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Sample records for cereal pathogen gibberella

  1. Recent advances in genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development, energy metabolism and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zongyi; Zhu, Wei; Su, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

    2014-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus, Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae), is the most common causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease for cereal crops worldwide. F. graminearum produces ascospores (sexual spores) and conidia (asexual spores), which can serve as disease inocula of FHB. Meanwhile, Fusarium-infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as trichothecenes (TRIs), fumonisins, and zearalenones, among which TRIs are related to the pathogenicity of F. graminearum, and these toxins are hazardous to humans and livestock. In recent years, with the complete genome sequencing of F. graminearum, an increasing number of functional genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites, hyphal differentiation, sexual and asexual reproduction, virulence and pathogenicity have been identified from F. graminearum. In this review, the secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development and pathogenicity related genes in F. graminearum were thoroughly summarized, and the genes associated with secondary metabolites, sexual reproduction, energy metabolism, and pathogenicity were highlighted. PMID:24389085

  2. Deletion and Complementation of the Mating Type (MAT) Locus of the Wheat Head Blight Pathogen Gibberella zeae

    OpenAIRE

    Desjardins, A E; Brown, D W; Yun, S.-H.; Proctor, R.H.; Lee, T.; Plattner, R. D.; Lu, S.-W.; Turgeon, B G

    2004-01-01

    Gibberella zeae, a self-fertile, haploid filamentous ascomycete, causes serious epidemics of wheat (Triticum aestivum) head blight worldwide and contaminates grain with trichothecene mycotoxins. Anecdotal evidence dating back to the late 19th century indicates that G. zeae ascospores (sexual spores) are a more important inoculum source than are macroconidia (asexual spores), although the fungus can produce both during wheat head blight epidemics. To develop fungal strains to test this hypothe...

  3. Impact of selected antagonistic fungi on Fusarium species – toxigenic cereal pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Delfina Popiel; Hanna Kwaśny; Jerzy Chełkowski; Łukasz Stępień; Magdalena Laskowska

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium-ear blight is a destructive disease in various cereal-growing regions and leads to significant yield and quality losses for farmers and to contamination of cereal grains with mycotoxins, mainly deoxynivalenol and derivatives, zearalenone and moniliformin. Fusarium pathogens grow well and produce significant inoculum on crop resiudues. Reduction of mycotoxins production and pathogen sporulation may be influenced by saprophytic fungi, exhibiting antagonistic effect. Dual culture bioass...

  4. The potential of Miscanthus to harbour known cereal pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Glynn, E.; Brennan, J. M.; Walsh, Eilín; Feechan, Angela; McDonnell, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Miscanthus holds great potential as a bioenergy crop and Ireland has ideal conditions for its cultivation, however limited information is available about the interactions between Miscanthus and soil fungi which are pathogenic to other crops grown in Ireland and the UK. Miscanthus may therefore be susceptible to soil-borne pathogens present in the soil prior to crop establishment or may harbour pathogens and facilitate transmission of disease to other crops. The response of Miscanthus to a num...

  5. Role of Cereal Secondary Metabolites Involved in Mediating the Outcome of Plant-Pathogen Interactions

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    Lauren A. Du Fall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereal crops such as wheat, rice and barley underpin the staple diet for human consumption globally. A multitude of threats to stable and secure yields of these crops exist including from losses caused by pathogens, particularly fungal. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to resist pathogens including programmed cell death responses, the release of pathogenicity-related proteins and oxidative bursts. Another such mechanism is the synthesis and release of secondary metabolites toxic to potential pathogens. Several classes of these compounds have been identified and their anti-fungal properties demonstrated. However the lack of suitable analytical techniques has hampered the progress of identifying and exploiting more of these novel metabolites. In this review, we summarise the role of the secondary metabolites in cereal crop diseases and briefly touch on the analytical techniques that hold the key to unlocking their potential in reducing yield losses.

  6. The Potential for Cereal Rye Cover Crops to Host Corn Seedling Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Matthew G; Acharya, Jyotsna; Moorman, Thomas B; Robertson, Alison E; Kaspar, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil and water quality. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn may diminish beneficial rotation effects because two grass species are grown in succession. Here, we show that rye cover crops host pathogens capable of causing corn seedling disease. We isolated Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, Pythium sylvaticum, and P. torulosum from roots of rye and demonstrate their pathogenicity on corn seedlings. Over 2 years, we quantified the densities of these organisms in rye roots from several field experiments and at various intervals of time after rye cover crops were terminated. Pathogen load in rye roots differed among fields and among years for particular fields. Each of the four pathogen species increased in density over time on roots of herbicide-terminated rye in at least one field site, suggesting the broad potential for rye cover crops to elevate corn seedling pathogen densities. The radicles of corn seedlings planted following a rye cover crop had higher pathogen densities compared with seedlings following a winter fallow. Management practices that limit seedling disease may be required to allow corn yields to respond positively to improvements in soil quality brought about by cover cropping. PMID:26926485

  7. Gibberella zeae Ascospore Production and Collection for Microarray Experiments.

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquali, Matias; Kistler, Corby

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) is a plant pathogen causing scab disease on wheat and barley that reduces crop yield and grain quality. F. graminearum also causes stalk and ear rots of maize and is a producer of mycotoxins such as the trichothecenes that contaminate grain and are harmful to humans and livestock (Goswami and Kistler, 2004). The fungus produces two types of spores. Ascospores, the propagules resulting from sexual reproduction, are the main source o...

  8. ALTERATIONS IN B VERSUS C FUMONISIN PRODUCTION BY TRANSFORMATION OF THE FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM FUM8 CODING REGION INTO GIBBERELLA MONILIFORMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins that cause several animal diseases, including cancer in rodents. These toxins are produced by the maize pathogen Gibberella moniliformis (anamorph Fusarium verticillioides), several closely related Fusarium species, and at least one isolate of F. oxysporum. G. moniliformi...

  9. A putative transcription factor MYT1 is required for female fertility in the ascomycete Gibberella zeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lin

    Full Text Available Gibberella zeae is an important pathogen of major cereal crops. The fungus produces ascospores that forcibly discharge from mature fruiting bodies, which serve as the primary inocula for disease epidemics. In this study, we characterized an insertional mutant Z39P105 with a defect in sexual development and identified a gene encoding a putative transcription factor designated as MYT1. This gene contains a Myb DNA-binding domain and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. The MYT1 protein fused with green fluorescence protein localized in nuclei, which supports its role as a transcriptional regulator. The MYT1 deletion mutant showed similar phenotypes to the wild-type strain in vegetative growth, conidia production and germination, virulence, and mycotoxin production, but had defect in female fertility. A mutant overexpressing MYT1 showed earlier germination, faster mycelia growth, and reduced mycotoxin production compared to the wild-type strain, suggesting that improper MYT1 expression affects the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and secondary metabolite production. This study is the first to characterize a transcription factor containing a Myb DNA-binding domain that is specific to sexual development in G. zeae.

  10. Host gene response to endosymbiont and pathogen in the cereal weevil Sitophilus oryzae

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    Vigneron Aurélien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects thriving on nutritionally poor habitats have integrated mutualistic intracellular symbiotic bacteria (endosymbionts in a bacteria-bearing tissue (the bacteriome that isolates the endosymbionts and protects them against a host systemic immune response. Whilst the metabolic and physiological features of long-term insect associations have been investigated in detail over the past decades, cellular and immune regulations that determine the host response to endosymbionts and pathogens have attracted interest more recently. Results To investigate bacteriome cellular specificities and weevil immune responses to bacteria, we have constructed and sequenced 7 cDNA libraries from Sitophilus oryzae whole larvae and bacteriomes. Bioinformatic analysis of 26,886 ESTs led to the generation of 8,941 weevil unigenes. Based on in silico analysis and on the examination of genes involved in the cellular pathways of potential interest to intracellular symbiosis (i.e. cell growth and apoptosis, autophagy, immunity, we have selected and analyzed 29 genes using qRT-PCR, taking into consideration bacteriome specificity and symbiosis impact on the host response to pathogens. We show that the bacteriome tissue accumulates transcripts from genes involved in cellular development and survival, such as the apoptotic inhibitors iap2 and iap3, and endosomal fusion and trafficking, such as Rab7, Hrs, and SNARE. As regards our investigation into immunity, we first strengthen the bacteriome immunomodulation previously reported in S. zeamais. We show that the sarcotoxin, the c-type lysozyme, and the wpgrp2 genes are downregulated in the S. oryzae bacteriome, when compared to aposymbiotic insects and insects challenged with E. coli. Secondly, transcript level comparison between symbiotic and aposymbiotic larvae provides evidence that the immune systemic response to pathogens is decreased in symbiotic insects, as shown by the relatively high expression of

  11. Loss of Gibberellin Production in Fusarium verticillioides (Gibberella fujikuroi MP-A) Is Due to a Deletion in the Gibberellic Acid Gene Cluster▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bömke, Christiane; Rojas, Maria C.; Hedden, Peter; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A [MP-A]) is a widespread pathogen on maize and is well-known for producing fumonisins, mycotoxins that cause severe disease in animals and humans. The species is a member of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, which consists of at least 11 different biological species, termed MP-A to -K. All members of this species complex are known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites. The production of gibberellins (GAs), a gro...

  12. Application of gamma-irradiation to cereals and cereals products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-irradiation may be used on cereals and cereal products to control insect infestation and microbiological problems. Such problems include mould growth, mycotoxin production, pathogens, spore-forming organisms and total microbial load. Deleterious effects of gamma-irradiation arise only at relatively high dose levels with consequences on germination rate, wheat flour dough properties, and cake and noodle quality. Radiation-induced changes to starch have greater impact on behaviour of cereal products than such changes to other cereal components

  13. Distribution Frequency and Incidence of Seed-borne Pathogens of Some Cereals and Industrial Crops in Serbia

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    Jelena Lević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 41 species of fungi were isolated from seed samples of barley, maize, soybean,and sunflower collected at different locations in Serbia. The majority of detected speciesoccurred on barley (35 of 41 species or 87.8% comparing to soybean (17 of 41 species or41.5%, sunflower (16 of 41 species or 39.0% and maize (15 of 41 species or 36.9%. Speciesbelonging to genera Alternaria, Chaetomium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhizopuswere present on seeds of all four plant species. Alternaria species were dominant on soybean,barley and sunflower seeds (85.7%, 84.7% and 76.9%. F. verticillioides and Penicilliumspp. were mainly isolated from maize seeds (100 and 92.3% respectively, while other specieswere isolated up to 38.5% (Chaetomium spp. and Rhizopus spp.. F. graminearum, F. proliferatum,F. poae and F. sporotrichioides were the most common Fusarium species isolatedfrom barley (51.1-93.3%, while on the soybean seeds F. oxysporum (71.4%, F. semitectum(57.1% and F. sporotrichioides (57.1% were prevalent. Frequency of Fusarium species onsunflower seeds varied from 7% (F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinansto 15.4% (F. verticillioides. Statistically significant negative correlation (r = –0.678* wasdetermined for the incidence of F. graminearum and Alternaria spp., as well as, Fusarium spp.and Alternaria spp. (r = –0.614*, on barley seeds. The obtained results revealed that seedbornepathogens were present in most seed samples of important cereals and industrialcrops grown under different agroecological conditions in Serbia. Some of the identifiedfungi are potential producers of mycotoxins, thus their presence is important in termsof reduced food safety for humans and animals. Therefore, an early and accurate diagnosisand pathogen surveillance will provide time for the development and the applicationof disease strategies.

  14. BREAKFAST CEREALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter written for the Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition summarizes the Cereal Breakfast industry in world up to 2003. The areas covered are the brief history of cereal processing, their classification i.e., ready to eat or hot cereals and their processing methods. It covers the re...

  15. Physiological and Morphological Modifications in Immobilized Gibberella fujikuroi Mycelia

    OpenAIRE

    Saucedo, José Edmundo Nava; Barbotin, Jean-Noël; Thomas, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Constraints created by immobilization conditions modified the physiological behavior and morphological characteristics of Gibberella fujikuroi mycelia in comparison with their development in free-cell conditions. G. fujikuroi mycelia were immobilized in different support matrices (polyurethane, carrageenan, and alginate) and showed a variety of reactions in response to the different microenvironmental factors encountered during and after immobilization. The best support with respect to gibber...

  16. A phage-displayed chicken single-chain antibody fused to alkaline phosphatase detects Fusarium pathogens and their presence in cereal grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A phage-displayed chicken scFv antibody, FvSG7, binds on the surface antigen of conidiospores and the mycelia of F. verticillioides. Its fusion with alkaline phosphatase (AP) through a 218 linker displayed a 4-fold higher affinity compared with the parent scFv antibody and efficiently detected toxigenic Fusarium pathogens in cereal grains. Highlights: ► Generation of a highly reactive scFv antibody against F. verticillioides. ► Localization of the antibody binding to the surface target of F. verticillioides. ► Expression of the antibody–alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion linked by a 218 linker. ► The antibody–AP fusion has a higher affinity than the parental antibody. ► The antibody–AP fusion detects toxigenic Fusarium pathogens in cereal grains. -- Abstract: Fusarium and its poisonous mycotoxins are distributed worldwide and are of particular interest in agriculture and food safety. A simple analytical method to detect pathogens is essential for forecasting diseases and controlling mycotoxins. This article describes a proposed method for convenient and sensitive detection of Fusarium pathogens that uses the fusion of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and alkaline phosphatase (AP). A highly reactive scFv antibody specific to soluble cell wall-bound proteins (SCWPs) of F. verticillioides was selected from an immunized chicken phagemid library by phage display. The antibody was verified to bind on the surface of ungerminated conidiospores and mycelia of F. verticillioides. The scFv–AP fusion was constructed, and soluble expression in bacteria was confirmed. Both the antibody properties and enzymatic activity were retained, and the antigen-binding capacity of the fusion was enhanced by the addition of a linker. Surface plasmon resonance measurements confirmed that the fusion displayed 4-fold higher affinity compared with the fusion's parental scFv antibody. Immunoblot analyses showed that the fusion had good binding capacity to

  17. A phage-displayed chicken single-chain antibody fused to alkaline phosphatase detects Fusarium pathogens and their presence in cereal grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zu-Quan [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Li, He-Ping [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Jing-Bo [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, Tao [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Jin-Long; Xue, Sheng [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wu, Ai-Bo [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-products, Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1000 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Liao, Yu-Cai, E-mail: ycliao06@yahoo.com.cn [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); National Center of Plant Gene Research, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2013-02-18

    Graphical abstract: A phage-displayed chicken scFv antibody, FvSG7, binds on the surface antigen of conidiospores and the mycelia of F. verticillioides. Its fusion with alkaline phosphatase (AP) through a 218 linker displayed a 4-fold higher affinity compared with the parent scFv antibody and efficiently detected toxigenic Fusarium pathogens in cereal grains. Highlights: ► Generation of a highly reactive scFv antibody against F. verticillioides. ► Localization of the antibody binding to the surface target of F. verticillioides. ► Expression of the antibody–alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion linked by a 218 linker. ► The antibody–AP fusion has a higher affinity than the parental antibody. ► The antibody–AP fusion detects toxigenic Fusarium pathogens in cereal grains. -- Abstract: Fusarium and its poisonous mycotoxins are distributed worldwide and are of particular interest in agriculture and food safety. A simple analytical method to detect pathogens is essential for forecasting diseases and controlling mycotoxins. This article describes a proposed method for convenient and sensitive detection of Fusarium pathogens that uses the fusion of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and alkaline phosphatase (AP). A highly reactive scFv antibody specific to soluble cell wall-bound proteins (SCWPs) of F. verticillioides was selected from an immunized chicken phagemid library by phage display. The antibody was verified to bind on the surface of ungerminated conidiospores and mycelia of F. verticillioides. The scFv–AP fusion was constructed, and soluble expression in bacteria was confirmed. Both the antibody properties and enzymatic activity were retained, and the antigen-binding capacity of the fusion was enhanced by the addition of a linker. Surface plasmon resonance measurements confirmed that the fusion displayed 4-fold higher affinity compared with the fusion's parental scFv antibody. Immunoblot analyses showed that the fusion had good binding

  18. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; BARREAU, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of ...

  19. The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP Kinase Signaling Components in the Fungal Development, Stress Response and Virulence of the Fungal Cereal Pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana.

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    Yueqiang Leng

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs have been demonstrated to be involved in fungal development, sexual reproduction, pathogenicity and/or virulence in many filamentous plant pathogenic fungi, but genes for MAPKs in the fungal cereal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana have not been characterized. In this study, orthologues of three MAPK genes (CsSLT2, CsHOG1 and CsFUS3 and one MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK gene (CsSTE11 were identified in the whole genome sequence of the B. sorokiniana isolate ND90Pr, and knockout mutants were generated for each of them. The ∆Csfus3 and ∆Csste11 mutants were defective in conidiation and formation of appressoria-like structures, showed hypersensitivity to oxidative stress and lost pathogenicity on non-wounded leaves of barley cv. Bowman. When inoculated on wounded leaves of Bowman, the ∆Csfus3 and ∆Csste11 mutants were reduced in virulence compared to the wild type. No morphological changes were observed in the ∆Cshog1 mutants in comparison with the wild type; however, they were slightly reduced in growth under oxidative stress and were hypersensitive to hyperosmotic stress. The ∆Cshog1 mutants formed normal appressoria-like structures but were reduced in virulence when inoculated on Bowman leaves. The ∆Csslt2 mutants produced more vegetative hyphae, had lighter pigmentation, were more sensitive to cell wall degrading enzymes, and were reduced in virulence on Bowman leaves, although they formed normal appressoria like the wild type. Root infection assays indicated that the ∆Cshog1 and ∆Csslt2 mutants were able to infect barley roots while the ∆Csfus3 and ∆Csste11 failed to cause any symptoms. However, no significant difference in virulence was observed for ∆Cshog1 mutants while ∆Csslt2 mutants showed significantly reduced virulence on barley roots in comparison with the wild type. Our results indicated that all of these MAPK and MAPKKK genes are involved in the regulation of fungal

  20. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation. PMID:27148243

  1. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vessela eATANASOVA-PENICHON

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation.

  2. The effect of S-(ferrocenylmethyl-thiosalicylic acid sodium salt on the germination and growth of cereal grains and seedlings and on the development of pathogenic fungi

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    Jan Michalczyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The sodium salt of S-(ferrocenylmethyl-thiosalicylic acid was studied in the context of its possible use as a systemic fungicide and, concurrently, as a source of physiologically active iron fur crop plants. It was found that this metallocene was taken up by maize seedlings growing in liquid mediums, and used for chlorophyll synthesis, in a concentration range as low as 0.05-0.08 mM dm-3. In the concentration range of 0.05-1.5 mM dm-3, it inhibited germination, seedling growth and Y-amylase activity while it stimulated the activities of proteinases, catalase and peroxidase. When sprayed on cereal leaves at a concentration of 1.0-2.0 mM dm-3, it exhibited fungicidal properties: inhibition of fungus development without harming cereal plant leaves and stimulated chlorophyll synthesis.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Gibberella zeae extracellular lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. zeae extracellular lipase has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution. Fusarium head blight, one of the most destructive crop diseases, is mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum (known in its sexual stage as Gibberella zeae). F. graminearum secretes various extracellular enzymes that have been hypothesized to be involved in host infection. One of the extracellular enzymes secreted by this organism is the G. zeae extracellular lipase (GZEL), which is encoded by the FGL1 gene. In order to solve the crystal structure of GZEL and to gain a better understanding of the biological functions of the protein and of possible inhibitory mechanisms of lipase inhibitors, recombinant GZEL was crystallized at 291 K using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. A data set was collected to 2.8 Å resolution from a single flash-cooled crystal (100 K). The crystal belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.4, b = 91.0, c = 195.8 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The presence of four molecules was assumed per asymmetric unit, which gave a Matthews coefficient of 2.6 Å3 Da−1

  4. Técnicas de aplicação de fungicida em trigo para o controle de Giberela (Gibberella zeae Fungicidal spray techniques for the control of head blight (Gibberella zeae in wheat

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    Edivan Panisson

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante muitos anos, a giberela, causada pelo fungo Gibberella zeae (anamorfo Fusarium graminearum, foi considerada de importância secundária no sul do Brasil. O aumento da intensidade e da freqüência de ocorrência, tornou a giberela uma das doenças de maior importância na cultura do trigo. A giberela é uma doença de infecção floral e mesmo os fungicidas sistêmicos recomendados apresentam apenas efeito protetor das anteras. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos nos grãos colhidos, de dois tipos de pontas de pulverização (leque e duplo leque, diferentes arranjos dos bicos na barra de aplicação e dois volumes de calda. A desuniformidade da antese aparece como um dos principais fatores envolvidos com a baixa eficiência dos fungicidas. Nos experimentos, realizados no ano 2000, a aplicação dos tratamentos reduziu significativamente a incidência, o número de espiguetas gibereladas e a severidade da doença, aumentando o rendimento de grãos. As pontas de pulverização, seus arranjos na barra e os volumes de calda utilizados comportaram-se de maneira semelhante em todas as variáveis avaliadas. O incremento no rendimento de grãos, obtido em relação à testemunha, sugere que se deve recomendar a aplicação de fungicidas para o controle da giberela, utilizando pontas que geram gotas finas a médias com volume de calda de 200 L.ha-1.For many years, the head blight of winter cereal crops, caused by the fungus Gibberella zeae, was considered a disease of secondary importance. However, the increased frequency and yield losses associated with head blight in Southern Brazil have turned this disease into a major problem. Gibberella zeae enters the host plants through the anthers. To avoid infection, the fungicides need to protect the anthers from the fungus, which requires improved spray techniques. The role of two types of spray nozzles (single jet and twin jet, different nozzle

  5. New PCR Assays for the Identification of Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium subglutinans, and Other Species of the Gibberella fujikuroi Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Ione Parra Barbosa-Tessmann; Dauri José Tessmann; Carla Bertechini Faria; Cleiltan Novais da Silva; Camila Agnes Lumi Abe

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium subglutinans are important fungal pathogens of maize and other cereals worldwide. In this study, we developed PCR-based protocols for the identification of these pathogens targeting the gaoB gene, which codes for galactose oxidase. The designed primers recognized isolates of F. verticillioides and F. subglutinans that were obtained from maize seeds from several producing regions of Brazil but did not recognize other Fusarium spp. or other fungal genera th...

  6. Classifying Cereal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DSQ includes questions about cereal intake and allows respondents up to two responses on which cereals they consume. We classified each cereal reported first by hot or cold, and then along four dimensions: density of added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium.

  7. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  8. Oxalate content of cereals and cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Roswitha; Hönow, Ruth; Voss, Susanne; Seidler, Ana; Hesse, Albrecht

    2006-04-19

    Detailed knowledge of food oxalate content is of essential importance for dietary treatment of recurrent calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Dietary oxalate can contribute considerably to the amount of urinary oxalate excretion. Because cereal foods play an important role in daily nutrition, the soluble and total oxalate contents of various types of cereal grains, milling products, bread, pastries, and pasta were analyzed using an HPLC-enzyme-reactor method. A high total oxalate content (>50 mg/100 g) was found in whole grain wheat species Triticum durum (76.6 mg/100 g), Triticum sativum (71.2 mg/100 g), and Triticum aestivum (53.3 mg/100 g). Total oxalate content was comparably high in whole grain products of T. aestivum, that is, wheat flakes and flour, as well as in whole grain products of T. durum, that is, couscous, bulgur, and pasta. The highest oxalate content was demonstrated for wheat bran (457.4 mg/100 g). The higher oxalate content in whole grain than in refined grain cereals suggests that oxalic acid is primarily located in the outer layers of cereal grains. Cereals and cereal products contribute to the daily oxalate intake to a considerable extent. Vegetarian diets may contain high amounts of oxalate when whole grain wheat and wheat products are ingested. Recommendations for prevention of recurrence of calcium oxalate stone disease have to take into account the oxalate content of these foodstuffs. PMID:16608223

  9. Producción de ácido giberélico a partir de Gibberella fujikuroi utilizando lodo residual municipal como sustrato

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Cuali Álvarez; Sergio Humberto Pavón Romero; Arturo Colin-Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Production of gibberellic acid from Gibberella fujikuroi using municipal sewage sludge as a substrate. Objective. To use municipalsewage sludge (LRM) from a wastewater treatment plant located in Toluca, State of Mexico, to grow the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi insubmerged fermentation and to produce gibberellic acid (AG3). Materials and methods. We used Gibberella fujikuroi (CDBB: 268). Toobtain AG3, production was verified using as a substrate the standard culture medium (MCE). Gibberellic ac...

  10. A phage-displayed chicken single-chain antibody fused to alkaline phosphatase detects Fusarium pathogens and their presence in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zu-Quan; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Huang, Tao; Liu, Jin-Long; Xue, Sheng; Wu, Ai-Bo; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2013-02-18

    Fusarium and its poisonous mycotoxins are distributed worldwide and are of particular interest in agriculture and food safety. A simple analytical method to detect pathogens is essential for forecasting diseases and controlling mycotoxins. This article describes a proposed method for convenient and sensitive detection of Fusarium pathogens that uses the fusion of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and alkaline phosphatase (AP). A highly reactive scFv antibody specific to soluble cell wall-bound proteins (SCWPs) of F. verticillioides was selected from an immunized chicken phagemid library by phage display. The antibody was verified to bind on the surface of ungerminated conidiospores and mycelia of F. verticillioides. The scFv-AP fusion was constructed, and soluble expression in bacteria was confirmed. Both the antibody properties and enzymatic activity were retained, and the antigen-binding capacity of the fusion was enhanced by the addition of a linker. Surface plasmon resonance measurements confirmed that the fusion displayed 4-fold higher affinity compared with the fusion's parental scFv antibody. Immunoblot analyses showed that the fusion had good binding capacity to the components from SCWPs of F. verticillioides, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays revealed that the detection limit of the fungus was below 10(-2) μg mL(-1), superior to the scFv antibody. The fusion protein was able to detect fungal concentrations as low as 10(-3) mg g(-1) of maize grains in both naturally and artificially contaminated samples. Thus, the fusion can be applied in rapid and simple diagnosis of Fusarium contamination in field and stored grain or in food. PMID:23374219

  11. Cereals, Appropriability and Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Mayshar, Joram; Moav, Omer; Neeman, Zvika; Pascali, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We propose that the development of social hierarchy following the Neolithic Revolution was an outcome of the ability of the emergent elite to appropriate cereal crops from farmers and not a result of land productivity, as argued by conventional theory. We argue that cereals are easier to appropriate than roots and tubers, and that regional differences in the suitability of land for different crops explain therefore differences in the formation of hierarchy and states. A simple model illustrat...

  12. Modeling branching in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Jochem B. Evers; Vos, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level....

  13. Application of gamma-irradiation to cereals and stockfeeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-radiation may be used on cereals and stockfeeds to control insect infestation and, at higher dose rates, microbiological problems such as mould growth, aflatoxin production, pathogens, rope producing bacteria and total plate count. Major problems arise only at relatively high dose levels and affect functionality of cereals in terms of germination, dough properties, starch behaviour and cake and noodle quality. Chemical and physical changes to starch have the greatest impact on the properties of cereals and their products as a consequence of gamma-radiation

  14. Analysis of Tox5 gene expression in Gibberella pulicaris strains with different trichothecene production phenotypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hohn, T M; Desjardins, A. E.; McCormick, S P

    1993-01-01

    The Tox5 gene encodes trichodiene synthase, the first unique enzyme in the trichothecene biosynthetic pathway. In Gibberella pulicaris R-6380, the level of Tox5 mRNA was found to increase 47-fold in early stationary phase. Sequence analysis of the Tox5 promoter regions from geographically distinct strains of G. pulicaris revealed the existence of two Tox5 alleles (Tox5-1 and Tox5-2). All G. pulicaris strains that produce high levels of trichothecenes in liquid culture carry a 42-nucleotide (n...

  15. Zinc biofortification of cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael; Clemens, Stephan; Williams, Lorraine E.;

    2008-01-01

    The goal of biofortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. Cereals serve as the main staple food for a large proportion of the world population but have the shortcoming, from a nutrition perspective, of being low in zinc and...... other essential nutrients. Major bottlenecks in plant biofortification appear to be the root-shoot barrier and - in cereals - the process of grain filling. New findings demonstrate that the root-shoot distribution of zinc is controlled mainly by heavy metal transporting P1B-ATPases and the metal...

  16. Evidence for recombination and segregation of virulence to pine in a hybrid cross between Gibberella circinata and G subglutinans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species associated with the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, G. circinata (the cause of pitch canker in pines), and G. subglutinans (avirulent on pine), were found to have limited interfertility in hybrid crosses. MAT idiomorphs, polymorphisms in the histone H3 gene, vegetative compatibili...

  17. Cereal Box Totems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a multicultural project used with fourth-grade students in which they created a three-dimensional totem pole using leftover cereal boxes. Discusses in detail how to create the totem pole. Explains that students learned about Northwest American Indians in class. (CMK)

  18. Vernalization in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2009-01-01

    How vernalization – exposure to a period of cold – induces flowering in Arabidopsis has been intensively investigated at the genetic and moleular levels. Recent papers, including one in BMC Plant Biology, shed light on changes in gene regulation that occur on vernalization in cereals.

  19. A Predictive Model for Daily Inoculum Levels of Gibberella zeae in Passo Fundo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Nicolau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of spores of Gibberella zeae, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat, was monitored during 2008–2011, in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil. The sampling was carried out in a 31-day period around wheat flowering. The numbers of colonies formed were related to meteorological variables. In this study, a hierarchical autoregressive binary data model was used. The model relates a binary response variable to potential covariates while accounting for dependence over discrete time points. This paper proposes an approach for both model parameter inference and prediction at future time points using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC. The developed model appeared to have a high degree of accuracy and may have implications in the disease control and risk-management planning.

  20. Immobilization of Gibberella fujikuroi cells with carriers modified by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibberella fujikuroi cells were immobilized on modified carriers (gauze) by using the radiation polymerization technique. The mycelium was firmly adhered to the surface of fibril covered with hydrophobic polymer, poly (diethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate) and hydrophobic-hydrophilic copolymer poly (diethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate-sodium acrylate), but it was not immobilized onto the polyethylene net, which has a similar network structure to that of the modified carrier. The weight of immobilized cells was affected by covered polymer. Gibberellic acid productivity in immobilized cells was similar to that of free cells, and the immobilized cells was of good stability. A optimum culture condition for gibberellic acid production was at pH 5.5 and under 20 ∼ 30 degree C

  1. Hyperphosphorylation of cereal starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Plant starch is naturally phosphorylated at a fraction of the C6 and the C3 hydroxyl groups during its biosynthesis in plastids. Starch phosphate esters are important in starch metabolism and they also generate specific industrial functionality. Cereal grains starch contains little starch bound...... phosphate compared with potato tuber starch and in order to investigate the effect of increased endosperm starch phosphate, the potato starch phosphorylating enzyme glucan water dikinase (StGWD) was overexpressed specifically in the developing barley endosperm. StGWD overexpressors showed wild......-type phenotype. Transgenic cereal grains synthesized starch with higher starch bound phosphate content (7.5 (±0.67) nmol/mg) compared to control lines (0.8 (±0.05) nmol/mg) with starch granules showing altered morphology and lower melting enthalpy. Our data indicate specific action of GWD during starch...

  2. Micronutrients in cereal crops

    OpenAIRE

    Hamnér, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Seven elements essential for plants are defined as micronutrients: boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). Deficiency of these nutrients can cause yield losses in crops and impaired crop quality. The overall aim of this thesis work was to increase the knowledge how micronutrients in Swedish cereal crops are affected by nutrient management and soil properties in order to improve crop status and avoid yield losses. Data from long term and s...

  3. Molecular Identification of Fusarium Species in Gibberella fujikuroi Species Complex from Rice, Sugarcane and Maize from Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Heng Mei Hsuan; Latiffah Zakaria; Baharuddin Salleh

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex from rice, sugarcane and maize as most of the Fusarium species in the species complex are found on the three crops. Isolates used were collected from the field and obtained from culture collection. The Fusarium isolates were initially sorted based on morphology and identifications confirmed based on the DNA sequence of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF-1α) gene. Based on the close...

  4. Radiation disinfestation of stored cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-harvest grain losses range world-wide between 5 and 10 percent and even 40 percent in some tropical areas where environmental conditions are favourable to cereal degradation. The grain losses during storage are of various origins: insects, microorganisms, rodents, birds. Their consequences on human health and cereal processing are of quantitative and qualitative nature

  5. Fungal biotransformation of chlorogenic and caffeic acids by Fusarium graminearum: New insights in the contribution of phenolic acids to resistance to deoxynivalenol accumulation in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Léa; Bonnin-Verdal, Marie-Noelle; Marchegay, Gisèle; Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Ducos, Christine; Richard-Forget, Florence; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela

    2016-03-16

    Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot, mainly caused by the fungi Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, are two of the most devastating diseases of small-grain cereals and maize. In addition to yield loss, these diseases frequently result in contamination of kernels with toxic type B trichothecenes. The potential involvement of chlorogenic acid in cereal resistance to Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot and to trichothecene accumulation was the focus of this study. The effects of chlorogenic acid and one of its hydrolyzed products, caffeic acid, on fungal growth and type B trichothecenes biosynthesis were studied using concentrations close to physiological amounts quantified in kernels and a set of F. graminearum and F. culmorum strains. Both chlorogenic and caffeic acids negatively impact fungal growth and mycotoxin production, with caffeic acid being significantly more toxic. Inhibitory efficiencies of both phenolic acids were strain-dependent. To further investigate the antifungal and anti "mycotoxin" effect of chlorogenic and caffeic acids, the metabolic fate of these two phenolic acids was characterized in supplemented F. graminearum broths. For the first time, our results demonstrated the ability of F. graminearum to degrade chlorogenic acid into caffeic, hydroxychlorogenic and protocatechuic acids and caffeic acid into protocatechuic and hydroxycaffeic acids. Some of these metabolic products can contribute to the inhibitory efficiency of chlorogenic acid that, therefore, can be compared as a "pro-drug". As a whole, our data corroborate the contribution of chlorogenic acid to the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum and its production of mycotoxins. PMID:26812586

  6. New PCR Assays for the Identification of Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium subglutinans, and Other Species of the Gibberella fujikuroi Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Parra Barbosa-Tessmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium subglutinans are important fungal pathogens of maize and other cereals worldwide. In this study, we developed PCR-based protocols for the identification of these pathogens targeting the gaoB gene, which codes for galactose oxidase. The designed primers recognized isolates of F. verticillioides and F. subglutinans that were obtained from maize seeds from several producing regions of Brazil but did not recognize other Fusarium spp. or other fungal genera that were either obtained from fungal collections or isolated from maize seeds. A multiplex PCR protocol was established to simultaneously detect the genomic DNA from F. verticillioides and F. subglutinans. This protocol could detect the DNA from these fungi growing in artificially or naturally infected maize seeds. Another multiplex reaction with a pair of primers developed in this work combined with a pre-existing pair of primers has allowed identifying F. subglutinans, F. konzum, and F. thapsinum. In addition, the identification of F. nygamai was also possible using a combination of two PCR reactions described in this work, and another described in the literature.

  7. Exploring the potential of symbiotic fungal endophytes in cereal disease suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hanlon, Karen; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup;

    2012-01-01

    , and environmental and health concerns surrounding the use of chemical treatments. There is currently a demand for new disease control strategies, and one such strategy involves the use of symbiotic fungal endophytes as biological control agents against fungal pathogens in cereals. Despite the fact that biological...... control by symbiotic fungal endophytes has been documented, particularly with respect to clavicipitaceous endophytes in C3 cool-season grasses, this area remains relatively underexplored in cereals. We highlight for the first time the potential in using symbiotic fungal endophytes to control foliar cereal......Cereal crops are an essential source of nutrition worldwide. The incidence and severity of fungal diseases, in particular foliar diseases such as leaf spots, mildews and rusts, is a serious challenge to cereal production, and this problem is likely to escalate with the changing global climate...

  8. GzSNF1 Is Required for Normal Sexual and Asexual Development in the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan; Lee, Seunghoon; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ki-Woo; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Yin-Won

    2008-01-01

    The sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1) protein kinase of yeast plays a central role in the transcription of glucose-repressible genes in response to glucose starvation. In this study, we deleted an ortholog of SNF1 from Gibberella zeae to characterize its functions by using a gene replacement strategy. The mycelial growth of deletion mutants (ΔGzSNF1) was reduced by 21 to 74% on diverse carbon sources. The virulence of ΔGzSNF1 mutants on barley decreased, and the expression of genes encoding cell...

  9. More protein in cereals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ways in which the protein content of plant crops may be raised by the use of nuclear radiation are to be discussed at a symposium in Vienna in June next year, organized by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization/Agency Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Plant crops - especially cereal grains - are the basic food and protein source of most of the world's population, particularly in less-developed countries. But their natural protein content is low; increasing the quantity and nutritional quality of plant protein is potentially the most feasible way to combat widespread protein malnutrition. This improvement in seed stock can be achieved by plant breeding methods in which nuclear irradiation techniques are used to induce mutations in grain, and other isotopic techniques can be used to select only those mutants which have the desired properties. The scientists who attend the symposium will have an opportunity to review what mutation plant breeders have achieved, the application of nuclear techniques to screening for protein and amino-acid content and nutritional value, and isotopic methods which contribute to research in plant nutrition and physiology. (author)

  10. Gibberella Ear Rot of Maize (Zea mays) in Nepal: Distribution of the Mycotoxins Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Fusarium graminearum (sexual stage Gibberella zeae) causes ear rot of maize (Zea mays) and contamination with the 8-ketotrichothecenes nivalenol (NIV) or 4-deoxynivalenol (DON), depending on diversity of the fungal population for the 4-oxygenase gene (TRI13). To determine the importance ...

  11. Fungal His-tagged nitrilase from Gibberella intermedia: gene cloning, heterologous expression and biochemical properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Song Gong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitrilase is an important member of the nitrilase superfamiliy. It has attracted substantial interest from academia and industry for its function of converting nitriles directly into the corresponding carboxylic acids in recent years. Thus nitrilase has played a crucial role in production of commercial carboxylic acids in chemical industry and detoxification of nitrile-contaminated wastes. However, conventional studies mainly focused on the bacterial nitrilase and the potential of fungal nitrilase has been far from being fully explored. Research on fungal nitrilase gene expression will advance our understanding for its biological function of fungal nitrilase in nitrile hydrolysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A fungal nitrilase gene from Gibberella intermedia was cloned through reverse transcription-PCR. The open reading frame consisted of 963 bp and potentially encoded a protein of 320 amino acid residues with a theoretical molecular mass of 35.94 kDa. Furthermore, the catalytic triad (Glu-45, Lys-127, and Cys-162 was proposed and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. The encoding gene was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (DE3 and the recombinant protein with His(6-tag was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The purified enzyme exhibited optimal activity at 45°C and pH 7.8. This nitrilase was specific towards aliphatic and aromatic nitriles. The kinetic parameters V(max and K(m for 3-cyanopyridine were determined to be 0.81 µmol/min·mg and 12.11 mM through Hanes-Woolf plot, respectively. 3-Cyanopyridine (100 mM could be thoroughly hydrolyzed into nicotinic acid within 10 min using the recombinant strain with the release of about 3% nicotinamide and no substrate was detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the present study, a fungal nitrilase was cloned from the cDNA sequence of G. intermedia and successfully expressed in E. coli Rosetta-gami (DE3. The recombinant strain displayed good 3-cyanopyridine

  12. Producción de ácido giberélico a partir de Gibberella fujikuroi utilizando lodo residual municipal como sustrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cuali Álvarez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of gibberellic acid from Gibberella fujikuroi using municipal sewage sludge as a substrate. Objective. To use municipalsewage sludge (LRM from a wastewater treatment plant located in Toluca, State of Mexico, to grow the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi insubmerged fermentation and to produce gibberellic acid (AG3. Materials and methods. We used Gibberella fujikuroi (CDBB: 268. Toobtain AG3, production was verified using as a substrate the standard culture medium (MCE. Gibberellic acid determination was done withhigh performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with a Varian 9050.9012 equipment. We obtained 6 samples of sludge from a wastewatertreatment plant in Toluca, State of Mexico, that were then characterized. Finally, both substrates (LRM and MCE were used in submergedfermentation, and GA3 was obtained by extraction and quantified using HPLC. Results. The LRM characterization showed that the organicmatter content (MO is of 5.20% (w/v and the total nitrogen content (NT is of 0.25% (w/v. Such composition is within the range as asubstrate for the production of AG3 by Gibberella fujikuroi. The fungus was cultivated for 3, 8, 13 and 30 days in sterile sewage sludge witha moisture content of 95.6% (w/v and in standard culture medium (MCE. Samples were processed and analyzed by high performanceliquid chromatography (HPLC. Production of AG3 in the LRM was of 460.06 mg/L after 30 days in submerged fermentation at pH 4.0,and of 1,014.46 mg/L in the control. Conclusion. The nutrient content of LRM is suitable for the growth of the fungus Gibberella fujikuroiand for the production of GA3 when used as a substrate.

