus. MRS medium supplemented with 15 g/L of maltose at 37 °C under static condition yielded highest antimicrobial activity (6,400 AU/mL) with 3 % increase in specific activity when compared to 20 g/L glucose. The antimicrobial compound was heat stable (60 min at 100 °C) and was active over a wide pH range. It showed bactericidal effect on S. aureus and Listeria monocytogenes by causing 96 and 98 % of cell lysis, respectively. The cell morphology of the treated S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was completely deformed as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, suggesting the high potential of L. plantarum DM5 as natural preservatives in food industry. The antimicrobial compound was purified by 80 % ammonium sulphate precipitation and showed antimicrobial activity of 12,800 AU/mL with 19-fold purification and a molecular mass of 15.2 kDa, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the compound.
Full Text Available Present study documents the potential probiotic Lactobacillus isolated from indigenous fermented beverage Raabadi, consumed during summers in Haryana and Rajasthan regions of India. A total of 5 Raabadi samples were collected aseptically and 54 isolates were purified using MRS medium. All the isolates were assessed for tolerance to low pH and bile salts. It was observed that out of 54 only 24 isolates could survive the simulated gastric conditions. These isolates were further evaluated in vitro for cell surface hydrophobicity, cell surface hydrophobicity, hypocholesteramic activity, anti-oxidative potential, BSH activity, antagonistic activity and antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, the confirmation of phenol resistance was also done. On the basis of results obtained, the survival rate of isolates was noted and 6 isolates were finally selected for further studies. Among them Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 and RYPC7 showed good survival at pH 2 which shows good acid tolerance. Moreover, Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 showed the highest hydrophobicity (79.13% and represented the deconjugation of bile salts, which help in their adhesion to epithelial cells and colonization. Furthermore, RYPR1 also exhibited highest cholesterol reduction (59% and subsequent analysis of results revealed that the above mentioned isolates further exhibit a good hypocholesterolemic effect and could be possibly used to prevent hypercholesterolemia. The present study divulges that Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 has an excellent probiotic potential.
Chiou, Tai-Ying; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Takahashi, Tomoya
Kôso is a Japanese fermented beverage made with over 20 kinds of vegetables, mushrooms, and sugars. The changes in the bacterial population of kôso during fermentation at 25 °C over a period of 10 days were studied using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The analysis detected 224 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) clustered from 8 DNA samples collected on days 0, 3, 7, and 10 from two fermentation batches. Proteobacteria were the dominant phylum in the starting community, but were replaced by Firmicutes within three days. Seventy-eight genera were identified from the 224 OTUs, in which Bifidobacterium, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, and Lactobacillus dominated, accounting for over 96% of the total bacterial population after three days' fermentation. UniFrac-Principal Coordinate Analysis of longitudinal fermented samples revealed dramatic changes in the bacterial community in kôso, resulting in significantly low diversity at the end of fermentation as compared with the complex starting community.
Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa
A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%–0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification. PMID:24473284
Kumar, Mukesh; Ghosh, Moushumi; Ganguli, Abhijit
Lactic acid bacteria from indigenous pickled vegetables and fermented beverages (fermented rice and Madhuca longifolia flowers) were isolated and investigated for their functional characteristics in vitro as potential new probiotic strains. Four isolates (all Lactobacillus spp.) selected on the basis of high tolerance to bile (0.2%) were identified by standard and molecular methods (16S rDNA) as L. helveticus, L. casei, L. delbrueckii and L. bulgaricus from pickled vegetables and fermented beverages respectively. These selected strains had antibiotic resistance, tolerance to artificial gastric juice and phenol (0.4%), enzymatic profile, and antagonistic activity against enteric pathogens (Enterobacter sakazakii, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri 2a, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Aeromonas hydrophila). All strains survived well in artificial gastric juice at low pH (3.0) values for 4 h, possessed bile salt hydrolase activity and were susceptible to most antibiotics including vancomycin. Additionally, the isolates exhibited high tolerance to phenol, high cell surface hydrophobicity (>60%) and induced proliferation of murine splenocytes. All the four strains of present study suppressed the Con A-stimulated proliferation of the mouse spleen cells, although L. casei had the strongest suppressive effect. The results of this study suggest a potential application of the strains (following human clinical trials), for developing probiotic foods.
陈钢; 简素平; 徐静; 汪海利
A highly nutritional fermented dairy beverage with a unique flavor was prepared with apple juice and milk. As determined by one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods based on pH and sensory evaluation score, the optimal fermentation substrate composition was made up of 55% milk, 12% apple juice and 5.5% sucrose, and the optimal fermentation conditions were 3.0% of inoculum size, 5.0 h of fermentation time and 40 °C of fermentation temperature.%以苹果汁和牛奶为原料,以pH值和感官评分为指标,通过单因素和正交试验,确定苹果汁发酵乳的最优配方及工艺参数。产品的最佳配比：牛奶添加量55%、苹果汁添加量12%、蔗糖添加量5.5%。最佳发酵工艺条件：乳酸菌接种量3.0%、发酵时间5.0h、温度40℃。
Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of natural biocides, brown and green propolis, for the control of bacterial contamination in the production of sugarcane spirit. The treatments consisted of brown and green propolis extracts, ampicillin, and a control and were assessed at the beginning and end of harvest season in ten fermentation cycles. In the microbiological analyses, the lactic acid bacteria were quantified in the inoculum before and after the treatment with biocides, and the viability of yeast cells during fermentation was evaluated. The levels of acids, glycerol, total residual reducing sugars, and ethanol were analyzed for the wine resulting from each fermentation cycle. A reduction in the number of bacterial contaminants in the inoculum in the treatments with the natural biocides was observed, but it did not affect the viability of yeast cells. The control of the contaminants led to the production of higher levels of ethanol and reduced acidity in the wine produced. The results of the use of brown and green propolis to control the growth microorganisms in the fermentation of sugarcane spirit can be of great importance for using alternative strategies to synthetic antibacterials in fermentation processes including other distilled beverage or spirits.
The application of different levels of carrageenan, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), agar, xasthan gum and stabilizer blends in fermented milk beverage with coffee was studied in this paper. Through orthogonal experiments, the optimal conditions for beverage-making were determined as: 15% coffee juice, 50% fermented milk, 3% stabilizer blends Ⅱ (0.2% carrageenan+0.1% CMC), 8% sucrose addition.The results showed that the taste and stability of the fermented milk beverage are best, physical and chemical indicators, sensory indicators and microbial indicators can reach the required range, room temperature storage time of two months or more. The compound stabilizers had a good stabilizing effect and could be applied to production practice.%研究了卡拉胶、耐酸型CMC、琼脂、黄原胶及其复配稳定剂在咖啡发酵型含乳饮料中的应用,通过正交试验得到咖啡发酵含乳饮料的最佳配方,即15％的咖啡萃取液、50％的发酵乳、3％的复配稳定剂Ⅱ(0.1％卡拉胶+0.1％耐酸型CMC)和8％的白砂糖.结果表明,咖啡发酵型含乳饮料口感和稳定性最佳,理化指标、感官指标、微生物指标都可以达到所要求的范围,常温贮存时间2个月以上,可以应用于生产实践.
Norma M. de la Fuente-Salcido; Castañeda-Ramírez, José Cristobal; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Salcedo-Hernández, Rubén; Barboza-Corona, José E
Mexican Tuba (M-Tuba) and Tepache are Mexican fermented beverages prepared mainly with pineapple pulp and coconut palm, respectively. At present, reports on the microbiota and nutritional effects of both beverages are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether M-Tuba and Tepache contain cultivable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) capable of producing bacteriocins. Tepache and M-Tuba contain mesophilic aerobic bacteria, LAB, and yeast. Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, List...
谢士娟; 李玉锋; 汪静心
This article researches and produces a fermented milk beverage with fermented milk and flammulina velutipes juice as main material ,and determines its production process and optimal formula which is 30% flammulina velutipes juice ,9% cane sugar and 0 .25‰ /0 .30‰ CMC-Na/PGA .%研制了一种以发酵乳和金针菇菌汁为主要原料加工调制成的发酵乳饮料，确定了金针菇菌汁发酵乳饮料的生产工艺和最佳配方，得出了最佳工艺配方为金针菇菌汁的添加量30％、蔗糖的添加量9％、稳定剂CMC-Na＋PGA＝0．25‰＋0．30‰。
研究以梨汁和酒精为主要原料，经醋酸发酵后的原液中加入果葡糖浆、蜂蜜等调制发酵型梨汁饮料。利用单因素分析，探讨了梨汁糖度、酒精含量对发酵梨汁原液的影响。结果表明，糖度为6°Brix、酒精添加量1.5g/100mL时发酵梨汁原液效果最好；采用正交试验，以总酸为有效成分指标，研究了有氧发酵的最佳工艺条件。结果表明，菌种接种量10%、发酵温度32℃、发酵时间72h为最佳有氧发酵工艺；确定发酵型梨汁饮料的最佳配方为：发酵梨汁原液80%、果葡糖浆7.5%、蜂蜜1%。%Pear juice and alcohol are used as raw material to produce pear juice beverage by adding fructose syrup and honey into acetic fermentation solution. By single factor analysis,effect of sugar level and alcohol content on fermentation of pear juice concentrate was discussed. The results showed that when sugar is in 6°Brix and alcohol fermentation of 1.5g/100mL,fermentation of pear juice solution is optimal. Using orthogonal experiment and index of total acid as active ingredients,optimum process conditions of aerobic fermentation was studied. The results showed that the species quantity of 10%,32℃fermentation temperature,fermentation time 72h is the best aerobic fermentation process;By means of orthogonal experiment,best formula for the fermentation type of pear juice drink was determined: fermenting pear juice concentrate 80%,fructose syrup 7.5%,and honey 1%.
Escalante, Adelfo; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Hernández, Georgina; Córdova-Aguilar, María Soledad; López-Munguía, Agustín; Gosset, Guillermo; Bolívar, Francisco
In this study, the characterization of the bacterial community present during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage from maguey (Agave), was determined for the first time by a polyphasic approach in which both culture and non-culture dependent methods were utilized. The work included the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), aerobic mesophiles, and 16S rDNA clone libraries from total DNA extracted from the maguey sap (aguamiel) used as substrate, after inoculation with a sample of previously produced pulque and followed by 6-h fermentation. Microbiological diversity results were correlated with fermentation process parameters such as sucrose, glucose, fructose and fermentation product concentrations. In addition, medium rheological behavior analysis and scanning electron microscopy in aguamiel and during pulque fermentation were also performed. Our results showed that both culture and non-culture dependent approaches allowed the detection of several new and previously reported species within the alpha-, gamma-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bacteria diversity in aguamiel was composed by the heterofermentative Leuconostoc citreum, L. mesenteroides, L. kimchi, the gamma-Proteobacteria Erwinia rhapontici, Enterobacter spp. and Acinetobacter radioresistens. Inoculation with previously fermented pulque incorporated to the system microbiota, homofermentative lactobacilli related to Lactobacillus acidophilus, several alpha-Proteobacteria such as Zymomonas mobilis and Acetobacter malorum, other gamma-Proteobacteria and an important amount of yeasts, creating a starting metabolic diversity composed by homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB, acetic and ethanol producing microorganisms. At the end of the fermentation process, the bacterial diversity was mainly composed by the homofermentative Lactobacillus acidophilus, the heterofermentative L. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and the alpha-Proteobacteria A. malorum. After
Nataša S. Obradović
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical stability of biopolymer carriers and cell viability with addition of chitosan coating during fermentation process and product storage. Dairy starter culture (1% (w/v was diluted in whey and mixed with sodium alginate solution and the beads were made using extrusion technique. The mechanical stability of coated and uncoated beads, the release behavior, and the viability of encapsulated probiotic dairy starter culture in fermented whey beverages were analyzed. The mechanical properties of the beads were determined according to force-displacement and engineering stress-strain curves obtained after compression testing. It was observed that addition of chitosan as a coating on the beads as well as the fermentation process increased the elastic modulus of the calcium alginate-whey beads and cell survival. The current study revealed that the coating did not significantly improve the viability of probiotics during the fermentation but had an important influence on preservation of the strength of the carrier during storage. Our results indicate that whey-based substrate has positive effect on the mechanical stability of biopolymer beads with encapsulated probiotics.
Full Text Available In this research the application of bacterial strains Lactobacillus acidophilus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3 in the production of fermented probiotic beverages from milk permeate enriched with 10 % (v/v whey retentate, was investigated. In the previous researches of probiotic concept, probiotic properties of these three strains of lactic acid bacteria have been defined. At the end of controlled fermentation, probiotic strains have produced 7.4 g/L lactic acid, pH was decreased to 4.7, and number of live cells was around 108 CFU/mL. Number of viable count of probiotic bacteria, which were identified with RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAmethod, was maintained at around 107 CFU/mL during 28 days of the preservation at 4 °C. Furthermore, a spontaneous fermentation of milk permeate enriched with 10 % (v/v of whey retentate was carried out and lactic acid bacteria present in these substrates were isolated. All of these bacterial strains have rapidly acidified the growth media and have shown antibacterial activity against chosen test-microorganisms, what are important properties of potential starter cultures for the fermentation of dairy products. The results of biochemical API analysis have identified isolated strains as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus helveticus.
Hassani, Ahmed; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas
There has been recently increased interest in sorghum to substitute the gluten containing cereals in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. The response surface methodology was used to determine the influence of malting parameters (degree of steeping, germination temperature and time) on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Each parameter was varied at three levels. Malting attributes, considered important to produce high quality malt for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages, were analyzed. The optimized conditions were: degree of steeping 41%, germination temperature 27℃ after 7 days of germination. Under these conditions, the following values of the studied attributes can be obtained: α-amylase 139 U/g, β-amylase 60 U/g, extract 83.8%, free amino nitrogen 117.8 mg/100 g, Kolbach index 26.6%, water-extractable arabinoxylan 0.3 g/L and vitamin B2 114.9 µg/L. Among the tested parameters, the germination time had the highest effect on malting attributes. Although the activity of amylolytic enzymes α- and β-amylase were low, the value of extract was high and comparable to that of barley malt. The obtained results showed that sorghum malt is a promising raw material for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages.
Alonso González, Elisa; Torrado Agrasar, Ana; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo M; Orriols Fernández, Ignacio; Pérez Guerra, Nelson
The present study was conducted to appraise the potential of black mulberry and black currant to be used as fermentation substrates for producing alcoholic beverages obtained by distillation of the fruits previously fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae IFI83. In the two distillates obtained, the volatile compounds that can pose health hazards are within the limits of acceptability fixed by the European Council (Regulation 110/2008) for fruit spirits. However, the amount of volatile substances in the black currant distillate (121.1 g/hL absolute alcohol (aa)) was lower than the minimum limit (200 g/hL aa) fixed by the aforementioned regulation. The mean volatile composition of both distillates was different from other alcoholic beverages such as four commercial Galician orujo spirits, Portuguese bagaceiras, and two distillates obtained from fermented whey and blackberry. The results obtained showed the feasibility for obtaining distillates from fermented black mulberry and black currant, which have their own distinctive characteristics.
Determinant of soil management practices in cereal based production systems ... land degradation issues and improving soil productivity, but generally there are low ... Descriptive statistics and regression model were the analytical tools used.
马玲; 徐静; 焦慧娟
The addition of probiotics and lactose,fermentation time which affected the whey beverage pH were determined by response surface method,also the flavor of whey beverage was determined by orthogonal design.The effects of various factors were estimated through variance analysis and response surface analysis.The results showed that optimum addition of probiotics and lactose,fermentation time were 7 %,6 % and 8 h,addition of sweeteners,stabilizer and essence were 0.08 %,0.3 % and 0.1 %,respectively.Under the conditions,the whey beverage was getting the higher sensory evaluation.%优化试验研究了益生菌发酵乳清饮料pH值与益生菌接种量、后发酵时间和乳糖添加量之间的回归关系,同时正交试验对发酵后的乳清进行风味的调配。结果表明：乳清发酵饮料的最佳后发酵条件为：乳糖添加量为6%、益生菌接种量为7%、后发酵时间8 h,发酵好的乳清再添加甜味剂蛋白糖0.08%、稳定剂CMC 0.3%、香芋香精0.1%,所得乳清发酵饮料的感官品质较好。
以云南CTC红茶为主要原料，经乳酸菌、酵母菌共生发酵，研究发酵型红茶饮料的加工工艺。%Taking Yunnan CTC black tea as the main raw material, after symbiotic fermentation of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, this paper studied the fermented black tea beverage process.
Mestres, Christian; Bettencourt, Munanga de J C; Loiseau, Gérard; Matignon, Brigitte; Grabulos, Joël; Achir, Nawel
Gowé is an acidic beverage obtained after simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sorghum. A previous paper focused on modeling the growth of lactic acid bacteria during gowé processing. This paper focuses on modeling starch amylolysis to build an aggregated SSF model. The activity of α-amylase was modeled as a function of temperature and pH, and the hydrolysis rates of both native and soluble starch were modeled via a Michaelis-Menten equation taking into account the maltose and glucose inhibition constants. The robustness of the parameter estimators was ensured by step by step identification in sets of experiments conducted with different proportions of native and gelatinized starch by modifying the pre-cooking temperature. The aggregated model was validated on experimental data and showed that both the pre-cooking and fermentation parameters, particularly temperature, are significant levers for controlling not only acid and sugar contents but also the expected viscosity of the final product. This generic approach could be used as a tool to optimize the sanitary and sensory quality of fermentation of other starchy products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cvetković, Dragoljub D.; Markov, Siniša L.; Šaponjac, Vesna T. Tumbas; Vulić, Jelena J.
Summary Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites. PMID:27904315
Dragoljub D. Cvetković
Full Text Available Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L. with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY. In this study, lemon balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA, total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of fi nished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L, the value which is confi rmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. offi cinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.
Lay, Chyi-How; Sen, Biswarup; Chen, Chin-Chao; Wu, Jou-Hsien; Lee, Shih-Chi; Lin, Chiu-Yue
Hydrogen (H2) production potential of water hyacinth (WH) and beverage wastewater (BW) mixture in powder and pellet form at various combination ratios were evaluated. Batch co-fermentation results showed peak biogas production of 105.5 mL and H2 production of 55.6 mL at the combination ratio of 1.6 g WH and 2.4 g BW in pellet form. With the same ratio in pellet form, the maximum H2 production rate 542 mL H2/L-d, maximum specific H2 production rate 869 mL H2/g VSS-d and H2 yield 13.65 mL/g feedstock were obtained, and were 88, 88 and 34% higher than its powder form. The predominant soluble metabolite was acetate in the concentration of 1059-2639 mg COD/L (40-79% of total metabolites) in most runs during co-fermentation of mixed feedstock. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and the physical form of the combined feedstock are essential criteria for optimum H2 production. Co-fermentation also alleviates the waste disposal problem of the industries.
Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine fermentation. During fermentation, cool wort beer samples and wine must samples were artificially spiked with AFB1 and the levels of AFB1 remaining after fermentation were analyzed. AFB1 levels were unchanged during both types of fermentation used for beer but were reduced to 30% of their initial concentration in wine. Differential analysis of the spiked and unspiked wine samples showed that the degradation compound was AFB2a, a hydrated derivative of AFB1. Thus, the results showed that the risk of AFB1 carryover was still present for both types of beer fermentation but was reduced in the case of wine fermentation because of hydration.
胡博涵; 刘素纯; 夏延斌; 蒋立文; 李罗明
In this paper fermentation condition of oat com alcoholic fermented beverages using saccharolytic and beer yeast, taking oat as raw material through single factor experiment, orthogonal experiment were studied.The result indicated that the optimum fermentation condition of the oat alcoholic fermented beverages were choose Rhizopus oryzae to ferment the oat at 28℃ after some time and saccharify for 24 h at 42℃, beer yeast addition content was 1.5％ (quantity volume of raw material was 1.5％), fermentation temperature was 28℃and fermentation time was 48 hour.Finished product get by blend, bottling and sterilization.The oat fermented beverages with this technology has sweet sour with special oat flavor, decline mellow faint scent.it is a soRT of new-style health and nutrient food.%以燕麦为主要原料,采用糖化菌和啤酒酵母菌对其进行发酵,酿造成低酒精谷物发酵饮料,通过单因素试验和正交试验对发酵条件进行了优化.结果表明,燕麦酒精发酵饮料的最佳发酵条件为:燕麦经根霉Q303,28℃发酵一定时间后,42℃保温糖化24 h,再添加原料量体积的1.5%啤酒酵母,在28℃下发酵48 h.经勾调、均质、分装、杀菌得成品.
赵菲; 关文强; 王愈
以富士苹果为原料，以酵母菌和乳酸菌为发酵菌种，经过预处理、榨汁、发酵等工序，研制风味独特的含醇饮料，并通过感官质量评价和正交试验确定其最佳工艺配方。结果表明：发酵温度为30℃，发酵时间为4 d的发酵条件下，最佳配方为每100 mL苹果汁中添加活化的酵母菌7 mL、活化的乳酸菌7 mL、蔗糖11 g。另外，研究了适宜的菌种添加工艺参数，结果表明先添加乳酸菌，发酵2d之后再添加酵母菌时所得到的发酵苹果汁感官品质好。%Fuji apple was used as the raw material to produce the special taste alcoholic beverage with yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. The optimal processing technique was established by sensory evaluation and orthogonal test. The result showed that the optimal fermentation condition was inoculation amount 7mL activatory yeast and 7mL activatory lactic acid bacteria per 100 mL apple juice added with 11 g sugar at 30℃for 4 days. Then parameters for adding strains into the apple juice also were studied. Apple alcoholic beverage of good sensory quality could be produced when yeast was added into apple juice after 2 days of lactic acid bacteria fermentation.
Full Text Available In this research, effect of bee pollen supplement on antimicrobial, chemical, rheological, sensorial properties and probiotic viability of fermented milk beverages was studied. Bee pollens were added in the rate of 2.5 mg•mL-1 (B, 5 mg•mL-1 (C, 7.5 mg•mL-1 (D, 10 mg•mL-1 (E, and 20 mg•mL-1 (F. Control sample (A was not supplemented with bee pollen. Control and supplemented milk samples were fermented by a commercial ABT1 starter culture (Chr. Hansen, Hørsholm, Denmark containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La 5, Bifidobacterium animalis subs. lactis Bb 12, and Streptococcus thermophilus. While no antimicrobial impact was observed against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, P. fluorescens, P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophilia upto 7.5 mg•mL-1 pollen addition, addition between 10 mg•mL-1 to 20 mg•mL-1 resulted in activity, and positive effect only in inhibition rates against bacteria such as S. thyphimurium and E. coli. Bee pollen supplements has shown a positive effect on probiotic viability and occurred on increase apparent viscosity, but their effect on sensorial properties was negative. Furthermore an improvement with increasing concentration of pollen addition that yielded no negative effect on physicochemical properties was detected.
Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Moosavi-Nasab, Marzieh
A central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the effects of fermentation temperature (20-30 ºC) and kefir grains amount (2-8%w/v) on total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of apple juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains. The response surface methodology (RSM) showed that the significant second-order polynomial regression equation with high R(2) (>0.86) was successfully fitted for all response as function of independent variable. The overall optimum region was found to be at the combined level of 7.56%w/v kefir grains and temperature of 24.82 ºC with the highest value for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities. At this optimum point TPC, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, metal chelating effect, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation and inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation were 165.02 mgGA/l, 0.38 ml/1 ml, 0.757 (absorbance at 700 nm), 46.12 %, 65.33 % and 21 %, respectively. No significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between actual values and predicated values.
Freire, Ana Luiza; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; de Almeida, Euziclei Gonzaga; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas
Yakupa is a traditional non-alcoholic cassava beverage produced by Brazilian Amerindians. In this work the microbial dynamics and metabolites involved in yakupa fermentation were investigated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and chromatography analysis, respectively. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population was higher than yeast in the beginning of fermentation (5 log CFU mL(-1) and 3 log CFU mL(-1), respectively) and after 36 h both population increased reaching 7 log CFU mL(-1), remaining constant until 60 h. Culture dependent and independent methods in combination identified the bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum, L. plantarum, Weissela cibaria and W. confusa, and yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia kudriavzevii. Maltose (41.2 g L(-1)), ethanol (6.5 g L(-1)) and lactic acid (7.8 g L(-1)) were the most abundant compounds identified by high performance liquid chromatography. Aldehydes, acids, alcohols and esters were identified by gas chromatography flame ionization detection. By the metabolites and PCA analysis we may assign the beverage's flavor to the microbial metabolism. Heterolactic LAB and S. cerevisiae dominated the yakupa fermentation, being responsible for the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. This is the first time that the microbial dynamics and physicochemical parameters were investigated in the yakupa beverage and it may contribute to the future selection of starter cultures to perform yakupa fermentations.
黄清铧; 王庆福; 梁磊; 张柳莲; 康佩姿; 班雯婷
Sugar cane juice was used as raw material to produce function beverage through liquid fermentation by Ganoderma lucidum.In this paper, the fermentation was carried out about 10 days with regulation of pH value, amount of residual sugar and polysaccharide content of fermented liquid.After flavor adjustment, the optimum formula of the function beverage of sugar cane juice from Ganoderma lucidum fermentation was determined through orthogonal test and sensory evaluation method.The optimizing formula of this beverage contained 70％ of fermented liquid, 1.0 g/L citric acid, 0.2 g/L xanthan gum, and 0.1 g/L stevia glycoside.This beverage was delicious due to unique aroma of sugarcane and Ganoderma lucidum and was rich in polysaccharide and amino acid.%以甘蔗汁为原料,采用灵芝菌进行发酵,以发酵液pH值、残糖量及多糖含量变化选择发酵终点为10d左右;通过正交试验和感官评价对灵芝发酵甘蔗汁功能性饮料配方进行研究,得出最优饮料配方为:发酵液70％,柠檬酸1.0 g/L,黄原胶0.2 g/L,甜菊糖苷0.1 g/L,该饮料淡黄色,透明清亮,爽滑可口,甘苦适宜,具有甘蔗汁的清香和灵芝独特的香气,且多糖与氨基酸含量丰富.
主要探讨了以鸡油茵为原料，利用鸡油茵孢子液体深层发酵，获得茵丝体与发酵液的混合液。通过单因素试验及多因素多水平的正交试验确定出饮料的最佳配方，制作鸡油菌孢子发酵型饮料。对鸡油菌孢子发酵型饮料进行了感官质量的评定，结果表明：发酵120h时发酵液的感官最好，多糖含量最高，发酵饮料的因素影响主次顺序为发酵液〉稳定剂〉柠檬酸〉白砂糖，发酵饮料的配方以46％的发酵液、0．22％的柠檬酸、0．18％的稳定剂（CMC-Na）、7．5％的白砂糖时制得的发酵饮料品质最佳。%Mainly discusses with chanterelle as raw material, using the chanterelle spores in liquid deep fermentation, obtain mycelium and fermentation liquid mixture. Through single factor experiment and more factors and levels of orthogonal test to determine the optimum formula of the beverage, making chanterelle spore fermented beverage. Chanterelles spores on fermented beverage of sensory quality evaluation, the results show that: when the 120 h fermentation fermentation liquor sensory best, polysaccharide content is highest. Fermented beverage formula with 46%, 0.22% of citric acid fermentation liquid, 0.18% stabilizer (CMC-Na), 7.5% of the white aranulated suaar is nreDared fermented heveranp, with best quality.
Benjamin C.T. Bourrie
Full Text Available Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune system including the alleviation of allergy and asthma. These reports have led to increased interest in kefir as a focus of research and as a potential probiotic-containing product. Here, we review those studies with a particular emphasis on the microbial composition and the health benefits of the product, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as an important probiotic product.
Bourrie, Benjamin C T; Willing, Benjamin P; Cotter, Paul D
Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune system including the alleviation of allergy and asthma. These reports have led to increased interest in kefir as a focus of research and as a potential probiotic-containing product. Here, we review those studies with a particular emphasis on the microbial composition and the health benefits of the product, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as an important probiotic product.
Naoki Mochizuki; Yasushi Nagatomi; Atsuo Uyama; Tomonori Inoue
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine...
Kantachote, Duangporn; Charernjiratrakul, Wilawan
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from fermented plant beverages were selected based on their antibacterial actions against potential food borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus PSSCMI 0004, Escherichia coli PSSCMI 0001, Salmonella typhimurium PSSCMI 0034 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus VP 4). Antibacterial activities were measured using an agar spot method. The Lactobacillus plantarum W90A strain isolated from a wild forest noni (Morinda coreia Ham) beverage was used as an inoculant. Three different inoculation procedures were conducted with the fruit of wild forest noni fermentations to establish which one was the best for controlling the numbers of yeast in the finished product. A 5% inoculum of L. plantarum W90A (LAB set), initial cell density 8.6 log cfu mL(-1), produced a better product and inhibitory properties against the test organisms, particularly E. coli PSSCMI 0001 than one with no inoculum or with a 5% inoculum from a previous natural fermented product. An LAB inoculum resulted in a reduced total bacterial count and no yeast throughout fermentation period (90 days). The lower yeast resulted in a reduction of the ethanol content to 2.9 g L(-1) compared to 12.2 g L(-1) inthe culture with no inoculum. The highest acidity (1.3-1.4%) with the same pH (3.3) was observed in both sets of inoculated fermentations, whereas the uninoculated set gave a pH value of 3.7 (1.2% acidity).
[ Objective ] The process of sour milk beverage by fermentation of Huanghua Pear was explored. [ Method ] The ingredients of sour milk beverage by fermentation of Huanghua pear were studied by orthogonal experiments. The choice of lactic acid bacteria in fermented sour milk beverage, the proportion of composite emulsion stabilizer, production process, processing condition and standard of quality were determined. [ Result] The result indicated that the best ingredients of sour milk beverage by fermentation were as follows: 50％ Huanghua pear juice, 50％ skim milk, and 6％ sucrose. The best proportion of composite emulsion stabilizer was 0.10％ Glycerin monostearate, 0.15％ Sucrose ester, O. 05％ Xanthan gum, and O. 10％ Seaweed gel. [ Conclusion] This process could increase the added value of Huanghua pear to meet the demand of the market.%[目的]探讨黄花梨发酵乳酸饮料的加工工艺.[方法]运用正交试验法对黄花梨发酵乳酸饮料的配方进行研究;同时确定发酵乳酸饮料的乳酸菌选择、复合乳化稳定剂的配比、生产工艺流程、工艺条件及质量标准.[结果]发酵乳酸饮料的最佳配方为黄花梨汁50%,脱脂乳50%,蔗糖6%;复合乳化稳定剂最适配比为单甘酯0.10%,蔗糖酯0.15%,黄原胶0.05%,海藻胶0.10%.[结论]该加工工艺可增加黄花梨的附加值,满足市场需求.
孙婕; 尹国友; 杜佩佩; 史亚杰; 赵卫涛; 陈合兴
The pumpkin-carrot fermented milk beverage was produced using pumpkin and carrot as main raw materials by a series of treatments (pretreatment, softening, mashing, etc) and with the addition of different minor ingredients. The optimal formula and production conditions of pumpkin-carrot fermented milk beverage were determined by single factor test and response surface design. The results showed that the optimal formula of the beverage were pumpkin juice 70%, carrot juice 30%, skimmed milk powder 2.5%, acesulfame 0.025% and composite stabilizer 0.18%. The optimal production conditions of the beverage was inoculum 3%, fermentation temperature 42T and fermentation time 4h.%以南瓜、胡萝卜为主要原料,经预处理、软化、打浆等工序,添加各种辅料,采用单因素试验和响应面设计,确定南瓜胡萝卜发酵乳饮料生产的最佳配方和工艺条件.结果表明,饮料的最佳配方为南瓜汁70％,胡萝卜汁30％,脱脂乳粉2.5％,安赛蜜0.025％,复合稳定剂0.18％.饮料的最佳工艺条件为接种量3％,发酵温度42℃,发酵时间4h.
檀子贞; 王红育; 吴雅静; 李轻舟; 刘萍; 张东送
In this study,the acid production and the optimum time forfermentation of various lactic acid bacteria in Chinese Yam medium,and the quality of the fermented beverage prepared by mixing sucrose into the fermented Chinese Yam medium were investigated.Contrast with the other four lactic acid bacteria tested,Lactobacillus casei1.0062 produced the hightest acid production and could keep the medium in its original colour.The obtained data showed that the optimum time for lactic fermentation in Chinese Yam medium was 20hours.,and the fermented Chinese Yam beverage possessed excellent colour,flavor and acceptability.%探讨了不同乳酸菌在山药基质中的产酸情况以及最佳发酵时间，同时将发酵基质调糖后制成饮料以评价其品质。结果表明，在实验涉及的五种乳酸菌中，干酪乳杆菌产酸量最高且能保持基质原来的颜色，乳酸菌在山药基质中的最佳发酵时间为20h，以发酵基质调制之饮料在色、香、味及接受性等各方面均较佳。
Santos, Claudia Cristina Auler do Amaral; Libeck, Bárbara da Silva; Schwan, Rosane Freitas
Most of the commercial probiotic products are dairy-based, and the development of non-dairy probiotic products could be an alternative for new functional products. The peanut-soy milk (PSM(1)) was inoculated with six different lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including probiotic strains and yeasts and fermentation was accomplished for 24h at 37 °C and afterwards, another 24h at ±4 °C. The Pediococcus acidilactici (UFLA BFFCX 27.1), Lactococcus lactis (CCT 0360), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR 32) probiotic LAB, and the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB 340) yogurt starter culture reached cell concentrations of about 8.3log CFU/mL during fermentation. However, these strains were not able to acidify the substrate when inoculated as pure culture. The Lactobacillus acidophilus (LACA 4) probiotic produced significant amounts of lactic acid (3.35 g/L) and rapidly lowered the pH (4.6). Saccharomyces cerevisiae (UFLA YFFBM 18.03) did not completely consume the available sugars in PSM and consequently produced low amounts of ethanol (0.24 g/L). In pure culture, S. cerevisiae (UFLA YFFBM 18.03), L. rhamnosus (LR 32), L. acidophilus (LACA 4), and P. acidilactici (UFLA BFFCX 27.1) promoted the increase of total amino acids (48.02%, 47.32%, 46.21% and, 44.07%, respectively). However, when in co-cultured, the strains consumed the free amino acids favoring their growth, and reaching the population of 8log CFU/mL in PSM. Lactic acid production increased, and 12 h was required to reach a pH value of 4.3. In general, the strains were more efficient in the use of available carbohydrates and release of metabolites in co-cultured than in single culture fermentations. An average of 58% and 78% of available carbohydrates was consumed when single and co-cultures were evaluated, respectively. Higher lactic acid contents were found in a binary culture of P. acidilactici (UFLA BFFCX 27.1) and L. acidophilus (LACA 4), and by co-culture of P. acidilactici (UFLA BFFCX 27.1), L
以火龙果为主要原料，分别进行酒精发酵和醋酸发酵，采用正交实验确定了火龙果醋酸饮料的最佳生产工艺，并对产品的调配进行了研究。结果表明：最佳发酵工艺条件为酒精发酵初始糖度16％，酵母菌添加量0．4％，发酵温度30℃；醋酸发酵的初始酒精度6％，醋酸菌用量10％，发酵温度32℃，发酵时间10天。火龙果醋酸饮料的调配工艺参数为发酵成品按1∶1．5稀释后，加入白砂糖5％，蜂蜜5％，浓缩苹果汁10％，日落黄0．0005％，焦糖色素0．02％。%Using dragon fruit as main raw material,the optimal processing conditions of dragon fruit vinegar beverage are determined through alcohol fermentation and acetic acid fermentation with orthogonal experiments,and the preferable beverage recipe is also studied.The results indicate that the initial sugar concentration of alcohol fermentation is 16%,the yeast dosage is 0.4%,and the fermentation temperature is 30 ℃;the initial alcohol concentration of acetic acid fermentation is 6%, the acetic acid bacteria dosage is 10%,the fermentation temperature is 32 ℃,and the fermentation time is 10 days.The optimal process parameters of dragon fruit vinegar beverage are as follows:after fermented liquid being diluted by 1∶1.5,and then adding sugar 5%,honey 5%,concentrated apple juice 10%,sunset yellow 0.0005% and caramel pigment 0.02%.
Margarita María Londoño Uribe
Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo por objetivo desarrollar una bebida fermentada de suero de queso fresco inoculada con Lactobacillus casei, a la cual se le evaluó la viabilidad del microorganismo, utilizando medios de cultivo selectivos, bajo condiciones anaeróbicas y, luego, se procedió a verificar su resistencia a los ácidos gástricos y sales biliares, simulando así, las condiciones del tracto gastrointestinal de los humanos. Para verificar la supervivencia durante el período de almacenamiento (21 días, la cepa, se caracterizó morfológica y bioquímicamente. Adicionalmente, se llevó a cabo la prueba de aceptabilidad, evaluando la bebida con 80 jueces. Se realizaron análisis físico-químicos, microbiológicos y sensoriales, a la materia prima y al producto elaborado, acorde a las normas vigentes en Colombia. La bebida fue saborizada con pulpa de maracuyá (Passi flora edulis. Se obtuvieron recuentos de viabilidad a pH 2,0, en agar MRS de 5,38∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y 1,3∙10(6ufc∙g-1 y en agar M17 de 6,96∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y de 1,16∙10(6ufc∙g-1, en los días 1 y 21, respectivamente. A pH 7,0, en agar MRS, se registraron valores de 3,37 ∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y 1.56 ∙10(6ufc∙g-1 y en agar M17 de 8,85∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y de 1,82∙10(6ufc∙g-1, en los días 1 y 21, respectivamente. La bebida desarrollada, tuvo una aceptación de “me gusta”, y presentó una vida de anaquel de hasta 21 días.The objective of this research was to develop a fermented fresh cheese milkwhey beverage inoculated with Lactobacillus casei, to which the viability of microorganism was evaluated using selective cultivation means under anaerobic conditions and then it was verified its biliary resistance to gastric acids and salts, simulating this way, the conditions of gastrointestinal tract of humans. To verify the survival during the period of storage (21 days, the stump was characterized morphological and bio-chemically. Additionally the test of acceptability was carried out
Baik, Hyun Wook; Lee, Yu Sun; Song, Min-Kyung
Recently, it is reported that intervention of oral nutritional supplement improves the nutritional status of cancer patients, and the effectiveness is affected by the sensory preference of cancer patients on the oral nutritional supplement. However, the variety of oral nutritional supplement is extremely limited and the number of patient's benefits from using the products are restricted mostly due to sensory dislikes. The objective of this study was to provide sensory preference score of trial manufactured products with different accessory ingredients to maximize the use of oral nutritional supplements. Cancer patients (n = 30) and age, sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 30) participated in the sensory assessments (taste, flavor, viscosity, color and overall preference) of three types of oral supplements (cereal base, cereal base+herb and cereal base+fruit) and a control supplement product with scorched cereal flavor, a top seller in current Korean market. Results indicate that the cancer patients' overall preference was significantly higher for the control supplement, and fruit added supplement was preferred over plain cereal and herb added products, although the difference was insignificant. However, there was no significant preference difference for the supplements among the control group for all sensory factors. These results suggest that cancer patients are more sensitive to sensory preferences compared to the control group, and the patients prefer the flavor of cooked cereal which is a staple food in Korea. PMID:24527420
V. V. Botvinnikova
Full Text Available The problem of provision of population with dairy products is escalating due to the fact that today, throughout the world, particularly in Russia, there is a shortage of milk as raw material, increasing every year. In the future, the consumption of milk and dairy products will continue to outpace growth in milk production is solid. To solve this problem, domestic producers need to find new ways to increase production of raw milk and improve the consumer and functional properties of fermented dairy products. The work was proposed the use of acoustic effects of ultrasound, triggered by the ultrasound, the technological model UTA ABOUT, 4/22 OM (frequency mechanical vibrations 22 ± 1,65 kHz. The main factors determining consumer characteristics, were taken physico-chemical parameters, structural and mechanical characteristics and the accumulation of minor biologically active substances – kefiran. In the study was obtained results confirming the necessity of using ultrasonic impact (RAS in the production technology of dairy products.
