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Sample records for cerdocyon thous linnaeus

  1. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Canidae), in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Canidae), em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

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    Ezequiel Pedó; Ana C. Tomazzoni; Sandra M. Hartz; Alexandre U. Christoff

    2006-01-01

    The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trai...

  2. DESCRIÇÃO DO PLEXO BRAQUIAL DO CACHORRO-DO-MATO (Cerdocyon Thous LINNAEUS, 1766)

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    Luane Lopes Pinheiro; Érika Branco; Damazio Campos Souza; Luiza Helena Corrêa Pereira; Ana Rita Lima

    2014-01-01

    The Cerdocyon thous is a canid that has a wide distribution in South America and, besides some general aspects, its morphology is little known in the literature, especially regarding the nervous system. With the aim of elucidating the anatomical composition of brachial plexus, we studied three male specimens from Paragominas-PA, donated to the Morphological Laboratory of Animal Research (LaPMA), Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA), after death by trampling. The animals were fixed in a...

  3. DESCRIÇÃO DO PLEXO BRAQUIAL DO CACHORRO-DO-MATO (Cerdocyon Thous LINNAEUS, 1766

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    Luane Lopes Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cerdocyon thous is a canid that has a wide distribution in South America and, besides some general aspects, its morphology is little known in the literature, especially regarding the nervous system. With the aim of elucidating the anatomical composition of brachial plexus, we studied three male specimens from Paragominas-PA, donated to the Morphological Laboratory of Animal Research (LaPMA, Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA, after death by trampling. The animals were fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde for bilateral dissection of the origin of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus of C. thous is derived from the last three cervical nerves and the first thoracic nerve (C6-T1. The main nerves that compose it, with their respective origins were the suprascapular nerve, subscapular nerve and musculocutaneous nerve (C6-C7, axillary nerve (C7-C8, radial nerve (C7-T1 and C7-C8, median nerve, ulnar nerve, thoracodorsal and thoracic lateral nerve (C8-T1. We conclude that the brachial plexus of C. thous is similar to that described for the domestic dogs, showing small differences in the composition of some nerves.

  4. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

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    Ezequiel Pedó

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trails inside the Reserve. Samples were dried in an oven for 24h at 60ºC, immersed in 70% alcohol, and prey items were identified using a stereomicroscope. The diet of the crab-eating fox was essentially carnivorous (87.62% composed by vertebrates, with seasonal variation (p = 0.0009 and absence of fruits. Small non-flying mammals and birds were the most frequent prey, being proportionally more preyed in autumn and summer, respectively. Arthropods were more preyed in winter and spring and bird/reptile eggs only in summer and spring, in the reproduction period of these groups.O graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, é um canídeo de pequeno porte de hábito crepuscular e noturno que ocorre nas savanas e florestas da América do Sul. Neste estudo foi avaliada a sazonalidade e a dieta de C. thous na Reserva Biológica do Lami, uma unidade de conservação com 179,78ha, situada na região suburbana do município de Porto Alegre, no sul do Brasil. Durante o ano de 2000 foram coletadas 80 amostras fecais - 20 por estação do ano - em coletas realizadas a cada duas ou três semanas, percorrendo as trilhas existentes na Reserva. As amostras foram desidratadas em estufa por 24h a 60ºC, imersas em álcool a 70%, e as presas foram identificadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A dieta do graxaim-do-mato apresentou-se essencialmente carnívora (87,62% composta por vertebrados, com variação sazonal (p = 0,0009 e ausência de frutos. Pequenos mamíferos n

  5. Gastrintestinal helminths Of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 -Smith, 1839 from the caatinga area of the Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Roberto César Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 – Smith, 1839, is a medium sized canid which is found in almost every region of Brazil. It is the only registered native canid specie to be found in the semi-arid Northeastern region of the country. This study had as its objectives: the identification of the helminth fauna common to Cerdocyon thous found in the Caatinga of the state of Paraíba; and the determination of the ecological indications of helminthic infection, hoping to make a favourable addition to the understanding of this little known biome. In this study, 58 animals that were found as ‘roadkill’ on the highways in the municipality of Patos were used. The gastrointestinal helminths from these animals were colected. All the animals in this study were infected with helminths. 16 species of helminths were identified, two being trematodes, one being a cestode, one being an acanthocephalus, and the remaining twelve being nematodes. In this study a new specie, named Pterygodermatites pluripectinata n. sp. Was discovered and its host and location described.

  6. Origens e ramificações do plexo braquial no cachorro-do-mato Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766)

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    Paulo Souza Junior; Natan C. Carvalho; Karine Mattos; André L.Q. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Este estudo teve o objetivo de descrever a origem e ramificação dos nervos de vinte plexos braquiais de cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous). Dez animais da espécie, obtidos post mortem por atropelamento em rodovias, foram utilizados para o estudo, de acordo com a autorização do IBAMA/SISBIO nº33667-1. Depois de coletados, os cadáveres foram fixados em solução de formaldeído a 50% e conservados por pelo menos 14 dias em solução de formaldeído a 10% antes das dissecções. Após remoção da pele, in...

  7. Dieta e dispersão de sementes por Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnívora, Canidae, em um fragmento florestal no Paraná, Brasil Diet and seed dispersal by Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus in a forest fragment in Paraná (Carnivora, Canidae

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    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, seja um Canidae relativamente comum, não há muita informação sobre sua dieta e seu papel como dispersor de sementes nos diferentes habitats onde ocorre. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de reportar a dieta de C. thous e sua importância como dispersor e/ou predador de sementes, e ainda testar a taxa de germinação de sementes após passar pelo trato digestório do animal. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento (680 ha de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, o Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, localizado na cidade de Londrina, Paraná, sul do Brasil. A metodologia consistiu de coletas de fezes de C. thous, as quais foram analisadas em laboratório para identificar os itens consumidos. Nos testes de germinação, as sementes foram dispostas para germinar em placas de Petri com algodão umedecido em água. Noventa e três amostras fecais com 219 itens de origem vegetal e animal foram registradas, sendo 36,52% contendo restos de pequenos roedores, 24,19% de gramíneas, 13,24% de aves, 10,47% de insetos, 6,39% de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassm., 4,6% de outros itens de origem animal e 4,54% de outros itens de origem vegetal. Ainda, C. thous dispersou nove espécies de plantas, com relevante importância para a germinação de algumas sementes que passaram pelo trato digestório do animal, exceto para S. romanzoffiana, cujas sementes não germinaram nas condições de laboratório. Conclui-se que, C. thous apresentou uma dieta generalista e oportunista, sobrevivendo em áreas degradadas e antrópicas, e agindo como dispersor de sementes nestes locais.Although the crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, is a relatively common Canidae, there isn't much information about its diet and its role as a seed disperser in the different habitats where it occurs. The aim of this work was to report the diet of the C. thous and its importance as a seed disperser and / or a seed predator and

  8. Origens e ramificações do plexo braquial no cachorro-do-mato Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766

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    Paulo Souza Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de descrever a origem e ramificação dos nervos de vinte plexos braquiais de cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. Dez animais da espécie, obtidos post mortem por atropelamento em rodovias, foram utilizados para o estudo, de acordo com a autorização do IBAMA/SISBIO nº33667-1. Depois de coletados, os cadáveres foram fixados em solução de formaldeído a 50% e conservados por pelo menos 14 dias em solução de formaldeído a 10% antes das dissecções. Após remoção da pele, incisões na musculatura peitoral e afastamento dos membros, acessou-se o espaço axilar e os nervos do plexo tiveram seu trajeto dissecados individualmente até sua inserção muscular. Para melhorar a visualização dos ramos ventrais cervicais e torácicos que originavam cada nervo, removeram-se a musculatura que encobria os forames intervertebrais, os processos transversos e os corpos vertebrais ventralmente, expondo inclusive a medula espinhal. Registros fotográficos e desenhos esquemáticos documentaram a origem e ramificação dos nervos. Os vinte plexos braquiais foram resultantes das conexões entre os ramos ventrais dos três últimos nervos espinhais cervicais (C6, C7 e C8 e do primeiro torácico (T1. Estes ramos derivaram os nervos supra-escapular, subescapular, axilar, musculocutâneo, radial, mediano, ulnar para a musculatura intrínseca e os nervos braquiocefálico, toracodorsal, torácico lateral, torácico longo, peitoral cranial e peitoral caudal para a musculatura extrínseca do membro torácico. Constatou-se que os ramos ventrais de C7 foram os que mais contribuíram na formação de nervos (61,5%, seguido de C8 (55,4%, de T1 (41,2% e de C6 (30,8%. O teste t de comparação entre as médias, ao nível de significância de 5%, não demonstrou diferenças na origem do plexo quando comparados os antímeros e os sexos. Do total dos 260 nervos dissecados, 68,8% foram originados pela combinação de dois ou três ramos, enquanto

  9. New records of three species of nematodes in Cerdocyon thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands.

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    Gomes, Ana Paula Nascimento; Olifiers, Natalie; Santos, Michele Maria Dos; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    We report the occurrence of nematodes collected from the gut of roadkilled crab-eating foxes (two adult males and one juvenile female), Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), found on the BR 262 highway in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil in 2011. Three helminth species were identified: Ancylostoma buckleyi, Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) pluripectinata, and Ascaridia galli. These nematodes are reported for the first time to infect C. thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands, thereby expanding their geographical distribution. PMID:26444063

  10. Pterygodermatites ( Multipectines) pluripectinata n. sp. (Spirurida: Rictulariidae), a nematode parasite of the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766) from Caatinga shrubland, Brazil.

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    Lux Hoppe, E G; Araújo de Lima, R C; Tebaldi, J H; Nascimento, A A

    2010-09-01

    In a parasitological survey of free-ranging Cerdocyon thous (Carnivora: Canidae) from Brazilian Caatinga shrubland, a new species of Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) was recovered from the small intestine of this host. Morphological analysis showed that P. (Multipectines) pluripectinata n. sp. is distinguished from all other congeneric species mainly by the numerous plate-like projections and male caudal morphology and spicular length. There are few records on the occurrence of this genus in Neotropical regions. PMID:20056009

  11. Biometry, histology, and morphometry of the digestive system of wild crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous)

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    Andreíza Ramos Heleno; Luiz Michel Santos; Maria Angélica Miglino; Jayme Augusto Peres; Ricardo Romão Guerra

    2011-01-01

    The crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) is found throughout Brazil. It has a nocturnal habit and can be seen on roadsides, where it looks for remains of run over animals and, therefore, it is also a victim of roadkill. This study aimed to characterize the macro and microscopic anatomy of the digestive system of the crab-eating fox. It helps to carry out medical and surgical procedures, besides important information on the feeding strategies, especially for wild individuals needing veterinary ca...

  12. Anatomo-radiographic description of the axial skeleton of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

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    Janaína D. Barisson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the axial skeleton of a wild Brazilian carnivorous, the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous. Five specimens of crab-eating fox were previously unfrozen for radiographic exams and their bones went through dissection and chemical maceration. This animal presents seven cervical vertebrae, and from the third on, they become shorter and wider than the other ones e the spinous process was makeable from the fifth cervical vertebrae on. There are thirteen thoracic vertebrae and the spinous process of the lumbar vertebrae, which are seven, decreases from the fifth on. The sacrum is formed by two vertebrae and there are twenty or twenty one caudal vertebrae. It can be concluded that the crab-eating fox axial skeleton is similar to that of the domestic dog.

  13. Biometry, histology, and morphometry of the digestive system of wild crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

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    Andreíza Ramos Heleno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous is found throughout Brazil. It has a nocturnal habit and can be seen on roadsides, where it looks for remains of run over animals and, therefore, it is also a victim of roadkill. This study aimed to characterize the macro and microscopic anatomy of the digestive system of the crab-eating fox. It helps to carry out medical and surgical procedures, besides important information on the feeding strategies, especially for wild individuals needing veterinary care after rescue in cases of running over, burnings, and floods caused by the filling of hydroelectric reservoir lakes or even in projects on captive breeding and restocking. Samples were collected from the digestive system of three wild animals in the region of Guarapuava-PR region. The crab-eating foxes under study were longer than the average reported for the species, had a shorter intestine, and a lower small intestine/body length ratio than other carnivores, besides other anatomical and histological characteristics different from those found in the literature on carnivores.

  14. Mode B ultrasonography and abdominal Doppler in crab-eating-foxes ( Cerdocyon thous

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    Alanna S.L. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Annually hundreds of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous are referred to rehabilitation centers and zoos in Brazil. The ultrasonographic study of wildlife species is an important tool for a non-invasive and accurate anatomical description and provides important information for wildlife veterinary care. The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the main abdominal organs as well as the vascular indexes of the abdominal aorta and renal arteries of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous using mode B ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. Ultrasonographic features of the main abdominal organs were described and slight differences were noticed between ultrasound imaging of abdominal organs of crab-eating foxes and other species. The bladder presented wall thickness of 12±0.01mm, with three defined layers. Both, the right and left kidneys presented corticomedullary ratio of 1:1 and similarly to the adrenals and the liver, they were homogeneous and hypoechoic compared to the spleen. The spleen was homogeneous and hyperechoic compared to the kidneys. The stomach presented 3 to 5 peristaltic movements per minute, wall thickness of 39±0.05mm and lumen and mucosa with hyperechoic and hypoechoic features, respectively. Small and large intestines presented 2 to 3 peristaltic movements per minute, wall thickness of 34±0.03mm and three defined layers with hyperechogenic (submucosa and serosa and hypoechogenic (muscular features. Ovaries of the female crab-eating fox were hypoechoic compared to the spleen and with heterogeneous parenchyma due to the presence of 2x2mm ovarian follicles. Prostates of the six males were regular and with a well defined boundary, with a homogeneous and hyperechoic parenchyma compared to the spleen. Vascular indexes of the abdominal aorta (PSV: 25.60±0.32cm/s; EDV: 6.96±1.68cm/s; PI: 1.15±0.07 e RI: 0.73±0.07 and right (PSV: 23.08±3.34cm/s; EDV: 9.33±2.36cm/s; PI: 1.01±0

  15. Anatomo-radiographic description of the axial skeleton of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous Descrição anátomo-radiográfica do esqueleto axial do cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous

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    Janaína D. Barisson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the axial skeleton of a wild Brazilian carnivorous, the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous. Five specimens of crab-eating fox were previously unfrozen for radiographic exams and their bones went through dissection and chemical maceration. This animal presents seven cervical vertebrae, and from the third on, they become shorter and wider than the other ones e the spinous process was makeable from the fifth cervical vertebrae on. There are thirteen thoracic vertebrae and the spinous process of the lumbar vertebrae, which are seven, decreases from the fifth on. The sacrum is formed by two vertebrae and there are twenty or twenty one caudal vertebrae. It can be concluded that the crab-eating fox axial skeleton is similar to that of the domestic dog.O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o esqueleto axial de um carnívoro selvagem brasileiro, o cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. Cinco animais foram previamente descongelados para exames radiográficos e posteriormente submetidos a dissecação óssea e maceração química. Os animais apresentavam sete vértebras cervicais e, à partir da terceira, eram mais curtas e largas e o processo espinhoso mais evidente a partir da quinta vértebra cervical. Há treze vértebras torácicas e o processo espinhoso das vértebras lombares, que são sete, diminui partir da quinta vértebra. O sacro é constituído por duas vértebras fundidas e há 20 ou 21 vértebras caudais. Pode-se concluir que o esqueleto axial do cachorro-do-mato se assemelha ao do cão doméstico.