  13. Antioxidant Properties of Whole Grain Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Čukelj, Nikolina; Novotny, Dubravka; Ćurić, Duška

    2010-01-01

    Cereals have a long history of use by humans. Cereals and cereal products are staple foods, and are important source of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, vitamins (E, B) and minerals (Zn, Mg, Fe) in both developed and developing countries. The health aspects of whole grain cereals have long been known, but the antioxidant profile of whole grains has only recently been introduced to the antioxidant research community where mostly fruits and vegetables are in focus. In vitro experiments con...

  14. El cerealémetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos López, Pascual

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available "Apparatus for measuring wheat" was the title that Geronimo Salmerón Gómez put his invention patented in 1939. Which calls for defining the quality of wheat is marketed. Salmerón always worried about the price of bread and flour quality came to manufacture his invention usually called "Cerealémetro".

  15. Evidence for recombination and segregation of virulence to pine in a hybrid cross between Gibberella circinata and G. subglutinans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Christopher J; Desjardins, Anne E; Kirkpatrick, Sharon C; Gordon, Thomas R

    2007-07-01

    Two species associated with the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, G. circinata (the cause of pitch canker in pines) and G. subglutinans (avirulent on pine), were found to have limited interfertility in hybrid crosses. MAT idiomorphs, polymorphisms in the histone H3 gene, vegetative compatibility, and virulence phenotypes were used to verify recombination. The MAT idiomorphs appeared to be assorting independently, but the histone H3 haplotype was disproportionately represented by that of the G. subglutinans parent. Ninety-eight percent (45/46) of the progeny tested were vegetatively incompatible with both parents. All F(1) progeny were avirulent to pine, but a wide range of virulence was restored through a backcross to the virulent parent (G. circinata). Attempts at hybrid crosses using other isolate combinations were rarely successful (1/26). This limited interfertility supports retention of G. circinata and G. subglutinans as separate species, but offers opportunities to characterize the inheritance of virulence to pine. PMID:17681226

  16. Detection methods for mycotoxins in cereal grains and cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Michelangelo N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods for mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based products require three major steps, including extraction, clean-up (to eliminate interferences from the extract and concentrate the analyte, and detection/determination of the toxin (by using suitable analytical instruments/technologies. Clean-up is essential for the analysis of mycotoxins at trace levels, and involves the use of solid phase extraction and multifunctional (e.g. MycoSep® or immunoaffinity columns. Different chromatographic methods are commonly used for quantitative determination of mycotoxins, including gas-chromatography (GC coupled with electron capture, flame ionization or mass spectrometry (MS detectors (mainly for type-A trichothecenes, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with ultraviolet, diode array, fluorescence or MS detectors. The choice of method depends on the matrix and the mycotoxin to be analyzed. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is spreading rapidly as a promising technique for simultaneous screening, identification and quantitative determination of a large number of mycotoxins. In addition, commercial immunometric assays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, are frequently used for screening purposes as well. Recently, a variety of emerging methods have been proposed for the analysis of mycotoxins in cereals based on novel technologies, including immunochromatography (i.e. lateral flow devices, fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIA, infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs and optical biosensors.

  17. Transcription of Genes in the Biosynthetic Pathway for Fumonisin Mycotoxins Is Epigenetically and Differentially Regulated in the Fungal Maize Pathogen Fusarium verticillioides

    OpenAIRE

    Visentin, I.; Montis, V.; Doll, K.; Alabouvette, C.; Tamietti, G.; Karlovsky, P.; Cardinale, F.

    2011-01-01

    When the fungal pathogen Gibberella moniliformis (anamorph, Fusarium verticillioides) colonizes maize and maize-based products, it produces class B fumonisin (FB) mycotoxins, which are a significant threat to human and animal health. FB biosynthetic enzymes and accessory proteins are encoded by a set of clustered and cotranscribed genes collectively named FUM, whose molecular regulation is beginning to be unraveled by researchers. FB accumulation correlates with the amount of transcripts from...

  18. Prospects for advancing defense to cereal rusts through genetical genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballini, Elsa; Lauter, Nick; Wise, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Rusts are one of the most severe threats to cereal crops because new pathogen races emerge regularly, resulting in infestations that lead to large yield losses. In 1999, a new race of stem rust, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt TTKSK or Ug99), was discovered in Uganda. Most of the wheat and barley cultivars grown currently worldwide are susceptible to this new race. Pgt TTKSK has already spread northward into Iran and will likely spread eastward throughout the Indian subcontinent in the near future. This scenario is not unique to stem rust; new races of leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) have also emerged recently. One strategy for countering the persistent adaptability of these pathogens is to stack complete- and partial-resistance genes, which requires significant breeding efforts in order to reduce deleterious effects of linkage drag. These varied resistance combinations are typically more difficult for the pathogen to defeat, since they would be predicted to apply lower selection pressure. Genetical genomics or expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis enables the identification of regulatory loci that control the expression of many to hundreds of genes. Integrated deployment of these technologies coupled with efficient phenotyping offers significant potential to elucidate the regulatory nodes in genetic networks that orchestrate host defense responses. The focus of this review will be to present advances in genetical genomic experimental designs and analysis, particularly as they apply to the prospects for discovering partial disease resistance alleles in cereals. PMID:23641250

  19. Knowledge of cereals among primary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Murko, Ana

    2015-01-01

    In human diet cereals represent an important source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and elements, which are needed for healthy growth and development. This thesis is thus focused on knowledge of cereals among primary school students. We were assessing the knowledge of different cereals among primary school students based on their age and type of environment they live in. Beside these two variables, we took into consideration also their gender. 240 primary school students from sixth ...

  20. Evaluation of Breakfast Cereals and Cereal Advertising by a Young Adult Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnard, Alice

    A study examined the knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition in general and specifically toward cold breakfast cereals and cereal advertising with different creative appeals. Subjects, 117 undergraduate university students, completed a questionnaire about their use of cold breakfast cereal and their sources of information about nutrition.…

  1. Fusarium graminearum: an pathogen of maize in Nepal, pathogenic variability and mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen of maize in hills of Nepal. It predominantly occurs on maize grown in cool and humid environment of high hills. The pathogen is also known to infect other cereal crops including wheat and rice causing important diseases. The incidence of ear rot is hi...

  2. Shakespeare Cereals: A Popular Culture Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Offers an exercise involving popular culture to help students experience the contemporary power of Shakespeare. Explains that after reading a Shakespeare play, students develop new cereal brands based upon the work's plot, characters, or themes, afterward naming, designing, creating, and displaying the cereal package. Combines literary analysis,…

  3. Molecular Identification of Fusarium Species in Gibberella fujikuroi Species Complex from Rice, Sugarcane and Maize from Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Mei Hsuan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex from rice, sugarcane and maize as most of the Fusarium species in the species complex are found on the three crops. Isolates used were collected from the field and obtained from culture collection. The Fusarium isolates were initially sorted based on morphology and identifications confirmed based on the DNA sequence of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF-1α gene. Based on the closest match of BLAST analysis, five species were recovered, namely, F. sacchari, F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. andiyazi and F. verticillioides. This is the first report regarding F. andiyazi from rice in Malaysia and Southeast Asia. The phylogenetic tree generated by using the neighbor joining method showed that isolates from the same species were grouped in the same clade. The present study indicated that Fusarium species in the G. fujikuroi species complex are widespread in rice, sugarcane and maize in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings also suggest that the use of morphological characters for identification of Fusarium species in the G. fujikuroi species complex from the three crops will lead to incorrect species designation.

  4. Cereal grains and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truswell, A S

    2002-01-01

    Cereal grains and their products provide around 30% of total energy intake in British adults, (much more than any of the other major food groups). Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the largest single cause of death in Britain and many other Western countries. This review examines the question whether there is a relation between cereal consumption and CHD. Several of the nutrients in cereals have known potential for reducing risk factors for CHD: the linoleic acid, fibre, vitamin E, selenium and folate. Cereals also contain phytoestrogens of the lignan family and several phenolic acids with antioxidant properties. Processing generally reduces the content of these nutrients and bioprotective substances. Although cereals at the farm gate are very low in salt, processed cereal foods, eg bread and some breakfast cereals, are high-salt foods and thus could contribute to raising blood pressure. Human experiments have clearly shown that oat fibre tends to lower plasma total and LDL cholesterol but wheat fibre does not. Rice bran and barley may also lower cholesterol but most people do not eat enough barley to have an effect. Cereal foods with low glycaemic index such as pasta and oats are beneficial for people with diabetes and might lower plasma lipids. Between 1996 and 2001 an accumulation of five very large cohort studies in the USA, Finland and Norway have all reported that subjects consuming relatively large amounts of whole grain cereals have significantly lower rates of CHD. This confirms an earlier report from a small British cohort. The protective effect does not seem to be due to cholesterol-lowering. While cohort studies have shown this consistent protective effect of whole grain cereals, there has been (only one) randomised controlled secondary prevention trial of advice to eat more cereal fibre. In this there was no reduction of the rate of reinfarction. The trial had some weaknesses, eg there were eight different diets, compliance was not checked objectively

  5. Breakfast Cereals: The Extreme Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of my talk today is to review several aspects of the market structure, strategic rivalry, and economic performance of the ready-to-eat cereals industry. To do so, I will at times take a long historical view of the breakfast cereals industry because many of the behaviors we observe today seem to me to be imbedded in habits of business rivalry that were learned many decades ago and yet persist today. My perspective on the RTE breakfast cereals industry is informed by nearly twenty y...

  6. Iron in Breakfast Cereal. Demonstrations for National Chemistry Week 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Erica K.; Maynard, James

    2004-11-01

    Cereal manufacturers have a few choices for how they include iron in their products. Some cereal manufacturers prefer to add particles of pure iron metal (called elemental iron or reduced iron) because elemental iron is stable in storage and does not affect the cereal's flavor. General Mills' brand-name "Total" is one such cereal. The addition of this strongly magnetic form of iron allows "Total" cereal to be used in the two demonstrations described in this article. In the first, a flake of "Total" cereal is inserted between the two poles of a permanent magnet. The iron in the cereal allows the flake to remain suspended between the two poles. The second uses crushed "Total" cereal and a neodymium magnet. The crushed cereal is scattered over clear Plexiglas and the magnet can be moved around underneath. This drags the iron filings through the crushed cereal.

  7. Genome-wide macrosynteny among Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieschen De Vos

    Full Text Available The Gibberella fujikuroi complex includes many Fusarium species that cause significant losses in yield and quality of agricultural and forestry crops. Due to their economic importance, whole-genome sequence information has rapidly become available for species including Fusarium circinatum, Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium verticillioides, each of which represent one of the three main clades known in this complex. However, no previous studies have explored the genomic commonalities and differences among these fungi. In this study, a previously completed genetic linkage map for an interspecific cross between Fusarium temperatum and F. circinatum, together with genomic sequence data, was utilized to consider the level of synteny between the three Fusarium genomes. Regions that are homologous amongst the Fusarium genomes examined were identified using in silico and pyrosequenced amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP fragment analyses. Homology was determined using BLAST analysis of the sequences, with 777 homologous regions aligned to F. fujikuroi and F. verticillioides. This also made it possible to assign the linkage groups from the interspecific cross to their corresponding chromosomes in F. verticillioides and F. fujikuroi, as well as to assign two previously unmapped supercontigs of F. verticillioides to probable chromosomal locations. We further found evidence of a reciprocal translocation between the distal ends of chromosome 8 and 11, which apparently originated before the divergence of F. circinatum and F. temperatum. Overall, a remarkable level of macrosynteny was observed among the three Fusarium genomes, when comparing AFLP fragments. This study not only demonstrates how in silico AFLPs can aid in the integration of a genetic linkage map to the physical genome, but it also highlights the benefits of using this tool to study genomic synteny and architecture.

  8. GzSNF1 is required for normal sexual and asexual development in the ascomycete Gibberella zeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan; Lee, Seunghoon; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ki-Woo; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Yin-Won

    2009-01-01

    The sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1) protein kinase of yeast plays a central role in the transcription of glucose-repressible genes in response to glucose starvation. In this study, we deleted an ortholog of SNF1 from Gibberella zeae to characterize its functions by using a gene replacement strategy. The mycelial growth of deletion mutants (DeltaGzSNF1) was reduced by 21 to 74% on diverse carbon sources. The virulence of DeltaGzSNF1 mutants on barley decreased, and the expression of genes encoding cell-wall-degrading enzymes was reduced. The most distinct phenotypic changes were in sexual and asexual development. DeltaGzSNF1 mutants produced 30% fewer perithecia, which matured more slowly, and asci that contained one to eight abnormally shaped ascospores. Mutants in which only the GzSNF1 catalytic domain was deleted had the same phenotype changes as the DeltaGzSNF1 strains, but the phenotype was less extreme in the mutants with the regulatory domain deleted. In outcrosses between the DeltaGzSNF1 mutants, each perithecium contained approximately 70% of the abnormal ascospores, and approximately 50% of the asci showed unexpected segregation patterns in a single locus tested. The asexual spores of the DeltaGzSNF1 mutants were shorter and had fewer septa than those of the wild-type strain. The germination and nucleation of both ascospores and conidia were delayed in DeltaGzSNF1 mutants in comparison with those of the wild-type strain. GzSNF1 expression and localization depended on the developmental stage of the fungus. These results suggest that GzSNF1 is critical for normal sexual and asexual development in addition to virulence and the utilization of alternative carbon sources. PMID:19028993

  9. Inductive effect produced by a mixture of carbon source in the production of gibberellic acid by Gibberella fujikuroi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Iribe, Erika Y; Flores-Cotera, Luis B; Chávira, Mario M González; González-Alatorre, Guillermo; Escamilla-Silva, Eleazar M

    2011-06-01

    Gibberellic acid has been known since 1954 but its effect on rice still remains very important in the agricultural world. Gibberellic acid (GA3) is the main secondary metabolite produced by the Gibberella fujikuroi fungus. This hormone is of great importance in agriculture and the brewing industry, due to its fast and strong effects at low concentrations (μg) on the processes of growth stimulation, flowering, stem elongation, and germination of seeds, among others. Plant promoters of growth production such as the gibberellins, especially the GA3 are a priority in obtaining better harvests in the agricultural area and by extension, improving the food industry. Three routes to obtaining GA3 have been reported: extraction from plants, chemical synthesis and microbial fermentation. The latter being the most common method used to produce GA3. In this investigation, glucose-corn oil mixture was used as a carbon source on the basis of 40 g of carbon in a 7 L stirred tank bioreactor. A pH of 3.5, 29°C, 600 min(-1) agitation and 1 vvm aeration were maintained and controlled with a biocontroller connected to the bioreactor, throughout the entire culture time. The carbon source mixture affected the fermentation time as well as the production of the GAs. The production of 380 mg GA3L(-1) after 288 h of fermentation was obtained when the glucose-corn oil mixture was employed contrasting the 136 mg GA3L(-1) at 264 h of culture when only glucose was used. PMID:25187149

  10. Winter and Spring Cereal Production in the Maritimes

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Karen; MacKenzie, Joanna; Hammermeister, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Organic producers have expressed an interest in diversifying their crop rotations through the inclusion of winter cereals. Winter cereals have many potential benefits, as they provide soil cover over the winter months, can often out-compete weeds in the spring and can be harvested earlier than other cereal crops. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of management history on the performance of winter cereals versus spring cereals.

  11. Food Microscopy and the Nutritional Quality of Cereal Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Yiu, Suk Hing

    1993-01-01

    The nutritional quality of cereal foods is directly related to the nature of nutrient storage in cereal grains. Most cereal nutrients, such as carbohydrates and minerals , are st ructurally bound. Processing alters the structural organization of the cereal grain. Results obtained from many nutritional studies indicate that the structure and physical form of a cereal food greatly influence the availability of its nutrients. Using oats and wheat as examples, this review demonstrates how micr...

  12. Reactivity of lipids during cereal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    2003-01-01

    The study elucidates factors affecting the reactivity of lipids in multiphase food systems, such as processed cereal food products. By using oat and oat products as model materials, both enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid reactions were studied in aqueous suspensions and in dry flour. The information obtained can be used to improve existing cereal processing schemes and to develop new processing technologies for obtaining high quality food products with enhanced shelf stability. In aqueous...

  13. Action and reaction of host and pathogen during Fusarium head blight disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Nicholson, Paul; Doohan, Fiona M

    2010-01-01

    The Fusarium species Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, Which are responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease, reduced world-wide cereal crop yield and, as a consequence of their mycotoxin production in cereal grain, impact on both human and animal health. Their study is greatly......-pathogen interactions will be instrumental in designing new efficient strategies for the control of FHB disease....

  14. Population genomics of Fusarium graminearum head blight pathogens in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we utilized comparative genomics to identify candidate adaptive alleles in the fungus Fusarium graminearum, the primary pathogen of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops. Recent epidemics of FHB have been economically devastating to agriculture, as F. graminearum reduces cereal yi...

  15. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species ...

  16. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species o

  17. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.; Dunkle, L.D.; Churchill, A.C.; Carlier, J.; James, A.; Souza, M.T.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, N.; Lee, T.A. van der; Wiitenberg, A.; Lindquist, E.; Grigoriev, I.; Bristow, J.; Goodwin, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species

  18. Nonhost resistance of rice to rust pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, Michael; Devilla, Rosangela; Mago, Rohit; White, Rosemary; Talbot, Mark; Pryor, Anthony; Leung, Hei

    2011-10-01

    Rice is atypical in that it is an agricultural cereal that is immune to fungal rust diseases. This report demonstrates that several cereal rust species (Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici, P. triticina, P. striiformis, and P. hordei) can infect rice and produce all the infection structures necessary for plant colonization, including specialized feeding cells (haustoria). Some rust infection sites are remarkably large and many plant cells are colonized, suggesting that nutrient uptake occurs to support this growth. Rice responds with an active, nonhost resistance (NHR) response that prevents fungal sporulation and that involves callose deposition, production of reactive oxygen species, and, occasionally, cell death. Genetic variation for the efficacy of NHR to wheat stem rust and wheat leaf rust was observed. Unlike cereal rusts, the rust pathogen (Melampsora lini) of the dicotyledenous plant flax (Linum usitatissimum) rarely successfully infects rice due to an apparent inability to recognize host-derived signals. Morphologically abnormal infection structures are produced and appressorial-like structures often don't coincide with stomata. These data suggest that basic compatibility is an important determinate of nonhost infection outcomes of rust diseases on cereals, with cereal rusts being more capable of infecting a cereal nonhost species compared with rust species that are adapted for dicot hosts. PMID:21899436

  19. Application of cereals and cereal components in functional foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampopoulos, D; Wang, R; Pandiella, S S; Webb, C

    2002-11-15

    The food industry is directing new product development towards the area of functional foods and functional food ingredients due to consumers' demand for healthier foods. In this respect, probiotic dairy foods containing human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species and prebiotic food formulations containing ingredients that cannot be digested by the human host in the upper gastrointestinal tract and can selectively stimulate the growth of one or a limited number of colonic bacteria have been recently introduced into the market. The aim of these products is to affect beneficially the gut microbial composition and activities. Cereals offer another alternative for the production of functional foods. The multiple beneficial effects of cereals can be exploited in different ways leading to the design of novel cereal foods or cereal ingredients that can target specific populations. Cereals can be used as fermentable substrates for the growth of probiotic microorganisms. The main parameters that have to be considered are the composition and processing of the cereal grains, the substrate formulation, the growth capability and productivity of the starter culture, the stability of the probiotic strain during storage, the organoleptic properties and the nutritional value of the final product. Additionally, cereals can be used as sources of nondigestible carbohydrates that besides promoting several beneficial physiological effects can also selectively stimulate the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria present in the colon and act as prebiotics. Cereals contain water-soluble fibre, such as beta-glucan and arabinoxylan, oilgosaccharides, such as galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides and resistant starch, which have been suggested to fulfil the prebiotic concept. Separation of specific fractions of fibre from different cereal varieties or cereal by-products, according to the knowledge of fibre distribution in cereal grains, could be achieved through processing

  20. Faecal bulking efficacy of Australasian breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, John A

    2002-01-01

    Faecal bulk may play an important role in preventing a range of disorders of the large bowel, but as yet there is little information available on the relative faecal bulking capacities of various foods. Breakfast cereals are often promoted as a good source of potential bulk for 'inner health' because they provide dietary fibre, but their relative abilities to provide faecal bulk per se have not been described. The faecal bulking efficacy of 28 representative Australasian breakfast cereals was therefore measured. A rat model developed for the purpose, and shown to give similar responses as humans to cereal fibres, was used to measure faecal bulking efficacy as increases in fully hydrated faecal weight/100 g diet, based on precise measurements of food intake, faecal dry matter output and faecal water-holding capacity (g water held without stress/g faecal dry matter). Compared to a baseline diet containing 50% sucrose, increments in hydrated faecal weight due to 50% breakfast cereal ranged from slightly negative (Cornflakes, -2 g/100 g diet) to about 80 g/100 g diet (San Bran). Most breakfast cereals increased hydrated faecal weight by between 10 and 20 g/100 g diet from a baseline of 21 +/- 1.5 g/100 g diet, but four products containing high levels of wheat bran had an exceptionally large impact on hydrated faecal weight (increment > 20 g/100 g diet), and the changes resulted more from relative changes in dry matter output than in faecal water retention/gram. However, as faecal water retention was about 2.5 g water/g faecal dry matter on average, increases in dry matter represented large increases in faecal water load. Faecal bulking indices (FBI) for most of the breakfast cereals were less than 20 (wheat bran = 100). The content of wheat bran equivalents for faecal bulk (WBE(fb)) in the breakfast cereals was calculated from FBI. Most breakfast cereals contributed, per serve, less than 10% of a theoretical daily reference value for faecal bulk (DRV(fb) = 63 WBE

  1. Cereals for the semi-arid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of semi-arid tropics is the most famine prone area of the world. This region with nearly one billion people extends across some 20 million square kilometres. Major domesticated cereals adapted to semi-arid regions are sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Several minor cereals are grown as speciality crops, or harvested in the wild in times of severe drought and scarcity. Important in the African Sahel are the fonios Digitaria iburua Stapf, D. exilis (Kapist) Stapf and Brachiaria deflexa (Schumach). C.E. Hubbard. These species are aggressive colonizers and are commonly encouraged as weeds in cultivated fields. Sown genotypes differ from their close wild relatives primarily in the lack of efficient natural seed dispersal. The fonios lend themselves to rapid domestication. Several wild cereals extend well beyond the limits of agriculture into the Sahara. Commonly harvested are the perennial Stipagrostis pungens and Panicum turgidum, and the annual Cenchrus biflorus (kram-kram). Kram-kram yields well under extreme heat and drought stress, and holds promise as a domesticated cereal. Sauwi millet (Panicum sonorum) is promising cereal in arid northwestern Mexico. (author). 31 refs

  2. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.;

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local, in...... characteristics into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production...

  3. Future cereal starch bioengineering: Cereal ancestors encounter gene technology and designer enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2013-01-01

    genomes and the exploding advancement in whole genome sequencing now paves the road for identifying new genes to be exploited to generate a multitude of completely new starch functionalities directly in the cereal grain converting cereal crops to production plants. Newly released genome data from cereal...... functionalize or stabilize the starch polymers. Importantly, such products can be multifunctional in the sense of combined food/material or food/pharma purposes e.g. edible plastics, shape memory materials and cycloamylose carriers and stabilizers for diverse bioactives....

  4. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  5. Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

  6. Predictive Modelling of Mycotoxins in Cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Liu, C.

    2015-01-01

    In dit artikel worden de samenvattingen van de presentaties tijdens de 30e bijeenkomst van de Werkgroep Fusarium weergegeven. De onderwerpen zijn: Predictive Modelling of Mycotoxins in Cereals.; Microbial degradation of DON.; Exposure to green leaf volatiles primes wheat against FHB but boosts produ

  7. Balkan cereals genetic resources in collection of Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry and main directions of cereals breeding in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    LOSKUTOV, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of information about Balkan cereals collection in VIR passport database is presented. The paper offers the long-term data on the collection of cereal forage crops (barley, oat) studied under diverse conditions at experiment stations of VIR. The selected sources of economically important traits that can be used for main direction of cereal forages breeding are presented

  8. What makes pathogens pathogenic

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Garth D.; Hiller, N.Luisa; Hu, Fen Ze

    2008-01-01

    Metazoans contain multiple complex microbial ecosystems in which the balance between host and microbe can be tipped from commensalism to pathogenicity. This transition is likely to depend both on the prevailing environmental conditions and on specific gene-gene interactions placed within the context of the entire ecosystem.

  9. Fusarium spp. associated with rice Bakanae: ecology, genetic diversity, pathogenicity and toxigenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, E.G.; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Lubeck, M.;

    2010-01-01

    African and Asian populations of Fusarium spp. (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex) associated with Bakanae of rice (Oryzae sativa L.) were isolated from seeds and characterized with respect to ecology, phylogenetics, pathogenicity and mycotoxin production. Independent of the origin, Fusarium spp....... were detected in the different rice seed samples with infection rate ranges that varied from 0.25% to 9%. Four Fusaria (F. andiyazi, F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides) were found associated with Bakanae of rice. While three of the Fusaria were found in both African and Asian seed...... samples, F. fujikuroi was only detected in seed samples from Asia. Phylogenetic studies showed a broad genetic variation among the strains that were distributed into four different genetic clades. Pathogenicity tests showed that all strains reduced seed germination and possessed varying ability to cause...

  10. Cereal grains for nutrition and health benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björck, Inger; Östman, Elin; Kristensen, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole grain intake to the prevention of the metabolic syndrome, obesity and associated chronic diseases such as CVD and T2D. The Nutrition module within the HEALTHGRAIN project, included 10 partners and undertook in vitro, animal and human in vivo studies with...... the overall aims of elucidating the components and mechanisms underlying the health benefits of cereal grains. This review summarises the major outcomes of these studies, including yet unpublished findings. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd....

  11. Genetic erosion of diversity in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Sofija; Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Cereals play an important role in human nutrition. Consequently, one of the main goals in breeding is to obtain varieties with high genetic potential for yield. Modern agricultural production includes the expansion of intensive varieties over large areas that lead to narrow selection criteria in breeding programs. The consequence is a drastic reduction in the number of species and genotypes (genetic erosion), or harming biological diversity of local populat...

  12. Nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals. Are they improving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Walker, Karen Z; Gill, Timothy P

    2012-10-01

    The nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals is not systematically monitored despite the importance of breakfast for general health. We examined whether the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals has improved between 2004 and 2010, and whether any change could be detected after the introduction of Daily Intake Guide (DIG) front-of-pack labelling. Supermarket surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2010 using the same methodology to collect information from the nutrition information panels of Australian breakfast cereals and the nutrient content of cereals was compared by year. Breakfast cereals with and without DIG labelling in 2010 were also compared. Nutritional quality was assessed using UK Traffic Light criteria. No significant difference was detected in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals between 2004 and 2010. There was no notable improvement in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals marketed as the same product in both years. Overall there has been little improvement in the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals in the 6 year period. A large proportion of Australian breakfast cereals were considered high sugar. In conclusion, the introduction of DIG labelling does not appear to have promoted product reformulation, and breakfast cereals carrying DIG labels were not consistently healthier. PMID:22728950

  13. Evolutionary ecology of the wild cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumler, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    The evolutionary ecology of the Near Eastern wild cereal grasses sheds light on the environmental conditions under which the Neolithic Revolution took place. Globally, as well as in the Near East, the annual habit, large seed size, and seasonal drought are associated with each other and with agricultural origins. The connection with agricultural appears to involve ease of cultivation and necessity for seasonal storage rather than hunter-gatherer preference for large seeds. The Near Eastern wild cereal species separate ecologically according to seasonality of precipitation, primarily, though there may also be minor differences in temperature and edaphic tolerances. This reflects the evolution, over the course of the Quaternary, of species with increased seed size in response to increasingly pronounced seasonal drought. Wild emmer and wild barley, the progenitors of perhaps the very first domesticates, are evolutionary monstrosities that represent the culmination of this trend. The possibly complex changes in seasonality, aridity, and atmospheric CO2 during the millenia leading up to the Neolithic should have produced equally complex, but to some extent predictable, changes in the abundance and distribution of the different wild cereal species.

  14. Therapeutic Effect of Cereal Grains: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Poonam; Kaushik, Geetanjali

    2016-04-01

    Over the last few decades, life style changes have resulted in drastic increase in the incidence of diabetes all over the world, especially in the developing countries. Oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin form the main stay in controlling diabetes but they have prominent side effects and fail to significantly alter the course of diabetic complications. Appropriate diet and exercise programs that form a part of lifestyle modifications have proven to be greatly effective in the management of this disease. Dietary therapy is showing a bright future in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Cereal grains which form the staple diet for humans in most of the countries are increasingly being used to treat diabetes and other associated disorders in view of their anti-diabetic and anti-lipidemic potential. Given this background, this paper reviews the possible mechanisms of lowering blood sugar and cholesterol levels possessed by various commonly consumed cereal grains. It is concluded that cereal grains are not only the potential sources of energy but also possess the therapeutic role in preventing metabolic disorders and decreasing the risk factors for cardiovascular and renal diseases. PMID:25746052

  15. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  16. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in Finnish cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka, E-mail: tuukka.turtiainen@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Kostiainen, Eila, E-mail: eila.kostiainen@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja, E-mail: anja.hallikainen@evira.f [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean {sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 {mu}Sv per year, respectively.

  17. Processing and storage of Indian cereal and cereal products alters its resistant starch content

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Ruchi H.; Sheth, Mini K.

    2010-01-01

    Resistant Starch (RS) is prebiotic in nature and is defined as the sum of starch and products of starch degradation not absorbed in small intestine of healthy individuals but later are fermented by natural microflora of the colon to produce short chain fatty acids. RS acts as a nutraceutical and its consumption leads to many health benefits. The aim of the study is to analyze the RS content in raw and processed cereals and cereal products and determine various processing and storage effects o...

  18. Effects of climate variation on winter cereal production in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    C. Rodríguez-Puebla; Ayuso, S. M.; Frías, M. D.; García-Casado, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Climate variables responsible for inter-annual variations in the winter cereal yield in Spain were identified and climate information was translated into crop production. Empirical orthogonal functions and correlation analyses were applied to regional and large-scale climate variables to ascertain the links between climate and winter cereal yield. Interactions between climate and winter cereal productivity in Spain can be summarized as follows: the start of the growing season depends on minim...

  19. Brand loyalty of cereal products / Aaron Lekatjo Mazibuko

    OpenAIRE

    Mazibuko, Aaron Lekatjo

    2010-01-01

    The South African breakfast market consists of several brand products for cereal products, and some of the products are produced locally while others are imported. Cereal products are classified under fast moving consumer goods (FMCG). The majority of the cereal products are easy to serve. The following brands are common in South Africa and have been listed according to their popularity with consumers: Kellogg's Corn Flakes, Kellog's Special K, Jungle Oats, Cheerios and Weet Bix. Kellog...

  20. A cross-cultural study of cereal foods' quality perception

    OpenAIRE

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2006-01-01

    Cereal foods' production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal foods' quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were inquired about the importance of several cues and dimensions in their evaluation of the perceived quality of bread, cookies, breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka. Portuguese and Lithuanians consistently gave a significantly higher...

  1. Next Generation Characterisation of Cereal Genomes for Marker Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Visendi; Jacqueline Batley; David Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Cereal crops form the bulk of the world’s food sources, and thus their importance cannot be understated. Crop breeding programs increasingly rely on high-resolution molecular genetic markers to accelerate the breeding process. The development of these markers is hampered by the complexity of some of the major cereal crop genomes, as well as the time and cost required. In this review, we address current and future methods available for the characterisation of cereal genomes, with an emphasis o...

  2. Intercropping of Cereals and Legumes for Forage Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI; Ghanbari, Ahmad; Abdollah JAVANMARD

    2009-01-01

    Cereals are high important in feeding ruminant animals for their high dry matter production and low cost. However, cereals forage is poor in protein content which shows their low quality and nutritive value. Regarding to high feed costs of protein supplementations, legumes can be used in livestock nutrition for their high protein content and, thus, providing cost saving. Since legumes have low dry matter yield, acceptable forage yield and quality can obtained from intercropping of cereals and...

  3. Significance of coarse cereals in health and nutrition: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Kiran Deep; Jha, Alok; Sabikhi, Latha; A. K. Singh

    2012-01-01

    This review assesses the nutritional attributes of coarse cereals and also their utilization as food and as formulated foods. These cereals are laden with phytochemicals including phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, phytosterols, avenenathramides and policosanols. They possess high antioxidant properties in vitro than staple cereals and fruits by different purported pathways. There are also some anti-nutritional factors that may be reduced by certain processing treatments. Several epidemio...

  4. Demand for cereal grains in Asia: the effect of urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jikun; David, Cristina C

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of urbanization on demand for cereal grains - rice, wheat, and coarse grains - in nine Asian countries. A complete demand system (Almost Ideal Demand System in linear form) is estimated in two stages based on aggregate time series data from 1960 to 1988. In the high-income countries, i.e. Japan and South Korea, urbanization was observed to significantly reduce demand for cereal grains. In the lower-income countries, demand for cereal grains either increased or ...

  5. Cereal Structure and Its Relationship to Nutritional Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Yiu, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    Factors that determine the digestibility of carbohydrates and minerals in cereals are examined . Most carbohydrates and minerals in cereals are structurally bound, either surrounded by or associated with cell wall components not easily digested by non-ruminant animals and humans. Treatments such as mechanical grinding and heat improve the digestibility of nutrient s . Further processing and cooking result in structural and physeochemical changes of cereal starch, phytate, and dietary fiber. S...

  6. Nutrient acquisition and secondary metabolites in plant pathogenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida

    Fusarium graminearum is a necrotrophic plant pathogen that leads to severe infections of cereals contaminating them with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal. Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is an obligate biotroph that causes powdery mildew infections of barley. In this thesis, lifecycles and ...

  7. Hybridization speeds up the emergence and evolution of a new pathogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2016-02-01

    Plant pathogens can evolve new host specificities and overcome host resistances over surprisingly few generations, a process that is greatly accelerated by agricultural practices. A new study provides a striking example in which the rapid emergence of a new pathogen via introgressive hybridization mirrors the evolution of a hybrid cereal crop. PMID:26813763

  8. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Kema, G.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species of Mycosphaerella cause disease in humans and other vertebrates. An international project was initiated to sequence the genomes of M. graminicola and M. fijiensis, two of the most economically impor...

  9. CAPACIDAD DE HIDRATACIÓN DE LOS CEREALES PARA DESAYUNO KELLOGG'S CAPACITY OF HYDRATATION OF KELOGG'S EXPANDED CEREALS

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Prieto G; Judith Prieto M; Alma Delia Román; Alberto José Gordillo M; Carlos Gómez A

    2005-01-01

    Los cereales expuestos a la libre adsorción de humedad, alcanzan rápidamente el equilibrio de adsorción. A baja aW (0.10), los tres cereales para desayuno evaluados en este trabajo, ceden humedad al medio; a partir de valores de aW de 0.53 y mayores manifiestan sus capacidades de adsorción de humedad con el tiempo, lo cual está asociado a que en los cereales se encontraron altos contenidos de azúcares. El cereal de arroz, manifestó los menores valores de capacidad de adsorción, en tanto el de...

  10. Gibberella moniliformis AH13 with antitumor activity, an endophytic fungus strain producing triolein isolated from Adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi: poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Min; Ming, Qian-Liang; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Nuo; Wu, Wen-wen; Han, Ting; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the isolation of an endophytic fungus from the leaves of the medicinal herb adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is reported for the first time. The fungus produced Triolein (trioleoylglycerol), a major constituent of triacylglycerols (TAGs) of adlay, in rice medium under shake-flask and bench-scale fermentation conditions. The fungus was identified as Gibberella moniliformis (Fusarium verticillioides) by its morphology and authenticated by ITS analysis (ITS1 and ITS2 regions and the intervening 5.8S rDNA region). Triolein was identified by HPLC-ELSD coupled with APCI-MS and confirmed through comparison with authentic standard. The concentration of triolein produced by G. moniliformis AH13 reached 2.536 ± 0.006 mg/g dry weight of mycelium. Moreover, the EtOAc extract of G. moniliformis AH13 showed strong antitumor activity against four types of tumor cells (A549, HCT116, MDA-MB-231, and SW1990). These results suggest that G. moniliformis AH13 in adlay has significant scientific and industrial potential to meet the pharmaceutical demands and sustainable energy requirements for TAGs in a cost-effective, easily accessible, and reproducible way and is also a potential novel source of natural antitumor bioactive agents. PMID:24810291

  11. The relationship between strigolactones and Striga hermonthica infection in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cereal production in Africa is under increasing constraint due to the obligate, out-crossing, hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth, a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. Striga parasitizes roots of cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, maize and upland rice. It has infested about 40%

  12. Engineering Value-Added Traits in Cereal Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal crops – chiefly wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, and pearl millet – are the main food source for more than two-thirds of the world population. Conventional breeding is mainly responsible for the genetic improvement of cereal crops and has resulted in cultivars with superior agronomic traits. Ho...

  13. Surface, Interfacial and Tribological Properties of Cereal-based Amphiphiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch, protein and oil are the major components of most cereals such as corn and soybean. These components, with or without further chemical modification, display a number of important amphiphilic characteristics that are of interest in a number of applications. Cereal-based oils have polar compo...

  14. Concern over ready-to-eat breakfast cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Research and Professional Brief published in the April 2008 issue of the Journal entitled "Examining the Nutritional Quality of Breakfast Cereals Marketed to Children" (1) is of concern. The authors concluded that the "the majority of children's cereals failed to meet national nutrition standard...

  15. Modeling Coupon Values for Ready-To-Eat Breakfast Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to highlight the significant determinants of coupon values. A fixed effects panel data model is fitted with data from the breakfast cereal industry. The explanatory variables include own retail price, brand loyalty, brand market share, rival coupon redemptions, and firm and product type indicators. Keywords: coupons, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals, panel data model

  16. DEMAND FOR HIGH FIBER AND LOW FIBER CEREALS

    OpenAIRE

    Binkley, James K.; Eales, James S.

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional considerations are of increasing importance in some foods. To address demand for nutrition, we estimate a demand system for cereals of different nutrient types, concentrating on fiber and focussing on five Kellogg's cereals with marked differences in fiber content. Results shed light on the role of price in who demands "healthy" foods.

  17. 2004 Cereals reveal an intriguing surprise: the performance of cereals on organic farms

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Martin; Hinchsliffe, Kay

    2005-01-01

    The great variability in the performance of cereals on organic farms that we have highlighted from past research trials has been confirmed in a new and more widely based trial. Participation from 20 producers gives the results a robust character and has enabled us to spot something we had not previously noted. EFRC researchers Prof Martin Wolfe AND Kay Hinchsliffe set out the results. Introduction EFRC is currently working on a Defra-funded project designed to use participatory resear...

  18. Optimal root arrangement of cereal crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeonsu; Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    The plant root absorbs water from the soil and supplies it to the rest part of the plant. It consists of a number of root fibers, through whose surfaces water uptake occurs. There is an intriguing observation that for most of cereal crops such as maize and wheat, the volume density of root in the soil declines exponentially as a function of depth. To understand this empirical finding, we construct a theoretical model of root water uptake, where mass transfer into root surface is modeled just as heat flux around a fin. Agreement between the theoretically predicted optimal root distribution in vertical direction and biological data supports the hypothesis that the plant root has evolved to achieve the optimal water uptake in competition with neighbors. This study has practical implication in the agricultural industry as well as optimal design of water transport networks in both micro- and macroscales. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

  19. Mercury levels in cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mercury content of cereals and market vegetables was determined with the flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry cold vapor method. Except for one sample the values for rye and wheat are below 100 ppb related to plant dry matter. Significant differences in the mercury content during the growth period could not be established. The average Hg-concentration in the kernel was 11 ppb. Vegetables of the Viennese market varied in Hg content between 0.5 and 40.7 ppb (mean values on wet weight basis). Only a few samples of champignons exceeded the permitted 50 ppb Hg tolerance limit, but 89% of the samples showed values of less than or equal to 10 ppb. At per head level of 74 kg vegetables consumed in Austria and an accepted mercury level of 10 ppb the weekly mercury intake is less than 5% of the 300 μg total Hg dosis per week tolerated by the WHO/FAO. (author)

  20. Fusarium Head Blight of Cereals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. K.; Jensen, J. D.; Nielsen, G. C.;

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction differentiating 10 Fusarium spp. and Microdochium nivale or M. majus was applied to a total of 396 grain samples of wheat, barley, triticale, oat, and rye sampled across Denmark from 2003 to 2007, along with selected samples of wheat and barley from...... 1957 to 2000, to determine incidence and abundance of individual Fusarium spp. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, zearalenone, T-2, and HT-2 were quantified using liquid chromatography–double mass spectrometry. Major differences in the Fusarium species complex among the five cereals...... as well as great yearly variation were seen. Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in wheat, with DON as the dominant mycotoxin. F. langsethiae, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in barley and oat, leading to relatively high levels of the mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2. F...