苏伟; 简素平; 徐静
Abstract ： A nutritional beverage way developed by fermenting a mixture of blueberry juice and milk with mixed cultures of domesticated lactic acid bacteria. Orthogonal array design was used to determine optimal process parameters. The optimal fermentation substrate composition was composed of 60% milk, 14% blueberry juice and 6.5% sucrose. The optimal fermentation parameters were determined as 3.2% of inoculum size, 4.4 h of fermentation time and 42 °C of fermentation temperature.%以蓝莓汁、牛奶为原料,将其按一定比例混合,接种经驯化的乳酸混合菌进行发酵,由正交试验确定最佳工艺参数。结果表明：最佳原料配比为：牛奶60%、蓝莓汁添加量14%、蔗糖量6.5%;最佳发酵工艺参数为：接种量3.2%、发酵时间4.4h、温度42℃。
Torino, María I; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Mozzi, Fernanda
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms widely used in the fermented food industry worldwide. Certain LAB are able to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) either attached to the cell wall (capsular EPS) or released to the extracellular environment (EPS). According to their composition, LAB may synthesize heteropolysaccharides or homopolysaccharides. A wide diversity of EPS are produced by LAB concerning their monomer composition, molecular mass, and structure. Although EPS-producing LAB strains have been traditionally applied in the manufacture of dairy products such as fermented milks and yogurts, their use in the elaboration of low-fat cheeses, diverse type of sourdough breads, and certain beverages are some of the novel applications of these polymers. This work aims to collect the most relevant issues of the former reviews concerning the monomer composition, structure, and yields and biosynthetic enzymes of EPS from LAB; to describe the recently characterized EPS and to present the application of both EPS-producing strains and their polymers in the fermented (specifically beverages and cereal-based) food industry.
María Inés Torino
Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are microorganisms widely used in the fermented food industry worldwide. Certain LAB are able to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS either attached to the cell wall (capsular EPS or released to the extracellular environment (EPS. According to their composition, LAB may synthesize heteropolysaccharides or homopolysaccharides. A wide diversity of EPS are produced by LAB concerning their monomer composition, molecular mass, and structure. Although EPS-producing LAB strains have been traditionally applied in the manufacture of dairy products such as fermented milks and yogurts, their use in the elaboration of low-fat cheeses, diverse type of sourdough breads, and certain beverages are some of the novel applications of these polymers. This work aims to collect the most relevant issues of the former reviews concerning the monomer composition, structure, and yields and biosynthetic enzymes of EPS from LAB; to describe the recently characterized EPS and to present the application of both EPS-producing strains and their polymers in the fermented (specifically beverages and cereal-based food industry.
Torino, María I.; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Mozzi, Fernanda
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms widely used in the fermented food industry worldwide. Certain LAB are able to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) either attached to the cell wall (capsular EPS) or released to the extracellular environment (EPS). According to their composition, LAB may synthesize heteropolysaccharides or homopolysaccharides. A wide diversity of EPS are produced by LAB concerning their monomer composition, molecular mass, and structure. Although EPS-producing LAB strains have been traditionally applied in the manufacture of dairy products such as fermented milks and yogurts, their use in the elaboration of low-fat cheeses, diverse type of sourdough breads, and certain beverages are some of the novel applications of these polymers. This work aims to collect the most relevant issues of the former reviews concerning the monomer composition, structure, and yields and biosynthetic enzymes of EPS from LAB; to describe the recently characterized EPS and to present the application of both EPS-producing strains and their polymers in the fermented (specifically beverages and cereal-based) food industry. PMID:26441845
肖嫩群; 刘洪娜; 张华玲; 曾奥; 郭抗萧; 陈海强; 谭周进
以蜜环菌固态发酵物为原料制得一种蜜环菌饮料。以蜜环菌固态发酵物为原料，提取其中的多糖等营养和药效成分，进行风味调配，通过正交试验和感官评价的方法确定蜜环菌饮料的配方。该发酵饮料的培养基配方为：白砂糖1．5％，大米80％，黄豆1％，麸皮10％，红薯7．5％；饮料配方为：蜜环菌发酵液添加比例为30％、白砂糖为20g／L、柠檬酸0．6g／L、黄原胶0．2g／L，测得成品饮料中各成分的含量为：多糖0．049mg／mL，还原糖0．042mg／mL，蛋白质53．0mg／mL，氨基酸1．226mg／mL。饮料的感官指标、理化指标和微生物指标均达国家标准。%Study on the method using solid fermentation as raw material for health beverage. Armillaria mellea fermentation solid was used as raw material to extract the polysaccharide and other nutritional and medicinal compo- nents. After flavor adjustment, the optimum formula of the beverage of armillaria was determined through orthogonal test and sensory evaluation method. The optimizing solid fermentation medium for Armillaria mellea contained sugar 1.5% ,rice 80% ,soybean 1% ,bran 10% ,sweet potato 7.5%. The best formula for beverage was as follows： 30% armillaria fermented liquid, 20 g/L sugar, 0.6 g/L citric acid, and 0.2 g/L xanthan gum. The ingredients of the fin- ished product drink were as follows： 0. 049 mg/mL polysaccharide, 0. 042 mg/mL reducing sugar, 53.0 mg/mL pro- tein, and 1. 226 mg/mL amino acid. The senses index, physical and chemical indexes and microbiology indicators of drink have reached national standards. The Armillaria mellea beverage has unique taste and function for health care, it has great value in utilization.
[目的]优化海带发酵乳酸饮料的工艺.[方法]以海带为原料,辅以适量乳粉,利用乳酸菌发酵制成具有海带特殊芳香和营养价值的海带乳酸发酵饮料.通过单因素分析和正交试验,确定制备稳定性较好的海带汁、乳酸菌产酸和海带汁发酵的最佳条件以及海带乳酸发酵饮料的调配工艺.[结果]制备海带汁的最佳条件是:选用90℃温水浸泡120 min,料水比为1:100倍；乳酸菌产酸的最佳条件是:海带汁50％,培养温度40℃,培养时间10 h,接种量6％；海带汁发酵的最佳条件是:添加7.5％的乳粉、10％的蔗糖,接种量6％,40℃下发酵10 h；海带乳酸发酵饮料的调配工艺是:75％的海带发酵原液,2％的白砂糖,0.09％的柠檬酸,0.02％的β-环糊精.[结论]该研究为海带的深加工提供参考依据.%[Objective] The study aimed to optimize the process for the fermented beverage with kelp by Lactobacillus. [Method] With the kelp as the raw material and complementary with right amount milk powder, the lactic acid bacteria was used to prepare into the kelp lactic acid fermented beverage with special aroma and nutritional value of kelp. Through the single factor analysis and the orthogonal test, the best conditions for the preparation of the kelp juice with good stability, the production of the acid by Lactobacillus and the fermentation of kelp juice and the mixing process for the lactic acid fermented beverage of kelp were confirmed. [ Result ] The best conditions for the preparation of the kelp juice was as follows: the kelp was soaked for 120 min at 90 t, with the material-water ratio of 1:100; the best conditions for the production of the acid by Lactobacttlus was follows : Kelp juice of 50% , culture temperature of 40 ℃ , culture time of 10 h and inoculation amount of 6% ; the best conditions for the fermentation of kelp juice was as follows: adding 7.5% milk powder and 10% sucrose, with the inoculation amount of 6% and
[目的]探索大豆发酵饮料加工配方和关键工艺参数.[方法]在制作大豆发酵饮料的试验中,筛选乳酸菌发酵菌种和复合稳定剂,研究豆浆均质压力、间壁式速冷等大豆发酵饮料加工配方和关键工艺参数,并进行了中试和试生产.[结果]研究获得的大豆发酵饮料加工配方为:按豆浆汁,加入白砂糖8.50%、乳清粉1.30%、复合稳定剂0.24%;取大豆凝乳40.00%,加复合稳定剂0.14%、香料0.05%、天然果汁5.00%～7.00%,再加水至100%.理想的工艺参数为:采用95℃/5min灭菌方式;当产品中心温度达93℃后,杀菌10min后速冷;豆浆在发酵前一级压力25MPa,二级压力10MPa;发酵好的凝乳调配后一级压力25MPa,二级压力5MPa.[结论]产品的蛋白质含量、非脂乳固体、酸度等指标均符合国家农业行业标准.%[Objective] The study aimed to explore the processing formula and key process parameters for the soybean fermented beverages. [ Method] In the experiments of preparing the soybean fermented beverages, the fermentation strains of lactic acid bacteria and the composite stabilizers were screened, and the processing formula and the key processing parameters including the homogeneous pressure of soybean milk and the rapid cooling with dividing wall type, etc. In preparing the soybean fermented beverages were researched, and a pilot test and the trial production were conducted. [ Result ] The processing formula for the soybean fermented beverages through this research was as follows: based on the amount of soybean milk, adding the sugar of 8. 50% , whey powder of 1. 30% , composite stabilizers of 0. 24% ; taking the soybean curd of 40.00% , and that adding the composite stabilizers of 0.14% , spice of 0.05% , natural juice of 5.00% -7.00% , and lastly adding the water to 100%. The ideal process parameters were as follows: using the sterilization method of 95 ℃/5 min; when the product center temperatures reached 93 ℃,it was rapid
de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Castañeda-Ramírez, José Cristobal; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Bideshi, Dennis K; Salcedo-Hernández, Rubén; Barboza-Corona, José E
Mexican Tuba (M-Tuba) and Tepache are Mexican fermented beverages prepared mainly with pineapple pulp and coconut palm, respectively. At present, reports on the microbiota and nutritional effects of both beverages are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether M-Tuba and Tepache contain cultivable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) capable of producing bacteriocins. Tepache and M-Tuba contain mesophilic aerobic bacteria, LAB, and yeast. Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium, and Salmonella spp, were the microorganisms most susceptible to metabolites produced by bacterial isolates. M-Tuba and Tepache contain bacteria that harbor genes coding for nisin and enterocin, but not pediocin. The presence of Lactococcus lactis and E. faecium in M-Tuba and Tepache, was identified by 16S rDNA. These bacteria produced bacteriocins of ∼3.5 kDa and 4.0-4.5 kDa, respectively. Partial purified bacteriocins showed inhibitory effect against Micrococcus luteus, L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, Str. agalactiae, S. aureus, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, E. faecalis, and K. pneumoniae. We characterized, for the first time, cultivable microbiota of M-Tuba and Tepache, and specifically, identified candidate lactic bacteria (LAB) present in these beverages that were capable of synthesizing antimicrobial peptides, which collectively could provide food preservative functions.
曾荣妹; 吴广黔; 周剑丽
Blackberry vinegar juice was prepared by alcohol fermentation and acetic fermentation of flesh blackberry. The optimum technical pa- rameters were determined and the recipe of vinegar beverage was summed up by orthogonal experiments as follows： 20 % blackberry vinegar juice, 10 % jujube juice, and 8 % sweetener （xylitol, sugar candy and honey）. Besides, the technology of high temperature instant sterilization was adopted in the production of blackberry vinegar beverage. （Tran, by YUE Yang）%以新鲜黑莓（Blackeny）为原料，经过酒精发酵和醋酸发酵制取黑莓醋汁。通过试验，得出了黑莓醋汁的最佳酒精发酵和醋酸发酵的工艺参数。选用正交实验，得出醋酸饮料的配方：黑莓醋汁20％，红枣汁10％，甜味剂（木糖醇、冰糖、蜂蜜）8％。黑莓果醋饮料采用高温瞬间灭菌的杀菌工艺。
Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand
The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty isolates were selected. These isolates were further characterized and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus brevis (7 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (5), Lactobacillus paracasei (2), Lactobacillus buchneri (1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1) and Lactobacillus sp. (3). Identified isolates were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival in gastrointestinal tract, antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, cell surface characteristics, exopolysacharride production and haemolytic activity. The results of these experiments were used as input data for Principal Component Analysis; thus, to select the most promising probiotic isolates. Three isolates (L. brevis PLA2, L. paracasei PLA8 and L. brevis PLA16) were found to be most technological relevant and promising probiotic candidates in comparison to commercial probiotic strains. L. brevis PLA2 was selected as best isolate with probiotic potential by in vitro adherence to the human intestinal HT-29 cell line.
Survival of foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and Bacillus cereus spores in fermented alcoholic beverages (beer and refined rice wine).
Kim, S A; Kim, N H; Lee, S H; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S
Only limited information is available on the microbiological safety of fermented alcoholic beverages because it is still a common belief that such beverages do not provide a favorable environment for bacterial growth and survival. Thus, in this study, we examined the survival of major foodborne pathogens and spores in fermented alcoholic beverages. Foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) and B. cereus spores (initial population, 3 to 4 log CFU/ml) were inoculated separately into three types of beer and refined rice wine, which were then stored at 5 and 22°C. Bacterial counts were assayed periodically for up to 28 days. Vegetative B. cereus counts decreased rapidly, whereas B. cereus spore counts remained constant (P > 0.05) for a long period of time in all beverages. Vegetative B. cereus cells formed spores in beer at 5 and 22°C, and the spores survived for long periods. Among vegetative cells, E. coli O157:H7 had the highest survival (only 1.49 to 1.56 log reduction during 28 days in beer at 5°C). Beer and refined rice wine supported microbial survival from several days to several weeks. Our results appear to contradict the common belief that pathogens cannot survive in alcoholic beverages. Long-term survival of pathogens (especially B. cereus and E. coli O157:H7) in beer and refined rice wine should be taken into consideration by the manufacturers of these beverages. This study provides basic information that should help further research into microbial survival in alcoholic beverages and increase the microbiological safety regulation of fermented alcoholic beverages.
玛丽娜; 敖日格乐; 斯木吉德
此项研究旨在利用营养丰富的乳清和药食同源的生姜为原料,开发具有营养保健功能的新型饮料-乳清姜汁发酵饮料.为饮料工业的发展开辟新领域.在研究中通过采用均匀设计的试验方法,对乳清姜汁发酵饮料发酵过程中的发酵条件进行了优化,并得出相关试验结论.其中碱性蛋白酶水解试验最优条件为,酶量为0.03％,pH值8.0,温度50℃,时间120min.乳清姜汁发酵试验最优条件为,乳酸菌种接种量为3％,乳清和姜汁的比例4:1,发酵时间5h.%This study contributes to the development of beverages that promote human health. Milk whey and ginger juice contain rich health -beneficial nutrients. In this study, milk whey and ginger juice were used as main ingredients to produce a fermented milk whey - ginger beverage. A uniform design testing method was adopted to determine the optimum conditions for fermentation of the milk whey - ginger beverage. The results of testing show that the optimum reaction conditions for basic proteinase are: an enzyme dosage of 0. 03% , a pH of 8.0, a temperature of 50℃ , and a duration time of 120min. The results of testing also show that the optimum conditions for fermenting the liquid mixture of milk whey and ginger juice are- an inoculationlactic lactic bacteria dosage of 3% , a ratio of 4:1 (milk whey to ginger juice) , and a fermentation duration time of 5h.
Elmekawy, Ahmed; Diels, Ludo; De Wever, Heleen; Pant, Deepak
The growth of the biobased economy will lead to an increase in new biorefinery activities. All biorefineries face the regular challenges of efficiently and economically treating their effluent to be compatible with local discharge requirements and to minimize net water consumption. The amount of wastes resulting from biorefineries industry is exponentially growing. The valorization of such wastes has drawn considerable attention with respect to resources with an observable economic and environmental concern. This has been a promising field which shows great prospective toward byproduct usage and increasing value obtained from the biorefinery. However, full-scale realization of biorefinery wastes valorization is not straightforward because several microbiological, technological and economic challenges need to be resolved. In this review we considered valorization options for cereals based biorefineries wastes while identifying their challenges and exploring the opportunities for future process.
王健; 刘媛; 兰凤英
[ Objective ] The aim was to prepare a lactic acid fermentation beverage of naked oats. [ Method ] With saccharified naked oats juice as raw material, lactic acid bacteria as fermented strain, effects of strain domestication, inoculation amount and fermentation time on the beverage quality were studied. [ Result] The preparation technology of lactic acid fermentation beverage of naked oats was as follows:with saccharified naked oats juice as raw material, domesticated lactic acid bacteria as fermented strain, inoculation amount 4% ,then fermented 6 h at the temperature of 42 ℃. [Conclusion] The study provided a scientific basis for development of naked oats foods.%[目的]制备一种乳酸发酵型莜麦饮料.[方法]以糖化后的莜麦汁为原料、乳酸茵为发酵菌种,探讨菌种驯化、接种量和发酵时间对乳酸发酵型莜麦饮料品质的影响.[结果]乳酸发酵型莜麦饮料的制备工艺为以糖化后的莜麦汁为原料,采用驯化后的乳酸茵为发酵菌种,接种量4％,在42℃下发酵6h.[结论]该研究为莜麦食品的开发提供了科学依据.
洪金艳; 李洪军; 贺稚非; 邓泽丽; 陈康
利用正交试验对植物乳杆菌发酵葛花与枳棋子提取液的发酵工艺进行优化.首先对植物乳杆菌进行活化、驯化培养,使其适应纯提取液中生长.以活菌数对数值、总黄酮含量、总酸、pH和感官评分为响应值,通过单因素试验分别优化出最佳的蔗糖与葡萄糖比例、接种量、发酵温度、发酵时间和糖添加量.以活菌数对数值和感官评分为响应值,选择适当的因素和水平进行正交试验,结果表明,植物乳杆菌PMO菌种发酵饮料的发酵条件为:接种量为3％,发酵温度为37℃,发酵时间为12 h,糖添加量为7％.%The orthogonal experiment was used to optimize fermentation process for Lactobacillus fermentation extracted liquid from flos Puerariae and Hovenia dulcis.First,Lactobacillus plantarum was cultured by activation and domestication to adapt to growth environment.According to logarithm of the number of viable cells,total flavonids,total acid,pH and sensory score,the optimal conditions including sucrose and glucose ratio,the amount of inoculation,fermentation temperature,fermentation time and amount of sugar were determined by single factor experiment.Using logarithm of the number of viable cells and sensory score as response values,the appropriate factors and levels were selected to design orthogonal test.The results showed that optimum fermentation conditions of fermented beverages for Lactobacillus plantarum PMO strains were inoculation of 3 ％,fermentation temperature of 37 ℃,fermentation time of 12 h,and sugar of 7 ％.
Full Text Available Over the last years, some innovative cereal-based beverages were designed using beneficial lactic acid bacteria; however, few data are available on the potential role of yeasts. The main topic of this research was to investigate the suitability of four promising yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces pastorianus and Kazachstania exigua as potential starter cultures for rice-based beverages. This aim was achieved through some intermediate scientific aims, i.e., by assessing cell viability and acidification in different cereal substrates (malt extract, soft wheat, rice and kamut flours; thereafter by studying acidification and persistence in an organic rice drink during a prolonged storage at 25 and 4°C. Rice flour provided appropriate growth for all the strains. K. exigua and S. pastorianus experienced a relatively fast acidification within 24 h. After 40 d the yeasts showed similar cell counts (ca. 7 log cfu/mL and acidification (experienced a relatively fast acidification within 24 h. After 40 d the yeasts showed similar cell counts (ca. 7 log cfu/mL and acidification (ΔpH of ca. 2.7 at 25°C and ca. 1.2-1.4 at 4°C in the organic rice drink. The evaluation of viability and acidification by promising candidates should be a simple procedure to screen yeast strains for potential use as starter cultures to design new rice-fermented functional beverages.
豆渣是大豆制品生产中的副产品，长期以来利用率不高，但却是很好的膳食纤维源和蛋白源。利用黑曲霉发酵豆渣，优化豆渣发酵方法，以感官、膳食纤维含量及微生物为评价产品标准，得到营养丰富的发酵型豆渣纤维饮料产品及其生产工艺参数。结果表明，豆渣加入量为0.2g/mL、接种量1%（V/V）条件下，发酵后所得滤液添加0.002g/mL复合稳定剂，经过调配、过滤、灭菌所得饮料颜色、气味和膳食纤维量达到预期目标，具有较好的稳定性。%Soybean dregs, a byproduct in the production of soybean products, is a good source of dietary fiber and protein in spite of the long-term low utilization rate. A fermented dietary fiber beverage, rich in nutrients, was made from soybean dregs by fermentation with Aspergillus niger. An experiment was designed to optimize the fermentation of soybean dregs, and physicochemical and microbiological tests were conducted with sensory evaluation as the main standard and the content of dietary fiber as the major index to determine production process conditions. The results showed that, after 0.2g/mL soybean dregs and 1% (V/V) inoculum were added, the fermentation filtrate was mixed with 0.002g/mL composite stabilizer to give a beverage with color, odor and dietary fiber content as expected and good stability, through the processes including formulation, filtration and sterilization.
Escalante, Adelfo; Rodríguez, María Elena; Martínez, Alfredo; López-Munguía, Agustín; Bolívar, Francisco; Gosset, Guillermo
The bacterial diversity in pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage, was studied in 16S rDNA clone libraries from three pulque samples. Sequenced clones identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus strain ASF360, L. kefir, L. acetotolerans, L. hilgardii, L. plantarum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Microbacterium arborescens, Flavobacterium johnsoniae, Acetobacter pomorium, Gluconobacter oxydans, and Hafnia alvei, were detected for the first time in pulque. Identity of 16S rDNA sequenced clones showed that bacterial diversity present among pulque samples is dominated by Lactobacillus species (80.97%). Seventy-eight clones exhibited less than 95% of relatedness to NCBI database sequences, which may indicate the presence of new species in pulque samples.
Jeon, Se Hui; Kim, Nam Hee; Shim, Moon Bo; Jeon, Young Wook; Ahn, Ji Hye; Lee, Soon Ho; Hwang, In Gyun; Rhee, Min Suk
The present study examined 469 commercially available fermented alcoholic beverages (FABs), including beer (draft, microbrewed, and pasteurized), fruit wine (grape and others), refined rice wine, and yakju (raw and pasteurized). Samples were screened for Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Yersinia enterocolitica), and the aerobic plate count, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, fungi, and total coliforms were also enumerated. Microbrewed beer contained the highest number of microorganisms (average aerobic plate count, 3.5; lactic acid bacteria, 2.1; acetic acid bacteria, 2.0; and fungi, 3.6 log CFU/ml), followed by draft beer and yakju (P beverages should be taken into account (alongside traditional quality indicators such as the presence of lactic acid-producing bacteria, acetic acid-producing bacteria, or both) when developing manufacturing systems and methods to prolong the shelf life of high-quality FAB products. New strategic quality management plans for various FABs are needed.
陈雪娇; 钱永清; 单胜艳; 王春茹
In this paper,carrot juice was fermented.The fermented tastes of carrot juice was analyzed by changing influencing factors,as the kind of bacteria,raw materials,nutritional factors,and inoculation methods. By examining the tastes,pH,Brix,viable bacteria number and other indicators to identify the best fermentation process. Results showed that the optimum fermentation conditions were Lactobacillus LP115 as fermentation strain,carrot juice as raw material,sodium citrate addition of 0.05%,apple juice addition of 5%,WPC addition of 1%,initial Brix adjusted to 16%,fermentation temperature and time of 37℃ and 15h.%以胡萝卜汁为发酵基料，主要研究菌种、原料、营养因子等对胡萝卜汁发酵风味的影响。通过考察口感、pH、固形物含量、活菌数等指标，找出了最佳发酵工艺。以植物乳杆菌LP115为发酵菌株，以胡萝卜汁为原料，添加0.05%柠檬酸钠、5%苹果汁和1%乳清粉，发酵体系胡萝卜浓缩汁的初始固形物含量Brix调整至16%，37℃下发酵15h。
Riveros-Mckay, Fernando; Campos, Itzia; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo
Leuconostoc mesenteroides P45 was isolated from the traditional Mexican pulque beverage. We report its draft genome sequence, assembled in 6 contigs consisting of 1,874,188 bp and no plasmids. Genome annotation predicted a total of 1,800 genes, 1,687 coding sequences, 52 pseudogenes, 9 rRNAs, 51 tRNAs, 1 noncoding RNA, and 44 frameshifted genes.
This thesis addresses the investigation of several strains of LAB for biopreservation using in vitro and in situ studies, as well as for acidification of wort to be applied during sour brewing and as novel beverages. The impact of bacterial carboxylic acids, with emphasis on phenolic antifungal compounds, was assessed against Fusarium culmorum, a common fungal spoilage organism in malt. The contribution of phenolic acids to the overall fungal inhibition was found to be limited unless combined...
大枣嫩玉米乳饮料是以大枣汁、嫩玉米汁和新鲜牛乳为主要原料，以蔗糖为甜味剂，接入乳酸菌进行发酵，生产出有大枣和玉米香味并具有营养和保健功能发酵型乳饮料。通过 L9（34）正交试验确定了大枣汁、玉米汁与鲜牛奶的添加量以及接种量对产品质量的影响。试验表明，大枣嫩玉米乳饮料的最佳配方为：玉米汁添加量为35%，大枣汁添加量为15%，鲜牛奶添加量为40%，酸奶添加量为10%。试验确定的复合稳定剂为0.2%蔗糖酯和0.1%黄原胶。% To produce Chinese date and tender corn beverage fermented by lactic acid bacteria,Chinese date,tender corn and milk were used as main materials. Sucrose was used as sweeter and lactic acid bacteria were added for fermentation. Novel fermented milk beverage with combined flavor of Chinese date and tender corn was produced. The adding amount of Chinese date juice,tender corn juice and fresh milk as well as the influence of inoculation amount on product quality was determined through orthogonal experiments of L9(34). The best recipe of this product resulted from experiments was 35% corn juice,15% Chinese date juice,40%fresh milk and 10% yogurt. The combined stabilizer confirmed by experiments was 0.2% sucrose ester and 0.1% Xanthan.
薛原; 高瑞飞; 王昌禄
A kind of Kvass was prepared with Momordica grosvenori leaching liquor and bread extract as the fermentation raw materials for the production of kvass. Momordica grosvenori extract is a natural low caloric sweet agent in Kvass to replace the traditional sucrose and maltose. The drink contains no sugar and tastes fresh. Thus it is suitable for diabetic patients and obese patients. The optimum fermentation conditions were determined by single factor and orthogonal test: the ratio of bread extract to Momordica grosvenori juice is 4 to1; the ratio of yeasts to lactics cereuisiae is 2 to 1with the amount of 3.0%; ferment under 32℃ for 24h. As an innovative Kvass beverage, its nutrition composition, taste and function are greatly improved.%以罗汉果浸提液和面包提取液作为生产格瓦斯的发酵原料，罗汉果提取物作为一种低热量的天然甜味剂在格瓦斯中发挥作用，替代了传统的蔗糖、麦芽糖，这种饮料不含蔗糖，口感清爽，适合糖尿病人和肥胖病人饮用。通过单因素和正交试验确定最佳发酵条件为：面包提取液与罗汉果浸提液4∶1，酵母菌和乳酸菌2∶1，接种量3%，发酵温度32℃，发酵时间24h。作为格瓦斯饮料的一种创新，其营养成分、口感、功能性都有很大提高。
Wacher-Rodarte, Maria Del Carmen; Trejo-Muñúzuri, Tanya Paulina; Montiel-Aguirre, Jesús Fernando; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Gutiérrez-Lucas, Raúl L; Castañeda-Sánchez, Jorge Ismael; Sainz-Espuñes, Teresita
Pozol is a handcrafted nonalcoholic Mayan beverage produced by the spontaneous fermentation of maize dough by lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are carriers of chromosomal encoded multidrug-resistant efflux pumps genes that can be transferred to pathogens and/or confer resistance to compounds released during the fermentation process causing food spoiling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic sensibility and the transcriptional expression of ABC-type efflux pumps in LAB isolated from pozol that contributes to multidrug resistance. Analysis of LAB and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus ATCC 29213 and ATCC 6538 control strains to antibiotic susceptibility, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) to ethidium bromide were based in "standard methods" whereas the ethidium bromide efflux assay was done by fluorometric assay. Transcriptional expression of efflux pumps was analyzed by RT-PCR. LAB showed antibiotic multiresistance profiles, moreover, Lactococcus (L.) lactis and Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum displayed higher ethidium bromide efflux phenotype than S. aureus control strains. Ethidium bromide resistance and ethidium bromide efflux phenotypes were unrelated with the overexpression of lmrD in L. lactics, or the underexpression of lmrA in L. plantarum and norA in S. aureus. These findings suggest that, moreover, the analyzed efflux pumps genes, other unknown redundant mechanisms may underlie the antibiotic resistance and the ethidium bromide efflux phenotype in L. lactis and L. plantarum. Phenotypic and molecular drug multiresistance assessment in LAB may improve a better selection of the fermentation starter cultures used in pozol, and to control the antibiotic resistance widespread and food spoiling for health safety.
Ibáñez, Clara; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Chiva, Rosana; Guillamón, José Manuel; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo
Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are the main responsible of most traditional alcohol fermentation processes performed around the world. The characteristics of the diverse traditional fermentations are very different according to their sugar composition, temperature, pH or nitrogen sources. During the adaptation of yeasts to these new environments provided by human activity, their different compositions likely imposed selective pressures that shaped the S. cerevisiae genome. In the present work we performed a comparative genomic hybridization analysis to explore the genome constitution of six S. cerevisiae strains isolated from different traditional fermentations (masato, mescal, cachaça, sake, wine, and sherry wine) and one natural strain. Our results indicate that gene copy numbers (GCN) are very variable among strains, and most of them were observed in subtelomeric and intrachromosomal gene families involved in metabolic functions related to cellular homeostasis, cell-to-cell interactions, and transport of solutes such as ions, sugars and metals. In many cases, these genes are not essential but they can play an important role in the adaptation to new environmental conditions. However, the most interesting result is the association observed between GCN changes in genes involved in the nitrogen metabolism and the availability of nitrogen sources in the different traditional fermentation processes. This is clearly illustrated by the differences in copy numbers not only in gene PUT1, the main player in the assimilation of proline as a nitrogen source, but also in CAR2, involved in arginine catabolism. Strains isolated from fermentations where proline is more abundant contain a higher number of PUT1 copies and are more efficient in assimilating this amino acid as a nitrogen source. A strain isolated from sugarcane juice fermentations, in which arginine is a rare amino acid, contains less copies of CAR2 and showed low efficiency in arginine assimilation. These
Rijswijck, van Irma M.H.
Yeast are used as workhorses to convert hopped wort into beer. Conventionally, such yeasts belong to the genus Saccharomyces and most research on fermentation of wort for the production of beer has focussed on the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus. Recently, there is an
Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Capece, Angela; Romano, Patrizia
Autochthonous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from traditional starters used for the production of rice-based ethnic fermented beverage in North East India were examined for their genetic polymorphism using mitochondrial DNA-RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. Mitochondrial DNA-RFLP analysis of S. cerevisiae strains with similar technological origins from hamei starter of Manipur and marcha starter of Sikkim revealed widely separated clusters based on their geographical origin. Electrophoretic karyotyping showed high polymorphism amongst the hamei strains within similar mitochondrial DNA-RFLP cluster and one unique karyotype of marcha strain was widely distributed in the Sikkim-Himalayan region. We conceptualized the possibility of separate domestication events for hamei strains in Manipur (located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot) and marcha strains in Sikkim (located in Himalayan biodiversity hotspot), as a consequence of less homogeneity in the genomic structure between these two groups, their clear separation being based on geographical origin, but not on technological origin and low strain level diversity within each group. The molecular markers developed based on HinfI-mtDNA-RFLP profile and the chromosomal doublets in chromosome VIII position of Sikkim-Himalayan strains could be effectively used as geographical markers for authenticating the above starter strains and differentiating them from other commercial strains.
Apr 17, 2008 ... Quality changes in zobo beverage produced from Hibiscus sabdarifa during storage and the ... Zobo drink, a non alcoholic local beverage is produced ..... treatment on the shelf life of fermented African oil bean seed (Ugbu),.
Edilene Cléa Dos Santos Segtowick
Full Text Available O processamento de frutas para a obtenção de bebidas é uma forma de agregar valor a essa matéria-prima e remunerar melhor o produtor rural por meio do aumento de demanda. Tendo essa ideia como premissa, o objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir fermentados de acerola e caracterizá-los físico-química e sensorialmente. A produção das bebidas foi baseada na legislação brasileira de fermentado de fruta e de vinho. Os fermentados foram produzidos a partir de suco (prensa e polpa (despolpadora de acerola, e adoçados com açúcar para a obtenção de três tipos de bebidas: seco, meio seco e suave. As bebidas foram analisadas físico-quimicamente quanto a pH, teor alcoólico, açúcar redutor, açúcar redutor total, acidez total, acidez volátil, acidez fixa, extrato seco, extrato seco reduzido, relação álcool/extrato seco reduzido, dióxido de enxofre livre, dióxido de enxofre total e turbidez. A análise sensorial das bebidas foi feita pelo teste de escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos, sendo considerados aparência, odor, sabor e avaliação global. Os resultados das análises físico-químicas e sensorial foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (significância de 5%. Tanto as matérias-primas (suco e polpa como as diferentes concentrações de açúcar (seco, semisseco e suave interferiram nos parâmetros físico-químicos e sensoriais dos fermentados de acerola, sendo que os provadores demonstraram preferência pelas bebidas mais adocicadas.Fruit processing for beverage production purposes is a way of adding value to the raw material and of raising the farmer’s income by increasing the demand. Thus the objective of this work was the production of fermented West Indian cherry beverages and their physicochemical and sensory evaluation. The beverages were produced based on the Brazilian legislation for fermented fruit beverages and wine. The fermented beverages were produced
杨宇宙; 午勇泉; 尹军峰; 夏珍珠; 王志岚
In recent yeas, in order to solve the problems of the traditional black tea beverage industry, many scholars study the liquid fermentation which was using for producing the black tea beverage. This article mainly discussed the effects in liquid fermentation system of black tea beverage: included the substrate concentration and the activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, pretreatment of fresh leaves, temperature, pH, oxygen supplements, and time. By affecting the concentration and ratio of theaflavins, thearubigins and theabrownins, these factors can affect the system and the quality of black tea. They played the vital roles in liquid fermentation system of black tea beverage. According to the domestic and international tea beverage liquid fermentation technology, combining the current research situation of the existing problems, the author advanced some measures, such as raw material, enzyme and automatic control. They provided theoretical basis for lucubrating and extensive application of this technology.%为解决传统红茶饮料产业所面临的问题,近年来国内外许多学者对液态发酵生产红茶饮料产品进行了研究.主要从红茶饮料液态发酵体系中影响发酵效果的主要因素方面进行研究.包括底物浓度、多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶活性、鲜叶预处理和液态发酵的技术参数.这些因素通过影响体系中茶黄素、茶红素、茶褐素的含量和比例影响红茶品质.从而对红茶饮料液态发酵过程起着至关重要的作用.根据国内外红茶饮料液态发酵技术的研究现状,结合当前所存在的问题,从原料、酶和自动控制方面提出改进措施,为这一技术的深入研究和广泛应用提供理论基础.
Elizaquível, Patricia; Pérez-Cataluña, Alba; Yépez, Alba; Aristimuño, Cecilia; Jiménez, Eugenia; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Vignolo, Graciela; Aznar, Rosa
The diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with chicha, a traditional maize-based fermented alcoholic beverage from Northwestern Argentina, was analyzed using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Samples corresponding to 10 production steps were obtained from two local producers at Maimará (chicha M) and Tumbaya (chicha T). Whereas by culture-dependent approach a few number of species (Lactobacillus plantarum and Weissella viridescens in chicha M, and Enterococcus faecium and Leuconostoc mesenteroides in chicha T) were identified, a higher quantitative distribution of taxa was found in both beverages by pyrosequencing. The relative abundance of OTUs was higher in chicha M than in chicha T; six LAB genera were common for chicha M and T: Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Weissella, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus while Pediococcus only was detected in chicha M. Among the 46 identified LAB species, those of Lactobacillus were dominant in both chicha samples, exhibiting the highest diversity, whereas Enterococcus and Leuconostoc were recorded as the second dominant genera in chicha T and M, respectively. Identification at species level showed the predominance of Lb. plantarum, Lactobacillus rossiae, Leuconostoc lactis and W. viridescens in chicha M while Enterococcus hirae, E. faecium, Lc. mesenteroides and Weissella confusa predominated in chicha T samples. In parallel, when presumptive LAB isolates (chicha M: 146; chicha T: 246) recovered from the same samples were identified by ISR-PCR and RAPD-PCR profiles, species-specific PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, most of them were assigned to the Leuconostoc genus (Lc. mesenteroides and Lc. lactis) in chicha M, Lactobacillus, Weissella and Enterococcus being also present. In contrast, chicha T exhibited the presence of Enterococcus and Leuconostoc, E. faecium being the most representative species. Massive sequencing approach was applied for the first time to study the diversity and
Disney Ribeiro Dias
mombin fruit pulp had its sugar content adjusted to 24°Brix with a sucrose solution. The must was deacidified using CaCO3 until it reached pH value of 3.8 and then enzymatically treated with Ultrazym AFP-L (Novo DK. Sulphur dioxide, as potassium metabissulfite, was used as an inhibitor of bacterial growth and as an antioxidant. Bentonite was also added to aid the must clarification. After these adjustments the must was inoculated with 10(7 cell/ml of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type strain. The fermentation was carried out at 22°C for 10 days, with daily monitoring of Brix and fermentation activity by the liberation of CO2. At the end of the fermentation, the fermented must was stored at 10°C for 10 days and a first separation of the yeasts and solids particles was done. The second separation was done 30 days later, before the filtration. Ethanol, glycerol, organic acids, higher alcohols, methanol, esters and acetaldehyde were analysed in the final product. There was a high concentration of higher alcohols, which are usually responsible for the flavour found in alcoholic beverages. The acceptance of the drink was tested with 45 non-experienced panellists using the hedonic scale (1-9. The beverage was well accepted and might be a good investiment for small or medium companies.
杨林; 刘翠花; 罗章
以西藏野生裂叶荨麻茎叶浸提液和脱脂乳为主要原料,用乳酸菌进行乳酸发酵,制得荨麻茎叶乳酸发酵饮料.发酵最佳工艺条件为:荨麻浸提液与脱脂乳的质量比例为3:2、接种量为4％、发酵时间为12h、发酵的温度为38℃、蔗糖添加量为8％.最佳风味配方为:木糖醇5％、柠檬酸0.06％、β-环糊精0.02％.发酵饮料稳定剂最佳配方为:CMC-Na 0.20％、黄原胶0.08％、琼脂0.04％.%Tibet wild crack leaf nettle cauline leaf extract and skimmed milk as the main raw material,fermentation beverage was prepared through lactic acid bacteria.The optimum fermentation technological conditions were quality ratio of nettle extract and skimmed milk 3:2,inoculation quantity 4％,fermentation time 12 h,fermentation temperature 41C,and sugar 8％.The optimum formula was xylitol 5％,citric acid 0.06％,beta-cyclodextrin 0.02％.The optimum stabilizer formula for fermented beverage was CMC-Na 0.20 ％,xanthan gum 0.08％,AGAR 0.04％.
研究了双歧杆菌发酵荔枝果汁开发高钙荔枝保健饮品的工艺.在单因素分析的基础上通过正交优化得到最佳工艺条件为:CaCO3添加量1.0g/L,培养时间20h,接种量5%,胡萝卜汁添加量10%,培养温度36℃.最佳工艺条件下进行10L中试发酵,所得产品各项榆测指标均较好.%The processing technology of high-calcium healthy litchi beverage fermented by Bifidobacteria was studied. Based on single factor analysis,the optimal fermentation parameters were obtained by orthogonal experiment as follows: CaCO3 1.0g/L, fermentation time 20h, inoculum 5％, carrot juice 10％ and fermentation temperature 36℃. All measurement indicators could meet standards well when the fermentation was conducted at 10L pilot scale under the optimal conditions.
Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K; Moroni, Alice V
Quality of coffee is a complex trait and is influenced by physical and sensory parameters. A complex succession of transformations during the processing of seeds to roasted coffee will inevitably influence the in-cup attributes of coffee. Germination and fermentation of the beans are two bioprocesses that take place during post-harvest treatment, and may lead to significant modifications of coffee attributes. The aim of this review is to address the current knowledge of dynamics of these two processes and their significance for bean modifications and coffee quality. The first part of this review gives an overview of coffee germination and its influence on coffee chemistry and quality. The germination process initiates while these non-orthodox seeds are still inside the cherry. This process is asynchronous and the evolution of germination depends on how the beans are processed. A range of metabolic reactions takes place during germination and can influence the carbohydrate, protein, and lipid composition of the beans. The second part of this review focuses on the microbiota associated with the beans during post-harvesting, exploring its effects on coffee quality and safety. The microbiota associated with the coffee cherries and beans comprise several bacterial, yeast, and fungal species and affects the processing from cherries to coffee beans. Indigenous bacteria and yeasts play a role in the degradation of pulp/mucilage, and their metabolism can affect the sensory attributes of coffee. On the other hand, the fungal population occurring during post-harvest and storage negatively affects coffee quality, especially regarding spoilage, off-tastes, and mycotoxin production.