  16. Feeding habits of the crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Carnivora: Canidae, in a mosaic area with native and exotic vegetation in Southern Brazil Hábito alimentar do cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Carnivora: Canidae, em área de mosaico de vegetação nativa e exótica no Sul do Brasil

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    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 is the most widespread neotropical canid, most commonly inhabiting forested areas. This animal is a generalist omnivore that is able to use environments disturbed by human activities. The aim of this study was to describe its diet through the stomach content analysis of 30 samples obtained from specimens that were run over in a mosaic composed by Araucaria Pine Forest, Semidecidual Seasonal Forest, natural grasslands, and exotic vegetation. The items were quantified by frequency of occurrence (F.O. and percentage of occurrence (P.O.. A total of 64 food items were found among 171 occurrences. According to F.O. method, plant items corresponded to 93.3% of the occurrences, followed by animal items (86.7% and human rejects (16.6%. Among plants, fruits accounted for 92.9% of the occurrences, followed by leaves (53.6% and flowers (10.7%. Syagrus romanzoffianum (Cham. Glassman, 1968 and the exotic Hovenia dulcis Thunberg were the most consumed fruits (30% each, and the most consumed leaves were Poaceae. Among preyed animals, the F.O. was 73.3% for invertebrates (mostly Orthoptera and Coleoptera, 36.7% each and 63.3% for vertebrates (mostly mammals, 33.3%. Regarding the P.O. method, there was an overestimation of invertebrates (98.1% due to the presence of ants and termites in the stomach of a single individual. In general, C. thous presented its usual diet. Its generalistic feeding habits can positively influence its survival in altered environments. This study also compares different methods for dietary analysis and discusses some opportunistic behaviors of C. thous, such as the consumption of exotic species and the use of silviculture areas as hunting sites.Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 é o canídeo neotropical mais amplamente distribuído e habita principalmente ambientes florestados. Este animal possui hábito alimentar onívoro generalista e demonstra capacidade de utilizar ambientes perturbados pela ação do

  17. Avaliação das alterações odontológicas em sincrânios de Cerdocyon thous oriundos de atropelamentos na rodovia ES-060, Espírito Santo

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    João Luiz Rossi Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Os cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766 são animais amplamente encontrados em países da América do Sul. Apesar de não ser uma espécie ameaçada de extinção, é possível que muitas populações sofram impactos decorrentes de atropelamentos de indivíduos nas rodovias do país, pois, trata-se de uma das espécies de carnívoros com elevada ocorrência de mortes deste tipo. Foram avaliados 32 sincrânios de C. thous, oriundos de vida livre, armazenados na coleção osteológica do Laboratório de Anatomia Veterinária da Universidade Vila Velha (Vila Velha/ES, a fim de diagnosticar doenças que acometeram estes indivíduos enquanto vivos. As lesões macroscópicas identificadas foram: apinhamento dentário, ausência dentária, cálculo dentário, dentina terciária, desgaste, escurecimento dentário, exposição de polpa, fenestração óssea, fratura dentária, fratura de esmalte, giroversão, pigmentação e reabsorção da crista alveolar. Os achados mais comumente observados foram: ausência dentária, desgaste dentário e fratura dentária. Ausências dentárias anteriores à morte, alterações ósseas, cálculos dentários, apinhamento e giroversão aparentemente não causaram quaisquer prejuízos aos animais enquanto vivos.

  18. Exposure of pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from the Southern region of Brazil to Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine parvovirus (CPV) and Canine coronavirus (CCoV)

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    Silvia de Oliveira Hübner; Felipe Geraldes Pappen; Jerônimo Lopes Ruas; Gilberto D'Ávila Vargas; Geferson Fischer; Telmo Vidor

    2010-01-01

    The exposure of 13 Brazilian free-ranging nondomestic canids (five pampas fox - Pseudalopex gymnocercus and eight crab-eating fox -Cerdocyon thous) from Southern region of Brazil, to Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and Canine coronavirus (CCoV) was investigated. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 38.5% (5/13) of the samples. There were anti-CDV antibodies in 60% (3/5) of P. gymnocercus and in 25% (2/8) of C. thous. The frequency was higher among the adults and males...

  19. Serology for brucellosis in free-ranging crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous and brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua from Brazilian Pantanal

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    Elaine Maria Seles Dorneles

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey in free-ranging crab-eating foxes (Canidae: Cerdocyon thous and brown-nosed coatis (Procyonidae: Nasua nasua was performed in the Nhecolândia sub-region of the Brazilian Pantanal to evaluate the presence of anti-smooth Brucella antibodies on those wild populations. The detection of anti-smooth Brucella antibodies was performed by the Rose Bengal Test (RBT as screening test and the Fluorescence Polarization Assay (FPA as a confirmatory test. The frequency of smooth Brucella seropositive animals were 13.2% (5/38, 95% CI: 4.4% - 28.1% for crab-eating foxes and 8.8% (3/34, 95% CI: 1.9% -23.7% for brown-nosed coatis. No association was found between seropositivity for brucellosis and gender or age. The results of this study suggest exposure to or infection of crab-eating fox and brown-nosed coati from the Brazilian Pantanal by Brucella spp

  20. Exposure of pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous from the Southern region of Brazil to Canine distemper virus (CDV, Canine parvovirus (CPV and Canine coronavirus (CCoV

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    Silvia de Oliveira Hübner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of 13 Brazilian free-ranging nondomestic canids (five pampas fox - Pseudalopex gymnocercus and eight crab-eating fox -Cerdocyon thous from Southern region of Brazil, to Canine distemper virus (CDV, canine parvovirus (CPV and Canine coronavirus (CCoV was investigated. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 38.5% (5/13 of the samples. There were anti-CDV antibodies in 60% (3/5 of P. gymnocercus and in 25% (2/8 of C. thous. The frequency was higher among the adults and males. Eleven canids (84.6% presented antibodies against CPV, 80% (4/5 were from P. gymnocercus and 87.5% (7/8 were from C. thous. There was no difference in positivity rate against CPV between gender and age. Antibodies against CCoV were detected in 38.5% (5/13 of the samples, with 60% (3/5 of positivity in P. gymnocercus and 25% (2/8 in C. thous. The frequency of antibodies against CCoV was higher among the adults and males. The study showed that these canids were exposed to CDV, CPV and CCoV.Foi investigada a ocorrência de exposição em 13 canídeos não domésticos de vida livre (cinco graxains-do-campo - Pseudalopex gymnocercus e oito graxains-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous da região sul do Brasil ao vírus da cinomose canina (CDV, parvovírus canino (CPV e coronavírus canino (CCoV. Anticorpos contra o CDV foram detectados em 38,5% (5/13 das amostras. Haviam anticorpos anti-CDV em 60% (3/5 dos P. gymnocercus e em 25% (2/8 dos C. thous. A freqüência foi maior entre machos e adultos. Para CPV, 11 canídeos (84,6% apresentaram anticorpos, 80% (4/5 eram da espécie P. gymnocercus e 87,5% (7/8 eram C. thous. Não houve diferença de positividade para o CPV entre sexos e idades. Anticorpos contra o CCoV foram detectados em 38,5% (5/13 das amostras, sendo 60% (3/5 de positividade entre os P. gymnocercus e 25% (2/8 entre os C. thous. A freqüência de anticorpos para CCoV foi maior entre os machos e adultos. O estudo revelou que estes canídeos foram expostos ao CDV, CPV

  1. Comparison of the Lumbosacral Plexus Nerves Formation in Pampas Fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) and Crab-Eating Fox (Cerdocyon thous) in Relationship to Plexus Model in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzão, Caio José; Zimpel, Aline Veiga; Novakoski, Eduardo; da Silva, Aline Alves; Martinez-Pereira, Malcon Andrei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus (LSP) were dissected in two species of South American wild canids (pampas fox-Pseudalopex gymnocercus, and crab-eating fox-Cerdocyon thous). The nerves origin and distribution in the pelvic limb were examined and compared with the LSP model of the dog described in the literature. The LSP was formed by whole ventral branches of L5 at L7 and S1, and a contribution of a one branch from S2, divided in three trunks. The trunk formed by union from L5-6 and S1 was divided into the cranial (cutaneus femoris lateralis nerve) medial (femoralis nerve) and lateral branches (obturatorius nerve). At the caudal part of the plexus, a thick branch, the ischiadicus plexus, was formed by contributions from L6-7 and S1-2. This root gives rise to the nerve branches which was disseminated to the pelvic limb (nerves gluteus cranial and gluteus caudal, cutaneus femoris caudalis and ischiadicus). The ischiadicus nerve was divided into fibularis communis and tibialis nerves. The tibialis nerve emits the cutaneus surae caudalis. The fibularis communis emits the cutaneus surae lateralis, fibularis superficialis and fibularis profundus. The pudendus nerve arises from S2 with contributions of one branch L7-S1 and one ramus of the cutaneus femoris lateralis. Still, one branch of S2 joins with S3 to form the rectales caudales nerve. These data provides an important anatomical knowledge of a two canid species of South American fauna, besides providing the effective surgical and clinical care of these animals. PMID:26692361

  2. Coinfección entre Distemper Canino y un Verme Pulmonar en un Cerdocyon thous en Estado Silvestre en el Municipio de Pereira

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    Nestor Varela-Arias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El 27 de febrero de 2014 ingresó a la clínica del Zoológico Matecaña un zorro cangrejero (Cerdocyon thous silvestre‚ macho entero subadulto‚ procedente del sector de Galicia en el Municipio de Pereira – Risaralda (Colombia. Al examen presento 3200 g de peso‚ 96 pulsaciones cardiacas por minuto‚ 16 respiraciones por minuto‚ 32‚2 °C de temperatura rectal‚ mucosas congestionadas y resecas‚ tiempo de llenado capilar mayor a 3 segundos‚ hundimiento ocular‚ tambaleo en la marcha‚ sangrado por nariz y ano‚ depresión‚ respiración abdominal y submacides pulmonar. Se listaron como principales problemas: hipotermia‚ deshidratación‚ baja condición corporal‚ epistaxis‚ melena‚ disnea y presencia de ectoparásitos. El caso clínico se trabajó como una gastroenteritis hemorrágica de posible origen tóxico o infeccioso complicada con neumonía‚ instaurándose terapia de soporte mediante administración de fluidos parenterales‚ agentes hemostáticos y control de la temperatura. Se colectaron muestras de sangre‚ secreciones y materia fecal para análisis de laboratorio. El análisis de las muestras reveló la presencia de nemátodos gastrointestinales‚ serología positiva para distemper‚ eritrocitosis con trombocitopenia y leucopenia‚ así como elevación de AST‚ NUS y creatinina. Aunque el paciente inicialmente se estabilizó‚ no hubo mejoría‚ presentándose coma y posteriormente la muerte luego de 24 horas de tratamiento de soporte intensivo. Los hallazgos postmortem más importantes fueron la presencia de bordes redondeados en el hígado‚ congestión marcada en la mucosa gástrica‚ contenido sanguinolento en intestino delgado; riñones de coloración amarillo parduzco y médula renal congestionada. Múltiples zonas de congestión pulmonar y secreción serosanguinolenta. Microscópicamente se evidenció gastritis necrótica con cuerpos de inclusión intranucleares e intracitoplasm

  3. Food habits of two syntopic canids, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, in southeastern Brazil Hábitos alimentarios de dos cánidos sintópicos, el aguara guazú (Chrysocyon brachyurus y el zorro del monte (Cerdocyon thous, en el sudeste de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA DE ARRUDA BUENO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous are two South American canids with large overlap in their geographic distribution. However, there are few data on the comparative ecology of these species. The aim of this research was to quantify the diet of these two canids living in syntopy at three levels: frequency of occurrence, minimum number of individuals preyed and estimated biomass ingested. Additionally, seasonality in the consumption of major groups of food items and aspects of prey size distribution were assessed. The study took place in the Experimental Station of Itapetininga, São Paulo State, Brazil. General results showed that both canids are omnivorous in accordance with other studies. By occurrences, the wolves consumed vegetal and animal food in similar proportions, whereas the foxes consumed more animals, mainly insects. In contrast, both canids ingested mainly animal food if biomass is considered. The maned wolf consumed more wolf's fruit (Solanum lycocarpum and small mammals in the dry season, and miscellaneous fruits during the wet season. The crab-eating fox also ingested more miscellaneous fruits in the wet season, but the insects were mostly consumed during dry months. The crab-eating fox is more generalist than the maned wolf, but the wolf seems better able to handle distinct prey types. The distribution of prey sizes suggested separate food niches: while the maned wolf consumed a larger spectrum of prey sizes, especially small vertebrates between 10.1 and 100.0 g, the crab-eating fox consumed smaller prey, mainly insects between 0.01 and 0.1 gEl aguara guazú (Chrysocyon brachyurus y el zorro del monte (Cerdocyon thous son dos cánidos sudamericanos cuyas distribuciones geográficas se sobreponen extensamente. Sin embargo, hay pocos datos sobre la ecología comparativa de estas especies. El objetivo de esta investigación fue cuantificar la dieta de estos dos cánidos en sintopia en

  4. Morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules of the adult crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, Linnaeus, 1766

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    Bianca Cabral Caldeira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Body and testicular biometric parameters are very important for establishing reproductive patterns and, consequently, the development of protocols for assisted reproduction in different species. A direct correlation between the testis weight and the sperm population was observed in other studied species, because the testis size primarily reflects the total volume of the seminiferous tubule, its main component. The objective of this study was to determine the testicular volume parameters and correlate data from morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules with body mass in six adult crab-eating foxes. The mean body weight of the crab-eating foxes in this study was 6.53 kg, with approximately 0.068% allocated to the testicular mass and 0.042% specifically to seminiferous tubules, which represented 87.5% of the testicular parenchyma. The albuginea comprised 12.5% of the testicular mass. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules was 236 µm, and the mean thickness of the seminiferous epithelium was 62.9 µm. Values of tubular parameters indicate a sperm productivity close to those observed in previously studied carnivores.

  5. Topography of the medullary cone of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766: Case report

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    Luane Lopes Pinheiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox is the most common Canidae of South America. In general, its diet varies according to the season and inhabited region. In this study, the medullary cone of the crab-eating fox was described because of interests in comparative anatomy, with the goal of providing information that could assist in epidural anesthesia, which cannot be efficiently practiced without knowledge of this anatomical region. We investigated an adult male from the Bauxite Mine (Paragominas, PA, which was dissected in the lumbosacral region. The medullary cone was 10.13 cm long; the base began at the L6 and the apex was at the S3. Considering that the specimen studied had nine lumbar and four sacral vertebrae, we conclude that the sacrococcygeal region is probably the most suitable place for epidural anesthesia.