  1. Bioavailability of zinc from different Pakistani cereals grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zinc has been determined by neutron activation analysis while phytate by spectrophotometric method in some Pakistani cereals grains. The zinc:phytate ratio is more than 40:1 in all cereal grains which is for more than the suggested binding ratio of 4:1. Therefore, bio-availability of zinc from Pakistan cereal grains is more than sufficient and no deficiency can be encountered due to bioavailability of zinc. The only deficiency of zinc which could happen, will be due to the pathological conditions. (author)

  2. From protein catalogues towards targeted proteomics approaches in cereal grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Sultan, Abida; Grasser, Klaus D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their importance for human nutrition, the protein content of cereal grains has been a subject of intense study for over a century and cereal grains were not surprisingly one of the earliest subjects for 2D-gel-based proteome analysis. Over the last two decades, countless cereal grain...... extraction, separation and identification of proteins and peptides is facilitating functional proteomics and analysis of sub-proteomes from small amounts of starting material, such as seed tissues. The combination of proteomics with structural and functional analysis is increasingly applied to target subsets...

  3. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H. P. S.; Dar, Basharat N.

    2011-01-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with...

  4. Life Cycle Assessment in the Cereal and Derived Products Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renzulli, Pietro A.; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Benedetto, Graziella;

    2015-01-01

    environmental improvement in such systems. Following a brief introduction to the cereal sector and supply chain, this chapter reviews some of the current cereal-based life cycle thinking literature, with a particular emphasis on LCA. Next, an analysis of the LCA methodological issues emerging from...... the literature review is carried out. The following section of the chapter discusses some practices and approaches that should be considered when performing cereal-based LCAs in order to achieve the best possible results. Conclusions are drawn in the final part of the chapter and some indications are given...

  5. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Cereal Subcategory § 406.90 Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory. The... produce various breakfast cereals normally available for human consumption without cooking....

  6. Production of Drought and Salt Tolerant Transgenic Cereal Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Garg; R. Wu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Genetic transformation of cereal plants is a powerful method for producing agronomically useful transgenic plants. Salt and drought stress result in substantial yield losses, which amounts to many billions of dollars each year.

  7. A cross-cultural study of cereal food quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I. A.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    Cereal food production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal food quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were interviewed about the importance...... cookies, pasta and vodka were more often assessed by the Portuguese as relevant for decision-making at the point-of-purchase. This highlights the need for further cross-cultural research on food quality perception.......Cereal food production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal food quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were interviewed about the importance...

  8. A cross-cultural study of cereal foods' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Costa, Ana I. A.

    Cereal foods' production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal foods' quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were inquired about the importanc......, pasta and vodka were more often assessed by the Portuguese as relevant for decision-making at the point-of-purchase. This highlights the need for further cross-cultural research on food quality perception.......Cereal foods' production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal foods' quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were inquired about the importance...

  9. Phytase-mediated mineral solubilization from cereals underin vitrogastric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne V. F.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate) in cereals may improve mineral bioavailability in humans. This study quantified enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid by measuring inositol tri- to hexakisphosphate (InsP3-6) degradation and iron and zinc release...... cereal phytic acid at similar rates and to similar extents. Microbial phytase-catalysed phytate dephosphorylation was accompanied by increased iron and zinc release from the cereal substrates. For wheat bran at pH 5, the endogenous wheat phytase activity produced mineral release equal to or better than...... simulated gastric conditions. The data infer that acid stable microbial phytases can help improve iron bioavailability from phytate-rich cereal substrates via post-ingestion activity....

  10. How to Stabilize the Cereals Market in a Transition Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel, Iuliana

    2005-01-01

    The Romanian cereals market is in a state of transition, because the grain marketing system is characterized by high risk for market participants. The current situation of grain market is used to estimate the necessity solutions to stabilize the market.

  11. Functional cereals for production in new and variable climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Robert J; Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo

    2016-04-01

    Adaptation of cereal crops to variable or changing climates requires that essential quality attributes are maintained to deliver food that will be acceptable to human consumers. Advances in cereal genomics are delivering insights into the molecular basis of nutritional and functional quality traits in cereals and defining new genetic resources. Understanding the influence of the environment on expression of these traits will support the retention of these essential functional properties during climate adaptation. New cereals for use as whole grain or ground to flour for other food products may be based upon the traditional species such as rice and wheat currently used in these food applications but may also include new options exploiting genomics tools to allow accelerated domestication of new species. PMID:26828379

  12. The relationship between strigolactones and Striga hermonthica infection in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, M

    2012-01-01

    Cereal production in Africa is under increasing constraint due to the obligate, out-crossing, hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth, a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. Striga parasitizes roots of cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, maize and upland rice. It has infested about 40% of the African agricultural land, resulting in severe yield losses or even complete crop failure worth US billion per annum. The subsistence farmers or approximately 300 million African people lose...

  13. China's projected cereals deficits in a world context

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandratos, Nikos

    1996-01-01

    Lester Brown's recent writings about trends in China's food consumption, production and rapidly rising import requirements and his predictions that the world is running out of potential to increase production of cereals received wide publicity in the press. They increased awareness of the problem among the public, which was stimulated by recent declines in world cereals production per capita, falling stocks and sharp rises in world market prices. This paper is an attempt on my part to extract...

  14. Procedure to Determine Enzyme Inhibitors Activity in Cereal Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt; Silvia Letícia Rivero Meza; Jaqueline Garda-Buffon; Eliana Badiale-Furlong

    2012-01-01

    This work established a procedure for commercial fungal amylase usage as indicator of enzyme inhibitors presence in cereals, intending to screening antifungal resistance properties in cereals. Firstly, the inhibitive effects of oat, wheat and rice protein extracts were assessed against different amylase sources. It was found that the fungal amylase (Fungamyl®) was the most affected by the inhibition property of the extracts. The best conditions for inhibitor-extract-enzyme interaction were es...

  15. Modeling Household Preferences for Cereals and Meats in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Maria; Peel, Derrell S.

    2012-01-01

    Using 2008 household data and a two-step censored model, this article analyzes separability among preferences of the major food groups in Mexico. The main objective of the present paper was to determine if beans and potatoes are not separable from meats and cereals, respectively. Results indicate that beans belong to the protein source demand system and potatoes are not separable from cereals. Another major finding is that corn income elasticity very close to one might indicate a sensitive si...

  16. Determinants of household choice of breakfast cereals: healthy or unhealthy?

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Alla A.; Binkley, James K.

    2005-01-01

    We studied consumer demand for more and less healthy breakfast cereals. Using ACNielsen Homescan database and USDA food nutrition data, we developed three cereal nutrition indexes for each household in the data. In addition to the standard demographic characteristics of households and prices, we included variables representing differences between private labels and national brands. We found that the structure of the industry, through its effect on the product mix produced, affects consumer ch...

  17. Distribution patterns of segetal weeds of cereal crops in tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the literature data and field research conducted in 2009-2013 the distribution patterns, habitat conditions, phytogeographical characterisation and endangerment of weeds occurring in cereal crops in Tajikistan were analysed. We found out that Tajik weed flora of cereal crops counts 686 taxa. The most species rich families include Asteraceae, Poaceae and Fabaceae. The highest number of cereal weeds were noted in large river valleys of Syr-Daria, Amu-Daria and their tributaries in south-western and northern Tajikistan. This subregions have the warmest climate conditions and extensive arable lands. The greatest weed species richness was observed in submontane and montane elevations between approx. 700 and 1,900 m a.s. Cereal weeds occur frequently outside segetal communities in Tajikistan. They were noted usually in screes, wastelands, xerothermophilous grasslands, river gravel beds and in steppes habitats. The assessment of threat status reveals that ca. 33% of total cereal weed flora in Tajikistan are disappearing or occur very rarely. According to the chorological data we find that in the cereals of Tajikistan, 35 endemic and 14 subendemic species occur. The most numerous chorological elements of threatened weed flora of Tajikistan are Irano-Turanian (55%), pluriregional (16%), cosmopolitan (14,5%), Mediterranean (9%) and Eurosiberian (5%) species. Further research is suggested to explore the distribution patterns of all weed species in Tajikistan as it should be useful for economy and effectiveness of crop production as well as conservation of most valuable species. (author)

  18. Intestinal T cell responses to cereal proteins in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmartin, C; Wieser, H; Abuzakouk, M; Kelly, J; Jackson, J; Feighery, C

    2006-01-01

    Celiac disease is caused by sensitivity to wheat gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The etiological role of the other wheat-related cereals, barley, rye, and oats, is still debated. In order to investigate this issue further, in this study we examined the immune response of celiac mucosal T cell lines to fractions from all four cereals. Cell stimulation was assessed by measuring proliferation (employing (3)H-thymidine incorporation) or cytokine (IL-2, IFN-gamma) production. All five T cell lines demonstrated immunoreactivity to protein fractions from the four related cereals. In some cell lines, reactivity to wheat, barley, and rye was only evident when these cereal fractions had been pretreated with tissue transglutaminase. This study confirms the similar T cell antigenic reactivity of these four related cereals and has implications for their exclusion in the gluten-free diet. However, despite oats stimulation of T cell lines, this cereal does not activate a mucosal lesion in most celiac patients. PMID:16416236

  19. Leaf Rust of Wheat: Pathogen Biology, Variation and Host Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kolmer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rusts are important pathogens of angiosperms and gymnosperms including cereal crops and forest trees. With respect to cereals, rust fungi are among the most important pathogens. Cereal rusts are heteroecious and macrocyclic requiring two taxonomically unrelated hosts to complete a five spore stage life cycle. Cereal rust fungi are highly variable for virulence and molecular polymorphism. Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most common rust of wheat on a worldwide basis. Many different races of P. triticina that vary for virulence to leaf rust resistance genes in wheat differential lines are found annually in the US. Molecular markers have been used to characterize rust populations in the US and worldwide. Highly virulent races of P. triticina are selected by leaf rust resistance genes in the soft red winter wheat, hard red winter wheat and hard red spring wheat cultivars that are grown in different regions of the US. Cultivars that only have race-specific leaf rust resistance genes that are effective in seedling plants lose their effective resistance and become susceptible within a few years of release. Cultivars with combinations of race non-specific resistance genes have remained resistant over a period of years even though races of the leaf rust population have changed constantly.

  20. Determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of the TLC for determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains was studied using corn, rice and wheat as representative commodities and atrazine, captan, chlorpyrifos, chlortoluron, diazinon, diuron, fenitrothion, metoxuron, prochloraz, triforine as representative compounds. Following the extraction with ethyl acetate the efficiency of extraction was tested with Bio-Rad SX-3 gel, GPC, silica gel, florisil and RP-18 reverse phase silica cartridge. The GPC alone or in combination with silica or florisil cleanup were the most suitable for cleanup of the extracts. The TLC elution characteristics of 131 pesticide active ingredients were tested with eight elution systems. The detectability of the selected compounds was determined with six detection methods including two chemical and four bioassay procedures. In addition to the basic methods, the non-toxic Penicillium cyclopium fungi spore inhibition was introduced and it was found very sensitive for some fungicide compounds. The minimum detectable quantities of the tested compounds ranged from 1 ng to 100 ng. The average recoveries from rice and wheat ranged from 78% to 89%, and the limits of quantitation, LOQ, were between 0.01 and 0.2 mg/kg for the selected ten compounds. (author)

  1. Alternative cereal grains and cereal by-products as sources of energy in poultry diets- A review

    OpenAIRE

    C. I. Medugu,; A. O. Raji,; J. U. Igwebuike; E. Barwa

    2011-01-01

    The increase in the world population, high cost of conventional animal feed ingredients and low protein intake in most developing countries has necessitated animal scientists to search for alternative sources of feed ingredients. This can enhance the production of animals with short generation intervals such as poultry to overcome the protein deficiency. This paper reviews cereal grains and cereal by-products as alternative feed ingredients for formulating poultry diets. Results obtained from...

  2. AbaA Regulates Conidiogenesis in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Seo, Young-Su; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) is a prominent pathogen that infects major cereal crops such as wheat, barley, and maize. Both sexual (ascospores) and asexual (conidia) spores are produced in F. graminearum. Since conidia are responsible for secondary infection in disease development, our objective of the present study was to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum based on the framework previously described in Aspergillus nidulans. In thi...

  3. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast. PMID:26788290

  4. Host genotype is an important determinant of the cereal phyllosphere mycobiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup;

    2015-01-01

    The phyllosphere mycobiome in cereals is an important determinant of crop health. However, an understanding of the factors shaping this community is lacking. Fungal diversity in leaves from a range of cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), winter and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare...... (ITS) reads were obtained from 210 leaf samples. Visual disease assessments and relative read abundance of Zymoseptoria tritici and Ramularia collo-cygni were strongly positively related. Crop genotype at the species level explained 43% of the variance in the total dataset, followed by fungicide...... treatment (13%) and location (4%). Indicator species, including plant pathogens, responding to factors such as crop species, location and treatment were identified. Host genotype at both the species and cultivar level is important in shaping phyllosphere fungal communities, whereas fungicide treatment...

  5. In vitro evaluation of the activity of thiosemicarbazone derivatives against mycotoxigenic fungi affecting cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degola, Francesca; Morcia, Caterina; Bisceglie, Franco; Mussi, Francesca; Tumino, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Roberta; Pelosi, Giorgio; Terzi, Valeria; Buschini, Annamaria; Restivo, Francesco Maria; Lodi, Tiziana

    2015-05-01

    With a steadily increasing world population, a more efficient system of food production is of paramount importance. One of the major causes of food spoilage is the presence of fungal pathogens and the production and accumulation of mycotoxins. In the present work we report a study on the activity of a series of functionalized thiosemicarbazones (namely cuminaldehyde, trans-cinnamaldehyde, quinoline-2-carboxyaldehyde, 5-fluoroisatin thiosemicarbazone and 5-fluoroisatin N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone), as antifungal and anti-mycotoxin agents, against the two major genera of cereal mycotoxigenic fungi, i.e. Fusarium and Aspergillus. These thiosemicarbazones display different patterns of efficacy on fungal growth and on mycotoxin accumulation depending on the fungal species. Some of the molecules display a greater effect on mycotoxin synthesis than on fungal growth. PMID:25702884

  6. Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Using Toxoflavin Produced by the Bacterial Pathogen Burkholderia glumae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boknam Jung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major causal agent for Fusarium head blight in cereals and produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone. Isolation of the fungal strains from air or cereals can be hampered by various other airborne fungal pathogens and saprophytic fungi. In this study, we developed a selective medium specific to F. graminearum using toxoflavin produced by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. F. graminearum was resistant to toxoflavin, while other fungi were sensitive to this toxin. Supplementing toxoflavin into medium enhanced the isolation of F. graminearum from rice grains by suppressing the growth of saprophytic fungal species. In addition, a medium with or without toxoflavin exposed to wheat fields for 1 h had 84% or 25%, respectively, of colonies identified as F. graminearum. This selection medium provides an efficient tool for isolating F. graminearum, and can be adopted by research groups working on genetics and disease forecasting.

  7. Study on powdery mildew resistance transfer from S. cereale L.cv. Weiling rye into wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huai Yu; Ren, Zheng Long

    2007-02-01

    Weiling rye (S. cereale L.cv.), a Chinese dwarf rye, confers high powdery mildew (Erysiphe gramininis f.sp.tritici) in China. My8443, a wheat cultivars infecting seriously powdery mildew disease, was used as the female parent and Weiling rye was used as the donor of powdery mildew resistance in the study. A new wheat-rye translocation line,named No.147,was developed from BC2F6 progenies of wheat cultivars My8443 and Weiling rye to transfer the resistance from Weiling rye to common wheat. The powdery mildew resistance of No.147 and its parents were investigated in seedling and adult stages by artificially inoculating the mixture of advanced pathogenic races in room and field and the single pathogenic race in room. Improved Giemsa C-banding technique and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH,Genomic in situ hybridization) were used to identify wheat and rye chromosomes. Acid polyacylamide gel electrophoresis(APAGE) separation of endosperm gliadin and simple sequence repeat(SSR) PCR amplification of 11 SCM-Secale cereale markers also were employed for 1RS confirmation in the study. The results showed that No.147 was a new 1BL/1RS wheat-rye chromosome translocation with high powdery mildew resistance derived from Weiling rye. The reason on the formation of the new wheat-rye chromosome translocation was analyzed. The utilizations of resistance gene resource derived from Chinese Weiling rye and the new 1BL/1RS translocation line in wheat genetics and breeding improvement were discussed in the paper. PMID:17357447

  8. Heat-radiation combination for control of mold infection in harvested fruits and processed cereal foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of mild heat and low dose irradiation was found to extend the shelf-life of fresh fruits and processed cereal foods by controlling mold infection. Chapaties (Indian unleavened bread) and bread slices packed in polycell pouches, subjected to 50 krad followed by dry heat (650C) were free from mold and shelf-stable for 10 weeks at ambient temperature (28-320C). Inoculated pack studies confirmed the efficiency of the treatment. No immediate changes in organoleptic attributes were discernible even after exposure to 100 krad. The quality deterioration in sliced bread stored for 2 1/2 months has been attributed to natural staling rather than radiation. Hot water dip (500C for 5 min) followed by 150 krad irradiation extended the shelf-life of fresh figs by 3-4 days at 28-320C and 8-10 days at 150C. Regardless of the sequence of treatments, combination of heat and 100 krad extended the shelf-life of grapes both at ambinet and refrigerated storage. In mangoes, heat followed by 50 krad was effective in controlling anthracnose and stem-end rot whereas in bananas irradiated for delayed ripening, hot water treatment can be used as a supplementary process to control stem-end rot. Quality of combination treated fruits was comparable to normally ripened fruits. In vitro studies with fungal pathogens isolated from the above fruits and cereal foods revealed that the synergistic effect of heat-radiation combination depends on the sequence of treatments which varied with respect to different pathogens studied. Some biochemical aspects of combination treated fruits is discussed. (F.J.)

  9. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes. PMID:27303632

  10. Presweetened dry breakfast cereals: potential for dental danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, I L; McCartney, J C

    1981-01-01

    Sugar concentrations were measured by enzymatic methods in twenty-eight presweetened breakfast cereals. Means for the various sugars were in essential agreement with recently published gas-liquid chromatography results and also with the sugar values expressed on the labels of these cereals. Thus, accurate and reproducible analytical methods are available for sugar measurements in foods; sugar levels in foods can now be assessed with confidence and the information disseminated to interested food purchasers. Oral retention time, as measured by salivary sucrose determinations, was prolonged after ingestion of these cereals directly from the box; oral clearance was more rapid, when the same subject drank a sugar solution of the same concentration. Presweetened cereals are candidates for frequent ingestion as snacks, due to their candy-like taste. This fact plus the high sugar levels in these cereals and the tendency to prolonged intraoral retention, automatically classifies these materials as potential dental hazards, when used as snacks. It is not implied that this is the case, when these products are eaten at mealtime with milk. PMID:6944319

  11. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:23915993

  12. Storage stability and quality assessment of processed cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Kaur, Satinder; Dar, B N; Singh, Baljit

    2014-03-01

    Quality improvement of cereal brans, a health promoting ingredient for functional foods is the emerging research concept due to their low shelf stability and presence of non-nutrient components. A study was conducted to evaluate the storage quality of processed milling industry byproducts so that these can be potentially utilized as a dietary fibre source. Different cereal brans (wheat, rice, barley and oat) were processed by dry, wet, microwave heating, extrusion cooking and chemical methods at variable conditions. Processed brans were stored in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pouches at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Quality assessments (moisture, free fatty acids, water activity and physical quality) of brans were done up to six months, at one month intervals. Free fatty acid content, moisture and water activity of the cereal brans remained stable during the entire storage period. Among treatments, extrusion processing is the most effective for stability. Processing treatments and storage temperature have the positive effect on extending the shelf life of all cereal brans. Therefore, processed cereal brans can be used as a dietary fortificant for the development of value added food products. PMID:24587536

  13. Contribution of Cereal-Legume association to the yield and grain quality of cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the mixed cereal-legume cultivation in different planting patterns was undertaken for two consecutive years. The aim was to investigate the contribution of the association of legumes towards yield and grain quality of cereal crops. The data indicated that the association of legumes in different planting pattern with sorghum affected the yield and grain quality of sorghum. During both the years of study, the double row strips (30/90 cm) planting pattern significantly increased the grain yield of sorghum, as compered with single rows (60 cm apart) and triple row strips (30/120 cm). The grain yield of sorghum decreased when sorghum was associated with mungbean or guar, but the additional harvest of intercrops increased the total productivity. The difference in grain yield between the treatment means of interaction was non-significant. Moreover, in the first year of study, protein content of sorghum grain was not significantly affected by the planting pattern, but in the second year of study, double and triple row strips planting pattern significantly increased the grain protein content (respectively, 9.41% and 9.345%) of sorghum, as compared with single row planting pattern (protein content of 9.19%). Sorghum grain protein content of 9.51 and 9.49% produced in association with mungbean was significantly more than the grain protein content of sorghum alone or sorghum grown in the association with guar during 1999 and 2000, respectively. Increase in grain protein content of sorghum, when associated with mungbean, was attributed to the N transfer from companion mungbean to sorghum. It may be concluded from the results obtained that sorghum + mungbean association in the double row strips (30/90 cm) planting pattern can efficiently utilize the available resources to improve the grain quality and overall production of sorghum-based cropping system. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the protein quality of cereal mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein content, true protein digestibility, biological value, net protein utilization, and utilizable protein in several varieties of barley, wheat and rice were determined in nitrogen-balance trials with rats. It appeared that protein quality varied significantly between these three cereal grains, with the lowest values for wheat. However, the protein content was markedly higher in wheat; consequently, utilizable protein was highest in this cereal grain. The different varieties within barley, wheat and rice varied considerably in protein quality. This demonstrates a large variation in the potential for protein synthesis. The main problem with rice and barley is the low protein concentration, whereas with wheat the biggest problem seems to be the quality of the protein. As the lysine level in all cereal grains, expressed in percentage of the protein, cannot meet the requirements for either man or domestic animals efforts should be made to increase the lysine concentration in these food sources. (author)

  15. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spring barley is grown on about half of the Norwegian cereal area. The rest of the area is equally divided between wheat and oats. Most years the domestic production provides 70%–80% of the domestic market for bread wheat. Barley and oats are mainly grown for animal feed. During the years 2008–2012, severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight have led to increased mycotoxin contamination of cereals. During that period, precipitation was above normal during anthesis and grain maturation. The most important mycotoxin producers have been F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae. Increased deoxynivalenol contamination of Norwegian cereals during recent years is due to severe F. graminearum epidemics.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cereal products on the Turkish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacmaz, Sibel

    2016-09-01

    The contamination level of four EU marker polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some cereal-derived products was surveyed in this study. Thirty-eight samples, 20 bread and 18 breakfast cereals, were purchased from retail shops and local markets of East Black sea region in Turkey. The samples were analysed for four EU marker PAHs, using ultrasonic extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean up and stable-isotope dilution gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric (GC/MS) detection. The method was validated with the parameters linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and uncertainty. Total content of the four PAHs in bread varied from 0.19 to 0.46 µg kg(-1) and in breakfast cereals from 0.10 to 0.87 µg kg(-1). PMID:26986946

  17. Pathogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Irudayaraj

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of sensors for detecting foodborne pathogens has been motivated by the need to produce safe foods and to provide better healthcare. However, in the more recent times, these needs have been expanded to encompass issues relating to biosecurity, detection of plant and soil pathogens, microbial communities, and the environment. The range of technologies that currently flood the sensor market encompass PCR and microarray-based methods, an assortment of optical sensors (including bioluminescence and fluorescence, in addition to biosensor-based approaches that include piezoelectric, potentiometric, amperometric, and conductometric sensors to name a few. More recently, nanosensors have come into limelight, as a more sensitive and portable alternative, with some commercial success. However, key issues affecting the sensor community is the lack of standardization of the testing protocols and portability, among other desirable elements, which include timeliness, cost-effectiveness, user-friendliness, sensitivity and specificity. [...

  18. NPS6, Encoding a Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase Involved in Siderophore-Mediated Iron Metabolism, is a Conserved Virulence Determinant of Plant Pathogenic Ascomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPS6, encoding a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, is a virulence determinant in the corn pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus and is also involved in resistance to oxidative stress, generated by hydrogen peroxide. Deletion of NPS6 orthologs in the rice pathogen, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, the cereal...

  19. Effects of processing on mycotoxin stability in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Jafar; Maleki, Gisoo

    2014-09-01

    The mycotoxins that generally occur in cereals and other products are not completely destroyed during food-processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most usually associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins. The various food processes that may have effects on mycotoxins include cleaning, milling, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, flaking, alkaline cooking, nixtamalization, and extrusion. Most of the food processes have variable effects on mycotoxins, with those that utilize high temperatures having the greatest effects. In general, the processes reduce mycotoxin concentrations significantly, but do not eliminate them completely. This review focuses on the effects of various thermal treatments on mycotoxins. PMID:24497303

  20. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by......, the field-grown barleys per se differed too little for the accuracy to be confirmed. The other cereals tested, oats, rye, maize, wheat, and rice, gave unsatisfactory results with pepsin/pancreatin, and also with pepsin, pancreatin, or pronase used separately. The ranking of the cereals according to in...

  1. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekimova V. B.

    2014-12-01

    according to the procedures used a method of washing and centrifugation, seeds, embryos analysis method, biological method based on the stimulation of development and growth of pathogens in the infected seeds during seed germination in nutrient media. We analyzed 200 samples of wheat and barley grain with 8 games on the definition of the infestation and root rot spores solid and smut. In all the samples studied was dominated latent form of infection grains (outwardly healthy, germinating, well executed seeds had normal luster, patina fungus was absent; but sometimes observed apparent lesion (plaque formation, a different degree of deformation of grains. When the microscope isolated fungi was established dominance of species such as fungi of the genera Alternaria, Helmintosporium, Fusarium, smut fungi. The research of cereal seeds showed that all the tested party for the harvest in 2014 were infected with different pathogens in different degrees. On the basis of literature data and our own observations, comparing infection rates average cereal seeds complex fungal diseases, it may be noted that in 2014 the percentage of infestation was higher than in previous years, there is a trend of growth in incidence. The results showed that the overall percentage of infected root rots seeds of spring wheat in 2014 was 55.5 %, the infestation of spring barley was 64.7 %. Compared to previous years the trend increase in the prevalence of fungal diseases on cereals: wheat infestation grew by 12.8 %, barley - 2.13 %. Smut infected - 11.2 % wheat, barley - 37.4 %. Infection bunt was 4.6 %, including 3.3 % of wheat; Barley 17.6 %. The growth and development of root rot during the growing season depended on the presence of soil infection. Infection of grain crops by smut diseases depend on the quality of seed sown. Reducing the prevalence of smut disease is possible at early winter and late spring sowing to prevent the spore germination at low temperature.

  2. Cytological and molecular analysis of nonhost resistance in rice to wheat powdery mildew and leaf rust pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yulin; Yao, Juanni; Zhang, Hongchang; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2015-07-01

    Cereal powdery mildews caused by Blumeria graminis and cereal rusts caused by Puccinia spp. are constant disease threats that limit the production of almost all important cereal crops. Rice is an intensively grown agricultural cereal that is atypical because of its immunity to all powdery mildew and rust fungi. We analyzed the nonhost interactions between rice and the wheat powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) and the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina (Ptr) to identify the basis of nonhost resistance (NHR) in rice against cereal powdery mildew and rust fungi at cytological and molecular levels. No visible symptoms were observed on rice leaves inoculated with Bgt or Ptr. Microscopic observations showed that both pathogens exhibited aberrant differentiation and significantly reduced penetration frequencies on rice compared to wheat. The development of Bgt and Ptr was also completely arrested at early infection stages in cases of successful penetration into rice leaves. Attempted infection of rice by Bgt and Ptr induced similar defense responses, including callose deposition, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and hypersensitive response in rice epidermal and mesophyll cells, respectively. Furthermore, a set of defense-related genes were upregulated in rice against Bgt and Ptr infection. Rice is an excellent monocot model for genetic and molecular studies. Therefore, our results demonstrate that rice is a useful model to study the mechanisms of NHR to cereal powdery mildew and rust fungi, which provides useful information for the development of novel and durable strategies to control these important pathogens. PMID:25547964

  3. Nutritional quality, labelling and promotion of breakfast cereals on the New Zealand market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Anandita; Eyles, Helen; Rayner, Mike; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Swinburn, Boyd; Lonsdale-Cooper, Emily; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2014-10-01

    Breakfast cereals substantially contribute to daily energy and nutrient intakes among children. In New Zealand, new regulations are being implemented to restrict nutrition and health claims to products that meet certain 'healthy' criteria. This study investigated the difference in nutritional quality, labelling and promotion between 'healthy' and 'less healthy' breakfast cereals, and between breakfast cereals intended for children compared with other breakfast cereals on the New Zealand market. The cross-sectional data collection involved taking pictures of the nutrition information panel (NIP) and front-of pack (FoP) for all breakfast cereals (n = 247) at two major supermarkets in Auckland in 2013. A nutrient profiling tool was used to classify products into 'healthy'/'less healthy'. In total 26% of cereals did not meet the 'healthy' criteria. 'Less healthy' cereals were significantly higher in energy density, sugar and sodium content and lower in protein and fibre content compared with 'healthy' cereals. Significantly more nutrition claims (75%) and health claims (89%) featured on 'healthy' compared with 'less healthy' cereals. On the 'less healthy' cereals, nutrition claims (65%) were more predominant than health claims (17%). Of the 52 products displaying promotional characters, 48% were for 'cereals for kids', and of those, 72% featured on 'less healthy' cereals. In conclusion, most breakfast cereals met the 'healthy' criteria; however, 'cereals for kids' were 'less healthy' and displayed more promotional characters than other cereal categories. Policy recommendations include: food composition targets set or endorsed by government, strengthening and enforcing current regulations on health and nutrition claims, considering the application of nutrient profiling for nutrition claims in addition to health claims, introducing an interpretative FoP labelling system and restricting the use of promotional characters on 'less healthy' breakfast cereals. PMID

  4. Projecting Meat and Cereals Demand for China Based on a Meta-Analysis of Income Elasticities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou; Yu, Xiaohua; Abler, David; Chen, Danhong

    2014-01-01

    There are many projections for China's food demand, and the projection results differ significantly from each other. Different values for income elasticities could be a major reason. This study projects meat and cereals demand for China based on a meta-analysis of the income elasticity estimates using a collection of 143 and 240 income elasticity estimates for cereals and meat products, respectively, from 36 primary studies. We find that income elasticities for most cereals (general cereals, ...

  5. Major Cereal Grain Fibers and Psyllium in Relation to Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Roizen, Michael F; Mladen Golubic; Kristin Kirkpatrick; Bernstein, Adam M.; Brigid Titgemeier

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. β-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oa...

  6. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and

  7. In vitro estimation of the rate and extent of ruminal digestion of cereal feed fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahir, M.N.; Lund, Peter; Hetta, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Cereal grains are important components in diets for high producing dairy cows and fast growing beef cattle. The most important feed fraction in cereals is starch, which constitutes the major portion (70-80%) of cereal grains. In ruminant nutrition different starch sources are characterized by their...

  8. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cereal subcategory. 406.80 Section 406.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. Algorithms for in-season nutrient management in cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for improved decision making products for cereal production systems has placed added emphasis on using plant sensors in-season, and that incorporate real-time, site specific, growing environments. The objective of this work was to describe validated in-season sensor based algorithms prese...

  10. Prevention of ochratoxin A in cereals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Monica; Jonsson, Nils; Magan, Naresh; Banks, John; Fanelli, Corrado; Rizzo, Aldo; Haikara, Auli; Dobson, Alan; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Holmes, Stephen; Olkku, Juhani; Persson, Sven-Johan; Borjesson, Thomas

    This paper describes objectives and activities of a major European Community project (OTA PREV) aimed at understanding sources of contamination of ochratoxin A in European cereals and related food-stuffs, and the development of strategies to minimise ochratoxin A in the food supply. The project ran...

  11. Manuring and stable nitrogen isotope ratios in cereals and pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Rebecca A; Bogaard, Amy; Heaton, Tim;

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of animal manure application on the δ15N values of a broad range of crops (cereals and pulses), under a range of manuring levels/regimes and at a series of locations extending from northwest Europe to the eastern Mediterranean. We included both agricultural field ex...

  12. Resistant starch and dietary fibers from cereal by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried distillers grains (DDG) are a cereal byproduct from ethanol distillation process. On a dry weight basis, DDG is composed of 13% fat, 30% protein, 33% fiber, with the remainder various carbohydrates. Only 6-8% of starch in DDG is in resistant form (dietary fiber). Because only about 6% of DD...

  13. EXPLOITATION OF MECHANISMS REGULATING CYTOKININ LEVELS TO IMPROVE CEREALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamínek, Miroslav; Šolcová, Blanka; Trčková, M.; Motyka, Václav; Daskalova, S.; Elliott, M. C.

    Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003, s. 109-128 [NATO-Russia Workshop. Moscow (RU), 12.03.2002-16.03.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0530; GA ČR GA206/02/0967 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Cytokinin * Plant growth * Cereals Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  14. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  15. POTENTIAL OF CEREALS AND PSEUDOCEREALS FOR LACTIC ACID FERMENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Valík

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and pseudocereals play a significant role in human nutrition. They are source of specific carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, fibre and wide spectrum of vitamins and minerals. Moreover, pseudocereals have a higher content of essential amino acids, e.g. lysine and tryptophan. Cereals and pseudocereals may also contain some antinutrition factors, such as phytic acid, polyphenols, trypsin inhibitors and inhibitors of α-amylase. These are responsible for reducing of protein and carbohydrate digestibility and decreasing accessibility of minerals due to complex formation. This review assesses the applications of cereals and pseudocereals in fermentation technology including the effects of lactic acid bacteria on nutrition, sensory quality and shelf-life. This work is focusing also on fermentation process of cereal matrice leading in degradation of antinutritional factors increase of nutritional value and availability of minerals, proteins and carbohydrates. Lactic acid bacteria produce many aromatic compounds that are beneficial to organoleptic atributes of the products. However, a few questions have been not answered in experiments, yet. For eample, is there any space for evaluation of their suitability to act as carriers of probiotics? Could such the attempts lead in development some special formulae suitable for consumers with food allergies or deficiencies?doi:10.5219/127

  16. Cecil Cereal's Supermarket Search. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Cynthia

    The document presents objectives, teaching methods, activities, and work sheets for a unit on choosing breakfast cereal. The unit is intended to be used as an integral part of the fifth grade health program. Activities take place in a classroom learning center and can be completed in approximately four to six hours of classroom time. Objectives…

  17. Modeling Coupon Values for Ready-To-Eat Breakfast Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Gregory K.; Connor, John M.; Fulton, Joan R.

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to highlight the significant determinants of coupon values. A fixed effects panel data model is fitted with data from the breakfast cereal industry. The explanatory variables include own retail price, brand loyalty, brand market share, rival coupon redemptions, and firm and product type indicators.

  18. Variety Recommended Lists of Organic Cereals in Emilia-Romagna

    OpenAIRE

    C. Piazza; Foutry, H.; Reggiani, R.; Poli, M.; Bolognesi, S

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of Emilia-Romagna’s technicians and farmers, specific trials on cereals (soft wheat, hard wheat, barley, corn) for organic production have been carried out since 1995. These trials helped draw up specific Variety Recommended Lists.

  19. Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boknam Jung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed.

  20. Novel Approach for the Analysis and the Optimization of the Cereal Stock Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKHOUA Mohamed Najeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After a presentation of the process of thecereals mixture, we present a methodology for theoptimization problem and we validate it through apractical case of the cereals stock mobility process. Infact, the cereal transaction in Tunisia is conditioned bythe quality of the cereals determining the price of thetransaction (purchase or sale. With regards to theimportance of the cereal stock mobility, we werecommitted to study the way to optimize the process ofthe cereals mixture and to reduce disparity in deliveredcereal quality through the use of blinding techniquesand optimization methods.

  1. Alternative cereal grains and cereal by-products as sources of energy in poultry diets- A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Medugu,

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the world population, high cost of conventional animal feed ingredients and low protein intake in most developing countries has necessitated animal scientists to search for alternative sources of feed ingredients. This can enhance the production of animals with short generation intervals such as poultry to overcome the protein deficiency. This paper reviews cereal grains and cereal by-products as alternative feed ingredients for formulating poultry diets. Results obtained from various sources indicate that diets formulated with alternative cereal grains and cereal by-products had no adverse effects on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and carcass quality of broiler chickens, cockerels and egg quality of laying hens. Inclusion of different levels of brewers’ dried grain, maize offal, rice bran and broken rice are quite acceptable in poultry diets. Therefore, sorghum, millet, maize offal, rice bran and wheat offal, millet bran, spent sorghum grain and broken rice could be recommended as alternative sources of feed ingredients in poultry diets.

  2. Antioxidant properties of diverse cereal grains: A review on in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masisi, Kabo; Beta, Trust; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2016-04-01

    Cereal grains and products have gained popularity in contributing to healthy eating behavior because of their antioxidant properties associated with protection against chronic diseases. In this review, notable studies on the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereal grains are summarized. Cereals contain phytochemicals or certain minor components with antioxidant properties. The antioxidant potential of cereals depends on their bioaccessibility, absorption in the gastrointestinal and their bioavailability utilization in vivo. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of cereals increased their antioxidant potentials which are significantly correlated with their total phenolic contents. Most studies performed in vivo have been concerned with the antioxidant properties of colored rice, wheat bran and rye products. There are inadequate in vitro and in vivo studies on antioxidative potentials of fermented versus unfermented cereals. Therefore, further studies are necessary to maximize possible health benefits of cereal antioxidative phytochemicals. PMID:26593469

  3. Glycemic index of cereals and tubers produced in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Xin Yang; Hong-Wei Wang; Hong-Mei Cui; Yan Wang; Lian-Da Yu; Shi-Xue Xiang; Shui-Ying Zhou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the GI of some cereals and tubers produced in China in an effort to establish the database of glycemic index (GI) of Chinese food.METHODS: Food containing 50 g carbohydrate was consumed by 8-12 healthy adults after they have been fasted for 10 h and blood glucose was monitored for 2 h.Glucose was used as reference food. GI of food was calculated according to a standard method.RESULTS: GI of 9 types of sugar and 60 kinds of food were determined.CONCLUSION: Food GI is mainly determined by nature of carbohydrate and procession. Most of cereals and tubers produced in China have similar GI with their counterparts produced in other countries.

  4. Cereal Grains: Their Impacts on Health and Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Rayas-Duarte; J Uriyapongson

    2006-01-01

    Cereal grains can contribute to maintain health and prevent chronic diseases by supplying biologically active components. The exact mechanism of action of these components is not completely understood, but extensive evidence suggests the antioxidants that are present in the grains are the likely source of benefits. These activities or properties might protect against coronary heart disease and diabetes. The relationships of complex carbohydrates, whole grain products and the prevention of diseases, including type2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease continue to challenge the scientific community. Though cereal grains contribute to a healthy diet there are some people that can not tolerate the proteins present in the grain. This can lead to food allergies and when severe can be diagnosed as celiac disease.

  5. Genetics of cereal adaptation to the man-made habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wild progenitor species of all cereals are known with various degrees of certainty. Wild and cultivated taxa of the same species cross and their hybrids are generally fertile. This allows for a study of the genetics of domestication. A survey of the literature, however, reveals few such studies. The adaptation to disturbed habitats is genetically complex, and colonizing ability seems to have been a prerequisite for successful domestication. Natural seed dispersal is controlled by one to several linked genes, and behaves genetically as an overall dominant over loss of efficient seed dispersal mechanisms. Apical dominance, synchronized tillering, and increase in fecundity are complex, recessive genetic traits associated with cereal domestication. Racial evolution resulted from conscious selection by man and involves numerous loci. (author). 43 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  6. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in cereal breakfast products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Chrachol, Lucyna

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants formed by incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of several organic materials. PAHs occur as complex mixtures, never as individual components. They are chemically stable and highly lipophilic in nature and occur as contaminants in different food categories: vegetables, fruit, cereals, oils and fats, especially barbecued and smoked food. The present study was carried out to determine 16 PAHs in cereal products: musli, corn, oats and barley flakes, and crunchy. The analytical procedure was based on alkaline digestion, extraction with n-hexane and cleaned up in a florisil cartridge. Chromatographic separation was performed using gas chromatography (HP 6890) coupled to mass spectrometry (HP 5973). The levels of PAHs in most samples were generally low and excepting one sample of bred varied between 4.2 to 169 microg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene, was detected in all samples, at level 0.02 microg/kg to 16 microg/kg. PMID:19143427

  7. A need for determination of arsenic species at low levels in cereal-based food and infant cereals. Validation of a method by IC-ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Calderón, Josep; Centrich, Francesc; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2014-03-15

    The present study arose from the need to determine inorganic arsenic (iAs) at low levels in cereal-based food. Validated methods with a low limit of detection (LOD) are required to analyse these kinds of food. An analytical method for the determination of iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in cereal-based food and infant cereals is reported. The method was optimised and validated to achieve low LODs. Ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICPMS) was used for arsenic speciation. The main quality parameters were established. To expand the applicability of the method, different cereal products were analysed: bread, biscuits, breakfast cereals, wheat flour, corn snacks, pasta and infant cereals. The total and inorganic arsenic content of 29 cereal-based food samples ranged between 3.7-35.6 and 3.1-26.0 μg As kg(-1), respectively. The present method could be considered a valuable tool for assessing inorganic arsenic contents in cereal-based foods. PMID:24206733

  8. Quantitative estimation of sampling uncertainties for mycotoxins in cereal shipments

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Florent; Lyman, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Many countries receive shipments of bulk cereals from primary producers. There is a volume of work that is ongoing that seeks to arrive at appropriate standards for the quality of the shipments and the means to assess the shipments as they are out-loaded. Of concern are mycotoxin and heavy metal levels, pesticide and herbicide residue levels, and contamination by genetically modified organisms (GMOs). As the ability to quantify these contaminants improves through improved analytical technique...