With black rice and skimmed milk powder as the main materials,the black rice was gelatinized and liquefied,and then mixed with skimmed milk powder,sugar and pectin. After fermented by the lactic acid bacteria,the milk beverages with living bacteria was made. The formula of black rice fermented milk beverages was optimized by Box–Behnken design based on single factor experiment. The optimal values of the above parameters were obtained as followed:skimmed milk powder content was 5.39 g/100mL,sugar content was 8.16 g/100mL and pectin content was 3.88 mL/100mL. Under these optimal conditions,the black rice fermented milk beverages with superior quality was obtained.%以新鲜黑米和脱脂乳粉为主要原料，黑米经糊化、液化后添加脱脂乳粉、白砂糖和果胶，经乳酸菌发酵后制得含有活菌的乳饮料。在单因素试验的基础上，利用Design–Expert软件进行三因素三水平的Box–Behnken试验设计，并对黑米发酵乳饮料的配方进行优化分析。通过响应面法分析确定黑米发酵乳饮料的最佳配方为脱脂乳粉5.39 g/100mL、白砂糖8.16 g/100mL、果胶3.88 mL/100mL。在此条件下，制备的黑米发酵乳饮料的口感、色泽和质地良好。
Full Text Available Cereals represent a major food supply for humanity. Although these sources are rich in proteins and carbohydrates, many of them are deficient in several essential nutrients, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and carotenoid pigments. One possible approach how to enhance the content of PUFAs or carotenoids in cereal diet is based on biotechnological transformation of cereal materials by solid state fermentations. This technique is powerful tool for effective valorisation of these resources to various types of value-added bioproducts with demanded properties and functions. Selected filamentous Mucorales fungi were applied for conversion of numerous agroindustrial substrates to bioproducts enriched with PUFAs, such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, arachidonic acid (AA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. On the other hand, a range of yeast species utilizing agroindustrial substrates were employed for formation of carotenoids, such as β-carotene, torulene, torularhodine and astaxanthin. Such naturally prepared cereal based bioproducts enriched with either PUFAs or carotenoid pigments may be used as an inexpensive food and feed supplement. The work was supported by grant VEGA No. 1/0747/08 from the Grant Agency of Ministry of Education, Slovak Republic.
Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.
Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)
Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.
Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)
许玉然; 马福民; 邹德静; 马慧明; 王晨
本文以黑木耳、生晒人参为原料，经浸泡、浸提、混合发酵、调配、灌装、杀菌得到黑木耳人参复合乳酸发酵饮料。实验结果表明，黑木耳人参复合乳酸发酵饮料最佳条件为：生晒人参2%，发酵温度40℃，接种量为0.25%，发酵时间为10h。最佳配方为：黑木耳、人参混合发酵液30%，总糖量8%，木耳1.2%，脱脂乳1%，总酸量0.27%，稳定剂黄原胶0.08%。产品为浅灰色、均匀细腻、酸甜适口、无分层，具有黑木耳和人参的天然风味以及乳酸发酵特有的滋气味。%This paper with black fungus, dried raw ginseng as raw material, after soaking, leaching, mixed fermentation, blending, filling, sterilizing to obtain ginseng lactic acid fermentation of Auricularia auricula beverage,The test results show that: the best conditions of Auricularia compound lactic acid fermentation beverage of sun dried ginseng: ginseng for 2%, fermentation temperature of 40℃, 0.25% inoculation, fermentation time 10h.The optimal formula was∶black fungus for 1.2%, skim milk for 1%, black fungus for 1.2%,skim milk for 1%, ginseng mixed fermentation liquid is 30%, total sugar content of 8%, the total acid 0.27%, stabilizer xanthan gum, dosage of 0.08%. Products are light grey, uniform and fine, sweet and sour taste, no hierarchical, with black fungus and ginseng and natural flavor of lactic acid fermentation of peculiar smell.
Álvarez-Fernández, M Antonia; Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Cerezo, Ana B; Troncoso, Ana M; García-Parrilla, M Carmen
Overproduction of strawberry leads to food waste, as it is very perishable. Therefore, strategies to transform it into new products are appreciated. This research focuses on characterization of the nonanthocyanin phenolic content of a beverage obtained from strawberry by gluconic and acetic fermentation and subsequently monitored for 90 days of storage, at two temperatures. Sixty-four nonanthocyanin (poly)phenols were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC coupled with linear trap quadrupole and Orbitrap mass analyzer) and, for the first time, four compounds were reported in beverages fermented from strawberry: aromadendrin hexoside, phloretin 2'-O-xylosyl glucoside, dihydroferulic acid 4-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol hexosyl hexoside. During the storage time the increase in protocatechuic acid content was 13 times and condensed tannins diminished, especially procyanidin trimer. Statistical analysis showed that the composition remains unchanged until day 15 of storage at room temperature (27-30 °C) and until day 30 under refrigerated conditions (4 °C).
In this experiment, hawthorn as raw material, the beating, and pectinase, addition of sugar, fermentation, in addition to alcohol, centrifugal distribution method, conducts the research to the clarification of haw beverage production process. Through Acesulfame-K, erythritol, hawthorn juice, vitamin C orthogonal test, results show that, the low energy fermented alcohol free to clarify the best formulation was:Acesulfame 0.005 %; erythritol 1 %; hawthorn juice 25 %; vitamin C 0.01 %. The beverage of sweet and sour taste, flavor, rich nutrition.%以山楂为原料，采用打浆、加果胶酶、发酵除糖、离心、除醇、调配等方法，对山楂澄清饮料的生产工艺进行研究。通过安赛蜜、赤藓糖醇、山楂原汁、VC的正交试验，结果表明，低能量发酵型无醇澄清饮料的最佳配方为：安赛蜜0.005%；赤藓糖醇1%；山楂原汁25%；VC 0.01%。该饮料酸甜适口、风味浓郁、营养丰富。
Tatiana Christides; Francis Kweku Amagloh; Jane Coad
Iron and vitamin A deficiencies in childhood are public health problems in the developing world. Introduction of cereal-based complementary foods, that are often poor sources of both vitamin A and bioavailable iron, increases the risk of deficiency in young children. Alternative foods with higher levels of vitamin A and bioavailable iron could help alleviate these micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare iron bioavailability of β-carotene-rich sweet potato-based ...
Giacomino, S.; Peñas, Elena; Ferreyra, V.; Pellegrino, N.; Fournier, M.; Apro, Nicolás; Olivera Carrión, Margarita; Frías, Juana
Human consumption of flaxseed is increasing due to its health benefit properties and extrusion processes can enhance its nutritional quality. Extruded flaxseed meal (EFM) obtained in a pilot plant was characterized and incorporated in flour mixes and cereal-based bars to demonstrate its nutritious usefulness. Amino acid content was not affected by extrusion and, despite lysine was the limitating amino acid, the chemical score (CS) was 83 %. Thiamin and riboflavin decreased slightly as consequ...
Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı
In this study, acrylamide exposure from selected cereal-based baby food samples was investigated among toddlers aged 1-3 years in Turkey. The study contained three steps. The first step was collecting food consumption data and toddlers' physical properties, such as gender, age and body weight, using a questionnaire given to parents by a trained interviewer between January and March 2012. The second step was determining the acrylamide levels in food samples that were reported on by the parents in the questionnaire, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The last step was combining the determined acrylamide levels in selected food samples with individual food consumption and body weight data using a deterministic approach to estimate the acrylamide exposure levels. The mean acrylamide levels of baby biscuits, breads, baby bread-rusks, crackers, biscuits, breakfast cereals and powdered cereal-based baby foods were 153, 225, 121, 604, 495, 290 and 36 μg/kg, respectively. The minimum, mean and maximum acrylamide exposures were estimated to be 0.06, 1.43 and 6.41 μg/kg BW per day, respectively. The foods that contributed to acrylamide exposure were aligned from high to low as bread, crackers, biscuits, baby biscuits, powdered cereal-based baby foods, baby bread-rusks and breakfast cereals.
马玲; 徐静; 焦慧娟
In this paper.the concentration of proteoglycan .contents of probiotics and late fermented time,which affect the whey beverage sensory quality and pH were determined by one-factor and response surface method.the effects of various factors were estimated through variance analysis and response surface analysis.The results showed that optimum concentration of proteoglycan , contents of probiotics and late fermented time were 0.175%,3.852%,3.275 h,respectively.Under these conditions.the real sensory evaluation and pH of whey beverage fermented by probiotics were 97.68 and 4.96,the two both had no significance with the predictive levels.%在单因素试验的基础上结合响应面分析法,对影响益生菌乳清发酵饮料感官品质和pH值的蛋白糖质量分数、益生菌质量分数和后发酵时间的因素进行了研究,通过SAS软件分析建立了回归模型并进行了方差分析,最后优化得到最佳的工艺参数为:蛋白糖质量分数0.175％,益生菌质量分数3.852％,后发酵时间3.275 h,在此条件下得到的益生菌乳清发酵饮料的实际感官评分为97.68,pH值为4.96,二者与理论预测值差异均不显著.
1 Department of Food Science, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O.Box 5036, N-Í432 As, Norway. 2 Awassa ..... Filtrate 1. Resìdue. Af£ ! Wet mill & Sieve j (2-3 times). Filtrate. Spent grains. "I* Animal feed .... dry season. An average worker.
Caracterização de bebidas lácteas funcionais fermentadas por probióticos e acrescidas de prebiótico Characterization of functional dairy beverages fermented by probiotics and with the addition of prebiotics
Karime Gianetti Thamer
Full Text Available A busca pela alimentação mais saudável, aliada ao aproveitamento do soro pelas indústrias de laticínios, torna favorável a elaboração de bebidas lácteas fermentadas à base de soro de leite. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar bebidas lácteas funcionais fermentadas por probióticos e acrescidas de prebiótico, elaboradas conforme 12 tratamentos. As amostras foram submetidas a análises de pH, acidez, gordura, sólidos totais, proteínas, cinzas e carboidratos. O valor de pH 4,8 foi um parâmetro adequado para finalizar a fermentação das bebidas, garantindo assim a viabilidade dos probióticos. Houve variação na composição centesimal das bebidas lácteas conforme a formulação. Quanto maior o teor de soro, menor a acidez titulável e menor o teor de proteínas. As bebidas lácteas apresentaram os maiores teores de sólidos totais e de carboidratos, quando formuladas com as maiores porcentagens de açúcar e frutooligossacarídeos. Os menores teores de cinzas foram observados nas bebidas elaboradas com os maiores teores de açúcar. As amostras atenderam à legislação brasileira em vigor, sendo os produtos considerados desnatados por apresentarem menos de 0,5% de gordura, independente das formulações.The attempt to find healthier foods combined with the use of whey by the dairy industry has favored the production of fermented dairy beverages based on milk whey. The aim of this research is to characterize functional dairy beverages fermented by probiotics which have a prebiotic supplement added and which have been developed according to 12 treatments. The samples were analysed for the pH, acidity, fat content, total solids, protein, ashes and carbohydrates. The pH value of 4.8 was a suitable parameter to complete the fermentation of the beverages, thus ensuring the viability of probiotics. There was a variation in the centesimal composition of the dairy beverages according to the formulation. The higher the whey content
The food and beverage industry is re-discovering fermentation as a crucial step in product innovation. Fermentation can provide various benefits such as unique flavor, health and nutrition, texture and safety (shelf life), while maintaining a 100% natural label. In this review several examples are
王健; 罗永华; 刘媛; 兰凤英
以糖化莜麦汁为原料,探讨了葡萄酒酵母菌发酵莜麦饮料的生产工艺。在单因素试验的基础上,采用正交试验得到葡萄酒酵母菌发酵莜麦饮料的优化工艺条件：接种量4%,28℃下发酵20 h。木糖醇添加量为7%;果胶添加量为0.45%。%After saccharificatic was used as the main raw material,the production process of the fermented naked oat juice was studied.On the basis of single factor experiment,the optimal process conditions of the fermentation beverage were determined by orthogonal experiment as follows： 4% wine yeast,28℃of wine yeast fermentation for 20 h,7% xylitol,0.45% pectin.
张政; 付彦青; 陈超; 赵风云
Objective To prepare a nutritious fermentation edible fungi beverage by using the raw mate-rials composed of three traditional health foods, includingGanoderma lucidum, rape bee pollen (mainly nitro-gen), and rape honey (mainly carbon), and to solvent the problem encountered with cell wall brokenMethods The fermentation broth was mixed with citric acid, sucrose and stabilizer, then the beverage product was pre-pared after filtration, canning, sterilization. Meanwhile, the nutrients and broken-wall ratios were detected in fermentation broth, and each indexes of production were determined.Results The best recipes of production were determined as follows: 35% fermentation liquid, 14% cane sugar, 0.26% citric acid, and 0.15% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC). The nutritious liquid contained polysaccharides (25.74 mg/mL), proteins (0.79 mg/mL), which was fermented rape pollen and honey by G. lucidum, and the broken-wall ratio of rape pollens was 72.94% in the fermentation liquid.Conclusion The edible fungi beverage had a nice taste, and was rich in nutrients in line with relevant national standard.%目的：以灵芝(菌种)、油菜蜂花粉(主要氮源)、油菜蜂蜜(主要碳源)三种传统保健食品作为原料,制备一种营养丰富的发酵型食用菌饮料,并解决蜂花粉深加工时破壁难的问题。方法将发酵液与柠檬酸、蔗糖和稳定剂进行调配,经抽滤、罐装、杀菌制得饮料成品,同时对发酵液中的营养成分和花粉破壁率及饮料中的各项指标进行检测。结果发酵饮料的最佳配方为：发酵液35%,蔗糖14%,柠檬酸0.26%,羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)的添加量为0.15%。发酵液中多糖的含量为25.74 mg/mL,蛋白质的含量为0.79 mg/mL,花粉破壁率为72.94%。结论本研究制得的食用菌饮料,天然美味,营养丰富,符合国家的相关标准。
Fermentation refers to the use of microorganisms to achieve desirable food properties in the fermented food or beverage. Although the word ‘fermentation’ indicates ‘anaerobic metabolism,’ it is also used in a broader sense to indicate all anaerobic and aerobic microbiological and biochemical
Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.
In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,
Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.
In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta
Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.
In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta
Fermentation refers to the use of microorganisms to achieve desirable food properties in the fermented food or beverage. Although the word ‘fermentation’ indicates ‘anaerobic metabolism,’ it is also used in a broader sense to indicate all anaerobic and aerobic microbiological and biochemical modific
Christides, Tatiana; Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Coad, Jane
Iron and vitamin A deficiencies in childhood are public health problems in the developing world. Introduction of cereal-based complementary foods, that are often poor sources of both vitamin A and bioavailable iron, increases the risk of deficiency in young children. Alternative foods with higher levels of vitamin A and bioavailable iron could help alleviate these micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare iron bioavailability of β-carotene-rich sweet potato-based complementary foods (orange-flesh based sweet potato (OFSP) ComFa and cream-flesh sweet potato based (CFSP) ComFa with a household cereal-based complementary food (Weanimix) and a commercial cereal (Cerelac®), using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Iron bioavailability relative to total iron, concentrations of iron-uptake inhibitors (fibre, phytates, and polyphenols), and enhancers (ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and fructose) was also evaluated. All foods contained similar amounts of iron, but bioavailability varied: Cerelac® had the highest, followed by OFSP ComFa and Weanimix, which had equivalent bioavailable iron; CFSP ComFa had the lowest bioavailability. The high iron bioavailability from Cerelac® was associated with the highest levels of ascorbic acid, and the lowest levels of inhibitors; polyphenols appeared to limit sweet potato-based food iron bioavailability. Taken together, the results do not support that CFSP- and OFSP ComFa are better sources of bioavailable iron compared with non-commercial/household cereal-based weaning foods; however, they may be a good source of provitamin A in the form of β-carotene.
Full Text Available Iron and vitamin A deficiencies in childhood are public health problems in the developing world. Introduction of cereal-based complementary foods, that are often poor sources of both vitamin A and bioavailable iron, increases the risk of deficiency in young children. Alternative foods with higher levels of vitamin A and bioavailable iron could help alleviate these micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare iron bioavailability of β-carotene-rich sweet potato-based complementary foods (orange-flesh based sweet potato (OFSP ComFa and cream-flesh sweet potato based (CFSP ComFa with a household cereal-based complementary food (Weanimix and a commercial cereal (Cerelac®, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Iron bioavailability relative to total iron, concentrations of iron-uptake inhibitors (fibre, phytates, and polyphenols, and enhancers (ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and fructose was also evaluated. All foods contained similar amounts of iron, but bioavailability varied: Cerelac® had the highest, followed by OFSP ComFa and Weanimix, which had equivalent bioavailable iron; CFSP ComFa had the lowest bioavailability. The high iron bioavailability from Cerelac® was associated with the highest levels of ascorbic acid, and the lowest levels of inhibitors; polyphenols appeared to limit sweet potato-based food iron bioavailability. Taken together, the results do not support that CFSP- and OFSP ComFa are better sources of bioavailable iron compared with non-commercial/household cereal-based weaning foods; however, they may be a good source of provitamin A in the form of β-carotene.
以海藻、葡萄皮渣为原料，经水、酒精先后浸提后，把两次浸提液混合均匀，调整酒精含量，加入蓝莓果汁等，经醋酸发酵，脱腥，制备发酵醋饮料。采用正交试验设计，以原花青素为有效成分指标，研究了酒精的最佳浸提工艺条件。结果表明，酒精度70%vol、浸提温度55℃、浸提时间4h为最佳浸提工艺；利用单因素实验，探讨了发酵时间、发酵醋酸度对产品脱腥的影响。结果表明，发酵时间72h、发酵酸度5g/100mL可以掩蔽海藻的腥味；最后通过正交试验，确定了发酵醋饮料的最佳配方为：发酵醋5%，木糖醇7.5%，蜂蜜2%。%Fermented vinegar beverage was prepared with raw materials of algae,grape skin and seed that after water leaching, alcohol leaching,mixing leaching solution, adjusting alcohol content, joining the blueberry juice,acetic acid fermentation, and deodorizing. By orthogonal experimental design,with procyanidins as effective component index, the best leaching technology conditions of alcohol was studied. The results showed that the best leaching process was alcohol 70% vol, leaching temperature 55℃,and leaching time 4h. The paper discussed the effect of fermentation time and fermentation degree of acetic acid on product trends using single factor analysis.The results showed that the smell of seaweed can be masked at fermentation time of 72h and acidity of 5g/100mL. Finally, the best formula was determined by orthogonal experiment:5%fermented vinegar, 7.5%xylitol, and 2%honey.
[ Objective ] The reference for the preparation of the fermented lactic acid bacteria drink containing the extract from tea was provided through the optimaization of the technology. [ Method] The material from tea was extracted in 100 times' water and at 60 ℃ for 15 minutes,and the extract solution, added with sugar and milk powder, was fermented under condition of lactic acid bacteria. The factor such as the adding amount of lactic acid bacteria, sugar and milk powder, the fermentation time affecting the fermentation was optimized with the singlefactor experiments and orthogonal test. [ Result] The optimum technical condition was as follows: the adding amount of sugar was 8％; milk powder, 13％; lactic acid bacteria, 3％; the fermentation temperature, 40 ℃ and the fermentation time, 6 hours. [ Conclusion] The beverage had both the different fragrancematerials from the tea and the nutritional ingredients of milk, and also, was with good taste and quality.The product was a kind of multi-function drinking which was both nutrient and healthy.%[目的]时用乳酸菌发酵茶饮料的加工工艺进行优化,为利用茶叶浸提液发酵制备饮料的生产提供参考.[方法]以茶叶为原料,加入100倍的水,在60℃下浸提15 min.浸提液中加入糖、乳粉等原料进行乳酸菌发酵.通过单因素试验和正交试验对影响乳酸菌发酵的几个因素(乳酸菌接种量、加糖量、加乳粉量、发酵时间)进行优化.[结果]得到乳酸菌发酵的最佳工艺条件为:茶叶浸提液中加蔗糖量为8%,加乳粉量为13%,接种量为3%,发酵温度为40℃,发酵时间为6 h.[结论]在优化后的工艺条件下制作的茶饮料,既有茶的各种香味物质和营养成分,又有酸奶的营养成分,而且风味好、品质佳,是一种集营养和保健作用于一体的多功能饮品.
The conversion of fermentable sugars into alcohol during fermentation is the key process in the production of all alcoholic beverages. However, microbial activity during fermentation is considerably more complex than merely producing ethanol, usually involving the action of a great diversity of yeasts and bacteria and the production of metabolites that affect the organoleptic properties of fermented beverages. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which are naturally present in un-inoculated, spontaneous fermentations, can provide a means for increasing aroma and flavour diversity in fermented beverages. This review will cover the impacts of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on volatile composition and sensory profile of beer, wine, spirits and other fermented beverages, and look at future opportunities involving yeast interactions and regionality in alcoholic beverages.
Giacomino, S; Peñas, E; Ferreyra, V; Pellegrino, N; Fournier, M; Apro, N; Carrión, M Olivera; Frias, J
Human consumption of flaxseed is increasing due to its health benefit properties and extrusion processes can enhance its nutritional quality. Extruded flaxseed meal (EFM) obtained in a pilot plant was characterized and incorporated in flour mixes and cereal-based bars to demonstrate its nutritious usefulness. Amino acid content was not affected by extrusion and, despite lysine was the limitating amino acid, the chemical score (CS) was 83 %. Thiamin and riboflavin decreased slightly as consequence of extrusion, phytic acid did not change and trypsin inhibitor activity was undetectable. Proximate composition and nutritional quality determined by biological and chemical indexes were compared among EFM, flour mixes (FM) and cereal bars (CB). They presented high protein levels (26, 20 and 17 %, respectively), good biological value (BV) (80, 79 and 65, respectively), acceptable true protein digestibility (TD) (73, 79 and 78, respectively), and high dietary fiber (33, 20.5 and 18 %, respectively). The ratio of ω6:ω3 for CB was within the WHO/FAO recommendations. These results open a new venue for the usefulsess of nutritious/healthy extruded flaxseed flours into ready-to-eat cereal-based products with improved nutritional quality.
Schoustra, Sijmen E; Kasase, Chitundu; Toarta, Cristian; Kassen, Rees; Poulain, Alexandre J
Around the world, raw materials are converted into fermented food products through microbial and enzymatic activity. Products are typically produced using a process known as batch culture, where small volumes of an old culture are used to initiate a fresh culture. Repeated over many years, and provided samples are not shared among producers, batch culture techniques allow for the natural evolution of independent microbial ecosystems. While these products form an important part of the diets of many people because of their nutritional, organoleptic and food safety properties, for many traditional African fermented products the microbial communities responsible for fermentation are largely unknown. Here we describe the microbial composition of three traditional fermented non-alcoholic beverages that are widely consumed across Zambia: the milk based product Mabisi and the cereal based products Munkoyo and Chibwantu. Using culture and non-culture based techniques, we found that six to eight lactic acid bacteria predominate in all products. We then used this data to investigate in more detail the factors affecting community structure. We found that products made from similar raw materials do not harbor microbial communities that are more similar to each other than those made from different raw materials. We also found that samples from the same product taken at the same location were as different from each other in terms of microbial community structure and composition, as those from geographically very distant locations. These results suggest that microbial community structure in these products is neither a simple consequence of the raw materials used, nor the particular suite of microbes available in the environment but that anthropogenic variables (e.g., competition among sellers or organoleptic preferences by different tribes) are important in shaping the microbial community structures.
Sijmen E Schoustra
Full Text Available Around the world, raw materials are converted into fermented food products through microbial and enzymatic activity. Products are typically produced using a process known as batch culture, where small volumes of an old culture are used to initiate a fresh culture. Repeated over many years, and provided samples are not shared among producers, batch culture techniques allow for the natural evolution of independent microbial ecosystems. While these products form an important part of the diets of many people because of their nutritional, organoleptic and food safety properties, for many traditional African fermented products the microbial communities responsible for fermentation are largely unknown. Here we describe the microbial composition of three traditional fermented non-alcoholic beverages that are widely consumed across Zambia: the milk based product Mabisi and the cereal based products Munkoyo and Chibwantu. Using culture and non-culture based techniques, we found that six to eight lactic acid bacteria predominate in all products. We then used this data to investigate in more detail the factors affecting community structure. We found that products made from similar raw materials do not harbor microbial communities that are more similar to each other than those made from different raw materials. We also found that samples from the same product taken at the same location were as different from each other in terms of microbial community structure and composition, as those from geographically very distant locations. These results suggest that microbial community structure in these products is neither a simple consequence of the raw materials used, nor the particular suite of microbes available in the environment but that anthropogenic variables (e.g., competition among sellers or organoleptic preferences by different tribes are important in shaping the microbial community structures.
Full Text Available Nowadays usage of dietary fibers in foods has been increasing duo to revealing of health benefits. Beta-glucans found especially in oats and barley, are polysaccharide and source of water-soluble dietary fiber. Positive effects of beta-glucans like healing coronary-heart disease, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level and preventing obesity, made beta-glucans widespread functional food components for producing various foods. In addition to beneficial physiological effects of beta-glucans, they texturize, gelatinize, emulsify and stabilize the foods. They increase viscosity, replace fat and enhance rheological properties in cereal, meat and dairy products. They are also used to produce packing material depending on their mechanical properties and molecular weights. In this review, effects of addition of cereal based beta-glucans on technological and functional properties of various foods are revealed based on previous studies.
Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Tetens, Inge; Meyer, Anne S.
The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate). Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism...... to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via...... enzyme-catalysed dephosphorylation of phytate, indicating the potential of this strategy for preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia. Despite the immense promise of this strategy and the prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide, the number of human studies elucidating the significance of phytase...
Vallejo, Juan Andrés; Miranda, Patricia; Flores-Félix, José David; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; Ageitos, José M; González-Buitrago, José Manuel; Velázquez, Encarna; Villa, Tomás G
Chicha is a drink prepared in several Andean countries from Inca's times by maize fermentation. Currently this fermentation is carried out in familiar artesanal "chicherías" that make one of the most known types of chicha, the "chicha de jora". In this study we isolate and identify the yeasts mainly responsible of the fermentation process in this type of chicha in 10 traditional "chicherías" in Cusco region in Peru. We applied by first time MALDI-TOF MS analysis for the identification of yeast of non-clinic origin and the results showed that all of yeast strains isolated belong to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results agree with those obtained after the analysis of the D1/D2 and 5.8S-ITS regions. However the chicha strains have a phenotypic profile that differed in more than 40% as compared to that of current S. cerevisiae strains. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report concerning the yeasts involved in chicha fermentation.
...: A. ``Alcoholic Beverage(s)'' means and shall include beer, wine, and liquor, as herein defined. B.... N. ``Wine'' means an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the natural sugar content of.... Alcohol Training and Education. The Tribe shall require the Licensee of an Off-Premise Beer Retail...
Full Text Available Background: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. Objective: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS, and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER, biological values (BV, and net protein utilization (NPU values of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. Design: To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. Results: The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. Conclusions: The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly
Tendekayi H. Gadaga
Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.
Ribeiro, Luciana Silva; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Martins, Pamela Mynsen Machado; van Mullem, Joshua; Belizario, Maisa Honorio; Schwan, Rosane Freitas
Pulped Mundo Novo and Ouro Amarelo coffee beans were inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CCMA 0200 and CCMA 0543) during semi-dry coffee fermentation and compared with a non-inoculated control. Samples were collected throughout the fermentation process (12days) to evaluate the persistence of the inoculum by Real-Time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Also, the chemical composition of the beans was determined by HPLC and GC-MS and the roasted beans were sensorial evaluated using the cupping test. S. cerevisiae CCMA 0543 had an average population of 5.6logcell/g (Ouro Amarelo cultivar) and 5.5logcell/g (Mundo Novo cultivar). Citric, malic, succinic and acetic acid were found in all samples, along with sucrose, fructose, and glucose. There were 104 volatile compounds detected: 49 and 55 in green and roasted coffee, respectively. All coffee samples scored over 80 points in the cupping test, indicating they were specialty-grade. Inoculation with the CCMA 0543 strain performed better than the CCMA 0200 strain. This is the first time that qPCR has been used to assess the persistence of the inoculated strains populations during coffee processing. Strain CCMA 0543 was the most suitable as an inoculant due to its enhanced persistence during the process and number of volatile compounds produced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
葛磊; 张晖; 王立; 郭晓娜
采用中温α-淀粉酶、糖化酶对燕麦进行双酶水解,所得的糖化液配以脱脂奶粉,进行杀菌,冷却后再以保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌为发酵剂进行接种发酵,制备出一种含有活性成分且具有保健功能的生物乳饮料,其活菌数高达1.989×109 cfu/ml,酸度97°T,β-葡聚糖含量为0.46 mg/ml.%The oat was hydrolyzed by medium-temperature oramylase and glucoamylase. The saccharification liquid together with the skim milk powder was sterilized, cooled and then fermented by bulgaria lactobacillus and streptococcus thermophilus as fermentation agents to prepare a kind of biolacto drink contained active ingredients with health function, of which the viable number of up to 1. 989× 109 cfu/ml, acidity 97°T, and β-glucan content of 0. 46 mg/ml.
Avaliação microbiológica de bebidas lácteas fermentadas adquiridas no comércio varejista do sul de Minas Gerais Microbiological evaluation of fermented dairy beverages acquired in the retail marked of the southern region of Minas Gerais State
Victor Maximiliano Reis Tebaldi
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características microbiológicas das bebidas lácteas fermentadas comercializadas no sul de Minas Gerais. Realizou-se a enumeração coliformes totais e termotolerantes, fungos filamentosos e leveduras e bactérias lácticas. Foram coletadas amostras de cinco marcas de bebidas lácteas comercializadas em Lavras, com quatro repetições, de diferentes lotes de fabricação, para serem submetidas às análises microbiológicas. As bebidas lácteas fermentadas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões estipulados pela ANVISA quanto à presença de contaminação microbiana, pois os mesmos não foram detectados nas amostras analisadas. A contagem de bactérias láticas foi menor que 10(6 UFC/mL em todas as análises, apresentando-se fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira para as bebidas lácteas fermentadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological characteristics of fermented dairy beverages commercialized in southern Minas Gerais. The enumeration of total and heat-tolerant coliforms, filamentous fungi and lactic bacteria and yeasts was carried out. Samples were collected from different manufacturing lots of five brands of dairy beverages commercialized in Lavras-MG, with four repetitions and submitted to microbiological analyses. The fermented dairy beverages met the standards required by ANVISA for presence of microbial contamination, since no contamination was detected in the samples analyzed. Lactic bacteria count was lower than 10(6 UFC/mL in all the analyses and did not meet out legal parameters established by the Brazilian legislation for fermented dairy beverages.
Anne S. Meyer
Full Text Available The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate. Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via enzyme-catalysed dephosphorylation of phytate, indicating the potential of this strategy for preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia. Despite the immense promise of this strategy and the prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide, the number of human studies elucidating the significance of phytase-mediated improvements in iron absorption and ultimately in iron status in particularly vulnerable groups is still low. A more detailed understanding of (1 the uptake mechanism for iron released from partially dephosphorylated phytate chelates, (2 the affinity of microbially derived phytases towards insoluble iron phytate complexes, and (3 the extent of phytate dephosphorylation required for iron release from inositol phosphates is warranted. Phytase-mediated iron release can improve iron absorption from plant foods. There is a need for development of innovative strategies to obtain better effects.
Pittet, Alain; Périsset, Adrienne; Oberson, Jean-Marie
A quantitative method has been developed for the determination of trace levels (acrylamide in cereal-based foods. The method is based on extraction of acrylamide with water, acidification and purification with Carrez I and II solutions, followed by bromination of the acrylamide double bond. The reaction product (2,3-dibromopropionamide) is extracted with ethyl acetate/hexane (4:1, v/v), dried over sodium sulfate, and cleaned up through a Florisil column. The derivative is then converted to 2-bromopropenamide by dehydrobromination with triethylamine and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), employing (13C3)acrylamide as internal standard. In-house validation data for commercial and experimental cereal products showed good precision of the method, with repeatability and intermediate reproducibility relative standard deviations below 10%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation are estimated at 2 and 5 microg/kg, respectively, and recoveries of acrylamide from samples spiked at levels of 5-500 microg/kg ranged between 93 and 104% after correction of analyte loss by the internal standard. Finally, a comparative test organized with two independent laboratories provided additional confidence in the good performance of the method, particularly at very low concentration levels.
Flexible fermentation of organically loaded industrial waste waters using a beverage manufacturer as an example; Flexible Vergaerung organisch belasteter Industrie-Abwaesser am Beispiel eines Getraenkeherstellers
Ganagin, Waldemar; Loewen, Achim; Nelles, Michael [HAWK Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst Hildesheim/Holzminden/Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik (NEUTec)
Industrial organic waste water is usually treated directly in an own or public sewage treatment plant which is highly cost-intensive. The anaerobic digestion of those waste waters is sometimes difficult to control. HAWK is working in a project about this topic, where a fixed bed reactor is investigated for the operation as a flexible plant. For this reason a semi-industrial pilot plant was developed and the capability will be tested on several sites. The gas production ought to run according to the companies demands and is integrated in the operation and processes. This flexible plant is specifically designed to deal with small amounts of waste water with low organic components and even sometimes discontinuously loads. This process is tested in a beverage factory. The reactor was implemented in the existing infrastructure and their waste water is treated. The assessment of the measurements shows, that the fixed bed reactor can handle the organic compounds of the waste water very well and reduce them significantly. Even fluctuating loads and a low organic concentration do not harm the process. The effect of power generation is an additional benefit for this system This innovative approach with low energy input and additional profit from the power sale makes the waste water treatment on site as a real alternative to the conventional treatment. (orig.)
Roberto Nobuyuki Maeda
to a need to develop adequate technology for it's production on non-flooded land and the industrial use of this fruit. This study had as its main objective to verify if camu-camu is adequate for the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, measuring the effect of blanching the fruit and the incorporation of the fruit peel with the fruit pulp on the nutritional and sensory characteristics of the drink. The fruits were separated into 4 groups, two being blanched (90 ºC for 7 minutes. After the pulp was removed, the peels of one group from each blanching treatment were incorporated into the respective pulps and their chemical composition evaluated. After sugar correction of the must, pasteurisation, fermentation (25 days, decanting, pasteurisation (70 ºC for 15 minutes, filtering and clarification, the beverages were evaluated as to their chemical composition, sweetened and submitted to sensory analysis. Blanching reduced the concentration of ascorbic acid in the pulps (33 % and the addition of the peel increased the amount of dry matter (39 % in pulp, ascorbic acid (33 % in pulp, 23 % in must and 50 % in drink and phenolic compounds (50 % in drink. The sensory profile and acceptability suggest that camu-camu is adequate for the production of fermented alcoholic beverages and that the addition of the peel to the pulp contributes positively to it's acceptability (6.7 with versus 6.2 without, of 9 points possible. The beverage had flavour characteristic of the fruit, a orangish-red color and agreeable taste.
Saba, A.; Vassallo, M.; Sheperd, R.;
collected from a sample of 2392 members of the public in Finland, Germany, Italy and the UK. The results from a conjoint task with a main effects additive model were reported. In general, the presence of a health claim on foods had positive influence on respondents perception of healthiness...... the four countries, suggesting that different cultures, traditions, and eating habits have to be taken into account before positioning cereal-based products containing beneficial compounds from grains on the market....
Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.
Yeast strains were characterized to select potential starter cultures for the production of masau fermented beverages. The yeast species originally isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits and their traditionally fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe were examined for their ability to ferment
Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach
, mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 3.2 y, BMI consumed all test meals in a random order on separate evenings. At a standardized breakfast following evening test meals...... concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P involving colonic fermentation and generation of SCFA, where in particular...... butyric acid may be involved. This mechanism may be one explanation by which whole grain is protective against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease....
Bustamante, María Ángeles; Fernández-Gil, María Pilar; Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Navarro, Virginia; Simón, Edurne
The treatment of Celiac disease consists in a strict lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet. As the ingestion of small amounts can have damaging complications, there has been an ongoing discussion regarding the safe threshold for dietary residual gluten. The aim was to analyze the evolution of gluten content in cereal-based GF foodstuffs (n = 3141) from 1998 to 2016 measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Eight categories were defined: flours, breakfast cereals/bars, bakery, pasta, breads, dough, snacks, and yeasts, and these were divided into GF labeled-foods (GF-L) or reportedly GF foodstuffs, but not certified (GF-NC). Gluten-detection was decreased over time in line with the evolving European regulations about food information and gluten content claims. This decline started sooner in GF-L products than in GF-NC. As a whole, gluten was detected in 371 samples, with breakfast cereals/bars being the most contaminated group. Snacks and yeasts changed from being high gluten-detected samples to being totally GF over the years. The downside is that, of contaminated samples, those in the low levels of gluten detection range have decreased while flour samples containing over 100 mg/kg gluten have risen in the 2013-2016 period. Obtained data confirm that GF cereal-based foods are becoming safer but gluten control must be maintained.
Bustamante, María Ángeles; Fernández-Gil, María Pilar; Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Navarro, Virginia; Simón, Edurne
The treatment of Celiac disease consists in a strict lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet. As the ingestion of small amounts can have damaging complications, there has been an ongoing discussion regarding the safe threshold for dietary residual gluten. The aim was to analyze the evolution of gluten content in cereal-based GF foodstuffs (n = 3141) from 1998 to 2016 measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Eight categories were defined: flours, breakfast cereals/bars, bakery, pasta, breads, dough, snacks, and yeasts, and these were divided into GF labeled-foods (GF-L) or reportedly GF foodstuffs, but not certified (GF-NC). Gluten-detection was decreased over time in line with the evolving European regulations about food information and gluten content claims. This decline started sooner in GF-L products than in GF-NC. As a whole, gluten was detected in 371 samples, with breakfast cereals/bars being the most contaminated group. Snacks and yeasts changed from being high gluten-detected samples to being totally GF over the years. The downside is that, of contaminated samples, those in the low levels of gluten detection range have decreased while flour samples containing over 100 mg/kg gluten have risen in the 2013–2016 period. Obtained data confirm that GF cereal-based foods are becoming safer but gluten control must be maintained. PMID:28054938
María Ángeles Bustamante
Full Text Available The treatment of Celiac disease consists in a strict lifelong gluten-free (GF diet. As the ingestion of small amounts can have damaging complications, there has been an ongoing discussion regarding the safe threshold for dietary residual gluten. The aim was to analyze the evolution of gluten content in cereal-based GF foodstuffs (n = 3141 from 1998 to 2016 measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. Eight categories were defined: flours, breakfast cereals/bars, bakery, pasta, breads, dough, snacks, and yeasts, and these were divided into GF labeled-foods (GF-L or reportedly GF foodstuffs, but not certified (GF-NC. Gluten-detection was decreased over time in line with the evolving European regulations about food information and gluten content claims. This decline started sooner in GF-L products than in GF-NC. As a whole, gluten was detected in 371 samples, with breakfast cereals/bars being the most contaminated group. Snacks and yeasts changed from being high gluten-detected samples to being totally GF over the years. The downside is that, of contaminated samples, those in the low levels of gluten detection range have decreased while flour samples containing over 100 mg/kg gluten have risen in the 2013–2016 period. Obtained data confirm that GF cereal-based foods are becoming safer but gluten control must be maintained.
Sijmen E Schoustra; Chitundu Kasase; Cristian Toarta; Rees Kassen; Alexandre J Poulain
... the microbial communities responsible for fermentation are largely unknown. Here we describe the microbial composition of three traditional fermented non-alcoholic beverages that are widely consumed across Zambia...
Schoustra, S.E; Kasase, C; Toarta, C; Kassen, R; Poulain, A.J
... the microbial communities responsible for fermentation are largely unknown. Here we describe the microbial composition of three traditional fermented non-alcoholic beverages that are widely consumed across Zambia...
Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Vaughan, E.E.; Vogel, R.F.