  6. Adenoviruses of canine and human origins in stool samples from free-living pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) in São Francisco de Paula, Rio dos Sinos basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, G S; Fleck, J D; Kluge, M; Rech, N K; Soliman, M C; Staggemeier, R; Rodrigues, M T; Barros, M P; Heinzelmann, L S; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    The spread of enteric viruses of domestic animals and human beings to wild species can be facilitated by the resistance of these viruses on the environment and their ability to be transmitted by water and contaminated food. The health status of the populations of pampas foxes Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) is largely unknown and the landscapes occupied by these animals in southern Brazil have been threatened by human occupation and expansion of agriculture. In this work, the search of genomes of human and canine adenoviruses in feces from these wild carnivores was used to track the dissemination of domestic animals and human pathogens to the free-living populations in a wildlife reserve located in southern Brazil. This was performed by virus-specific differential real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) on stool specimens, avoiding capture and additional stress to the animals. Genus-specific conventional reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was complementarily performed aiming the detection of enteroviruses (EV) and rotaviruses (RV) on these same samples. HAdV genomes were found on 14 out of the 17 (82.35%) stool samples analysed, whereas CAV was found co-infecting 5 of these samples. RV genomes were detected on 7 of the 17 samples (41.18%) and all samples were negative for EV. The results point to the dispersion of HAdV and RV at a high rate to these species of South American wild carnivores, which can be an effect of growing anthropisation of the habitat of these animals. PMID:26270208

  7. Sarcocystis cruzi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae no cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Sarcocystis cruzi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

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    Janaina S. Rodrigues

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Esporocistos de Sarcocystis foram identificados nas amostras fecais de um cachorro-do-mato. Eles foram dados por via oral para um bezerro em aleitamento, sendo observados cistos com morfologia compatível com os de Sarcocystis cruzi na musculatura cardíaca e esquelética, três meses após a infecção. Musculatura cardíaca deste bezerro foi dada para um segundo cão doméstico livre de coccídios, que eliminou esporocistos compatíveis com os de Sarcocystis em suas fezes, tendo com períodos pré-patente e patente 11 e 12 dias após a infecção respectivamente. Para comparar a morfologia dos esporocistos e cistos, um segundo cão, também livre de coccídios, foi alimentado com musculatura cardíaca de um bovino infectando naturalmente e positivo para cistos de S. cruzi. Esporocistos compatíveis com os eliminados pelo primeiro cão foram encontrados nas fezes. Apesar dos esporocistos eliminados pelo cachorro-do-mato serem significativamente diferentes dos eliminados pelos cães infectados experimentalmente, pode se considerar com base na morfologia dos esporocistos, cistos e na transmissão biológica que a espécie encontrada nas fezes do cachorro-do-mato é Sarcocystis cruzi.Sporocysts of Sarcocystis were identified in feces samples of a crab-eating fox, and were orally given to a suckling calf; after 3 months of infection, sarcocysts morphologically similar to Sarcocystis cruzi were observed in cardiac and skeletal striated muscles. The cardiac muscles of this calf were orally given to a puppy free of coccidia, that shed sporocysts in its feces.with a prepatent and patent period of 11 and 12 days after infection, respectively. To compare the morphology of the sporocysts and cysts, a second puppy was fed on bovine cardiac muscles infected naturally, and sporocysts identical to those shed by the first dog were recovered from its feces. In spite of the significant difference between sporocysts found in the mucosa of the crab-eating fox and those shed by the first and second puppies, the species observed in this study was considered to be Sarcocystis cruzi, based on size of the sporocyts, morphology of the cyst wall, and the pray-predator cycle.

  8. Dosagem hormonal e avaliação testicular em cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyun thous) utilizando diferentes protocolos anestésicos

    OpenAIRE

    N.P. Souza; L.D'A Guimarães; R.C.R. Paz

    2011-01-01

    Tree Cerdocyon thous males received different anesthesia protocols: tiletamine-zolazepan (7mg/kg); ketamine-xylazine (12 and 1mg/kg); ketamine-xylazine-atropin (12, 1.0 and 0.04mg/kg), ketamine-midazolam (12 and 0.5mg/kg) and ketamine-acepromazine (12 and 0.1mg/kg) for semen collection by electroejaculation, testosterone hormonal dosages, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), testicular manual evaluation, biometry by caliper and ultrassonography (US). The ejaculates collected by electroejac...

  9. Dosagem hormonal e avaliação testicular em cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyun thous utilizando diferentes protocolos anestésicos

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    N.P Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tree Cerdocyon thous males received different anesthesia protocols: tiletamine-zolazepan (7mg/kg; ketamine-xylazine (12 and 1mg/kg; ketamine-xylazine-atropin (12, 1.0 and 0.04mg/kg, ketamine-midazolam (12 and 0.5mg/kg and ketamine-acepromazine (12 and 0.1mg/kg for semen collection by electroejaculation, testosterone hormonal dosages, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, testicular manual evaluation, biometry by caliper and ultrassonography (US. The ejaculates collected by electroejaculation showed urine contamination making impossible the semen evaluation. The M±PD of serum testosterone was 0.74±0.2ng/mL. The cell types found in FNAC were: spermatogonia 13.3±11.5%, primary spermatocytes 5.5±1.1%, secondary spermatocytes 5.5±3.9%, early spermatids 12.8±6.2%, late spermatids 26.2±11.2%, sperm 14.5±4.7% and Sertoli cells 21.8±2.7%. Manual testicular evaluation showed normal consistency of testicles. The M±PD of testicular biometry by caliper was 3.8±1.5cm³ and by US was 1.1±0.3cm³. The animals showed normal spermatogenesis with normal spermatozoa observed in FNAC and normal testicular US.

  10. Bad math in Linnaeus' Philosophia Botanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podani, János; Szilágyi, András

    2016-09-01

    In Philosophia Botanica (1751), Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) presented a calculation of the number of plant genera that may be distinguished based on his taxonomic concepts. In order to derive that number, he relied upon the organs of fructification, which represent the flower and the fruit, by selecting over 30 elements from them, and then assuming that each could vary by four dimensions. However, while Linnaeus was good in counting stamens and pistils, he and many of his followers who edited or translated Philosophia Botanica were less careful, basing their calculations of the number of possible genera on flawed assumptions, or even introducing basic arithmetic errors. Furthermore, although mathematics was quite advanced in the eighteenth century, the gap between combinatorial and botanical thinking was too deep, preventing Linnaeus to seek a reasonable solution to the problem he raised. The authors demonstrate this by a historical analysis of 15 editions of Philosophia Botanica, plus many references to it, and conclude that the desired number almost always appeared in error during the past 265 years. The German botanist J. G. Gleditsch (1714-1786) was the most successful with respect to Linnaeus' original intention. Elementary mathematics demonstrates that if Linnaeus' assumptions were taken seriously, then the possible number of genera would be astronomical. The practice he followed in Genera Plantarum (1754) shows, however, that the fructification dimensions served as a universal set for Linnaeus from which he chose only the relevant ones for describing a particular genus empirically. Based on the corrections and modifications implemented in reworked editions, we suggest an evolutionary network for the historical and modern versions or translations of Philosophia Botanica. PMID:27412708

  11. A Novel Polypeptide from Cervus elaphus Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangWENG; QiuLiZHOU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel polypeptide having stimulant effect on some cell proliferation was isolated from the velvet antler (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus). The velvet antler polypeptide consists of a single chain of 32 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was identified as:VLSAADKSNVKAAWGKVGGNAPAFGAEALLRM.

  12. Carolus Linnaeus and the Edible Dormouse

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Violani; Bruno Zava

    1995-01-01

    Abstract Carolus Linnaeus was totally unacquainted with the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis (L.), a species not found in Sweden: while describing Mus Rattus in the 10th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1758), the Swedish naturalist confessed his ignorance concerning the "Glis" of the ancients and suggested that it might have been the marmot or the hamster. Thanks to written information received from his ...

  13. Carl Linnaeus and the visual representation of nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmantier, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is reputed to have transformed botanical practice by shunning the process of illustrating plants and relying on the primacy of literary descriptions of plant specimens. Botanists and historians have long debated Linnaeus's capacities as a draftsman. While some of his detailed sketches of plants and insects reveal a sure hand, his more general drawings of landscapes and people seem ill-executed. The overwhelming consensus, based mostly on his Lapland diary (1732), is that Linnaeus could not draw. Little has been said, however, on the role of drawing and other visual representations in Linnaeus's daily work as seen in his other numerous manuscripts. These manuscripts, held mostly at the Linnean Society of London, are peppered with sketches, maps, tables, and diagrams. Reassessing these manuscripts, along with the printed works that also contain illustrations of plant species, shows that Linnaeus's thinking was profoundly visual and that he routinely used visual representational devices in his various publications. This paper aims to explore the full range of visual representations Linnaeus used through his working life, and to reevaluate the epistemological value of visualization in the making of natural knowledge. By analyzing Linnaeus's use of drawings, maps, tables, and diagrams, I will show that he did not, as has been asserted, reduce the discipline of botany to text, and that his visual thinking played a fundamental role in his construction of new systems of classification. PMID:22363966

  14. Bibliographie der Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera Margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda

    OpenAIRE

    Jungbluth, J.H.; H.E. Coomans; Grohs, H.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography of the freshwater Pearlmussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda] The freshwater pearlmussel, described by Linnaeus as Mya margaritifera is one of the most important molluscs existing. It belongs with only a few congeneric fossil and recent species to the distinct family Margaritiferidae. The distribution of the species is Holarctic (figs. 1-2), being known from western, northern and central Europe, and via Siberia to Japan. In North America it is ...

  15. Carolus Linnaeus and the Edible Dormouse

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    Carlo Violani

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carolus Linnaeus was totally unacquainted with the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis (L., a species not found in Sweden: while describing Mus Rattus in the 10th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1758, the Swedish naturalist confessed his ignorance concerning the "Glis" of the ancients and suggested that it might have been the marmot or the hamster. Thanks to written information received from his correspondent in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linnaeus was able to include the new species Sciurus Glis in his 12th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1766, reporting almost verbatim a summary of Scopoli's description of the rodent. Scopoli's letter is still preserved in the Library of the Linnean Society of London. The Linnean type locality "Habitat in Europa australi" for the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis glis must therefore be restricted to "Southern Carniola, Slovenia", contra "Germany" as stated, for instance, by Miller (1912, Toschi (1965, Corbet (1978 and Storch (1978. A new name is required for the continental European form, for which M. glis germanicus ssp. nov. is here proposed. Some information on the appreciation of Myoxus glis as a delicacy ("carnes avide eduntur" in Linnaeus' words conclude the paper. Riassunto Carlo Linneo ed il Ghiro - Dopo aver descritto Mus Rattus nella decima edizione del "Systema Naturae" (1758 il naturalista svedese Carlo Linneo confessava di non essere a conoscenza del "Glis" degli antichi autori e ne suggeriva l'identificazione con la Marmotta o con il Criceto comune; è infatti noto che Myoxus glis non è diffuso in Svezia. In base ad una lettera ricevuta dal suo corrispondente in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linneo fu in grado di descrivere questa nuova specie come Sciurus Glis nella dodicesima edizione del "Systema

  16. Roadkills of vertebrates in Venezuela Vertebrados mortos em estradas na Venezuela

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    Jan Pinowski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of vertebrate roadkills in five different habitats of tropical South America. Observations of vertebrate roadkills were conducted in 1978, on a 572 km road between Caracas and Mantecal/Apure in Venezuela, during the rainy season (June-October. During five passages on this route, which includes five distinct habitats, 79 vertebrate carcasses - mammals and reptiles - were found. If we assume that the carcasses remain for two days on the road, vehicles can be expected to strike 350 spectacled caimans Caiman crocodilus Linnaeus, 1758 (Alligatoridae during the rainy season alone. Similar calculations for other species yield 313 snakes and lizards, 294 opossums Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphidae, 220 crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1776 (Canidae, 129 tamanduas Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae, 55 capybaras Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae and 37 eastern cottontails Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, 1890 (Leporidae. Numerous papers have been published on vertebrates killed by vehicles on roads in Europe, North America, and Australia, and several papers are available regarding vertebrate roadkills in Africa and Asia. From South America there are several papers on vertebrates, birds, and mammals, whereas from Venezuela only one and it deals with iguanas (Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758, Iguanidae.Este trabalho apresenta uma análise de vertebrados mortos em estrada em cinco habitats tropicais diferentes na América do Sul. As observações dos vertebrados mortos em estrada foram feitas em 1978, a 572 km da rodovia entre Caracas e Mantecal/Apure na Venezuela, durante a estação das chuvas (junho-outubro. Durante cinco passagens nesta rota, a qual inclui cinco habitats diferentes, foram encontradas 79 carcaças de vertebrados - répteis e mamíferos. Assumindo que as carcaças permaneçam por dois dias na estrada, é esperado que veículos matem 350

  17. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito larvicida de extratos hidro-etanólicos de folhas verdes e secas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae em Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. Todos os extratos avaliados induziram mortalidade em larvas de 3º e 4º estágios de Aedes aegypti, após 24 e 48 horas de exposição aos produtos. Embora estudos prévios tenham demonstrado a ação de sementes e frutos de Melia azedarach em larvas de diferentes populações de Aedes aegypti, o presente estudo é o primeiro a reportar o efeito larvicida de folhas verdes e secas desta planta.

  18. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

    OpenAIRE

    Dave EGGEMAN; Marsha WARD; Ellen DONLAN; Scott HARDIN

    2011-01-01

    Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus) was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds) was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the...

  19. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.

  20. Morfologia externa dos imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae External morphology of the immatures of Caligo teucer (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Neuda A. de Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve os imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus, 1758. O material criado é proveniente do nordeste do Brasil. As larvas se alimentam de folhas de bananeira Musa spp. (Musaceae, Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae, Canna indica (Cannaceae e Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae.This paper describes the immatures of Caligo teucer teucer (Linnaeus,1758, from material reared in northeast Brazil. The larva feed on leaves of Musa spp. (Musaceae, Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae, Canna indica (Cannaceae and Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae.

  1. Morfologia externa dos imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) External morphology of the immatures of Caligo teucer (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Neuda A. de Souza; Antônio F. S. L. Veiga; Casagrande, Mirna M; Manoel G. C. Gondim Jr

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho descreve os imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus, 1758). O material criado é proveniente do nordeste do Brasil. As larvas se alimentam de folhas de bananeira Musa spp. (Musaceae), Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae), Canna indica (Cannaceae) e Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae).This paper describes the immatures of Caligo teucer teucer (Linnaeus,1758), from material reared in northeast Brazil. The larva feed on leaves of Musa spp. (Musaceae), Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae), Canna ind...