  9. In Vitro Bioavailability of Mineral Nutrients in Breakfast Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Lesniewicz; Mariola Kretowicz; Kamila Wierzbicka; Wieslaw Zyrnicki

    2012-01-01

    The bioavailability of both micro- and macroelements was investigated under conditions simulating the digestion processes in the human alimentary system. A one-step enzymatic extraction was applied using buffered solutions containing pepsin, trypsin, alpha-amylase or pancreatin, which are enzymes that hydrolyse different nutritional food components such as peptides, carbohydrates and lipids, as the extractant. Corn flakes and multigrain breakfast cereals containing taste additives from a loca...

  10. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel; Hebelstrup, Kim; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphospho...

  11. Prospects for India's cereal supply and demand to 2020:

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalla, G. S.; Hazell, P. B. R.; John M. Kerr

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of an emerging cereal gap of serious proportions by the year 2020, is a useful illustration of the kind of constructive dialogue IFPRI hopes to encourage. It responds to several quite recent developments, notably the rapid expansion of India's industrial and service sectors since the 1991 structural reforms, the improved prospects for continued growth over the next few decades, and the likelihood of rising per capita incomes that could generate substantially increased demand f...

  12. Supply and demand for cereals in Pakistan 2010-2030:

    OpenAIRE

    Nazli, Hina; Haider, Syed Hamza; Tariq, Asjad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the projections of future demand and supply for these two main cereals for 2010, 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030. For projecting household demand, the Almost Ideal Demand System (LA-AIDS) is estimated for eight food items using the data of nationally representative household survey. The results are used to project the household demand under three different scenarios. These scenarios are: a business-as-usual situation (per capita income is assumed to grow at a rate of 3 percent ...

  13. Impacts of cereal ergot in food animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eCoufal-Majewski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops such as wheat, barley and rye, favouring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements which may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety and genotype. Considerable animal to animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome.

  14. SOME STUDIES ABOUT CEREALS BEHAVIOR DURING FREEZE DRYING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA-VICTORIA MNERIE; D. MNERIE; D. ŢUCU

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents some special method and equipment and the principal advantages of freeze-dried food. The freeze drying is a good method of freeze-drying for make some experiments with many kind of cereals, for the improvement that in food production. It is necessary and is possible to study the corn oil extract, wheat flour, the maltodextrin from corn, modified cornstarch, spice extracts, soy sauce, hydrolyzed wheat gluten, partially hydrogenated soybean and cottonseed oil etc. That is ver...

  15. Zinc and iron speciation in the cereal grain

    OpenAIRE

    Schjoerring, Jan K.; Persson, Daniel P.; Hansen, Thomas H.; Laursen, Kristian H; Husted, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Phytic acid and proteins are believed to be important for the distribution and bio-availability of zinc and iron in the cereal grain, but little quantitative information is available on the relative importance of different organic ligands. We have used several chromatographic techniques including size exclusion chromatography (SEC) hyphenated to ICP-MS to analyse the molecular speciation of Fe and Zn in tissues of barley and rice seeds. The majority of Fe in barley embryos co-eluted with P as...

  16. The structure of cell chloroplasts of spring cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav V. Zhuk; Mykola M. Musyenko

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that in wheat chloroplasts thylakoids are localized on the periphery and in the central part are strong starch grains. In the chloroplasts of barley found small stack of thylakoids. Unlike wheat, the number of starch grains in chloroplasts of barley is more, but they are smaller. Oat chloroplasts were significantly smaller than the other studied cereals. Thus, cell chloroplasts of leaves of wheat, barley and oats differed significantly in size and structure, but had have clearly o...

  17. Multiple Adoption of Pest Management Technologies in UK cereal Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Iain; Sharma, Abhijit; Bailey, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the adoption of pest management technologies by farmers in UK cereal crop systems. While for the majority of UK farmers chemical control of pest outbreaks remains important, there are a range of non-chemical approaches and management practices that can be used to control pest populations. However, few of these alternatives produce levels of control that compare with chemical use in isolation. In this paper we consider the determinants of adoption of different combina...

  18. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:25075608

  19. Application of roasted rice bran in cereal bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of using microwave-roasted rice bran as an ingredient in high-fiber cereal bars to obtain a product with good acceptability. The influence of the rice flakes, corn flakes, and roasted rice bran levels on the physical and chemical characteristics of the cereal bars was studied. The overall acceptability of three selected formulations was also evaluated. An increase in the roasted rice bran level in the formulation reduced the force of rupture and water activity, resulted in intermediate density, and caused darkening of the bars. The contents of lipid and total dietary fiber were higher in the formulation with the highest rice bran content, which was therefore classified as functional food. The formulation containing 0.34; 0.32; and 0.34 roasted rice bran, rice flakes, and corn flakes, respectively, seemed to be the best outcome. Cereal bars with roasted rice bran levels between 10 and 20% were accepted by consumers.

  20. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (60Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples

  1. TRIPATH: A Biological Genetic and Genomic Database of Three Economically Important Fungal Pathogen of Wheat – Rust: Smut: Bunt

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Swati; Pandey, Dinesh; Taj, Gohar; Goel, Anshita; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Wheat, the major source of vegetable protein in human diet, provides staple food globally for a large proportion of the human population. With higher protein content than other major cereals, wheat has great socio- economic importance. Nonetheless for wheat, three important fungal pathogens i.e. rust, smut and bunt are major cause of significant yield losses throughout the world. Researchers are putting up a strong fight against devastating wheat pathogens, and have made progress in tracking ...

  2. Pathogene Mikroorganismen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin

    Infektionen, die vom Tier auf den Menschen übertragen werden, werden als Zoonosen bezeichnet. Pathogene Mikroorganismen können entweder durch Mensch-Mensch, Mensch-Tier-Kontakt oder durch Kontakt mit kontaminierten Vektoren übertragen werden [39]. Vektoren können einerseits belebt (z. B. blutsaugende Insekten), andererseits unbelebt sein. Kontaminierte Lebensmittel und Wasser gehören zu den wichtigsten unbelebten Vektoren. Neben Lebensmitteln können aber auch kontaminierte Gegenstände oder der Kontakt mit Kontaminationsquellen in der Umwelt Auslöser von Krankheitsfällen sein. Weltweit sind mehr als 1400 krankheitsverursachende biologische Agentien bekannt, von denen über 60 % ein zoonotisches Potenzial aufweisen. Als Ergebnis von Expertengesprächen wurde kürzlich berichtet, dass etwa 3 bis 4, meist virale, neu auftretende Infektionskrankheiten ("emerging diseases“) pro Jahr erwartet werden können [15]. Es handelt sich bei diesen Vorgängen aber nicht nur um das Auftauchen vollkommen neuer oder unbeschriebener Spezies, sondern auch um evolutionsbedingte Anpassungen von mikrobiellen Populationen an neue Bedingungen in ihrem Ökosystem [7]. Molekulare Analysen an Umweltchlamydien erbrachten Hinweise, dass die Evolution erste genetische Pathogenitätsmerkmale in dieser Spezies schon vor 700 Mio. Jahren entstehen ließ [14]. Viele Faktoren befeuern den Prozess der Anpassung, unter anderem auch alle Strategien, mit denen der Mensch seit Jahrtausenden versucht, Lebensmittel sicher und haltbar zu machen. Als die treibenden Kräfte des Auftretens neuer Krankheitserreger werden in der Gegenwart vor allem das sich ändernde Weltklima, die globalen Warenströme und die sich verändernden Konsumgewohnheiten genannt. Es steht auch außer Zweifel, dass viele dieser Erreger Tiere als ihr natürliches Reservoir haben werden, d. h. Zoonosen im klassischen Sinne sind [15].

  3. Development of Combined Drought Indicator in Cereals to use its predictive value in the Agricultural Insurances: CDI_Cereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Donaire, Pilar; Tarquis, Ana M.; Giráldez, Juan V.

    2015-04-01

    The agrometeorological or agricultural drought is one of the most severe problems of agriculture. Drought damage is defined in terms of harvest loss due to precipitation shortage that limits soil moisture availability for the crops, substantially reducing crop yield. A method is proposed to identify the rain fed cereal agricultural drought in several Andalusian regions, based on the combination of three indices or anomalies: (i) standard precipitation index (SPI-3) based on Mishra and Desai (2005), (ii) soil moisture described with a water balance model based on the hydrological model by Brocca et al., 2008, and (iii) the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on Kogan (1995). Coupling the three anomalies, a Combined Drought Indicator -for rain fed cereals- (CDI) has been obtained. This indicator characterizes different warning levels of agricultural drought, which has been successfully assessed with the data of the period 2003-2013 (Jiménez-Donaire, 2014). The final aim of the proposed CDI is to design a warning system based on its components' combination to forecast the drought risk helping both farmers and agricultural insurance agencies. Keywords: drought, SPI, soil moisture, NDVI. References Brocca, L., Melone, F., Moramarco, T.(2008) On the estimation of antecedent wetness conditions in rainfall-runoff modelling. Hydrol. Process. 22, 629-642. Jiménez-Donaire, M.P. (2014) Indicador combinado de sequía para cereales y su valor predictivo en los seguros agrarios: ICS_CEREAL. Master thesis, UCO (In Spanish). Kogan, F.N., 1995. Droughts of the Late 1980s in the United States as Derived from NOAA Polar-Orbiting Satellite Data. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 655-668. Mishra, A.K., Desai, V.R., 2005. Drought forecasting using stochastic models. Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assess. 19, 326-339. Acknowledgements First author acknowledges the Research Grant obtained from CEIGRAM in 2014

  4. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of chosen low molecular weight allergens isolated from cereal flour and cereal food stuffs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Benkovská, Dagmar; Laštovičková, Markéta

    Praha: Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 2013 - (Pulkrabová, J.; Tomaniová, M.; Nielen, M.; Hajšlová, J.). s. 163 ISBN 978-80-7080-861-0. [International Symposium on Recent Advances in Food Analysis /6./. 05.11.2013-08.11.2013, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/12/P395 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : allergen * iTRAQ * cereals Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  5. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  6. How will conversion to organic cereal production affect carbon stocks in Swedish agricultural soils?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Olof; Kätterer, Thomas; Kirchmann, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Soil carbon changes were modelled over 30 years with the focus on cereal crops, since leys are often managed similarly in organic and conventional agriculture. Other crops were not considered due to difficulties in large-scale cropping of oilseed rape and potatoes organically because of pest problems. Four scenarios were used: 0%, 8% (current), 20% and 100% organic cereal production. Conversion to organic cereal crop production was found to reduce the amount of carbon stored as organic matter...

  7. Optimisation of granola breakfast cereal manufacturing process by wet granulation and pneumatic conveying

    OpenAIRE

    Pathare, Pankaj B.

    2010-01-01

    This study has considered the optimisation of granola breakfast cereal manufacturing processes by wet granulation and pneumatic conveying. Granola is an aggregated food product used as a breakfast cereal and in cereal bars. Processing of granola involves mixing the dry ingredients (typically oats, nuts, etc.) followed by the addition of a binder which can contain honey, water and/or oil. In this work, the design and operation of two parallel wet granulation processes to prod...

  8. Effect of fibers and whole grain content on quality attributes of extruded cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Chassagne-Berces, Sophie; Leitner, Michael; Melado Herreros, Angela; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Correa Hernando, Eva Cristina; Blank, Imre; Gumy, Jean Claude; Chanvrier, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of fiber in cereals may lead to quality issues, thus decreasing consumer acceptance. This is partially due to deterioration of the microstructure, one of the primary quality attributes of cereals. The objective of this study was to better understand the mechanisms by which dietary fibers affect the quality of cereal products during extrusion-cooking. The study quantified the effect of amount and type of fiber and whole grain on (i) texture, (ii) structure, and (iii) reh...

  9. The Effect of Retail Grocery Coupons for Breakfast Cereals on Household Purchasing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua P. Berning; Zheng, Hualu

    2011-01-01

    We examine the affect of retail and manufacturer coupons on the nutritional quality of breakfast cereal purchases made by households. Using household level purchase data we find that coupon usage has a significant impact on the nutritional quality of cereals purchased by households. Specifically, we find that the average sugar content decreases and the fiber content increases. This suggests that coupons have a positive impact on the nutritional quality of cereals purchased by households, hold...

  10. Yield and nutritive value for ruminants of organic Winter cereals-bard vetch intercrops

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, A.; Carro Travieso, María Dolores; Palacios, Carlos; Saro, C.; Mateos, I; Tejido, M. L.; Ranilla, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Organic livestock in the European Union must be fed with organic feed, and forage should be at least 60% of the diet of herbivorous animals. However, the productivity of crops in organic farming is frequently lower than that in conventional farming, and organic cultivation of winter cereals often reduces forage CP content. Intercropping of winter cereals with legumes can provide both higher forage yield and quality compared with winter cereal monocultures, but the results may differ with ...

  11. MRI texture analysis as means for addressing rehydration and milk diffusion of cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Melado Herreros, Angela; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Fernandez Valle, M. Encarnacion; Ruiz Cabello Osuna, Jesus Maria; Chassagne-Berces, Sophie; Chanvrier, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Cereals microstructure is one of the primary quality attributes of cereals. Cereals rehydration and milk diffusion depends on such microstructure and thus, the crispiness and the texture, which will make it more palatable for the final consumer. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a very powerful topographic tool since acquisition parameter leads to a wide possibility for identifying textures, structures and liquids mobility. It is suited for non-invasive imaging of water and fats. Rehydratio...

  12. MRI texture analysis as means for addressing rehydration and milk diffusion in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Melado Herreros, Angela; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Fernandez Valle, M. Encarnacion; Ruiz Cabello Osuna, Jesus Maria; Chassagne-Berces, Sophie; Chanvrier, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Cereals microstructure is one of the primary quality attributes of cereals. Cereals rehydration and milk diffusion depends on such microstructure and thus, the crispiness and the texture, which will make it more palatable for the final consumer. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a very powerful tomographic tool since acquisition parameter leads to a wide possibility for identifying textures, structures and liquids mobility. It is suited for noninvasive imaging of water and fats. Rehydration...

  13. Effect of dietary cereals on intestinal permeability in experimental enteropathy in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, J. S.; Fraser, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitivity to dietary cereal has been reported previously in niacin-deficient rats by measuring a change in the intestinal absorption of radioactively-labelled cellobiotol and mannitol. The possibility that other stimuli could produce this sensitivity, the range of cereals that could induce the permeability change and the nature of the toxic component in cereal have now all been investigated. Treatment with triparanol induces sensitivity in rats to wheat, rye, barley, oats, and maize but n...

  14. A possible mechanism of metabolic regulation in Gibberella fujikuroi using a mixed carbon source of glucose and corn oil inferred from analysis of the kinetics data obtained in a stirrer tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Iribe, Erika Y; Hernández-Calderón, Oscar M; Reyes-Moreno, C; Contreras-Andrade, I; Flores-Cotera, Luis B; Escamilla-Silva, Eleazar M

    2013-01-01

    A nonstructured model was used to study the dynamics of gibberellic acid production in a stirred tank bioreactor. Experimental data were obtained from submerged batch cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi (CDBB H-984) grown in varying ratios of glucose-corn oil as the carbon source. The nitrogen depletion effect was included in mathematical model by considering the specific kinetic constants as a linear function of the normalized nitrogen consumption rate. The kinetics of biomass growth and consumption of phosphate and nitrogen were based on the logistic model. The traditional first-order kinetic model was used to describe the specific consumption of glucose and corn oil. The nitrogen effect was solely included in the phosphate and corn oil consumption and biomass growth. The model fit was satisfactory, revealing the dependence of the kinetics with respect to the nitrogen assimilation rate. Through simulations, it was possible to make diagrams of specific growth rate and specific rate of substrate consumptions, which was a powerful tool for understanding the metabolic interactions that occurred during the various stages of fermentation process. This kinetic analysis provided the proposal of a possible mechanism of regulation on growth, substrate consumptions, and production of gibberellic acid (GA3 ) in G. fujikuroi. PMID:23825106

  15. Dry Cereals Fortified with Electrolytic Iron or Ferrous Fumarate Are Equally Effective in Breast-fed Infants123

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Ekhard E.; Fomon, Samuel J.; Nelson, Steven E.; Jeter, Janice M.; Theuer, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Precooked, instant (dry) infant cereals in the US are fortified with electrolytic iron, a source of low reactivity and suspected low bioavailability. Iron from ferrous fumarate is presumed to be more available. In this study, we compared a dry infant rice cereal (Cereal L) fortified with electrolytic iron (54.5 mg iron/100 g cereal) to a similar cereal (Cereal M) fortified with ferrous fumarate (52.2 mg Fe/100 g) for efficacy in maintaining iron status and preventing iron deficiency (ID) in b...

  16. Biological control as a strategy to reduce the impact of mycotoxins in peanuts, grapes and cereals in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulze, S N; Palazzini, J M; Torres, A M; Barros, G; Ponsone, M L; Geisen, R; Schmidt-Heydt, M; Köhl, J

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins including aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are among the main fungal secondary metabolites detected as natural contaminants in South America in different commodities such as peanuts (aflatoxins), cereals (deoxynivalenol and fumonisins) or grapes (ochratoxin A). Different strategies including crop rotation, tillage practices, fungicide application and planting less susceptible cultivars are used in order to reduce the impact of these mycotoxins in both food and feed chains. The development of fungicide resistance in many fungal pathogens as well as rising of public concern on the risks associated with pesticide use led to the search for alternative environmentally friendly methods. Biological control of plant pathogens and toxigenic fungi offers an alternative that can complement chemical control in the frame of an integrated pest management to reduce the impact of mycotoxins in the food and feed chains. The advances made in Argentina on reducing the impact of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in peanut, grapes and cereals using the biocontrol strategy are summarised. Native bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi have been selected to evaluate them as potential biocontrol agents. Field trials showed that Bacillus subtilis RC 218 and Brevibacillus sp. RC 263 were effective at reducing deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat. The application of Clonostachys rosea isolates on wheat stubble reduced Fusarium colonisation on the stubble. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Microbacterium oleovorans showed good activity to control both Fusarium verticillioides growth and the accumulation of fumonisins at pre-harvest stage in maize. Control of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin accumulation in peanuts was achieved using a native atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain based on competitive exclusion of the toxigenic strains. Kluyveromyces thermotolerans strains were used as biocontrol agents to reduce the impact of Aspergillus section Nigri and

  17. A need for determination of arsenic species at low levels in cereal-based food and infant cereals. Validation of a method by LC-ICPMS.

    OpenAIRE

    LLORENTE-MIRANDES Toni; Calderon, Josep; Centrich, F; Rubio i Rovira, Roser; López Sánchez, José Fermín

    2013-01-01

    The present study arose from the need to determine inorganic arsenic (iAs) at low levels in cereal-based food. Validated methods with a low limit of detection (LOD) are required to analyse these kinds of food. An analytical method for the determination of iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in cereal-based food and infant cereals is reported. The method was optimised and validated to achieve low LODs. Ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-...

  18. Carotenoids in Staple Cereals: Metabolism, Regulation, and Genetic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shengnan; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grains. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1) seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, phytoene synthase, β-cyclase, and ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and orange gene conditioning sequestration sink; (2) provitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3) quantitative trait loci for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and 10 gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be beneficial in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for provitamin A biofortification. PMID:27559339

  19. Carotenoids in Staple Cereals: Metabolism, Regulation, and Genetic Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shengnan; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grains. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1) seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, phytoene synthase, β-cyclase, and ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and orange gene conditioning sequestration sink; (2) provitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3) quantitative trait loci for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and 10 gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be beneficial in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for provitamin A biofortification. PMID:27559339

  20. Detoxification of Gramine by the Cereal Aphid Sitobion avenae

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-Nian; Han, Ying; Cao, Ya-Zhong; Hu, Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Bi, Jian-Long

    2009-01-01

    Secondary metabolites play an important role in host plant resistance to insects, and insects, in turn, may develop mechanisms to counter plant resistance mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of gramine to the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae and some enzymatic responses of S. avenae to this alkaloid. When S. avenae fed on an artificial diet containing gramine, mortality occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The LC50 of gramine was determined to be 1.248 mM. In response to grami...

  1. Influence of water-based ferrofluid upon chlorophylls in cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present experimental investigation was focused on the study of the simultaneous influence of the water-based ferrofluid and static magnetic field exposure on young cereal plants. Water-based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added daily in various concentrations, ranging between 10 and 250 μL/L, in the culture medium of maize (Zea mays) plants in their early ontogenetic stages. The used static magnetic field was about 50 mT. In order to investigate the biochemical changes of chlorophylls and total carotenoids, spectrophotometric measurements were carried out, that revealed stimulatory effects of ferrofluid and magnetic exposure upon the studied plant species

  2. SOME STUDIES ABOUT CEREALS BEHAVIOR DURING FREEZE DRYING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-VICTORIA MNERIE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some special method and equipment and the principal advantages of freeze-dried food. The freeze drying is a good method of freeze-drying for make some experiments with many kind of cereals, for the improvement that in food production. It is necessary and is possible to study the corn oil extract, wheat flour, the maltodextrin from corn, modified cornstarch, spice extracts, soy sauce, hydrolyzed wheat gluten, partially hydrogenated soybean and cottonseed oil etc. That is very porous, since it occupies the same volume as the original and so rehydrates rapidly. There is less loss of flavour and texture than with most other methods of drying.

  3. Design and Research on Mini Type Slicer for Cereal Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research purpose is to design a mini type slicer for cereal product aiming at the rural households. It not only could be used for cutting the rice flour products and candy, but also slicing the cassava, sweet potatoes, pineapple and other crops. The article elaborates on the shape design, color design and other design of this slicer, including selecting electric motor and V belt, the design of shaft and blade, to introduce the main structure and operating principles of the slicer, based on which the conclusion has been reached.

  4. ANALYSIS OF FREE AND BOUND CHLOROPHENOXY ACIDS IN CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Extraction of the chlorophenoxy acids 2,4-D and dichlorprop in cereals has been examined by analyzing barley from spraying experiments. A procedure has been set up by combination of acid hydrolysis and enzymatic degradation followed by extraction and clean up on either silica gel or basic aluminum...... sulphuric acid and resulted in residues up to ten times lower than found after the combined acid hydrolysis/enzymatic degradation procedure. In the second comparison a direct extraction was made with a mixture of 65% (v/v) acetonitrile in water. No differences were found between this and the combined acid...

  5. DEMAND FOR BREAKFAST CEREALS: WHOLE GRAINS GUIDANCE AND FOOD CHOICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ishdorj, Ariun; Jensen, Helen H.

    2010-01-01

    When using household-level data to examine consumer demand it is common to find that consumers purchase only a subset of the available goods, setting the demand for the remaining goods to zero. Ignoring such censoring of the dependent variables can lead to estimators with poor statistical properties and estimates that lead to poor policy decisions. In this paper we investigate household demand for four types of breakfast cereals, such as whole grain ready-to-eat, non-whole grain ready-to-eat,...

  6. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals - implication in agriculture, cereal-processing and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, Nathalie; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long......-term gains on the quality and quantity of the raw materials. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes (alpha-amylase, limit-dextrinase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, pectin methylesterase, invertase and xyloglucan endoglucanase) naturally occur in plants where they are involved in various...... knowledge on their structure, function, and implication in cereal processing, agriculture and nutrition. (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry...

  7. A comparison of methods to quantify prolamin contents in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Giuberti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic prolamins are endosperm storage proteins accounting for about 40% of the total protein in most cereals seeds. Despite the absence of a reference method, several procedures have been periodically published to quantify prolamins in cereals. The aim of this study was to compare a conventional fractionation assay (LND vs three other methods: one based on sequential extractions (HAM and two rapid turbidimetric procedures (L&H and DRO. Prolamins were extracted in duplicate on barley, corn and wheat samples. For the turbidimetric prolamin evaluation in barley and wheat, a universally available purified gliadin, as alternative to purified zein, was also tested as standard reference material (SRM. The extraction prolamin values were different among grain types (P0.05. LND agreed sufficiently well both with HAM and with L&H methods (R2=0.664 and R2=0.703, respectively, P0.05, whereas a higher prolamin quantification was obtained using HAM (P<0.05. Overall, DRO did not provide similar comparison and performance parameters with respect to other method comparisons. The effect of changing purified zein with purified gliadin was noteworthy only for L&H, both for wheat and barley samples (P<0.01. Considering the increasing attention of animal nutritionists on prolamins, our results could get useful information for routine laboratories analysis.

  8. CEREALS AS BASIS OF PREVENTING NUTRITION AGAINST OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Still more alarming obesity studies show in fact that it is largely due to incorrect diet and lifestyle. For suitable alternative for prevention of this disease are now considered cereal foods, mainly based on increased fiber content. The importance of dietary fiber for human organism consist primarily in its protective function before civilization diseases. It has beneficial effects on digestive physiology and it is therefore an important factor in the prevention of obesity, but also other diseases. Fiber consumption in developed countries is low and it is below the lower limit of the recommended dose. Slovaks per day take only 10-12 g of fiber, which represents only 47% of the recommended dose. Recent large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of wholegrain cereals can reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers by 30 percent. One of the factors that increase the functionality of foods is the so-called indigestible resistant starch. For its the positive impact on the physiology of digestion is referred to as prebiotics new generation of dietary fiber. The increasing availability of tasty, whole grain products rich in fiber could be health benefits. doi:10.5219/76

  9. Analysing lodging of the panicle bearing cereal teff (Eragrostis tef).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delden, S H; Vos, J; Ennos, A R; Stomph, T J

    2010-05-01

    Lodging, the permanent displacement of crop plants from their vertical because of root or shoot failure, is a major yield constraint of the gluten free, panicle bearing cereal teff. The objective of this paper was to analyse the causes of lodging of teff by using, modifying and validating conventional biomechanical models. The model parameters were obtained from a field trial with two contrasting teff cultivars, using novel in situ and laboratory measurements under wet and dry conditions. Cross-species model validation was done with rice (Oryza sativa). Teff is more susceptible to root lodging than to shoot lodging, although the data indicated that shoot strength is also insufficient. Hence, simultaneously breeding for both improved root anchorage and shoot strength is advocated. The study showed that the lodging model, derived for the spike-bearing cereal wheat, needed modifications in order to be able to deal with panicle-bearing plants such as teff and rice. Water adhering to plants owing to rain or dew increased calculated lodging susceptibility. To prevent underestimation of lodging susceptibility, future lodging research should be done under completely wet conditions (water saturated soil and wetted shoots). PMID:20345637

  10. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  11. Manufacturing cereal bars with high nutritional value through experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Covino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations responsible for public health throughout the world have been increasingly worrying about how to feed populations encouraging a nutritious and balanced diet in order to decrease the occurrence of chronic diseases, which are constantly related to an inadequate diet. Still, due to matters of modern lifestyle consumers are increasingly seeking convenient products. This being so, cereal bars have been an option when the matter is low calorie fast food which is also source of fiber. This study aimed at developing a cereal bar with high dietary fiber, iron, vitamins A and vitamin E, in order to easily enable adult population achieve the daily recommendation for such nutrients. Eight formulations plus the focal point were conducted through experimental planning; sensory analysis with 110 tasters for each block and texture. Afterwards, we conducted centesimal analysis for all three formulations presenting the best sensory results. After statistical analysis and comparison to the means for products available in the market, it was possible to conclude that the product developed presented great acceptance and fiber level more than twice as much as the means for commercial products.

  12. Impacts of Cereal Ergot in Food Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coufal-Majewski, Stephanie; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim; Blakley, Barry; McKinnon, John; Chaves, Alexandre Vieira; Wang, Yuxi

    2016-01-01

    The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the fifth century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine, and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety, and genotype. Considerable animal-to-animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors, such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome. PMID:26942186

  13. Effect of infant cereals on zinc and copper absorption during weaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.; Loennerdal, B.

    1987-10-01

    Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk-cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning.

  14. Self-Seeded Cereal Cover Crop Effects on Interspecific Competition with Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpetuating cereal cover crops through self-seeding may increase adoption by reducing risk and cost. Winter rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) were used to develop self-seeding cover crop systems in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-corn...

  15. Nutritive value of fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in nutritive value of fall-grown cereal-grain forages can affect cattle performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value of various fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time. One variety each of hard red (HR) and soft red (SR) winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), ...

  16. Effect of infant cereals on zinc and copper absorption during weaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk-cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning

  17. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF CEREALS AND METHODS OF STUDYING THEIR BIOMORPHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the article, the main issues of development of perennial cereals (morphology, phenology, formation of buds, physiology, biochemistry and research methods) are discussed. Peculiarities of regulation of development and the character of their evolution are considered. Problems of evolution of the cereals with widespread use of the data of Russian and foreign authors are discussed

  18. A Pilot Study Assesing Climate Change Impacts on Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Sevilay; Sen, Burak; Turkes, Murat

    2010-05-01

    The spatial and temporal impacts of climate change on the growth and yield of major cereals (first and second-crop corn) as well as wheat grown in Cukurova Region in the southern Turkey have been assessed, by combining the outputs from a regional climate model with a crop growth simulation model. With its 1.1 million ha of agricultural land, the Cukurova Region is one of the major agricultural production regions in Turkey. Wheat dominates in rain-fed areas while corn crops are grown in more than 50 % of the irrigated land in the region. Thus, the Region is providing half of the country's total cereal production. Since the region has a typical Mediterranean climate with almost no rain and high temperatures during the summer months, agricultural production is vulnerable to changes in climate in terms of decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures and consequently shortage of water resources. To predict the future climate for the period 2070-2100, the regional climate model RegCM3 conditions was performed using IPCC's SRESS-A2 scenario, and climatic parameter such as daily mean, maximum and minimum temperatures, radiation as well as total annual precipitation were selected for the simulation study. Data for the period 1961 to 1990 were used as historical reference. The WOFOST model was used to simulate cereal growths and yields for two different water availability senarios: 1) potential production and 2) water-limited production conditions. Potential growth represents the conditions where no limiting factor such as water and nutrients is present, however due to the water-limited production situation, water for irrigation is limited as a consequence of water shortage. The detailed results of previous field experiments carried out with three cereal crops in different locations with different regional soil and climate conditions were used for the verification of the WOFOST model. According to the verification results, the model simulated the yield with less than 5

  19. Potential importance of low-sodium bread and breakfast cereal to a reduced sodium diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugirdas, John T

    2013-01-01

    Purchasing data suggest that bread and cereal products are responsible for approximately 18% of normal daily unrestricted sodium intake; this percentage may be substantially higher in subjects attempting to follow a reduced sodium diet by avoiding added salt and salty sauces and meats. Substituting with low-sodium bread would be expected to result in a sodium intake reduction of 0.6 g/day or higher, depending on the amount of bread normally eaten. Many cold breakfast cereals typically contain 0.2 to 0.3 g of sodium per serving. A number of zero-sodium or low-sodium cold cereal options are commercially available, and many hot cereals are available in forms that contain no sodium. Because bread and breakfast cereals are not commonly thought of as being salty foods, substituting these with low-sodium alternatives might help achieve additional substantial sodium intake reduction without much disruption of the diet. PMID:22633991

  20. Cereal foods are the major source of betaine in the Western diet--analysis of betaine and free choline in cereal foods and updated assessments of betaine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Zangger, Alicia; Guiraud, Seu Ping

    2014-02-15

    Betaine and its precursor choline are important components of one-carbon metabolism, remethylating homocysteine into methionine and providing methyl groups for DNA methylation. Cereals are the main source of betaine in the diet, though there is little literature available on the content of betaine in cereal products, nor on betaine intake from cereals. Betaine and free-choline concentrations were measured by liquid-chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in a wide range of commercially available cereal foods and cereal fractions. Whole grain wheat and related fractions were the best overall common source of betaine, while the pseudocereal quinoa had the highest amount of betaine measured (3900 μg/g). Based on estimates of dietary intake data cereal foods provide approximately 60-67% of betaine in Western diets, and 20-40% of betaine in South-East Asian diets. Average intake of betaine was 131 mg/d, well below those used in intervention studies using betaine to lower blood homocysteine. PMID:24128557

  1. Cereal area and nitrogen use efficiency are drivers of future nitrogen fertilizer consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achim; Dobermann; Kenneth; G.; Cassman

    2005-01-01

    At a global scale, cereal yields and fertilizer N consumption have increased in a near-linear fashion during the past 40 years and are highly correlated with one another. However,large differences exist in historical trends of N fertilizer usage and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)among regions, countries, and crops. The reasons for these differences must be understood to estimate future N fertilizer requirements. Global nitrogen needs will depend on: (i) changes in cropped cereal area and the associated yield increases required to meet increasing cereal demand from population and income growth, and (ii) changes in NUE at the farm level. Our analysis indicates that the anticipated 38% increase in global cereal demand by 2025 can be met by a 30% increase in N use on cereals, provided that the steady decline in cereal harvest area is halted and the yield response to applied N can be increased by 20%. If losses of cereal cropping area continue at the rate of the past 20 years (-0.33% per year) and NUE cannot be increased substantially, a 60% increase in global N use on cereals would be required to meet cereal demand. Interventions to increase NUE and reduce N losses to the environment must be accomplished at the farm- or field-scale through a combination of improved technologies and carefully crafted local policies that contribute to the adoption of improved N management; uniform regional or national directives are unlikey to be effective at both sustaining yield increases and improving NUE. Examples from several countries show that increases in NUE at rates of 1% per year or more can be achieved if adequate investments are made in research and extension. Failure to arrest the decrease in cereal crop area and to improve NUE in the world's most important agricultural systems will likely cause severe damage to environmental services at local, regional, and global scales due to a large increase in reactive N load in the environment.

  2. 9 CFR 318.15 - Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., cereals, spices, etc., âU.S. retained.â 318.15 Section 318.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.15 Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” When any chemical, preservative, cereal, spice, or other substance is...

  3. Co-60 uptake in some young cereal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measure of Co-60 uptake by young cereal plants is dependent on the type of soil, plant and growth conditions. Depending on the size of the uptake, a plant can be used for industrial purposes, fodder, foodstuff or for possible decontamination of the soil. Although the requirement for cobalt in higher plants is little, their contamination with Co-60 can be of interest because this radionuclide belongs to the class of the radionuclides with a great radiotoxicity. The soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is a measure of the radionuclide uptake in the plant. In this paper the soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 were determined for the whole aerial part of some young plants in the cereal class that, in this stage of the development, may be used as fodder. To determine soil-to-plant TFs, plants cultivated in pots in laboratory conditions were used. The method used is similar with the plantlet method of Neubauer and Schneider. We have determined some physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the studied soil, a brown-reddish forest type soil. The soil-to-plant TFs were calculated on the basis of the Co-60 activities determined in plant and soil dried samples. For the vegetal samples the whole aerial part of the plants was measured in millet, wheat, barley and triticale. At harvest, only a few millet plants where flowered. The results of the measurements of soil-to-plant TFs of Co-60 are the following: 0.0315±0.0017 for millet, 0.0260±0.0014 for barley, 0.0140±0.0008 for wheat and 0.0491±0.0022 for triticale. These TFs were corrected for standard conditions and were compared with data from literature. The soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 found in the aerial part of young cereals are close to those recommended for the fodder. The obtained values prove the strong dependence of the soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 on the type of soil and plant. (author)

  4. Dry Cereals Fortified with Electrolytic Iron or Ferrous Fumarate Are Equally Effective in Breast-fed Infants123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E.; Fomon, Samuel J.; Nelson, Steven E.; Jeter, Janice M.; Theuer, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Precooked, instant (dry) infant cereals in the US are fortified with electrolytic iron, a source of low reactivity and suspected low bioavailability. Iron from ferrous fumarate is presumed to be more available. In this study, we compared a dry infant rice cereal (Cereal L) fortified with electrolytic iron (54.5 mg iron/100 g cereal) to a similar cereal (Cereal M) fortified with ferrous fumarate (52.2 mg Fe/100 g) for efficacy in maintaining iron status and preventing iron deficiency (ID) in breast-fed infants. Ascorbic acid was included in both cereals. In this prospective, randomized double-blind trial, exclusively breast-fed infants were enrolled at 1 mo and iron status was determined periodically. At 4 mo, 3 infants had ID anemia and were excluded. Ninety-five infants were randomized at 4 mo, and 69 (36 Cereal L, 33 Cereal M) completed the intervention at 9 mo. From 4 to 9 mo, they consumed daily one of the study cereals. With each cereal, 2 infants had mild ID, a prevalence of 4.2%, but no infant developed ID anemia. There were no differences in iron status between study groups. Iron intake from the study cereals was (mean ± SD) 1.21 ± 0.31 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1 from Cereal L and 1.07 ± 0.40 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1 from Cereal M. Eleven infants had low birth iron endowment (plasma ferritin < 55 μg/L at 2 mo) and 54% of these infants had ID with or without anemia by 4 mo. We conclude that electrolytic iron and ferrous fumarate were equally efficacious as fortificants of this infant cereal. PMID:21178077

  5. Dry cereals fortified with electrolytic iron or ferrous fumarate are equally effective in breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E; Fomon, Samuel J; Nelson, Steven E; Jeter, Janice M; Theuer, Richard C

    2011-02-01

    Precooked, instant (dry) infant cereals in the US are fortified with electrolytic iron, a source of low reactivity and suspected low bioavailability. Iron from ferrous fumarate is presumed to be more available. In this study, we compared a dry infant rice cereal (Cereal L) fortified with electrolytic iron (54.5 mg iron/100 g cereal) to a similar cereal (Cereal M) fortified with ferrous fumarate (52.2 mg Fe/100 g) for efficacy in maintaining iron status and preventing iron deficiency (ID) in breast-fed infants. Ascorbic acid was included in both cereals. In this prospective, randomized double-blind trial, exclusively breast-fed infants were enrolled at 1 mo and iron status was determined periodically. At 4 mo, 3 infants had ID anemia and were excluded. Ninety-five infants were randomized at 4 mo, and 69 (36 Cereal L, 33 Cereal M) completed the intervention at 9 mo. From 4 to 9 mo, they consumed daily one of the study cereals. With each cereal, 2 infants had mild ID, a prevalence of 4.2%, but no infant developed ID anemia. There were no differences in iron status between study groups. Iron intake from the study cereals was (mean ± SD) 1.21 ± 0.31 mg⋅kg(-1)⋅d(-1) from Cereal L and 1.07 ± 0.40 mg⋅kg(-1)⋅d(-1) from Cereal M. Eleven infants had low birth iron endowment (plasma ferritin < 55 μg/L at 2 mo) and 54% of these infants had ID with or without anemia by 4 mo. We conclude that electrolytic iron and ferrous fumarate were equally efficacious as fortificants of this infant cereal. PMID:21178077

  6. DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN CEREAL MILLING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts of grain - substances from these parts can be isolated and after treatment, which causes their efficiently usable for human body, they can be used for fortification of wide range of food products.

  7. Prediction of cereal feed value by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    routinely by grain traders. NIRS is therefore appropriate as a quick method for the determination of FEsv and FEso, since it is rapid (approximately 1 minute per measurement of a ground test) and cheap. The aim is to develop a rapid method to analyse grain feed value. This will contribute to highlight the......-NIR instrument. It has been a challenge to develop a NIRS method to determine feed value, as it has been shown that the chemical reference analysis has been subject to considerable error. Despite this, it has been possible to develop a wide-ranging calibration model predicting the feed value FEsv and FEso for...... opportunities and problems that crop variety choices and cropping practices have on feeding value of winter wheat, triticale and spring barley. A successful development of an EDOM, EDOMi, FEso and FEsv calibration to NIRS will be a relatively cheap tool to monitor, diversify and evaluate the quality of cereals...

  8. Conservation and improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of preserving the genetic resources of the local races of pseudo cereals 'red Chia' (Chenopodium berlandieri subspecies nuttalliae), Chia blanca or alegria and Chia negra (belonging to Amaranths hypochondriacus), its were carried out exploration, characterization in situ, collects and conservation activities in the Opopeo and Santa Maria Huiramangaro communities, Michoacan. Field journeys were made and collections were carried out. The morphological typification and of physical and bromatologic characters of the seed were carried out. Parcels for the In situ conservation and the collections have also settled down in two towns of the Toluca Valley for multiplication and ex situ characterization. Seed has been redistributed among the in study area producers to foment the interest of the cultivation. (Author)

  9. Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals harvested from Hungarian fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tima, Helga; Brückner, Andrea; Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla; Kiskó, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 frequently contaminate grain crops in Middle and Eastern Europe. In this survey, 116 cereal samples (maize, wheat, barley and oat) were examined for DON, ZEN and T-2 mycotoxins. Samples were collected from different areas in two Hungarian regions (North and South Transdanubia). The method of analysis was indirect competitive ELISA. Maize was the most contaminated grain regarding DON (86%), ZEN (41%) and T-2 (55%) toxins. The average results of the deoxynivalenol and zearalenone tests of maize proved to be significantly higher than those of barley or oat. DON was the most represented Fusarium mycotoxin followed by T-2 and ZEN. The examination of these mycotoxins would be necessary at a larger scale as to re-evaluate permissible levels, so increase of the monitoring programme would be advisable for the future. PMID:26892197

  10. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel;

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...... structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics...... showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated...