Fermented foods and beverages are an integral part of the human diet globally. Understanding the microbial interactions within these fermenting ecosystems is required to deliver safe products with desirable consumer properties, and moreover, maintenance of these traditions. Effective tools are
徐安书; 胡敏; 何军
Objective： Mixed tumorous stem mustard and carrot juices and skim milk were fermented by mixed lactic acid bacteria to develop a fermented milk beverage. Methods： The fermentation starter was composed of Streptococcus thermophiles, Lactobacillus planetarium and Lactobacillus acidophilus. One-factor-at-a-time experiments and a five-variable, four-level orthogonal array design were used to determine optimal fermentation conditions based on acid production and viable lactic acid bacterial count. Results： The optimal fermentation starter was a 1：1：1 mixture of Streptococcus thermophiles, Lactobacillus planetarium and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The optimal fermentation conditions were 6：4 of ratio of tumorous stem mustard to carrot juices, 4% skim milk, 2% of inoculum size, 40℃ of fermentation temperature and 24 h of fermentation time. The optimal amounts of sucrose, citric acid, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose （CMC-Na） and xanthan gum added to the fermentation broth were 4%, 0.04%, 0.2% and 0.03%, respectively.%研制茎瘤芥叶胡萝卜混合汁复合乳酸菌发酵饮料。：可法：以优质茎瘤芥叶子原汁和胡萝卜汁为原料，用嗜热链球菌、植物乳杆菌和嗜酸乳杆菌为菌种，采用单因素试验和五因素四水平正交试验，以产酸量和乳酸活菌数为指标，确定最终发酵菌种和发酵液及发酵饮料口感稳定性的最佳工艺配方。结果：用嗜热链球菌、植物乳杆菌和嗜酸乳杆菌按1：1：1比例作为发酵菌种；发酵液最佳配方为茎瘤芥叶胡萝卜混合汁配比6：4、脱脂乳4％、接种量2％、发酵温度40℃、发酵时间24h；发酵饮料最佳配方为发酵原液中添加蔗糖4％、柠檬酸0．04％、耐酸羧甲基纤维素钠（CMC—Na）0．2％、黄原胶0．03％。
Giles-Gómez, Martha; Sandoval García, Jorge Giovanni; Matus, Violeta; Campos Quintana, Itzia; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo
Pulque is a Mexican traditional alcoholic, non-distilled, fermented beverage produced by the fermentation of the sap, known as aguamiel, extracted from several maguey (Agave) species. Pulque has traditionally been considered a healthy beverage due to its nutrient content and also a traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal infections. During pulque fermentation, the development of acidity, alcohol and viscosity define its final sensorial properties, d...
Full Text Available Whey is a by product in the process of cheese production. Composition and characteristics of whey are depending on the production technology, the end product and the quality of used milk. Liquid whey consists of approximately 93% water and contains almost 50% of total solids present in the milk of which lactose is main constituent. Lactose is the main constituent of whey while proteins represent less than 1% of total solids. Minerals and vitamins are present in fewer amounts also. Production of whey based beverages started in 1970's and until today a wide range of different whey based beverages has been developed. They can be produced from native sweet or acid whey, from deproteinised whey, from native whey which was diluted with water, from whey powder or by whey fermentation. Non alcoholic whey beverages include wide range of products obtained by mixing native sweet, diluted or acid whey with different additives like tropical fruits (but also other fruits like apples, pears, strawberries or cranberries, crops and their products (mainly bran, isolates of vegetable proteins, CO2, chocolate, cocoa, vanilla extracts and other aromatizing agents. Special attention is being paid to production of fermented whey beverages with probiotic bacteria where the most important step is the choice of suitable culture of bacteria in order to produce functional beverage with high nutritional value and acceptable sensory characteristics. Non alcoholic whey beverages also include dietetic beverages, drinks with hydrolyzed lactose, milk like drinks and powder drinks. Whey is a very good raw material for production of alcoholic beverages due to the fact that the main constituent of the solid content is lactose (about 70%. Alcoholic whey beverages include drinks with small amount of alcohol (up to 1,5%, whey beer and whey wine. Whey beverages are suitable for wide range of consumers – from children to the elderly ones. They have very high nutritional value and good
Full Text Available There are many kinds of traditional fermented beverages in Ethiopia, not only of animal origin, but also of plant origin. In everyday life people enjoy fermented beverages and particularly when having guests, they like to treat them to traditional alcoholic beverages. Tella, tej, areki, borde, and shamita are drinks that each household brews to treat guests. Substrates for their production are from locally available raw materials. Therefore, the basic production method is the same, but the tastes may vary. One of the most consumed fermented alcoholic beverages is tella, which is made mostly with barley but wheat, maize, sorghum, and teff are utilized depending on the region. Its production process shows the similarity to beer: addition of malt and gesho which has the same function as hops in beer. The main fermentation yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae and saccharification of cereal starch seems to depend on malt. However, the degree of alcoholic fermentation is low and alcohol content varies between 2 and 6%. Lactic acid bacteria are very active in tella so pH ranges 4–5 give typical tastes such as sourness, sweetness, and bitterness. As the Ethiopian economy improves, more people drink western style beers. Tella has not been commercialized yet, so the process has not been standardized and modernized. Considering the case of Korean makgeolli and the Ethiopian creativity of utilizing gesho in tella, Ethiopia should pay more attention to tella for globalization.
In this study, the production techniques of indigenous alcoholic beverages in a rural village in Tanzania were investigated. In the village, three different kinds of alcoholic beverages were produced: a maize turbid beer (komoni), a straw beer (kimpumu) and a hybrid straw beer (kiambule). In the course of the production of these three alcoholic beverages, two different kinds of porridge, a fermented porridge (nyambo) as a source of yeasts and a sweet porridge (kikonde) as a source of sacchari...
Efeito do teor de soro, açúcar e de frutooligossacarídeos sobre a população de bactérias lácticas probióticas em bebidas fermentadas Effect of whey, suggar and frutooligosacharides on the probiotic lactic acid bacteria population in fermented beverages
Karime Giannetti Thamer
Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem havido muito interesse por produtos alimentícios de baixas calorias e probióticos. A incorporação de Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterium em bebidas fermentadas pode resultar em um produto lácteo com extraordinário valor terapêutico e eficaz redução calórica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do teor de soro, açúcar e de frutooligossacarídeos sobre a população de bactérias lácticas de doze formulações de bebidas fermentadas. Foram determinadas as populações de Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium e Lactobacillus acidophilus. As maiores populações de microrganismos probióticos foram observadas nas bebidas com mais baixa acidez e elevado teor de sólidos, além de haver predominância do Streptococcus thermophilus sobre os demais microrganismos. As amostras atenderam a legislação brasileira em vigor, independente das formulações, pela presença de no mínimo 10(6 UFC/mL de bactérias lácticas. As bebidas lácteas formuladas podem ser consideradas probióticas pelas contagens elevadas de Bifidobacterium spp. e Lactobacillus acidophilusThe demand for low calories and probiotics foods has increased during the last years. The incorporation of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium in fermented beverages can result in dairy products with excellent therapeutic value and efficient calories reduction. The aim of this research was study the effects of whey, sugar and fructooligosaccharides levels on the lactic acid bacteria population of twelve formulations of fermented beverages. The populations of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus were carried out. The highest probiotic microorganisms' populations were observed in beverages with lower acidity and higher solids level, besides there was a predominance of Streptococcus thermophilus over the
Egilsson, Jon; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Olsen, Søren Ingvor
vision techniques to assess pre-harvest weed infestations in cereals based on true color (RGB) images from consumer graded cameras mounted on UAS. The objective is to develop a fully automatic algorithm in an open programming language, Python, to discriminate and quantify weed infestations in cereals...... before harvest. Results are compared with an in-house image analysis procedure developed in the commercial eCognition Developer software. The importance of flight altitude and robustness across fields are emphasised. Image acquisition took place during the summer of 2013 and 2014 in a number of fields...... was not competitive with results achieved with eCognition, which provided accuracies in the range of 86% to 92%. Flight altitude and image resolution (3 to 15 mm/pixel) were not important for the accuracy and ortho-mosaicking had no clear impact. Models including texture-based methods were not fully evaluated because...
Saba, A.; Vassallo, M.; Sheperd, R.
collected from a sample of 2392 members of the public in Finland, Germany, Italy and the UK. The results from a conjoint task with a main effects additive model were reported. In general, the presence of a health claim on foods had positive influence on respondents perception of healthiness...... and on likelihood to buy the products, whereas the pictorial representations were found to have a weak influence on the two dependent variables. However, the findings showed that health-related information on food labels differently influenced the healthiness perception and the likelihood to buy the product across...... the four countries, suggesting that different cultures, traditions, and eating habits have to be taken into account before positioning cereal-based products containing beneficial compounds from grains on the market....
Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı
The presence of acrylamide in cereal-based baby foods is a matter of great concern owing to its possible health effects. Derivatization followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of the most common methods to quantify acrylamide. However, it requires the use of toxic chemicals and is time-consuming. The aim of this study was to develop an eco-friendly, rapid and inexpensive method for the determination of acrylamide in cereal-based baby foods. The method involves defatting with n-hexane, extraction into water, precipitation of proteins, bromination, extraction into ethyl acetate and injection into a GC/MS system. The effects of defatting, precipitation, treatment with triethylamine, addition of internal standard and column selection were reviewed. A flow chart for acrylamide analysis was prepared. To evaluate the applicability of the method, 62 different cereal-based baby foods were analyzed. The levels of acrylamide ranged from not detected (below the limit of detection) to 660 µg kg(-1). The method is more eco-friendly and less expensive because it consumes very little solvent relative to other methods using bromine solutions and ethyl acetate. In addition, sample pre-treatment requires no solid phase extraction or concentration steps. The method is recommended for the determination of trace acrylamide in complex cereal-based baby food products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
The Thriposha program is a community-level nutrition intervention in Sri Lanka that provides a combination of energy, protein, and micronutrients as a 'ready-to-eat' cereal-based food. We measured the bioavailability of Fe and Zn from Thriposha formula at two different molar ratios of Zn: Fe in orde...
STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Malbaša Radomir V.
Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.
Physico-chemical, microbiological and rheological evaluation of dairy beverage and fermented milk added of probiotics/ Avaliação físico-química, microbiológica e reológica de bebida láctea e leite fermentado adicionados de probióticos
Elane Schwinden Prudêncio
Full Text Available Lactic beverage (sample 1, with 70% of milk and 30% of cheese whey, and fermented milk (sample 2, with 100% of milk, added of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium Bb-12 and Streptococcus thermophilus, were evaluated about physico-chemical composition, enumeration of viable cells of probiotic bacteria and rheological measurements, in the temperatures of 2.0 ± 0.1 ºC; 4.0 ± 0.1 ºC; 6.0 ± 0.1 ºC and 8.0 ± 0.1 ºC. The whey addition resulted in lactic beverage with lesser contents (p 0.05. According to Brazilian legislation the lactic beverage and fermented milk were considered probiotic (> 106 CFU/mL. The two samples (1 and 2 had behaved as pseudoplastic fluids, confirming the non- Newtonian behavior and had presented thixotropy. The values for the activation energy were equal to 1.89 Kcal.mol-1, for the lactic beverage, and 1.84 Kcal.mol-1, for the fermented milk, indicating that the activation energy was not influenced by the amount of whey used, as well as the temperature also did not influence on the apparent viscosity of samples 1 and 2.Bebida láctea (amostra 1, com 70 % de leite e 30 % de soro de queijo, e leite fermentado (amostra 2, com 100% de leite, adicionados de Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium Bb-12 e Streptococcus thermophilus, foram avaliados quanto à composição físico-química, contagem de células viáveis de bactérias probióticas e medidas reológicas, nas temperaturas de 2,0 ± 0,1ºC; 4,0 ± 0,1 ºC; 6,0 ± 0,1 ºC e 8,0± 0,1 ºC. A adição de soro resultou em uma bebida láctea com menores teores (p 0,05. De acordo com a legislação brasileira, a bebida láctea e o leite fermentado foram considerados probióticos (> 106 UFC/mL. As duas amostras (1 e 2 comportaram-se como fluidos pseudoplásticos, confirmando o comportamento não-Newtoniano e apresentaram tixotropia. Os valores para a energia de ativação foram iguais a 1,89 Kcal.mol-1, para a bebida láctea, e 1,84 Kcal.mol-1, para o
Kolarov Ljiljana A.
Full Text Available In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages were typical and yoghurt-like for all obtained products. The best textural and sensory characteristics possesed beverage obtained in fermentation of milk using 10% (v/v of milk-based kombucha inoculum.
Malbaša Radomir V.
Full Text Available Kombucha is cultivated on substrates prepared with different concentrations of black tea and substrate obtained by diluting a substrate with highest concentration of black tea with cold tap water. Qualify of produced beverages is compared with the beverage obtained in traditional fermentation of 1.5 g/L of black tea, sweetened with 70 g/L of sucrose. Inoculation was performed with 10% (v/v of fermentation liquid from previous process, and the fermentation was carried out at 28°C under aerobic conditions, for ten days. Process of fermentation was monitored by following pH, total acids. D-gluconic acid and caffeine content. Beverages obtained in fermentation with diluted black tea concentrate had similar amounts of investigated metabolites compared with traditional one. Use of diluted black tea concentrate as a substrate needs the shorter time for the substrate preparation, which significantly saves energy.
Lappe-Oliveras, Patricia; Moreno-Terrazas, Rubén; Arrizón-Gaviño, Javier; Herrera-Suárez, Teófilo; García-Mendoza, Abisaí; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne
The great variety of agaves and their multiple uses have played an important role in the cultural identification of Mexico. They have been exploited in many ways for over 10,000 years, and one of these applications is the production of alcoholic nondistilled and distilled beverages. Most of the production processes of these Mexican beverages involve a complex fermentation in which bacteria (mainly lactic and acetic acid) and yeasts (non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) are present in stable mixed populations, or succeeding one another, and have a significant impact on the sensorial characteristics and nutritive value of the final product. This minireview focuses on several nondistilled and distilled Agave beverages, their production area, the Agave species used in their elaboration, the functional microbiota involved in the fermentation process, their fermentation products (when known), the biochemical changes of these unique fermentations, and their impact on the quality and sensorial characteristics of the product.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of cereals with high antioxidant capacity for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity is unknown. This study investigated the impact of wheat bran, barley or a control diet (α-cellulose on the development of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats. Methods Seven wk old, lean and obese male Zucker rats (n = 8/group were fed diets that contained wheat bran, barley or α-cellulose (control. After 3 months on these diets, systolic blood pressure was measured and plasma was analysed for glucose, insulin, lipids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and adipokine concentration (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1. Adipokine secretion rates from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants were also determined. Results Obese rats had higher body weight, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin and IL-1β in comparison to lean rats, and these measures were not reduced by consumption of wheat bran or barley based diets. Serum ORAC tended to be higher in obese rats fed wheat bran and barley in comparison to control (p = 0.06. Obese rats had higher plasma malondialdehyde (p Conclusions A 3-month dietary intervention was sufficient for Zucker obese rats to develop oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Cereal-based diets with moderate and high antioxidant capacity elicited modest improvements in indices of oxidative stress and inflammation.
Mack, Simone; Hussein, Mohamed A.; Becker, Thomas
Foam materials are multicomponent and multiphase systems, where under the influence of heat several temperature-dependent processes occur. In cereal-based foams these processes include protein denaturation, starch gelatinization, phase changes such as water evaporation, and structural changes covering bubble expansion and coalescence. This research focuses on modeling heat transfer processes in cereal foams under thermal treatment from a microstructural point of view. The complex thermo-fluidic processes inside the foam are considered for the solid and the gaseous phase, respectively. Additionally, the microstructural foam characteristics are modified to establish their effect on the overall heat transfer rate, and the micro-scale dynamics are introduced by means of lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM). The objective of this study is to deliver sophisticated insight into the impact of structural properties, due to the fact that optimized parameters would help to improve the bakery industry by means of reduction in baking time, energy, and costs. The results show that altering the porosity and/or the interconnectivity of gas pores in bread crumb influences the overall heat transfer. In comparison to foams having a porosity of 55% and discrete pores, the impact of coalescence exhibits a reduction of baking time of about 2 min. Increasing the porosity about 20% results in reducing the baking time about 7 min.
Barbara De Santis
Full Text Available The analytical scenario for determining contaminants in the food and feed sector is constantly prompted by the progress and improvement of knowledge and expertise of researchers and by the technical innovation of the instrumentation available. Mycotoxins are agricultural contaminants of fungal origin occurring at all latitudes worldwide and being characterized by acute and chronic effects on human health and animal wellness, depending on the species sensitivity. The major mycotoxins of food concern are aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A, the first for its toxicity, and the second for its recurrent occurrence. However, the European legislation sets maximum limits for mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and zearalenone, and indicative limits for T-2 and HT-2 toxins. Due to the actual probability that co-occurring mycotoxins are present in a food or feed product, nowadays, the availability of reliable, sensitive, and versatile multi-mycotoxin methods is assuming a relevant importance. Due to the wide range of matrices susceptible to mycotoxin contamination and the possible co-occurrence, a multi-mycotoxin and multi-matrix method was validated in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS with the purpose to overcome specific matrix effects and analyze complex cereal-based samples within the Italian Total Diet Study project.
Mukisa, Ivan M.; Ntaate, Denis; Byakika, Stellah
Abstract Enturire is an alcoholic sorghum? and honey?based beverage traditionally produced by spontaneous fermentation. Its fermentation process is lengthy (5?7?days), does not guarantee product quality and safety and thus necessitates use of pure starter cultures. This study compared a modified production process of Enturire, with honey added at the start to the traditional one (honey added 3?days into the fermentation). The study also evaluated two starter culture combinations (L.?plantarum...
Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.
Lawlor, Kathleen A.; Schuman, James D.; Simpson, Peter G.; Taormina, Peter J.
Commercially packaged, non-alcoholic, ready-to-drink (RTD) beverages comprise a diverse group of products, both carbonated (sparkling) and non-carbonated (still), that appeal to consumers of all ages and provide refreshment, hydration, energy, and nutrition at home and "on-the-go." Examples of such products include purified, mineral, and spring waters, flavored or enhanced waters, colas, fruit-flavored sodas, sports and energy drinks, fruit or vegetable juices, teas, coffees, smoothies, dairy and yogurt drinks, and fusion beverages (hybrid products that bridge multiple beverage categories).
Ugander Martin; Sjöberg Trygve; Steen Stig; Wierup Nils; Sundler Frank; Pacini Giovanni; Ahrén Bo; Jönsson Tommy; Frostegård Johan; Göransson Leif; Lindeberg Staffan
Abstract Background A Paleolithic diet has been suggested to be more in concordance with human evolutionary legacy than a cereal based diet. This might explain the lower incidence among hunter-gatherers of diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to experimentally study the long-term effect of a Paleolithic diet on risk factors for these diseases in domestic pigs. We examined glucose tolerance, post-challenge insulin response...
Full Text Available This article communicates the set-up of BERRYPOM, a European research project established in the second call of the SUStainable FOOD Production and Consumption (SUSFOOD network. The project deals with the by-product from berry processing, which is frequently recycled as animal feed, composted or utilized for biogas production. With BERRYPOM it is proposed to analyze the value of berry pomace, to optimize the recovery of bioactive compounds from pomace material, and to incorporate processed berry pomace in cereal-based foods to take advantage of nutritional benefits that originate from its fiber and the content of bioactive substances. Additionally, extraction methods will be evaluated to obtain products rich in phytochemicals, and the influence of processing steps on the antioxidant capacity of pomace will be analyzed. The fiber extracts will then also be utilized in different cereal-based foods and extruded products. As project outcome we expect a substantial increase of knowledge concerning fiber and phytochemicals extraction from berry pomace, its suitability for enhancing nutritional and sensory properties of cereal-based foods, and its effects on the sustainability of the food chain.
Claudia I. Gamboa-Gómez
Full Text Available Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profi le measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50 % of DPPH radical (i.e. lower IC50. Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14 % of E. camaldulensis and 49 % of L. glaucescens; whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC50 than positive control (captopril. The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages.
CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICAS E QUÍMICAS DE BEBIDAS LÁCTEAS FERMENTADAS E PREPARADAS COM SORO DE QUEIJO MINAS FRESCAL PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FERMENTED DAIRY BEVERAGES USING MINAS CHEESE WHEY
Keila Emílio de ALMEIDA
Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa procurou-se verificar as características físicas e químicas de bebidas lácteas preparadas com três concentrações de soro de queijo Minas Frescal (30, 40 e 50%, empregando-se dois tipos de culturas lácticas: uma tradicional para iogurte (YC-180 contendo cepas mistas de Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus e outra (ABY-1 contendo cepas mistas de Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophillus, Bifidobacteria e Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus. Constatou-se que as bebidas lácteas apresentaram diferença estatística no tempo zero para os teores de gordura e de extrato seco. À medida em que se elevou a proporção de soro em relação ao leite, os teores de gordura e de extrato seco diminuíram. O teor de proteína também diminuiu à medida em que se aumentou o teor de soro nas bebidas lácteas, embora a diferença não tenha sido tão acentuada quanto as observadas para os teores de gordura e de extrato seco. Em relação à lactose, não se constatou diferença entre os tratamentos. Os teores de soro não influenciaram o índice de proteólise das bebidas lácteas. Verificou-se todavia que as bebidas elaboradas com a cultura probiótica ABY-1 apresentaram valores superiores para proteólise quando comparadas às bebidas elaboradas com as culturas YC-180. As bebidas lácteas elaboradas com 30% de soro apresentaram maiores valores para viscosidade. As bebidas elaboradas com a cultura YC-180 apresentaram valores superiores para viscosidade durante o período de armazenamento.This research studies the physical and chemical characteristics of dairy beverages formulated with three different concentrations (30, 40 and 50 % of Minas cheese whey, using two kinds of dairy cultures: the traditional yogurt (YC--180 culture, holding mixed strains of Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus
Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.
In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages
Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.
In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages
Marco, Maria L.; Heeney, Dustin; Binda, Sylvie; Cifelli, Christopher J.; Cotter, Paul D.; Foligné, Benoit; Gänzle, Michael; Kort, Remco; Pasin, Gonca; Pihlanto, Anne; Smid, Eddy J.; Hutkins, Robert
Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic pr
Marco, M.L.; Heeney, D.
Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic
Kanurić Katarina G.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of fermented dairy beverage production by the application of kombucha cultivated on thyme tea in combination with a probiotic starter and to evaluate the quality of the new functional product. Fermented dairy beverages are produced from milk with 1.6% milk fat at three fermentation temperatures: 37°C, 40ºC and 43ºC.Chemical quality, rheological properties and products of added starter cultures metabolism were determined in the fermented dairy beverages after production and after10 days of storage. Produced fermented dairy beverages have reduced milk fat content and good textural characteristics. Besides the highly valuable milk components, they contain numerous compounds which have pronounced therapeutic properties. These products could be used as functional food in the diet of different populations for health improvement.
Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Lopez-Millan, Belen; Rico, Maria C; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Estefania; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria D; Gil, Angel; Mesa, Maria D
Bread can contribute to the regulation of appetite. The objective of this study was to investigate the appetite ratings and postprandial glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormone responses related to hunger and satiety after the intake of a cereal-based bread. A randomized, controlled crossover trial was conducted in 30 healthy adults (17 men and 13 women) aged 19-32 y with body mass index of 19.2-28.5. Each volunteer consumed the cereal-based bread and the control bread 2 times, with a 1-wk wash-out period, over a total of 4 sessions. The cereal-based bread contained a variety of cereal flours (wheat, oat, and spelt) and consisted of 22% dried fruits (figs, apricots, raisins, and prunes). It was also enriched with both fiber (7% from wheat cross-linked maltodextrins and pea) and protein (10-11% from wheat gluten and hydrolyzed wheat proteins). The control bread consisted of white bread with margarine and jam to control for energy density, fat, and sugar content. We measured appetite ratings using standardized visual analogue scales and glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormone responses over a postprandial time of 4 h after the ingestion of each bread. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare the areas under the curve (AUCs) for different variables. Consuming the cereal-based bread decreased prospective consumption more than consumption of the control bread (-5.3 ± 0.6 m · min and -4.4 ± 0.6 m · min, respectively; P = 0.02) and increased satiety more (6.2 ± 0.7 m · min and 5.2 ± 0.6 m · min, respectively; P = 0.04), although subsequent ad libitum energy intake 4 h later did not differ. Postprandial blood glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide AUCs were lower after the ingestion of the cereal-based bread, whereas the pancreatic polypeptide AUC was higher than with the control bread (P glycemic, insulinemic, and gastrointestinal hormone responses in healthy adults. This trial was registered at
Bell, Victoria; Ferrão, Jorge; Fernandes, Tito
This review examines different nutritional guidelines, some case studies, and provides insights and discrepancies, in the regulatory framework of Food Safety Management of some of the world’s economies. There are thousands of fermented foods and beverages, although the intention was not to review them but check their traditional and cultural value, and if they are still lacking to be classed as a category on different national food guides. For understanding the inconsistencies in claims of concerning fermented foods among various regulatory systems, each legal system should be considered unique. Fermented foods and beverages have long been a part of the human diet, and with further supplementation of probiotic microbes, in some cases, they offer nutritional and health attributes worthy of recommendation of regular consumption. Despite the impact of fermented foods and beverages on gastro-intestinal wellbeing and diseases, their many health benefits or recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in world food guidelines. In general, the approach of the legal systems is broadly consistent and their structures may be presented under different formats. African traditional fermented products are briefly mentioned enhancing some recorded adverse effects. Knowing the general benefits of traditional and supplemented fermented foods, they should be a daily item on most national food guides. PMID:28783111
Tchekessi, C.K.C.; Bokossa, I.Y; Azokpota, P.; Agbangla, C.; Daube, Georges; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas; Angelov, A.
In Africa, fermented food products are particularly used as weaning foods for young children, pregnant women and the seniors. In Benin, most of these cereals-based foods are manufactured and sold around the streets. These are ablo, dèguè, akpan, abotin, gowé etc ... This study focused on the isolation and enumeration of bacteria and yeast from twenty six (26) samples of traditional African fermented foods. Decimal dilution method allowed us to isolate a total of 42 different st...
Medeiros, Andreia Sofia Soares de
This study focuses on the assessment of the fermentation conditions required to modulate the metabolic flux in the osmotolerant yeast Candida magnoliae and evaluate its potential to produce low-alcoholic and low-caloric fermented beverages. For that purpose, two strains, PYCC 2903 and PYCC 3191, were used and fermentation conditions as oxygenation, sugar concentration and the ratio of glucose to fructose were studied using synthetic culture media. Candida magnoliae PYCC 2903 was subsequently ...
Kolarov Ljiljana A.; Milanović Spasenija D.; Lončar Eva S.; Malbaša Radomir V.
In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v) of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characterist...
Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.
Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum incu
Markov Siniša L.
Full Text Available Kombucha is a refreshing beverage obtained by the proces of biotransformation of sugared tea with a tea fungus. Kombucha is also frequently called "tea fungus" in the literature, although there is actually no fungus involved in the fermentation. The tea fungus is a symbiotic association of native yeasts and Acetobacteriaceae species fermenting sugared (5-10% black tea (0.2-0.5% into a kombucha beverage. After about 7-10 days incubation at room temperature, kombucha is ready. Growth patterns of tea fungus microorganisms during the biotransformation process of kombucha are not well documented. Tea fungus produces many substances, which with the supply of tea nutrients, give the drink its unusual flavour and healthy properties.
Milanović Spasenija D.
Full Text Available Functional food is positioned above the traditional, with the potential to improve human health. Thanks to very good physico-mechanical and barrier properties polymers became very popular in food industry as a packaging materials. Wild range of fermented dairy products could be packed in this packaging materials according to their’s inertness as well. Functional milk beverage was obtained from milk with 0,9% milk fat content by applying 10% v/v of kombucha’s inoculum cultivated on a black tea sweetened with sucrose. The beverage was packed in a different packaging materials: polyamid-polyethylen (PA/PE coextruded foil bags and polyprophylen (PP cups closed with aluminium (Al foil lids under atmospheric conditions (ATM. Beverages were storaged for 15 days at 4°C. The quality of kombucha inoculum, milk and obtained kombucha fermented milk beverage were analysed. Characterization of the packaging materials was done by investigating physico-mechanical, barrier and structural properties. The composition and changes in the headspace atmosphere, after production and during the storage, were analysed. The influence of packaging material properties and packaging conditions on the biochemical transformations of the milk’s components (the content of: lactose, L-lactic acid, D-galactose, ethanol, B1 and B2 vitamins influenced by kombucha starter were analysed as well. On the bases of the obtained results of characterisation of packaging materials, it can be concluded that PA/PE and PP materials are proper to be used for analysed beverage’s packaging. Also, there is no significant difference in content of components which were quantified, between analysed materials in correlation with the packed fermented milk beverage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-46009
Wang, Chung-Yi; Wu, Sz-Jie; Shyu, Yuan-Tay
The effects of fermentation by 2 food-grade bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum) on antioxidant activities and the contents of phenolics and flavonoids in 4 cereals (specifically adlay, chestnut, lotus seed, and walnut) were determined and compared with those of their non-fermented counterparts. Results showed that antioxidant properties observed in the fermented and non-fermented cereals may vary with fermented starters. Fermentation was observed to increase the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts. The effects on Bacillus-fermented cereals were stronger than on Lactobacillus-fermented cereals. In IC50 values (mg/mL) of extracts, the extracts of fermented cereal showed a stronger DPPH radical scavenging and ferric-reducing activities. Fermentation did not significantly alter the Fe(2+)-chelating activity in the extracts of chestnuts and lotus seeds. All cereals were shown significantly inhibited the production of LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) without creating obvious cytotoxic effects in the macrophage cells. These results suggest that the fermentation process enables cereal-based foods with enhanced antioxidant capacities to contribute to health and nutritional improvements in consumers.
Jyoti Prakash Tamang
Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.
Saleh, Ahmed S M; Wang, Peng; Wang, Na; Yang, Shu; Xiao, Zhigang
Cereal grains are a major source of human food and their production has steadily been increased during the last several decades to meet the demand of our increasing world population. The modernized society and the expansion of the cereal food industry created a need for highly efficient processing technologies, especially flour production. Earlier scientific research efforts have led to the invention of the modern steel roller mill, and the refined flour of wheat has become a basic component in most of cereal-based foods such as breads and pastries because of the unique functionality of wheat protein. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have found that consumption of whole cereal grains was health beneficial. The health benefit of whole cereal grain is attributed to the combined effects of micronutrients, phytochemicals, and dietary fibre, which are mainly located in the outer bran layer and the germ. However, the removal of bran and germ from cereal grains during polishing and milling results in refined flour and food products with lower bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents than those from whole grain. Also, the level of bioactive compounds in cereal food is influenced by other food preparation procedures such as baking, cooking, extrusion, and puffing. Therefore, food scientists and nutritionists are searching for strategies and processing technologies to enhance the content and bioavailability of nutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibre of cereal foods. The objective of this article was to review the research advances on technologies for the enhancement of bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents of cereal and cereal-based foods. Bioactivities or biological effects of enhanced cereal and cereal-based foods are presented. Challenges facing the application of the proposed technologies in the food industry are also discussed.
Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan
Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our
Jönsson, Tommy; Ahrén, Bo; Pacini, Giovanni; Sundler, Frank; Wierup, Nils; Steen, Stig; Sjöberg, Trygve; Ugander, Martin; Frostegård, Johan; Göransson, Leif; Lindeberg, Staffan
A Paleolithic diet has been suggested to be more in concordance with human evolutionary legacy than a cereal based diet. This might explain the lower incidence among hunter-gatherers of diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to experimentally study the long-term effect of a Paleolithic diet on risk factors for these diseases in domestic pigs. We examined glucose tolerance, post-challenge insulin response, plasma C-reactive protein and blood pressure after 15 months on Paleolithic diet in comparison with a cereal based swine feed. Upon weaning twenty-four piglets were randomly allocated either to cereal based swine feed (Cereal group) or cereal free Paleolithic diet consisting of vegetables, fruit, meat and a small amount of tubers (Paleolithic group). At 17 months of age an intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed and pancreas specimens were collected for immunohistochemistry. Group comparisons of continuous variables were made by use of the t-test. P Paleolithic group weighed 22% less and had 43% lower subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. No significant difference was seen in fasting glucose between groups. Dynamic insulin sensitivity was significantly higher (p = 0.004) and the insulin response was significantly lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.001). The geometric mean of C-reactive protein was 82% lower (p = 0.0007) and intra-arterial diastolic blood pressure was 13% lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.007). In evaluations of multivariate correlations, diet emerged as the strongest explanatory variable for the variations in dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin response, C-reactive protein and diastolic blood pressure when compared to other relevant variables such as weight and subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. There was no obvious immunohistochemical difference in pancreatic islets between the groups, but leukocytes were clearly more frequent in sampled pancreas
Francis Kweku Amagloh; Tracy Chiridza; Marie-Eve Lemercier; Anne Broomfield; Morel, Patrick C. H.; Jane Coad
The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of sweetpotato-based complementary foods (OFSP ComFa and CFSP ComFa) and cereal-based infant products (Weanimix and Cerelac) was assessed using 3 wk-old male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 53-67 g as a model for human infants. Also, the effect of consumption of the infant formulations on lean mass, bone mass content and fat mass was evaluated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) using 6 wk-old Sprague Dawley rats (initi...
Full Text Available Abstract Background A Paleolithic diet has been suggested to be more in concordance with human evolutionary legacy than a cereal based diet. This might explain the lower incidence among hunter-gatherers of diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to experimentally study the long-term effect of a Paleolithic diet on risk factors for these diseases in domestic pigs. We examined glucose tolerance, post-challenge insulin response, plasma C-reactive protein and blood pressure after 15 months on Paleolithic diet in comparison with a cereal based swine feed. Methods Upon weaning twenty-four piglets were randomly allocated either to cereal based swine feed (Cereal group or cereal free Paleolithic diet consisting of vegetables, fruit, meat and a small amount of tubers (Paleolithic group. At 17 months of age an intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed and pancreas specimens were collected for immunohistochemistry. Group comparisons of continuous variables were made by use of the t-test. P Results At the end of the study the Paleolithic group weighed 22% less and had 43% lower subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. No significant difference was seen in fasting glucose between groups. Dynamic insulin sensitivity was significantly higher (p = 0.004 and the insulin response was significantly lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.001. The geometric mean of C-reactive protein was 82% lower (p = 0.0007 and intra-arterial diastolic blood pressure was 13% lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.007. In evaluations of multivariate correlations, diet emerged as the strongest explanatory variable for the variations in dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin response, C-reactive protein and diastolic blood pressure when compared to other relevant variables such as weight and subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. There was no obvious immunohistochemical difference in pancreatic islets
Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was perform...
Laureys, David; De Vuyst, Luc
Water kefir is a sour, alcoholic, and fruity fermented beverage of which the fermentation is started with water kefir grains. These water kefir grains consist of polysaccharide and contain the microorganisms responsible for the water kefir fermentation. In this work, a water kefir fermentation process was followed as a function of time during 192 h to unravel the community dynamics, the species diversity, and the kinetics of substrate consumption and metabolite production. The majority of the...
Ali Ebrahimi Pure; Monir Ebrahimi Pure
Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was perform...
This thesis reports on studies of microbiological and biochemical properties of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit fermentation and the development of starter cultures for the production of masau beverages. A survey to document the traditional processing techniques was conducted using a
fermented sorghum beverage. C. M. B K. ... Production of bushera was according to the traditional procedure except that the raw materials were ... and they also have an extended shelf life (Knorr, 1998). ..... Ecology of accelerated natural lactic.
刘辉; 高瑞萍; 宁娜
As an old and new fermented dairy products, Kefir's nutritional characteristics and health function, more and more loved by the people. This article introduce d the Kefir and kefir grains, its nutritional characteristics, features and research progress of related products were reviewed as well. The research prospects of Kefir were predicted.%作为一种古老而又新型的发酵奶制品,Kefir的营养特性及其保健功能,愈来愈受到人们的喜爱.本文介绍了Kefir及其发酵剂开菲尔粒,并对Kefir的营养特性、功能特性及其相关制品的研究进展做一综述,对Kefir的研究进行了展望.
Assunção, Ricardo; Martins, Carla; Dupont, Didier; Alvito, Paula
Patulin (PAT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are well known enteropathogenic mycotoxins that are present in several foodstuffs. Processed cereal-based foods are among the first solid foods eaten by children, a particularly vulnerable population group. There is a lack of knowledge related to the co-occurrence of PAT and OTA in food intended for children consumption and their potential interactions during the digestion process. The present study aims to evaluate, for the first time, the co-occurrence of PAT and OTA in processed cereal-based foods for children consumption, the bioaccessibility of these two mycotoxins, and the contribution of the bioaccessibility data for human health risk assessment. PAT and OTA incidence were 75% and 50%, respectively. These mycotoxins co-occurred in 40% of analysed samples. Bioaccessibility assays revealed mean values of 52% and 56% for PAT, alone and combined with OTA; and 100% and 106% for OTA, alone and combined with PAT. Considering the human health risk assessment, and taking into account the co-occurrence and the bioaccessibility results, this study indicates a tolerable exposure to these mycotoxins representing a low risk for Portuguese children. The present work reinforces the importance of a holistic approach for risk assessment which gathers data from occurrence, exposure and bioaccessibility.
Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R
To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a
For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From these alcoholic beverages, parshot is prepared by the addition of plant leaves for lactic fermentation and nech chaka by adding cereal powder for lactic fermentation before alcohol fermentation. People living in the Dirashe area partake of parshot as part of their staple diet. The brewing process used for parshot and a food culture with alcoholic beverages as parts of the staple diet are rare worldwide. This article discusses the significance of using lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation and focuses on lactic fermentation in the brewing methods used for the three kinds of alcoholic beverages consumed in the Dirashe area. We initially observed the brewing process and obtained information about the process from the people in that area. Next, we determined the pH and analyzed the lactic acid (g/100 g) and ethanol (g/100 g) content during lactic fermentation of parshot and nech chaka; the ethyl acetate (mg/100 g) and volatile base nitrogen (mg/100 g) content during this period was also analyzed. In addition, we compared the ethanol (g/100 g) content of all three kinds of alcoholic beverages after completion of brewing. The results showed that it was possible to consume large quantities of these alcoholic beverages because of the use of lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation, which improved the safety and preservation characteristics of the beverages by preventing the propagation of various microorganisms, improving flavor, and controlling the alcohol level.
张敬; 赵树欣; 薛洁; 张凤杰; 赵彩云
利用反相高效液相色谱技术,以丹磺酰氯柱前衍生,分析了我国市场中32个啤酒样品、32个葡萄酒样品和12个黄酒样品中生物胺的含量。结果表明,我国啤酒、葡萄酒样品中含有较低的生物胺物质,平均含量分别为4.787 mg/L和11.240 mg/L,黄酒中生物胺含量较高,达到了78.304 mg/L。3种饮料酒含量较多的单体生物胺均为腐胺和酪胺,我国葡萄酒中的组胺含量低于国际现有组胺标准的最低限量要求。不同企业生产的啤酒样品和不同原产地的葡萄酒样品中组胺含量存在显著差异,黄酒样品中生物胺含量为18.603～140.010 mg/L,样品间差异很大。%Biogentic amines were analyzed in thirty two samples of beer,twenty seven samples of wine and twelve samples of Chinese rice wine from the Chinese market,using HPLC detection after pre-column derivatization with dansyl chloride.The results showed that the content of biogentic amines in Chinese beer and wine samples was in a relatively low level,with the average being 4.787 mg/L and 11.240 mg/L respectively.While the samples of rice wine contained a high level of biogenic amines,reaching 78.304 mg/L.The monomer biogenic amines that had a relatively high level of content in the three alcoholic beverage mentioned above were all putrescine and tyramine.The content of histamine in wine from Chinese market is below the minimum requirements of existing international histamine standard.Significant differences in the content of histamine were found both among the samples of beer from different enterprises and the samples of wine with different origins.The content of biogenic amines varied widely among the samples of the rice wine,which ranged from 18.603 mg/L to 140.010 mg/L.
Gazioğlu, Işil; Kolak, Ufuk
Modified AOAC 991.31 and AOAC 2000.03 methods for the simultaneous determination of total aflatoxins (AFs), aflatoxin B1, and ochratoxin A (OTA) in processed cereal-based foods by RP-HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection were validated. A KOBRA® Cell derivatization system was used to analyze total AFs. One of the modifications was the extraction procedure of mycotoxins. Both AFs and OTA were extracted with methanol-water (75+25, v/v) and purified with an immunoaffinity column before HPLC analysis. The modified methods were validated by measuring the specificity, selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery, LOD, and LOQ parameters. The validated methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in 81 processed cereal-based foods purchased in Turkey. These rapid, sensitive, simple, and validated methods are suitable for the simultaneous determination of AFs and OTA in the processed cereal-based foods.