  2. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

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    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  3. Ledra aurita (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hem., Cicadellidae) rediscovered in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The remarkable leafhopper Ledra aurita (Linnaeus, 1758) has been rediscovered in Norway. Three specimens were captured at light at Ø, Hvaler: Asmaløy (EIS 12) in July-Aug. 1995. An unpublished record from AK, Frogn: Drøbak (EIS 28) from August 1949 is also presented. In Norway the species has previously only been recorded from Ø, Hvaler: Kirkøen (EIS 20) in last century and again in 1915. Biology and distribution are briefly discussed. Due to the sparse and local distribution in Norway, the s...

  4. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  5. Evidence of Sperm Storage in Nursehound (Scyliorhinus stellaris, Linnaeus 1758): Juveniles Husbandry and Tagging Program

    OpenAIRE

    Micarelli, Primo; Sperone, Emilio; Serena, Fabrizio; Compagno, Leonard J. V.

    2016-01-01

    Nursehound, Scyliorhinus stellaris (Linnaeus 1758), is a shark of the Scyliorhinidae family, close to the Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus 1758), frequently hosted in public aquaria. Information on biology and ecology is deficiently available regarding this species of sharks. In the Mediterranean basin, they are occasional rare and vulnerable species (Serena, 2005). In 2003 a female specimen of Scyliorhinus stellaris, 90 cm long, fished in the Tyrrhenian Sea was transferred to Tuscany Argentar...

  6. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

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    Dave EGGEMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the initial population assessment was severely underestimated. After removing nearly 1500 P. porphyrio in 2008, we concluded that eradication was not possible. Failure of this eradication attempt is attributed to P. porphyrio’s affinity with dense emergent vegetation, which greatly limited shooting effectiveness. Further, the failed eradication underscores the importance of a reporting network to improve early detection and the chance to eliminate naturalized or feral populations of non‐native species.

  7. Linnaeus' study of Swedish swidden cultivation: Pioneering ethnographic work on the 'economy of nature'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    Carl Linnaeus' work on the 'economy of nature' was a major early development in what became the modern field of ecology. This analysis suggests that a key subject of this work that has been ignored or misunderstood for 250 years is the rural livelihoods, especially swidden (or slash-and-burn) agriculture, which Linnaeus studied during his expeditions through rural Sweden. Rereading his reports in the light of modern work on swiddens, political ecology, and the history of science affords a new appreciation of Linnaeus' insights into traditional systems of resource exploitation. The logic of nutrient cycling in swidden agriculture and its utilization of natural dynamics to serve human ends exemplify the principles of the 'economy of nature', and gave Linnaeus a philosophical basis for understanding and defending this system of agriculture as well as other rural resource use systems in Sweden. This analysis sheds new light on Linnaeus' ethnographic work, his view of folk environmental knowledge, and his often derided identification with Sweden's ethnic peoples. PMID:25155194

  8. Rabies Virus Maintained by Dogs in Humans and Terrestrial Wildlife, Ceará State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Favoretto, Silvana R.; de Mattos, Cecília C.; de Morais, Nélio B.; Carrieri, Maria Luíza; Rolim, Benedito N.; Silva, Lucia M.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Durigon, Edison L.; Carlos A. de Mattos

    2006-01-01

    Rabies viruses circulating in Ceará, Brazil, were identified by molecular analysis to be related to variants maintained by dogs, bats, and other wildlife. Most of these viruses are associated with human rabies cases. We document the emergence of a rabies virus variant responsible for an independent epidemic cycle in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous).

  9. Nesting of Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines: Chelidae on sandy beaches along the Upper Xingu River, Brazil

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    Paulo D. Ferreira Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the first data on incubation temperature of Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812 in a natural environment, and provides information on nest predation, hatching success and size of offspring born in the nests on sandy beaches along the Upper Xingu River. Thirty-one P. geoffroanus nests were found, of which eleven were completely predated, mainly by Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766. Incubation was completed in nine out of the 17 nests protected by netting. The nests presented an average of 13.1 eggs and were distributed over the various geomorphological sectors of the nine sampled beaches. The size and weight of the hatchlings varied significantly between nests, and the incubation period in protected nests lasted for 76.5 days, less than reported for controlled incubation in the laboratory. Daily variation in incubation temperature in the three nests monitored for temperature was lower in those situated in fine sand sediments. Incubation temperature varied from 22 to 39 C and may have affected hatching success, which reached 60.8% in protected nests. Nest distribution in different geomorphological sectors indicated the plasticity of P. geoffroanus in terms of variation in nesting environment, which partly explains the species' broad geographical distribution.

  10. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Wedson M S; Barboza, Raynner R D; Rocha, Michelle S P; Alves, Rômulo R N; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W), Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman), who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89), crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79), common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79), and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758) (UV=0.74). The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use. PMID:22751649

  11. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758

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    Quiroz-Romero Héctor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST analysis and RNA interference (RNAi. Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160 were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group, reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  12. Analysis on Nutrient Compositions and Nutritional Quality of Lota lota( Linnaeus) Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Gefeng; Wang; Yuyu; Bai; Qingli; Li; Xiaolong; Jia; Zhonghe

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the nutritional quality of Lota lota(Linnaeus) muscle,the common nutrient components,amino acid composition and fatty acid composition in muscle of wild Lota lota(captured in Hailang reaches of Mudan River) were determined by routine methods. The results showed that the contents of moisture,crude protein,crude fat and ash were 81. 82%,15. 93%,0. 44% and 1. 06% in fresh muscle of Lota lota,respectively. Totally 17 amino acids,including seven kinds of essential amino acids(EAA),were detected in dry muscle of Lota lota(Linnaeus),accounting for 72. 43% of total dry muscle. The content of EAA was 29. 82%,accounting for 41. 17% of TAA,meeting the amino acid composition of high-quality protein standard required by Food and Agriculture Organization /Word Health Organization(FAO /WHO). There were four delicious amino acids(DAA) in dry muscle,accounting for 28. 34% of total dry weight.The percentage of DAA to TAA was 39. 13% in dry muscle. The contents of C20:5n- 3(EPA) and C22:6n- 3(DHA) in dry muscle were 8. 65% and 20. 32%respectively,which were significantly higher than that of the artificially cultured fish species,such as Oxyeleotris marmorata(EPA:2. 24%,DHA:4. 74%),Spinibarbus sinensis(EPA:0. 87%,DHA:3. 08%) and Glossogobius giuris(EPA: 3. 94%,DHA: 8. 10%). Based on the amino acids score(AAS) and chemical score(CS),the first limited amino acid in Lota lota(Linnaeus) was sulfur-containing amino acid(methionine + cysteine). The essential amino acids index(EAAI) of Lota lota(Linnaeus) was 62.58. It is concluded that Lota lota(Linnaeus) is abundant in amino acids and high-unsaturated fatty acids,and rational in composition of amino acids. Thus,Lota lota(Linnaeus) is a high quality freshwater fish with high nutritional value and health value,possessing good exploitation and utilization prospects.

  13. Mamíferos de médio e grande porte em um fragmento de mata atlântica, Minas Gerais, Brasil Medium and large-sized mammal in a forest fragment of atlantic forest, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Maressa Rocha do Prado

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O grau de ameaça e a importância ecológica dos mamíferos terrestres de médio e grande porte evidenciam a necessidade da busca de informações em inventários e diagnósticos ambientais. Objetivo deste estudo foi inventariar e avaliar a freqüência de ocorrência e riqueza de espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte na Estação de Pesquisa, Treinamento e Educação Ambiental (EPTEA Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa - MG. A área de estudo foi aleatoriamente percorrida, em busca de evidências indiretas e diretas de mamíferos. Também foram utilizadas armadilhas Tomahawk e fotográficas para o registro e identificação das espécies. Para registrar a freqüência de ocorrência, estabeleceu-se 20 parcelas de 2 x 2 m ao longo de um transecto, as quais foram vistoriadas 29 vezes entre abril de 2005 e abril de 2006. A partir dos dados de freqüência de ocorrência, estimou-se a riqueza de espécies, pelo procedimento Jackknife 1, utilizando o Programa EstimateS. Foram registradas 23 espécies de mamíferos, das quais três estão ameaçadas de extinção: Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 e Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775. As espécies silvestres com maior freqüência de registro foram Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, L. tigrinus e L. pardalis. Foi estimada a riqueza de 15 (intervalo de confiança = 0,95 espécies de mamíferos terrestres silvestres para a EPTEA Mata do Paraíso. O presente trabalho mostra que apesar de pequena, a área de estudo desempenha um importante papel na conservação da mastofauna da região de Viçosa - MG.The degree of threat and the ecological importance of both medium and large-sized terrestrial mammals point out the necessity of searching for information on inventories and environmental diagnostics. This work aimed to inventory and evaluate the species frequency of occurrence and richness of both medium and large-sized mammals from the Estação de Pesquisa

  14. Linnaeus' restless system: translation as textual engineering in eighteenth-century botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage. This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion. PMID:27391666

  15. The mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae induced by powdered plants

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    Kłyś Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether powdered plants of different species namely: peppermint Mentha piperita (L. (Lamiaceae, wormwood Artemisia absinthium (L. (Asteraceae, common sage Salvia officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, allspice Pimenta dioica (Linnaeus et Merrill (Myrtaceae and common garlic Allium sativum (L. (Amaryllidaceae, added to semolina using concentrations of 1.23, 3.61, and 5.88%, influence the mortality rate in the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory at 28°C and relative humidity 60±5%. At the concentration of 1.23%, allspice seeds caused the highest mortality amongst the saw-toothed grain beetle. When concentrations of 3.61 and 5.88% were used, sage, peppermint and wormwood caused the highest statistically significant mortality of O. surinamensis

  16. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

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    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  17. Progress of Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du; Zhengcai; Hou; Xiaotao; Huang; Qing; Deng; Jiagang; Fanshi; Fangcao

    2014-01-01

    Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus is a traditional marine drug. There are more than two thousand years of history using clamshell as a component of medicine.After a review of relevant literature at home and abroad for nearly 20 years,the author summarized chemical composition and pharmacological effects of M. meretrix,in order to provide a scientific basis for further development and utilization of M. meretrix.

  18. Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Roveré Franz; Neiva Knaak; Lidia Mariana Fiuza

    2011-01-01

    Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Stored grains are subject to losses in quality nutritional value and in sanitation from the time they are stored to the time they are consumed. Botanical insecticides may offer an alternative solution for pest control. The objective was to test the insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (leaf), Zingiber officinale (root) and Mentha sp. (leaf). The efficacy of ...

  19. First Occurrence Of The Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus Niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) In Lesina Lagoon (Eastern Italian Coast)

    OpenAIRE

    G. SCORDELLA; Lumare, F; Conides, A.; C. PAPACONSTANTINOU

    2012-01-01

    Individuals of the tilapia species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus(Linnaeus, 1758) were caught in Lesina Lagoon during experimental sampling for the shrimp Penaeus kerathurus using fyke net traps from December 1999 to September 2000. The species O. niloticusis not native in Italian coastal waters, although attempts of tilapia culture in land-based aquaculture farms were occasionally carried out in the past. The number of individuals captured in the samples suggests a colonization of the area ...

  20. New records of Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus 1758 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae in Ebro River Basin (N Spain.

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    Oscoz, J., Tomás, P., Durán, C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This note represents a contribution to the knowledge of the presence of the fish leech Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus 1758 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae in the Ebro River Basin. This species was collected in two rivers in the Ebro River Basin. Although this species has been reported from the Iberian Peninsula, these records are scarce and, to the author’s best knowledge, this study presents the first record of Piscicola geometra in the Ebro River Basin.

  1. Grammoplites vittatus (Valenciennes), (Scorpaeniformes, Platycephalidae), removed from synonymy with Grammoplites scaber (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Leslie W; Imamura, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Grammoplites vittatus (Valenciennes), often previously overlooked by authors or regarded as a junior synonym of G. scaber (Linnaeus), is shown here to be a valid species.  It has more gill rakers (7-8) then G. scaber and G. knappi (usually 6) and a narrower interorbital width than G. scaber.  A key to the species of Grammoplites Fowler is  given.  PMID:25112262

  2. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isai Jorge de Castro; Claudia Regina Silva; Arley José Silveira Da Costa; Ana Carolina Moreira Martins

    2011-01-01

    Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae). Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phy...

  3. Serologic evidence of Leishmania infection in free-ranging wild and domestic canids around a Brazilian National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Henrique de Almeida Curi; Ildikó Miranda; Sônia A Talamoni

    2006-01-01

    Transmission of disease between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans is of great concern to conservation issues and public health. Here we report on the prevalence of anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies in 21 wild canids (7 Chrysocyon brachyurus, 12 Cerdocyon thous, and 2 Lycalopex vetulus) and 74 free domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) sampled around the Serra do Cipó National Park. In dogs, the apparent prevalence was 8.1% and in wild canids it was 19% (2 crab-eating foxes, C. thous, and 2 maned...

  4. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation. PMID:18209717

  5. Zur intraspezifischen Lautkommunikation des Russischen Desmans Desmana moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insectivora: Talpidae: Desmaninae) nebst einigen Angaben zu seinem Sozialverhalten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanow, Peter; Poduschka, Walter; Deutsch, Werner

    1996-01-01

    The Russian Desman Desmana moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) is a highly endangered semiaquatic mammal, confined to disjunct areas. Between 1983 and 1992 several specimens were kept and investigated, firstly in the zoological garden of Moscow (4 ♀ ♀, 1 ♂), and afterwards in the field station of the former S

  6. THE DETECTION OF Ochetosoma heterocoelium (TRAVASSOS, 1921) (TREMATODA: DIGENEA: OCHETOSOMATIDAE) IN Chironius exoletus (LINNAEUS, 1758) (OPHIDIA: COLUBRIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    R. J. DA SILVA; R.R. Rodrigues; M. F. B. Stein; G. P. M. SIPOLI; R. PINHÃO; C. A. M. LOPES

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-two specimens of Ochetosoma heterocoelium (Travassos, 1921) (Trematoda: Digenea: Ochetosomatidae) were detected in the mouth and esophagus of the snake Chironius exoletus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Ophidia: Colubridae) at the serpentarium of the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals (CEVAP) of São Paulo State University (UNESP) in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  7. Metabolic costs of avian flight in relation to flight velocity : a study in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, S; Biebach, H; Visser, GH

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic costs of flight at a natural range of speeds were investigated in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus) using doubly labelled water. Eight birds flew repeatedly and unrestrained for bouts of 6 h at speeds from 9 to 14 m s(-1) in a low-turbulence wind tunnel, corresponding

  8. The first detection of species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893 in moose, Alces alces (Linnaeus), in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puraite, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas

    2016-01-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease and various wildlife species are reservoir hosts for zoonotic species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and prevalence of Babesia spp. in moose Alces alces (Linnaeus) in two regions of Norway. A total of 99 spleen samples were collected from animals of various ages from an area with the occurrence of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758), and from an area where the ticks are known to be absent. Infection was detected by the amplification of different regions of the 18S rRNA gene by using two different PCR primer sets specific of Babesia. Babesia spp. were found in the spleen samples of four moose. All Babesia-infected animals were from an area where ticks occur, with an infection rate of 6% (4 of 70). Babesia-positive samples were obtained from a five-month old moose calf and three adults. Two Babesia species, Babesia capreoli (Enigk et Friedhoff, 1962) and a B. odocoilei-like, were identified. Co-infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum was obtained in two animals. This is the first report of the occurrence of B. capreoli and B. odocoilei-like species in moose. PMID:27188749

  9. Evidence of Sperm Storage in Nursehound (Scyliorhinus stellaris, Linnaeus 1758: Juveniles Husbandry and Tagging Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Micarelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursehound, Scyliorhinus stellaris (Linnaeus 1758, is a shark of the Scyliorhinidae family, close to the Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus 1758, frequently hosted in public aquaria. Information on biology and ecology is deficiently available regarding this species of sharks. In the Mediterranean basin, they are occasional rare and vulnerable species (Serena, 2005. In 2003 a female specimen of Scyliorhinus stellaris, 90 cm long, fished in the Tyrrhenian Sea was transferred to Tuscany Argentario Mediterranean Aquarium and placed in a 20.000 L tank. The female laid 42 eggs and juveniles were born on 2004 and 2005. They were transferred to the aquarium laboratory in order to get standard protocol for correct juveniles husbandry. After a total of 18-month observations, some of them were tagged and let free on 2006. To collect data about nursehound shark needs in terms of feeding and growing in captivity, especially during the first life years, is a necessary and fundamental step in order to develop a Mediterranean program of tagging and study in the field of conservation policy proposal. Husbandry protocol for this species’ juveniles was developed in this study. This is the first reported case of a nursehound storing sperm for 2 years, in captivity (Pratt, 1993; Hamlett et al., 2002; Awruch, 2007.