  11. Prediction of cereal feed value using spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Gislum, René

    2009-01-01

    determination of EDOM, EDOMi, FEso and FEsv. The outcome of a successful NIRS calibration will be a relatively cheap tool to monitor, diversify and evaluate the quality of cereals for animal feed, a possible tool to assess the feed value of new varieties in the variety testing and a useful, cheap and rapid tool...... that there is a significant variation between varieties as well as due to an environmental variation between regions and the harvest year. The chemical analysis is, however, time-consuming and costly, and it is therefore desirable to have a rapid and less expensive method, which makes it possible to...... carry out more analyses in-situ. Near infra-red reflection spectroscopy (NIRS) is appropriate as a standard analysis of dry matter, total N and starch in grains, since it is rapid (approximately 1 minute per measurement of a ground test) and cheap. NIRS is therefore appropriate as a quick method for the...

  12. Analysis of radicals induced in irradiated cereal flour using ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed radicals induced in cereal flour irradiated with gamma-ray or electron beam. Sample was wheat and rice. We detected a broad singlet signal at g = 2.0. It consists of a singlet signal and a triplet signal. It suggested that the singlet signal is originated from organic free radicals and the triplet signal is from 14N. There were no differences of ESR spectra between irradiated wheat flour and rice flour. The signal intensity of radiation induced radical was tend to increase following with the increase of radiation dose level. After radiation treatment, relaxation time of radiation induced radical was changed during storage. T1 was decreased and T2 was increased. In this study, the relaxation time is calculated using the parameters obtained from the ESR signal. It is necessary to analyze the relaxation time directly with pulsed ESR spectroscopy in future. (author)

  13. Functional Agents to Biologically Control Deoxynivalenol Contamination in Cereal Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Tan, Yanglan; Liu, Na; Liao, Yucai; Sun, Changpo; Wang, Shuangxia; Wu, Aibo

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, as microbial secondary metabolites, frequently contaminate cereal grains and pose a serious threat to human and animal health around the globe. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a commonly detected Fusarium mycotoxin, has drawn utmost attention due to high exposure levels and contamination frequency in the food chain. Biological control is emerging as a promising technology for the management of DON contamination. Functional biological control agents (BCAs), which include antagonistic microbes, natural fungicides derived from plants and detoxification enzymes, can be used to control DON contamination at different stages of grain production. In this review, studies regarding different biological agents for DON control in recent years are summarized for the first time. Furthermore, this article highlights the significance of BCAs for controlling DON contamination, as well as the need for more practical and efficient BCAs concerning food safety. PMID:27064760

  14. Weed harrowing in winter cereal under semi-arid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, G.; Cirujeda, A.; Aibar, J.; Cavero, J.; Zaragoza, C.

    2008-07-01

    Five field experiments on barley and wheat have been carried out in North-Eastern Spain on the same field during the cropping seasons 1999-00 to 2003-04 to compare the effect of different harrowing adjustments on weed control, weed biomass and cereal yield. The variables considered were harrowing timing (pre- or early post-emergence), one or two passes, travelling direction, harrowing depth and speed compared with an untreated control and herbicide. Excepting year 2001, with very little weed emergence, mechanical control as a whole caused a significant weed plant reduction compared to the untreated plots in all years. No influence of harrowing depth and travelling speed and of pre-emergence harrowing were found in the trials. A single harrowing treatment conducted across the sowing direction gave the same or less control compared to harrowing along the sowing direction. Two harrowing passes achieved a higher efficacy than one single pass and little differences were detected if the second pass was conducted the same day, across the sowing direction or 15 days later. Despite herbicide had generally a higher efficacy than the harrowing treatments, in three out of five years it was found a mechanical control with the same control than herbicide. The effect of the different treatments on weed biomass was lower than on weed number and no significant differences were found for grain yield. Considering that an herbicide treatment in the present conditions is three times more expensive than harrowing, a single post-emergence harrowing can be considered a valid option for low and medium-infested cereal fields. (Author) 30 refs.

  15. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-01-01

    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading. PMID:24175878

  16. Pathogen Phytosensing: Plants to Report Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal Stewart

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time systems that provide evidence of pathogen contamination in crops can be an important new line of early defense in agricultural centers. Plants possess defense mechanisms to protect against pathogen attack. Inducible plant defense is controlled by signal transduction pathways, inducible promoters and cis-regulatory elements corresponding to key genes involved in defense, and pathogen-specific responses. Identified inducible promoters and cis-acting elements could be utilized in plant sentinels, or ‘phytosensors’, by fusing these to reporter genes to produce plants with altered phenotypes in response to the presence of pathogens. Here, we have employed cis-acting elements from promoter regions of pathogen inducible genes as well as those responsive to the plant defense signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Synthetic promoters were constructed by combining various regulatory elements supplemented with the enhancer elements from the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter to increase basal level of the GUS expression. The inducibility of each synthetic promoter was first assessed in transient expression assays using Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts and then examined for efficacy in stably transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. Histochemical and fluorometric GUS expression analyses showed that both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants responded to elicitor and phytohormone treatments with increased GUS expression when compared to untreated plants. Pathogen-inducible phytosensor studies were initiated by analyzing the sensitivity of the synthetic promoters against virus infection. Transgenic tobacco plants infected with Alfalfa mosaic virus showed an increase in GUS expression when compared to mock-inoculated control plants, whereas Tobacco mosaic virus infection caused no changes in GUS expression. Further research, using these transgenic plants against a range of different

  17. The benefits of breakfast cereal consumption: a systematic review of the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter G

    2014-09-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. PMID:25225349

  18. Cereals Market in Romania under the Impact of the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina CONSTANTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyses the cereals market after Romania accession to European Union. Thus, I considered necessary and appropriate to achieve the dynamic analysis of production, prices, trade, consumption, and self-sufficiency that provides an overview on the evolution of the cereals market in Romania, in the European context, starting from resources representing the demand, to the uses that represent the supply. I also point out the main mechanisms and support instruments for the cereals market under the Common Agriculture Policy, in the period 2007-2013 and towards 2014-2020.

  19. Semi-dwarf cereal mutants and their use in cross-breeding III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Co-ordinated Research Programme on the ''Evaluation of semi-dwarf mutants as cross-breeding material in cereals'' was initiated in 1980, with the main objective to provide cereal breeders with new, alternative sources of genes for semi-dwarf, lodging resistant plant types. The present publication includes papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting. Papers presented by participants in the Co-ordinated Research Programme demonstrate that these objectives were successfully achieved. As an additional result of this programme more improved genotypes of cereals with other desirable characters as earliness, better harvest index and improved plant architecture have become available for practical breeding. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Assessment of mixtures of mycotoxins in cereal based foods available in Portuguese market

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Carla; Assunção, Ricardo; Cunha, S.; Jager, A.; Alvito, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that cause toxic and carcinogenic outcomes in humans exposed to them1. Mycotoxins affect several commodities including cereal grains and their finished products, infant formula and baby foods2. This study aimed to determine the incidence and levels of 20 mycotoxins and metabolites (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1, OTA, NIV, NEO, DAS, FUS-X, DON, 15-AC-DON, 3-AC-DON, HT-2, T-2, VER, T-2 TETROL, T-2 TRIOL), in breakfast cereals and cereal based baby fo...

  1. A review of knowledge: inter-row hoeing & its associated agronomy in organic cereal & pulse crops

    OpenAIRE

    J. P., Welsh; N. D., Tillett; M., Home; J. A., King

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this project was to establish the “state of the art” for inter-row hoeing and its associated agronomic practices in organic cereal and pulse crops. To achieve this a detailed review of literature was undertaken. • To facilitate inter-row cultivation in cereal and pulse crops, some adjustment of row spacing may be required. For cereals, drilling crops in 25 cm rows can reduce yield compared with normal drilling practice, primarily due to greater intra-specific competition among...

  2. Increased understanding of the cereal phytase complement for better mineral bio-availability and resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holme, Inger Bæksted; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    the bio-availability of micronutrients in human nutrition. The composition and levels of mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) in cereals is of central importance for efficient phytate hydrolysis. The MGPA varies considerably between species. Substantial activity is present in Triticeae tribe cereals...... like wheat, barley and rye whereas non-Triticeae cereals such as maize and rice have very little MGPA. Recent studies have determined the evolutionary relationships of phytases in Triticeae and non-Triticeae and highlighted the importance of the purple acid phosphatase phytases (PAPhys). In the...

  3. Using fuzzy logic for automatic control: Case study of a problem of cereals samples classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhoua Najeh Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the use of fuzzy logic for automatic control of industrial systems particularly the way to approach a problem of classification. We present a case study of a grading system of cereals that allows us to determine the price of transactions of cereals in Tunisia. Our contribution in this work consists in proposing not only an application of the fuzzy logic on the grading system of cereals but also a methodology enabling the proposing of a new grading system based on the concept of 'Grade' while using the fuzzy logic techniques. .

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  5. Ochratoxin A and ochratoxin-producing fungi on cereal grain in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihong, Liang; Kunlun, Huang; Yunbo, Luo

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is known to be the main contaminant of cereal grain and has become increasingly important in recent years. Therefore, a survey of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA contamination in China is a special challenge. This paper summarises data on cereals and moulds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus ochraceus, for example) and on grain and OTA from 1973 by searching Chinese information databases (NCKI, VIP, DuXiu etc.), calculating the OTA-producing mould detection rate, referring to sampling locations, latitude and temperature, and also combining six grain-producing areas of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA positive rate through a comprehensive analysis. It is concluded that in China rice (excluding shell rice) has less OTA contamination than wheat or maize. The contamination of cereal grains with Aspergillus section Nigri (formerly of the A. niger group) is a serious problem in China, and these fungi may be the main ochratoxigenic fungi on cereals. PMID:25571918

  6. Dietary fibre fractions in cereal foods measured by a new integrated AOAC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Juergen; Themeier, Heinz; Neese, Ursula; Lindhauer, Meinolf G

    2013-10-01

    The reliable determination of soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre in baked goods and cereal flours is an important issue for research, nutritional labelling and marketing. We compared total dietary fibre (TDF) contents of selected cereal based foods determined by AOAC Method 991.43 and the new AOAC Method 2009.01. Fifteen bread and bakery products were included in the study. Our results showed that TDF values of cereal products determined by AOAC Method 2009.01 were always significantly higher than those determined by AOAC Method 991.43. This was explained by the inclusion of low molecular weight soluble fibre fractions and resistant starch fractions in the TDF measurement by AOAC 2009.01. This documents that nutritional labelling of cereal products poses the challenge how to update TDF data in nutrient databases in a reasonable time with an acceptable expenditure. PMID:23601411

  7. Changes in time of sowing, flowering and maturity of cereals in Europe under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Elsgaard, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    crop development, but exact changes will also depend on changes in varieties as affected by plant breeding and variety choices. This study aimed to assess changes in timing of major phenological stages of cereal crops in Northern and Central Europe under climate change. Records on dates of sowing......The phenological development of cereal crops from emergence through flowering to maturity is largely controlled by temperature, but also affected by day length and potential physiological stresses. Responses may vary between species and varieties. Climate change will affect the timing of cereal...... increased with increasing mean annual temperature of the location, indicating that varieties are well adapted to given conditions. The responses of wheat and oats were largest for the period from flowering to maturity. Changes in timing of cereal phenology by 2040 were assessed for two climate model...

  8. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties in Cereals: Study of Some Traditional Italian Wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole grain cereals contain a wide range of phytochemicals and it is often difficult to ascribe protective effects on metabolic health to any one particular constituent. The interactions among bioactive components, which contribute highly to the total antioxidant capacity of cereals, represent the first step in the evaluation of food potential health benefits. This research focused on the determination of antioxidant properties in grains and whole flours of some traditional Italian wheats. Results showed that hydrolysable polyphenols in grains are 85% of total polyphenols and contribute 95% of the total antioxidant properties, which indicates that hydrolysable polyphenols represent an important fraction of polyphenols in cereals. The distinction between extractable and non-extractable antioxidants was shown to be of paramount importance for an adequate determination of antioxidant capacity in cereals and represents a key element in the definition of potential nutritional value of the food matrix under consideration.

  9. The prevalence and distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.;

    2003-01-01

    In the period 1994-1996 a post-harvest survey was conducted in wheat, barley and oats to assess the occurrence and geographic distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals. The number of samples investigated was adjusted proportionally to the production of each cereal species within...... the regions. A total of 695 grain samples were analysed. The amount of Fusarium infection varied with cereal species and region of origin. The most frequently isolated Fusarium spp. from all samples were F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. culmorum. Other important toxigenic Fusarium spp. were F...... and F. culmorum demonstrated in this study , corresponded to previously reported DON-distribution, although DON seems to be produced by different species in different regions. Distribution of the isolated Fusarium species and comparison between cereals and locations are discussed....

  10. A trace element study of commercial infant milk and cereal formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three commercial infant milk formulas, one commercial infant cereal formula and one locally grown cereal used for infant feeding in Nigeria were analyzed for 17 trace elements, viz: Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn. The commercial milk formulas contain adequate amounts of Ca, Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn, the locally grown cereal contains adequate amounts of Co, K, Mg, Mn and Zn and low in Ca, Cl, Fe and Na while the commercial cereal has adequate amounts of Ca, Cl, Co, K, Mg, Na and Zn. None of the samples analyzed was found to contain any elements up to threshold toxicity limits of concentrations. (author) 13 refs.; 3 tabs

  11. An evaluation of EDTA compounds for iron fortification of cereal-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, R F; Reddy, M B; Burri, J; Cook, J D

    2000-12-01

    Fe absorption was measured in adult human subjects consuming different cereal foods fortified with radiolabelled FeSO4, ferrous fumarate or NaFeEDTA, or with radiolabelled FeSO4 or ferric pyrophosphate in combination with different concentrations of Na2EDTA. Mean Fe absorption from wheat, wheat-soyabean and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) infant cereals fortified with FeSO4 or ferrous fumarate ranged from 0.6 to 2.2%. For each infant cereal, mean Fe absorption from ferrous fumarate was similar to that from FeSO4 (absorption ratio 0.91-1.28). Mean Fe absorption from FeSO4-fortified bread rolls was 1.0% when made from high-extraction wheat flour and 5.7% when made from low-extraction wheat flour. Fe absorption from infant cereals and bread rolls fortified with NaFeEDTA was 1.9-3.9 times greater than when the same product was fortified with FeSO4. Both high phytate content and consumption of tea decreased Fe absorption from the NaFeEDTA-fortified rolls. When Na2EDTA up to a 1:1 molar ratio (EDTA:Fe) was added to FeSO4-fortified wheat cereal and wheat-soyabean cereal mean Fe absorption from the wheat cereal increased from 1.0% to a maximum of 5.7% at a molar ratio of 0.67:1, and from the wheat-soyabean cereal from 0.7% to a maximum of 2.9% at a molar ratio of 1:1. Adding Na2EDTA to ferric pyrophosphate-fortified wheat cereal did not significantly increase absorption (P > 0.05). We conclude that Fe absorption is higher from cereal foods fortified with NaFeEDTA than when fortified with FeSO4 or ferrous fumarate, and that Na2EDTA can be added to cereal foods to enhance absorption of soluble Fe-fortification compounds such as FeSO4. PMID:11177208

  12. Experiences with intercropping design - a survey about pulse cereal-combinations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Fragstein und Niemsdorff, P.; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Gooding, M.J.;

    2008-01-01

    A survey was carried out within five European countries with regard to the practice of cereal grain legume intercropping. The mostly given combination was spring barleyspring pea beside 27 other combinations between pulses and cereals. 72 % of all examples consisted of spring varieties, the rest ...... regulation, unequal maturation and additional costs for separation were mostly named. The interviewed farmers showed predominantly positive prospects for the development of intercropping on their farms, problems with sowing techniques were only of minor importance....

  13. U.S. READY-TO-EAT BREAKFAST CEREALS' EXPANSION IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fang

    1999-01-01

    US ready-to-eat breakfast cereals entered the Chinese market in the mid-1990s. In the past years, this all-American food has been generating business losses. Such underperformance calls for prompt strategic modification by the cereal investors. This study focuses on foreign entry strategy and product strategy, and characterizes a combination of literature review and case study. Literature review seeks appropriate theories and frameworks, and therefore renders a sound conceptual foundation for...

  14. Material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastio, Michael Joseph, Jr.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly seventy-five years ago, the single screw extruder was introduced as a means to produce metal products. Shortly after that, the extruder found its way into the plastics industry. Today much of the world's polymer industry utilizes extruders to produce items such as soda bottles, PVC piping, and toy figurines. Given the significant economical advantages of extruders over conventional batch flow systems, extruders have also migrated into the food industry. Food applications include the meat, pet food, and cereal industries to name just a few. Cereal manufacturers utilize extruders to produce various forms of Ready-to-Eat (RTE) cereals. These cereals are made from grains such as rice, oats, wheat, and corn. The food industry has been incorrectly viewed as an extruder application requiring only minimal energy control and performance capability. This misconception has resulted in very little research in the area of material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruders. Breakfast cereal extruder barrels and individual screw elements are subjected to the extreme pressures and temperatures required to shear and cook the cereal ingredients, resulting in excessive material wear and catastrophic failure of these components. Therefore, this project focuses on the material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements, modeled as a Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC) process in which historical data is used to predict future failures. Such predictive analysis will yield cost savings opportunities by providing insight into extruder maintenance scheduling and interchangeability of screw elements. In this DTMC wear analysis, four states of wear are defined and a probability transition matrix is determined based upon 24,041 hours of operational data. This probability transition matrix is used to predict when an extruder component will move to the next state of wear and/or failure. This information can be used to determine

  15. A Content Analysis on the Nutritional Portrait of the Breakfast Cereal Television Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, VOLKAN

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity and related health problems are affecting millions of children worldwide. Recent studies indicate that food/beverage TV commercials are one of the contributing factors of rising obesity rates. In the States, where the obesity rate is high, there has been a public outcry for more stringent rules regulating food related TV ads. This study investigates breakfast cereal ads which were derived from more than 1600 hours of television programming. Cereal ads were selected for this ...

  16. Advances in functional genomics for investigating salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Shelden, Megan C.; Roessner, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as low water availability and high salinity are major causes of cereal crop yield losses and significantly impact on sustainability. Wheat and barley are two of the most important cereal crops (after maize and rice) and are grown in increasingly hostile environments with soil salinity and drought both expected to increase this century, reducing the availability of arable land. Barley and wheat are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive), yet they are more salt-toleran...

  17. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela ePeukert; Johannes eThiel; Hans-Peter eMock; Doris eMarko; Winfriede eWeschke; Andrea eMatros

    2016-01-01

    Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water–soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds) and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages (ß(2,1); ß(2,6)-fructans) or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, whic...

  18. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Mock, Hans-Peter; Marko, Doris; Weschke, Winfriede; Matros, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water–soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds) and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages [β(2,1); β(2,6)-fructans] or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, whic...

  19. Preference Heterogeneity and Habit Persistence: The Case of Breakfast Cereal Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Thunström, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the strength and heterogeneity across households in state dependence associated with breakfast cereal consumption, where positive state dependence implies habit persistence and negative state dependence implies variety-seeking in consumption. The analysis relies on a discrete choice model and finds that breakfast cereal consumption is generally highly habitual, but the degree of habit persistence exhibits heterogeneity across households. In addition, some households can b...

  20. "Determination the best cereal substitute for wheat in wheat allergic children "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiasy Esfahany Z "

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food allergy is one of the most important among other allergic diseases. Although it is less prevalent in adult but in infants it’s prevalence was reported as much as 8 percent. In part, wheat is one of the six main food allergens in infant and in other part there is extensive cross reactivity between the cereals. Therefore the aim of this study is selection of the best food substitute for wheat among other cereals. Materials and Methods: 24 patients with definitive diagnosis of type one hypersensitivity reaction to wheat were entered in this study. Skin prick test and serum specific IgE (Eliza with 6 members of cereals family (wheat, barley, oat, Rye-Rice & Corn were performed for them and open food challenge test was also done with three more available of the cereals (corn, Rice, barley in our food culture and so comparison between allergenicity of wheat flour and wheat bran with skin prick test were done. Results: The Skin prick tests (SPTs were positive in 66.7 percent for Barley, 100 percent for wheat bran and 80-100 percent for other cereals. The results of specific IgE for wheat, Barley were positive in 94.5 percent, 68 percent, 39 percent of patients respectively and the results for other cereals were positive in less than 11 percent of cases. The results of food challenge test, for barley were positive in 60 percent of cases and for Rice and Corn were negative in all cases. Conclusion: In the base of food challenge test as the gold standard test, the best food substitute for wheat sensitive patient between other cereals, were Corn and Rice respectively. It is important to emphasis that will be needed to perform oral food challenge in hospital with complete emergency equipment before introducing any other cereals as food substitute for wheat, specially Barley.

  1. Suitability of cereal porridges as substrate for probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubomír Valík; Monika Kocková

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find new substrates suitable for growth and metabolism of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which would be interesting for development of new functional food. The growth and metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG in cereal (rye, barley, oat and millet) porridges were monitored during fermentation process. Cereal and porridges, were inoculated with this strain at two initial levels to obtain approximately 5 or 6 log colony form units per gram of suspensio...

  2. Cereal Yield Modeling in Finland Using Optical and Radar Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Jouko Kleemola; Juha Hyyppä; Heikki Laurila; Mika Karjalainen

    2010-01-01

    During 1996–2006, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Finland (MAFF), MTT Agrifood Research and the Finnish Geodetic Institute performed a joint remote sensing satellite research project. It evaluated the applicability of optical satellite (Landsat, SPOT) data for cereal yield estimations in the annual crop inventory program. Four Optical Vegetation Indices models (I: Infrared polynomial, II: NDVI, III: GEMI, IV: PARND/FAPAR) were validated to estimate cereal baseline yield levels (yb...

  3. PROBLEM OF RISK ELEMENTS ACCUMULATION IN CEREAL RAW MATERIALS AND FOODSTUFFS

    OpenAIRE

    RASTISLAV MIKUŠKA; ZDENKA MUCHOVÁ; MARTINA FIKSELOVÁ

    2009-01-01

    Four kinds of cereals- wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum sativum L.), triticosecale (Triticosecale sativum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L) were taken from risk region of Slovakia in order to determine risk elements content in individual parts of grain. The results indicate significant differences in the content of the risk elements in four mill streams. Among observed cereals the highest content of risk metals decreased in order: oat>barley>triticosecale >spring wheat>win...

  4. Simultaneous determination of nitrogen and phosphorus in cereals using 14 MeV Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis was developed form non-destructive simultaneous determination of N and P in cereals. The samples were irradiated 5 min. after 0,5 min. decay time. The induced activities were measured using gamma spectrometry with Nal(Tl) well type detector. The accuracy, precision and detection limits obtained are discussed as well as the analytical results for different types of cereals. (Author) 10 refs., 8 tab., 1 fig

  5. Cereals Market in Romania under the Impact of the Common Agricultural Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin, Florentina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyses the cereals market after Romania accession to European Union. Thus, I considered necessary and appropriate to achieve the dynamic analysis of production, prices, trade, consumption, and self-sufficiency that provides an overview on the evolution of the cereals market in Romania, in the European context, starting from resources representing the demand, to the uses that represent the supply. I also point out the main mechanisms and support instruments for th...

  6. Ochratoxin A producing Penicillium verrucosum isolates from cereals reveal large AFLP fingerprinting variability

    OpenAIRE

    Frisvad, J C; Lund, F; Elmholt, S.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To examine if molecular amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting of the only ochratoxin A-producing species in European cereals, Penicillium verrucosum, can be used as a method in hazard analysis using critical control points (HACCP). Methods and Results: A total of 321 isolates of P. verrucosum were isolated from ochratoxin A contaminated cereals from Denmark (oats), UK (wheat and barley) and Sweden (wheat). Of these, 236 produced ochratoxin A as determined by t...

  7. Cereals for developing gluten-free products and analytical tools for gluten detection

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina M. Rosell; Barro Losada, Francisco; C. Sousa; Mena, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, gluten free foods have attracted much research interest motivated by the increasing market. Despite the motivation for developing gluten-free foods it is necessary to have a scientific basis for developing gluten-free foods and the tools for detecting the peptide sequence that could be immune-toxic to some persons. This review will be focused primarily on the cereal-based commodities available for developing gluten free blends, considering naturally gluten-free cereals in addition t...

  8. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Rela, P. R.; Mancini-Filho, J.

    2007-11-01

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in São Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at "Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares" (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  9. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Lab. de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Travessa R. No. 400, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-910, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Araujo, M.M.; Fanaro, G.B.; Rela, P.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Lab. de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Travessa R. No. 400, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-910, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mancini-Filho, J. [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas-FCF/USP, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental, Lab. de Lipides, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: jmancini@usp.br

    2007-11-15

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in Sao Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares' (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a {sup 60}Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  10. The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sousa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A strict gluten-free diet (GFD is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition.

  11. The gluten-free diet: testing alternative cereals tolerated by celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Isabel; Moreno, María de Lourdes; Real, Ana; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Barro, Francisco; Sousa, Carolina

    2013-10-01

    A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs) from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition. PMID:24152755

  12. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in Sao Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares' (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process

  13. Phytate degradation determines the effect of industrial processing and home cooking on iron absorption from cereal-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Richard F; Hurrell, Richard F; Reddy, Manju B; Burri, Joseph; Cook, James D

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare Fe absorption from industrially-manufactured and home-cooked cereal foods. Fe absorption was measured using the radiolabelled Fe extrinsic tag technique in thirty-nine adult human subjects from cereal porridges manufactured by extrusion cooking or roller-drying, and from the same cereal flours after home cooking to produce pancakes, chappattis or bread. One series of cereal porridges was amylase-treated in addition before roller-drying. Fe absorption was relatively low from all products, ranging from 1.8-5.5 % for rice, 2.5-3.5 % for maize, 4.9-13.6 % for low-extraction wheat, and foods. The phytic acid content remained high after drying of the cereal porridges being about 1.20, 1.70, 3.20, 3.30 mg/g in low-extraction wheat, rice, high-extraction wheat and maize products respectively, and could explain the low Fe absorption. There were little or no differences in Fe absorption between the extruded and roller-dried cereals, although amylase pre-treatment increased Fe absorption from the roller-dried rice cereal 3-fold. This was not due to phytate degradation but possibly because of the more liquid nature of the cereal meal as fed. There were similarly few or no differences in Fe absorption between the industrially-processed cereals and home-cooked cereals made into pancakes or chappattis. Bread-making, however, degraded phytic acid to zero in the low-extraction wheat flour and Fe absorption increased to 13.6 %, the greatest from all cereal foods tested. It is concluded that Fe absorption from extruded, roller-dried or home-cooked cereal foods is similarly low and that only those cooking procedures such as bread-making, which extensively degrades phytic acid, or amylase pre-treatment, which substantially liquifies cereal porridges, improve Fe absorption. PMID:12144715

  14. A tradeoff frontier for global nitrogen use and cereal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen fertilizer use across the world’s croplands enables high-yielding agricultural production, but does so at considerable environmental cost. Imbalances between nitrogen applied and nitrogen used by crops contributes to excess nitrogen in the environment, with negative consequences for water quality, air quality, and climate change. Here we utilize crop input-yield models to investigate how to minimize nitrogen application while achieving crop production targets. We construct a tradeoff frontier that estimates the minimum nitrogen fertilizer needed to produce a range of maize, wheat, and rice production levels. Additionally, we explore potential environmental consequences by calculating excess nitrogen along the frontier using a soil surface nitrogen balance model. We find considerable opportunity to achieve greater production and decrease both nitrogen application and post-harvest excess nitrogen. Our results suggest that current (circa 2000) levels of cereal production could be achieved with ∼50% less nitrogen application and ∼60% less excess nitrogen. If current global nitrogen application were held constant but spatially redistributed, production could increase ∼30%. If current excess nitrogen were held constant, production could increase ∼40%. Efficient spatial patterns of nitrogen use on the frontier involve substantial reductions in many high-use areas and moderate increases in many low-use areas. Such changes may be difficult to achieve in practice due to infrastructure, economic, or political constraints. Increases in agronomic efficiency would expand the frontier to allow greater production and environmental gains

  15. Genetic modification of cereal crops by direct gene transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of efficient in vitro culture and regeneration systems, reproducible transformation methods for different cereal crops were developed. Scutellar tissue of the immature embryos of hexaploid wheat and maize were used as targets for microprojectile mediated gene transfer. Bombardment of haploid microspores resulted in homozygous, transgenic and fertile barley plants. Each target was the subject of individual optimization processes of bombardment conditions by analysing the transient β-glucuronidase activity. Furthermore, phosphinothricin resistance conferred by the bar gene turned out to be a suitable selectable marker for regenerating transgenic crop plants. Summarizing the results of independent transformation experiments for wheat and maize led to a transformation efficiency of one transgenic plant per 83 and 230 bombardment immature embryos, respectively. For barley, the average of all the experiments was one transgenic plant per 2.8 x 1016 bombarded microspores. Primary transformants and progeny were analyzed for the enzyme activity of the two marker enzymes introduced and integration of the corresponding genes by Southern blot experiments. Stable integration of the foreign DNA and its inheritance by progeny were demonstrated. All the transformed plants showed normal morphology and their development and flowering were comparable with those of seed derived plants. (author). 28 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS

  17. Irradiation on cereal bars incorporated with pineapple skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major current concerns to the food industry is the management of residues generated in its production processes. Thus, several studies have been developed, seeking alternative uses for these residues, in order to minimize environmental impacts and add value to products previously discarded. Combining this idea with the increasingly search for healthy and practical products, by consumers, this study aimed the characterization of cereal bars irradiated with doses of 0 kGy, 1 kGy, and 2 kGy, incorporated with dried pineapple skin. The following analyses were carried out: moisture, proteins, lipids, ashes, carbohydrates, energetic value, antioxidant potential, phenolic content, organic acids, and fatty acids profile. The results observed for the centesimal composition did not vary as a function of the radiation doses used, reducing only the levels of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, and organic acids. The product showed potential for becoming an effective way of reusing a food industry residue and the irradiation interfered on the nutritional characteristics of the final product. (author)

  18. A tradeoff frontier for global nitrogen use and cereal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nathaniel D.; West, Paul C.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; Polasky, Stephen; Foley, Jonathan A.

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer use across the world’s croplands enables high-yielding agricultural production, but does so at considerable environmental cost. Imbalances between nitrogen applied and nitrogen used by crops contributes to excess nitrogen in the environment, with negative consequences for water quality, air quality, and climate change. Here we utilize crop input-yield models to investigate how to minimize nitrogen application while achieving crop production targets. We construct a tradeoff frontier that estimates the minimum nitrogen fertilizer needed to produce a range of maize, wheat, and rice production levels. Additionally, we explore potential environmental consequences by calculating excess nitrogen along the frontier using a soil surface nitrogen balance model. We find considerable opportunity to achieve greater production and decrease both nitrogen application and post-harvest excess nitrogen. Our results suggest that current (circa 2000) levels of cereal production could be achieved with ˜50% less nitrogen application and ˜60% less excess nitrogen. If current global nitrogen application were held constant but spatially redistributed, production could increase ˜30%. If current excess nitrogen were held constant, production could increase ˜40%. Efficient spatial patterns of nitrogen use on the frontier involve substantial reductions in many high-use areas and moderate increases in many low-use areas. Such changes may be difficult to achieve in practice due to infrastructure, economic, or political constraints. Increases in agronomic efficiency would expand the frontier to allow greater production and environmental gains.

  19. Where do Protein Bodies of Cereal Seeds Come From?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzini, Emanuela; Mainieri, Davide; Marrano, Claudia A.; Vitale, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Protein bodies of cereal seeds consist of ordered, largely insoluble heteropolymers formed by prolamin storage proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of developing endosperm cells. Often these structures are permanently unable to traffic along the secretory pathway, thus representing a unique example for the use of the ER as a protein storage compartment. In recent years, marked progress has been made in understanding what is needed to make a protein body and in formulating hypotheses on how protein body formation might have evolved as an efficient mechanism to store large amounts of protein during seed development, as opposed to the much more common system of seed storage protein accumulation in vacuoles. The major key evolutionary events that have generated prolamins appear to have been insertions or deletions that have disrupted the conformation of the eight-cysteine motif, a protein folding motif common to many proteins with different functions and locations along the secretory pathway, and, alternatively, the fusion between the eight-cysteine motif and domains containing additional cysteine residues. PMID:27540384

  20. Streptomyces strains producing mitochondriotoxic antimycin A found in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasimus-Sahari, Stiina; Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A; Jestoi, Marika; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2016-02-01

    Reasons for mammalian cell toxicity observed in barley and spring wheat grains were sought. Streptomyces sp. isolates from wheat and barley produced heat-stable methanol-soluble substances which inhibited the motility of exposed porcine spermatozoa used as a toxicity indicator. Several barley isolates produced antimycin A (2 to 5 ng/mg wet wt of biomass), a macrolide antibiotic known to block oxygen utilization in mitochondria. The antimycin-producing isolates were members of the Streptomyces albidoflavus group. In in vitro assays with porcine kidney tubular epithelial cells, the specific toxicity of antimycin A towards mitochondria was higher than that of the mycotoxin enniatin B but lower than that of the mitochondriotoxins cereulide and paenilide, produced by food-related Bacillus cereus and Paenibacillus tundrae, respectively. The toxic wheat isolates, related to Streptomyces sedi, did not produce antimycin A and or any other known toxin. Our results suggest that the presence of toxin-producing streptomycetes in stored cereal grains may pose a thus far unrecognized threat for food and feed safety. PMID:26619316

  1. From the concept of totipotency to biofortified cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    I was a college teacher when opportunity opened a path into academia. A fascination with totipotency channeled me into research on tissue culture. As I was more interested in contributions to food security than in scientific novelty, I turned my attention to the development of genetic modification technology for cereals. From my cell culture experience, I had reasons not to trust Agrobacterium for that purpose, and I developed direct gene transfer instead. In the early 1990s, I became aware of the problem of micronutrient deficiency, particularly vitamin A deficiency in rice-eating populations. Golden Rice, which contains increased amounts of provitamin A, was probably instrumental for the concept of biofortification to take off. I realized that this rice would remain an academic exercise if product development and product registration were not addressed, and this is what I focused on after my retirement. Although progress is slowly being made, had I known what this pursuit would entail, perhaps I would not have started. Hopefully Golden Rice will reach the needy during my lifetime. PMID:25423078

  2. Food-borne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salmonella scare reinforced the importance of never taking chances when it comes to controlling pathogens. The issue has been resolved by radurisation. The article deals with the various pathogens that can effect food and argues the case for radurisation in dealing with them. It also looks at some of the other food products that can be treated using this process

  3. Plant pathogen resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  4. Richness and composition of niche-assembled viral pathogen communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W Seabloom

    Full Text Available The pathogen and parasite community that inhabits every free-living organism can control host vital rates including lifespan and reproductive output. To date, however, there have been few experiments examining pathogen community assembly replicated at large-enough spatial scales to inform our understanding of pathogen dynamics in natural systems. Pathogen community assembly may be driven by neutral stochastic colonization and extinction events or by niche differentiation that constrains pathogen distributions to particular environmental conditions, hosts, or vectors. Here, we present results from a regionally-replicated experiment investigating the community of barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses (B/CYDV's in over 5000 experimentally planted individuals of six grass species along a 700 km latitudinal gradient along the Pacific coast of North America (USA in response to experimentally manipulated nitrogen and phosphorus supplies. The composition of the virus community varied predictably among hosts and across nutrient-addition treatments, indicating niche differentiation among virus species. There were some concordant responses among the viral species. For example, the prevalence of most viral species increased consistently with perennial grass cover, leading to a 60% increase in the richness of the viral community within individual hosts (i.e., coinfection in perennial-dominated plots. Furthermore, infection rates of the six host species in the field were highly correlated with vector preferences assessed in laboratory trials. Our results reveal the importance of niche differentiation in structuring virus assemblages. Virus species distributions reflected a combination of local host community composition, host species-specific vector preferences, and virus responses to host nutrition. In addition, our results suggest that heterogeneity among host species in their capacity to attract vectors or support pathogens between growing seasons can

  5. Joint evolution of spatial integration and product segmentation on agricultural markets: the case of cereals in Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Magali; Bignebat, Celine; Egg, Johny

    2006-01-01

    Within the context of liberalisation experienced by the Malian economy since the beginning of the 1990s, spatial integration of cereal markets has been considered as a major tool as to avoid localised shortages due to production shortfalls. However, market dynamic reveals since then new patterns: the diversification of urban consumer demand towards "modern cereals", in particular rice and maize, drives the segmentation of the cereal market. As consumer s are likely to substitute traditional c...

  6. Investigation of lactic acid bacteria mediated bioprotection with applications in cereal industry. Case-study: malting process

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Pedro Miguel Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal compounds produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) metabolites can be natural and reliable alternative for reducing fungal infections pre- and post-harvest with a multitude of additional advantages for cereal-base products. Toxigenic and spoilage fungi are responsible for numerous diseases and economic losses. This thesis includes an overview of the impact fungi have on aspects of the cereal food chain. The applicability of LAB in plant protection and cereal industry is discussed in ...

  7. Prehistoric cereal foods from Greece and Bulgaria: investigation of starch microstructure in experimental and archaeological charred remains

    OpenAIRE

    Valamoti, Soultana-Maria; Samuel, Delwen; Bayram, Mustafa; Elena MARINOVA

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In order to investigate ancient cereal cooking practices, the microstructure of preserved starch in charred ground cereal remains recovered from prehistoric sites in Greece and Bulgaria has been analysed. A comparative modern set of cooked and subsequently charred cereals was produced. By scanning electron microscopy it is demonstrated that, under some conditions, distinctive cooked starch structure survives the charring process. Charring alone can occasionall...

  8. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Booij, C J H

    2010-06-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges. Mycotoxin contamination in cereal grain-based feed and food products is currently managed and controlled by good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices, hazard analysis critical control points, and by checking and more recently by notification systems and predictive mathematical models. Most of the predictive models for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains focus on deoxynivalenol in wheat and aim to help growers make decisions about the application of fungicides during cultivation. Future developments in managing Fusarium mycotoxins should include the linkage between predictive mathematical models and geographical information systems, resulting into region-specific predictions for mycotoxin occurrence. The envisioned geographically oriented decision support system may incorporate various underlying models for specific users' demands and regions and various related databases to feed the particular models with (geographically oriented) input data. Depending on the user requirements, the system selects the best fitting model and available input information. Future research areas include organizing data management in the cereal grain supply chain, developing predictive models for other stakeholders (taking into account the period up to harvest), other Fusarium mycotoxins, and cereal grain types, and understanding the underlying effects of the regional component in the models. PMID:20537276

  9. Advances in functional genomics for investigating salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Megan C; Roessner, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as low water availability and high salinity are major causes of cereal crop yield losses and significantly impact on sustainability. Wheat and barley are two of the most important cereal crops (after maize and rice) and are grown in increasingly hostile environments with soil salinity and drought both expected to increase this century, reducing the availability of arable land. Barley and wheat are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive), yet they are more salt-tolerant than other cereal crops such as rice and so are good models for studying salt tolerance in cereals. The exploitation of genetic variation of phenotypic traits through plant breeding could significantly improve growth of cereals in salinity-affected regions, thus leading to improved crop yields. Genetic variation in phenotypic traits for abiotic stress tolerance have been identified in land races and wild germplasm but the molecular basis of these differences is often difficult to determine due to the complex genetic nature of these species. High-throughput functional genomics technologies, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and ionomics are powerful tools for investigating the molecular responses of plants to abiotic stress. The advancement of these technologies has allowed for the identification and quantification of transcript/metabolites in specific cell types and/or tissues. Using these new technologies on plants will provide a powerful tool to uncovering genetic traits in more complex species such as wheat and barley and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of salinity stress tolerance. PMID:23717314

  10. Advances in functional genomics for investigating salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C Shelden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as low water availability and high salinity are major causes of cereal crop yield losses and significantly impact on sustainability. Wheat and barley are two of the most important cereal crops (after maize and rice and are grown in increasingly hostile environments with soil salinity and drought both expected to increase this century, reducing the availability of arable land. Barley and wheat are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive, yet they are more salt-tolerant than other cereal crops such as rice and so are good models for studying salt-tolerance in cereals. The exploitation of genetic variation of phenotypic traits through plant breeding could significantly improve growth of cereals in salinity-affected regions, thus leading to improved crop yields. Genetic variation in phenotypic traits for abiotic stress tolerance have been identified in land races and wild germplasm but the molecular basis of these differences is often difficult to determine due to the complex genetic nature of these species. High-throughput functional genomics technologies, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics and ionomics are powerful tools for investigating the molecular responses of plants to abiotic stress. The advancement of these technologies has allowed for the identification and quantification of transcript /metabolites in specific cell types and/or tissues. Using these new technologies on plants will provide a powerful tool to uncovering genetic traits in more complex species such as wheat and barley and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of salinity stress tolerance.

  11. Major cereal grain fibers and psyllium in relation to cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Adam M; Titgemeier, Brigid; Kirkpatrick, Kristin; Golubic, Mladen; Roizen, Michael F

    2013-05-01

    Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. β-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in β-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake. PMID:23628720

  12. Major Cereal Grain Fibers and Psyllium in Relation to Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roizen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. β-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in β-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake.