Full Text Available Whey as a by-product of the cheese industry is a source of biological and functional valuable proteins. The aim of this research was to evaluate the commercial potential of whey-based dairy beverages containing a definite amount of semi-skimmed milk addition. The purpose of this paper was to improve the whey flavour via its fermentation by commercial yogurt starter cultures, and via 25 % and 50 % of milk addition. The course of fermentation was monitored by pH and titratable acidity changes. The sensory profile of non-fermented and fermented drinks was assessed using unstructured graphical scales. No significant differences in acidity were found between the samples which were fermented for 3 or 4 hours, but a significant difference was found between samples of whey drinks without milk and samples with milk addition. Fermentation by yoghurt culture did not bring statistically significant improvement of the whey drink organoleptic properties, while the addition of milk was the most important factor influencing not only the total sensory quality of the whey drinks but also their flavour, appearance, colour, viscosity and homogeneity.
Development and physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory characterization of fermented dairy beverage prepared with different stabilizers/thickenerDesenvolvimento e caracterização físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial de bebida láctea fermentada elaborada com diferentes estabilizantes/espessantes
Rakel Cândido Nascimento
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the physical-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of fermented dairy beverages prepared with 10% sucrose, 50% milk and 50% whey and added five different stabilizers/thickeners in two concentrations (0,50% and 1,00% in relation to the final formulation. Ten treatments have been developed: PCPS 1,00% = protein (0,50% and whey protein concentrate (0,50%; GP 1,00% = powdered gelatin (1,00%; GG 1,00% = guar gum (1,00%; AM 1.00% = corn starch (1,00%; GGCMC 1,00% = guar gum (0,50% and carboxymethylcellulose (0,50%; PCPS 0,50 % = protein (0,25% and whey protein concentrate (0,25%; GP 0.50% = powdered gelatin (0,50%; GG 0.50% = guar (0,50%; AM 0,50% = corn starch (0,50%; GGCMC 0,50% = guar gum (0,25% and carboxymethylcellulose (0,25%. The fermented dairy beverages were evaluated for pH, acidity in lactic acid, moisture, ash, fat, protein, viscosity, syneresis, sensory acceptance (in a nine-point hedonic scale and count of coliforms at 35ºC and 45°C. The results were submitted to ANOVA and mean test with significance level of 5%. It was observed that the types and percentages of stabilizers/thickeners mainly influenced the values of syneresis, viscosity and acceptance of samples. Those of the treatments containing protein and whey protein concentrate (1,00%, guar gum (1,00% and gelatin (0,50% showed viscosity/consistency similiar/compatible with yogurt and commercial fermented dairy beverages and showed no syneresis, after processing. All formulations were safe to be consumed considering the microbiological results and according to the legislation. The treatment with 0,50% gelatin stood out for the best acceptance for appearance, aroma, color and texture.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características físico-químicas, sensoriais e a qualidade microbiológica de bebidas lácteas fermentadas elaboradas com 10% de sacarose, 50% de leite e 50% de soro de queijo e adicionadas
Abstract For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From t...
Full Text Available The gluten-free diet is, to date, the only efficacious treatment for patients with Celiac Disease. In recent years, the impressive rise of Celiac Disease incidence, dramatically prompted changes in the dietary habit of an increasingly large population, with a rise in demand of gluten-free products. The formulation of gluten-free bakery products presents a formidable challenge to cereal technologists. As wheat gluten contributes to the formation of a strong protein network, that confers visco-elasticity to the dough and allows the wheat flour to be processed into a wide range of products, the preparation of cereal-based gluten-free products is a process somehow difficult process. This review focuses on nutritional and technological quality of products made with gluten-free cereals available on the market. The possibility of using flour from naturally low toxic ancient wheat species or detoxified wheat for the diet of celiacs is also discussed.
Lamacchia, Carmela; Camarca, Alessandra; Picascia, Stefania; Di Luccia, Aldo; Gianfrani, Carmen
The gluten-free diet is, to date, the only efficacious treatment for patients with Celiac Disease. In recent years, the impressive rise of Celiac Disease incidence, dramatically prompted changes in the dietary habit of an increasingly large population, with a rise in demand of gluten-free products. The formulation of gluten-free bakery products presents a formidable challenge to cereal technologists. As wheat gluten contributes to the formation of a strong protein network, that confers visco-elasticity to the dough and allows the wheat flour to be processed into a wide range of products, the preparation of cereal-based gluten-free products is a somehow difficult process. This review focuses on nutritional and technological quality of products made with gluten-free cereals available on the market. The possibility of using flour from naturally low toxic ancient wheat species or detoxified wheat for the diet of celiacs is also discussed.
Andrieş Mitică Tiberiu
Full Text Available Wine is defined as an alcoholic beverage resulted from fermentation of grape must, having ethanol content higher than 8.5% (v/v. Wine consumption has health benefits related to the high concentration of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity and cardiovascular protection effects. However, the alcohol content restricts wine consumption, but wines with low-alcohol content can be obtained with the help of the dealcoholisation process, after it was produced through alcoholic fermentation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the organic acid concentration, metal content and other physical-chemical parameters of low alcoholic beverages obtained from grape must by a process which involves reverse osmosis, mixing in a variable ratio the permeate and concentrate and then fermentation. For the experiments, a Muscat Ottonel grape must from Iaşi vineyard was used. There were ten variants of beverages (wines with low alcoholic concentration, by mixing known quantities of the two phases resulting from the reverse osmosis process. These beverages (wines had an alcoholic concentration starting from 2.5% (v/v in the first variant, up to 7% (v/v in the tenth variant. Alcoholic concentration varies for each variant by 0.5% (v/v. After fermentation in 50 L stainless steel tanks, the samples were filtered with 0.45μm sterile membrane and bottled in 0.75 L glass bottles. After 2 months of storage at constant temperature, the beverage samples were analyzed to determine the metal content (AAS method, organic acids concentration (HPLC method, and other physical-chemical characteristics (OIV standard methods. The results obtained indicate that the very complex physical-chemical composition of the low alcoholic beverages analyzed is influenced by the specific chemical composition of a given grape must, as well as by the use of products obtained from reverse osmosis.
Dicksved, Johan; Jansson, Janet K.; Lindberg, Jan Erik
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how inclusion of chicory forage or ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet influenced the fecal microbial community (microbiome) in newly weaned (35 days of age) piglets. The piglets were fed a cereal-based diet without (B) and with inclusion (80 and 160 g/kg air-dry forage) of vegetative shoots of chicory (C) and leaves of ribwort (R) forage in a 35-day growth trial. Fecal samples were collected at the start (D0), 17 (D17) and 35 (D35) days after weaning and profiles of the microbial consortia were generated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). 454-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to analyze the microbial composition in a subset of the samples already analyzed with T-RFLP. RESULTS: The microbial clustering pattern was primarily dependent on age of the pigs, but diet effects could also be observed. Lactobacilli and enterobacteria were more abundant at D0, whereas the genera Streptococcus, Treponema, Clostridium, Clostridiaceae1 and Coprococcus were present in higher abundances at D35. Pigs fed ribwort had an increased abundance of sequences classified as Treponema and a reduction in lactobacilli. However, the abundance of Prevotellaceae increased with age in on both the chicory and the ribwort diet. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the abundance of Bacteroides and the digested amount of galactose, uronic acids and total non-starch polysaccharides, and between the abundance of Bacteroidales and the digested amount of xylose. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that both chicory and ribwort inclusion in the diet of newly weaned pigs influenced the composition of the fecal microbiota and that digestion of specific dietary components was correlated with species composition of the microbiota. Moreover, this study showed that the gut will be exposed to a dramatic shift in the microbial community structure several weeks after weaning.
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103 as a protective culture when present in a food system. A non-fermented sea buckthorn-based beverage was developed. To meet the required criteria for probiotic beverage (viable count of 8 log CFU mL−1, the acidic juice had to be supplemented with whey protein concentrate (WPC. The obtained beverage had a shelf life of two weeks. Furthermore, the inhibitory potential of Lactobacillus-fortified-WPC-supplemented juice matrix was evaluated against E. coli (ATCC 25922 which is a major agent responsible for food contamination and shelf spoilage. Results indicated that the fortification of beverage with L. rhamnosus GG appeared to create an effective hurdle for multiplication of E. coli in the sea buckthorn-WPC system.
Schwan, Rosane F.; Almeida, Euziclei G.; Souza-Dias, Maria Aparecida G.
The Tapirapé people of the Tapi'itãwa tribe of Brazil produce several fermented foods and beverages, one of which is called 'cauim'. This beverage usually makes up the main staple food for adults and children. Several substrates are used in its production, including cassava, rice, corn, maize...... the fermentation. Exophiala dermatidis, often associated with blastomycosis, was found in the mass before inoculation and during the initial stages of the fermentation. Examination of these indigenous fermented foods may provide clues as to how food production and preservation can be expanded and thereby...
Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Vaughan, E.E.; Vogel, R.F.
Fermented foods and beverages are an integral part of the human diet globally. Understanding the microbial interactions within these fermenting ecosystems is required to deliver safe products with desirable consumer properties, and moreover, maintenance of these traditions. Effective tools are requi
Kayode, A.P.P.; Vieira-Dalode, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kotchoni, S.O.; Hounhouigan, A.J.D.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.
Opaque sorghum beers are traditional alcoholic beverages in several African countries. Known as tchoukoutou in Benin, the beer is often obtained from an uncontrolled fermentation. It is consumed in an actively fermenting state and has a sour taste. The present study characterized and identified the
Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
BACKGROUND: Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has become an intractable public health concern worldwide, making investigation of healthy beverage alternatives for SSBs imperative. AIM: To summarize the available evidence on the effects of replacing SSBs with beverage...... outcomes in both children and adults were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network 50 methodology checklists. RESULTS: Six cohort studies and four RCTs were included in the systematic review with the quality rating ranging from acceptable...
以威士忌液体发酵蒸馏酒基液浓缩液为原料，采用CHCl2萃取浓缩液中的呈味物质，对其呈味物质进行GC-MS分析。结果表明：呈味物质包括69种化合物，其中主要呈味物质为2,3-丁二醇、乙醇、苯乙醇、2,5-己二醇、癸酸乙酯、月桂酸乙酯、3-甲基丁酸和糠醛等36种。在饮料配方中加入该浓缩液，通过调整糖酸比，制作的饮料酸甜可口、风味独特。单因素及正交试验结果表明：在甜味剂添加量为6%，酸味剂添加量为0.03%，香兰素添加量为0.01%的基础上，浓缩液的添加量为0.5%，此时感官风味最好。经GC-MS分析此风味饮料中呈味物质共包括30种化合物，主要成分为香草醛、2,3-丁二醇、乙醇、苯乙醇、乙酸乙酯、癸酸乙酯、糠醛、苯甲醛，此风味饮料保留了19种原浓缩液的风味物质。%Concentrated foundation liquid of fermenting and distilling wine of whisky as the research object. Flavouring materials were extracted by solvent extraction. According to the analysis of GC/MS, 69 components were identified. The main components were Ethyl alcohol,2,3-Butanediol,Phenylethyl Alcohol,2,5-Hexanediol,Decanoic acid,ethyl ester,Dodecanoic acid,ethyl ester,3-methylbutanoic acid,Furfural.etc. a total of 36. adding the concentrate in the beverage, and adjusting the sugar and acid ratio make the sweet and delicious beverage. The single factor and orthogonal experiment results indicated: In sweeteners, adding amount was 6%,citric acid content was 0.03%, vanillin content of 0.01%, on the basis of concentrate adding amount of 0.5%, the sensory flavor is the best. According to the analysis of GC/MS, 30 components were identified in the flavor drink. The main componets were Vanillin,2,3 -Butanediol,Ethyl alcohol,Phenylethyl Alcohol,Ethyl Acetate,Decanoic acid,ethyl ester,Furfural, Benzaldehyde. The specialty drinks retain a concentrate of 19 species of the original flavor.
Verbelen, Pieter J; De Schutter, David P; Delvaux, Filip; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delvaux, Freddy R
In several yeast-related industries, continuous fermentation systems offer important economical advantages in comparison with traditional systems. Fermentation rates are significantly improved, especially when continuous fermentation is combined with cell immobilization techniques to increase the yeast concentration in the fermentor. Hence the technique holds a great promise for the efficient production of fermented beverages, such as beer, wine and cider as well as bio-ethanol. However, there are some important pitfalls, and few industrial-scale continuous systems have been implemented. Here, we first review the various cell immobilization techniques and reactor setups. Then, the impact of immobilization on cell physiology and fermentation performance is discussed. In a last part, we focus on the practical use of continuous fermentation and cell immobilization systems for beer production.
Nielsen, Barbara; Gürakan, G Candan; Unlü, Gülhan
Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product. Scientific studies into these reported benefits are being conducted into these health benefits, many with promising results, though not all of the studies have been conclusive. Our review provides an overview of kefir's structure, microbial profile, production, and probiotic properties. Our review also discusses alternative uses of kefir, kefir grains, and kefiran (the soluble polysaccharide produced by the organisms in kefir grains). Their utility in wound therapy, food additives, leavening agents, and other non-beverage uses is being studied with promising results.
@@ Shanghai Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone attracts many companies to settle down,and China International Exhibition and Trading Center of Wine & Beverage is one of them.It is said that when the first bunch of grapes fell down on the soil,it was the beginning of the art of winemaking.The win is not only the symbol of culture,history,trade,religion,art,etc.,but also one part or one style of our real life.When the technology has shortened the distance of the world,then wine,an important part of the trade in the past,today,or the future,becomes more and more international.
Kayode, A. P. P.; Vieira-Dalode, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kotchoni, S.O.; Hounhouigan, A.J.D.; Boekel, van, E.M.P.M.; Nout, M.J.R.
Opaque sorghum beers are traditional alcoholic beverages in several African countries. Known as tchoukoutou in Benin, the beer is often obtained from an uncontrolled fermentation. It is consumed in an actively fermenting state and has a sour taste. The present study characterized and identified the yeasts involved in the fermentation process of this type of beer using the phenotypical approach. Of 12 beers from 4 different locations, the mean values of the pH, titratable acidity, dry matter c...
The microbial and sensory qualities of freshly processed and reconstituted Kununzaki beverages prepared from steeped millet ... Materials and Methods. Préparation of .... computer package. .... Agboola, S.D. (1987): Srorage and preservation.
Full Text Available Kombucha is a traditional beverage that is prepared by fermenting sucrose-sweetened black tea. A medium is inoculated with a cellulose pellicle (popularly known as a “tea fungus” or fermentation brought from previous cultivation process. Our aim was to test the possibility of obtaining a Kombucha beverage using different concentration of lactose as an alternative source of C-atoms. A traditional medium sweetened with sucrose or without sugar was used as control. Without lactose-fermenting yeast strains in tea fungus, lactose is not an adequate alternative source of the C-atom for Kombucha fermentation because it is not possible to obtain Kombucha with an appropriate acidity during a seven-day fermentation. Compared with the traditional medium, fermentation is significantly slower with high differences in acid content. In unsweetened tea inoculated with the beverage obtained from a previous traditional process, Kombucha fermentation processes and produces a beverage without sugar and alcohol. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044
Alcántara-Hernández, R J; Rodríguez-Álvarez, J A; Valenzuela-Encinas, C; Gutiérrez-Miceli, F A; Castañón-González, H; Marsch, R; Ayora-Talavera, T; Dendooven, L
To characterize the bacterial community of taberna, an alcoholic traditional beverage from the Southern part of Mexico produced by the fermentation of the coyol palm sap (Acrocomia aculeate). Bacterial 16S rDNA libraries were constructed from metagenomic DNA extracted during the fermentation process at 0, 60 and 108 h. A total of 154 clones were sequenced, and 13, 10 and nine unique sequences were found at each sampling time. At the onset of the fermentation, Zymomonas mobilis, Fructobacillus spp., Pantoea agglomerans and other Gammaproteobacteria were detected. After 60 h, lactic acid bacteria were found and 30% of clones in the library were related to Lactobacillus nagelii, L. sucicola and L. sp. By the end of the experiment, i.e. after 108 h, the bacterial community included Z. mobilis, Lact. nagelii and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Our results suggest that Z. mobilis population represented an important proportion of the bacterial community (60-80%), as well as the lactobacilli during the fermentation process. The bacterial diversity was low and decreased as the fermentation progressed. This culture-independent study suggests that Z. mobilis and lactobacilli play an important role in the alcoholic fermentation of the taberna beverage. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Malbaša Radomir V.
Full Text Available Black and green tea contains a wide range of natural phenolic compounds Flavanoids and their glycosides, catechins and the products of their condensation, and phenolic acids are the most important. Kombucha beverage is obtained by fermentation of tea fungus on black or green tea sweetened with sucrose. The aim of this paper was to investigate the composition of some phenolic compounds, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, myricetin, gallic and tanic acid, and monitoring of their status during tea fungus fermentation. The method used for this study was thin layer chromatography with two different systems. The main phenolic compounds in the samples with green tea were catechin and epicatechin, and in the samples with black tea it was quercetin.
beverages B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5 in the ratio of 60:40 to prepare alcoholic beverages W1, W2, W3, W4 and W5, respectively. Two different fermentation conditions (fermentation with or without pieces of sliced medicinal plant residue, PMPR were compared. After fermenting, racking and aging, all alcoholic beverages, as well as all non-alcoholic beverages,were analyzed for some phytochemical properties. Results: Grape fermented with PMPR had higher anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities, and total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins, compared to the others. Among all nonalcoholic beverages, the beverage B3 contained the highest anti-acetylcholinesterase (22.78% inhibition at 1:10,000 dilution and antioxidant activities (reducing capacity, 4.22 mmol Fe(II/100 mL, total phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins (494.44 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE, 383.22 mg catechin equivalents (CE and 338.29 mg tannic acid equivalents ((TAE/100 mL, respectively. Among all alcoholic beverages, the beverage W3 (fermented with PMPR exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical inhibition, 95.99 mg trolox equivalents and reducing capacity, 3.57 mmol Fe(II /100 mL, total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins (239.71 mg GAE, 372.67 mg CE and 157.67 mg TAE/100 mL, respectively. The beverage W2 (fermented with PMPR had the highest anti-acetylcholinesterase activity (21.35% inhibition at 1:10,000 dilution. Conclusion: The beverages B3, W2 and W3 contained valuable sources of natural antioxidants and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and may provide health benefits when consumed.
Aidoo, Kofi E; Nout, M J Rob; Sarkar, Prabir K
In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages such as rice and palm wines, and condiments such as papads and soy sauce. Although several products are obtained by natural fermentation, the use of traditional starter cultures is widespread. This minireview focuses on the diversity and functionality of yeasts in these products, and on opportunities for research and development.
Full Text Available Since food choice is always a unique and personal experience, consumer behaviour is important for food manufacturers and marketers in term of product success. Due to the beneficial healthprotective effects of dairy beverages, this market segment is very innovative and fast-growing. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the consumption patterns, purchasing behaviour and motivesfor selection of dairy beverages. The sample of this study included 114 participants (44 males and 70 females which were interviewed face-to-face at the entrance of 5 shopping centres. The surveyinstrument consisted of closed questions regarding habits of consumption, purchasing habits and motives for selection of dairy beverages. Gender specific differences were tested. The results obtained have shown that females consumed more milk and milk drinks (p<0.001 and fermented milk drinks (p=0.002 than males. The consumption of whey-based beverages was sporadical in both genders. Females in higher percentage purchase low-fat dairy beverages (p=0.043, while males exhibited a higher level of loyalty to a certain product (p=0.034. Sensory appeals were the most important motivational factor for both genders. Brand was ranked second for males (p<0.001 and health aspect for females. The products’ origin was ranked third, while price was ranked fifth for both genders. The results obtained could be useful to researchers and dairy market sector in developing and promotinga group of dairy beverage products based on innovations and health.
Ogneva O. A.
Full Text Available The impact of pectins and its concentration on probiotic characteristics of the beverages has been studied for developing the formulation and technology of pectin beverages. Samples of sour-milk products with dry pectin (Unipectin OB 700 and liquid one (pectin apple extract is produced by SunLand was made. Sour milk microorganisms and bifidobacteria content were defined. High sour milk microorganisms and bifidobacteria content as well as high rate in souring were revealed in the preparatory samples. However, liquid pectin is easier in use. Consequently, the formulation of pectin extract beverages was developed and optimized by using Mathematical Modeling. The samples of beverages were produced and their quality characteristics were evaluated. An optimal fruit/vegetable fillers / whey ration was defined to get the product which combined balanced micronutrient composition, its functional activities and gustatory qualities. For that a three-factor simplex-centroid design was used. The samples produced according to the design matrix were tasted and evaluated by color, flavor, aroma and consistency according to the ten score points scale. The findings were processed with statistical and graphical analysis. The last one used the construction of ternary graphs with the help of «Statistica 7,0» program that allowed to define the most acceptable ranges of fruit/vegetable fillers / whey components in the beverages: fruit juice – 4-16%; pumpkin juice-4-16%; whey -4%. Chemical composition, organoleptical indicators and physicochemical parameters of ready-to drink beverages were examined. As a result, these beverages have been recommended for school feeding as the source of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins
Nedović, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjević, V; Kalušević, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovičová, D; Yilmaztekin, M
Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sep 25, 2013 ... top portion to lower branches and also from more ... screw capped bottles and kept in a refrigerator at 4°C. The obtained ... (Himedia, India) at 25°C for 48 h in a biological oxygen demand ... measured by using hand held pH meter (Eutech). Titrable ..... Though the level of ethanol production was higher after.
Leksrisompong, P P; Lopetcharat, K; Guthrie, B; Drake, M A
The drivers of liking of lemon-lime carbonated beverages were investigated with regular and diet beverage consumers. Ten beverages were selected from a category survey of commercial beverages using a D-optimal procedure. Beverages were subjected to consumer testing (n = 101 regular beverage consumers, n = 100 diet beverage consumers). Segmentation of consumers was performed on overall liking scores followed by external preference mapping of selected samples. Diet beverage consumers liked 2 diet beverages more than regular beverage consumers. There were no differences in the overall liking scores between diet and regular beverage consumers for other products except for a sparkling beverage sweetened with juice which was more liked by regular beverage consumers. Three subtle but distinct consumer preference clusters were identified. Two segments had evenly distributed diet and regular beverage consumers but one segment had a greater percentage of regular beverage consumers (P carbonation mouthfeel lovers, cluster 2 (C2) carbonation mouthfeel lovers, sweet and bitter taste acceptors, and cluster 3 (C3) bitter taste avoiders, mouthfeel and sweet taste lovers. User status (diet or regular beverage consumers) did not have a large impact on carbonated beverage liking. Instead, mouthfeel attributes were major drivers of liking when these beverages were tested in a blind tasting. Preference mapping of lemon-lime carbonated beverage with diet and regular beverage consumers allowed the determination of drivers of liking of both populations. The understanding of how mouthfeel attributes, aromatics, and basic tastes impact liking or disliking of products was achieved. Preference drivers established in this study provide product developers of carbonated lemon-lime beverages with additional information to develop beverages that may be suitable for different groups of consumers. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®
Dini, Elizabeth; De Abreu, Jorge; López, Emeris
The objective of this work was to determine the osmolality of beverages frequently consumed by children and adolescents due to the scarce information available in our country. The samples were grouped as follows: milks; refreshments; beverages based on fruits, vegetables, cereals, and tubers; sport drinks; energizing drinks; oral rehydrating solutions; reconstituted drinks and infusions. A vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, five samples of each beverage from different lots were analyzed. Four osmolality determinations were made on each sample and the average of such values was calculated. When the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements of the five samples was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. As many samples as possible were used with breast milk in the time period of the study. Osmolality averages, standard deviation, and the osmolality confidence intervals (95% reliability) were calculated. The osmolality (mmol/kg) of breast milk and that of cow milk were between 273 and 389; refreshments, white, black and flavored colas, and malts ranged between 479-811; and soda and light drinks: 44-62; fresh fruit and commercial drinks (coconut, peach, apple, orange, pear, pineapple, grape, plum, tamarind): 257-1152 and light juices: 274; sports beverages: 367; energizing drinks: 740; drinks based on vegetables and cereals: 213-516; oral rehydrating solutions: 236-397; reconstituted drinks: 145; infusions: 25. Beverages with adequate osmolality levels for children were: milks, light refreshments, soda, fresh and light juices, oral rehydrating, soy, and reconstituted drinks and infusions.
陈绍荣; 邵建华; 赵立新; 刘园园
A brief account is given of the properties and features of castor bean cereal based bio-organic-inorganic compound fertilizers.By field experiment of fertilizer efficiency with corn, rice and peanut , it is proved that castor bean cereal based bio-organic-inorganic compound fertilizers have better effects on increasing production and improving the properities of soil, and can be widely applied to grain and oil crops.%简要介绍了蓖麻粕基生物有机无机复混肥的性能及特点。通过玉米、水稻、花生大田肥效试验，结果证明蓖麻粕基生物有机无机复混肥具有较好的增产改土效果，可在粮油作物上推广应用。
Essawet Najmi Ahmed
Full Text Available Kombucha is a traditional beverage obtained by fermenting sweetened black tea with tea fungus, which represents a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Also, CoffeeBerry® products, which derived from the whole fruit of the coffee plant, are valuable ingredients with nutritional and health-enhancing potential. Samples of fermentation broths enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract and traditional Kombucha were analysed. The fermentation was performed in a bioreactor at 28±1°C for nine days. The results showed that the CoffeeBerry® extract has contributed to a faster fermentation of cultivation medium. Some individual polyphenolic compounds and catehins in fermentation broth samples were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Among the bioactive compounds present in investigated samples obtained during Kombucha fermentation of the sweetened black tea enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract, chlorogenic acid (188.94-458.56 μg/mL was the predominant. The antioxidant activity of investigated samples was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals by electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals were increased with duration of fermentation. IC50 values for Kombucha fermentation broth enriched with CoffeBerry®, based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, were in the range 26.33-170.13 μL/mL and 11.33-102.22 μL/mL, respectively.
Francis Kweku Amagloh
Full Text Available The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS of sweetpotato-based complementary foods (OFSP ComFa and CFSP ComFa and cereal-based infant products (Weanimix and Cerelac was assessed using 3 wk-old male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 53-67 g as a model for human infants. Also, the effect of consumption of the infant formulations on lean mass, bone mass content and fat mass was evaluated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA using 6 wk-old Sprague Dawley rats (initial weight, 206-229 g. The ComFa products and Weanimix are household-level formulations, and Cerelac is a commercial infant cereal. The true protein digestibility score for Cerelac was 96.27%, and about 1.8% (P<0.0001 higher than that for OFSP ComFa, CFSP ComFa and Weanimix. However, OFSP ComFa had the highest un-truncated PDCAAS by a difference of 4.1%, than CFSP ComFa, and about 20% difference compared with both the Weanimix and Cerelac. All the products investigated had PDCAAS greater than 70%, the minimum protein quality requirement for complementary foods. Among the rats assigned to the four formulations, their bone mass and fat mass composition were not significantly different (P=0.08 and P=0.85, respectively. However, the rats on CFSP ComFa had higher lean mass than those on Cerelac (321.67 vs. 297.19 g; P=0.03. The findings from the PDCAAS and the DEXA-measured body composition studies indicate that complementary foods could be formulated from readily available agricultural resources at the household-level to support growth as would a nutritionally adequate industrial-manufactured infant cereal. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the findings of our studies are based on an animal model.
Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Chiridza, Tracy; Lemercier, Marie-Eve; Broomfield, Anne; Morel, Patrick C H; Coad, Jane
The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of sweetpotato-based complementary foods (OFSP ComFa and CFSP ComFa) and cereal-based infant products (Weanimix and Cerelac) was assessed using 3 wk-old male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 53-67 g as a model for human infants. Also, the effect of consumption of the infant formulations on lean mass, bone mass content and fat mass was evaluated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) using 6 wk-old Sprague Dawley rats (initial weight, 206-229 g). The ComFa products and Weanimix are household-level formulations, and Cerelac is a commercial infant cereal. The true protein digestibility score for Cerelac was 96.27%, and about 1.8% (PCerelac. All the products investigated had PDCAAS greater than 70%, the minimum protein quality requirement for complementary foods. Among the rats assigned to the four formulations, their bone mass and fat mass composition were not significantly different (P=0.08 and P=0.85, respectively). However, the rats on CFSP ComFa had higher lean mass than those on Cerelac (321.67 vs. 297.19 g; P=0.03). The findings from the PDCAAS and the DEXA-measured body composition studies indicate that complementary foods could be formulated from readily available agricultural resources at the household-level to support growth as would a nutritionally adequate industrial-manufactured infant cereal. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the findings of our studies are based on an animal model.
Vedprakash D. SURVE
Full Text Available Traditional Indian cereal based fermented food products like Kurdi (Maharashtra and Seera (Himachal Pradesh are prepared from batter of fermented wheat grains. These wheat batters were prepared by soaking wheat grains (Triticum Astivum L., variety: PBN51 in water at different temperatures (30, 37.5 and 45°C for four days (natural fermentation, crushed, centrifuged and characterized for rheological properties. The present study was aimed to test the effect of soaking temperature (during natural fermentation of wheat grains on the rheological behavior of wheat batter. It was determined that viscosity and yield stress of the wheat batter decreased with increase in soaking temperature of natural fermentation. Yield stress decreased by 65% and 82% for wheat grains soaked at 37.5°C and 45°C, respectively as compared to those soaked at 30°C. This was attributed to the degradation of the carbohydrates by the natural flora of microorganisms. Increasing the soaking temperature during natural fermentation decreased the fluid consistency index and increased the flow behavior index of the batter, demonstrating a lower viscosity and increased fluidity. All the samples revealed shear thinning behavior. Gelatinization temperature of the wheat batter decreased with increase in soaking temperature as demonstrated by viscoelastic analysis (loss modulus, storage modulus, Tan δ of the samples.
C. I. Beristain; M. E. Rodríguez-Huezo; C. Lobato-Calleros; F. Cruz-Sosa; R. Pedroza-Islas; J. R. Verde-Calvo
In this work the importance of soluble dietary fibers in the human diet is discussed. Traditional and new sources of soluble dietary fiber are mentioned, and a description of how to apply them in different types of beverages such as energy drinks, sport drinks, carbonated beverages and protein-based beverages in order to achieve enhanced functional properties is given.
Crauwels, Sam; Steensels, Jan; Aerts, Guido; Willems, Kris; Verstrepen, Kevin; Lievens, Bart
Recently, the non-conventional, wild yeast Brettanomyces, with B. bruxellensis (teleomorph Dekkera bruxellensis) as the most commonly encountered species, has gained more and more attention in academic research as well as the food and beverage industry. Brettanomyces is a distant relative of the classic brewing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for its ambiguous role in food and beverage fermentations. Whilst still mainly considered a spoilage organism responsible for off...
Lapp, T.; Shrager, B. [Midwest Research Institute, Cary, NC (United States); Safriet, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)
Midwest Research Institute is currently developing emission factors for inclusion in AP-42 Chapter 9, Food and Agricultural Industries. Three of the sections cover the production of malt beverages, wine, and distilled spirits. The malt beverage segment focuses on the development of ethanol emission factors for filling operations, which were recently identified as the large source of brewery ethanol emissions. The discussion includes a description of the production process and emissions factors for breweries, a history of emission factories for breweries, a description of emission testing conducted at two large breweries, and a presentation of some of the emission factors for malt beverage production. The wine industry segment focuses on emissions from the fermentation stage for red and white wines, the pomace screen and pomace press for red wines, and bottling of white wine. Emission factors are presented for ethanol emissions from each of these sources as well as other VOC emissions from the fermentation process. A discussion of the wine production process is presented. A discussion of the emission sources and available emission factors is presented for the distilled spirits industry segment. Factors are presented for the fermentation and aging stages. A process description is presented for the production of Bourbon whisky.
Nout, M.J.R.; Vos, de W.M.; Zwietering, M.H.
The focus of this book is on state of the art technologies and scientific developments in academia and industry that contribute to the characterization and specification of fermentation starter microorganisms, to the present-day experimental approaches in product and process development and control,
Gawkowski, D; Chikindas, M L
Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. The two main genera of microorganisms indicated as sources of probiotic bacteria are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Historically used to produce fermented dairy products, certain strains of both genera are increasingly utilised to formulate other functional foods. As the consumers' understanding of the role of probiotics in health grows, so does the popularity of food containing them. The result of this phenomenon is an increase in the number of probiotic foods available for public consumption, including a rapidly-emerging variety of probiotic-containing non-dairy beverages, which provide a convenient way to improve and maintain health. However, the composition of non-dairy probiotic beverages can pose specific challenges to the survival of the health conferring microorganisms. To overcome these challenges, strain selection and protection techniques play an integral part in formulating a stable product. This review discusses non-dairy probiotic beverages, characteristics of an optimal beverage, and commonly used probiotic strains, including spore-forming bacteria. It also examines the most recent developments in probiotic encapsulation technology with focus on nano-fibre formation as a means of protecting viable cells. Utilising bacteria's natural armour or creating barrier mechanisms via encapsulation technology will fuel development of stable non-dairy probiotic beverages.
Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R
Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.
Higgins, John P.; Tuttle, Troy D.; Higgins, Christopher L.
Exercise is making a resurgence in many countries, given its benefits for fitness as well as prevention of obesity. This trend has spawned many supplements that purport to aid performance, muscle growth, and recovery. Initially, sports drinks were developed to provide electrolyte and carbohydrate replacement. Subsequently, energy beverages (EBs) containing stimulants and additives have appeared in most gyms and grocery stores and are being used increasingly by “weekend warriors” and those see...
Moats, Jean; Freeman, Rebecca
In terms of chocolate revolutionary can mean many things, from the cultural aspect to the change in the way chocolate is prepared. In this paper revolutionary stands for the idea of change, specifically the change in chocolate beverages over time. This change can be seen especially in the variety of flavours that have been and are currently being added to chocolate. Why has there been such a change in this popular drink? What makes it revolutionary in terms of flavours. This interdisciplinary...
Higgins, John P; Tuttle, Troy D; Higgins, Christopher L
Exercise is making a resurgence in many countries, given its benefits for fitness as well as prevention of obesity. This trend has spawned many supplements that purport to aid performance, muscle growth, and recovery. Initially, sports drinks were developed to provide electrolyte and carbohydrate replacement. Subsequently, energy beverages (EBs) containing stimulants and additives have appeared in most gyms and grocery stores and are being used increasingly by "weekend warriors" and those seeking an edge in an endurance event. Long-term exposure to the various components of EBs may result in significant alterations in the cardiovascular system, and the safety of EBs has not been fully established. For this review, we searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 1976 through May 2010, using the following keywords: energy beverage, energy drink, power drink, exercise, caffeine, red bull, bitter orange, glucose, ginseng, guarana, and taurine. Evidence regarding the effects of EBs is summarized, and practical recommendations are made to help in answering the patient who asks, "Is it safe for me to drink an energy beverage when I exercise?"
Crepin, Lucie; SANCHEZ, Isabelle,; Nidelet, Thibault; Dequin, Sylvie
Background Under N-limiting conditions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains display a substantial variability in their biomass yield from consumed nitrogen -in particular wine yeasts exhibit high growth abilities- that is correlated with their capacity to complete alcoholic fermentation, a trait of interest for fermented beverages industries. The aim of the present work was to assess the contribution of nitrogen availability to the strain-specific differences in the ability to efficiently use N-...
Full Text Available In this study, an optical fibre long period grating (LPG sensor functionalised with a mesoporous thin film was employed for the identification and quality assessment of beverages. The principle of the discrimination of beverages using an LPG sensor is based on the measurement of the change in refractive index of a sensitive film, induced by the binding of the chemical compounds present in the beverage. The sensitive film deposited onto the LPG consisted of poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH and silica nanospheres (SiO2 NPs with diameters ranging from 40 nm to 50 nm. PAH imparts selectivity, while the SiO2 NPs endow the film with high porosity and enhanced sensitivity. In this study, five different types of beverages, red and white wines, brandy, nihonshyu (sake, a Japanese rice wine, and shochu (a Japanese distilled beverage, prepared via distillation and fermentation, were used to assess the capability of the sensor to identify the origin of the beverages. In addition, a selection of red wines was used to evaluate the use of the sensor in the assessment of the quality of beverages. The results obtained were benchmarked against those obtained using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the determination of volatile compounds contributing to the flavours of a set of red wines. Principal component analysis (PCA was employed for data analysis. This approach enabled both quality assessment of beverages and identification of the methods and materials used for their preparation.
Full Text Available Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage worldwide. Both beer and wine are recognized since ancient times for their health benefits. Nowadays, these beverages are consumed for its sensory, social interaction, and recently even in culinary dishes. In addition, studies showed the benefits of beer moderate consumption on health. Beer is a low-alcohol beverage and also presents many nutritional properties outlined by its nutritional content rich in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that come from the raw material (malt and hop. Wishing to attract as many niches of consumers, brewers tend to produce every year new and innovative beers. The purpose of this study was to develop the technology for an innovative special beer. The synchronous alcoholic fermentation of two different origin substrates – wort and grape must - was monitored and their composition was assessed in order to obtain special beer with superior sensory properties. Technological process was developed in the Winery Pilot Station of the UASVM Cluj-Napoca. Special beer was obtained by alcoholic fermentation of hopped dark wort with grape must from the autochthonous Feteasca neagra grapes variety. Second fermentation process was followed by the maturation (3 weeks at 5oC in order to harmonize sensory qualities. The entire process was monitored considering fermentation and final products physicochemical parameters. The optimized ratio of the two fermentation substrates was of 2.5:3 on primary raw materials – beer wort and grapes must. The process was monitored on optimizing the fermentation process. The best fermentation yield was obtained when lower fermentation extracts were used. This study demonstrated that the simultaneous fermentation of the two substrates with different glucidic origin may proceed under controlled conditions and may be carried out so as to obtain the desired fermentation products with improved sensorial properties and increased health benefits.
Díaz-Montaño, Dulce M.; de Jesús Ramírez Córdova, J.
Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation from grape, agave and others musts into an alcoholic beverage is usually characterized by the presence of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These genera yeasts are dominant in the early stages of the alcoholic fermentation. However the genera Hanseniaspora and Kloeckera may survive at a significant level during fermentation and can influence the chemical composition of the beverage. Several strains belonging to the species Kloeckera api-culata and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii have been extensively studied in relation to the formation of some metabolic compounds affecting the bouquet of the final product. Indeed some apiculate yeast showed positive oenological properties and their use in the alcoholic fermentations has been suggested to enhance the aroma and flavor profiles. The non- Saccharomyces yeasts have the capability to produce and secrete enzymes in the medium, such as β -glucosidases, which release monoterpenes derived from their glycosylated form. These compounds contribute to the higher fruit-like characteristic of final product. This chapter reviews metabolic activity of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora yeasts in several aspects: fermentative capability, aromatic compounds production and transformation of aromatic precursor present in the must, also covers the molecular methods for identifying of the yeast
Crystal A. Dozier
Full Text Available Pollen is the reproductive agent of flowering plants; palynology is utilized by archaeologists because sporopollenin, a major component in the exine of pollen grains, is resistant to decay and morphologically distinctive. Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. While most palynologists have assumed that pollen grains are resistant to alcoholic fermentation, a recent study in food science implies that pollen is a yeast nutrient because pollen-enriched meads produce more alcohol. The experiment presented here explores the potential distortion of the pollen record through fermentation by brewing a traditional, pollen-rich mead with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this experiment, the pollen grains did not undergo any discernible morphological changes nor were distorted in the pollen profile. Any nutrition that the yeast garners from the pollen therefore leaves sporopollenin intact. These results support palynological research on residues of alcoholic beverages and confirms that the fermentation process does not distort the pollen profile of the original substance. The paper concludes with the potential and limits of palynological study to assess fermentation within the archaeological record.
Heaney, R P; Rafferty, K
Intake of carbonated beverages has been associated with increased fracture risk in observational studies. The usual explanation given is that one or more of the beverage constituents increase urinary calcium. We assessed the short-term effects on urinary calcium excretion of carbonated beverages of various compositions. An incomplete random block design was used to study 20-40-y-old women who customarily consumed > or =680 mL carbonated beverages daily. Four carbonated beverages were tested: 2 with caffeine and 2 without. Two contained phosphoric acid as the acidulant and 2 contained citric acid. The study included one neutral control (water) and one positive control (skim or chocolate milk). Serving size was 567 mL for the carbonated beverages and water and 340 mL for the milks. Beverages were consumed with a light breakfast after an overnight fast; no other foods were ingested until urine collection was complete. pH, titratable and total acidity, sodium, creatinine, and calcium were measured in 2-h (morning) fasting and 5-h postbeverage urine specimens. Relative to water, urinary calcium rose significantly only with the milks and the 2 caffeine-containing beverages. The excess calciuria was approximately 0.25 mmol, about the same as previously reported for caffeine alone. Phosphoric acid without caffeine produced no excess calciuria; nor did it augment the calciuria of caffeine. The excess calciuria associated with consumption of carbonated beverages is confined to caffeinated beverages. Acidulant type has no acute effect. Because the caffeine effect is known to be compensated for by reduced calciuria later in the day, we conclude that the net effect of carbonated beverage constituents on calcium economy is negligible. The skeletal effects of carbonated beverage consumption are likely due primarily to milk displacement.