  10. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  11. Serological survey for Leishmania sp. infection in wild animals from the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil

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    EM Voltarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania sp. infection was investigated in wild animals from the Ingá Park, in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil, where American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is an endemic disease. Sixty-five mammals, comprising Didelphis albiventris, Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua, were captured. Blood samples were collected for parasite cultivation. Antibodies were investigated by direct agglutination test (DAT using Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis as antigen. Flagellates were observed in blood cultures of 14 (35.9% Didelphis albiventris. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 31 (51.6% specimens of Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua. These results suggest that Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex vetulus (crab-eating fox, Cebus apella (capuchin monkey, Dasyprocta azarae (agouti, Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon and Nasua nasua (coati play an important role in the ACL transmission cycle in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

  12. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil

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    Wedson M.S. Souto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W, Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman, who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89, crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79, common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79, and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758 (UV=0.74. The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use.Este trabalho registra as práticas zooterapêuticas na medicina etnoveterinária no município de Pedra Lavrada, Nordeste do Brasil. Entrevistaram-se 23 pessoas (22 homens e uma mulher os quais forneceram informações sobre as espécies usadas como remédios, as partes do corpo usadas para preparar os remédios e as doenças tratadas. Calculou-se o Valor de Uso a fim de determinar quais espécies eram mais importantes. Os entrevistados reportaram 11 animais usados medicinalmente. As

  13. Inhibiting Effects of S.acus Linnaeus Extracts on GLT-82 Tumor Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Hailong S.acus Linnaeus was chosen as the experimental material in the experiments and changes of cell morphology, forming rate of clone and changes of division index were conducted to identify the inhibiting effects of Hailong extract on human tumor cell lines (GLT-82). Four days after medication, most of the cells changed their normal morphology of tumor cells and became round, broken and even broke into pieces. The inhibiting rates could reach 75.1% on the fourth day. The division index reduced strongly and the clone could not form or the forming rate was very low. With the extract concentration increasing and the time prolonging, the inhibiting effect increased. These results indicate that Hailong has striking anti-tumor effects and will have a perfect future in the fields of treatment and prevention of cancer.

  14. An outbreak of Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis - Linnaeus, 1758 envenoming in Southeastern Brazil

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    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia physalis (Linnaeus, 1758, are cnidarians capable of discharging intracellular organelles filled with venom, resulting in severe envenomation in humans. Methods We report the clinical and therapeutic aspects of 331 accidents involving Portuguese man-of-war in an outbreak on the coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results The clinical manifestations of envenomation were rare and mild and mostly local, systemic reactions; there was a low rate of late complications. Conclusions The consequences of envenomation were of moderate severity, and first aid measures were effective in controlling the pain. Outbreaks of accidents involving Portuguese man-of-war occur periodically in the area without a clear explanation.

  15. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON CERTAIN BIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF A LADYBEETLE COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTA TA LINNAEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShefaliSrivastava; Dmkar

    2003-01-01

    Influence of temperature on certain biological attributes of an aphidophagous ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, feeding on mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), at five different temperatures, viz. 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35℃ was investigated. Its developmental period was shortest (11.7±0.09days) at 35℃ and longest (20.6±0.35 days) at 20℃. Developmental rate increased with increase in temperature. Hatching percent, larval survival, adult emergence and growth index were maximum at 30℃ and minimumat 20℃. Oviposition period and fecundity were highest at 30℃ and lowest at 20℃. A positive linear relationship exists between temperature and developmental rate and negative correlation between the duration of immature life stages and temperature. The proportion of developmental period allocated to each immature stage was found to be similar at each temperature regime. Thus, 30℃ was found as the most suitable for C. septempunctata amongst the five temperatures tested.

  16. The complete mitogenome of blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xian-Liang; Jia, Fu-Long; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae) was determined in this study. The full length mitogenome is 16 157 bp in size, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region, with the base composition of 33.70% for A, 18.99% for C, 12.22% for G, and 35.09% for T. The gene order of P. pelagicus mainly retains as the pancrustacean ground pattern, except for a single translocation of tRNA(His) gene. The mitogenome data provide a basis for further studies on population genetics and phylogenetics. PMID:26171873

  17. Distribution of blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758 in Trang Province

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    Buncha Somboonsuke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The fishery of the blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758 is very important to the economy of small-scale fishermen. Greater knowledge about its distribution could lead to more efficient management. This study was conducted in Trang Province from October 2006 to August 2007 using collapsible crab traps. To reveal the spatial distribution of the species, we analyzed the data using geostatistical methods. The standard interpolate procedure was applied to model the crab distribution. There were clear spatial distribution differences among the small crabs, large crabs and ovigerous females in study area. The mapping showed that small crabs (carapace width 10 cm were farther offshore. Ovigerous females peaked in abundance during 2 periods: March – April and August – September. This information can be used to support decision making concerning the designation of fishing zones and the optimization of the blue swimming crab fishery in the study area.

  18. Solid state characterization of {alpha}-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Jessica D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schauer, Caroline L., E-mail: cschauer@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-05-05

    Material properties of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus were investigated using typical material science techniques. The examined butterflies were raised and hatched from the larvae stage and their chemical and crystalline structure evaluated and compared to that of crab shell ({alpha}-chitin) and squid pens from Notodarus sloanii and Loligo pealei ({beta}-chitin). Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the painted lady butterflies are composed of {alpha}-chitin. Additionally, macro- and microstructure characterization of the chitins was conducted utilizing digital photography and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This work demonstrates that common characterization techniques combined with simple sample preparation of biological materials can yield successful material characterization, which could aide the fabrication of biomimetic materials.

  19. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a antibióticos

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Belém-Costa; José Eurico Possebon Cyrino

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, i...

  20. Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 from Bulgaria

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    Liuben Domozetski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 in Bulgaria.

  1. Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria) and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Liuben Domozetski

    2013-01-01

    At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) in Bulgaria.

  2. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) resistant to temephos

    OpenAIRE

    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra; Walter Fabrício Silva Martins; Maurício Lilioso de Lucena Filho; Ingredy Meneses Cavalcanti de Albuquerque; Otávia Karla dos Santos Apolinário; Eduardo Barbosa Beserra

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a...

  3. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) from Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Rita Di Cerbo; M.T. Manfredi; F. Pirinesi; K. Trevisiol; Bregoli, M; N. Ferro Milone; R. Orusa; C. Banchi

    2003-01-01

    Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a...

  4. Upstream migration, reproduction and fishery of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758) in the River Ulla (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Silva; Sandra Barca; María José Servia

    2015-01-01

    After a juvenile haematophagous stage developed mainly at sea, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 stop feeding and return to the river to spawn. One of the main pressures in this stage is the presence of obstacles that reduce the accessible habitat, the mobility of individuals within this section and the energy resources available for gonad development and spawning. In addition, in the River Ulla, adults are targeted in a commercial fishery, using fyke-nets in the upper estuary...

  5. Ontogenia do fruto em desenvolvimento de Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae Ontogeny of fruits of Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Carvalho Harthman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus são espécies invasoras que ocorrem em culturas e terrenos baldios na região de Maringá, Paraná. O trabalho teve por objetivo a análise morfoanatômica dos frutos em desenvolvimento e estruturas não pericárpicas dessas duas espécies, com a finalidade de contribuir com informações estruturais para identificação das espécies, classificação dos frutos e investigações ecológicas. Flores e frutos foram coletados no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, fixados em Glutaraldeído, secionados em micrótomo de rotação e corados com a azul de Toluidina. As bractéolas e perigônio são persistentes nos frutos e têm estrutura diferente nas duas espécies. O aquênio de Alternanthera tenella mantém o mesmo número de estratos celulares que o ovário, que sofrem colapso na fase madura, exceto o mesocarpo interno que se mantém com espessamento parietal em U e cristais. O utrículo de Amaranthus blitum é semelhante ao ovário em número de camadas celulares e apresenta aerênquima quando maduro. As sementes maduras são exotestais, com mesotesta e endotesta colapsadas, e embrião curvo. Nesse estudo, foram registrados alguns caracteres estruturais dos perigônios e dos frutos que são potencialmente significativos para caracterização e separação das espécies, ao contrário das sementes que são muito semelhantes.Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus are weeds that occur in crops and uncultivated areas in the Maringá region of Paraná. In this study, a morphoanatomical analysis of fruit development and the pericarp of A. tenella and A. blitum was made in order to contribute structural information for species identification, fruit classification, and ecological investigations. Flowers and fruits were collected at the campus of the State University of Maringá, Paraná, fixed in glutaraldehyde, sectioned with a rotary microtome and stained with

  6. Reprodução de Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproduction of the Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus in the Santa Catarina's coast, Brazil

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    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O savacu Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 é uma espécie de hábitos crepusculares e noturnos, com ampla distribuição geográfica. Sua biologia reprodutiva tem sido intensivamente estudada nos países de ocorrência, entretanto, no Brasil, é comumente citada nos levantamentos de ornitólogos, mas não existem informações disponíveis sobre seu ciclo de vida. Esse trabalho objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva dessa espécie no litoral catarinense. As amostragens foram realizadas nos anos de 2000 a 2002 na Ilha dos Pássaros e de 2002 na Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. As maiores abundâncias de exemplares e ninhos com ovos ocorreram em outubro, sendo que o comprimento médio dos ovos variou entre 5,02 ± 0,23 a 5,07 ± 0,21 cm e o volume 31,71 ± 2,64 a 35,92 ± 3,47 cm³ e as maiores freqüências de filhotes em novembro, culminando o abandono da colônia em meados de janeiro. Foram identificados sete itens nos regurgitos dos filhotes, sendo que os peixes marinhos representaram 44,4% da massa total. O principal predador na colônia foi o urubu-comum, que atuou sobre os ovos no início da temporada e os filhotes no final.The black-crowned night heron N. nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 is a aquatic bird with twilight and night habits, with wide geographical distribution. His reproductive biology has been studied intensively at the occurrence countries, however, in Brazil, it is mentioned commonly in the ornithologists' risings, but available information don't exist on his life cycle. This work aims to contribute for the knowledge of the reproductive biology of that species in the Santa Catarina coast. The samplings were accomplished in the years from 2000 to 2002 in the Ilha dos Pássaros and of 2002 in the Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. The largest abundances of individuals and nests with eggs happened in October, and the medium length of the eggs varied between 5.02 ± 0.23 to 5.07 ± 0.21 cm and the volume 31

  7. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isai Jorge de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.

  8. Cutaneous myxidiosis in European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758): histopathology, histochemistry and laminin immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, M; Borreca, C; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-07-01

    Histopathology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry of the integument of European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), infected by Myxidium sp. are reported. Skin samples from affected and unaffected eels were dissected, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded, sectioned and stained with H&E, Periodic acid-Schiff's staining method, Alcian Blue 8 GX pH 2.5/Periodic acid-Schiff's and McCallum-Goodpasture's Gram stain. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed using a primary polyclonal laminin antibody. Histologically, cysts (diameter 2-3 mm) were observed mainly under the scale pockets, encircled by a thin collagen layer, lined by elongated, flattened fibroblasts and containing bipolar, PAS- and Gram-positive spores with opposite polar capsules. The epidermis stretched by the underlying cyst appeared dysplastic, thinned with a significant reduction in mucous cells number. Only inconsistent and aspecific inflammatory reaction was noted around the cysts at the dermis/epidermis interface. Intense laminin-like protein immunolabel was documented in the plasmodial ectoplasm and related to host anergia. This was the first report of laminin immunolabel in a member of the Myxozoa. Epidermal dysplasia represents likely an aspecific response against the underlying tensile force exerted by the developing parasite cyst, while fibroblast and collagen encapsulation denote a parasite-driven host response protecting, rather than harming, the encircled parasite. PMID:26525491

  9. Prevalence of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse in Koderma, Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Dhiman, R C; Dua, V K

    2011-09-01

    Entomological survey was carried out in different localities of Koderma district of Jharkhand with a view to study the prevalence, distribution and stratification of areas for Aedes mosquito species. A total of 233 houses were covered during house to house larval and adult survey. Aedes breeding could be detected in 157 houses. In all, a total of 942 domestic water containers were searched, out of which 461 were found positive. The overall house index(HI) container index(CI) breteau index(B1) and pupal index(PI) were 67.38%, 48.94%, 197.85% and 79.4%, respectively. The survey revealed that Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse are well established in Koderma with most of the areas showing high adult and larval indices. The preventive strategy needs to be directed towards minimizing the breeding potential of Aedes and water management practice by individuals along with implementation of urban bye-laws as well as IEC activities to contain Aedes breeding in future. PMID:23781636

  10. Post-embrionic development of the digestive tube of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus (Diptera, Cuterebridae

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    Ana Maria Vieira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tube of 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 was studied anatomically. The specimens were dissected in buffer saline under a stereomicroscope, and the digestive tubes were placed on slides and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Each tube was measured using a micrometric eye piece, and drawings were made with camera lucida. The results showed that the midgut, the hindgut and the Malpighian tubules with their ducts grow gradually during the larval development. The oesophagus and the salivary glands with their ducts grow only during the moult from the 2nd to the 3rd instar. In the pupal period, salivary glands grow gradually but disappeared after the 20th day. After metamorphosis the digestive tube regressed. This is expected since adult D. hominis lives about nine days without feeding. This fly, similar to other calyptratae muscoid flies shows no vestige of a crop during all post-embrionic development, and the adult has no salivary glands.