  13. Mass spectrometric profiling of lipids in intestinal tissue from rats fed cereals processed for medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlatshahi Pour, Masoumeh; Jennische, Eva; Lange, Stefan; Ewing, Andrew G; Malmberg, Per

    2016-06-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used for lipid profiling of intestine tissue sections from rats fed specially processed cereals and rats fed ordinary feed as a control. This cereal is known to increase the activity of antisecretory factor in plasma and the exact mechanism for the activation process at the cellular level is unclear. ToF-SIMS has been used to track food induced changes in lipid content in intestinal tissue sections to gain insight into the possible mechanisms involved. Data from 20 intestine sections belonging to four different rats from each group of control and specially processed cereals-fed rats were obtained using the stage scan macroraster with a lateral resolution of 5 μm. Data were subsequently subjected to orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. The data clearly show that changes of certain lipids are induced by the specially processed cereal feed. Scores plots show a well-defined separation between the two groups. The corresponding loading plots reveal that the groups separate mainly due to changes of vitamin E, phosphocholine, and phosphosphingolipid fragments, and that for the c18:2 fatty acid. The observed changes in lipids might give insight into the working mechanisms of antisecretory factor in the body, and this has been successfully used to understand the working mechanism of specially processed cereal-induced antisecretory factor activation in intestine. PMID:26753787

  14. Characterisation of dietary fibre components in cereals and legumes used in Serbian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodevska, Margarita S; Djordjevic, Brizita I; Sobajic, Sladjana S; Miletic, Ivanka D; Djordjevic, Predrag B; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna S

    2013-12-01

    The typical Serbian diet is characterised by high intake of cereal products and also legumes are often used. The content of total fibre as well as certain fibre fractions was determined in cereals, cereal products, and cooked legumes. The content of total fibre in cooked cereals and cereal products ranged from 2.5 to 20.8 g/100 g, and in cooked legumes from 14.0 to 24.5 g/100 g (on dry matter basis). Distribution of analysed fibre fractions and their quantities differed significantly depending on food groups. Fructans and arabinoxylans were the most significant fibre fractions in rye flakes, and β-glucan in oat flakes, cellulose and resistant starch were present in significant amounts in peas and kidney beans. When the size of regular food portions was taken into consideration, the best sources of total dietary fibre were peas and kidney beans (more than 11 g/serving). The same foods were the best sources of cellulose (4.98 and 3.56 g/serving) and resistant starch (3.90 and 2.83 g/serving). High intake of arabinoxylans and fructans could be accomplished with cooked wheat (3.20 g and 1.60 g/serving, respectively). Oat (1.39 g/serving) and barley flakes (1.30 g/serving) can be recommended as the best sources of β-glucan. PMID:23870869

  15. Discrimination of Repetitive Sequences Polymorphism in Secale cereale by Genomic In Situ Hybridization-Banding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping Zhou; Zu-Jun Yang; Guang-Rong Li; Cheng Liu; Zheng-Long Ren

    2008-01-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization banding (GISH-banding), a technique slightly modified from conventional GISH, was used to probe the Chinese native rye (Secale cereale L.) DNA, and enabled us to visualize the Individual rye chromosomes and create a universal reference karyotype of the S. cereale chromosome 1R to 7R. The GISH-banding approach used in the present study was able to discriminate S. cereale chromosomes or segments in the wheat (Triticum aeativum L.) background, including the Triticale, wheat-rye addition and translocation lines. Moreover, the GISH-banding pattern of S.cereale subsp. Afghanicum chromosomes was consistent with that of Chinese native rye cv. Jingzhou rye; whereas the GISH-banding pattem of Secale vavilovli was different from that of S. cereale, indicating that GISH-banding can be used to study evolutionary polymorphism in species or subspecies of Secale. In addition, the production and application of GISH-banding to the study of adenine-thymine-riched heterochromatin is discussed.

  16. THE SUPPLEMENTARY RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PROTEINS OF MOTTLED GRAM BEAN AND CERTAIN OTHER CEREALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗登义

    2006-01-01

    @@ It has been well understood that a mixture of vegetable and animal proteins is of higher quality than the former alone, and also there are some remarkable instances of effective supplementing between the proteins of certain cereals and certain legume seeds[1]. In practice, it is very valuable for the selection of human diets and farm-animal relations. This question is especially important in China where the protein of the average diet are mainly of vegetable origin, in which about 83 percent are derived from cereals and 11 percent from beans[2]. However, a review of the literature indicates that no work has been done on the supplementary relationships of the protein of mottled gram bean with those of other cereals. The writer purchased, therefore, from the Peiping market some cheaper cereals commonly used in China, namely, yellow corn(黄玉米), red kaoliang(红高粱),oat meal(油麦面),panicled glutinous and non-glutinous millets(黄米及糜子米); and determined the supplementary values between the proteins of mottled gram bean and these cereals. The experimental details are communicated in the present paper.

  17. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  18. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Chauhan

    2013-07-01

    The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  19. The isolation and identification of a P.polymyxa sp.serain and its bio-control function against pathogenic fungus%一株具有抗菌作用的P. polymyxa sp.菌株的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林; 董兆麟; 段康民

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究对辣椒疫病具有防治作用的一株桔抗细菌.方法 从辣椒植株根的韧皮部分离出对辣椒疫霉(Phytophora capsic Leonian)具有强烈拮抗作用的辣椒植株内生细菌菌株,通过形态观察、生理生化实验、16s rRNA基因测序以及与NCBI(National Center for Biotechnology Information)的数据库中进行对比,鉴定该菌株.采用平皿对峙法测定其抑菌活性.结果 分离出的该菌株确定为Peanibacillus polymyxa sp(其后简称为J),其对辣椒疫霉(phytophora capsic Leonian)、西瓜枯萎(Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.niveum)、小麦赤霉(Gibberella saubinetii(Mont.)Sacc.)、马铃薯干腐(Gibberella pulicris)、烟草赤星(A.alternata (Fr.) Keisslerf.sp.nicotianae)和番茄早疫(Alternaria solani)病害真菌具有抑菌活性.结论 对Paenibacillus polymyxa sp.的生物学特性研究结果表明,菌株对多种植物病原真菌具有抑制作用.同时,它还可固定大气中的氮,且无磷酸酶、纤维素酶和脂肪酶活性,它同宿主属互惠共生关系.因此,该菌株可能是适用于生物防治的一株优良菌株.%Aim Characterization of a Paenibacillus polymyxa strain J that was isolated from the stem of the capsicum tree, beneath the epidermis. Methods 16S rRNA gene sequence of this isolate was analyzed and blasted a-gainst the NCBI ( National Center for Biotechnology Information) database, and the morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics of this strain were investigated. Results The strain was identified as P. Polymyxa sp. It showed strong growth inhibition against pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The plants pathogenic fungi inhibited include phytophora capsic Leonian, Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. Niveum, Gibberella saubinetii ( Mont. ) Sacc. , Gib-berella pulicris ,A. Alternata ( Fr. ) Keisslerf. Sp. Nicotianae and Alternaria solani. Conclusion This strain not only exhibits broad spectrum of antagonism but also has the ability of fixing N2. It does not

  20. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the

  1. A potent bidirectional promoter from the monocot cereal Eleusine coracana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Saswati; Dutta, Samir Kr

    2016-09-01

    Ragi bifunctional α-amylase-trypsin inhibitor (RBI) of Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. (finger millet) simultaneously inhibits α-amylase and trypsin. In continuation of previous work on the cloning, expression and characterization of RBI, a bidirectional promoter from finger millet was explored on the basis of experimental observations. Two trypsin inhibitors were identified while purifying RBI from a trypsin-Sepharose column eluent. Using an FPLC gel filtration column, these three inhibitors were purified to homogeneity and subjected to MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Both ragi trypsin inhibitors (RTIs) showed the same N-terminal sequence and considerable sequence similarity to RBI, indicating the presence of a multigene protease inhibitor family in finger millet. To gain insight into the evolution of these genes, the upstream region of RBI was explored by Genome Walking. Interestingly, on sequencing, a genome walking product of ∼1 Kb showed presence of an N-terminal RBI specific primer sequence twice but in opposite directions and leaving an intervening region of ∼0.9 Kb. The intervening region was presumed to represent an E. coracana bidirectional promoter (EcBDP), intuitively having a divergent RBI-RTI gene pair at two sides. For assaying the bidirectionality of promoter activity, a dual reporter GUS-GFP vector construct was made for plant expression containing the reporter genes at two ends of EcBDP, which was used to transform Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA 4404. Transient plant transformation by recombinant Agrobacterium cells was carried out in onion scale epidermal cells and finger millet seedling leaves. Simultaneous expression of GUS and GFP under EcBDP established it as a potent natural bidirectional promoter from monocot origin, thereby potentially having vast application in cereal gene manipulations. In addition, inducibility of the EcBDP by either abscisic acid or cold treatment, as determined by transient

  2. An Ultrasonic System for Weed Detection in Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Andújar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group

  3. Cereal crop resistance to insects in the United States. An example of induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, entomologists and plant scientists are cooperating in the production of varieties of cereal crops (corn, wheat, and sorghum) that have commercially effective resistance to key pests. Active research is in progress on plant resistance to the European corn borer, southwestern corn borer, corn earworm, corn rootworms, greenbug, sorghum midge, Hessian fly, and cereal leaf beetle. Plant resistance has had an important role in reducing the chinch bug and the wheat stem sawfly to minor pests. There are deficiencies of programs in the U.S. For example, collections of cereal crop germplasm are large, and most have not been adequately evaluated. Induced mutation research could be highly useful for specific objectives. The transfer of greenbug resistance from rye to wheat is an example. (author)

  4. Effect of primary processing of cereals and legumes on its nutritional quality: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Oghbaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are important part of dietaries and contribute substantially to nutrient intake of human beings. They are significant source of energy, protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Primary processing of cereals and legumes is an essential component of their preparation before use. For some grains, dehusking is an essential step, whereas for others, it could be milling the grain into flour. Grains are subjected to certain processing treatments to impart special characteristics and improve organoleptic properties such as expanded cereals. All these treatments result in alteration of their nutritional quality which could either be reduction in nutrients, phytochemicals and antinutrients or an improvement in digestibility or availability of nutrients. It is important to understand these changes occurring in grain nutritional quality on account of pre-processing treatments to select appropriate techniques to obtain maximum nutritional and health benefits. This review attempts to throw light on nutritional alterations occurring in grains due to pre-processing treatments.

  5. Cereal grains' resistance analysis in the aspect of energy utilisation in the process of disintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melcion J.-P.

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The highly non-descriptive character of biological materials resulting from their non-standard shapes and their mechanically heterogeneous structure in particular, underlies the lack of any detailed estimation of the raw materials' physicochemical qualities' influence on the course of disintegration process. Hence, it seems that the qualities expressing the relations arising during mechanical loads (mechanical and rheological properties are especially significant. In individual tests an attempt was made for a detailed description of cereal grains' resistance parameters. These properties were defined in the single-particle compression test. Test were carried out for rye and barley grains of varying humidity (10-18%. Tests concerning the process of cereal disintegration were carried out on the stand equipped with a laboratory hammer mill. The measurements showed significant relationships between the kind of cereal, its resistance characteristics and the energy utilisation in the process of disintegration. Results of the tests and the relations were described by means of regressive equations.

  6. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela ePeukert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water–soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages (ß(2,1; ß(2,6-fructans or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, which are possibly related to the different phases of grain development, such as cellular differentiation of grain tissues and storage product accumulation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation kinetics in cereal grains. We focus on the spatiotemporal dynamics and regulation of oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation in developing barley grains (deduced from a combination of metabolite, transcript and proteome analyses. Finally, putative physiological functions of oligofructans in developing grains are discussed.

  7. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  8. Effect of temperature and precipitation on nitrate leaching from organic cereal cropping systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabloun, Mohamed; Schelde, Kirsten; Tao, F;

    2015-01-01

    The effect of variation in seasonal temperature and precipitation on soil water nitrate (NO3single bondN) concentration and leaching from winter and spring cereals cropping systems was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotation cycles from 1997 to 2008 in an organic farming crop...... rotation experiment in Denmark. Three experimental sites, varying in climate and soil type from coarse sand to sandy loam, were investigated. The experiment included experimental treatments with different rotations, manure rate and cover crop, and soil nitrate concentrations was monitored using suction......N concentration for winter and spring cereals, respectively, and 68% and 77% of the variation in the square root transform of annual NO3single bondN leaching for winter and spring cereals, respectively. Nitrate concentration and leaching were shown to be site specific and driven by climatic factors and crop...

  9. Potential of phytase-mediated iron release from cereal-based foods: a quantitative view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Tetens, Inge; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via......The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate). Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism...... phytate complexes, and (3) the extent of phytate dephosphorylation required for iron release from inositol phosphates is warranted. Phytase-mediated iron release can improve iron absorption from plant foods. There is a need for development of innovative strategies to obtain better effects....

  10. High resolution melting analysis as a new approach to discriminate gluten-containing cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Begoña; Costa, Joana; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; López-Ruiz, Beatriz; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2016-11-15

    With this work, it is intended to propose a novel approach based on high resolution melting (HRM) analysis to detect wheat and discriminate it from other gluten-containing cereals. The method consisted of a real-time PCR assay targeting the gene encoding for the germ agglutinin isolectin A protein (Tri a 18 allergen), using the fluorescent Evagreen dye combined with HRM analysis. The results enabled wheat differentiation from other phylogenetically related cereals, namely barley, rye and oat with high level of confidence. Additionally, a quantitative real-time PCR approach was proposed, allowing detecting and quantifying wheat down to 20mg/kg in rice flour and 20pg of wheat DNA (∼1.1 DNA copies). Its application was successfully achieved in the analysis of processed foods to verify labelling compliance, being considered as a cost-effective tool for the specific detection of cereals in gluten-free foods. PMID:27283646

  11. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t−1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. - Highlights: • English arable farmer survey to determine potential supply for straw based biofuel. • Two-thirds of farmers would supply wheat straw for bioenergy. • Farmers willing to sell 1.65 Mt of cereal straw from the main cereal producing regions. • Farmer preference for a fixed area of straw supply for a contracted fixed price. • £50 t−1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price farmers find acceptable

  12. Physicochemical properties and nutritional quality of raw cereals for newly weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, G A; Doucet, F J; Hill, S E; Wiseman, J

    2008-06-01

    The digestibility of the starch component of raw cereals in newly weaned piglets is highly variable. Reasons for this must be elucidated if the most suitable cereals are to be used. A novel approach was employed, which consisted of assessing the physicochemical properties (rapid visco analysis, water absorption and solubility indices, particle size distribution and in vitro amylolytic digestion) of eight raw cereals contained within piglet diets and subsequently relating this in vitro data to the biological responses of weaned piglets. Trial 1 examined soft and hard wheat, trial 2 - soft wheat, barley, rye and triticale, and trial 3 - soft wheat, naked oats, whole oats and maize. The initial observation was that in vitro testing prior to animal trials is recommended in nutritional evaluation since it indicated fundamental differences between raw cereals, such as for example the levels of endogenous amylase in wheat. Starch and nitrogen digestibility differed between cereals (apparent digestibility coefficients at the 0.5 site of the small intestine ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 for starch and from 0.17 to 0.68 for nitrogen). There is also a probable relationship between the coefficients of ileal apparent starch digestibility, at approximately halfway from the gastric pylorus to the ileocaecal valve, and the presence of endogenous amylase (mean values of 0.53 and 0.62 in trials 2 and 3, respectively, for the higher amylase wheat; 0.38 for the low-amylase wheat used in trial 1). This additional variable (i.e. the unforeseen presence of endogenous amylase) in wheat made it more difficult to draw a firm conclusion about the nutritional suitability of the different cereals. All raw-cereal diets caused atrophy of the villi during the initial week following weaning, but the soft wheat was associated with the highest comparative villi height and might therefore be considered the best of all raw cereals in minimising the post-weaning growth check. For wheat, this might also

  13. Cereal Dietary Fibre - Physicochemical Properties and Suitability for Addition to Low-Fat Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Karin

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that dietary fibre is good for the health. Cereals, and in particular the outer parts of the cereal kernels, are rich in dietary fibre. Rye bran, wheat bran, oat bran and barley fibre have been investigated regarding their suitability as additives in low-fat meat products. Two types of meat products, frankfurter-type sausages and meatballs have been evaluated in this thesis. In the sausages the meat protein network governs the texture and water-holding properties, whereas the...

  14. Aspects of the selection, design and use of high lysine cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of the need for and the considerations involved in the breeding of high lysine cereals is presented. Progress in the discovery and exploitation of genotypes with high lysine characters in maize and barley are briefly reviewed. The role and some of the characteristics of the dye-binding capacity (DBC) methods are evaluated along with the ways in which DBC results should be used in combination with other information. Lastly, the changes in attitudes and procedures associated with the acceptance of a product of a new technology such as nutritionally improved cereals is discussed. (author)

  15. Organic dairy production based on rapeseed, rapeseed cake or cereals as supplement to silage ad libitum

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Ingvartsen, Klaus L; Kristensen, Troels; Seested, Susanne; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment presents the effect of 100% organic feed rations grown at an equal area per cow on milk production performance and metabolic responses. A total of 174 Danish Holstein cows were included in two experiments on two commercial organic dairy farms during the winter 2000/2001. Three types of supplementary feed were examined: 5 kg cereals, 3 kg rapeseed/cereal pellet or 1 kg rapeseed cake fed with a mixture of clover grass silage, whole crop silage and grass pellets ad libitum. The s...

  16. Development of cereal and legume based food products for the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Satusap, Pruet; Chavasit, Visith; Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Judprasong, Kunchit

    2014-01-01

    Diets for elderly must contain nutritious foods, fit their physiological limitations, and match with their food culture. Cereals and legumes are suggested food choices regardless of their cultures and beliefs. Ready-to-eat products containing suitable macronutrient patterns from cereals and legumes were developed. Energy distributions from carbohydrate (60 kcal/100 kcal), protein (15 kcal/100 kcal), and fat (25 kcal/100 kcal), protein quality, and percent energy from saturated fatty acid and ...

  17. Resistant starch content of conventionally boiled and pressure-cooked cereals, legumes and tubers

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, B. S.; Sharma, A.; Yadav, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) content was determined in the conventionally boiled (H1) and pressure-cooked (H2) cereals, legumes and tubers using enzymatic method. Both H1 and H2 legumes contained higher amount of RS as compared to cereals and tubers. H1 and H2 lentils showed highest RS content of 5.0 and 4.9% (dwb), respectively. Higher RS content in legumes can be attributed to the presence of intact tissue/cell structures enclosing starch granules and high level of amylose (26–33%) and high conten...

  18. Genetic Engineering of Cereal Grains with Starch Consisting of More Than 99% Amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Numerous textbooks tell us that plant starches are a mix of two starch types: amylopectin and amylose. We recently succeeded in engineering a cereal crop – a barley line – producing grain starch consisting of more than 99% amylose1. This amylose-only starch contains a high residual fraction that is...... resistant to enzymatic degradation, even when gelatinized by cooking. The barley plants producing the grains had a moderate yield loss of 25% in comparison with other barley plants of the same cultivar. We believe that the method can be applied to produce amylose-only starch in other cereal crops including...... wheat and corn...

  19. The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Karin de Punder; Leo Pruimboom

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most consumed cereal grains worldwide and makes up a substantial part of the human diet. Although government-supported dietary guidelines in Europe and the U.S.A advise individuals to eat adequate amounts of (whole) grain products per day, cereal grains contain “anti-nutrients,” such as wheat gluten and wheat lectin, that in humans can elicit dysfunction and disease. In this review we discuss evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human intervention studies that describe how ...

  20. A Study on the Stability of Deoxynivalenol during the Production of Selected Flour-Based Foods and Wheat Flake Cereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that is commonly found in cereals and cereal-based products. Some processing methods reduce its concentrations in the finished products whereas others do not. The concentrations of DON in flour, wheat and a selection of food products prepared from them using co...

  1. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICOQUÍMICAS DE CEREALES KELLOGG'S COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS CHARACTERISTICS OF KELLOGG'S CEREALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Prieto M

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo de las características físicoquímicas de tres variedades de cereales Kellogg's para desayuno, hojuelas de arroz (Special K, hojuelas de maíz (Zucaritas y hojuelas de trigo (All Brand, y se compararon con las especificaciones dadas por el fabricante. Se constató que existen pequeñas diferencias que pueden ser debidas al tiempo transcurrido desde su elaboración. Se estudió por técnicas de difracción de rayos Lasser la distribución y tamaños de las partículas en suspención de estos cereales, correspondientes a los gránulos de almidón y partículas de grasas, denotándose una diferencia entre las variedades. Esto puede resultar efectivo para estudios posteriores por técnicas de análisis térmico, que permitan predecir de forma rápida y dinámica, tiempos de vida de estos productos y fechas de caducidadA comparative study of physic and chemical characteristics of three varieties of Kellogg's cereals for breakfast, of rice (Special K, maize (Zucaritas and wheat (All Brand was made, and compared with the specifications given by the manufacturer. It was stated that small differences exist that can be due to the time passed from their elaboration. It was possible to be studied by techniques of diffraction Lasser ray the distribution and sizes of particles in suspension of these cereals, corresponding to grains of starch and fat particles, denoting itself a difference between the varieties. These, can be effective for later studies by techniques of thermal analysis, that allow to predict of fast and dynamic form, times of life of these products and dates of lapsing

  2. Waterborne Pathogens: The Protozoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joseph Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Waterborne diseases associated with polluted recreational and potable waters have been documented for more than a century. Key microbial protozoan parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are causative agents for gastrointestinal disease worldwide. Although not a first-line diagnostic approach for these diseases, medical imaging, such as radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and nuclear medicine technologies, can be used to evaluate patients with long-term effects. This article describes protozoan pathogens that affect human health, treatment of common waterborne pathogen-related diseases, and associated medical imaging. PMID:27601690

  3. Reduced fungicide doses in cereals: Which parameters to consider?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2015-01-01

    pathogen, disease pressure and timing of treatments. Certain diseases are known to require higher input (40- 75% rates) for achieving satisfactory control – this is the case for Septoria leaf blight, Rhynchosporium net blotch and Fusarium head blight, whereas most rust diseases generally have been found to...... several dose rates, where data often have shown sufficient control and better net yield responses with reduced rates. This has encouraged farmers to go for reduced rates in order to minimizing their cost for disease control. Optimal dose rates have been shown to depend on the active ingredient, the...... be controlled successfully at rates down to quarter rates. Fungicides, in general, show highly variable dose responses for specific diseases, which is important to know when specific advice is given. Preventive treatments generally require less input compared with treatments during the latent period...

  4. Genomic Analysis of Xanthomonas translucens Pathogenic on Wheat and Barley Reveals Cross-Kingdom Gene Transfer Events and Diverse Protein Delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, Donald M.; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Stiller, Jiri; Ellis, Jeff G.; Dodds, Peter N; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M.

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to dicot-infecting bacteria, only limited numbers of genome sequences are available for monocot-infecting and in particular cereal-infecting bacteria. Herein we report the characterisation and genome sequence of Xanthomonas translucens isolate DAR61454 pathogenic on wheat and barley. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the ATP synthase beta subunit (atpD) gene, DAR61454 is most closely related to other X. translucens strains and the sugarcane- and banana- infecting Xanthomonas str...

  5. Expression of genes encoding thionins and lipid-transfer proteins. A combinatorial model for the responses of defense genes to pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Fernández, Antonio; García Olmedo, Francisco

    1994-01-01

    Seeds normally accumulate high levels of proteins that are either toxic or inhibitory towards heterologous systems, including pathogens, pests and predators. This is the case of cereal kernels, where a substantial fraction of the non-storage proteins is represented by different families of these proteins (for reviews, see Garcia-Olmedo et al.1989, 1992). The same types of proteins are often present in other tissues, either under normal development or under stress, including infection by patho...

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo M. Pinto; Klein, Cátia S; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2009-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a highly infectious swine pathogen and is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia (EP). Following the previous report of a proteomic survey of the pathogenic 7448 strain of swine pathogen, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, we performed comparative protein profiling of three M. hyopneumoniae strains, namely the non-pathogenic J strain and the two pathogenic strains 7448 and 7422. Results In 2DE comparisons, we were able to identify differences in expression lev...

  7. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Weinborn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study. Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control, study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05. In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05. These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption.

  8. Cereal bar with added chayote peel flour: physico-chemical and sensory characteristics among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Wendler de Cristo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to verify the sensory acceptability of traditional cereal bars and cereal bars added with chayote peel flour, and determine the physico-chemical compositions of their formulations. Five cereal bars formulas were prepared and analyzed as follows: F1: standard (0% and with the addition of chayote peel flour in the proportions of 6.75% (F2; 13.5% (F3; 20.25% (F4 and 27% (F5. Sixty tasters, aged 7-10 took part in the sensorial analysis. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05 regarding appearance, aroma, texture and color among formulations. For the attributes taste, overall acceptance and purchase intention, higher scores were given towards the standard sample when compared to F5, but no differences were observed among the other sample scores. There was no statistical difference (p>0.05 for moisture, protein, fat and calories between F1 and F4 formulations. However, higher levels of ash and dietary fiber and lower level of carbohydrates were observed in F4 compared to F1. The formulas preparation demonstrated that a level of addition of up to 20.25% of chayote peel flour in cereal bars was well accepted by the panel, with a sensory acceptance similar to the standard product and good trading expectation.

  9. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Booij, C.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges.

  10. Breakfast Eating Pattern and Ready-to-Eat Cereals Consumption among Schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur

    OpenAIRE

    KOO, Hui-Chin; ABDUL JALIL, Siti Nurain; Ruzita, ABD TALIB

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies from the West have demonstrated that ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) are a common form of breakfast and more likely to be consumed by children. This study aimed to investigate the breakfast eating pattern and RTECs consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur.

  11. Meloidogyne Incognita Host Suitability and Benzoxazinoid Content of Rye (secale cereale) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to investigate factors which may aid in the selection of a rye cultivar for plant-parasitic nematode management. Six geographically diverse cultivars of rye (Secale cereale) wheat (Triticum aestivum) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), were screened for Meloidogyne incognit...

  12. Innovaciones Tecnológicas y Tendencias de Desarrollo en las cosechadoras de Cereales

    OpenAIRE

    Moya Gonzalez, Adolfo; Valero Ubierna, Constantino

    2012-01-01

    Revisamos en este artículo los temas en los que ingenieros y científicos están trabajando para aportar innovaciones a la cosecha de cereal. Además se revisa el mercado español y las últimas novedades comerciales presentadas por los fabricantes.

  13. Voluntary fortification of breakfast cereals with folic acid: contribution to dietary intake in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japar, Devina; Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Shrestha, Ashok; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-05-01

    Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals have been voluntarily fortified with folic acid since 1995, with the purpose of reducing the prevalence of neural tube defects in utero. Using data from the recent Australian Health Survey, this study aimed to estimate folate intake from one serving of breakfast cereals (median amount). Various commercial brands were purchased in 2002 (n = 19) and in 2014 (n = 14); folate was determined by microbiological assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total folate (μg/100 g) in 2002 and 2014 selections were 144-633 and 147-564, respectively, and mostly comparable to nutrition labels. Folic acid (2014 selection) using HPLC, ranged from 85 to 411 μg/100 g. Intake of 51 g cereals/serving by individuals ≥2 years could contribute 75-288 μg dietary folate equivalent. It seems that folic acid intake among children (2-3 years) exceeds the recommended dietary intake, when certain brands of breakfast cereals are consumed. Accordingly, the benefits and potential detrimental effects of the voluntary fortification need to be further explored. PMID:26903206

  14. Estimation of leaf area index in cereal crops using red-green images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Kristian; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Thomsen, Anton G;

    2009-01-01

    A new method for estimating the leaf area index (LAI) in cereal crops based on red-green images taken from above the crop canopy is introduced. The proposed method labels pixels into vegetation and soil classes using a combination of greenness and intensity derived from the red and green colour...

  15. Estimation of leaf area index in cereal crops using red–green images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Kirk; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Thomsen, Anton;

    2009-01-01

    A new method for estimating the leaf area index (LAI) in cereal crops based on red–green images taken from above the crop canopy is introduced. The proposed method labels pixels into vegetation and soil classes using a combination of greenness and intensity derived from the red and green colour...

  16. Legume N2 fixation - An efficient source of nitrogen for cereal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen deficiency is a major factor limiting yields of cereals. With wheat, the most commonly-grown cereal in rain-fed agriculture, the soil must supply 30-40 kg N/ha in a plant-available form (usually as nitrate) for each tonne of grain produced. In some of the developed countries and energy-rich LDC's, N is supplied in sufficient amounts as fertilizers. In the majority of countries, however, this is not possible principally because of the high cost. Research has shown that the soil following an annual crop legume often contains 30-60 kg N/ha more than after a cereal crop and that this increased plant-available N is converted into increased cereal grain yield. The N benefits are due to the legume's capacity to fix atmospheric N2. Amounts fixed by the annual crop legumes range from zero to more than 400 kg/ha. There is, however, scope to manage legume N2 fixation for maximum benefit, through practices that optimize crop growth and minimize the suppressive effects of soil nitrate. One possible aid to management may come through the development and use of simple mathematical functions (models) that will allow farmers to estimate amounts of N2 fixed by a legume crop and the potential net N benefit resulting from that crop. (author). 42 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  17. Understanding mechanisms of host resistance against greenbug in cereal crops - an interdisciplinary, collaborative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    At Texas AgriLife Research - Amarillo, we have an ongoing research program focusing on elucidating the mechanisms of interactions between the phloem-feeding aphid pests and cereal crop hosts using the wheat-greenbug as a model system. During this workshop, recent results from our research on the fo...

  18. Characterization of the Fatty Acid and Mineral Compositions of Selected Cereal Cultivars from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Kan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, crude oil, fatty acid and mineral compositions of wheat (Triticum sp. L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus., rye (Secale cereale L., and oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars, respectively, from Turkey were investigated. Both the distribution of saturated fatty acids (SFA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, and the mineral contents of evaluated cereals were reported. Fatty acid compositions and mineral contents were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES techniques, respectively. The highest crude oil content was found in oat [cv. Seydisehir; 5.35%], whereas the lowest crude oil was in triticale [cv. Aslım-95; 1.19 %]. The results showed that the contents of total UFA in the different cultivars varied between 77.1 - 81.5 %. The major components of the cereal oils were determined as oleic and linoleic acid, respectively. The total macro-, micro- element, and heavy metal contents varied between 8638 - 16108 ppm, 113-180 ppm and 1.8 - 6.9 ppm, respectively. As a conclusion, there were significant (p < 0.01 differences between the cereal cultivars in view of their crude oil contents, fatty acid and mineral compositions of the investigated samples from Turkey.

  19. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  20. Colour and shape analysis techniques for weed detection in cereal fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, A.J; López, F; Benlloch, J.V.;

    2000-01-01

    Information on weed distribution within the field is necessary to implement spatially variable herbicide application. This paper deals with the development of near-ground image capture and processing techniques in order to detect broad-leaved weeds in cereal crops under actual field conditions. T...

  1. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer. PMID:24934069

  2. Suitability of cereal porridges as substrate for probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Valík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find new substrates suitable for growth and metabolism of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which would be interesting for development of new functional food. The growth and metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG in cereal (rye, barley, oat and millet porridges were monitored during fermentation process. Cereal and porridges, were inoculated with this strain at two initial levels to obtain approximately 5 or 6 log colony form units per gram of suspension after sterilization and cooling,. Fermentation was led stationary at 37 °C for 48 hours and viable cell count, pH value, titratable acidity and organic acids were analysed. Metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG was influenced by inoculation level and by the type of cereal used. The cereals fermented by lactic acid bacteria, especially probiotic strains, might broaden the offer of probiotic products for those suffering from milk allergy.doi:10.5219/242 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  3. Preparation of a cereal bar containing bocaiuva: physical, nutritional, microbiological and sensory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Leite Munhoz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Regional fruit have been increasingly used in recent years in the preparation of foodstuffs because besides promoting the biome preservation, it is obtained differentiated and value-added products. This study aimed to prepare cereal bars containing pulp and kernel of bocaiuva and determine the nutritional quality, assess the acceptability, and microbiological quality. Two formulations of cereal bar were prepared with pulp dehydrated by osmoconvection and kernel of bocaiuva. The formulations were analyzed as for the texture, color analysis, proximate composition, fatty acids profile, mineral, microbiology and sensory evaluation. Cereal bars presented on average, in g 100 g-1, 4.83 moisture, 8.01 protein, 12.93 lipids, 1.30 ash, 53.75 total carbohydrate, 19.78 fiber and 363.41 kcal 100 g-1 total caloric value. Bars represented a source of calcium and iron and had a high content of oleic acid, average of 20 g 100 g-1 total lipids. In the microbiological evaluation, cereal bars have met the standards set by the legislation, being suitable for consumption. As for the attributes evaluated in the sensory analysis, all showed mean values above 6, considered acceptable for consumption. The use of bocaiuva may contribute to highlight differentiated taste and appearance, emphasizing the use of native fruits in the preparation of new products.

  4. NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS LIMITED PRODUCTION OF CEREALS AND SEMINATURAL ANNUAL-TYPE PASTURES IN SW SPAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esselink, Peter; VANGILS, H

    1994-01-01

    Nutrient limited primary production of semi-natural pastures dominated by annuals and of cereals grown in rotation with grazing was surveyed in Extremadura (Spain), using the N and P concentration and the P/N ratio of plant tissue. The N concentration varied between 2.0-3.2 % in pasture legumes and

  5. The Profile and Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Compounds in Cereals Influenced by Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zicong; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Shunjing; Chen, Jun; Gong, Ersheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment (IECT) on the phenolics and its bioaccessibility in cereals, represented by brown rice, wheat, and oat. Data showed that total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in free form were significantly decreased, while the bound form was increased after IECT. After IECT, the total free phenolic acids of brown rice and wheat were significantly decreased by 5.88% and 45.66%, respectively, while the total bound phenolic acids of brown rice, wheat, and oat were significantly increased by 6.45%, 8.78%, and 9.10%, respectively. Brown rice provided the most bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant compounds, followed by oat and wheat. IECT significantly decreased the bioaccessible phenolics of brown rice and oat by 31.09% and 30.95%, while it had minimal effect on the bioaccessible phenolics of wheat. These results showed that IECT greatly affected the phenolics and its bioaccessibiltiy of cereals, with the effect depending on cereal matrix and the sensitivity of free and bound phenolics. Furthermore, bioaccessible phenolic acids of raw and processed cereals were considerably low, and it slightly contributed to the bioaccessible phenolics. PMID:27513581

  6. Anomericity of T-2 toxin-glucosides; masked mycotoxins in cereal crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when the fungus Fusarium infects small grains, especially oats. Ingestion of T-2 toxin contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal. Cereal crops infected with mycotoxin-producing fungi form toxin glycosides, sometimes called m...

  7. Sourdough lactic acid bacteria: exploration of non-wheat cereal-based fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Cagno, Raffaella Di; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Cereal-based foods represent a very important source of biological as well as of cultural diversity, as testified by the wide range of derived fermented products. A trend that is increasingly attracting bakery industries as well as consumers is the use of non-conventional flours for the production of novel products, characterised by peculiar flavour and better nutritional value. Lactic acid bacteria microbiota of several non-wheat cereals and pseudo-cereals has been recently deeply investigated with the aim of studying the biodiversity and finding starter cultures for sourdough fermentation. Currently, the use of ancient or ethnic grains is mainly limited to traditional typical foods and the bread making process is not well standardised with consequent negative effects on the final properties. The challenge in fermenting such grains is represented by the necessity to combine good technology and sensory properties with nutritional/health benefits. The choice of the starter cultures has a critical impact on the final quality of cereal-based products, and strains that dominate and outcompete contaminants should be applied for specific sourdough fermentations. In this sense, screening and characterisation of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota is very useful in the improvement of a peculiar flour, from both a nutritional and technological point of view. PMID:24230473

  8. Food safety of cereals: a chain wide approach to reduce Fusarium mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Ruckenbauer, P.; Visconti, A.; Osenburggen, W.A.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley and Fusarium ear rot in maize is caused by several Fusarium species. The disease reduces the quality of the seed since several of these fungi produce mycotoxins. From a food safety point of view, consumption of mycotoxin-infected cereals is dangerous as

  9. INFLUENCE DE LA PROPOLIS SUR LA MITOSE DANS LE MERYSTEME DE SECALE CEREALE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara Navrotescu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche présente l’influence de propolis sur la mitose dans le merysteme de Secale cereale L. (2n=14. On confirme l’utilisation de plus en plus large de ce produit apicole - propolis - au niveau de la thérapeutique.

  10. Diversity of tri-functional histidine biosynthesis gene (his) in cereal Phaeosphaeria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The full length genomic sequences of tri-functional histidine biosynthesis (his) gene were obtained and compared from cereal Phaeosphaeria species by PCR amplification. The his gene coding sequence in wheat-biotype P. nodorum (PN-w) was 2697 bp in size. The his genes in barley-biotype P. nodorum (PN...

  11. Iminosugar inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes that underpin cereal grain germination and endosperm metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriotis, Vasilios M. E.; Rejzek, Martin; Rugen, Michael D.;

    2016-01-01

    -active enzymes in starch degradation in cereal grains through complementary chemical and molecular genetics. These approaches have allowed us to start dissecting aspects of starch degradation and the interplay with cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolysis during germination. With a view to improving and diversifying...

  12. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinborn, Valerie; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Arredondo, Miguel; Flores, Sebastián; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe) absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study). Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin) and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil) on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control), study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05). In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05). These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption. PMID:26529009

  13. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glithero, N J; Ramsden, S J; Wilson, P

    2013-08-01

    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t(-1) the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. PMID:24926116

  14. Occurrence of free and conjugated Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal based food

    OpenAIRE

    Vendl, O.; Crews, C.; MacDonald, S; R. Krska; Berthiller, F.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A collection of 84 cereal based food products in 25 composites, including beer, was screened for the presence of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and their respective metabolites deoxynivalenol-3-glucopyranoside, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, zearalenol-4-glucopyranoside, ?-zearalenol, ?-zearalenol, ?-zearalenol-4-glucopyranoside, ?-zearalenol-4-glucopyranoside and zearalenone-4-sulfate. The most abundant analyte was zearalenone-4-sulfate, which was found in 13 composites, albeit in...

  15. Comparison of composition and antioxidant capacity of some cereals and pseudocereals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorinstein, S.; Lojek, Antonín; Číž, Milan; Pawelzik, E.; Delgado-Licon, E.; Medina, O.J.; Moreno, M.; Salas, I.A.; Goshev, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2008), s. 629-637. ISSN 0950-5423 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : antioxidant potentials * cereals * polyphenols Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.065, year: 2008

  16. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower me

  17. Organellar genome analysis of rye (Secale cereale) representing diverse geographic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye (Secale cereale) is an important diploid (2n = 14, RR) crop species of the Tritceae and a better understanding of it organellar genome variation can aid in its improvement. Previous genetic analyses of rye focused on the nuclear genome. In the present study, the objective was to investigate the ...

  18. Digestive and physiological effects of a wheat bran extract, arabino-xylan-oligosaccharide, in breakfast cereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed whether a wheat bran extract containing arabino-xylan-oligosaccharide (AXOS) elicited a prebiotic effect and influenced other physiologic parameters when consumed in ready-to-eat cereal at two dose levels. This double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial evaluated the effects o...

  19. Recent trends in ready-to-eat breakfast cereals in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) were examined to discern trends in ready-to-eat breakfast cereals resulting from manufacturers’ reformulations, many in response to public health concerns and consumer demand. The majority of the nutrient data for breakfast cer...

  20. Beyond whole grain: The European HEALTHGRAIN project aims at healthier cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutanen, K.; Shepherd, R.; Shewry, P.R.; Delcour, J.A.; Björck, I.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2008-01-01

    Cereal foods are an important source of carbohydrates and dietary fiber in our diet. Epidemiological evidence increasingly demonstrates that a diet rich in whole grain is protective against development of diet-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The majority of cere

  1. Mepiquat: A Process-Induced Byproduct in Roasted Cereal-Based Foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessaire, Thomas; Tarres, Adrienne; Stadler, Richard H; Wermann, Silke; Hofmann, Jocelyne; Theurillat, Viviane; Combremont, Raphaël; Delatour, Thierry

    2016-02-10

    Mepiquat, a growth regulator widely used in agriculture, is also known as a process-induced byproduct formed in coffee from natural constituents during heat treatments such as roasting. This study examines mepiquat formation in cereal-based foodstuffs treated at sufficiently high temperature to trigger methyl transfer reactions that involve glycine betaine and choline naturally present in cereals. Color measurements of roasted barley grains revealed a correlation between thermal treatment and mepiquat content. Trials at industrial scale on instant beverages composed of roasted cereals demonstrated significant increases in mepiquat during the thermal process (in the range of 140-205 μg/kg in final products). A targeted survey of commercial products showed mepiquat in the range 69-381 μg/kg in powdered cereal instant drinks and 42-168 μg/kg in mugicha tea, a roasted barley infusion. These findings will not significantly affect the exposure of consumers to mepiquat due to the low amounts detected. PMID:26805918

  2. Monitoring the Expression Profiles of Cereal Crops Seedlings by Using Rice cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang-xian; DONG Hai-tao; LI De-bao

    2004-01-01

    Through exploiting the high homology of cereal crop genes, membranous cDNA microarrays containing 3 311 unique rice transcripts (including 1 639 endosperm-derived transcripts and 1 672 mature stem-derived transcripts) were used for monitoring the expression profiles of 1-leaf stage seedlings of 4 cereal crop species: rice, maize, sorghum and barley. After hybridizing with [α-33p] labeled probes, 73.6 % of the arrayed genes generated reliable signals in all of the four cereal crops. Further analysis revealed that among the arrayed genes, a higher percentage of the endosperm-derived transcripts (86.6 %) expressed than that of the mature stem-derived genes (60.9 %), indicating that most of the endosperm expressed genes functioned in young seedlings while considerable amount of mature stem tissue expressed genes did not express. These results also inferred that some genes might function only at certain developmental stages. By comparing the obtained profiles, 84 genes were identified constantly expressed in all the four cereal crops. Many housekeeping genes, such as polyubiquitin, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and ribosomal proteins were included in this catalogue. The experiment also identified 14 rice seedling specifically expressed genes, including 3 biotic and abiotic stress induced genes and 1 apoptosis suppressor encoding gene Bax inhibitor-1. This investigation provided invaluable information for comparative genomics of gramineae members.