With the development of the advertisement,people tend to study the stylistic analysis of it.However,in this paper,the focus will be on the songs in beverage advertisement.The analysis will be focused on the features of the beverage advertisement songs and the stylistics of it.The aim of the paper is to improve the people and the scholars' understanding of the beverage advertisement songs.
Rivera Juan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.
Elliott, Simon; Burgess, Victoria
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) are regularly implicated in instances of surreptitious drug administration, particularly in beverages (so-called "spiked drinks"). In order to assist in the interpretation of cases where analysis of the actual beverage is required, over 50 beverages purchased in the UK were analysed for the presence of GHB and GBL. It was found that naturally occurring GHB and GBL were detected in those beverages involving the fermentation of white and particularly red grapes. No GHB or GBL was detected in other drinks such as beer, juice, spirits or liqueurs. GHB/GBL was detected in red wine vermouth (8.2 mg/L), sherry (9.7 mg/L), port (GBL), red wine (4.1-21.4 mg/L) and white wine (GBL did not appear to be influenced by the alcohol content or the pH of the beverage. In addition, the concentration in wines did not appear to be related to the geographical origin of the grape type. This is believed to be the first published data concerning the endogenous presence of GHB and GBL in the beverages described.
Pereira, A.P.; Ferreira, A. Mendes; Oliveira,J.M.; Estevinho, L. M.; Faia, Arlete Mendes
Mead is an alcoholic beverage, produced since ancient times, resulting from an alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey by yeasts. When it is produced in a traditional manner, mead producers can encounter several problems related to a lack of es-sential nutrients, such as available nitrogen. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen addition to honey-must on the fermentation performance of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts, QA23 and ICV D47, as well as on the me...
Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost
Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.
Mari Mohn Paulsen
Full Text Available Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787 in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.
Correa-Ascencio, Marisol; Robertson, Ian G; Cabrera-Cortés, Oralia; Cabrera-Castro, Rubén; Evershed, Richard P
Although in modern societies fermented beverages are associated with socializing, celebration, and ritual, in ancient times they were also importa`nt sources of essential nutrients and potable water. In Mesoamerica, pulque, an alcoholic beverage produced from the fermented sap of several species of maguey plants (Agavaceae; Fig. 1) is hypothesized to have been used as a dietary supplement and risk-buffering food in ancient Teotihuacan (150 B.C. to A.D. 650). Although direct archaeological evidence of pulque production is lacking, organic residue analysis of pottery vessels offers a new avenue of investigation. However, the chemical components of alcoholic beverages are water-soluble, greatly limiting their survival over archaeological timescales compared with hydrophobic lipids widely preserved in food residues. Hence, we apply a novel lipid biomarker approach that considers detection of bacteriohopanoids derived from the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis for identifying pulque production/consumption in pottery vessels. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (m/z 191) of lipid extracts of >300 potsherds revealed characteristic bacteriohopanoid distributions in a subset of 14 potsherds. This hopanoid biomarker approach offers a new means of identifying commonly occurring bacterially fermented alcoholic beverages worldwide, including palm wine, beer, cider, perry, and other plant sap- or fruit-derived beverages [Swings J, De Ley J (1977) Bacteriol Rev 41(1):1-46].
Microwave assisted saponification (MAS) followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC) for high-throughput and high-sensitivity determination of mineral oil in different cereal-based foodstuffs.
Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S
A high throughput, high-sensitivity procedure, involving simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction (MAS) and unsaponifiable extraction, followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC), has been optimised for rapid and efficient extraction and analytical determination of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cereal-based products of different composition. MAS has the advantage of eliminating fat before LC-GC analysis, allowing an increase in the amount of sample extract injected, and hence in sensitivity. The proposed method gave practically quantitative recoveries and good repeatability. Among the different cereal-based products analysed (dry semolina and egg pasta, bread, biscuits, and cakes), egg pasta packed in direct contact with recycled paperboard had on average the highest total MOSH level (15.9 mg kg(-1)), followed by cakes (10.4 mg kg(-1)) and bread (7.5 mg kg(-1)). About 50% of the pasta and bread samples and 20% of the biscuits and cake samples had detectable MOAH amounts. The highest concentrations were found in an egg pasta in direct contact with recycled paperboard (3.6 mg kg(-1)) and in a milk bread (3.6 mg kg(-1)).
Rapid and simple determination of acrylamide in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips through conversion to 3-[bis(trifluoroethanoyl)amino]-3-oxopropyl trifluoroacetate by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors.
Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale; Centola, Angela; Notardonato, Ivan; Cinelli, Giuseppe
A new, simple, rapid and fully validated method based on gas chromatography coupled with Electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors (GC-ECD and GC-IT/MS) is presented for quantitative analysis of acrylamide contaminant in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips. Before analysis acrylamide was efficiently derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride, the effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the acylation reaction were evaluated. Chromatographic analysis was performed on SE-54 capillary column; good retention and peak response of the acrylamide derivative achieved under the optimal conditions. The analytical method has been fully validated by assessment of the following parameters: LODs and LOQs (1 and 25ngg(-1) by GC-ECD and 2 and 36ngg(-1) by GC-IT/MS, with a Relative Standard Deviations acrylamide spiked at levels of 1, 20, 50 and 100ngg(-1)). Furthermore, the method proposed requires no clean-up step of the acrylamide derivative to be performed prior to injection. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine acrylamide in different commercial cereal-based foods (including French fries and potato chips).
[QuEChERS-based extraction procedure and rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for the determination of nine mycotoxins in cereal-based complementary foods for infants and young children].
Hu, Wenyan; Xu, Lei; Yang, Jun; Ling, Rui
A rapid method has been developed for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1 in cereal-based complementary foods for infants and young children. The mycotoxins were extracted from the samples using a modified QuEChERS-based extraction procedure without any further clean-up step. The separation of the analytes was carried out on an Agilent XDB C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) using the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate-0.1% (volume percentage) formic acid aqueous solution with gradient elution. The extract was determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Matrix-matched calibration was used for the quantification. The proposed method showed good linear correlation with the correlation coefficients all above 0.98. The blank samples were fortified at three levels, and the recoveries ranged from 77.6% to 105.7% with the RSDs from 2.5% to 13.7%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.1 microg/kg to 15.8 microg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied for mycotoxin analysis in 41 samples bought from markets. The method shows advantages in both accuracy and sensitivity, and is suitable for the rapid multi-aflatoxin screening in cereal-based complementary foods for infants and young children.
Analy Machado de Oliveira Leite
Full Text Available Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19th century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial interactions, the possible bioactive compounds resulting of microbial metabolism, and the benefits associated with the use this beverage confers kefir the status of a natural probiotic, designated as the 21th century yoghurt. Several studies have shown that kefir and its constituents have antimicrobial, antitumor, anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory activity and also improve lactose digestion, among others. This review includes data on the technological aspects, the main beneficial effects on human health of kefir and its microbiological composition. Generally, kefir grains contain a relatively stable and specific microbiota enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Microbial interactions in kefir are complex due to the composition of kefir grains, which seems to differ among different studies, although some predominant Lactobacillus species are always present. Besides, the specific populations of individual grains seem to contribute to the particular sensory characteristics present in fermented beverages. This review also includes new electron microscopy data on the distribution of microorganisms within different Brazilian kefir grains, which showed a relative change in its distribution according to grain origin.
de Oliveira Leite, Analy Machado; Miguel, Marco Antonio Lemos; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Silva, Joab Trajano; Paschoalin, Vania Margaret Flosi
Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19(th) century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial interactions, the possible bioactive compounds resulting of microbial metabolism, and the benefits associated with the use this beverage confers kefir the status of a natural probiotic, designated as the 21(th) century yoghurt. Several studies have shown that kefir and its constituents have antimicrobial, antitumor, anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory activity and also improve lactose digestion, among others. This review includes data on the technological aspects, the main beneficial effects on human health of kefir and its microbiological composition. Generally, kefir grains contain a relatively stable and specific microbiota enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Microbial interactions in kefir are complex due to the composition of kefir grains, which seems to differ among different studies, although some predominant Lactobacillus species are always present. Besides, the specific populations of individual grains seem to contribute to the particular sensory characteristics present in fermented beverages. This review also includes new electron microscopy data on the distribution of microorganisms within different Brazilian kefir grains, which showed a relative change in its distribution according to grain origin.
Ueda, S.; Teramoto, Y.; Oba, R.; Ueki, T.; Kimura, K. (Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)); Shiota, S. (Tohi Jozo Co. Ltd., Kumamoto (Japan))
In order to produce a shochu with a mild aroma, a new vacuum distillation precedure at low temperature of 35 to 40 centigrade was applied to shochu distillation. The resulting rice shochu distillery waste contained a large amount of viable yeast glucoamylase activity, acid protease activity, and neutral protease activity. About 10% of ethanol was produced in the fermented mash at 30 centigrade within three days. In contrast, distillery waste discharged by conventional distillation at high temperature of 55 to 60 centigrade could not be used for secondary ethanol fermentation at all. It was provided that the filtrate of secondarily-fermented distillery waste, which is containing ethanol and possessing a fine aroma fortified with higher alcohols and volatile esters during ethanol fermentation, can be useful for the production of a mirin-like liquor for cooking, Akazake,'' a characteristic red-colored, sweet alcoholic beverage produced in Kumamoto prefecture only, and a bath additive containing ethanol, a fine aroma, and enzymes. 15 refs, 2 figs., 3 tabs.
This thesis reports on studies of microbiological and biochemical properties of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit fermentation and the development of starter cultures for the production of masau beverages. A survey to document the traditional processing techniques was conducted using a questionnair
Full Text Available Fermented foods and beverages are a heterogeneous class of products with a relevant worldwide significance for human economy, nutrition and health for millennia. A huge diversity of microorganisms is associated with the enormous variety in terms of raw materials, fermentative behavior and obtained products. In this wide microbiodiversity it is possible that the presence of microbial pathogens and toxic by-products of microbial origin, including mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate and biogenic amines, are aspects liable to reduce the safety of the consumed product. Together with other approaches (e.g., use of preservatives, respect of specific physico-chemical parameters, starter cultures technology has been conceived to successfully dominate indigenous microflora and to drive fermentation to foresee the desired attributes of the matrix, assuring quality and safety. Recent trends indicate a general return to spontaneous food fermentation. In this review, we point out the potential risks for human health associated with uncontrolled (uninoculated food fermentation and we discuss biotechnological approaches susceptible to conciliate fermented food safety, with instances of an enhanced contribution of microbes associated to spontaneous fermentation.
Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda
Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products.
Burgeoning world interest in cider and perry (pear cider, which is an alcoholic beverage) has created a strong demand for unique perry pear (Pyrus L.) cultivars. The history of perry dates to the ancient Romans. This beverage has been very popular through the centuries in Europe. The U.S. Department...
Maria del Mar Bibiloni
Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old. Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA, and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.
An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…
Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.
This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993
An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…
董基; 梁巧荣; 黄志明; 魏义; 刘钊
Euryale ferox was used as main material, mixed strains of lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus ther-mophilus (1∶1) were used as starter, lactobacillus beverage containing Euryale ferox juice was prepared by fermen-tation. The optimum processing conditions were determined through orthogonal test, that is, fermentation temperature 42 ℃, fermentation time 36 h, inoculation amount of starter 5 g/100g, after fermentation time 24 h. Then 0.1 g/100g CMC and 0.1 g/100g xanthan gum were added to beverage as stabilizer after fermentation.% 以芡实为主要原料，保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌混合菌种（1∶1）为发酵剂，经发酵芡实汁制备乳酸菌饮料。通过正交试验确定最优发酵工艺条件：发酵温度42℃，发酵时间36 h，发酵剂接种量5 g/100g，后发酵时间24 h。发酵结束后，在饮料中添加0.1 g/100g羧甲基纤维素钠（CMC）与0.1 g/100g黄原胶作为稳定剂。
Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.
Full Text Available Local microbes such as yeasts fungi and bacilli, were isolated and used to apply for the food processing (bread making and the production of an effervescent beverage (fruits kvass for promotion of the local revitalization. Our yeast isolates could contribute to make the breads that can sell in alocal bakery shop. Furthermore, the same yeasts could be used for making the fruit kvass (a Russian effervescent beverage which was fermented by yeast with local fruit products (lemon, dry grape, mandarin orange and apple that were produced in Hiroshima prefecture in Japan. Development of merchandise having the local brand, which was made with only products of Hiroshima prefecture was attempted. Results of these activities demonstrate that the search of local microbes can help to establish the regional brand product related to its local area. They also showed that the local microbes have the potential ability to lead the local revitalization and the local brand product.
Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M
Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age. Objectives: We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. Methods: We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009–2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Results: Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. PMID:26063069
Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M
How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2-5 y of age. We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Selhub, Eva M; Logan, Alan C; Bested, Alison C
The purposeful application of fermentation in food and beverage preparation, as a means to provide palatability, nutritional value, preservative, and medicinal properties, is an ancient practice. Fermented foods and beverages continue to make a significant contribution to the overall patterns of traditional dietary practices. As our knowledge of the human microbiome increases, including its connection to mental health (for example, anxiety and depression), it is becoming increasingly clear that there are untold connections between our resident microbes and many aspects of physiology. Of relevance to this research are new findings concerning the ways in which fermentation alters dietary items pre-consumption, and in turn, the ways in which fermentation-enriched chemicals (for example, lactoferrin, bioactive peptides) and newly formed phytochemicals (for example, unique flavonoids) may act upon our own intestinal microbiota profile. Here, we argue that the consumption of fermented foods may be particularly relevant to the emerging research linking traditional dietary practices and positive mental health. The extent to which traditional dietary items may mitigate inflammation and oxidative stress may be controlled, at least to some degree, by microbiota. It is our contention that properly controlled fermentation may often amplify the specific nutrient and phytochemical content of foods, the ultimate value of which may associated with mental health; furthermore, we also argue that the microbes (for example, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria species) associated with fermented foods may also influence brain health via direct and indirect pathways.
Martin, Christopher S.; And Others
Examined college students' (n=113) knowledge of the strength of malt beverages, wines, fortified wines, and distilled spirits. Results indicated rates of correct responses were well below 50 percent for each type of beverage. Alcohol content of malt beverages tended to be less accurately estimated than other beverages. Women's estimates were less…
Zia, Asif Iqbal
This book describes a robust, low-cost electrochemical sensing system that is able to detect hormones and phthalates – the most ubiquitous endocrine disruptor compounds – in beverages and is sufficiently flexible to be readily coupled with any existing chemical or biochemical sensing system. A novel type of silicon substrate-based smart interdigital transducer, developed using MEMS semiconductor fabrication technology, is employed in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to allow real-time detection and analysis. Furthermore, the presented interdigital capacitive sensor design offers a sufficient penetration depth of the fringing electric field to permit bulk sample testing. The authors address all aspects of the development of the system and fully explain its benefits. The book will be of wide interest to engineers, scientists, and researchers working in the fields of physical electrochemistry and biochemistry at the undergraduate, postgraduate, and research levels. It will also be high...
Lievore, Paolla; Simões, Deise R S; Silva, Karolline M; Drunkler, Northon L; Barana, Ana C; Nogueira, Alessandro; Demiate, Ivo M
Acid whey is a by-product from cheese processing that can be employed in beverage formulations due to its high nutritional quality. The objective of the present work was to study the physicochemical characterisation of acid whey from Petit Suisse-type cheese production and use this by-product in the formulation of fermented milk, substituting water. In addition, a reduction in the fermentation period was tested. Both the final product and the acid whey were analysed considering physicochemical determinations, and the fermented milk was evaluated by means of sensory analysis, including multiple comparison and acceptance tests, as well as purchase intention. The results of the physicochemical analyses showed that whey which was produced during both winter and summer presented higher values of protein (1.22 and 0.97 %, w/v, respectively), but there were no differences in lactose content. During the autumn, the highest solid extract was found in whey (6.00 %, w/v), with larger amounts of lactose (4.73 %, w/v) and ash (0.83 %, w/v). When analysing the fermented milk produced with added acid whey, the acceptance test resulted in 90 % of acceptance; the purchase intention showed that 54 % of the consumers would 'certainly buy' and 38 % would 'probably buy' the product. Using acid whey in a fermented milk formulation was technically viable, allowing by-product value aggregation, avoiding discharge, lowering water consumption and shortening the fermentation period.
Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.
Saldana, Tina M; Basso, Olga; Darden, Rebecca; Sandler, Dale P
Carbonated beverage consumption has been linked with diabetes, hypertension, and kidney stones, all risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Cola beverages, in particular, contain phosphoric acid and have been associated with urinary changes that promote kidney stones. We examined the relationship between carbonated beverages (including cola) and chronic kidney disease, using data from 465 patients with newly diagnosed chronic kidney disease and 467 community controls recruited in North Carolina between 1980 and 1982. Drinking 2 or more colas per day was associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (adjusted odds ratio = 2.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.4-3.7). Results were the same for regular colas (2.1; 1.3-3.4) and artificially sweetened colas (2.1; 0.7-2.5). Noncola carbonated beverages were not associated with chronic kidney disease (0.94; 0.4-2.2). These preliminary results suggest that cola consumption may increase the risk of chronic kidney disease.
Cheyne, Andrew; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Dorfman, Lori
After nearly a decade of concern over the role of food and beverage marketing to youth in the childhood obesity epidemic, American children and adolescents - especially those from communities of color - are still immersed in advertising and marketing environments that primarily promote unhealthy foods and beverages. Despite some positive steps, the evidence shows that the food and beverage industry self-regulation alone is not likely to significantly reduce marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to youth. A variety of research is needed to monitor industry marketing of unhealthy products to young people, and identify the most promising approaches to improve children's food marketing environments. The continued presence of unhealthy marketing toward children despite years of industry self-regulation suggests it is time for stronger action by policymakers to protect young people from harmful marketing practices.
Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L
The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... studies were identified. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Three experimental studies found positive effects of calorically sweetened beverages and subsequent changes in body fat. Two experimental studies did...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...
Limareva N. S.
Full Text Available This article covers development of functional beverages technology based on using vegetable juice with apple and beetroot pectin concentrates, content of vitamins, minerals and functional properties
Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans
Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...... interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance....
Fiorda, Fernanda Assumpção; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinicius; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar; Pagnoncelli, Maria Giovana Binder; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo
Sugary kefir beverage is produce by fermenting raw sugar solution with kefir grains, the latter consisting of polysaccharide and microorganisms. This beverage, with great consumption in countries such as USA, Japan, France, and Brazil, represents a promising market to functional cultured drinks. This paper reviews the microbial diversity and interaction, kinetics, safety, and bioactivities of sugary kefir fermentation. The literature reviewed here demonstrates that sugary kefir possesses a similar microbial association relative to traditional milk kefir fermentation, especially among lactic acid bacteria and yeast species, such as Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, and Saccharomyces. However, a selective pressure at species level is generally observed, as, for example, the stimulation of Saccharomyces species metabolism, leading to a high content of alcohol in the final product. This also seems to stimulate the growth of acetic acid bacteria that benefit of increased ethanol production to acetic acid metabolism. Existing reports have suggested important bioactivities associated with sugary kefir beverage consumption, such as antimicrobial, antiedematogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cicatrizing, and healing activities. Other alternative non-dairy substrates, such as fruits, vegetables, and molasses, have also been tested for adaptation of kefir grains and production of functional beverages with distinct sensory characteristics. This diversification is of crucial importance for the production of new probiotic products to provide people with special needs (lactose intolerance) and vegan consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lindström, Cecilia; Voinot, Anne; Forslund, Anna; Holst, Olle; Rascón, Ana; Öste, Rickard; Östman, Elin
An acute meal study was performed to determine postprandial glucose and insulin responses after consumption of two fermented oat bran-based beverages (with and without exopolysaccharides) and yoghurt. This randomized, single-blind, within-subject study included 18 healthy, overweight participants. Four breakfast meals, including a reference meal, were tested; all meals contained 50 g of available carbohydrates, but differed in energy and macronutrient composition. All experimental meals reduced the postprandial glucose response compared with the reference meal. The oat drinks as well as the yoghurt elicited higher early (0-15 min) insulin responses, but the overall insulinaemia were similar to the reference meal. A new food product containing fermented liquid oat bran and milk reduced the postprandial blood glucose response as efficiently as yoghurt after a high-glycaemic index white wheat bread meal, but the presence of microbial exopolysaccharides did not affect the outcome.
Cvetković Dragoljub D.
Full Text Available The work is concerned with the possibility of preparing kombucha beverage from sweetened winter savory (local name Rtanj tea inoculated with the pellicle in a quantity of 2 -51 in the vessels (glass containers volume of 2 - 6 l. It was found that the process lasts a few days (2 - 5 longer than the traditional process of biotransformation of black tea into kombucha. It was also concluded that the rate of the process depends mostly on the volume container: medium ratio. In the subsequent kombucha fermentations the metabolic activity of the yeast and acetic fermentation cells did not change. The rate of the process was not influenced by the physiological state of the cells in the pellicle with the capacities larger than 31.
Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W
The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.
Carolina Saori Ishii Mauro
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the blueberry and carrot juice blend as a fermentable substrate for Lactobacillus reuteri LR92, in order to develop a fermented non-dairy functional beverage. Analysis of cell viability, pH, and acidity were performed during the fermentation process. The resistance of the microorganism in the blend, under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in storage at 4 °C for 28 days, was evaluated at the same time as the antioxidant potential of the fermented juice. After 40 h of fermentation, the L. reuteri population presented a logarithmic growth of three cycles, reaching count records of 10.26 ± 0.23 log CFU/mL and after 28 days of storage at 4 °C, the bacterial population maintained elevated numbers of viable cell (8.96 ± 0.08 log CFU/mL, with increase in the antioxidant capacity of the fermented blend. However, in the test of gastric simulation, the L. reuteri population had a logarithmic reduction of five cycles. In the presence of bile salts, the viability was maintained even after 150 min of incubation. This way, the results suggested that the blueberry and carrot blend juice can be considered as a good medium for the growth of L. reuteri, providing microbiological stability during refrigerated storage with elevated antioxidant capacity, which allows for the development of a non-dairy probiotic beverage.
Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M
Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet.
Mosca, Antonella; Della Corte, Claudia; Sartorelli, Maria Rita; Ferretti, Francesca; Nicita, Francesco; Vania, Andrea; Nobili, Valerio
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents, due to the increased worldwide incidence of obesity among children. It is now clear enough that of diet high in carbohydrates and simple sugars are associated with hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several studies have shown that an increased consumption of simple sugars is also positively associated with overweight and obesity, and related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. It is difficult to define the role of the various components of soft drinks and energy drinks in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its progression in NASH, but the major role is played by high calorie and high sugar consumption, mainly fructose. In addition, other components of these beverages (e.g. xanthine) seem to have an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, crucial pathways involved in NAFLD/NASH. The drastic reduction in the consumption of energy drinks and soft drinks is an appropriate intervention for the prevention of obesity and NAFLD in young people.
Narváez-Zapata, J A; Rojas-Herrera, R A; Rodríguez-Luna, I C; Larralde-Corona, C P
Mezcal is an alcoholic beverage obtained from the distillation of fermented juices of cooked Agave spp. plant stalks (agave must), and each region in Mexico with denomination of origin uses defined Agave species to prepare mezcal with unique organoleptic characteristics. During fermentation to produce mezcal in the state of Tamaulipas, not only alcohol-producing yeasts are involved, but also a lactic acid bacterial community that has not been characterized yet. In order to address this lack of knowledge on this traditional Mexican beverage, we performed a DGGE-16S rRNA analysis of the lactic acid bacterial diversity and metabolite accumulation during the fermentation of a typical agave must that is rustically produced in San Carlos County (Tamaulipas, Mexico). The analysis of metabolite production indicated a short but important malolactic fermentation stage not previously described for mezcal. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed a distinctive lactic acid bacterial community composed mainly of Pediococcus parvulus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus composti, Lactobacillus parabuchneri, and Lactobacillus plantarum. Some atypical genera such as Weissella and Bacillus were also found in the residual must. Our results suggest that the lactic acid bacteria could strongly be implicated in the organoleptic attributes of this traditional Mexican distilled beverage.
Mukisa, Ivan M; Ntaate, Denis; Byakika, Stellah
Enturire is an alcoholic sorghum- and honey-based beverage traditionally produced by spontaneous fermentation. Its fermentation process is lengthy (5-7 days), does not guarantee product quality and safety and thus necessitates use of pure starter cultures. This study compared a modified production process of Enturire, with honey added at the start to the traditional one (honey added 3 days into the fermentation). The study also evaluated two starter culture combinations (L. plantarum MNC 21 + S. cerevisiae MNC 21 Y) and (L. plantarum MNC 21 + W. confusa MNC 20 + S. cerevisiae MNC 21Y). Microbial counts, pH, alcohol content, titratable acidity, (TA) and consumer acceptability of the Enturire were determined. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast counts increased from 4-6 log cfu/ml to 8-9 log cfu/ml and 3-4 log cfu/ml to 5-8 log cfu/ml, respectively. Acidification of Enturire to pH alcohol (9.2%-9.4%) was produced by the starters than the spontaneous fermentations (3.24%-4.38%). The modified process without starters produced a more acceptable (p alcohol content of about 3.8, 0.7%, and 2.5%-3.5%. Both starter combinations can thus be used to produce safe and acceptable Enturire in a short time.
FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ” by Anthony Sikes Wayne Muller and Claire Lee March 2015...From - To) October 2010 – November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ...nisin and pediocin. Whey + yeast extract was the best performing whey fermentation media. The nisin producer strain Lactococcus. lactis ssp. lactis was
Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S
Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.
Alese M. Colehour
Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.
Navarro-Alarcon, M; Velasco, C; Jodral, A; Terrés, C; Olalla, M; Lopez, H; Lopez, M C
Levels of copper, zinc, calcium and magnesium were measured in alcoholic beverages (whiskies, gins, rums, liquors, brandies, wines and beers) and by-products (non-alcoholic liquors and vinegars) using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Mineral concentrations were found to be significantly different between the nine alcoholic and non-alcoholic by-products studied (p < 0.001). In distilled alcoholic beverages, concentrations measured in rums and brandies were statistically lower than those determined in gins and alcoholic liquors (p = 0.001). For Cu, measured concentrations were statistically different for each of the five groups of distilled alcoholic beverages studied (p < 0.001). In fermented beverages, Zn, Ca and Mg levels were significantly higher than those concentrations determined in distilled drinks (p < 0.005). Contrarily, Cu concentrations were statistically lower (p < 0.001). Wines designated as sherry had significantly higher Ca and Mg levels (p < 0.005). White wines had significantly higher Ca and Zn levels (p < 0.05) compared with red wines and, contrarily, Cu concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.005). In wine samples and corresponding by-products (brandy and vinegar), statistical differences were established for all minerals analysed (p < 0.01). Remarkably, for Cu, the concentrations determined in brandies were statistically higher. On the basis of element levels and the official data on consumption of alcoholic beverages and by-products in Spain, their contribution to the daily dietary intake (DDI) was calculated to be 124.6 microg Cu day(-1) and 193.3 microg Zn day(-1), 40.3 mg Ca day(-1) and 19.9 mg Mg day(-1). From all studied elements, Cu was the one for which alcoholic beverages constitute a significant source (more than 10% of recommended daily intake). These findings are of potential use to food composition tables.
Ali Ebrahimi Pure
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. A digital method was designed for color analysis. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of (p≤0.05.Results and Conclusion: Fresh garlic extract had the highest inhibitory effect (mean 27.7 mm against tested bacteria; kombucha fermented garlic showed bigger inhibition zone (mean 21.7 mm than vinegar fermented garlic (mean 17.9 mm. Anti-staphylococcus aureus activity of fresh garlic was stronger than gentamycin and amoxicillin; inhibitory effect of garlic extracts against tested bacteria was significant in comparison with standard antibiotics. Fresh-garlic extract contained highest amount of phenolic contents; fermentation of garlic in kombucha decreased phenolic content of garlic bulbs by 1.92% and IC50 factor for antioxidant activity was 10.25% higher than fresh garlic; fermentation in vinegar reduced 21% of phenolic contents and IC50 obtained 47.4% higher than fresh garlic. Fermentation of garlic reduces the density of colors and luminosity, but the reduction in garlics fermented in vinegar is more than in kombucha. Appearance of vinegar fermented garlic changed to yellowish and kombucha inclined the color to reddish. Fermentation of garlic in kombucha provides better preservation of biological properties of
Full Text Available The primary emphasis of this work is on the development of a new waste beverage cans identification method for automated beverage cans sorting systems known as the SVS system. The method described involved window-based subdivision of the image into X-cells, construction of X-candidate template for N-cells, calculation of matching scores of reference templates for the N-cells image, and application of matching score to identify the grade of the object. The SVS system performance for correct beverage cans grade identification is 95.17% with estimated throughput of 21,600 objects per hour with a conveyor belt width of 18˝. The weight of the throughput depends on the size and type of the objects.
Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter
Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.
Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C
This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard.
孟秀梅; 李明华; 顾立众
以巨峰葡萄浆为原料，通过酵母菌沪酿2．069和醋酸菌沪酿1．01的发酵制备巨峰葡萄醋，再经过调配制备巨峰葡萄醋饮料。通过单因素试验和正交试验确定最佳发酵条件及调配配方，试验结果表明：酒精发酵的最佳条件为初始糖度18％，接种量3％，温度30℃，时间72 h。醋酸发酵的最佳条件为初始酒精度10％，接种量5％，温度34℃，时间48 h。巨峰葡萄醋饮料最佳配方为：巨峰葡萄醋20％、蔗糖6％、蜂蜜6％、柠檬酸0．1％，经过调配获得了黄褐色、酸甜适口、具有葡萄香气的果醋。%Kyoho grape vinegar is produced using Kyoho grape j uice as raw material after alcohol fermentation by yeast Huniang 2.069 and acetic fermentation by acetic acid bacteria Huniang 1.01. Kyoho grape vinegar beverage is made of Kyoho grape vinegar,sucrose,honey and citric acid.The optimum compositions of fermentation conditions and beverage formula are demonstrated by the test of single factor and orthogonal design respectively.The optimum alcohol fermentation conditions are the initial Brix of 18%,the inoculation amount of 3%,the temperature of 30 ℃,the time of 72 h;the optimum acetic fermentation conditions are the initial alcohol content of 10%,the inoculation amount of 5%,the temperature of 34 ℃,the time of 48 h.The optimum beverage formula is Kyoho grape vinegar of 20%,sucrose of 6%,honey of 6% and citric acid of 0.1%.Kyoho grape vinegar beverage is yellowish brown,delicious and possesses the aroma of grape.
Santos, Claudia Cristina Auler do Amaral; Almeida, Euziclei Gonzaga de; Melo, Gilberto Vinícius Pereira de; Schwan, Rosane Freitas
Caxiri is a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage produced from cassava and sweet potatoes by the indigenous Juruna or Yudjá people in Brazil. Our results showed that caxiri fermentation is invariably associated with the following: (i) an increase in the total microbial population, with yeast being the largest group detected; (ii) a decrease in reducing sugars, malic, tartaric, succinic, oxalic and propionic acid; and (iii) a final product characterised by a high content of ethanol and a high concentration of lactic acid. The microbial community dynamics were investigated by culture-based and culture-independent approaches. Fermentation was assisted by a complex microbial community that changed in structure and composition during the fermentative process. The bacterial population ranged from 3.05 to 5.33 log/mL, and the yeast population varied from 3.27 log CFU/mL to 7.34 log CFU/mL, showing that yeasts dominated the fermentation process after 48 h. A total of 343 colonies of bacteria and 205 colonies of yeasts were isolated and initially grouped by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) and by biochemical features. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of representative isolates showed that the bacteria were mainly represented by endospore-forming low-G+C content Gram-positive bacilli (Bacillus spp.; 61.5% of the isolates), with Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus spp. (Bacillus cereus group), and Bacillus subtilis being the main species identified. The species Sphingomonas sp. and Pediococcus acidilactici were also found. The dominant yeast identified was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pichia membranifaciens, Pichia guilliermondii and Cryptococcus luteolus were also found. According to the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, the microbial communities present during fermentation were probably from the raw materials, ambient or present on the utensils used during
DENNIS, ELIZABETH A.; Flack, Kyle D.; Davy, Brenda M.
Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the...
Champagne, Claude P.; Lee, Byong H.; Saucier, Linda
Historically, we can find fermented products in almost all cultural backgrounds around the world. Notably, there are many different milk or meat-based foods and this chapter will focus on them (Kosikowski 1982; Wood 1998). Cheese, yoghurt, sour cream, kefir, or cultured butter are probably the most common fermented dairy products, but many regional varieties exist (Farnworth 2004). Fermented meats are typically found as dry sausages (Lüke 1998). Yeasts are mostly involved in the manufacture of bread and alcoholic beverages, which are basically cereal- or fruit-based products. In fermented meat and milk, the main microorganisms used are the lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Yeast and molds are rather involved in ripening. Therefore, the LAB will constitute the main focus of this chapter.
Mendes-Ferreira, A; Cosme, F; Barbosa, C; Falco, V; Inês, A; Mendes-Faia, A
Mead fermentation is a time-consuming process, often taking several months to complete. Despite of the use of starter cultures several problems still persist such as lack of uniformity of the final products, slow or premature fermentation arrest and the production of off-flavors by yeast. Thus the aim of this study was to optimize mead production through the use of an appropriate honey-must formulation to improve yeast performance alcoholic fermentation and thereby obtain a high quality product. Honey-must was centrifuged to reduce insoluble solids, pasteurized at 65°C for 10 min, and then subjected to different conditions: nitrogen supplementation and addition of organic acids. Although the addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) reduced fermentation length, it did not guarantee the completeness of the fermentation process, suggesting that other factors could account for the reduced yeast activity in honey-must fermentations. Sixteen yeast-derived aroma compounds which contribute to the sensorial quality of mead were identified and quantified. Global analysis of aromatic profiles revealed that the total concentration of aroma compounds in meads was higher in those fermentations where DAP was added. A positive correlation between nitrogen availability and the levels of ethyl and acetate esters, associated to the fruity character of fermented beverages, was observed whereas the presence of potassium tartrate and malic acid decreased, in general, their concentration. This study provides very useful information that can be used for improving mead quality.
Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Álvarez-Fernández, M Antonia; Cerezo, Ana B; Garcia-Garcia, Isidoro; Troncoso, Ana M; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen
Anthocyanins are the major polyphenolic compounds in strawberry fruit responsible for its color. Due to their sensitivity, they are affected by food processing techniques such as fermentation that alters both their chemical composition and organoleptic properties. This work aims to evaluate the impact of different fermentation processes on individual anthocyanins compounds in strawberry wine and vinegar by UHPLC-MS/MS Q Exactive analysis. Nineteen, 18, and 14 anthocyanin compounds were identified in the strawberry initial substrate, strawberry wine, and strawberry vinegar, respectively. Four and 8 anthocyanin compounds were tentatively identified with high accuracy for the 1st time to be present in the beverages obtained by alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation of strawberry, respectively. Both, the total and the individual anthocyanin concentrations were decreased by both fermentation processes, affecting the alcoholic fermentation to a lesser extent (19%) than the acetic fermentation (91%). Indeed, several changes in color parameters have been assessed. The color of the wine and the vinegar made from strawberry changed during the fermentation process, varying from red to orange color, this fact is directly correlated with the decrease of anthocyanins compounds. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Laureys, David; De Vuyst, Luc
Water kefir is a sour, alcoholic, and fruity fermented beverage of which the fermentation is started with water kefir grains. These water kefir grains consist of polysaccharide and contain the microorganisms responsible for the water kefir fermentation. In this work, a water kefir fermentation process was followed as a function of time during 192 h to unravel the community dynamics, the species diversity, and the kinetics of substrate consumption and metabolite production. The majority of the water kefir ecosystem was found to be present on the water kefir grains. The most important microbial species present were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus harbinensis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum/crudilactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Dekkera bruxellensis. The microbial species diversities in the water kefir liquor and on the water kefir grains were similar and remained stable during the whole fermentation process. The major substrate, sucrose, was completely converted after 24 h of fermentation, which coincided with the production of the major part of the water kefir grain polysaccharide. The main metabolites of the fermentation were ethanol and lactic acid. Glycerol, acetic acid, and mannitol were produced in low concentrations. The major part of these metabolites was produced during the first 72 h of fermentation, during which the pH decreased from 4.26 to 3.45. The most prevalent volatile aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate, which might be of significance with respect to the aroma of the end product.
Water kefir is a sour, alcoholic, and fruity fermented beverage of which the fermentation is started with water kefir grains. These water kefir grains consist of polysaccharide and contain the microorganisms responsible for the water kefir fermentation. In this work, a water kefir fermentation process was followed as a function of time during 192 h to unravel the community dynamics, the species diversity, and the kinetics of substrate consumption and metabolite production. The majority of the water kefir ecosystem was found to be present on the water kefir grains. The most important microbial species present were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus harbinensis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum/crudilactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Dekkera bruxellensis. The microbial species diversities in the water kefir liquor and on the water kefir grains were similar and remained stable during the whole fermentation process. The major substrate, sucrose, was completely converted after 24 h of fermentation, which coincided with the production of the major part of the water kefir grain polysaccharide. The main metabolites of the fermentation were ethanol and lactic acid. Glycerol, acetic acid, and mannitol were produced in low concentrations. The major part of these metabolites was produced during the first 72 h of fermentation, during which the pH decreased from 4.26 to 3.45. The most prevalent volatile aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate, which might be of significance with respect to the aroma of the end product. PMID:24532061
... production of a fermented beverage designated as “beer,” “ale,” “porter,” “stout,” “lager,” or “malt liquor...,” “porter,” “stout,” “lager,” or “malt liquor.” (2) You may request a determination from TTB on whether or... as “beer,” “ale,” “porter,” “stout,” “lager,” or “malt liquor”; and (C) An explanation of the effect...
Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound.
Werch, Chudley; Jobli, Edessa C.; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Heather, Dore S.; Brown, C. Hendricks
The overall purpose of this study was to explore the alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents by beverage type. A total of 705 primarily 9th grade students were recruited to participate in this study in the spring of 2002. Alcoholic beverage use differed significantly across gender and ethnicity on a number of beverage-specific drinking…
Tauer, Andreas; Elss, Sandra; Frischmann, Matthias; Tellez, Patricia; Pischetsrieder, Monika
The production of alcoholic beverages such as Tequila, Mezcal, whiskey, or beer includes the fermentation of a mash containing Maillard reaction products. Because excessive heating of the mash can lead to complications during the following fermentation step, the impact of Maillard products on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. For this purpose, fermentation was carried out in a model system in the presence and absence of Maillard reaction products and formation of ethanol served as a marker for the progression of fermentation. We found that increasing amounts of Maillard products reduced the formation of ethanol up to 80%. This effect was dependent on the pH value during the Maillard reaction, reaction time, as well as the carbohydrate and amino acid component used for the generation of Maillard reaction products. Another important factor is the pH value during fermentation: The inhibitory effect of Maillard products was not detectable at a pH of 4 and increased with higher pH-values. These findings might be of relevance for the production of above-mentioned beverages.