  11. Metabolic Plasticity of Nitrogen Assimilation by Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jang K.Kim; George P.Kraemer; Charles Yarish

    2012-01-01

    The physical stresses associated with emersion have long been considered major factors determining the vertical zonation of intertidal seaweeds.We examined Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing thalli from the vertical extremes in elevation of an intertidal population (i.e.upper and lower intertidal zones) to determine whether Porphyra thalli acclimate to different vertical elevations on the shore with different patterns of nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities in response to different degrees of emersion stress.We found that the nitrate uptake and NR recovery in the emersed tissues took longer in lower intertidal sub-population than in upper intertidal sub-population; and GS activity was also significantly affected by emersion and,interestingly,such an activity was enhanced by emersion of thalli from both upper and lower intertidal zones.These results suggested that intra-population variability in post-emersion recovery of physiological functions such as nutrient uptake and NR activity enables local adaptation and contributes to the wide vertical distribution of P.umbilicalis.The high GS activity during periodic emersion stress may be a protective mechanism enabling P.umbilicalis to assimilate nitrogen quickly when it again becomes available,and may also be an evidence of photorespiration during emersion.

  12. Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

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    Andréa Roveré Franz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Stored grains are subject to losses in quality nutritional value and in sanitation from the time they are stored to the time they are consumed. Botanical insecticides may offer an alternative solution for pest control. The objective was to test the insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (leaf, Zingiber officinale (root and Mentha sp. (leaf. The efficacy of these oils was tested to control the rice weevil, S. oryzae, using hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis of the essential oils was carried out by gas chromatography. Major components of C. citratus were geranial (48% and neral (31%, of Z. officinale were α-zingibereno (13%, geranial (16%, neral (10% and α-farneseno (5% and of Mentha sp. was menthol (92%. Bioassays were carried out by fumigation and topical application. In topical application assays, the essential oil of C. citratus had greater toxicity (LC50 0.027 µL mL-1 and shorter exposure time than the oils of the other two plants. After 24 h and 48 h, 70% and 100% mortality of S. oryzae occurred, respectively. In fumigation assays, essential oil of Z. officinale had a lower LC50 (1.18 µL cm-2 and 70% mortality after 24 h exposure. Therefore, we recommend the use of essential oils of C. citratus and Z. officinale to control the rice weevil S. oryzae.

  13. Detection of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758 (Pinnipedia, Phocidae from Elephant Island

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    Tony Silveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii in Mirounga leonina (M. leonina Linnaeus from Elephant Island, Antarctica. Methods: The animals were anesthetized, restrained, measured, weighed and had their blood collected by venipuncture of intervertebral lumbar epidural vein. Blood samples were collected from 102 individuals. Indirect hemagglutination and serum dilution at a proportion of 1:25 was used for specific immunoglobulin G anti-T. gondii detection. Results: Only one (0.98% specimen, a newly weaned calf, was seropositive. Conclusions: This study is the highest serological survey for antibody detection against T. gondii in M. leonina. The results suggest a low level of exposure to T. gondii, probably due to the absence of felids in the study area. The seropositivity presented by the elephant seal may be related to the presence of oocysts in water or cysts in their preys. Despite being reported the presence of the parasite in fish and molluscs, there are no records of tissue cysts or oocysts in squid or fish of the diet of M. leonina. Thus, further parasitological studies focused on preys of elephant seals are needed for a better understanding of infection of M. leonina by T. gondii.

  14. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

  15. In vitro culture of mantle tissue of the abalone Haliotis varia Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suja, C P; Dharmaraj, S

    2005-02-01

    The study is aimed at developing a technology for the production of in vitro pearl through tissue culture of mantle of the abalone, Haliotis varia Linnaeus, as the production of free and spherical pearls in vivo is rather difficult in abalones. In the basic study, the cell yield was intensified from the explant after 24h incubation. Among the cells liberated, the granulocytes were dominant over hyalinocytes. The size of granulocytes ranged from 3 to 16 microm and of hyalinocytes from 13 to 18 microm. Fibroblast-like cells appeared in cultures after day 2. Both granulocytes and hyalinocytes developed pseudopodial-like extensions in all directions and formed organic matrix. Granulocytes contained granules in the cytoplasm. Specific granules were responsible for nucleation of crystals. Some crystals exhibited green colour resembling mother of pearl of abalone. scanning electron microscope (SEM) study revealed the oolitic amorphous state and rhombohedral state of crystals. Its analysis through energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDS) indicated the presence of calcium. The rhombohedral crystals under polarized light showed its high birefringence (0.18) and uniaxial optically negative calcite nature with high content of calcium. A mean survival of cells was found to be 102 days in T 25 flasks and 32 days in petri dishes. Growth of cells was studied. Thirty percent of cultures were found to have contaminated during the study. The study provides basic knowledge in the development of a technology for in vitro pearl production. PMID:15695171

  16. Population size structure indices and growth standards for Salmo (trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1758 in Central Italy

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    Pedicillo G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide reference data on the growth and population structure of brown trout Salmo (trutta trutta Linnaeus, in Central Italy. Standards for growth (percentiles and a standard growth model were developed from the von Bertalanffy growth model by using length-at-age data obtained from 122 sampling sites in the River Tiber basin. Length-frequency indices provide a numeric estimation for deviations of the population structure from a balanced population. We adapted the traditional North American Relative Stock Density (RSD and Proportional Stock Density (PSD indices to brown trout populations in Central Italy by means of two methods. In the first method, the benchmarks of length categories were established by using percentages applied to the largest individual in the dataset. In the second method, asymptotic length and size at maturity were used to define the length categories for index calculation. Both methods were tested on length-frequency data from 263 sampling sites in the River Tiber basin. The results showed that the PSD calculated by the first method provided a better insight into the population structures of brown trout. These results provide tools that will help ichthyologists and fish managers to compare the growth and population structure of brown trout throughout Central Italy.

  17. Growth and reproductive properties of Tench, Tinca tinca Linnaeus, 1758 in Trasimeno Lake (Umbria, Italy

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    Pompei L.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth and some reproductive properties of native Tinca tinca Linnaeus, 1758 from Trasimeno Lake were investigated during 2009 and 2010. The total sample of fish (510 was composed by 126 males, 221 females and 163 immature specimens. Total length (TL ± 0.1 cm and weight (W ± 0.1 g were recorded; age estimation was based on scalimetry and sex was determined by microscopic observation of the gonads. Age composition varied from 1+  to 11+ . The TL-W relationship was log 10W =  −2.235 + 3.248log 10TL. Previous growth was determined with back-calculation from scale measurements using the Fraser-Lee method. Theoretical length growth was estimated with von Bertalanffy’s model. Analysis of the gonadosomatic index (GSI suggests that the reproductive period of the population took place from May to July. Sexual maturation occurred in both sexes at the second year of life. The mean diameter of eggs was 0.075 mm. The mean number of eggs produced by each female was 233 930 and increased with the size of the specimens. Though it is one of the most widespread and interested species in fishing in Italian waters, tench has not been widely studied; this research deepens some biological characteristics of this species that is strongly shrinking in Italy.

  18. Antioxidant Activity of the Brown Macroalgae Fucus spiralis Linnaeus Harvested from the West Coast of Ireland

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    Anna Soler-vila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction and isolation of natural antioxidants with potential in reducing the incidences of oxidative stress in the body and their potential inclusion into functional foods is a major topic of research at present. In this study, the aim was to investigate food-friendly Accelerated Solvent Extraction® (ASE® samples and a Viscozyme® hydrolysate of the brown macroalga Fucus spiralis Linnaeus for total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, the effect of ultra-filtration steps on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the Fucus spiralis hydrolysate were also evaluated.ethanolic-aqueous and methanolic-aqueous ASE® extracts displayed high phenolic contents of 37.03±3.01 and 39.04±5.72 µg phloroglucinol equivalents mg/sample, respectively. Both the Fucus spiralis Viscozyme® hydrolysate and ASE® extracts displayed in vitro antioxidant activities. Our findings suggest that food-friendly extracts of Fucus spiralis show potential as alternative sources of antioxidants.

  19. Anatomy of the liver of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mariangela de Toledo Barbino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To describe the anatomy of the liver of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] fetuses in late gestation and to obtain anatomical characteristics that can support and help the understanding of the physiology of fetal circulation. Three fetuses of Guinea pig in late gestation have been used, which were dissected and had their livers removed. These were analized, described, and photographed macroscopically and microscopically through light microscopy in HE and scanning electronic microscopy. Macroscopically, the fetuses livers have a reddish brown color and their division into lobes is clearly seen, as well as the presence of the gallbladder. The liver is divided into left lateral lobe, left medial lobe, right lateral lobe, right medial lobe, quadrate lobe, and caudate lobe with caudate and papillary processes. Through light microscopy, highly vascularized tissue is observed, and the left portion of the liver receive blood from the placenta through the umbilical vein, and the right portion is irrigated by the portal vein. The structures found on the liver of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation are anatomically similar to those of other mammalian species.

  20. Metabolic plasticity of nitrogen assimilation by Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang K.; Kraemer, George P.; Yarish, Charles

    2012-12-01

    The physical stresses associated with emersion have long been considered major factors determining the vertical zonation of intertidal seaweeds. We examined Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing thalli from the vertical extremes in elevation of an intertidal population ( i.e. upper and lower intertidal zones) to determine whether Porphyra thalli acclimate to different vertical elevations on the shore with different patterns of nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities in response to different degrees of emersion stress. We found that the nitrate uptake and NR recovery in the emersed tissues took longer in lower intertidal sub-population than in upper intertidal sub-population; and GS activity was also significantly affected by emersion and, interestingly, such an activity was enhanced by emersion of thalli from both upper and lower intertidal zones. These results suggested that intra-population variability in post-emersion recovery of physiological functions such as nutrient uptake and NR activity enables local adaptation and contributes to the wide vertical distribution of P. umbilicalis. The high GS activity during periodic emersion stress may be a protective mechanism enabling P. umbilicalis to assimilate nitrogen quickly when it again becomes available, and may also be an evidence of photorespiration during emersion.

  1. Suppression of laboratory population of Callosobruchus chinensis (Linnaeus) by the release of gamma-irradiated adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterile males of Callosobruchus chinensis (Linnaeus) irradiated as pupae with doses of 3 Krad (inducing 92 per cent sterility) and 3.5 Krad (inducing 98.7 per cent sterility), when confined with normal males and females at ISM:INM:INF, stopped further development in 43.3 per cent and 66.2 per cent eggs laid subsequently. Further egg development decreased appreciably with increasing sterile male ratios, resulting in almost total suppression at a ratio of 8:1:1. The competitiveness values showed that sterile males were fully competitive with normal males at all the ratios. The release of 3 Krad and 3.5 Krad sterilised males and females jointly with the normal males and females brought about the suppression of pest at a lower ratio of 7 SM:7 SF:INM:INF and 5 SM:5 SF:INM; INF, respectively. Competitiveness values showed superior competitiveness of sterilised males and females over the normal ones in both the treatments. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs

  2. First Occurrence Of The Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus Niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 In Lesina Lagoon (Eastern Italian Coast

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    G. SCORDELLA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of the tilapia species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus(Linnaeus, 1758 were caught in Lesina Lagoon during experimental sampling for the shrimp Penaeus kerathurus using fyke net traps from December 1999 to September 2000. The species O. niloticusis not native in Italian coastal waters, although attempts of tilapia culture in land-based aquaculture farms were occasionally carried out in the past. The number of individuals captured in the samples suggests a colonization of the area of Lesina lagoon. The highest catches were observed during July. In July, the individuals caught represented the 22.3±4.1 % of the total catch weight. Such colonization of a marine environment byO. niloticusniloticus is the first case reported for Italy. The occurrence of the species in Lesina lagoon is attributed to fish which escaped from fish farms in the area and entered the lagoon through the numerous streams and irrigation-drainage channels that outflow along the south coastline.

  3. Larvicidal potential of five Philippine plants against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon, R B; Alvior, J P; Luczon, L L; Morales, A S; Mutuc, F E

    1994-12-01

    Five species of Philippine plants, reported in the literature to have insecticidal properties, were selected for investigation, namely: Anona squamosa ("atis" or sugar apple), Eucalyptus globulus ("bagras" or olive gum eucalyptus), Lansium domesticum ("lansones"), Azadirachta indica ("neem") and Codiaeum variegatum ("San Francisco" or croton). These were screened and assayed for their larvicidal potential against Aedes aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) by exposing 3rd-4th instar larvae to seven different concentrations (two-fold dilutions starting from 100 g% up to 1.5625 g%) of the crude aqueous extract derived from fresh leaves. Three trials were performed for each species of mosquito and for each of the five plants to determine the average mortality rate at various concentrations after 24 and 48 hours exposure. Probit analysis using the NCSS program was employed to determine the LD50 and LD90 values in order to compare the larvicidal potency of the five plants and to compare the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts exerted maximum insecticidal activity after 48 hours exposure. Lansones and atis were the most effective against larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Ae. aegypti was more susceptible than Cx. quinquefasciatus with respect to lansones and neem but Cx. quinquefasciatus was more susceptible than Ae. aegyti with respect to eucalyptus, San Francisco and atis. These varying results are probably due to differences in levels of toxicity among the active insecticidal ingredients of each plant and in the physiological characteristics of the two mosquito species. PMID:7667727

  4. Uptake, retention and organic/tissue distribution of 137Cs by Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This works describes the uptake, retention/biological elimination of 137Cs by Japanese Catfish (Silurus asotus linnaeus) under laboratory conditions. The fish were divided in to three groups viz. large, medium and small and reared in to the host water contaminated by 137Cs. The accumulated 137Cs concentration in the whole body of the fish was measured at certain intervals up to 60 days. A significant accumulation of 137Cs was found but a steady state accumulation of 137Cs was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factors and the distribution of the radionuclide in different organs/tissues of the fish were determined. To determine the effective half-life, the fish were transferred and reared into the non contaminated host water. The concentration of the radionuclide in the whole body of the fish was measured up to 66 days. Neglecting the small first compartment for a few days, the average effective half-life of 137Cs in the fish species was found to be ∼ 30 days for all size of fish. Accumulation of 137Cs in muscle/flesh of the fish was found to be ∼ 75% of whole body accumulation. (author)

  5. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

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    Marcos G. Papp

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  6. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae) by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Felidae) Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae) por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Felidae)

    OpenAIRE

    João M. D. Miranda; Itiberê P. Bernardi; Kauê C. Abreu; Fernando C. Passos

    2005-01-01

    There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758). With our document...

  7. The european eel (Anguilla anguilla, Linnaeus), its lifecycle, evolution and reproduction: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    van Ginneken, V.J.T.; Maes, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla, Linnaeus 1758) is a species typical for waters of Western Europe. Thanks to early expeditions on the Atlantic Ocean by the Danish biologist Johannes Schmidt who found small (< 10mm) leptocephali larvae in the Sargasso Sea about 100 years ago, we have now a strong indication where the spawning site for this species is located. The American eel (Anguilla rostrata, LeSueur) also spawns in the Sargasso Sea. The spawning time and location of both species have b...