  3. Monitoring the Expression Profiles of Cereal Crops Seedlings by Using Rice cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNLiang-xian; DONGHai-tao; LIDe-bao

    2004-01-01

    Through exploiting the high homology of cereal crop genes, membranous cDNA microarrays containing 3311 unique rice transcripts (including 1 639 cndosperm-derived transcripts and 1 672 mature stem-derived transcripts) were used for monitoring the expression profiles of l-leaf stage seedlings of 4 cereal crop species: rice, maize, sorghum and barley. After hybridizing with [P] labeled probes, 73.6 % of the arrayed genes generated reliable signals in all of the four cereal crops. Further analysis revealed that among the arrayed genes, a higher percentage of the endosperm-derived transcripts (86.6%) expressed than that of the mature stem-derived genes (60.9 %), indicating that most of the endosperm expressed genes functioned in young seedlings whilc considerable amount of mature stem tissue expressed genes did not express. These results also inferred that some genes might function only at certain developmental stages. By comparing the obtained profdes, 84 genes were identified constantly expressed in all the four cereal crops. Many housekeeping genes, such as polyubiquitin, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and ribosomal proteins were included in this catalogue. The experiment also identified 14 rice seedling specifically expressed genes, including 3 biotic and abiotic stress induced genes and 1 apoptosis suppressor encoding gene Bax inhibitor-1. This investigation provided invaluable information for comparative genomics of gramineae members.

  4. Calidad tecnológica de la harina de trigo obtenida a partir de cereales ozonizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lobo Paes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El cloro es uno de los principales agentes antimicrobianos utilizados en la industria molinera, pero debido a la formación de organoclorados tóxicos o incluso cancerígenos su uso no ha sido considerado seguro. El proceso de ozonización puede considerarse como uno de los más modernos y eficientes, tanto en la desinfección de insectos-plaga como en los microorganismos. Sin embargo, es necesario evaluar su efecto sobre la calidad de cereales y subproductos. Así, el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del gas ozono en la calidad tecnológica de la harina de trigo obtenidos a partir de cereales ozonizados. Los cereales de trigo fueron ozonizado con una concentración de 200 ppm por períodos de 0, 48, 96, 144, 192 y 240 h, y posteriormente molidos para obtener harina. Para evaluar el efecto del gas en la harina de trigo fueron realizados los análisis físico químicos (tasa de extracción, la composición y la Falling number y reológicas (alveógrafia, farinógrafia y extensografia. El gas ozono se ha obtenido mediante el generador de ozono desarrollado por el Ozone & Life y la concentración fue cuantificada por el método Yodométrica. La harina de trigo obtenidas a partir de cereales ozonizados no presento diferencia significativa en la tasa de extracción, composición y Falling Number, alveografia, farinógrafia y extensoggrafia cuando fue comparada con la harina obtenida de granos no ozonizados. Se concluye que el gas de ozono puede ser considerado una alternativa para ser implementada en la industria molinera, ya que no afecta la calidad tecnológica de harinas procedentes de cereales ozonizada.

  5. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp.) respectively (P ingredient in diets for both pigs and chickens. PMID:24341997

  6. CerealsDB 2.0: an integrated resource for plant breeders and scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Paul A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food security is an issue that has come under renewed scrutiny amidst concerns that substantial yield increases in cereal crops are required to feed the world’s booming population. Wheat is of fundamental importance in this regard being one of the three most important crops for both human consumption and livestock feed; however, increase in crop yields have not kept pace with the demands of a growing world population. In order to address this issue, plant breeders require new molecular tools to help them identify genes for important agronomic traits that can be introduced into elite varieties. Studies of the genome using next-generation sequencing enable the identification of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be used by breeders to identify and follow genes when breeding new varieties. The development and application of next-generation sequencing technologies has made the characterisation of SNP markers in wheat relatively cheap and straightforward. There is a growing need for the widespread dissemination of this information to plant breeders. Description CerealsDB is an online resource containing a range of genomic datasets for wheat (Triticum aestivum that will assist plant breeders and scientists to select the most appropriate markers for marker assisted selection. CerealsDB includes a database which currently contains in excess of 100,000 putative varietal SNPs, of which several thousand have been experimentally validated. In addition, CerealsDB contains databases for DArT markers and EST sequences, and links to a draft genome sequence for the wheat variety Chinese Spring. Conclusion CerealsDB is an open access website that is rapidly becoming an invaluable resource within the wheat research and plant breeding communities.

  7. The content of mercury in various types of cereals that were grown in the model conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of cereals in Slovakia but also worldwide is increasing by every year. From 30000 to 50000 tons of mercury circulates throught the biosphere that gets into the atmosphere degassing of the earth's crust and world oceans. Mercury affects CNS and causes its disorders. The high doses of mercury causes a lot of different changes of personality as well as increased agitation, memory lossorinsomnia. It can also affect other organ systems such as the kidney. The exposure level is reflected in the concentration of mercury in blood and urine. The aim of our work was the evaluation of transfer of mercury from sludge to edible part of chosen cereals. The objectives were achieved in simulated conditions of growing pot experiment. We used agricultural soil from the location of Výčapy - Opatovce for the realization of the experiment. The sludge, which was added atvarious doses, was taken from Central Spiš area from locality of Rudňany near the village where minedironore that contains mainly copperand mercury during last few decades was. We used three types of cereals: barley (Hordeum sativum L. variety PRESTIGE, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. variety ISJARISSA and oat (Avena sativa L. variety TATRAN. The length of growing season was 90 days. From the obtained results of two years can be concluded that the accumulation of mercury by seed follows wheat ˂ barley ˂ oat. Even though that the oat is characterized by the highest accumulation of mercuryin the seeds, the content did not exceed the maximum level sspecified by The Codex Alimentarius of Slovak Republic. The results shows that the suitable cultivation of the cereals in localities, which are contaminated with heavy metals, especially by mercury, that the high content of mercury in soil do not pose a risk of accumulation of the metal into the cereal grain.

  8. DIALIZABILIDAD DE HIERRO Y ZINC EN CEREALES PARA DESAYUNOS COMERCIALES FORTIFICADOS CON HIERRO ELEMENTAL, SULFATO FERROSO O EDTA FERRICO SODICO IRON AND ZINC DIALYSABILITY IN COMMERCIAL BREAKFAST CEREALS FORTIFIED WITH ELEMENTAL IRON, FERROUS SULPHATE OR FERRIC SODIUM EDTA

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Elisa Cagnasso; Laura Beatriz López; María Julieta Binaghi; Néstor Raúl Pellegrino; Mirta Eva Valencia

    2010-01-01

    Se comparó la dializabilidad de Fe y Zn en 7 cereales para desayuno comercialmente fortificados o no, con Fe elemental y ZnO y se comparó la dializabilidad de Fe y Zn en tres tipos diferentes de cereales experimentalmente fortificados con ZnO y FeNa2EDTA o FeSO4 en el laboratorio. Se utilizó una metodología in vitro que mide el porcentaje de dializabilidad (D%) del mineral en condiciones controladas de pH. Los cereales comercialmente fortificados presentaron valores de DFe% entre 0,4 y 15,0 y...

  9. Dating the introduction of cereal cultivation to the British Isles: early palaeoecological evidence from the Isle of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Davey, Peter J.

    2003-10-01

    The adoption of cereal cultivation is a key benchmark in the transition from Mesolithic hunter-gatherer foraging to Neolithic farming economies, but the nature, timing and ecological-cultural context of the earliest cereal use in the British Isles and northwest Europe is still uncertain. We present AMS radiocarbon dating and fine-resolution pollen evidence from the Isle of Man for cereal growing in the latter stages of a distinct episode of forest disturbance at almost 6000 yr BP (uncalibrated). The coherent ecological structure of this phase at the fine resolution level suggests that it records cereal cultivation well before the Ulmus decline, rather than wild grass pollen grains. This example is one of a cluster of early dates for cereal-type pollen near the start of the sixth millenium BP, including several around the Irish Sea, which indicate that the introduction of cereal agriculture probably occurred as early in the central British Isles as in the northern European plain. This early cereal phase is followed later by a probable phase of pre-Ulmus decline pastoral activity. We also report Mesolithic age woodland disturbance around 7000 yr BP (uncalibrated) and the first radiocarbon dates for mid-Holocene forest history of the Isle of Man. Copyright

  10. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Mary Teresa (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas Richard (Livermore, CA); Messenger, Sharon Lee (Kensington, CA)

    2010-09-14

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of seven agricultural pathogens (BPSV; BHV; BVD; FMDV; BTV; SVD; and VESV) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from 7 agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  11. The Keystone Pathogen Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hajishengallis, George; Darveau, Richard P; Curtis, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the human microbiome in host health and disease. However, for the most part the mechanisms by which the microbiome mediates disease, or protection from it, remain poorly understood. The “keystone pathogen” hypothesis holds that certain low-abundance microbial pathogens can orchestrate inflammatory disease by remodelling a normally benign microbiota into a dysbiotic one. In this Opinion, we critically assess the available literature in support ...

  12. Chitosan against cutaneous pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Champer, Jackson; Patel, Julie; Fernando, Nathalie; Salehi, Elaheh; Wong, Victoria; Kim, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are cutaneous pathogens that have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics. We sought to determine if chitosan, a polymer of deacetylated chitin, could be used as a potential treatment against these bacteria. We found that higher molecular weight chitosan had superior antimicrobial properties compared to lower molecular weights, and that this activity occurred in a pH dependent manner. Electron and fluorescence microscopy revealed that chi...

  13. Evolution of microbial pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Morschhäuser, J; Köhler, G; Ziebuhr, W; Blum-Oehler, G; Dobrindt, U; Hacker, J

    2000-01-01

    Various genetic mechanisms including point mutations, genetic rearrangements and lateral gene transfer processes contribute to the evolution of microbes. Long-term processes leading to the development of new species or subspecies are termed macroevolution, and short-term developments, which occur during days or weeks, are considered as microevolution. Both processes, macro- and microevolution need horizontal gene transfer, which is particularly important for the development of pathogenic micr...

  14. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.’ However, the term ‘pathogenic’ is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the ‘bug’ and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 ° C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  15. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICOQUÍMICAS DE CEREALES KELLOGG'S COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS CHARACTERISTICS OF KELLOGG'S CEREALS

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Prieto M; María A Méndez M; Alma D Román G; Francisco Prieto G

    2005-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio comparativo de las características físicoquímicas de tres variedades de cereales Kellogg's para desayuno, hojuelas de arroz (Special K), hojuelas de maíz (Zucaritas) y hojuelas de trigo (All Brand), y se compararon con las especificaciones dadas por el fabricante. Se constató que existen pequeñas diferencias que pueden ser debidas al tiempo transcurrido desde su elaboración. Se estudió por técnicas de difracción de rayos Lasser la distribución y tamaños de las partículas...

  16. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  17. Genome sequence of Valsa canker pathogens uncovers a potential adaptation of colonization of woody bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiyuan; Liu, Huiquan; Li, Zhengpeng; Ke, Xiwang; Dou, Daolong; Gao, Xiaoning; Song, Na; Dai, Qingqing; Wu, Yuxing; Xu, Jin-Rong; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-12-01

    Canker caused by ascomycetous Valsa species are among the most destructive diseases of woody plants worldwide. These pathogens are distinct from other pathogens because they only effectively attack tree bark in the field. To unravel the potential adaptation mechanism of bark colonization, we examined the genomes of Valsa mali and Valsa pyri that preferentially infect apple and pear, respectively. We reported the 44.7 and 35.7 Mb genomes of V. mali and V. pyri, respectively. We also identified the potential genomic determinants of wood colonization by comparing them with related cereal pathogens. Both genomes encode a plethora of pathogenicity-related genes involved in plant cell wall degradation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In order to adapt to the nutrient limitation and low pH environment in bark, they seem to employ membrane transporters associated with nitrogen uptake and secrete proteases predominantly with acidic pH optima. Remarkably, both Valsa genomes are especially suited for pectin decomposition, but are limited in lignocellulose and cutin degradation. Besides many similarities, the two genomes show distinct variations in many secondary metabolism gene clusters. Our results show a potential adaptation of Valsa canker pathogens to colonize woody bark. Secondary metabolism gene clusters are probably responsible for this host specificity. PMID:26137988

  18. Evidence of mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A) using the radioimmunoassay (RIA) in naturally contaminated cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to gain starting information on the aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A levels in cereals and feed mixtures which are in poultry breeding. To ascertain the presence of mycotoxins, we examined the cultivars of cereals (maize and wheat) and the feed mixtures. The cereals came from different regions of eastern Slovakia. In all cereals examined, the low mycotoxin levels did not exceed the tolerance limit set by hygienic standard (Sv. 61, 1986, No. 69). In wheat, the contamination by aflatoxin B1 ranged from 0.028 to 0.125 μg·kg-1. In maize, the contamination by aflatoxin B1 ranged from 0.166 to 0.707 μg·kg-1. The results enhance our knowledge of feedstuff and feed mixture contamination in poultry breeding

  19. Decreasing post-harvest losses in cereal grains by gamma irradiation in relation to aflatoxin producing potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma irradiation dose of 0.5 KGY reduced post-harvest losses from 32% to 2% in stored cereal grains (wheat, maize and rice). However, this treatment was found to augment significantly aflatoxin B1 production by 15-63% and 21-81% over that of controls for naturally infected-irradiated and artificially infected-irradiated stored cereal grains, respectively. A high gamma irradiation dose of 5 KGY decontaminated harmful insects and microorganisms in stored cereal grains and reduced post-harvest losses from 32% to 1%. This decontaminating gamma irradiation dose was found to be a real treatment to be exploited for decreasing post-harvest losses as it improves hygienic quality of grains due its ability to eliminate aflatoxin B1 production in irradiated-stored cereal grains

  20. Effect of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sholly, D.M.; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Sutton, A.L.; Richert, B.T.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    square design. Pigs were cannulated and housed individually in metabolism pens during sample collection. The 4 cerealbased diets were nonfermented liquid barley (NFLB), nonfermented liquid wheat (NFLW), fermented liquid barley (FLB), and fermented liquid wheat (FLW). The fermented feeds were prepared by...... (P = 0.243) on the fecal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides in either of the cereals but their digestibility was 10.0% greater (P < 0.001) in pigs fed wheat than the barley-based diets. In conclusion, fermentation of cereal before feeding altered the dietary composition and influenced flow...... storing the dietary cereals (barley and wheat) and water [1:2.75 (wt/wt)] in a closed tank at 25°C for 2 d, after which 50% of the volume was removed and replaced with an equal amount of fresh cereals and water after each afternoon meal. At the time of feeding (0730 and 1430 h), the remaining dietary...

  1. PIPS: pathogenicity island prediction software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomar C Soares

    Full Text Available The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1 deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2 insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS. In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands.

  2. A review on flow characterization methods for cereal grain-based powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, R P Kingsly; Jan, Shumaila; Siliveru, Kaliramesh

    2016-01-30

    Flow difficulties during handling, storage, and processing are common in cereal grain-based powder industries. The many studies that focus on the flow properties of powders can be classified as flow indicators, shear properties, and dynamic flow properties. The non-uniformity of physical and chemical characteristics of the individual particles that make up the bulk solid of cereal grain-based powders adds complexity to the characterization of flow behavior. Even so, knowledge of flow behavior is critical to the design of productive and cost-effective equipment for handling and processing of these powders. Because many factors influence flow, a single property/index value may not satisfactorily quantify the flow or no-flow of powders. For powders of biological origin, chemical composition and environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity complicate flow characterization. This review focuses on the specific flow characteristics that directly affect powder flow during handling, processing, and storage. PMID:26095631

  3. Relative sensitivity of a leguminous and a cereal crop to sulphur dioxide pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, B.J.; Rao, D.N.

    1982-09-01

    The present investigation attempts to identify the factors responsible for sensitivity or resistance of plants to SO/sub 2/. Experiments were conducted with a leguminous plant, soybean Glycine max, and a cereal plant, wheat Triticum aestivum. The control and SO/sub 2/ treated samples of soybean and wheat were periodically analysed for changes in leaf-extract pH, contents of sulphur, pigments, ascorbic acid, protein, carbohydrate and calorific value and phytomass accumulation. Soybean showed greater responses to SO/sub 2/ than wheat, with lower leaf-extract pH, higher accumulation of sulphur on SO/sub 2/ threatment and lower contents of chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and total carbohydrate. It is suggested that leguminous crops may be more sensitive to SO/sub 2/ than cereal crops.

  4. Ecology and Control of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R H

    1984-07-01

    The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is due largely to movement of cysts by wind during dust storms. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani frequently is associated with the nematode in a disease complex in wheat, and disease symptoms are most severe on lighter or well structured soils. Crop rotations which include periods of fallow, or of nonhost crop reduce population levels of H. avenae and improve yields. Early-sown crops (April-May) are less severely damaged than late-sown crops (June-July). The resowing of damaged wheat crops or the application of nitrogenous fertilizers rarely improve grain yields. 'Katyil,' the world's first wheat cultivar bred specifically with resistance to H. avenae, has been released in Victoria. Chemical control of the nematode in cereals is now commercially feasible, and five nematicides are registered for use by growers. PMID:19294014

  5. Fusarium Toxins in Cereals: Occurrence, Legislation, Factors Promoting the Appearance and Their Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigo, Davide; Raiola, Alessandro; Causin, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium diseases of small grain cereals and maize cause significant yield losses worldwide. Fusarium infections result in reduced grain yield and contamination with mycotoxins, some of which have a notable impact on human and animal health. Regulations on maximum limits have been established in various countries to protect consumers from the harmful effects of these mycotoxins. Several factors are involved in Fusarium disease and mycotoxin occurrence and among them environmental factors and the agronomic practices have been shown to deeply affect mycotoxin contamination in the field. In the present review particular emphasis will be placed on how environmental conditions and stress factors for the crops can affect Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production, with the aim to provide useful knowledge to develop strategies to prevent mycotoxin accumulation in cereals. PMID:27187340

  6. Methods for analysis of the distribution and speciation of iron and zinc in the cereal grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj

    identification of P and S with mineral micronutrients can therefore be a circumstantial evidence for their chemical speciation. The focus of this PhD has therefore been on the analysis of mineral micronutrients as well as S and P. In this PhD, four methods for elemental analysis of the cereal grain have been...... novel high-throughput micro digestion method was developed, enabling the analysis of total element concentrations in small tissue fractions, such as the embryo of cereal grains. The method is based on small closed bombs that are microwaved and was validated for sample amounts between 1-20 mg using...... certified reference materials. This enabled high-throughput analysis of different grain tissue fractions and the variability in between them.. Moreover two methods for quantitative hyphenated ICP-MS analysis were developed. One enabled quantification of species in a chromatographic separation and the other...

  7. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  8. Evaluation of anaerobic degradation, biogas and digestate production of cereal silages using nylon-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Marco; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Bocchi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the degradation efficiency and the biogas and digestate production during anaerobic digestion were evaluated for the cereal silages most used to feed biogas plants. To this purpose, silages of: maize from the whole plant, maize from the ear, triticale and wheat were digested, inside of nylon bags, in laboratory scale digesters, for 75days. Overall, the test involved 288 nylon bags. After 75days of digestion, the maize ear silage shows the highest degradation efficiency (about 98%) while wheat silage the lowest (about 83%). The biogas production ranges from 438 to 852Nm(3)/t of dry matter for wheat and ear maize silage, respectively. For all the cereal silages, the degradation as well as the biogas production are faster at the beginning of the digestion time. Digestate mass, expressed as percentage of the fresh matter, ranges from 38% to 84% for wheat and maize ear silage, respectively. PMID:26946439

  9. Pressure ratio of cereal grains determined in a uniaxial compression test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusinek R.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The pressure ratio of cereal grains was determi- ned in a uniaxial compression test. Experiments were performed according to Eurocode 1 recommendations. The tester was 210 mm in diameter and 100 mm high. The specimen was loaded to the reference vertical stress of 100 kPa using a universal loading frame at a constant displacement rate of 0.35 mm min-1. Lateral to vertical pressure ratio was found dependent on procedure of the sample deposition. The pressure ratio of cereal grain generally decreased with an increase in moisture content. Experimental results were compared with theoretical consideration based on Janssen’s method of pressure calculation in grain bins and with simplified approximation recommended by Eurocode 1. Significant differen- ces between theoretical and experimental values were obtained.

  10. Fusarium Toxins in Cereals: Occurrence, Legislation, Factors Promoting the Appearance and Their Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Ferrigo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium diseases of small grain cereals and maize cause significant yield losses worldwide. Fusarium infections result in reduced grain yield and contamination with mycotoxins, some of which have a notable impact on human and animal health. Regulations on maximum limits have been established in various countries to protect consumers from the harmful effects of these mycotoxins. Several factors are involved in Fusarium disease and mycotoxin occurrence and among them environmental factors and the agronomic practices have been shown to deeply affect mycotoxin contamination in the field. In the present review particular emphasis will be placed on how environmental conditions and stress factors for the crops can affect Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production, with the aim to provide useful knowledge to develop strategies to prevent mycotoxin accumulation in cereals.

  11. Allelic variation at a single gene increases food value in a drought-tolerant staple cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilding, Edward K; Frère, Celine H; Cruickshank, Alan; Rada, Anna K; Prentis, Peter J; Mudge, Agnieszka M; Mace, Emma S; Jordan, David R; Godwin, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The production of adequate agricultural outputs to support the growing human population places great demands on agriculture, especially in light of ever-greater restrictions on input resources. Sorghum is a drought-adapted cereal capable of reliable production where other cereals fail, and thus represents a good candidate to address food security as agricultural inputs of water and arable land grow scarce. A long-standing issue with sorghum grain is that it has an inherently lower digestibility. Here we show that a low-frequency allele type in the starch metabolic gene, pullulanase, is associated with increased digestibility, regardless of genotypic background. We also provide evidence that the beneficial allele type is not associated with deleterious pleiotropic effects in the modern field environment. We argue that increasing the digestibility of an adapted crop is a viable way forward towards addressing food security while maximizing water and land-use efficiency. PMID:23403584

  12. The impact of milling and thermal processing on phenolic compounds in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaee, Sanaa; Seetharaman, Koushik; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of wholegrain foods has been recommended for healthy diets. The beneficial health properties of wholegrain products have been associated with the presence of higher amounts of dietary fiber and antioxidants and lower calories as compared to their respective refined ones. Phenolic compounds are mainly attributed to antioxidant properties of wholegrain foods. This review article provides a single comprehensive source that describes effects of milling and thermal processing on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties in cereals. In general, milling and pearling processes affect the distribution of phenolic, compounds and thus antioxidant properties vary among the milling fractions. Thermal processes such as baking and extrusion could cause negative or positive effects on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of the end product subject to grain type and processing conditions. Thus factors that enhance health benefits of wholegrain cereal products have been discussed. PMID:24499063

  13. Herbicide spring treatments for the control of brome grasses (Bromus spp. in winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different ALS-inhibiting herbicides for the control of brome species (Bromus spp. was tested in three field trials in the year 2010 – 2012 in the region of North-West-Bavaria Franken. As a result of the trials the standard herbicide Attribut (Propoxycarbazone was confirmed for the control of brome. In case of infestation with brome and black grass the herbicide Broadway (Pyroxsulam offers a certain control of both problematic grass weeds. This illustrates the high dependency of sufficient brome control in winter cereals on the effectiveness of specific ALS-Inhibitor herbicides. Because of the high risk of herbicide resistance to ACCaseand ALS-inhibiting herbicides in brome, integrated weed management is essential for the sustainable control of brome in winter cereals, respectively winter wheat.

  14. Exposure assessment to ochratoxin A in Catalonia (Spain) based on consumption of cereals, nuts, coffee, wine, and beer

    OpenAIRE

    Coronel, Maria Bernarda; Marín, Sonia; Cano-Sancho, German; Ramos, Antonio J.; Sanchis, Vicent

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ochratoxin A (OTA) was analysed in composite samples of cereal-based baby foods, beer, breakfast cereals (corn- and rice and wheat-based), loaf bread, peanuts, and pistachios. Foodstuffs were collected in hypermarkets and supermarkets of twelve cities of the Spanish region of Catalonia, and composite samples were prepared for analysis: liquid-liquid extraction, followed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC-fluorescence detection. Consumption data of the selected food...

  15. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1e3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fum...

  16. Consumer Values of Health-Related Food Symbols and Chemical Food Additives - The Case of Breakfast Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Thunström, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyze consumers’ revealed values of food symbols indicating nutritious and organic food, as well as consumers’ revealed values for chemical food additives. We do so by estimating a hedonic price function based on a rich data set on breakfast cereal purchases. Our findings suggest that consumers positively value chemical food additives in breakfast cereals, suggesting that the positive taste effect from e.g. chemical taste enhancers, emulsifiers, colourings and preservatives...

  17. Replacement of Cereal with Low Starch Fibrous By-Products on Nutrients Utilization and Methane Emissions in Dairy Goats

    OpenAIRE

    IBÁÑEZ SANCHIS, CARLA; Moya, V.J.; Arriaga, Haritz; López, Diana; Merino, Pilar; Fernández Martínez, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Feeding systems for dairy ruminants need to ensure high intake of energy to achieve maximum milk production potential. This might be accomplished by raising the dietary concentration of cereal grain. Increasing the concentration of starch in diets can lead to undesirable ruminal fermentation, and to prevent it, the partial replacement of cereal grain with low starch by-product feeds is recommended. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of fed two mixed di...

  18. The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base 1 2 3 4

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A...

  19. Cadou FORTE – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadou FORTE (flufenacet; flurtamone; diflufenican is a new cereal herbicide with efficacy against blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and a broad spectrum of dicot weeds. Cadou FORTE can be used in winter wheat, winter barley, winter rye, winter triticale and spelt for pre and post emergence application in autumn. This publication focuses on efficacy trials from three years of autumn application with Cadou FORTE.

  20. Technical Efficiency in Organic Farming: an Application on Italian Cereal Farms using a Parametric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Madau, Fabio Albino

    2005-01-01

    A stochastic frontier production model was applied to estimate technical efficiency in a sample of Italian organic and conventional cereal farms. The main purpose was to assess which production technique revealed higher efficiency. Statistical tests on the pool sample model suggested that differences between the two cultivation methods were significant from a technological viewpoint. Separate analyses of two sub-samples (93 and 138 observations for organic and conventional farms, ...

  1. Cereal straw management: a trade-off between energy and agronomic fate

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Monteleone; Pasquale Garofalo; Anna Rita Bernadette Cammerino; Angela Libutti

    2015-01-01

    Climate change mitigation is the most important driving force for bioenergy development. Consequently, the environmental design of bioenergy value chains should address the actual savings of both primary energy demand and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. According to the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC), no direct impacts and no GHG emissions should be attributed to crop residues (like cereal straws) when they are removed from agricultural land for the purpose of bioenergy utilisat...

  2. Does advertising overcome brand loyalty? Evidence from the breakfast-cereals market

    OpenAIRE

    Shum, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In differentiated product markets where consumer preferences are characterized by brand loyalty, an important role for advertising may be to overcome brand loyalty by encouraging consumers to switch to less familiar brands. Using a scanner panel dataset of breakfast-cereal purchases, I find evidence consistent with the hypothesis that advertising counteracts the tendencies of brand loyalty toward repeat purchasing. Equivalently, advertising reduces switching costs in this market. Furthermore,...

  3. The omnivorous Tyrolean Iceman: colon contents (meat, cereals, pollen, moss and whipworm) and stable isotope analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, J H; Oeggl, K; Holden, T.G.; Handley, L.L.; O'Connell, T C; Preston, T

    2000-01-01

    The contents of the colon of the Tyrolean Iceman who lived Ga. 5300 years ago include muscle fibres, cereal remains, a diversity of pollen, and most notably that of the hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) retaining cellular contents, as well as a moss leaf (Neckera complanata) and eggs of the parasitic whipworm (Trichuris trichiura). Based almost solely on stable isotope analyses and ignoring the work on the colon contents, two recently published papers on the Iceman's diet draw ill- founded c...

  4. Ready-to-eat cereals improve nutrient, milk and fruit intake at breakfast in European adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Michels, Nathalie; De Henauw, Stefaan; BEGHIN, Laurent; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Hallstrom, Lena; Kafatos, Anthony; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Roccaldo, Romana; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Sjostrom, Michael; Reye, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Breakfast consumption has been recommended as part of a healthy diet. Recently, ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) became more popular as a breakfast item. Our aim was to analyse the dietary characteristics of an RTEC breakfast in European adolescents and to compare them with other breakfast options. Methods From the European multi-centre HELENA study, two 24-h dietary recalls of 3137 adolescents were available. Food items (RTEC or bread, milk/yoghurt, fruit) and macro- and micronutrient int...

  5. Microstructure of Extruded Mixtures of Cereals and Oil Seed Processing Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Salgo, A.; Torok, Sz.; Sandor, Sz.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of valuable by-products of seed processing residues as coextrusion materials was investigated. By mixing sunflower, pumpkin, corn or rice germ presscake with cereals (wheat, corn, rice), the good protein quality of the former group might improve the biological value of the resulting coextrudates. The microstructure of such coextruded products was analysed with reference to their chemical compositions, nutritional characteristics and functional properties. As seed processin...

  6. The Value to Consumers of Health Labeling Statements on Breakfast Foods and Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Muth, Mary K.; Zhen, Chen; Taylor, Justin; Cates, Sheryl; Kosa, Katherine M.; Zorn, David; Choiniere, Conrad J.

    2009-01-01

    Food manufacturers have an incentive to include nutrient content claims, health claims, or other types of labeling statements on foods if they believe that consumers will be willing to pay more for products with specific attributes. We estimated semi-log hedonic price regressions for five breakfast bar and cereal product categories using Nielsen ScanTrack scanner data for 2004 and found that labeling statements for these foods are often associated with substantial increases in consumer willin...

  7. Occurrence of Acrylamide in breakfast cereals and biscuits available in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    CAPEI, R.; PETTINI, L.; LO NOSTRO, A.; Pesavento, G

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Acrylamide, produced during thermal processing of carbohydrate-rich foods, is classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine acrylamide levels in biscuits and breakfast cereals considering the widespread use of these products for all ages. Method. Acrylamide determination was carried out in 56 samples by HPLC-UV technique. Results and discussion. The results showed a co...

  8. Social networks and farmer exposure to improved cereal varieties in central Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Muange, Elijah Nzula; Schwarze, Stefan; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    This study uses probit and Poisson models to analyse the determinants of social network links for the exchange of information among 345 cereal farmers and the effects of social networks on farmer exposure to improved varieties in Central Tanzania. Results show that network links are determined by education, wealth, association membership, geographical proximity, kinship ties, community leadership role, and links to extension officers. Further, farmer networks positively affect the intensity o...

  9. Long-term organic crop rotation experiments for cereal production – yield development and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2005-01-01

    A crop rotation experiment was established in 1996/97 at three locations representing different soil types and climates. Three factors were tested: i) crop rotation with different proportions of N2-fixing crops, ii) with and without a catch crop, and iii) with and without animal manure. A green manure crop increased yields in the following cereal crops, but at the rotational level, total yields were larger in crop rotations without a green manure crop. There were positive effects of animal ma...

  10. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxyl...

  11. The Danish organic crop rotation experiment for cereal production 1997-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Askegaard, Margrethe; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2006-01-01

    In 1997 a crop rotation experiment was initiated at three sites in Denmark. The objective of the experiment was to explore the possibilities for both short-term and long-term increases in organic cereal production through manipulation of crop rotation design on different soil types. The experiment included three factors (proportion of grass-clover in the rotation, catch crops and manure application) in a randomised factorial design. The main indicators measured in the experiment were crop yie...

  12. INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN FORMS ON TILLERING, CYTOKININ TRANSLOCATION AND YIELD IN CEREAL CROP PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Bernhard; Bangerth, Fritz; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2009-01-01

    Urea, ammonium and nitrate are the most important nitrogen forms employed in agricultural plant production. Although nitrate has been shown to act as a signal for metabolism and plant development in physiological studies, so far no use is made of the signalling effect of different N forms in cereal plant production. To investigate the effect of different N forms on shoot development, we performed nutrient solution experiments with spring barley and observed that shoot biomass product...

  13. Barley callus:a model system for bioengineering of starch in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Carciofi Massimiliano; Blennow Andreas; Nielsen Morten M; Holm Preben B; Hebelstrup Kim H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties. In this way starch is adapted to a variety of specific end-uses. Recombinant DNA technologies offers an alternative to starch industrial processing. The plant biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated...

  14. Ecology and Control of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is due largely to movement of cysts by wind during dust storms. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani frequently is associated with the nematode in a disease complex in wheat, and disease symptoms are most severe on lighter or well structured soils. Crop rotations which include periods of fallow, or of nonhost crop reduce population levels of H....

  15. Weed harrowing in organically grown cereal crops avoids yield losses without reducing weed diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Armengot, Laura; José-María, Laura; Chamorro, Lourdes; Sans, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    This report shows that weed harrowing in organic cereal fields is an efficient alternative to herbicides since weed harrowing does not reduce yields compared to weed-free plots. Arable weeds provide resources and habitat to many organisms. However, weeds are the most important constraint to crop production. Indeed, the potential crop losses of the eight major crops due to weed–crop competition amount to about 30 %. New ways of food production are needed due to the current severe biodiversity ...

  16. Review of input and output policies for cereals production in Pakistan:

    OpenAIRE

    Salam, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The marketing of farm inputs and outputs has become a major problem for farmers in Pakistan. Farm input supplies are irregular, characterized by shortages and high prices at critical times. This report reviews the input and output policies for cereals implemented in Pakistan during the period 1996–2010. Pakistan has a long and varied history of intervening in farm input and output markets, going back decades before the period under review. Most significantly, in the wake of economic reforms...

  17. Long-term soil organic carbon changes in cereal and ley rotations: model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynding Borgen, Signe; Dörsch, Peter; Krogstad, Tore; Azzaroli Bleken, Marina

    2015-04-01

    Reliable modeling of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in agroecosystems is crucial to define mitigation strategies related to crop management on the farm scale as well as the regional scale. International climate agreements and national political decisions rely to a large extent on the National Greenhouse gas Inventory Reports that are submitted annually to the UNFCCC. However, lower tier methods are used to estimate SOC changes on cropland in most country reports. The application of mechanistic models in national greenhouse gas inventory estimation requires proper model testing against measurements in order to verify the estimated emissions. Few long-term field experiments measuring SOC stock changes have been conducted in Norway. We evaluate the performance of the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (ICBM) in simulating SOC changes over 60 years in a field experiment conducted in Ås from 1953-2013. The site is located in south-eastern Norway, on the boarder of the boreal and temperate climate zone, where the majority of the country's grain production occurs. The field trial consisted of four rotations: I) continuous cereal, II) cereal + row crops, III) 2 years of ley + 4 years of cereal, IV) 4 years of ley + 2 years of cereal, and four treatments per rotation: a) low NPK, b) high NPK, c) low NPK + FYM, and d) straw (on rotations I and II) or high NPK + FYM (on rotations III and IV). The annual external modifying factor of the decomposition rate was calculated based on daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed, and net radiation, and adjusted for soil type and crop management according to default ICBM calibration. We present results of simulated C changes for the long term plots and explore options to improve parameter calibration. Finally, we provide suggestions for how problems regarding model verification can be handled with when applying the model on a national scale for inventory reporting.

  18. Impetus for sowing and the beginning of agriculture: Ground collecting of wild cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Kislev, Mordechai E.; Weiss, Ehud; Hartmann, Anat

    2004-01-01

    The Agricultural Revolution in Western Asia, which took place some 11,000 years ago, was a turning point in human history [Childe, V. G. (1952) New Light on the Most Ancient East (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London)]. In investigating the cultural processes that could have led from gathering to intentional cultivation, various authors have discussed and tested wild cereal harvesting techniques. Some argue that Near Eastern foragers gathered grains by means of sickle harvesting, uprooting, pluckin...

  19. Food safety of cereals: a chain wide approach to reduce Fusarium mycotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, O.E.; Ruckenbauer, P.; Visconti, A.; Osenburggen, W.A.; Nijs, den, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley and Fusarium ear rot in maize is caused by several Fusarium species. The disease reduces the quality of the seed since several of these fungi produce mycotoxins. From a food safety point of view, consumption of mycotoxin-infected cereals is dangerous as it threatens the health of men and animals. This project looked at a chain-wide approach to reduce Fusarium Mycotoxins.

  20. Gibberellin Deficiency Confers Both Lodging and Drought Tolerance in Small Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia ePlaza-Wüthrich; Regula eBloesch; Abiel eRindisbacher; Gina eCannarozzi; Zerihun eTadele

    2016-01-01

    Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] and finger millet [Eleusine coracana Gaertn] are staple cereal crops in Africa and Asia with several desirable agronomic and nutritional properties. Tef is becoming a life-style crop as it is gluten-free while finger millet has a low glycemic index which makes it an ideal food for diabetic patients. However, both tef and finger millet have extremely low grain yields mainly due to moisture scarcity and susceptibility of the plants to lodging. In this study,...

  1. Optimised procedure to analyse maillard reaction-associated fluorescence in cereal-based products

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Andrade, Cristina; Rufián Henares, J. A.; Morales, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescent Maillard compounds measurement provides more specific information on the extent of the Maillard reaction than other unspecific tools to monitor the reaction, and is suitable, as the first approach, to assess the nutritional quality of foods as related to protein damage. This work presents an optimised laboratory procedure for the measurement of total fluorescent intermediate compounds (FIC) associated with Maillard reaction, described and evaluated in a cereal-based product. Total...

  2. Characterization of the microbial ecosystem of cereal fermentations using molecular biological methods

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Martin Rudolf Albrecht

    2007-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria constitute the main part of the microbial flora of food fermentaions. Cereal fermentations are mainly dominated by the genus Lactobacillus. Sourdough fermentations are grouped into three so-called types (type I-III), reflecting the numerous internal and external fermentation parameters. In turn, they exert influence on the composition of the microflora. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is one of the most prominent species found in type I doughs, while species like L. pontis...

  3. Finite element simulation of the compression behaviour of airy breakfast cereals

    KAUST Repository

    Mamlouk, Hedi

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we are concerned by the fragmentation study of five breakfast cereals from the market exhibiting differences in shape, formulation and texture. The experimental part of the study encompasses compression testing and fragment size evaluation using 2D image analysis. Structural information about the airy structure is then determined using X-ray tomography and related 3D image analysis. The numerical part has the ambition of assessing the fragmentation process using a damage-based mechanical model that simulates solid material rupture events as onset and growth of damage up to brittle failure. The model is based on a finite element scheme in which direct information of the 3D airy structure is encoded in the solid meshing. The force-displacement signature well shows competition between bending and compression driven failure depending on cereal shape. Our results show also large dispersion in the porous structure that affects significantly the result of the fragmentation. The numerical model is able to simulate the result of fragmentation at the cost of identifying two mechanical parameters, namely Young\\'s modulus and critical stress. These two quantities are proved to be product dependent and display a large range of variation. Industrial relevance The design of new food product becomes more and more based on functionality criteria. In a typical chewing process the need to understand the deformation mechanisms leading to fragmentation helps in understanding the role of the structure and, in turn, the processing conditions for building new transformed products. There is an increasing industrial demand in that sense especially knowing that some of the cereal products can be designed to meet these criteria for specific populations (old people with dental problems, infant feeding). Our work is, within this context, an attempt to set a numerical and experimental framework for studying the fragmentation of five selected breakfast cereals from the market.

  4. Technical efficiency in organic and conventional farming: evidence from Italian cereal farms

    OpenAIRE

    Madau, Fabio Albino

    2007-01-01

    A stochastic frontier production model was applied to estimate technical efficiency in a sample of Italian organic and conventional cereal farms. The main purpose was to assess which production technique revealed higher efficiency. Statistical tests on the common production function model suggested that the two cultivation methods might lie on different frontiers. Separate analyses of two sub-samples (93 and 138 observations for organic and conventional farms, respectively) found that convent...