Giles-Gómez, Martha; Sandoval García, Jorge Giovanni; Matus, Violeta; Campos Quintana, Itzia; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo
Pulque is a Mexican traditional alcoholic, non-distilled, fermented beverage produced by the fermentation of the sap, known as aguamiel, extracted from several maguey (Agave) species. Pulque has traditionally been considered a healthy beverage due to its nutrient content and also a traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal infections. During pulque fermentation, the development of acidity, alcohol and viscosity define its final sensorial properties, developing an enriched environment where dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including diverse Leuconostoc species, are present. Because traditional pulque is consumed directly from the fermentation vessel, the naturally associated LAB are ingested and reach the human small intestine alive. Here, we report the in vitro and in vivo probiotic assessment of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain P45 isolated from pulque. This isolated LAB species exhibited lysozyme, acid (pH 3.5) and bile salts (0.1 and 0.3 % oxgall) resistance. Antibacterial activity against the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were observed in assays involving cell-to-cell contact, cell-free 2× concentrated supernatants and cell-to-cell contact under exopolysaccharide-producing conditions. The in vivo probiotic assessment showed an anti-infective activity of L. mesenteroides P45 against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in challenged male and female BALB/c mice. Analysis of the available genome sequence of strain P45 allowed identified a pre-bacteriocin coding gene and six peptidoglycan hydrolase enzymes, probably involved in the antimicrobial activity of this strain. The results presented in this study support some potential microbial mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects on human health of this LAB involved in the fermentation of pulque.
Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B
In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.
Full Text Available Ethyl carbamate (EC is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110, and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16 were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (<0.15 mg/L. Risk assessment found the Margin of Exposure (MOE in line with that of European spirits. It is therefore unlikely that EC plays a role in high rates of liver cirrhosis reported in Mexico.
Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kanteres, Fotis; Kuballa, Thomas; López, Mercedes G; Rehm, Jürgen
Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110), and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16) were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (<0.15 mg/L). Risk assessment found the Margin of Exposure (MOE) in line with that of European spirits. It is therefore unlikely that EC plays a role in high rates of liver cirrhosis reported in Mexico.
Xu, Yixiang; Isom, Loren; Hanna, Milford A
Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from ethanol production facilities is increasing as more ethanol is produced for alternative transportation fuels. CO(2) produced from ethanol fermentation processes is of high purity and is nearly a saturated gas. Such highly-concentrated source of CO(2) is a potential candidate for capture and utilization by the CO(2) industry. Quantity, quality and capture of CO(2) from ethanol fermentations are discussed in this review. The established and emerging value-added opportunities and markets for CO(2) from ethanol plants also are reviewed. The majority of CO(2) applications are dedicated to serving carbonated beverage and food processing and preservation markets. Beyond traditional merchant markets, the potential for exploring some fresh and profitable markets are discussed including carbon sources in chemical industries for the following: enhanced oil recovery; production of chemicals, fuels, and polymers; and production of algae-based biofuels through CO(2) fixation by microalgae.
Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.
Ozone has a long history of use as a disinfectant in food and beverage processing. In the United States, the application of ozone to disinfect bottled water was approved as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) in 1982. Later it was approved as a sanitizing agent for bottled water treatment lines. Ozo...
Giyatmi; Irianto, H E
Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh; Frisvad, Jens C; Gerds, Monica L; Hammes, Walter P; Harnett, James; Huys, Geert; Laulund, Svend; Ouwehand, Arthur; Powell, Ian B; Prajapati, Jashbhai B; Seto, Yasuyuki; Ter Schure, Eelko; Van Boven, Aart; Vankerckhoven, Vanessa; Zgoda, Annabelle; Tuijtelaars, Sandra; Hansen, Egon Bech
Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on "the history of use", "traditional food", or "general recognition of safety". Authoritative lists of microorganisms with a documented use in food have therefore come into high demand. One such list was published in 2002 as a result of a joint project between the International Dairy Federation (IDF) and the European Food and Feed Cultures Association (EFFCA). The "2002 IDF inventory" has become a de facto reference for food cultures in practical use. However, as the focus mainly was on commercially available dairy cultures, there was an unmet need for a list with a wider scope. We present an updated inventory of microorganisms used in food fermentations covering a wide range of food matrices (dairy, meat, fish, vegetables, legumes, cereals, beverages, and vinegar). We have also reviewed and updated the taxonomy of the microorganisms used in food fermentations in order to bring the taxonomy in agreement with the current standing in nomenclature.
Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans
Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance. To investigate whether fermented milk or similar products produced by lactobacilli fermentation of milk proteins has any blood pressure lowering effect in humans when compared to no treatment or placebo. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), English language databases, including MEDLINE (1966-2011), EMBASE (1974-2011), Cochrane Complementary Medicine Trials Register, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) (1985-2011), Food science and technology abstracts (1969-2011). Randomised controlled trials; cross over and parallel studies evaluating the effect on blood pressure of fermented milk in humans with an intervention period of 4 weeks or longer. Data was extracted individually by two authors, afterwards agreement had to be obtained before imputation in the review. A modest overall effect of fermented milk on SBP was found (MD -2.45; 95% CI -4.30 to -0.60), no effect was evident on DBP (MD -0.67; 95% CI -1.48, 0.14). The review does not support an effect of fermented milk on blood pressure. Despite the positive effect on SBP the authors conclude, for several reasons, that fermented milk has no effect on blood pressure. The effect found was very modest and only on SBP, the included studies were very heterogeneous and several with weak methodology. Finally, sensitivity and subgroup analyses could not reproduce the antihypertensive effect. The results do not give notion to the use of fermented milk as treatment for hypertension or as a lifestyle intervention for pre-hypertension nor would it influence population blood pressure.
Chiamaka A Okeke
Full Text Available Bacterial diversity and community structure of two maize varieties (white and yellow during fermentation/steeping for ogi production, and the influence of spontaneous fermentation on mycotoxin reduction in the gruel were studied. A total of 142 bacterial isolates obtained at 24–96h intervals were preliminarily identified by conventional microbiological methods while 60 selected isolates were clustered into 39 OTUs consisting of 15 species, 10 genera and 3 phyla by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Lactic acid bacteria constituted about 63% of all isolated bacteria and the genus Pediococcus dominated (white maize = 84.8%; yellow maize = 74.4%. Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus paraplantarum were found at all steeping intervals of white and yellow maize, respectively, while P. claussenii was present only at the climax stage of steeping white maize. In both maize varieties, P. pentosaceus was found at 24–72h. Mycotoxin concentrations (µg/kg in the unsteeped grains were: white maize (aflatoxin B1 = 0.60; citrinin = 85.8; cyclopiazonic acid = 23.5; fumonisins (B1/B2/B3 = 68.4–483; zearalenone = 3.3 and yellow maize (aflatoxins (B1/B2/M1 = 22.7–513; citrinin = 16,800; cyclopiazonic acid = 247; fumonisins (B1/B2/B3 = 252–1,586; zearalenone = 205. Mycotoxins in both maize varieties were significantly (p<0.05 reduced across steeping periods. This study reports for the first time: (a the association of L. paraplantarum, P. acidilactici and P. claussenii with ogi production from maize, (b citrinin occurrence in Nigerian maize and ogi, and (c aflatoxin M1, citrinin and cyclopiazonic acid degradation/loss due to fermentation in traditional cereal-based fermented food.
Ong, Yien Yien; Tan, Wen Siang; Rosfarizan, Mohamad; Chan, Eng Seng; Tey, Beng Ti
Red dragon fruit or red pitaya is rich in potassium, fiber, and antioxidants. Its nutritional properties and unique flesh color have made it an attractive raw material of various types of food products and beverages including fermented beverages or enzyme drinks. In this study, phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to confirm the identity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) appeared in fermented red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) beverages. A total of 21 isolates of LAB were isolated and characterized. They belonged to the genus of Enterococcus based on their biochemical characteristics. The isolates can be clustered into two groups by using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method. Nucleotide sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA region suggested that they were either Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus durans. Current research revealed the use of biochemical analyses and molecular approaches to identify the microbial population particularly lactic acid bacteria from fermented red dragon fruit juices. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®
Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan
Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste.
Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan
Abstract Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste. PMID:26691480
Anvar Hussain Noorul Anisha
Full Text Available AbstractAdhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste.
Escudero-López, Blanca; Cerrillo, Isabel; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Hornero-Méndez, Damaso; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Medina, Sonia; Ferreres, Federico; Berná, Genoveva; Martín, Francisco; Fernández-Pachón, Maria-Soledad
The intake of bioactive compounds and moderate alcohol decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. These effects could be joined in a beverage created by a controlled alcoholic fermentation of orange juice. The influence of controlled alcoholic fermentation on the bioactive compound profile of orange juice has not been previously evaluated, and this is the purpose of the present study. Total and individual flavanones and carotenoids significantly increased throughout the fermentation. The reason for this was an enhanced extraction of these compounds from the pulp. Besides, the potential bioavailability of flavanones increased due to a higher content of hesperetin-7-O-glucoside (2-fold higher at the end of the fermentation process). Ascorbic acid did not undergo a significant change, and only total phenolics decreased. Antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. TEAC and FRAP values remained constant throughout the process. However, ORAC and DPPH values significantly increased. Correlation analysis concluded that the increase in ORAC and DPPH values could be due to enhancement of flavanones.
Potter, Greg; Xia, Wei; Budge, Suzanne M; Speers, R Alex
Despite the ubiquitous distribution of oxylipins in plants, animals, and microbes, and the application of numerous analytical techniques to study these molecules, 3-OH oxylipins have never been quantitatively assayed in yeasts. The formation of heptafluorobutyrate methyl ester derivatives and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization - mass spectrometry allowed for the first determination of yeast 3-OH oxylipins. The concentration of 3-OH 10:0 (0.68-4.82 ng/mg dry cell mass) in the SMA strain of Saccharomyces pastorianus grown in laboratory-scale beverage fermentations was elevated relative to oxylipin concentrations in plant tissues and macroalgae. In fermenting yeasts, the onset of 3-OH oxylipin formation has been related to fermentation progression and flocculation initiation. When the SMA strain was grown in laboratory-scale fermentations, the maximal sugar consumption rate preceded the lowest concentration of 3-OH 10:0 by ∼4.5 h and a distinct increase in 3-OH 10:0 concentration by ∼16.5 h.
Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Zhang, Yousheng; Chen, Weidong
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of quality attributes of Prunus mume fruits during deacidification using the fermentation of Lactobacillus fermentium. Results of HPLC analysis showed that the sucrose and glucose were dominant sugars, and citric acid was dominant organic acids in P. mume fruits. The level of citric acid reaches 39.3 g/kg, and yet the sucrose and glucose content in the P. mume fruits was very lower, which were 2.16 and 0.66 g/L, respectively. After 8 d of fermentation, sugar and citric acid in the P. mume fruits was completely consumed, and the total phenolics, antioxidant activity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity value), and sarcocarp firmness retained 64.4%, 70.0%, 62.6%, respectively. Also, the viability counts of L. fermentium in fermentation broth increased slowly, which were near 8.0 lg CFU/mL after 8 d of fermentation at 30 °C. Overall, fermentation with L. fermentium can be applied in deacidification of P. mume fruits, and also the fermented P. mume fruits can meet the standard to be further processed into prune or sauces, and the fermentation broth of P. mume fruits with L. fermentium have a good prospect in the development of probiotic beverage.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast is considered to be a workhorse of the biotechnology industry for the production of many value-added chemicals, alcoholic beverages and biofuels. Optimization of the fermentation is a challenging task that greatly benefits from dynamic models able to accurately describe and predict the fermentation profile and resulting products under different genetic and environmental conditions. In this article, we developed and validated a genome-scale dynamic flux balance model, using experimentally determined kinetic constraints. Results Appropriate equations for maintenance, biomass composition, anaerobic metabolism and nutrient uptake are key to improve model performance, especially for predicting glycerol and ethanol synthesis. Prediction profiles of synthesis and consumption of the main metabolites involved in alcoholic fermentation closely agreed with experimental data obtained from numerous lab and industrial fermentations under different environmental conditions. Finally, fermentation simulations of genetically engineered yeasts closely reproduced previously reported experimental results regarding final concentrations of the main fermentation products such as ethanol and glycerol. Conclusion A useful tool to describe, understand and predict metabolite production in batch yeast cultures was developed. The resulting model, if used wisely, could help to search for new metabolic engineering strategies to manage ethanol content in batch fermentations.
Steensels, Jan; Daenen, Luk; Malcorps, Philippe; Derdelinckx, Guy; Verachtert, Hubert; Verstrepen, Kevin J
Ever since the introduction of controlled fermentation processes, alcoholic fermentations and Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter cultures proved to be a match made in heaven. The ability of S. cerevisiae to produce and withstand high ethanol concentrations, its pleasant flavour profile and the absence of health-threatening toxin production are only a few of the features that make it the ideal alcoholic fermentation organism. However, in certain conditions or for certain specific fermentation processes, the physiological boundaries of this species limit its applicability. Therefore, there is currently a strong interest in non-Saccharomyces (or non-conventional) yeasts with peculiar features able to replace or accompany S. cerevisiae in specific industrial fermentations. Brettanomyces (teleomorph: Dekkera), with Brettanomyces bruxellensis as the most commonly encountered representative, is such a yeast. Whilst currently mainly considered a spoilage organism responsible for off-flavour production in wine, cider or dairy products, an increasing number of authors report that in some cases, these yeasts can add beneficial (or at least interesting) aromas that increase the flavour complexity of fermented beverages, such as specialty beers. Moreover, its intriguing physiology, with its exceptional stress tolerance and peculiar carbon- and nitrogen metabolism, holds great potential for the production of bioethanol in continuous fermentors. This review summarizes the most notable metabolic features of Brettanomyces, briefly highlights recent insights in its genetic and genomic characteristics and discusses its applications in industrial fermentation processes, such as the production of beer, wine and bioethanol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available The rumen consists of a complex ecosystem where nutrients consumed by ruminants are digested by fermentation process, which is executed by diverse microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. A symbiotic relationship is found among different groups of microorganisms due to the diverse nature of these microbial species and their adaptability and interactions also coexist. The ruminant provides the necessary environment for the establishment of such microorganisms, while the microorganisms obtain energy from the host animal from microbial fermentation end products. Within the ruminal ecosystem, the microorganisms coexist in a reduced environment and pH remains close to neutral. Rumen microorganisms are involved in the fermentation of substrates contained in thedietof the animals (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. However, the fermentation process is not 100% effective because there are energy losses mainly in the form of methane gas (CH4, which is a problem for the environment since it is a greenhouse gas. In order to improve the efficiency of ruminant production systems, nutritional strategies that aim to manipulate ruminal fermentation using additives in the diet such as monensin, tallow, buffers, nitrogen compounds, probiotics, and others have been used. These additives allow changing the ruminal fermentation process in ways that produce better growth efficiency while decreasing energy loss. The purpose of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the fermentation processes taking place in the rumen, providing information that can be applied in the development of new nutritional strategies for the improvement of the digestion process to achieve maximum production.
程稚玲; 姚薇; 王钰慧; 张琳; 霍乃蕊; 王如福
通过发酵酿制苹果醋并调配成醋饮，有助于苹果的高值利用并缓解苹果的市场压力。结果表明：经过4天酒精发酵，接种发酵第3天的老陈醋醋醅可使苹果醋醋酸发酵的时间缩短为5天。经过单因素试验：白砂糖替代实验以及感官评价确定苹果醋饮配方为苹果醋18％，蜂蜜3％，浓缩苹果汁6％，白砂糖1％，果葡糖浆1％，高倍甜味剂（阿斯巴甜与安赛蜜1∶1比例混合）0．01％，食盐0．025％。醋饮最终呈淡黄色，清亮透明，无悬浮物及沉淀，具有明显的醋香味、苹果香味，口感酸爽，后味丰富，酸甜柔和，酸而不烈，甜而不腻。%Apple vinegar is brewed into beverage in this study to make a foundation for high-value utilization and relieving the market pressure of overproduced apples.The results show that after 4 days'alcoholic fermentation,the fermentation time of vinegar is shortened to 5 days by inoculating the fermented solid vinegar matrix of Shanxi mature vinegar.The formulation of the apple vinegar beverage is determined by single factor test,sugar replacement test and sensory assessment.It is composed of 18% apple vinegar,3% honey,6% concentrated apple juice,1% white sugar,1%fructose syrup,0.01% high-times sweetener prepared by equal mass of aspartame and acesulfame and 0.025% table salt.The vinegar beverage is transparent and pale yellow,without suspended substance and sediments,with distinct vinegar,apple and honey flavor,sour and clear mouth feel and rich aftertaste,proper sourness and sweetness.
Escudero-López, Blanca; Cerrillo, Isabel; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Berná, Genoveva; Medina, Sonia; Ferreres, Federico; Martín, Franz; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad
Previously, we reported that alcoholic fermentation enhanced flavanones and carotenoids content of orange juice. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of pasteurization on the qualitative and quantitative profile of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity of fermented orange juice. Ascorbic acid (203 mg/L), total flavanones (647 mg/L), total carotenoids (7.07 mg/L) and provitamin A (90.06 RAEs/L) values of pasteurized orange beverage were lower than those of fermented juice. Total phenolic remained unchanged (585 mg/L) and was similar to that of original juice. The flavanones naringenin-7-O-glucoside, naringenin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin-7-O-glucoside and isosakuranetin-7-O-rutinoside, and the carotenoids karpoxanthin and isomer, neochrome, lutein, ζ-carotene, zeaxanthin, mutatoxanthin epimers, β-cryptoxanthin and auroxanthin epimers were the major compounds. Pasteurization produced a decrease in antioxidant capacity of fermented juice. However, TEAC (5.45 mM) and ORAC (6353 μM) values of orange beverage were similar to those of original orange juice. The novel orange beverage could be a valuable source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant capacity and exert potential beneficial effects.
EtOH is produced by continuous fermentation of molasses. Thus, molasses diluted to 20/sup 0/ Brix was inoculated with bakers' yeast and fermented at 32/sup 0/. When the medium reached 4% EtOH, it was circulated through a centrifuge. The concentrated yeast was recycled to the fermentor and the supernatant was sent to a still. After distillation, the still residue was returned to the fermentor. When the initial charge was entirely fermented, 13 kg molasses of 40/sup 0/ Brix was added to the fermentor per hour, and the yield of EtOH was 1.7 kg/100 L-hour.
Barkholt, Helle Vibeke; Jørgensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe
The effect of fermentation on components of potential significance for the allergenicity of pea was analyzed. Pea flour was fermented with three lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two fungi, Rhizopus microsporus, var....... oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum. Residual antigenicity against antipea antibodies was reduced to 10% by the three lactic acid bacteria and R. microsporus. Reactions to anti-pea profilin and anti-Bet v I were still detectable after fermentation. The contents of lectin and pea protease inhibitor were...
Li, Qing; Heist, E Patrick; Moe, Luke A
Corn-based fuel ethanol facilities mix enzymatically treated, gelatinized corn starch with water to generate a "mash" that is used as the substrate in large-scale (∼500,000 gallon) yeast-based fermentations. In contrast to other food and beverage fermentations (e.g., cheese, wine), bioethanol production is presumed to be optimal when bacteria are absent from the fermentation-thus maximizing conversion of glucose to ethanol-yet the facilities are not sterilized. Culture-based analysis has suggested that lactic acid bacteria occupy this niche and, under certain circumstances, can outcompete the dedicated fermentation yeast for nutrients. Here, we use 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to probe bacterial community structure during bioethanol fermentation. Nineteen total batches from five corn-based fuel ethanol fermentation facilities were analyzed. From each batch, five samples were taken. This includes the contents of the yeast propagation tank at inoculation, three samples taken at intervals during the fermentation, and a sample taken at the end of fermentation. Bacterial community structure was compared with time, between facility, between fermentor, between batches from the same fermentor, and against environmental variables within each fermentation. Communities were dominated by members of the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla, with lactic acid bacteria dominating the communities in two of the five facilities. In the other facilities, Proteobacteria (largely members of the Pseudomonas and Escherichia-Shigella genera) outcompete the lactic acid bacteria. In most cases, the yeast propagation tank inoculum imparted a rich bacterial community, but the batches vary regarding whether this inoculum was the primary driver of the fermentation community structure.
赵光远; 付扬志; 崔中祥
To the beer dregs autolysate being added a little glucose, a new type health care beverage was produced by the lactic bacteria fermentation. The engineering choice of fermented strains, the culture time and the fermentation temperature were investigated. At the same time, the adequate engineering technology was also determined. The results showed that after the autdysate being added with 0. 5％ glucose, inoculated with adequate strains, fermented at 30℃ for 10 hours, a new kind of lactate beverage with sour and aromatic taste was produced.%在啤酒废酵母自溶物中，添加少量葡萄糖，经乳酸菌作用制成一种新型饮料。探讨了菌种选择、发酵时间、发酵温度和最佳工艺参数。结果表明：酵母自溶物加0.5％葡萄糖，植物乳杆菌和片球菌按比1：1接种，30℃发酵10h，可制得一种鲜香酸甜的乳酸饮料。
@@ Due to the downturn in global economy, the economic growth rate in China sharply decreased in the first quarter of 2009. However, the fluctuating macro economy won't change the uptrend in food and beverage industry. The ratio between added-values of food industry and agriculture industry in China is 0.22 at present, but the ratio in developed western countries averages 1.2, meaning that there is still great potential and room in Chinese food industry. During the "11th five-year" period, the beverage industry is expected to grow at a rate of 15% or above. In this way, the production in this industry in 2010 will reach 68 million tons.
José Mª Arranz; Gil, Ana I.
The most important contribution of this research lies in considering the impact of wine, beer and liquors on the ratio of traffic fatalities because each kind of alcoholic beverage is characterized by different ethanol content. The data, drawn for case of Spain, validate our theoretical hypothesis. Our findings support the strategy of incrementing alcohol taxes in order to reduce the negative externalities of alcohol abuse. However, it is necessary to implement non-economic policies because o...
Full Text Available Problem statement: This studys goal was to assess the arsenic concentration of various beverages and broths purchased from a local chain supermarket. A source of chronic arsenic exposure occurs via food and beverage consumption. Groundwater levels of total arsenic are regulated (-1 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA but few studies have examined arsenic concentrations in common beverages. Approach: In the initial analysis of 19 items, total arsenic concentration was assessed from a variety of fruit juices, sports drinks, sodas and broths. Items found to contain levels of total arsenic ≥5.0 µg L-1 were further evaluated. Additional analysis included purchasing multiple brands of items ≥5.0 µg L-1and analyzing them for total arsenic and chemical species of arsenic. Results: Among the beverages in the initial analysis, apple juice (10.79 µg L-1 and grape juice (49.87 µg L-1 contained the highest levels of total arsenic. Upon examination of items with As concentrations above 5.0 µg L-1, varying concentrations of total arsenic were found in apple cider (range: 5.41-15.27 µg L-1, apple juice (range: 10.67-22.35 µg L-1, baby fruit juice (range: 13.91-16.51 µg L-1 and grape juice (range: 17.69-47.59 µg L-1. Conclusion: Many commercially available juices contained concentrations of arsenic that were higher than the standard for total arsenic allowed in groundwater as set forth by the EPA. The concentration of As in these juices varied between and within brands. In general, those consuming apple and grape juices are the young and elderly and it is these populations that may be more vulnerable to over exposure of heavy metals.
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY. JANUARY 2014 ISBN ... documented case of Gut Fermentation Syndrome verified with glucose and .... cerevisiae in Bone Marrow Transplant. Patients,” Journal of ...
Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars.
Chen, Y. R.; Hashimoto, A. G.
The kinetics on methane fermentation are described using published data for livestock residue, sewage sludge, and municipal refuse. Methods are presented to determine the kinetic constants and the finally attainable methane production using steady-state methane production data. The effects of temperature, loading rate, and influent substrate concentration on methane fermentation kinetics are discussed. These relationships were used to predict the rate of methane production of a pilot-scale fermentor with excellent results.
Isak S. Pretorius
Full Text Available The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has enjoyed a long and distinguished history in the fermention industry. Owing to its efficiency in producing alcohol, S. cerevisiae is, without doubt, the most important commercial microorganism with GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe status. By brewing beer and sparkling wine, mankind’s oldest domesticated organism made possible the world’s first biotechnological processes. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, S. cerevisiae has again been harnessed to shift the frontiers of mankind’s newest revolution, genetic engineering. S. cerevisiae is at the forefront of many of these developments in modern biotechnology. Consequently, the industrial importance of S. cerevisiae has extended beyond traditional fermentation. Today, the products of yeast biotechnologies impinge on many commercially important sectors, including food, beverages, biofuels, chemicals, industrial enzymes, pharmaceuticals, agriculture and the environment. Nevertheless, since ethyl alcohol produced by yeast fermentation is likely to remain the foremost worldwide biotechnological commodity for the foreseeable future, this review focuses on advances made with respect to the development of tailor- made yeast strains for the fermented beverage and biofuel industries.
Barreira, João C.M.; Morais, Ana L.; Oliveira, M. B. P. P.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira
Herbal beverages are among the main products which claim medicinal benefits, specially related with antioxidant properties [1,2]. The definition of herbal beverages (“teas”) as functional drinks might be related with the plant species from which is prepared, formulation or preparation method. In this study the beverages were prepared from Camellia sinensis (black and green tea), Aspalathus linearis (red tea) and Cochlospermum angolensis (borututu tea), available in different formulations (bag...
Full Text Available New trends in beverage packaging are focusing on the structure modification of packaging materials and the development of new active and/or intelligent systems, which can interact with the product or its environment, improving the conservation of beverages, such as wine, juice or beer, customer acceptability, and food security. In this paper, the main nutritional and organoleptic degradation processes of beverages, such as oxidative degradation or changes in the aromatic profiles, which influence their color and volatile composition are summarized. Finally, the description of the current situation of beverage packaging materials and new possible, emerging strategies to overcome some of the pending issues are discussed.
Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY:To explore public knowledge and perceptions of the efficacy, safety and reason to consume herbal beveragesincluding ginseng tea, gingko biloba tea and tongka ali tea.METHOD:This study was conducted in the state of Penang in June 2007. Participants were recruited at random;respondents were interviewed using a 19 item questionnaire. Non- parametric statistics was applied to analysethe data.RESULTS:Four hundred participants were recruited. Most of the respondents 228(57.0% were habitual consumers ofherbal beverages. 249(62.25% respondents believed that herbal beverages improved their health status.193(48.25% believed that herbal beverages boost the energy level of user and 120(30.0% used them toprevent diseases. 300(75% respondents agreed with the statement that herbal beverages are safe to use andthat they have less side effect than conventional medicines available on the market. Female respondents weremore likely to report using herbal beverages for slimming 78(19.5% and for cosmetic purposes 74(18.5%.However, the use of herbal beverages to boost energy levels was more frequent among male respondents.Respondents aged 18 – 25 years were significantly more likely to report the use of herbal beverages to preventcoughs and flu.CONCLUSION:This potentially ill advised and dangerous consumption of herbal beverages may delay appropriate help seekingfor various medical illnesses. In addition lack of knowledge about the side effects of herbal beverages may putusers at risk of side effects.
... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...
Full Text Available The fermented herbal juices are capable of curing and preventing diseases and reducing the aging progress. The present study was performed to investigate the fermentation of Phyllanthus emblica fruit by Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 with respect to carbon sources, polyphenols, and antioxidant properties. The physical changes, for instance, color, odor, taste, turbidity and gas formation, throughout the fermentation process was manually monitored. The fermented product was rich in polyphenolic content. The acid content and pH of the product were under the norms of Thai community product standards. Antioxidant properties of the fermented product were proved using ABTS, and FRAP assays. Chelation based study suggested that fermented P. emblica fruit juices are healthy enough to stabilize the oxidized form of the metal ion. The optimum fermentation period was 15 days. All the results supported that studied carbon sources did not interfere with the quality of the product. This report is the prelude study on the use of probiotic starter culture for the production of P. emblica fruit based lactic acid bacteria fermented beverages (LAFB enriched with bioactive compounds. Further research on the impact of different carbon sources and upstream processes on the quality of LAFB is currently in progress.
Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp
Fermentation is a widely used process in production of many foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. The main goal of the control system is to maximize profit of the fermentation process, and thus this is also the main goal of this paper. We present a simple dynamic model for a fermentation process...... and demonstrate its usefulness in economic optimization. The model is formulated as an index-1 differential algebraic equation (DAE), which guarantees conservation of mass and energy in discrete form. The optimization is based on recent advances within Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (E......-NMPC), and also utilizes the index-1 DAE model. The E-NMPC uses the single-shooting method and the adjoint method for computation of the optimization gradients. The process constraints are relaxed to soft-constraints on the outputs. Finally we derive the analytical solution to the economic optimization problem...
Lee, C. H.; Min, K. C.; Souane, M.
digestion. The amount of sugar consumption during lactic fermentation varied with the type of bacteria. Leuconostoc mesenteroides(sikhae) and Lactobacillus plantarum(sikhae) increased up to 6 times of original cell number by 24 hrs of fermentation in rice + soymilk substrate, but Lactococcus lactis...... decreased in the same substrates. The final pH of the cereal lactic beverage was in the range of 3.4 - 4.1, L. mesenteroides(sikhae) had relatively higher pH compared to other lactic acid bacteria. L. mesenteroides(sikhae) produced apple juice-like flavor, while L. plantarum, L. casei and L. lactis yielded...... objectionable off-flavor. The HPLC analysis shoved that the lactic ferment of L. mesenteroides(sikhae) contained relatively small amount of lactic acid and malic acid which vas not detected in other microorganisms tested....
Abecia, L; Soto, E C; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E
This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between chemical composition and microbial profile of rumen liquid-associated bacteria (LAB) in vivo (Murciano-Granadina goats) and in a rumen simulation system (single-flow continuous-culture fermenters). To achieve this aim, analyses of purine bases along with some molecular techniques (quantitative PCR to assess abundance and DGGE to identify biodiversity and bacterial profile) were carried out. A control diet (AHC) based on alfalfa hay (AH) and concentrate (C) in a 1:1 ratio and two experimental diets (AHCBI and AHCBII), in which concentrate was partially replaced with multinutrient blocks, were used. Diets AHCBI and AHCBII included multinutrient blocks differing in the relative amount of two-stage olive cake and the source of protein (sunflower meal vs. fava beans). We aimed to investigate the effect of these blocks on rumen microbiota to evaluate their potential as safe substitutes of cereal-based concentrates. Similar patterns of response to diet were found for chemical composition, microbial abundances and diversity in LAB isolated from goat's rumen and fermenters. Whereas bacterial density (log10 gene copies/g FM: 11.6 and 9.4 for bacteria and methanogens, respectively, in rumen) and diversity indexes (Shannon index: 3.6) were not affected by diet, DGGE analyses showed that bacterial community profile was affected. The cluster analysis suggested differences in bacterial profile between LAB pellets isolated from the rumen of goat and fermenters. A relationship between chemical composition and bacterial community composition in LAB pellets seems to exist. Changes in the former were reflected in the bacterial community profile. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between chemical and microbial composition of ruminal bacterial pellets with diets of different quality.
板栗是我国有名的传统农副产品，风味独特，营养丰富。板栗饮料不仅集合了板栗的优点，更解决了板栗不能长时间贮藏的问题。简述了板栗汁、板栗复合饮料、板栗发酵乳工艺流程与配方方面的研究进展，并对板栗饮料的发展前景进行展望。%Chinese chestnut is a famous traditional agricultural and sideline product with unique flavor and rich nutrition. The Chinese chestnut beverage not only has the advantages of Chinese chestnut, but also solves the problem that the Chinese chestnut cannot be stored for a long time. This paper briefly introduces the research progress on technological process and formulation of Chinese chestnut juice, Chinese chestnut compound beverage and Chinese chestnut fermented milk, and also prospects the development of Chinese chestnut beverage.
张旭光; 刘春芬; 慕金超
以砀山梨汁和奶粉为原料，杀菌后接种乳酸菌混合发酵剂进行乳酸发酵，成为凝固型酸奶，进而调配成活性乳酸菌饮料。通过单因素和正交试验，得出梨乳酸菌饮料的优化条件：梨汁添加量为20%，加糖量10%，酸味剂用量0.15%，稳定剂用量0.4%。%The health care lactic acid bacteria beverage was fermented with lactobacilli by the raw materials of Dangshan pear juice and milk powder. The sterilization after inoculated lactic acid fermentation lactic acid bacteria culture blends.By single factor and orthogonal test , and the optimized conditions for pear lactic acid bacteria beverage:pear juice content is 20%, sugar 10%, citric acid 0.15%dosage, dosage of stabilizer 0.4%.
Kakietek, Jakub; Osuji, Thearis A; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Breck, Andrew; Kettel Khan, Laura
This article examines the association between the New York City regulations on beverages served in child care centers and beverage consumption among enrolled children. The regulations include requirements related to beverages served to children throughout the day. Beverage consumption data were collected on 636 children enrolled in 106 group child care centers in New York City. Data on compliance with the regulations were collected through direct observation, interviews with center staff, and a site inventory. Logistic regression for rare events was used to test associations between compliance with the regulations and beverage consumption. Compliance with the regulations was associated with lower odds of children consuming milk with more than 1% fat content and sugar-sweetened beverages during meals and snacks. There was not a significant relationship between compliance with the regulations and children's consumption of water. The findings suggest a strong, direct relationship between what a center serves and what a child consumes, particularly regarding consumption of higher-fat milk and sugar-sweetened beverages. Therefore, policies governing the types of beverages served in child care centers may increase children's consumption of more healthful beverages and reduce the consumption of less healthful ones.
Corsetti, Aldo; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna
Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and are considered as an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid) and phenolic compounds may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe, and level of anti-microbial compounds) and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability, and salt concentration) factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion as it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages). This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.
Full Text Available Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic signiﬁcance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe and level of anti-microbial compounds and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability and salt concentration factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages. This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.
The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.
... Association, bottled water was the second most popular beverage in the U.S. in 2005, with Americans consuming more than 7.5 million gallons of bottled water - an average of 26 gallons per person. Today, only carbonated soft drinks out-sell bottled water. Defining "Bottled ...
Cyanide and pH decreased, while crude protein, acidity, and apparent amy tose content increased in the fermented ... Fresh cassava roots of the 'Red Skin' ... starch at 854] were measured by the .... fermentation, granule surface corrosion,.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of biomass reduction in the cider processing and the quality of the fermented product made on laboratory scale, but in the same conditions usually found in factory units. The must, made with apples of the Gala variety, depectinized and transferred to 500 mL-fermenters, was inoculated with 2.0x10(6 cfu/mL of natural or commercial yeast, and at each 12 hours biomass was removed by centrifugation in one flask of the experimental set, and the must was left to ferment. All seven flasks of the fermented beverage were analyzed for 20-26 days after the inoculation, and the results showed that the best moment for biomass removal was 1.5-2.0 days of fermentation, leading to a product with significant residual sugars content, a low alcoholic degree, and with a fruity flavor. In addition, it was possible to practically eliminate all nitrogen, which was important to control the natural gasification. It was quite clear that biomass removal could be a very efficient treatment in order to obtain a sweeter and more pleasant alcoholic beverage, a better cider.O trabalho objetivou caracterizar a influência da eliminação de biomassa no processamento da sidra e na qualidade do produto fermentado em bancada de laboratório utilizando condições observadas na indústria. O mosto da cultivar Gala foi despectinizado e transferido para fermentadores de 500 mL e inoculado com 2,0x10(6 ufc/mL de leveduras naturais ou comerciais. A cada 12 horas em um dos fermentadores a biomassa foi reduzida por centrifugação, em seguida o mosto era deixado fermentar. Os sete fermentados de maçãs foram analisados após 20-26 dias de fermentação, mantendo açúcar residual na bebida, um baixo grau alcoólico e aroma frutado. Além disso, foi possível eliminar todo o nitrogênio assimilável, importante no controle da gaseificação natural. Desta forma, a redução de biomassa pode ser um tratamento eficiente para obter uma
Herbal tea brand Wong Lo Kat gets global recognition for its product quality and embracing the traditional Chinese culture of health c oca Cola isn’t the only company with an iconic red can anymore-Wong Lo Kat herbal tea is gaining recognition worldwide. At the 15th World Congress of Food Science and Technology held on August 23 in Cape Town,South Africa,the canned Wong Lo Kat herbal tea,produced by The JDB Group,won the Global Food Industry Award.It is the first Chinese beverage brand to win this award.
Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John
Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....
Pizarro, Francisco; Vargas, Felipe A; Agosin, Eduardo
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial microorganism. Nowadays, it is being used as a cell factory for the production of pharmaceuticals such as insulin, although this yeast has long been utilized in the bakery to raise dough, and in the production of alcoholic beverages, fermenting the sugars derived from rice, wheat, barley, corn and grape juice. S. cerevisiae has also been extensively used as a model eukaryotic system. In the last decade, genomic techniques have revealed important features of its molecular biology. For example, DNA array technologies are routinely used for determining gene expression levels in cells under different physiological conditions or environmental stimuli. Laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae are different from wine strains. For instance, laboratory yeasts are unable to completely transform all the sugar in the grape must into ethanol under winemaking conditions. In fact, standard culture conditions are usually very different from winemaking conditions, where multiple stresses occur simultaneously and sequentially throughout the fermentation. The response of wine yeasts to these stimuli differs in some aspects from laboratory strains, as suggested by the increasing number of studies in functional genomics being conducted on wine strains. In this paper we review the most recent applications of post-genomic techniques to understand yeast physiology in the wine industry. We also report recent advances in wine yeast strain improvement and propose a reference framework for integration of genomic information, bioinformatic tools and molecular biology techniques for cellular and metabolic engineering. Finally, we discuss the current state and future perspectives for using 'modern' biotechnology in the wine industry.
Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.
This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with
Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.
This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with
Conkle, James; Carter, Melondie
Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been identified as a key contributor in the obesity epidemic. Taxing these beverages is currently a hot topic for healthcare providers, manufacturers, and legislators. Whether a tax will help trim American waist lines remains questionable.
Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.
. Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Research on innovative foods and beverages that serve well to the nutritional needs of individuals suffering from metabolic disorders like obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia is an urgent need for today. This study aims to describe a method for preparing gluten free quinoa beverages and to investigate their effects on human health.
Rubio-Perez, Jose M; Vidal-Guevara, Maria L; Zafrilla, Pilar; Morillas-Ruiz, Juana M
Green tea and apple are natural products with health benefits. These healthy properties are linked closely to the antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. These antioxidant compounds have a potential for preventing and treating cancer, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The aim of the present work was to design a new beverage with high antioxidant power combining extracts of green tea and apple, studying the antioxidant composition and activity, organoleptic properties (colour) and stability status during storage at different temperatures. The majority compounds identified in the beverage were flavan-3-ols, being the (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate which had the highest concentration. After storage, floridzine was the compound with lower decrease of concentration. The new designed beverage had a good colour, and high antioxidant activity and stability at room temperature, so that the beverage needs no refrigeration, showing potential for the development of new healthy functional beverages.
Maria Betânia Barbosa Albuquerque
Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo a descrição das diversas ocasiões sociais em que estava presente o consumo de bebidas fermentadas entre os índios Tupinambá, considerados por cronistas e viajantes como grandes amantes das beberagens. Resultado de uma pesquisa documental e bibliográfica, são priorizadas como fontes crônicas de viagens; cartas e informações de missionários que presenciaram as beberagens, sobretudo, nos séculos XVI e XVII; estudos antropológicos e históricos interessados nas práticas do beber indígenas; além de estudos arqueológicos que registram a cultura material dos Tupinambá. Teoricamente, o trabalho baseiase em pressupostos da História Cultural, em particular da História da Alimentação, na qual se podem inserir os rituais de beberagens. Argumentase que, por meio das práticas de beber, ensinamentos eram transmitidos e apreendidos, configurandoas como situação de comunicação e aprendizagem.This article describes various social gathering where fermented beverages were consumed by Tupinambá Indians, considered by chroniclers and travelers as beverages lovers. A result of document and bibliographic research, it prioritizes sources as travel chronicles; letters and information from missionaries who witnessed beverage feasts, especially during sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; anthropologic and historic studies interested in indigenous practices of drinking as well as archaeologic studies registering Tupinambá's material culture. Its theoretical framework is based on assumptions of Cultural History, particularly on History of Food where beverages rituals can be placed. I argue that the practice of drinking can be configured as communication and learning situation because they were a way to teach and learn.
Ghosh Ray, S; Ghangrekar, M M
For enhancing organic matter removal from cereal-based distillery stillage two-stage treatment consisting of fermentation by Aspergillus awamori followed by microbial fuel cell (MFC) is proposed. Considerable reduction in total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) up to 70% and 40%, respectively, along with 98% reduction of suspended solids (SS) has been achieved during fungal pretreatment. The process generated chitosan, a useful fermentation byproduct from fungal mycelia, as 0.6-0.7g/l of settled sludge with mycelium (3.8% solids). Prior treatment of wastewater with fungal strain enhanced the power generation in MFC by 2.9 times at an organic loading rate of 1.5kgCOD/m(3)day, demonstrating soluble COD reduction of 92% in MFC. While treating distillery wastewater, this two-stage integrated biological process demonstrated overall 99% COD removal and almost complete removal of SS, delivering ample scope for scale-up and industrial application to offer effective solution for distillery wastewater treatment.