  8. Mamíferos de médio e grande porte e sua relação com o mosaico de habitats na cuesta de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Telma R. Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A região da cuesta de Botucatu caracteriza-se por um gradiente topográfico contendo um mosaico de ambientes com diferentes formações de vegetação natural (floresta estacional semidecidual, cerrado e matas ciliares, além de áreas antropizadas com a predominância de pastagens, plantações de cana-de-açúcar, laranja, e reflorestamentos de eucalipto, com paisagem fragmentada. Inserida nesta região, a Fazenda Experimental Edgardia, pertencente à Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Botucatu, representa uma amostra desta heterogeneidade ambiental, tendo grande importância para a conservação da biodiversidade, tanto de flora como fauna. Entretanto, poucos são os estudos sobre a sua fauna, principalmente de mamíferos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a fauna de mamíferos de médio e grande porte nesta área, e sua relação com o mosaico de habitats. Foram obtidos registros indiretos da presença de mamíferos através de vestígios (pegadas e fezes em transectos (trilhas pré-existentes, ao longo de um ano. De março de 2004 a março de 2005 foram registradas 18 espécies de mamíferos silvestres de médio e grande porte. Quanto à ocorrência destacou-se Mazama sp., presente em todos os ambientes, com maior abundância relativa no ambiente de transição de floresta/Cerradão. Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798 e Dasypus novemcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758 também foram encontradas em praticamente todos os ambientes, e espécies como Chironectes minimus (Zimmermann, 1780, Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758 e uma espécie do gênero Conepatus Gray, 1837 estiveram restritas a ambientes específicos. A análise de correspondência mostrou oito espécies com ocorrência em todos os ambientes: sete mais associadas aos ambientes de várzea, floresta e pastagem e três aos ambientes de cultura de arroz

  9. Características morfológicas da distribuição vascular cerebral de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla Morphological characteristics of the cerebral vascular distribution of Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla

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    Jurandyr de A. Câmara Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a vascularização arterial do encéfalo do javali, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, e comparar com outras espécies. Cinco machos e cinco fêmeas foram injetados com látex colorido. O suprimento arterial do encéfalo foi descrito e análises morfológicas foram feitas. Nesta espécie o circuito arterial do encéfalo é formado por ramos da artéria carótida interna, como: as artérias comunicantes caudais, o ramo rostral, as artérias cerebrais rostrais, e artérias comunicantes rostrais.The aim this study was to verify the arterial vascularization of the wild boar brain, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, and compare with other species. Five male and five female were injected with colored latex. The arterial supply of the brain was described and were done morphological analyses. In this species the arterial circuit of the brain is formed by the internal carotid artery branches, such as: the caudal communicant arteries, rostral branch, rostral cerebral arteries and rostral communicant arteries.

  10. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758. With our documentation large howler monkey remains in faeces, the possibility of ocelot being a potential predator of all Neotropical primates should be taken into consideration.São poucos os estudos sobre a predação de primatas. Sendo os bugios animais relativamente grandes, acredita-se que somente médios e grandes carnívoros e grandes rapineiros possam lograr sucesso em sua predação. O estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê, situada no município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Dedos e unhas de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 foram encontradas em duas amostras fecais de Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 que foram coletadas. Com este registro de grande primata em fezes, a possibilidade de a jaguatirica ser um potencial predador de todos os primatas neotropicais pode ser levada em consideração.

  11. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of most pome fruit (apple, pear and quince) and walnut orchards in the temperate regions of the world. Efforts to control the codling moth have in the past mostly relied on the use of broad spectrum insecticide spra...

  12. A hitherto unrecorded sighting of the Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae) in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Samidurai Jayakumar; Subramanian Muralidharan; Santhanakrishnan Babu

    2014-01-01

    The Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae) is recorded for the first time in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India. As this species is recorded in other parts of Tamil Nadu, a brief sightings and distribution map is also specified.

  13. A hitherto unrecorded sighting of the Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samidurai Jayakumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae is recorded for the first time in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India. As this species is recorded in other parts of Tamil Nadu, a brief sightings and distribution map is also specified.

  14. Uptake, retention and organ/tissue distribution of 137Cs by Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work describes the uptake, retention/biological elimination and organ/tissue distribution of 137Cs by freshwater Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) under laboratory conditions. The fish were divided into three groups based on their size and age and reared in 137Cs-spiked water. The concentration of 137Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured at regular intervals up to 60 days. A significant accumulation of 137Cs was found, but a steady state condition was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factors at steady state and the required time to reach steady state were estimated to be 1.55 and 255 days, 1.76 and 180 days and 1.99 and 160 days for large, medium and small size fish, respectively. To determine the effective half-life of 137Cs, the fish were transferred and reared in the non-contaminated host water. The concentration of the remaining 137Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured up to 66 days. The average effective half-life of 137Cs in the fish species was found to be ∼142 days for fish of all sizes. The distribution of 137Cs in different organs/tissues of the fish was determined. Accumulation of 137Cs in muscle/flesh of the fish was found to be ∼75% of whole body accumulation. The uptake rate and the retention capability of juvenile fish were found to be higher and therefore, these were more susceptible to 137Cs than adult and old fish, and could be an important source of 137Cs in the human food chain

  15. Uptake, retention and organ/tissue distribution of 137Cs by Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work describes the uptake, retention/biological elimination and organ/tissue distribution of 137Cs by Japanese Catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) under laboratory conditions. The fish were divided in to three groups viz. large, medium and small based on their size and age and reared into the 137Cs spiked water. The concentration of 137Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured at certain intervals up to 60 days. A significant accumulation of 137Cs was found but a steady state condition was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The Bfs at steady state condition and the required time were estimated to be 1.55 and 255 d, 1.76 and 180 d and 1.99 and 160 d for large, medium and small size fish respectively. To determine the effective halflife of 137Cs, the fish were transferred and reared into the non contaminated host water. The concentration of the remaining 137Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured up to 66 days. The average effective half-life of 137Cs in the fish species was found to be ∼ 142 days for all size of fish. The uptake rate and the retention capability of juvenile fish were found to be higher and therefore, more susceptible to 137Cs than adult and old fish and could be an important source of 137Cs in the human food chain. The distribution of 137Cs in different organs/tissues of the fish were determined. Accumulation of 137Cs in muscle/flesh of the fish was found to be ∼ 75% of whole body accumulation. (author)

  16. Genetic parameter estimation for juvenile growth and upper thermal tolerance in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tianshi; KONG Jie; LIU Baosuo; WANG Qingyin; CAO Baoxiang; LUAN Sheng; WANG Weiji

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-six half-sib groups (53 full-sib families) of turbot,Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus, were obtained by artificial insemination. We measured growth in the offspring (40-50 individuals/family) and subjected them to a thermal tolerance challenge over a period of 34 d. There was no significant difference in daily mor-tality (range: 0.580%-1.391%) between Days 1-13 during the thermal tolerance challenge. However, daily cumulative mortality increased rapidly between Days 14 and 29, especially on Days 15 and 16 (20.232% and 34.377%, respectively). Mortality was highest on Day 16 (14.145%). We estimated the genetic parameters using the average information restricted maximum likelihood method. We used a likelihood ratio test to evaluate the significance of effects in models with and without identity as an effect, and compared the final log-likelihoods (maximum log L). Lastly, we estimated phenotypic and genetic correlation between the up-per thermal tolerance limit (UTT) and body weight (BW). In this study, the positive phenotypic correlation was low between UTT and BW (0.093±0.029). The genetic correlation between UTT and BW was negative (-0.044±0.239). The heritability for upper thermal tolerance was low (0.087±0.032), which is of approximate-ly moderate heritability. The heritability for body weight was high (0.303±0.074). Our results suggest there is significant potential for improvement in the culture of turbot by selective breeding.

  17. Nosema sp. PM-1, a new isolate of microsporidian from infected Papilio machaon Linnaeus, based on ultrastructure and molecular identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Xu, Jinshan; Luo, Bo; Chen, Jie; Li, Zeng; Li, Tian; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Xueyan; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-06-01

    A new microsporidium, Nosema sp. PM-1, was first isolated from Papilio machaon Linnaeus. The spore shape of the PM-1 isolate was a long oval with an average size of 3.22 μm × 1.96 μm. Ultrastructure observation showed that PM-1 had a typical Nosema common diplokaryotic nuclei structure with 10-13 polar filament coils, spore wall, plasma membrane, and anchoring disk. The complete rRNA gene sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification and each rRNA unit was arrayed as follows: 5'-LSU (2497 bp)-ITS (179 bp)-SSU (1232 bp)-IGS (278 bp)-5S (115 bp)-3', which was the same as typical Nosema. The phylogenetic trees of rRNA, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit, and tubulin genes all show that PM-1 was a sister to the clade comprising Nosema bombycis, Nosema spodopterae, and Nosema sp. PX1. The spore morphology, ultrastructure, and complete rRNA structure indicate that this isolate assigned to the ˝true˝ Nosema group, can parasitized in Papilio machaon Linnaeus, which provides a wider host range for Nosema. PMID:26204003

  18. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skins. Objective: To determine the optimum conditions with the maximum yield of the pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC extraction. Materials and Methods: The conditions of the extraction were optimized using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the three independent variables (extraction time, enzyme concentration, and solid-liquid ratio on the PSC yield of the sturgeon skin. Results: The optimal conditions were: solid-liquid ratio of 1:11.88, enzyme concentration of 2.42%, and extraction time of 6.45 h. The maximum yield of 86.69% of PSC was obtained under the optimal conditions. This value was not significantly different from the predicted value (87.4% of the RSM (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the production of PSC from sturgeon skin is feasible and beneficial. The patterns of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns (SDS-PAGE indicated that the sturgeon skin contains type I collagen, which is made of α-chain and β-chain. The infrared spectra of the collagens also indicated that pepsin hydrolysis does not affect the secondary structure of collagen, especially triple-helical structure.

  19. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  20. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands--a controlled mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Limbu, Samwel; Cannicci, Stefano; Mgaya, Yunus; Kristensen, Erik; Paula, José

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. PMID:19640623

  1. Anidamientoydieta de Harpia harpyja Linnaeus en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno, Madre de Dios, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Renzo P. Piana

    2013-01-01

    El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus) es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infi erno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indica...

  2. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL LIMITATIVE FACTORS FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN EXTENSIVELY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. DIMA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and most common method of increasing fish is a fish breeding ponds in which the supervision of nutrition and growth of biological material. Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus ruthenus Linnaeus 1785 is the 4th of sturgeon scale and economic importance as a share of production of these fish .Monitoring of physicochemical parameters of sturgeons ponds has a crucial role to obtain satisfactory yields both in qualitative and quantitative. Chemical characteristics of water were determined in laboratory ecosystems Chemistry of the Institute of Research and Development for Ecology Aquaculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture Galaţi for the samples have been taken of the total water. Determination of the chemical characteristics was performed by standardized methods. Physic-chemical parameters of water were determined according to norm on the classification of surface water quality in order to establish the ecological status of water (Order no. 161/2006, for Class II of quality.

  3. Effects of seasonal variations and collection methods on the mineral composition of propolis from Apis mellifera Linnaeus Beehives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E A; Zaluski, R; Veiga, N; Orsi, R O

    2016-06-01

    The effects of seasonal variations and the methods of collection of propolis produced by Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, on the composition of constituent minerals such as magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), and potassium (K) were evaluated. Propolis was harvested from 25 beehives by scraping or by means of propolis collectors (screen, "intelligent" collector propolis [ICP], lateral opening of the super [LOS], and underlay method). During the one-year study, the propolis produced was harvested each month, ground, homogenized, and stored in a freezer at -10 ºC. Seasonal analyses of the mineral composition were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey-Kramer's test to compare the mean values (pminerals (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, and Cu), and the propolis harvesting method affects the contents of 4 minerals (Mg, Zn, Fe, and Ca). PMID:26934152

  4. Anti-tumor effect and influence of Gekko gecko Linnaeus on the immune system of sarcoma 180-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qi; Han, Shiyu; Zhang, Yuanlong; Zheng, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Gekko gecko Linnaeus (GgL) is an extract used in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, we examined the anti-tumor activity of GgL and its effect on the immune system of mice. Sarcoma 180-bearing mice were used as the animal model, and cisplatin was applied as the positive control drug. The mice were randomly divided into six groups, and each group was treated with a different drug or drug concentration. The effects of GgL were evaluated based on its anti-tumor activity and prolongation of the lifespan, the lymphocyte transformation rate and pathological changes observed in the tumors. The results suggest that GgL has anti-tumor activities and up-regulates the immune system in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides original data related to the anti-tumor and immune up-regulating function of GgL. PMID:21475868

  5. Ultrastructure of Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) is a common parasite of various galliform birds worldwide. Although A. galli has been extensively studied by many author, knowledge of the morphology of this species in detail is still insufficient. In the present paper, the detailed morphology of A. galli was further studied using light and scanning electron microscopy, based on specimens collected from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in China. The results revealed some erroneous and previously unreported morphological features, including the lips lacking real denticles, the lateral alae beginning at some distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips and the caudal papillae with 4 different morphotypes. The present morphological and morphometric data complement previous descriptions and enable us to recognize this species more precisely. PMID:26751873

  6. Ecological Status of a Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) Population at the Southern Edge of its Distribution (River Paiva, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ronaldo; Amorim, Ângela; Sobral, Carina; Froufe, Elsa; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    An important population of the critically endangered pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) was surveyed at the edge of its southern distribution (River Paiva, Portugal). Although an earlier study suggested that this population had a very low number of individuals (preference for areas near the banks, in shallow water, sandier and gravel sediments, and a high degree of riparian vegetation cover. The population structure was skewed with a very high percentage of large (and old) animals but 3.7 % of the individuals collected were juveniles (<60 mm in length); therefore, this population can be considered functional. Environmental characterization indicated that this river is still in excellent or good condition although some areas showed deterioration due to discharge of domestic effluents. The main conservation requirements of M. margaritifera in the River Paiva include maintaining the water quality (and if possible stopping the discharge of domestic effluents), increasing riparian vegetation cover, removing several weirs to increase connectivity, and increasing trout density.

  7. KUNJKA (Arca noae LINNAEUS, 1758) – ŠTO MORAMO ZNATI PRIJE UVOĐENJA OVE VRSTE U AKVAKULTURU?

    OpenAIRE

    Župan, Ivan; Peharda, Melita; Ezgeta-Balić, Daria; Šarić, Tomislav

    2012-01-01

    Kunjka Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758 jedna je od najvažnijih komercijalno iskorištavanih vrsta školjkaša na istočnoj obali Jadrana. Visoki intenzitet ribolova, kao posljedica rastuće potražnje na tržištu, u budućnosti bi mogao dovesti do pretjerane eksploatacije prirodnih populacija u pojedinim područjima. Kada se navedenim činjenicama pridoda i visoka cijena na tržištu, kunjka A. noae se nameće kao moguća nova vrsta u akvakulturu. Nedavno je provedeno nekoliko istraživanja o biologiji i ekologij...