  5. Interactions between pre- and post-emergence weed harrowing in spring cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsæter, Lars O.; Mangerud, Kjell; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Pre- and post-emergence weed harrowing were studied in spring cereals in different environments and with two types of harrows in Norway during 2004–2006. The objectives were to investigate interactions between pre and post-emergence weed harrowing and the importance of harrow type. We hypothesised that pre- and post-emergence harrowing interact positively, that a combination gives more stable weed control effects than pre- and post-emergence weed harrowing used alone, and that a harrow typ...

  6. The Promoter of the Cereal VERNALIZATION1 Gene Is Sufficient for Transcriptional Induction by Prolonged Cold

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Peral, María M.; Oliver, Sandra N.; Casao Acerete, Cristina; Greenup, Aaron A.; Trevaskis, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) gene of temperate cereals is transcriptionally activated by prolonged cold during winter (vernalization) to promote flowering. To investigate the mechanisms controlling induction of VRN1 by prolonged cold, different regions of the VRN1 gene were fused to the GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) reporter and expression of the resulting gene constructs was assayed in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare). A 2 kb segment of the promoter of VRN1 was sufficient for GFP expressio...

  7. Iron Bioavailability and Provitamin A from Sweet Potato- and Cereal-Based Complementary Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Christides

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and vitamin A deficiencies in childhood are public health problems in the developing world. Introduction of cereal-based complementary foods, that are often poor sources of both vitamin A and bioavailable iron, increases the risk of deficiency in young children. Alternative foods with higher levels of vitamin A and bioavailable iron could help alleviate these micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare iron bioavailability of β-carotene-rich sweet potato-based complementary foods (orange-flesh based sweet potato (OFSP ComFa and cream-flesh sweet potato based (CFSP ComFa with a household cereal-based complementary food (Weanimix and a commercial cereal (Cerelac®, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Iron bioavailability relative to total iron, concentrations of iron-uptake inhibitors (fibre, phytates, and polyphenols, and enhancers (ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and fructose was also evaluated. All foods contained similar amounts of iron, but bioavailability varied: Cerelac® had the highest, followed by OFSP ComFa and Weanimix, which had equivalent bioavailable iron; CFSP ComFa had the lowest bioavailability. The high iron bioavailability from Cerelac® was associated with the highest levels of ascorbic acid, and the lowest levels of inhibitors; polyphenols appeared to limit sweet potato-based food iron bioavailability. Taken together, the results do not support that CFSP- and OFSP ComFa are better sources of bioavailable iron compared with non-commercial/household cereal-based weaning foods; however, they may be a good source of provitamin A in the form of β-carotene.

  8. Iron Bioavailability and Provitamin A from Sweet Potato- and Cereal-Based Complementary Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Christides; Francis Kweku Amagloh; Jane Coad

    2015-01-01

    Iron and vitamin A deficiencies in childhood are public health problems in the developing world. Introduction of cereal-based complementary foods, that are often poor sources of both vitamin A and bioavailable iron, increases the risk of deficiency in young children. Alternative foods with higher levels of vitamin A and bioavailable iron could help alleviate these micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare iron bioavailability of β-carotene-rich sweet potato-based ...

  9. An Empirical Analysis of Equilibrium Pricing and Advertising in the Ready-To-Eat Cereal Market

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Cohen; Adam Rabinowitz

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a model of dynamic price and advertising competition and use the model to investigate a popular segment of the Ready-To-Eat Cereal Market. It is well understood that advertising is a key non-price strategic demand determinant in differentiated product markets. Two popular and compatible models for the role of advertising have emerged. One model specifies advertising as a determinant of a consumer's level of product awareness (informative) and the other model specifies advertising...

  10. Effects of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food for infants and children: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler Klaus; Wieser Simon; Rüthemann Isabelle; Brügger Urs

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Micronutrient deficiency is a common public health problem in developing countries, especially for infants and children in the first two years of life. As this is an important time window for child development, micronutrient fortified complementary feeding after 6 months of age, for example with milk or cereals products, in combination with continued breastfeeding, is recommended. The overall effect of this approach is unclear. Methods We performed a Systematic Review and ...

  11. Germination responses of endemic land-races of Saudi-Arabian cereal species

    OpenAIRE

    Albarih, Sami

    2014-01-01

    This investigation of endemic land-races of Saudi-Arabian cereals, Triticum aestivum, Triticum durum, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum miliaceum and Pennisetum glaucum was aimed at identifying and characterizing stress-tolerant populations appropriate for germplasm-banking. Native soils were saline, nutrient-poor, sandy and subject to seasonal drought and hot summers. Consequently, the work focused on responses of germination and early growth to salinity (0-1000 mM NaCl) and high temperatures, ...

  12. Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Synthesize Antioxidant Peptides during Sourdough Fermentation of Cereal Flours

    OpenAIRE

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Pinto, Daniela; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    A pool of selected lactic acid bacteria was used for the sourdough fermentation of various cereal flours with the aim of synthesizing antioxidant peptides. The radical-scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from sourdoughs was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of chemically acidified doughs. The highest activity was found for whole wheat, spelt, rye, and kamut sourdoughs. Almost the same results were found for the inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation. WSE were su...

  13. Effect of extrusion variables (temperature, moisture) on the antinutrient components of cereal brans

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Satinder; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit; Dar, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out, to explore the potentiality of extrusion technology for elimination of antinutritional components of cereal brans. Extrusion variables were moisture content (14, 17 and 20 %) and temperatures (115 °C, 140 °C, 165 °C). Phytic acid, polyphenols, oxalates, trypsin inhibitor, bulk density and color of brans after extrusion were analyzed. All four raw bran samples had high concentration of phytic acid, polyphenols, oxalates and trypsin inhibitors. Extrusion cooking was f...

  14. Consumption of Whole Grains, Refined Cereals, and Legumes and Its Association With Colorectal Cancer Among Jordanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; Al-Awwad, Narmeen J; Heath, Dennis D; Bani-Hani, Kamal E

    2016-09-01

    Background The role of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes in preventing or initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) is still uncertain. The aim of this study is to examine the possible association between the consumption of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes and the risk of developing CRC among Jordanian population. Methods A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data with regard to intake of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes. A total of 220 diagnosed CRC participants and 281 CRC-free control participants matched by age, gender, occupation, and marital status were recruited. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of developing CRC in relation to the consumption of different types of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes. Results The odds ratio (OR) for developing CRC among cases consumed refined wheat bread at all meals was 3.1 compared with controls (95% CI: 1.2-7.9, P-Trend = 0.001); whereas the OR associated with whole wheat bread was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.22-0.92, P-Trend = 0.001). The statistical evaluation for daily consumption of rice suggested a direct association with the risk of developing CRC, OR = 3.0 (95% CI: 0.27-33.4, P-Trend = 0.020). Weekly consumption of macaroni was associated with CRC with OR of 2.4 (95% CI: 1.1-5.3, P-Trend = 0.001). The consumption of corn, bulgur, lentils, and peas suggested a protective trend, although the trend was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study provides additional indicators of the protective role of whole grains and suggests a direct association between consumption of refined grains and higher possibility for developing CRC. PMID:26631260

  15. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    OpenAIRE

    Kerlen, Dirk; Naunheim, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl) is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation), brome grass (Bromus spec.), ryegrass (Lolium spec.), wild oat (Avena fatua), loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L.), annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L.) and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The p...

  16. Efficient Use of Plant Nutrients by Cereal Crops via Optimizing Soil Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guodong; Li, Yuncong; Alva, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    The price of nitrogen (N) fertilizer has increased by 5 fold during the last decade. This has led to a significant decline in net returns. However, the increase in cereal grain price for the same period of time was negligible compared to that of N fertilizer price. Poorly managed N fertilization can cause potential ammonia emission and nitrate contamination of groundwater, in addition to being waste of natural resources. Thus, improving N uptake efficiency in crop production is important to m...

  17. Marketing sugary cereals to children in the digital age: a content analysis of 17 child-targeted websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew D; Dorfman, Lori; Bukofzer, Eliana; Harris, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has warned of the harm of food marketing to children from television to new media channels such as the Internet. The authors identified and analyzed the techniques used to engage children on websites from cereal companies--the third largest food marketer to children. The authors found that top breakfast cereal manufacturers maintain child-oriented websites, using strategies unique to the Internet to capture and maintain children's attention. These include branded engagement techniques such as advergames, videos, site registration, and viral marketing, including inviting friends to join the site. The authors found 3 progressive levels of telepresence on child-targeted cereal websites: sites with more than 1 engaging feature, multiple techniques present on individual pages, and the construction of a virtual world. Using Internet traffic data, the authors confirm that these techniques work: cereal marketers reach children online with lengthier and more sophisticated engagements than are possible with traditional, passive media such as television advertisements or product packaging. Despite the cereal manufacturer's self-regulatory pledge to improve their marketing to children, their marketing practices exploit children's susceptibility to advertising by almost exclusively promoting high-sugar cereals using deeply engaging techniques. PMID:23421722

  18. Potential of Phytase-Mediated Iron Release from Cereal-Based Foods: A Quantitative View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne S. Meyer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate. Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via enzyme-catalysed dephosphorylation of phytate, indicating the potential of this strategy for preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia. Despite the immense promise of this strategy and the prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide, the number of human studies elucidating the significance of phytase-mediated improvements in iron absorption and ultimately in iron status in particularly vulnerable groups is still low. A more detailed understanding of (1 the uptake mechanism for iron released from partially dephosphorylated phytate chelates, (2 the affinity of microbially derived phytases towards insoluble iron phytate complexes, and (3 the extent of phytate dephosphorylation required for iron release from inositol phosphates is warranted. Phytase-mediated iron release can improve iron absorption from plant foods. There is a need for development of innovative strategies to obtain better effects.

  19. Development and characterization of cereal bars made with flour of jabuticaba peel and okara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Appelt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cereal bars are foods that stand out for practicality in consumption and nutritional quality and new formulations have been developed and introduced to the market by large corporations. In the present work, flours obtained from jabuticaba peel and okara were employed as ingredients in the development of three cereal bars formulations. The products obtained were characterized for physico-chemical parameters, microbiological quality and sensory acceptance. The bars showed high protein content (8.9 to 9.2 g 100-1 g and fiber (7.25 to 9.05 g 100-1 g, microbiological parameters according to Brazilian legislation and high sensory acceptance. The average scores assigned by the judges in acceptance testing by hedonic scale were higher than 7 in all attributes (color, taste, texture, flavor and overall impression. The obtained results showed that cereal bar production can be a viable alternative for the technological use of jabuticaba peel and okara. The use of these ingredients can contribute to obtaining products with high nutritional quality and to the valuation of biomasses that are often regarded as agro-industrial waste.

  20. Development and chemical and sensory characterization of pumpkin seed flour-based cereal bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovane Santana Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, popularly known as squash, is a widely grown vegetable in Brazil. In this study, pumpkin seed flours (PSF with different granulometries were used: PSF 1 (medium granulometry and PSF 2 (coarse granulometry in the preparation of cereal bars (CB with different combinations with brown oats. Five formulations were prepared: CB-1 (control - 25% brown oats and 0% PSF; CB-2 (12.5% PSF 1 and 12.5% brown oats; CB-3 (25% PSF 1 and 0% brown oats; CB-4 (12.5% PSF 2 and 12.5% brown oats; and CB-5 (25% PSF 2 and 0% brown oats. The acceptance test results were analyzed in a conventional preference mapping which indicated that the bars CB-2 and CB-5 received mostly the maximum hedonistic score. With the objective of developing a cereal bar replacing oats with PSF, the bars CB-2 and CB-5 were compared to the conventional bar CB-1. The cereal bars CB-2 and CB-5 showed an increase in crude protein (87.5% and 62.5% and in dietary fiber (77% and 44%, respectively. These results allowed the classification of CB-2 and CB-5 as fiber sources; they can, therefore, be classified as light products according to the Brazilian legislation.

  1. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Cereal Grain Volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinara, Giacinto Salvatore; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by the host's food would be the first signals used by parasitoids in the host location process and are thought to play an important role in host habitat location. In this study, the olfactory responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood), a Pteromalid wasp that parasitizes immature stages of stored-product insect pests developing inside cereal or leguminous grains, to volatiles emitted by healthy wheat grains, their hexane extracts, and different doses of three individual compounds previously identified in cereal grain odors were investigated in Y-tube olfactometer and Petri dish arena behavioral bioassays and electroantennogram recordings. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, odors from healthy wheat grains and their hexane extracts were attractive to both sexes of T. elegans. Moreover, hexane extracts elicited arresting effects in Petri dish arena. The three synthetic compounds valeraldehyde, maltol, and vanillin elicited dose-dependent responses in both male and female adult wasps confirming the capability of the peripheral olfactory systems to perceive cereal volatiles. In behavioral bioassays, different doses of vanillin were significantly attractive to both sexes. PMID:26904680

  2. Benzoxazinoids: Cereal phytochemicals with putative therapeutic and health-protecting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Khem B; Tanwir, Fariha; Gregersen, Per L; Steffensen, Stine K; Jensen, Bettina M; Poulsen, Lars K; Nielsen, Claus H; Høyer, Søren; Borre, Michael; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2015-07-01

    Benzoxazinoids (BXs) are a group of natural chemical compounds with putative pharmacological and health-protecting properties. BXs were formerly identified in and isolated from selected dicot medicinal plants and young cereal plants. Recently, BXs were found to be present in mature cereal grains and bakery products, such that knowledge about the pharmacological properties of BXs, which until now have unknowingly been consumed through the daily bread and breakfast cereals, has come into new focus. This review discusses published results from in vitro studies and a few human and animal model studies on the health effects and pharmacological responses of various BX compounds. Many of these studies have reported antimicrobial, anticancer, reproductive system stimulatory, central nervous system stimulatory, immunoregulatory, and appetite- and weight-reducing effects of BXs and/or BX derivatives. The health benefits of wholegrain intake may be associated with the solitary and/or overlapping biological effects of fibers, lignans, phenolic acids, alkylresorcinols, BXs, and other bioactive compounds. In the context of BXs as dietary ingredients, further comprehensive investigations are required to understand their biological functions, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, to explore their potential contribution on the health effects associated with wholegrain consumption, and to examine their potential as functional food ingredients. PMID:25600612

  3. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Cereal Grain Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinara, Giacinto Salvatore; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by the host's food would be the first signals used by parasitoids in the host location process and are thought to play an important role in host habitat location. In this study, the olfactory responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood), a Pteromalid wasp that parasitizes immature stages of stored-product insect pests developing inside cereal or leguminous grains, to volatiles emitted by healthy wheat grains, their hexane extracts, and different doses of three individual compounds previously identified in cereal grain odors were investigated in Y-tube olfactometer and Petri dish arena behavioral bioassays and electroantennogram recordings. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, odors from healthy wheat grains and their hexane extracts were attractive to both sexes of T. elegans. Moreover, hexane extracts elicited arresting effects in Petri dish arena. The three synthetic compounds valeraldehyde, maltol, and vanillin elicited dose-dependent responses in both male and female adult wasps confirming the capability of the peripheral olfactory systems to perceive cereal volatiles. In behavioral bioassays, different doses of vanillin were significantly attractive to both sexes. PMID:26904680

  4. Desenvolvimento e caracterização de cereal matinal extrudado de mandioca enriquecido com concentrado protéico de soro de leite Development and characterization of an extruded breakfast cereal from cassava enriched with milk whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Andrade Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e caracterizar um cereal matinal extrudado de mandioca enriquecido com concentrado protéico de soro de leite. O extrudado foi formulado adicionando-se 15% de concentrado protéico de soro de leite à farinha de mandioca. As matérias primas e o cereal matinal obtido foram analisados quanto às características físico-químicas. Para o cereal matinal desenvolvido, avaliaram-se também suas características microbiológicas e sensoriais. O extrudado estudado apresentou índice de expansão de 11,49 e densidade aparente de 0,21g.cm-3. Quanto à análise sensorial, o cereal matinal avaliado obteve notas médias de aceitação, para todos os atributos avaliados, situadas no intervalo de 7,63 a 8,05 que corresponde às categorias "gostei moderadamente" e "gostei muito". Para a intenção de compra, 91,70% dos provadores opinaram que certamente ou possivelmente comprariam o produto. O emprego de mandioca e concentrado protéico de soro de leite é uma alternativa para a elaboração de cereal matinal extrudado, obtendo-se um produto final com boas características sensoriais e nutricionais.The objective of this study was to develop and characterize an extruded cassava breakfast cereal enriched with milk whey protein concentrate. The extruded product was formulated by adding 15% of milk whey protein concentrate to cassava flour. The raw materials and the cassava flour breakfast cereal obtained were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics. The breakfast cereal was also evaluated for its microbiological and sensory characteristics. The extruded product presented an expansion index of 11.49 and apparent density of 0.21g.cm-3. With respect to the sensory analysis, the breakfast cereal obtained hedonic ratings in the range from 7.63 to 8.05 for all the attributes evaluated, corresponding to the categories "I liked moderately" and "I liked a lot". For purchase intention, 91.70% of the panelists said they

  5. Tropism and pathogenicity of rickettsiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria that cause febrile exanthematous illnesses such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, epidemic, and murine typhus, etc. Although the vector ranges of each Rickettsia species are rather restricted; i.e., ticks belonging to Arachnida and lice and fleas belonging to Insecta usually act as vectors for spotted fever group (SFG) and typhus group (TG) rickettsiae, respectively, it would be interesting to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the vector tropism of rickettsiae. This review discusses the factors determining the vector tropism of rickettsiae. In brief, the vector tropism of rickettsiae species is basically consistent with their tropism toward cultured tick and insect cells. The mechanisms responsible for rickettsiae pathogenicity are also described. Recently, genomic analyses of rickettsiae have revealed that they possess several genes that are homologous to those affecting the pathogenicity of other bacteria. Analyses comparing the genomes of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of rickettsiae have detected many factors that are related to rickettsial pathogenicity. It is also known that a reduction in the rickettsial genome has occurred during the course of its evolution. Interestingly, Rickettsia species with small genomes, such as Rickettsia prowazekii, are more pathogenic to humans than those with larger genomes. This review also examines the growth kinetics of pathogenic and non-pathogenic species of SFG rickettsiae (SFGR) in mammalian cells. The growth of non-pathogenic species is restricted in these cells, which is mediated, at least in part, by autophagy. The superinfection of non-pathogenic rickettsiae-infected cells with pathogenic rickettsiae results in an elevated yield of the non-pathogenic rickettsiae and the growth of the pathogenic rickettsiae. Autophagy is restricted in these cells. These results are discussed in this review. PMID:22737150

  6. Nitrogen dynamics in legume-cereal rotations - The role of 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text:15N-labelled fertilizers have been widely used to estimate N fertilizer recovery by cereal crops, residual fertilizer-derived N in the soil after harvest and losses from the soil-plant system by mass balance. Similarly 15N isotope dilution has been widely used to estimate the proportion of above-ground legume N derived from biological N2 fixation (Chalk and Ladha 1999). Both of these techniques provide information that cannot be obtained by non-isotopic or N difference methodologies. For example, the 15N dilution method enables the effect of any variable on legume symbiotic dependence to be differentiated from its effect on legume growth. i.e. it is a yield-independent methodology (Chalk 2000). 15N methodologies also have significant yet under utilized roles to play in estimating the fluxes of biologically fixed N in legume-cereal intercrops and rotations and hence in the prediction of system sustainability (Chalk 1996, 1998). The role of legumes in the overall N economies of cropping systems has long been the subject of conjecture and debate. Agronomically significant N yield responses of cereals following grain legumes compared with cereal monoculture are frequently measured. The positive N response of the cereal has been attributed to the transfer of biologically-fixed N, to N-sparing under the antecedent legume, and to less immobilization of nitrate during the decomposition of legume residues. Methods for estimating the transfer of biologically-fixed N in rotations, and for separating the N benefit into fixed N and non-fixed N components are reviewed. Available data indicate that both sources of N contribute to the N benefit. The role of grain legumes in the gain or drain of soil N is evaluated by considering the balance between symbiotic dependence and N harvest index, as well as long-term changes in total soil N. Several 15N-based techniques for direct estimation of inputs of biologically-fixed N to the soil N pool are reviewed. The contribution of

  7. Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Moya-Elizondo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot pathogens are associated with higher losses for wheat crop farmers, but information about the distribution and prevalence of these pathogens in Chile is inadequate. Distribution and prevalence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crown rot pathogens were examined in a survey of 48 commercial fields from December 2011 to February 2012 in southern Chile. These fields were located between Collipulli (37°56'00" S; 72°26'39" W and Purranque (40°50'30" S; 73°22'03" W. Severity of crown rot disease was determined through visual assessment of the first internode of 20 tillers obtained from each field. Incidence of crown rot pathogens per field was determined by plating the 20 tillers on Petri plates with 20% potato dextrose agar amended with lactic acid (aPDA medium. Resulting fungal colonies from monoxenic culture were identified by morphological or molecular-assisted identification. Severity of crown rot varied between 11.3% and 80% for individual fields. Culture plate analysis showed 72.2% of stems were infected with some fungus. Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum, and F. culmorum, pathogens associated with Fusarium crown rot disease were isolated from 13.5% of tillers. Gaeumannomyces graminis, causal agent of take-all disease in cereals, was isolated from 11.1% of culms. Phaeosphaeria sp., an endophyte and possibly a non-pathogenic fungus, was isolated from 13.9% of tillers. Pathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia spp. and Microdochium nivale, other saprophyte, and several unidentified non-sporulating fungi were isolated at frequencies lower than 3% of the total. Fusarium crown rot and take-all were the most prevalent and distributed crown rot diseases present in wheat crops in southern Chile.

  8. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  9. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-01-01

    Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in ni...

  10. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-01-01

    Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  11. Multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Mary (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas (Livermore, CA); Birch, James M. (Albany, CA)

    2012-07-31

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of respiratory pathogens (influenza A (including subtyping capability for H1, H3, H5 and H7 subtypes) influenza B, parainfluenza (type 2), respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from the respiratory pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  12. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  13. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Martens Maria; Schnoor Heidi J; Malling Hans-Jørgen; Poulsen Lars K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 ye...

  14. Caterpillar cereal as a potential complementary feeding product for infants and young children: nutritional content and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauserman, Melissa; Lokangaka, Adrien; Kodondi, Kule-Koto; Gado, Justin; Viera, Anthony J; Bentley, Margaret E; Engmann, Cyril; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl

    2015-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is an important cause of growth stunting. To avoid micronutrient deficiency, the World Health Organization recommends complementary feeding with animal-source foods. However, animal-source foods are not readily available in many parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In such areas, caterpillars are a staple in adult diets and may be suitable for complementary feeding for infants and young children. We developed a cereal made from dried caterpillars and other locally available ingredients (ground corn, palm oil, sugar and salt), measured its macro- and micronutrient contents and evaluated for microbiologic contamination. Maternal and infant acceptability was evaluated among 20 mothers and their 8-10-month-old infants. Mothers were instructed in the preparation of the cereal and asked to evaluate the cereal in five domains using a Likert scale. Mothers fed their infants a 30-g portion daily for 1 week. Infant acceptability was based on cereal consumption and the occurrence of adverse events. The caterpillar cereal contained 132 kcal, 6.9-g protein, 3.8-mg iron and 3.8-mg zinc per 30 g and was free from microbiologic contamination. Mothers' median ratings for cereal characteristics were (5 = like very much): overall impression = 4, taste = 5, smell = 4, texture = 4, colour = 5, and consistency = 4. All infants consumed more than 75% of the daily portions, with five infants consuming 100%. No serious adverse events were reported. We conclude that a cereal made from locally available caterpillars has appropriate macro- and micronutrient contents for complementary feeding, and is acceptable to mothers and infants in the DRC. PMID:23557509

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Cátia S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a highly infectious swine pathogen and is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia (EP. Following the previous report of a proteomic survey of the pathogenic 7448 strain of swine pathogen, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, we performed comparative protein profiling of three M. hyopneumoniae strains, namely the non-pathogenic J strain and the two pathogenic strains 7448 and 7422. Results In 2DE comparisons, we were able to identify differences in expression levels for 67 proteins, including the overexpression of some cytoadherence-related proteins only in the pathogenic strains. 2DE immunoblot analyses allowed the identification of differential proteolytic cleavage patterns of the P97 adhesin in the three strains. For more comprehensive protein profiling, an LC-MS/MS strategy was used. Overall, 35% of the M. hyopneumoniae genome coding capacity was covered. Partially overlapping profiles of identified proteins were observed in the strains with 81 proteins identified only in one strain and 54 proteins identified in two strains. Abundance analysis of proteins detected in more than one strain demonstrates the relative overexpression of 64 proteins, including the P97 adhesin in the pathogenic strains. Conclusions Our results indicate the physiological differences between the non-pathogenic strain, with its non-infective proliferate lifestyle, and the pathogenic strains, with its constitutive expression of adhesins, which would render the bacterium competent for adhesion and infection prior to host contact.

  16. Technological characterization and probiotic traits of yeasts isolated from Altamura sourdough to select promising microorganisms as functional starter cultures for cereal-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perricone, Marianne; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2014-04-01

    The main topic of this research was to select some suitable functional starter cultures for cereal-based food or beverages. This aim was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, as well as on the evaluation of the probiotic traits of yeasts; the technological characterization relied on the assessment of enzymatic activities (catalase, urease, β-glucosidase), growth under various conditions (pH, temperature, addition of salt, lactic and acetic acids) and leavening ability. The results of this step were used as input data for a Principal Component Analysis; thus, the most technologically relevant 18 isolates underwent a second selection for their probiotic traits (survival at pH 2.5 and with bile salts added, antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial activity towards foodborne pathogens, hydrophobic properties and biofilm production) and were identified through genotyping. Two isolates (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 2 and S. cerevisiae strain 4) were selected and analyzed in the last step for the simulation of the gastric transit; these isolates showed a trend similar to S. cerevisiae var. boulardii ATCC MYA-796, a commercial probiotic yeast used as control. PMID:24290622

  17. The Influence Of Cereal Share In Crop Rotations On The Grain Yield And Quality Of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babulicová Mária

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to find out the influence of different share of cereals and various fertilisation on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The long-term field trial with 40, 60 and 80% share of the cereals and two levels of fertilisation (H1 mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget®; H2 mineral fertilisation only were carried out in the very warm and dry area of continental weather on luvi-haplic chernozem. In the years 2010–2013, the grain yield, the wet gluten content, gluten index, the falling number and sedimentation index of winter wheat according to Zeleny were investigated. The significantly higher grain yield of winter wheat was recorded after preceding crop of common pea. The yield of cereals in crop rotation with 60% share of cereals (7.00 t/ha was significantly higher than in crop rotation with 80% share of cereals (6.78 t/ha.The statistically higher wet gluten content after pea fore-crop was found out when the mineral fertilisation and organic fertiliser Veget® were applied (33.4% with comparison to the treatment with mineral fertilisation only (30.08%.

  18. Narrowing the harvest: Increasing sickle investment and the rise of domesticated cereal agriculture in the Fertile Crescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Osamu; Lucas, Leilani; Silva, Fabio; Tanno, Ken-Ichi; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2016-08-01

    For the first time we integrate quantitative data on lithic sickles and archaeobotanical evidence for domestication and the evolution of plant economies from sites dated to the terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene (ca. 12000-5000 cal. BCE) from throughout the Fertile Crescent region of Southwest Asia. We find a strong correlation in some regions, throughout the Levant, for increasing investment in sickles that tracks the evidence for increasing reliance on cereal crops, while evidence for morphological domestication in wheats (Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) was delayed in comparison to sickle use. These data indicate that while the co-increase of sickle blades and cereal crops support the protracted development of agricultural practice, sickles did not drive the initial stages of the domestication process but rather were a cultural adaptation to increasing reliance on cereals that were still undergoing selection for morphological change. For other regions, such as the Eastern Fertile Crescent and Cyprus such correlations are weaker or non-existent suggesting diverse cultural trajectories to cereal domestication. We conclude that sickles were an exaptation transferred to cereal harvesting and important in signalling a new cultural identity of "farmers". Furthermore, the protracted process of technological and agricultural evolution calls into question hypotheses that the transition to agriculture was caused by any particular climatic event.

  19. Intake of dietary fiber, especially from cereal foods, is associated with lower incidence of colon cancer in the HELGA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Skeie, Guri; Landberg, Rikard;

    2012-01-01

    The role of dietary fiber on the risk of colon and rectal cancer has been investigated in numerous studies, but findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between intake of dietary fiber and risk of incident colon (including distal and proximal colon) and...... (95% CI): 0.74 (0.64-0.86). Intake of cereal fiber per 2 g day(-1) was associated with an IRR of 0.94 (0.91-0.98), which was also seen for intake of cereal fiber from foods with high fiber content (≥ 5 g per 100 g product), where the IRR per 2 g day(-1) was 0.94 (0.90-0.98). In women, intake of cereal...... fiber per 2 g day(-1) was also associated with lower risk of colon cancer, 0.97 (0.93-1.00). No clear associations were seen for rectal cancer. Our data indicate a protective role of total and cereal fiber intake, particularly from cereal foods with high fiber content, in the prevention of colon cancer....

  20. Brachypodium distachyon as a model system for studies of copper transport in cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-il eJung

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an essential micronutrient that performs a remarkable array of functions in plants including photosynthesis, cell wall remodeling, flowering, and seed set. Of the world's major cereal crops, wheat, barley, and oat are the most sensitive to Cu deficiency. Cu deficient soils include alkaline soils, which occupy approximately 30% of the world’s arable lands, and organic soils that occupy an estimated 19% of arable land in Europe. We used Brachypodium distachyon (brachypodium as a proxy for wheat and other grain cereals to initiate analyses of the molecular mechanisms underlying their increased susceptibility to Cu deficiency. In this report, we focus on members of the CTR/COPT family of Cu transporters because their homologs in A. thaliana are transcriptionally upregulated in Cu-limited conditions and are involved either in Cu uptake from soils into epidermal cells in the root, or long-distance transport and distribution of Cu in photosynthetic tissues. We found that of five COPT proteins in brachypodium, BdCOPT3 and BdCOPT4 localize to the plasma membrane and are transcriptionally upregulated in roots and leaves by Cu deficiency. We also found that BdCOPT3, BdCOPT4, and BdCOPT5 confer low affinity Cu transport, in contrast to their counterparts in A. thaliana that confer high affinity Cu transport. These data suggest that increased sensitivity to Cu deficiency in some grass species may arise from lower efficiency and, possibly, other properties of components of Cu uptake and tissue partitioning systems and reinforce the importance of using brachypodium as a model for the comprehensive analyses of Cu homeostasis in cereal crops.

  1. Use of crop simulation modelling to aid ideotype design of future cereal cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötter, R P; Tao, F; Höhn, J G; Palosuo, T

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge of the 21st century is to achieve food supply security under a changing climate and roughly a doubling in food demand by 2050 compared to present, the majority of which needs to be met by the cereals wheat, rice, maize, and barley. Future harvests are expected to be especially threatened through increased frequency and severity of extreme events, such as heat waves and drought, that pose particular challenges to plant breeders and crop scientists. Process-based crop models developed for simulating interactions between genotype, environment, and management are widely applied to assess impacts of environmental change on crop yield potentials, phenology, water use, etc. During the last decades, crop simulation has become important for supporting plant breeding, in particular in designing ideotypes, i.e. 'model plants', for different crops and cultivation environments. In this review we (i) examine the main limitations of crop simulation modelling for supporting ideotype breeding, (ii) describe developments in cultivar traits in response to climate variations, and (iii) present examples of how crop simulation has supported evaluation and design of cereal cultivars for future conditions. An early success story for rice demonstrates the potential of crop simulation modelling for ideotype breeding. Combining conventional crop simulation with new breeding methods and genetic modelling holds promise to accelerate delivery of future cereal cultivars for different environments. Robustness of model-aided ideotype design can further be enhanced through continued improvements of simulation models to better capture effects of extremes and the use of multi-model ensembles. PMID:25795739

  2. Bioactive Peptides in Cereals and Legumes: Agronomical, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Malaguti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation. Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo.

  3. Relative severity of fumonisin contamination of cereal crops in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismer, Hester F; Shephard, Gordon S; Rheeder, John P; van der Westhuizen, Liana; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2015-01-01

    Traditional and improved varieties of maize, pearl millet and sorghum were planted by small-scale farmers under the direction of the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture in two Nigerian agro-ecological zones: the Sudan Savanna and the Northern Guinea Savanna. Samples were collected for the determination of Fusarium infection and fumonisin (B1, B2 and B3) contamination. A previous paper reported Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin contamination of these samples. Fusarium infection levels, measured by per cent kernels infected, were modest with mean levels for the above cereals of 16% ± 11% (SD), 12% ± 7% and 13% ± 16%, respectively. However, the Fusarium species recovered from maize were predominantly the fumonisin producers F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, together making an infection rate of 15% ± 10%, whereas these species were present to a limited extent only in the other two cereals, 1% ± 1% for pearl millet and 2% ± 6% for sorghum. Fumonisin contamination was variable but reflected the diversity of Fusarium producers in these three cereals. Mean levels were 228 ± 579 µg kg(-1) (range practices. Of the Fusarium species present, those in maize consisted mainly of fumonisin producers, the opposite of what was observed in pearl millet and sorghum. It is concluded that replacement of maize by pearl millet and sorghum could improve food safety with regards to aflatoxin B and fumonisin B exposure. PMID:26372791

  4. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future. PMID:27002810

  5. Harina de Marolo (fruto brasileño) como ingrediente saludable para formular barritas de cereales

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo, E. de; Vilas Boas, E.V.B.; Cristina M. Rosell

    2012-01-01

    Actualmente la preservación de la biodiversidad en sistemas agrícolas es uno de los objetivos prioritarios de ERA (European Research Area), enfocada en la protección del medio-ambiente y en la sostenibilidad de Europa, además de en la bio-economía global. El objetivo de este proyecto de cooperación ha sido caracterizar un cultivo de frutos autóctono de Brasil, y explorar su posible utilización como ingrediente en barritas de cereales. El fruto en cuestión es el marolo, que se cultiva en el su...

  6. Determination of Fatty Acid Composition and Total Trans Fatty Acids in Cereal-Based Turkish Foods

    OpenAIRE

    DAĞLIOĞLU, Orhan; Taşan, Murat

    2002-01-01

    The fatty acid composition and trans fatty acids of 13 cereal-based foods produced by Turkish companies were analysed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The total fat contents of the samples ranged from 1.8 to 37.9%. Traditional Turkish white bread and bulgur had the lowest fat content (1.8% and 2.3% respectively) and wafer the highest (37.9%). The major fatty acids in the samples were C16:0, C18:0, trans C18:1, C18:1 and C18:2. Total unsaturated fatty acid contents varied bet...

  7. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  8. Crop rotation and crop management effects on cereal yields in arable organic farming in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    J. E. Olesen; Askegaard, M.; Rasmussen, I. A.; K. Kristensen

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges in organic crop production is to ensure high and stable crop yields. In this study we used data from a 12 year old crop rotation experiment in Denmark to estimate the contribution of various management factors to yields of winter and spring cereals. The experiment included three factors in two replicates: 1) Grass-clover green manure crop (with and without), 2) catch crop (with and without), and 3) animal manure (with and without). Animal manure was the most importa...

  9. Cereal Processing Influences Postprandial Glucose Metabolism as Well as the GI Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Vinoy, Sophie; Normand, Sylvie; Meynier, Alexandra; Sothier, Monique; Louche-Pelissier, Corinne; Peyrat, Jocelyne; Maitrepierre, Christine; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Brand-Miller, Jeannie; Laville, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Technological processes may influence the release of glucose in starch. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic response and the kinetics of appearance of exogenous glucose from 2 cereal products consumed at breakfast. Methods: Twenty-five healthy men were submitted to a randomized, open, crossover study that was divided into 2 parts: 12 of the 25 subjects were included in the “isotope part,” and the 13 other subjects were included in the “glycemic part.” On test days, s...

  10. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N2-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N2-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature (δ15N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems. -- Highlights:

  11. Semi-dwarf cereal mutants and their use in cross-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings include 12 papers presented at the Research Co-ordination Meeting organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development and held in Vienna, 2-6 March 1981. At the meeting, participants reviewed the present status of genetic studies and several aspects of breeding for semi-dwarf plant type in cereals, discussed methods of evaluating semi-dwarfing genes for use in cross-breeding programmes and took decisions regarding future work plans. Nine papers give information on radiation induced semi-dwarf mutants of wheat, barley and rice and are input into INIS

  12. Cereal food commodities in Eastern Africa: consumption - production gap trends and projections for 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Mkumbwa, Solomon S.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper presents the supply and demand trends of maize, rice and wheat. It provides the supply and demand projections for 2015 and 2020. These projections have been based on change in productivity levels, changes in price, growth of population and income growth. The future supply-demand gap that has been mapped and projected for 2015 and 2020, has been discussed in the light of policy requirements. It is concluded as postulated by Dyson (2009) that an increase in total cereal demand...

  13. Diversity of toxic and phytopathogenic Fusarium species occurring on cereals grown in Karnataka state, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraja, H; Chennappa, G.; Poorna Chandra Rao, K.; Mahadev Prasad, G.; Sreenivasa, M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    A total of 198 cereal samples (53 maize, 54 sorghum, 37 paddy and 54 wheat) were collected from 11 districts of Karnataka to understand the percent infection (PI), relative density (RD) and their frequency (Fr) caused by Fusarium spp. All samples were screened by agar plating method using MGA 2.5 agar media and incubated at 25 ± 2 °C for 3–5 days. The study revealed the association of 10 different Fusarium species known trichothecene producers such as Fusarium acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. cro...

  14. Competition among warm season C4-cereals influence water use efficiency and competition ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Amanullah

    2015-01-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) and competition ratio (CR) response of three warm season C4-cereals (grasses) viz. corn (Zea mays L., cv. Hybrid-5393 VT3), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, cv. Hybrid-84G62 PAT), and foxtail millets (Setaria italic, cv. German Strain R) in pure and mixed stands under low and high water levels was investigated. The experiment was conducted in pot experiment at Dryland Agriculture Institute, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, Texas, USA, during spring 2010. ...

  15. Analysis of glyphosate residues in cereals using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Johannesen, S.; Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2003-01-01

    A fast and specific method for the determination of glyphosate in cereals is described. The method is based on extraction with water by ultrasonication. The samples are cleaned up and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a polystyrene-based reverse-phase column (clean-up) in...... series with an ion chromatography column (separation) using NaHCO3 as eluent. A micro-membrane suppressor was inserted after the separator column to remove the Na + ions before detection by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the negative-ion mode. In MS/MS, mode the following transitions were...

  16. An Economic analysis of the potential for precision farming in UK cereal production

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin, R. J.; Richards, T. E.; Wood, G.A.; Welsh, J. P.; Knight, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    The results from alternative spatial nitrogen application studies are analysed in economic terms and compared to the costs of precision farming hardware, software and other services for cereal crops in the UK. At current prices, the benefits of variable rate application of nitrogen exceed the returns from a uniform application by an average of £22 ha−1 The cost of the precision farming systems range from £5 to £18 ha−1 depending upon the system chosen for an area of 250 ha. The benefits outwe...

  17. Value Sharing and Food System Dynamics for Milk, Tomato, and Cereals Food Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Bertazzoli; Rino Ghelfi; Sergio Rivaroli; Antonella Samoggia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse value sharing and food system dynamics of milk, tomato, and cereals food chains, so to explore the agro-food enterprises capacity to be competitive and sustainable. The paper is based on the functionalist approach of Malassis and the notion of the system of the General Systems Theory. The methodology is aimed at creating a consolidated financial statement for each food chain so to re-create the chain value and identify how this is shared among the different ...

  18. Determination of mineral content of some cereals by k0 neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental concentrations of a few varieties of cereals are determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using single comparator method (K0 NAA method). A total of 16 elements are measured. The method was validated by analysing the Standard Reference Material (SRM-1571) of NIST. The applicability of the method in nutritional studies has been made by analysing the results on the measured concentrations of major and minor elements in terms of the average intake of mineral content and the role of these elements. (author)

  19. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of zearalenone in cereals with a europium chelate as label

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马智鸿; 黄飚; 张珏; 张艺; 朱岚; 屠蔷

    2009-01-01

    A competitive indirect time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay(TRFIA) was developed for detection of zearalenone(ZEN) in cereals,in which ZEN conjugated to bovine serum albumin(BSA) is used as solid-phase antigen.A competitive indirect TRFIA was conducted by simultaneously incubating ZEN in standard or extracted samples with anti-ZEN monoclonal antibody over ZEN-BSA coated plates,and then determining the bound ZEN monoclonal antibody with goat anti-mouse europium conjugate.Samples were extracted with methanol/water...

  20. Product Differentiation and Brand Competition in the Italian Breakfast Cereal Market: a Distance Metric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sckokai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article employs a nation-wide sample of supermarket scanner data to study product and brand competition in the Italian breakfast cereal market. A modified Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS, that includes Distance Metrics (DMs as proposed by Pinkse, Slade and Brett (2002, is estimated to study demand responses, substitution patterns, own-price and cross-price elasticities. Estimation results provide evidence of some degree of brand loyalty, while consumers do not seem loyal to the product type. Elasticity estimates point out the presence of patterns of substitution within products sharing the same brand and similar nutritional characteristics.