Heilman, Judith R; Levy, Steven M; Wefel, James S; Patterson, Kristine Y; Cutrufelli, Rena; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Holden, Joanne M
The purpose of this paper was to review different methodological techniques used for the assessment of fluoride in carbonated beverages, and compare results using a fluoride ion electrode direct read method with and without a prior decarbonation treatment. The carbonated beverages in this study were either purchased locally at grocery stores in Iowa City, Iowa, or purchased as part of a national representative sampling approach included in the National Fluoride Database and Intake Assessment Study (NFDIAS). The samples were compared with and without a decarbonating process. Soda pop and beer samples were analyzed by removing a 1-ml sample and adding a 1-ml buffer solution. The fluoride concentration of the sample and buffer combination was then determined using a fluoride ion specific electrode. There was no significant difference in the fluoride concentration of the samples with or without prior decarbonation. The mean absolute difference between the soda pop group with and without decarbonation was 0.01 ppm F, while results from the beer samples showed variation of 0.00 to 0.02 parts per million fluoride (ppm F). These differences were not statistically significant for the soda pop or beer groups (P=.50 and P=.74, respectively). Whether or not decarbonation was conducted prior to analysis, the fluoride assay results were the same. Therefore, decarbonation of soda pop and beer was deemed unnecessary prior to fluoride analysis.
Full Text Available Black mulberry (Morus nigra is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the edges of the ravine. The inhabitants of these islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, El Hierro and Lanzarote collect the fruit and prepare homemade beverages for medicinal purposes. Numerous authors have reported that type II diabetes mellitus can be controlled by taking a mixture containing black mulberry and water. Apart from that, this fruit has been used for the treatment of mouth, tongue and throat inflammations. In this study we present some characteristics of black mulberry juice (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, citric acid, lactic acid, polyphenols, anthocyanins, the potassium etc. and alcoholic beverages (alcoholic grade, pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, tannins, phenols etc. obtained from black mulberry. Moreover, we have studied the quality of liquors obtained from black mulberry in Canary Islands.
Huvaere, Kevin; Skibsted, Leif H
Flavonoids, which are ubiquitously present in the plant kingdom, preserve food and beverages at the parts per million level with minor perturbation of sensory impressions. Additionally, they are safe and possibly contribute positive health effects. Flavonoids should be further exploited for the protection of food and beverages against light-induced quality deterioration through: (1) direct absorption of photons as inner filters protecting sensitive food components; (2) deactivation of (triplet-)excited states of sensitisers like chlorophyll and riboflavin; (3) quenching of singlet oxygen from type II photosensitisation; and (iv) scavenging of radicals formed as reaction intermediates in type I photosensitisation. For absorption of light, combinations of flavonoids, as found in natural co-pigmentation, facilitate dissipation of photon energy to heat thus averting photodegradation. For protection against singlet oxygen and triplet sensitisers, chemical quenching gradually decreases efficiency hence the pathway to physical quenching should be optimised through product formulation. The feasibility of these protection strategies is further supported by kinetic data that are becoming available, allowing for calculation of threshold levels of flavonoids to prevent beer and dairy products from going off. On the other hand, increasing understanding of the interplay between light and matrix physicochemistry, for example the effect of aprotic microenvironments on phototautomerisation of compounds like quercetin, opens up for engineering better light-to-heat converting channels in processed food to eventually prevent quality loss.
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial apple nectars and to determine the legal limit to identify the beverages that do not conform to the safety standards established by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. These beverages (apple nectars were produced in the laboratory according to the Brazilian legislation. Adulterated nectars were also produced with an amount of pulp juice below the permitted threshold limit value. The δ13C values of the apple nectars and their fractions (pulp and purified sugar were measured to quantify the C3 source percentage. In order to demonstrate the existence of adulteration, the values found were compared to the limit values established by the Brazilian Law. All commercial apple nectars analyzed were within the legal limits, which enabled to identify the nectars that were in conformity with the Brazilian Law. The isotopic methodology developed proved efficient to quantify the carbon of C3 origin in commercial apple nectars.
Guenther, P M
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of beverages, particularly soft drinks, in the diets of American teenagers by analyzing data collected in the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1977-78. Interviewers obtained 24-hour recalls of dietary intake, and respondents completed diet records for the following 2 days. Variation in beverage intake was examined by eating occasion, season, day of the week, region, urbanization, race, age, sex, and household income. Soft drink and milk intakes were negatively correlated (r = -.22). Soft drinks were just as likely to be drunk at lunch or supper as for snacks. Those results suggest that teenagers may have substituted soft drinks for milk at meals. The nutritional impact of soft drink consumption was assessed by determining the part correlations of soft drink intake with intakes of energy and 14 nutrients, while controlling for 19 variables related to time, location, and personal and household characteristics. The negative part correlations of soft drink intake with intakes of calcium (-0.11), magnesium (-0.06), riboflavin (-0.09), vitamin A (-0.08), and ascorbic acid (-0.06) indicate that soft drinks may contribute to low intakes of those nutrients by some teenagers.
牛广财; 朱丹; 魏文毅; 王欣; 王鹤霖; 杨建
以沙棘汁为主要原料，经酒精发酵、醋酸发酵制成沙棘原醋，再调配成沙棘果醋饮料。以沙棘原醋用量、沙棘果汁用量、蜂蜜用量、蔗糖糖浆用量为实验因素，以感官评分为考察指标，研究了沙棘果醋饮料的配方和加工工艺。经正交实验得出每100mL沙棘果醋饮料的最佳配方为：沙棘原醋8mL，沙棘果汁15mL，蜂蜜3g，蔗糖糖浆10g。经过调配、过滤、灌装后，在100℃下杀菌5rain。生产的沙棘果醋饮料色泽亮丽，酸甜适口，具有浓郁的沙棘果香、醋香和蜂蜜香气。%Sea buckthorn vinegar was made from sea buckthorn juice by alcoholic and acetic fermentations,which was then formulated to a sea buckthorn vinegar beverage.With the dosages of sea buckthorn vinegar,juice, honey and sucrose syrup as the experimental factors and the sensory scores of the sea buckthorn vinegar beverage as the evaluation indexes,the formula and processing technology were researched on.By orthogonal experiment,the optimum formula of the vinegar beverage was determined as follows:sea buckthorn raw vinegar 8mL/100mL, sea buckthorn juice 15mL/100mL, honey 3g/100mL and sucrose syrup lOg/100mL.The optimal sterilization condition of the product was holding on 100℃ for 5min after formulation,filtering and filling.The sea buckthorn vinegar beverage with bright color,sweet and sour taste, had sea buckthorn flavor,vinegar and honey aromas.
Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom
Abstract Consumption of carbonated beverages was reported to be associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This study was performed to assess the relationship between the consumption of carbonated beverages and periodontal disease using nationally representative data. The data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2008 and 2010 were used; the analysis in this study was confined to a total of 5517 respondents >19 years old who had no missing values for the consumption of carbonated beverages or outcome variables. The community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was defined as periodontal disease. The odds ratios of the percentage of individuals with periodontal treatment needs tended to increase with the consumption of carbonated beverages. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals adjusted for various factors including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, dental checkup within a year, consumption of coffee of the individuals with the consumption of carbonated beverages once or less per month, once or less per week and twice or more per week were 1.109(0.804,1.528), 1.404(1.035,1.906), and 1.466(1.059,2.029), respectively. A subgroup analysis revealed that in individuals with body mass index carbonated beverages (P for trend carbonated beverages was positively associated with the risk of periodontal disease in Korean adults. In a subgroup analysis, the individuals consuming carbonated beverages with body mass index carbonated beverages may be considered to be an independent risk indicator for periodontal disease and periodontal health of nonobese individuals may benefit from reduction of carbonated beverage consumption. PMID:27428235
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid fluid delivery from ingested beverages is the goal of oral rehydration solutions (ORS and sports drinks. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of increasing carbohydrate and sodium content upon fluid delivery using a deuterium oxide (D2O tracer. Design Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into two groups of 10, the first group was a carbohydrate group (CHO and the second a sodium group (Na. The CHO group ingested four different drinks with a stepped increase of 3% glucose from 0% to 9% while sodium concentration was 20 mmol/L. The Na group ingested four drinks with a stepped increase of 20 mmol/L from 0 mmol/L to 60 mmol/l while glucose concentration was 6%. All beverages contained 3 g of D2O. Subjects remained seated for two hours after ingestion of the experimental beverage, with blood taken every 5 min in the first hour and every 10 min in the second hour. Results Including 3% glucose in the beverage led to a significantly greater AUC 60 min (19640 ± 1252 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min than all trials. No carbohydrate (18381 ± 1198 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min had a greater AUC 60 min than a 6% (16088 ± 1359 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min and 9% beverage (13134 ± 1115 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min; the 6% beverage had a significantly greater AUC 60 min than the 9% beverage. There was no difference in fluid delivery between the different sodium beverages. Conclusion In conclusion the present study showed that when carbohydrate concentration in an ingested beverage was increased above 6% fluid delivery was compromised. However, increasing the amount of sodium (0–60 mmol/L in a 6% glucose beverage did not lead to increases in fluid delivery.
López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús
In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.
Herrero, Mónica; García, Luis A; Díaz, Mario
SO(2) is widely used in cider fermentation but also in other alcoholic beverages such as wine. Although the authorized limit is 200 ppm total SO(2), the International Organizations recommend its total elimination or at least reduction due to health concerns. Addition of SO(2) to apple juice at levels frequently used in industrial cidermaking (100 mg/L) induced significantly higher acetaldehyde production by yeast than that obtained without SO(2). Although the practical implications of acetaldehyde evolution under cidermaking conditions has been overcome by research and few data are available, this compound reached levels in two 2000 L bioreactors that may have prevented the occurrence of simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. It was observed that malolactic fermentation had a positive effect promoting reduction of acetaldehyde levels in cider fermented with juice, SO(2)-treated or not. The addition of SO(2) clearly delayed malolactic fermentation comparing to the control, affecting not the onset of the malolactic fermentation but the rate of malic acid degradation. This compound, however, had a stimulatory effect on alcoholic fermentation.
Deed, Rebecca C.; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C.
Low fermentation temperatures are of importance to food and beverage industries working with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the identification of genes demonstrating a positive impact on fermentation kinetics is of significant interest. A set of 121 mapped F1 progeny, derived from a cross between haploid strains BY4716 (a derivative of the laboratory yeast S288C) and wine yeast RM11-1a, were fermented in New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc grape juice at 12.5°. Analyses of five key fermentation kinetic parameters among the F1 progeny identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome I with a significant degree of linkage to maximal fermentation rate (Vmax) at low temperature. Independent deletions of two candidate genes within the region, FLO1 and SWH1, were constructed in the parental strains (with S288C representing BY4716). Fermentation of wild-type and deletion strains at 12.5 and 25° confirmed that the genetic linkage to Vmax corresponds to the S288C version of the FLO1 allele, as the absence of this allele reduced Vmax by ∼50% at 12.5°, but not at 25°. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis (RHA) between S288C and RM11-1a FLO1 alleles did not confirm the prediction that the S288C version of FLO1 was promoting more rapid fermentation in the opposing strain background, suggesting that the positive effect on Vmax derived from S288C FLO1 may only provide an advantage in haploids, or is dependent on strain-specific cis or trans effects. This research adds to the growing body of evidence demonstrating the role of FLO1 in providing stress tolerance to S. cerevisiae during fermentation. PMID:28143947
Rebecca C. Deed
Full Text Available Low fermentation temperatures are of importance to food and beverage industries working with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the identification of genes demonstrating a positive impact on fermentation kinetics is of significant interest. A set of 121 mapped F1 progeny, derived from a cross between haploid strains BY4716 (a derivative of the laboratory yeast S288C and wine yeast RM11-1a, were fermented in New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc grape juice at 12.5°. Analyses of five key fermentation kinetic parameters among the F1 progeny identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome I with a significant degree of linkage to maximal fermentation rate (Vmax at low temperature. Independent deletions of two candidate genes within the region, FLO1 and SWH1, were constructed in the parental strains (with S288C representing BY4716. Fermentation of wild-type and deletion strains at 12.5 and 25° confirmed that the genetic linkage to Vmax corresponds to the S288C version of the FLO1 allele, as the absence of this allele reduced Vmax by ∼50% at 12.5°, but not at 25°. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis (RHA between S288C and RM11-1a FLO1 alleles did not confirm the prediction that the S288C version of FLO1 was promoting more rapid fermentation in the opposing strain background, suggesting that the positive effect on Vmax derived from S288C FLO1 may only provide an advantage in haploids, or is dependent on strain-specific cis or trans effects. This research adds to the growing body of evidence demonstrating the role of FLO1 in providing stress tolerance to S. cerevisiae during fermentation.
Wynn, J. G.
Traditionally, beer contains 4 simple ingredients: water, barley, hops and yeast. Each of these ingredients used in the brewing process contributes some combination of a number of "traditional" stable isotopes (i.e., isotopes of H, C, O, N and S) to the final product. As an educational exercise in an "Analytical Techniques in Geology" course, a group of students analyzed the isotopic composition of the gas, liquid and solid phases of a variety of beer samples collected from throughout the world (including other beverages). The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of the water followed closely the isotopic composition of local meteoric water at the source of the brewery, although there is a systematic offset from the global meteoric water line that may be due to the effects of CO2-H2O equilibration. The carbon isotopic composition of the CO2 reflected that of the solid residue (the source of carbon used as a fermentation substrate), but may potentially be modified by addition of gas-phase CO2 from an inorganic source. The carbon isotopic composition of the solid residue similarly tracks that of the fermentation substrate, and may indicate some alcohol fermented from added sugars in some cases. The nitrogen isotopic composition of the solid residue was relatively constant, and may track the source of nitrogen in the barley, hops and yeast. Each of the analytical methods used is a relatively standard technique used in geological applications, making this a "fun" exercise for those involved, and gives the students hands-on experience with a variety of analytes from a non-traditional sample material.
Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Díaz-Cruz, Claudio A; Villarruel-López, Angelica; Del Refugio Torres-Vitela, M; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Castro-Rosas, Javier
Pulque is a traditional Mexican fermented alcoholic beverage produced from the nectar of maguey agave plants. No data exist on the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in agave nectar and pulque. An initial trial was done of the behavior of E. coli O157:H7 during fermentation of nectar from a single producer, a nectar mixture from different producers and "seed" pulque. A second trial simulating artisanal pulque production was done by contaminating fresh nectar with a cocktail of three E. coli O157:H7 strains, storing at 16 ° and 22 °C for 14 h, adding seed pulque and fermenting until pulque was formed. A third trial used pulque from the second trial stored at 22 °C as seed to ferment fresh nectar at 22 °C for 48 h (fermentation cycle). This procedure was repeated for an additional two fermentation cycles. During incubation at 16 ° or 22 °C in the first trial, the E. coli O157:H7 strains multiplied in both the single producer nectar and nectar mixture, reaching maximum concentration at 12h. E. coli O157:H7 cell concentration then decreased slowly, although it survived at least 72 h in both fermented nectars. E. coli O157:H7 did not multiply in the seed pulque but did survive at least 72 h. In the second trial, the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 increased approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml at 22 °C and 1.2 log CFU/ml at 16 °C after 14 h. After seed pulque was added, E. coli O157:H7 concentration decreased to approximately 2 log CFU/ml, and then remained constant until pulque was produced. In the third trial, the E. coli O157:H7 cells multiplied and survived during at least three nectar fermentation cycles. The results suggest that E. coli O157:H7 can develop acid and alcohol tolerance in pulque, and constitutes a public health risk for pulque consumers.
张邦建; 王海峰; 武建新
[ Objective ] The reference for the extension of this new type of the compound beverage, which was fermented based on the white gourd, pasania fungus (Lentinus edodes ) and milk as raw material, was provided. [ Method ] The mixed bacteria (Lactobacillius bulgaricus:Streptoccus thermophilus = 1：1 ) was fermented in the juice extracted from white gourd and pasania fungus for the production of the compound beverage and the optimal fermentation indicator was selected by means of orthogonal experiment design. [ Result] The most suitable fermentation condition of the compound beverage was follows: the content of sugar was 7％; the ratio of white gourd to pasania fungus, 2：3,which adding amount was 25％ of total; the amount of stabilizer, 0.2％; the fermentation temperature, 42 ℃ ; the amount of inoculums, 5％;the fermentation time, 4.5 hours and the pH value of product after its being adjusted by acid, 4.25. [ Conclusion ] products presented good white gourd and pasania fungus lactic acid bacteria drink%[目的]以冬瓜、香菇、牛奶为主要原料,通过发酵生产一种新型复合酸乳饮料,为其推广提供参考.[方法]将冬瓜、香菇分别取汁,选取嗜热链球菌和保加利亚乳杆茵(1∶1)的混合菌种为发酵剂进行乳酸发酵生产复合酸乳饮料,通过L9(33)正交试验优化最佳发酵工艺参数.[结果]冬瓜、香菇复合酸乳饮料的最佳配比为:蔗糖用量7%,冬瓜汁与香菇提取液的质量比为2∶3,其添加量为25%,稳定剂添加量为0.2%,发酵温度为42℃,接种量为5%,发酵时间为4.5 h,产品经调酸后pH值为4.25.[结论]冬瓜、香菇复合乳酸饮料滋味独特,香气浓郁,价格低廉,具有较高的营养和保健价值.
Kristensen, Mia Irene
og HPLC. Både fruktose og glukose blev fuldt forbrugt under fermenteringen, mens koncentrationen af sorbitol og sukrose var uforandret. Den primære syre i kirsebærvinene var æblesyre i koncentration (25-27g/L). Ethanol koncentrationen blev også målt, med HPLC, til henholdsvis 9,2 vol% (L9) og 9,4vol...
Duarte, Whasley F.; Dragone, Giuliano; Dias, D. R.; Teixeira, J. A.; Schawn, R. F.; Oliveira, J. M.
Volatile sulfur compounds are known to have very powerful and characteristic odours, and can contribute to pleasant or unpleasant aromas of a wine, according to their nature and concentration. Their concentration has a great influence on sensory properties, often being strongly dependent on threshold values, normally low. The determination of sulfur compounds, eluted in a chromatographic column, has been performed using mainly flame photometric detection (FPD), sulfur chemiluminescence detect...
Full Text Available Problem statement: In the highly competitive market, the availability of consumer support is the key to market-based beverage stores. Consumer demands for quality service so the industry must be more active to improve the quality of management to ensure that beverage market position. In order to allow market competition to be improved for the beverage store. Approach: The system builds an information network using web-based system provides operators and consumers a direct interaction. Enter the phone number provided by the consumer via the Send Message System (SMS verification code to obtain the online ordering drinks service. Using the Internet Information Technology makes the real-time order so that consumers can enjoy easy ordering and comfortable environment. Results: Using this internet beverage ordering system the online consumers can enjoy the choice of ordering drinks. This internet beverage ordering system would also build some databases to support, such as beverage type database, order database, outgoing regional database, these databases information will enable the industry to conduct drinks promotion strategy adjustments. Conclusion: This study uses cell phone number to enable consumers to obtain authentication codes via SMS. Necessary to convert the current beverage stores different marketing approach, through the information network and Web page interactivity, so that consumers would feel very interesting and fresh.
Malbaša Radomir V.
Full Text Available Iron is essential element for human metabolism and it is a constituent of both heme- containing and nonheme proteins. Its deficiency can cause serious diseases, i.e. iron-deficiency anemia, with some fatal consequences. Tea fungus beverage has high nutritional value and some pharmaceutical effects. It is widely consumed allover the world and its benefits were proved a number of times. The aim of this paper was to investigate tea fungus fermentation on a substrate containing iron(II-ions and the possibility of obtaining a beverage enriched with iron. We monitored pH, iron content and also the production of L-ascorbic acid, which is very important for iron absorption in humans.
Kappes, S M; Schmidt, S J; Lee, S-Y
Bulk sweeteners provide functional properties in beverages, including sweet taste, bulking, bitter masking, structure, and mouthfeel. Diet beverages come closer to the taste of regular beverages using a blend of high-intensity sweeteners; however, some properties, including bulking, structure, and mouthfeel, remain significantly different. Relating physical properties to sensory characteristics is an important step in understanding why mouthfeel differences are apparent in beverages sweetened with alternative sweeteners compared to bulk sweeteners. The objectives of this research were to (1) measure sweetener profile, Brix, refractive index, viscosity, a(w), carbonation, titratable acidity, and pH of commercial carbonated beverages; and (2) correlate the physical property measurements to descriptive analysis of the beverages. Correlation analysis, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis, and cluster analysis were used to analyze the data. Brix, viscosity, and sweet taste were highly correlated among one another and were all negatively correlated to a(w). Carbonated and decarbonated pH were highly correlated to each other and were both negatively correlated to mouthcoating. Numbing, burn, bite, and carbonation were highly correlated to total acidity, citric acid, and ascorbic acid and negatively correlated to phosphoric acid. The mouthfeel difference between diet and regular lemon/lime carbonated beverages is small and may be related to overall differences between flavor, acid, and sweetener types and usage levels. This research is significant because it demonstrates the use of both sensory attributes and physical properties to identify types of ingredients and levels that may decrease the mouthfeel perception differences between regular and diet carbonated beverages, which could consequently lead to higher acceptance of diet beverages by the consumers of regular.
Hendra Adiyatna, . Marimin
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate and to apply economic efficiency performance measurement methods for tea beverage agroindustry. These measurements were based on twelve technique and economic efficiency criteria, which illustrate the condition of the processes. This illustration was able to explain the material and the energy utilization, variance of the processes and product, handling of the waste and acceptance in the market. The methodology was divided into three steps: (1 defining the technique and the economic criteria, appropriate to the circumstance of the processes, (2 state efficiency the level status, (3 evaluation and structure prioritizing of the processes improvement alternatives. The results of this work indicates that there are seven appropriate criteria. The status of the efficiency is in the medium level. The improvement priorities recommended include optimization of material and energy usage and minimization of breaktime of the critical processes
Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F
The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Juliana de Cássia Gomes Rocha
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and characterize beverages formulated with whey protein and added lutein. Beverages formulated with 0.5 (F1, 2.0 (F2, 4.0 (F3 and 6.0% w/v (F4 whey protein were physicochemically and microbiologically characterized, and sensory evaluated. The physicochemical analyses indicated that the protein content significantly changed (P0.05 with increased protein content. The F2 formulation showed the highest sensory acceptance. Beverages offer a promising alternative to whey use and enhance the value of the product by the addition of lutein.
张丽珍; 曾志将; 颜伟玉; 吴小波
The brewing technology of Sapium discolor honey vinegar and its beverage production condition were both investigated in this study, where Sapium discolor honey was used as raw material. The optimum fermentation condition of acetic acid and the beverage's preparing technology were determined through orthogonal tests. Results showed that the optimum conditions of acetic acid fermentation were 7% initial alcohol content, 10% inoculum amount, initial pH 4.5, fermentation temperature 30 ℃, rotary velocity 200 r/min and fermentation period 6 days; The optimal composition of this honey vinegar beverage were 10%(V/V) honey vinegar, 18%(V/V) lotus pollen wall-broken juice, 0.2% citric acid, 8% Sapium discolor honey. The resulting beverage had natural fragrant smell of honey and pollen, proper sour taste and u-nique flavor.%以山乌桕蜜为原料,研究了蜂蜜醋的酿造工艺及其饮料的生产工艺条件.通过正交实验确定了醋酸发酵最优工艺条件及其饮料调配的最佳条件.结果表明:醋酸发酵的最佳工艺条件为起始酒精度7％(体积分数),接种量10％(体积分数),起始pH 4.5,发酵温度30℃,转速200 r/min,发酵周期6d;蜂蜜醋饮料调配的最佳条件是:山乌桕蜂蜜原醋10％(体积分数),莲花粉破壁液18％(体积分数),柠檬酸0.2％(质量分数),山乌桕蜂蜜8％(质量分数).所调配的蜂蜜醋饮料具有天然的蜜香和淡淡的花粉香,酸甜爽口,风味独特.
Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen
Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.
Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E
A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction.
de Grys, Hans
New methodologies for determining the pressure inside an unopened carbonated beverage are presented. Such investigations also help the students to think deeply about a subject, giving them better understanding.
... beverages is not a contribution where such items are voluntarily provided by an individual volunteering... of a political party for party-related activity, to the extent that: The aggregate value of...
Yu I Sidorov
Basic information about modern pilot fermentation apparatus in sterile implementation used for the down-scaling of processes of cultivation of microorganisms, vegetable and animal cells, leading...
Currell, Kevin; Urch, Joanna; Cerri, Erika; Jentjens, Roy L P; Blannin, Andy K; Jeukendrup, Asker E
Optimal fluid delivery from carbohydrate solutions such as oral rehydration solutions or sports drinks is essential. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a beverage containing glucose and fructose would result in greater fluid delivery than a beverage containing glucose alone. Six male subjects were recruited (average age (+/-SD): 22 +/- 2 y). Subjects entered the laboratory between 0700 h and 0900 h after an overnight fast. A 600 mL bolus of 1 of the 3 experimental beverages was then given. The experimental beverages were water (W), 75 g glucose (G), or 50 g glucose and 25 g fructose (GF); each beverage also contained 3.00 g of D2O. Following administration of the experimental beverage subjects remained in a seated position for 180 min. Blood and saliva samples were then taken every 5 min in the first hour and every 15 min thereafter. Plasma and saliva samples were analyzed for deuterium enrichment by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Deuterium oxide enrichments were compared using a 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance. The water trial (33 +/- 3 min) showed a significantly shorter time to peak than either G (82 +/- 40 min) or GF (59 +/- 25 min), but the difference between G and GF did not reach statistical significance. There was a significantly greater AUC for GF (55 673 +/- 10 020 delta per thousand vs. Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW).180 min) and W (60 497 +/- 9864 delta per thousand vs. VSMOW.180 min) compared with G (46 290 +/- 9622 delta per thousand vs. VSMOW.180 min); W and GF were not significantly different from each other. These data suggest that a 12.5% carbohydrate beverage containing glucose and fructose results in more rapid fluid delivery in the first 75 min than a beverage containing glucose alone.
Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbaek, Morten
The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake.......The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake....
Bragg, Marie A; Miller, Alysa N; Elizee, Juleen; Dighe, Shatabdi; Elbel, Brian D
Food and beverage marketing has been associated with childhood obesity. We quantified the number and type of food or beverage brands promoted by music celebrities, assessed the nutritional quality of the products, and examined Teen Choice Award data to assess the celebrities' popularity among adolescents. This was a descriptive study. A list of music celebrities associated with the 2013 and 2014 Billboard Hot 100 Chart, which ranks songs according to sales and radio impressions, was compiled. Data on celebrity endorsements were gathered from official company Web sites, YouTube commercials, an advertising database, and media reports. Nutritional quality of foods was assessed according to the Nutrient Profile Index, whereas nonalcoholic beverages were evaluated based on calories from added sugar. Teen Choice Award nominations were used to measure the celebrities' popularity among adolescents. Of the 590 endorsements made by the 163 celebrities in the sample, consumer goods (eg, fragrances, makeup) represented the largest endorsement category (26%), followed by food and beverage (18%) and retail (11%). Sixty-five celebrities were collectively associated with 57 different food and beverage brands owned by 38 parent companies. Of these 65 celebrities, 53 (81.5%) had ≥1 Teen Choice Award nomination. Forty-nine (71%) of the 69 nonalcoholic beverage references promoted sugar-sweetened beverages. Twenty-one (80.8%) of the 26 endorsed foods were energy dense and nutrient poor. Baauer, will.i.am, Justin Timberlake, Maroon 5, and Britney Spears had the most food and beverage endorsements. This study demonstrates that music celebrities who are popular among adolescents endorse energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Popkin, Barry M
Sugary beverages represent a major global threat to the health of all populations. The shifts in distribution, marketing, and sales have made them the plague of the globe in terms of obesity, diabetes, and a host of other chronic health problems. The fructose-laden beverages have unique properties that lead to lack of dietary compensation and direct adverse effects on our health. Global efforts to limit marketing and sales are necessary to protect the health of the planet.
Cuomo, R; Sarnelli, G; Savarese, M F; Buyckx, M
A wealth of information has appeared on non-scientific publications, some suggesting a positive effect of carbonated beverages on gastrointestinal diseases or health, and others a negative one. The evaluation of the properties of carbonated beverages mainly involves the carbon dioxide with which they are charged. Scientific evidence suggests that the main interactions between carbon dioxide and the gastrointestinal system occur in the oral cavity, the esophagus and the stomach. The impact of carbonation determines modification in terms of the mouthfeel of beverages and has a minor role in tooth erosion. Some surveys showed a weak association between carbonated beverages and gastroesophageal reflux disease; however, the methodology employed was often inadequate and, on the overall, the evidence available on this topic is contradictory. Influence on stomach function appears related to both mechanical and chemical effects. Symptoms related to a gastric mechanical distress appear only when drinking more than 300 ml of a carbonated fluid. In conclusion there is now sufficient scientific evidence to understand the physiological impact of carbonated beverages on the gastrointestinal system, while providing a basis for further investigation on the related pathophysiological aspects. However, more studies are needed, particularly intervention trials, to support any claim on the possible beneficial effects of carbonated beverages on the gastrointestinal system, and clarify how they affect digestion. More epidemiological and mechanistic studies are also needed to evaluate the possible drawbacks of their consumption in terms of risk of tooth erosion and gastric distress.
von Fraunhofer, J Anthony; Rogers, Matthew M
A high percentage of people consume soft drinks that contain sugar or artificial sweeteners, flavorings, and various additives. The popularity of sports (energy) drinks is growing and this pilot study compares enamel dissolution in these and a variety of other beverages. Enamel blocks (approximately 7.0 x 5.0 x 2.5 mm) were sectioned from sound extracted human premolars and molars and measured, weighed, and immersed in the selected beverages for a total of 14 days. The pH of all beverages was measured. The enamel sections were weighed at regular intervals throughout the immersion period with the solutions being changed daily; all studies were performed in duplicate. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffe testing. Enamel dissolution occurred in all of the tested beverages, with far greater attack occurring in flavored and energy (sports) drinks than previously noted for water and cola drinks. No correlation was found between enamel dissolution and beverage pH. Non-cola drinks, commercial lemonades, and energy/sports drinks showed the most aggressive dissolution effect on dental enamel. Reduced residence times of beverages in the mouth by salivary clearance or rinsing would appear to be beneficial.
Colina, Jhoana; Guerra, Marisa; Guilarte, Doralys; Alvarado, Carlos
The objective of this work was to determine the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity in beverages made with panela (a natural sweetener obtained after drying the unrefined whole sugarcane juice) in order to assess their potential as sources of antioxidants. In beverages made with three panela brands (A, B and C) with lemon, tangerine and peach flavors, the total polyphenols content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu's reactive and antioxidant capacity was determined by three methods: antiradical efficiency DPPH, ferric reducing power (FRP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The total polyphenols content ranged from 0.76 to 1.26 EAG g/mL and 0.73 to 1.32 EAT g/mL. The lemon flavored beverage showed the highest total polyphenols content followed by tangerine and peach flavored beverages. The three beverages had a low antiradical efficiency (AE) and the antioxidant compounds present in the beverages showed a slow kinetic. The ferric reducing power ranged from 8.28 to 10.41 mmol Fe(+2)/L. The ORAC values ranged from 1,536 to 5,220 micromol ET/100 mL. The brand B showed the highest ORAC, followed by brands A and C. The brand-flavor interaction significantly affects the total polyphenols content and the EA, thermal processing also significantly affect the AE (p panela indicate that they are products potentially with antioxidant capacity.
Ogawa, A; Cho, H
To emphasize the coffee flavor, many milk coffee beverages contain coffee extracts; these are the so-called "rich milk coffee" beverages. When the content of the coffee extracts increases, milk coffee beverages become unstable. The milk ring formation, or oiling off, is accelerated in these kinds of drinks. We prepared a "rich milk coffee" beverage and studied the stability of the emulsion. We also investigated the influence of the food emulsifiers on the stability of the emulsion. We tried to test the emulsifier system in order to improve the emulsion stability. When the milk coffee beverage with a low light value for the roasted coffee beans sterilized by UHT was stored at a low temperature, the milk component strongly separated. We found that the sucrose monoester with a high HLB and diglycerol monoester accelerated the milk separation, and the decaglycerol monoester controlled the milk separation. We discussed the milk separation mechanism and showed that maintaining the hydration of the hydrophilic group in the rich milk coffee beverage was related to the combination of emulsifiers that control the milk separation.
Full Text Available Abstract Manihot M. utilissima fermentation is popular foods and drinks for Indonesia people but it fermented foods 24 hours per day will breed fungi and anaerobic bacteriae so it will make it into acidic foods and alcoholic beverages. Ultrasonic 48 kHz 5 Vpp 1 VDC with functional generator and of the two models of transducers will have two different phenomena on M. utilissima fermentation. Methods Model-1. Radiation ultrasonic transducer plate or Flat of piezoelectric speakers2 were applied with transducers M. utilissima dipped in a test tube. Model-2. Knob or small ball ultrasonic transducer 12 balls were applied with transducers of tin knob which was connected to the copper wire2 and piezoelectricspeakers were dipped into the media M. utilissima in a test tube. After ultrasonic radiation fluid liquid from two models of transducers measured total acid in M. utilissima fermentation liquid by paper indicators of potential Hydrogen pH. The conclusion of this study can predict different phenomena namely the transducer plate of the initial pH value-acid fermentation M. utilissima can change increases the pH-value end of the base which means that the transducer plate has a cavitation phenomenon and media M. utilissima lead to the delicious food but on transducer knob that the initial pH value-acid fermentation M. utilissima will decrease more acid value so that have no phenomenon of cavitation and the media will lead M. utilissima to be alcoholic foods.
关莹; 张冬雪; 张军
本试验采用二次发酵法,通过对黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋的酒精发酵及醋酸发酵的优化,最终确定黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋的酒精发酵最佳工艺为:黑加仑果汁与蓝莓果汁3∶2复合,在初始糖度8°Bx、初始pH3.8、28℃发酵6d、.醋酸发酵最佳条件为:发酵温度35℃,通风量为1∶0.10～0.15(V/V/min),酒精含量6.0%.接种量8.0%,初始pH5.5.黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋饮料配方:12%复合果醋、5.5%白砂糖、2%蜂蜜、0.1%食盐、0.06%复合香抖,评分为92分.工艺调整后的放大生产产品质量仍稳定、达标.产品具有食醋清香和黑加仑、蓝莓果香,酸味柔和,风味独特.%The tests used secondary fermentation on composite fruit vinegar beverage of blackcurrants and blueberry. From optimization of acetic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation ,the optimum alcoholic fermentation technology of composite juice of blackcurrants and blueberry was as follows: blackcurrant and blueberry fruit juice mixed with 3:2,initial sugar degree 18。 BX,fermentation temperature 28℃ ,fermentation time 6d,initial pH 3.8.The optimized fermentation conditions of acetic acid were as follows:temperature 35℃,ventilation quantity controlled between l:0.10_0.15(v/v)min,initial content of alcohol 6.0％,inoculum concentration 8.0％, initial pH 5.5.The formula of composite fruit vinegar beverage of blackcurrants and blueberry was as follows:composite fruit vinegar 12％,white sugar 5.5％,honey 2％ ,common salt 0.1％,composite flavor 0.06％,a score of 92.The products' quality of amplification production after technique adjustment was still stable and could attain the standards.
Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin
Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption.
Álvarez-Ainza, M L; Zamora-Quiñonez, K A; Moreno-Ibarra, G M; Acedo-Félix, E
Bacanora is a spirituous beverage elaborated with Agave angustifolia Haw in an artisanal process. Natural fermentation is mostly performed with native yeasts and bacteria. In this study, 228 strains of yeast like Saccharomyces were isolated from the natural alcoholic fermentation on the production of bacanora. Restriction analysis of the amplified region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA genes (RFLPr) were used to confirm the genus, and 182 strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These strains displayed high genomic variability in their chromosomes profiles by karyotyping. Electrophoretic profiles of the strains evaluated showed a large number of chromosomes the size of which ranged between 225 and 2200 kpb approximately.
Mas, Albert; Guillamon, Jose Manuel; Torija, Maria Jesus; Beltran, Gemma; Cerezo, Ana B; Troncoso, Ana M; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen
Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements.
Guillamon, Jose Manuel; Torija, Maria Jesus; Beltran, Gemma; Troncoso, Ana M.; Garcia-Parrilla, M. Carmen
Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements. PMID:24895623
Full Text Available Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements.
Husøy, T; Mangschou, B; Fotland, T Ø; Kolset, S O; Nøtvik Jakobsen, H; Tømmerberg, I; Bergsten, C; Alexander, J; Frost Andersen, L
A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and sales volumes provided by the manufactures. The daily intake of sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid were estimated for children (1- to 13-years-old) and adults according to the current intake level and a substitution scenario where it was assumed that all consumed beverages contained intense sweeteners. The change from sugar sweetened to diet beverages reduced the total intake of added sugar for all age groups but especially for adolescent. This change did not result in intake of intense sweeteners from beverages above the respective ADIs. However, the intake of acesulfame K approached ADI for small children and the total intake of benzoic acid was increased to above ADI for most age groups. The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern.
Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L
Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines.
Popkin, Barry M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Bray, George M; Caballero, Benjamin; Frei, Balz; Willett, Walter C
The Beverage Guidance Panel was assembled to provide guidance on the relative health and nutritional benefits and risks of various beverage categories. The beverage panel was initiated by the first author. The Panel's purpose is to attempt to systematically review the literature on beverages and health and provide guidance to the consumer. An additional purpose of the Panel is to develop a deeper dialog among the scientific community on overall beverage consumption patterns in the United States and on the great potential to change this pattern as a way to improve health. Over the past several decades, levels of overweight and obesity have increased across all population groups in the United States. Concurrently, an increased daily intake of 150-300 kcal (for different age-sex groups) has occurred, with approximately 50% of the increased calories coming from the consumption of calorically sweetened beverages. The panel ranked beverages from the lowest to the highest value based on caloric and nutrient contents and related health benefits and risks. Drinking water was ranked as the preferred beverage to fulfill daily water needs and was followed in decreasing value by tea and coffee, low-fat (1.5% or 1%) and skim (nonfat) milk and soy beverages, noncalorically sweetened beverages, beverages with some nutritional benefits (fruit and vegetable juices, whole milk, alcohol, and sports drinks), and calorically sweetened, nutrient-poor beverages. The Panel recommends that the consumption of beverages with no or few calories should take precedence over the consumption of beverages with more calories.
Rossi, Marcelo Rabello; Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio
The presence of monoethyl carbonate (MEC) in beer and sparkling wine is demonstrated for the first time, as well as the formation of this species in drinks prepared with a distilled beverage and a carbonated soft drink. A capillary electrophoresis (CE) equipment with two capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) was used to identify and quantify this species. The concentrations of MEC in samples of lager beer and rum and cola drink were, respectively, 1.2 and 4.1 mmol/l, which agree with the levels of ethanol and CO2 available in these products. Previous results about the kinetics of the reaction suggest that only a small amount of MEC should be formed after the ingredients of a drink are mixed. However, in all three cases (whisky and club soda; rum with cola; gin and tonic water), MEC was quickly formed, which was attributed to the low pH of the drinks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Han, Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao; Shinguryo, Takuro
This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans & bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.
Settanni, L; Corsetti, A
Regarding food safety, rapid detection of microbial species is crucial to develop effective preventive and/or adjustment measures. Classical methods for determining the presence of certain species are time-consuming and labor-intensive, hence, molecular methods, which offer speed, sensitivity and specificity, have been developed to address this problem. Multiplex PCR (MPCR) is widely applied in the various fields of microbiology for the rapid differentiation of microbial species without compromising accuracy. This paper describes the method and reports on the state-of-the-art application of this technique to the identification of microorganisms vehiculated with foods and beverages. The identification of both pathogens and probiotics and the species important for food fermentation or deterioration will be discussed. Applications of MPCR in combination with other techniques are also reviewed. Potentials, pitfalls, limitations and future prospects are summarised.
@@ 1 Output increases steadily The main products of China's fermen-tation industry include amino acid,organic acid, enzyme preparation,yeast, starch and starch sugar, spe-cial functional fermented products,etc. Monosodium glutamate is themain product of amino acid, and cit-ric acid is the main product of or-ganic acid.