  8. PREBAČAJ KUNJKE Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758 IZ PRIRODNIH UVJETA U RAZLIČITE UVJETE EKSPERIMENTALNOG UZGOJA

    OpenAIRE

    Župan, Ivan; Rogošić, Jozo; Šarić, Tomislav; Kanski, Danijel

    2013-01-01

    Kunjka Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758 je jedna od komercijalno važnih vrsta školjkaša u Hrvatskoj koja se izlovljava iz prirodnih staništa. Istražili smo odnos dužina prema spolu, udio spolova i preživljavanje nakon prebačaja iz prirodnog staništa u eksperimentalne uzgojne uvjete. Statistički značajno manje dužine uočene su kod mužjaka (x=52,6±8,7 mm) u odnosu na ženke (x=60,2±9,5 mm). Ukupni udio spolova bio je 1,8 : 1,0 u korist mužjaka. Preživljavanje nakon 17 mjeseci iznosilo je 20,5%. Istraživ...

  9. Use of space and temporal distribution of Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus in the region of Sagi, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil (Sirenia, Trichechidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Paludo; Alfredo Langguth

    2002-01-01

    The marine manatee Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758 is endangered in the Brazilian Atlantic coast due to indiscriminate hunting practiced in the past, and to the low reproductive rate of the species. This work studies its use of space and temporal occurrence in the coastal area of Sagi, Northeastern Brazil. Daily observations from the beach of the animals in the sea were made during daytime from 1990 through 1993. The presence of reefs covered with marine algae is a determinant facto...

  10. First study of the chemistry of the luminous system in a deep-sea shark, Etmopterus spinax Linnaeus, 1758 (Chondrichthyes: Etmopteridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Renwart, M.; Mallefet, J

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry of the luminous system in a shark is addressed for the first time. Assuming that many luminous species acquire their luminous substrate (luciferin) through the food chain, we investigated the feeding habits of a Norwegian population of the lantern shark Etmopterus spinax Linnaeus, 1758 in order to identify potential alimentary sources of luciferin in this species. Among the major groups of preys found in the diet of E. spinax, we identified three potential sources of luciferin: ...

  11. Activities of naphthoquinones against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae), vector of dengue and Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818), intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Karlos A. L.; Carvalho, Cenira Monteiro de; Molina, María Teresa; Pereira Lima, Estelita; López-Montero, Eulogio; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz Farias de; Ventura Pinto, Antonio; Santana, Antônio Euzébio G.; Goulart, Marília O. F.; Reys, José Rui M.

    2009-01-01

    Larvicidal (against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762) and molluscicidal (against Biomphalaria glabrata Say,1818) activities of several natural and synthetic naphthoquinoneswere measured, with significant results. The best larvicidal compound is 3-bromojuglone, while the better molluscicides are 2-bromo- and 3- bromo-5-acetoxy-1,4-naphthoquinones together with the 3-bromo-5-methoxy derivative. The present results reinforce the potential use of substituted hydroxyquinones, their salts and hal...

  12. NOAH’S ARK SHELL (ARCA NOAE LINNAEUS, 1758) – WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW FOR STARTING UP ITS AQUACULTURE?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Župan; Tomislav Šarić; Melita Peharda; Daria Ezgeta-Balić

    2012-01-01

    Noah’s ark shell Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most important commercially exploited bivalve species in the eastern Adriatic Sea. High harvesting pressure, as a consequence of increasing market demands, could in the future result in its overexploitation in some areas. All mentioned above, together with a high market price, make A. noae a new species for introduction into aquaculture. Several studies have recently been conducted concerning biology and ecology of A. noae in the Adriati...

  13. Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

  14. THE NUTRITION OF A PIKEPERCH, Stizostedion lucioperca Linnaeus, 1758 in THE RIVER NERETVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadbera Trožić-Borovac

    2007-04-01

    ., 1976; T r o ž i ć – B o r o v a c, 2002a, it could be concluded that a pikeperch has no competitor. The other fish species have fed on the invertebrates and plants of benthos, accept a rare lake trout Salmo trutta m. lacustris Linnaeus, 1758 specimens which have shown tendency to the greedy way of the nutrition. This paper is the contribution to the knowledge of a pikeperch nutrition in the river Neretva accumulations that is, beside the reproduction, the important character of population growth control of this greedy animal, and in the aim of the survival of the autochthonous ichthyopopulations in the river Neretva system.

  15. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1950-01-01

    SUMMARY: A population study of the box turtle (Terrapene c. carolina Linnaeus) was made during the years 1944 to 1947 at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland. A thirty acre area in well drained bottomland forest on the flood plain of the Patuxent River was selected for intensive study. Similarly forested land extended in all directions from the study plot. Markers were established at eighty-three foot intervals over the study plot for reference in recording locality data. Individuals were marked by filing notches in the marginal scutes according to a code system. There were 2109 collections of study area turtles. Records of collecting sites and turtle behavior showed that in the bottomlands habitat cover is utilized extensively during the day as well as at night. Turtles not actively moving about are almost always found in or around brush piles, heaps of debris, and tangles of vines and briars. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Turtles are occasionally found in the mud or water of the gullies. The commonest type of night retreat is a cavity constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. These cavities, termed 'forms,' may be used only once, but are sometimes used repeatedly, often at intervals of several days or more. Different turtles sometimes use the same form on successive nights. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. The most unfavorable influences are low temperatures and drought. On most summer days there are some active turtles but individual turtles are not active every day. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet even in favorable weather. This behavior is most pronounced in early spring and late fall when inactive days are often more numerous than active ones. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. The turtles living in the study plot retained their ranges even through a flood that completely

  16. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Belém-Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas subst

  17. Serologic evidence of Leishmania infection in free-ranging wild and domestic canids around a Brazilian National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Henrique de Almeida Curi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of disease between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans is of great concern to conservation issues and public health. Here we report on the prevalence of anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies in 21 wild canids (7 Chrysocyon brachyurus, 12 Cerdocyon thous, and 2 Lycalopex vetulus and 74 free domestic dogs (Canis familiaris sampled around the Serra do Cipó National Park. In dogs, the apparent prevalence was 8.1% and in wild canids it was 19% (2 crab-eating foxes, C. thous, and 2 maned wolves, C. brachyurus. Management of the domestic dog population with evaluation of incidence changes in humans and wildlife, and enlightenment on the role of wild reservoirs are essential issues for future action and research.

  18. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang HB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Bin Chang,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 µg/mL, demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 µg/mL, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 µg/mL. A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 µg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.Keywords: curcuminoid extract, curcuminoid nanoemulsion, Curcuma longa Linnaeus, lung cancer cell, cell cycle, apoptosis mechanism

  19. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino anterior de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae foregut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Vieira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foregut in D. hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 as the majority of the larval Diptera somatic tissue, is made up of polytenic cells, and grows at the expenses of the polytenization of its nuclei followed by the increase in size of each cell. The oesophagus, of ectodermic origem, is interiorly covered by a chitinous squamous epithelium that rests upon a very thin basal lamina. This sheet is surrounded by thick muscle bundles. The oesophagus intussuscepts the midgut forming the cardia. The cardia, with three epithelial layers: two internal ones, of ectodermal origin and one external of endodermic origin. At the anterior portion of the cardia, between these two types of epithelium, there is a cluster of small, non polytenic cells, forming the imaginal disk of the foregut. Metamoiphosis begins at the end of the larval period with signs of nuclear degeneration of all the polytenic cells, as well as the increase in number of the imaginal disk ones. The oesophagic portion intussuscepted into the cardia, everts; its cells suffer apoptosis and are replaced by the new cells growing from the imaginal disk. The external layer cells also degenerate and are pinched off into the lumen of the very anterior portion of the midgut. The newly formed oesophagus intussuscepts "de novo" to form the two internal layers of the adult cardia. At the same time the midgut regenerative cells grow anteriorly to form the new external layer of the adult cardia.

  20. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino médio de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae midgut

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    Edy de Lello

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 midgut is internally lined by an epithelium of polytenic cells, some low others prismatic with well developed brush border. Their apical portion are enlarged by secretory vesicles, forming button-like structures that are pinched off to the lumen, some accompained by the nucleus characterizing apocrine and holocrine secretions. This epithelium is gradually renewed by small, non polytenic regenerative cells, found scattered at its basal portion. At the end of the third instar the metamorphosis begins. The epithelial cells present signs of degeneration and at the first day of pupation the regenerative cells increase in number. By the 5th day of pupation these regenerative cells, besides being increased in number, differentiate themselves into two layers: one similar to the dense conective tissue that sustainning the larval epithelium is pinched off to the midgut lumen forming the "yellow bodies"; the other, develops right under it as the imaginal epitelium. The disorganized muscles bundles of the midgut wall, are invaded by phagocytes. At the end of pupation the midgut has a low prismatic epithelium with brush-border. In the adult, the torax portion of the midgut has prismatic homogeneously basophilic epithelium while in the abdominal portion the epithelium is made of high prismatic cells full of small vacuoles. The larval midgut epithelium suffers programmed cell death non compatible with apoptose. During the metamorphosis the midgut lenght diminishes from 31mm in the larva to 14mm in the adult.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Monogalactosyl Diacylglycerols and a Monoacylglycerol from the Edible Brown Seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus

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    Graciliana Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A monoacylglycerol (1 and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs (2 and 3 were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS and by comparison with the literature. Compound 1 was composed of a glycerol moiety linked to oleic acid (C18:1 Ω9. Compounds 2 and 3 contained a glycerol moiety linked to a galactose unit and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 Ω3 combined with octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 Ω3 or linolenic acid (C18:3 Ω3, respectively. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. All of them inhibited NO production at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The fraction consisting of compounds 2 and 3, in a ratio of 1:1, was slightly more effective than compound 1 (IC50 of 60.06 and 65.70 µg/mL, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds from F. spiralis and on their anti-inflammatory capacity.

  2. Anidamientoydieta de Harpia harpyja Linnaeus en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno, Madre de Dios, Perú

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    Renzo P. Piana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infi erno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indicarían una cierta preferencia para anidar en castañales. Así mismo, la información recogida ha permitido establecer que el área de anidamiento de una pareja de Águilas Arpía en la zona de estudio es de aproximadamente 4300 hectáreas. El análisis de los restos de las presas consumidas y de las egagrópilas recolectadas dentro y alrededor de la base de los nidos nos han permitido hacer una primera descripción de la dieta de la especie, la cual está compuesta principalmente por mamíferos arbóreos.

  3. Temperature induced variation in oxygen consumption of juvenile and adult stage of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wan Nurul Husna Wan; Amin, S. M. Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2015-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the important edible sea snail within the western Johor Straits, Malaysia. In this study, the impact of temperature on oxygen consumption (MO2) of L. canarium based on their ontogenetic changes (juvenile and adult) was measured in the laboratory condition at 22.0, 26.0, 30.0 and 34.0°C. Measurement of MO2 were taken every 1 s for 60 min on 4.20 - 34.00 g dog conch using respirometry chamber. All experiments were carried out in static conditions in five replicates with one snail per chambers. The results of oxygen consumption showed that juvenile dog conch respired at the rate of 0.163 ml h-1 and adult respired at the rate of 0.119 ml h-1. Consequently, the oxygen consumption in juvenile and adult dog conch was expressed as a total energy spends. The results indicates that total energy spend for oxygen consumed (ml h-1) of L. canarium at different temperature regimes (22.0 to 34.0°C) slightly increased over time period (0.63 ± 0.12 to 3.24 ± 0.05 J h-1) respectively. This finding of the present study suggested L. canarium is well adapted for life in high temperature environment.

  4. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

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    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  5. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

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    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  6. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of <70%, and 12 hours photophase. Fifteen hymenopteran specimens were dissected daily to evaluate their stage and development time. The phenology concluded that S. endius had a development cycle of 19 days with an incubation period of 24 hours. The development of the larvae of S. endius occurred in the subsequent eight days, during which a series of morphological alterations were observed. The pre-pupal stage occurred on the tenth day, where the movement ceased and elimination of the meconium started. The pupal stage occurred from the 11th to the 19th day, with emergence of males first, followed by female emergence approximately 24 hours later. These results allowed the evaluation of aspects of the detailed bionomics of the development of S. endius in order to record and program production of this parasitoid, thus optimizing its utilization as a biological control agent.

  7. Origin, distribution, and insertion of the brachial plexus nerves in Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758

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    Kamal Achôa Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has about 80 species of parrots cataloged, and five of them are identified as Macaws. As the vast majority of birds, Macaws use flight as their primary means of locomotion. However, the strength and power generated during the cycle of beating wings require a mechanism of active neuromuscular control and specialized adaptations of muscles responsible for flight, which are innervated by the brachial plexus. This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of peripheral nerves that make up the brachial plexus in Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758, in order to aid the veterinarian to recognize and locate neuromuscular lesions in this species. We used five dead bodies, obtained from the Screening Center for Wild Animals in Paraíba, Brazil, in which the nerves were identified by direct dissection. Four nerve roots were viewed, originating three nerve trunks, which stem from the intervertebral spaces between the tenth cervical vertebra and the second thoracic vertebra. Nerves from the dorsal cord innervated extensor muscles, while ventral cord nerves innervated flexor muscles of the wing, in addition to the pectoral branches, responsible to innervate the superficial thoracic and shoulder muscles.

  8. Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cob, Zaidi Che; Arshad, Aziz; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan

    2011-07-01

    Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals. The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. A total of 32.81% of adult females showed imposex characteristics, with varying degrees of severity though. The relative penis size (RPS) index ranged from 1.74 to 33.29 (mean = 13.40 ± 2.27, n = 21), while the relative penis length (RPL) index ranged from 6.28 to 55.19 (mean = 25.83 ± 3.33, n = 21). The use of vas deferens sequence (VDS) index was however cannot be applied as the presence of egg groove obscured any vas deferens development in affected females. Sequence of imposex (male penis) development in female conch, from merely a small stump to an advance male penis homologous was therefore carefully analyzed and described, and an alternative imposex classification scheme was proposed. S. canarium can be a good indicator for monitoring of organotin pollution within the study area. However, more studies are needed in order to further develop and test its validity and application, such as its correlation with levels of pollutant within the tissues and the environment, as well as its application on other Strombus species. PMID:20824325

  9. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands - A controlled mesocosm experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. - Terebralia palustris high ecosystem engineering potential in constructed mangrove wetlands.

  10. Sexual segregation of Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (Acanthocephala) in the gut of burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Arto; Tellervo Valtonen, E; Benesh, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Helminths often occupy defined niches in the gut of their definitive hosts. In the dioecious acanthocephalans, adult males and females usually have similar gut distributions, but sexual site segregation has been reported in at least some species. We studied the intestinal distribution of the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (syn. of E. cinctulus Porta, 1905) in its definitive host, burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus). Over 80% of female worms were found in the pyloric caeca, whereas the majority of males were in the anterior two-thirds of the intestine. This difference was relatively consistent between individual fish hosts. Worms from different parts of the gut did not differ in length, so site segregation was not obviously related to worm growth or age. We found proportionally more males in the caeca when a larger fraction of the females were found there, suggesting mating opportunities influence gut distribution. However, this result relied on a single parasite infrapopulation and is thus tentative. We discuss how mating strategies and/or sexual differences in life history might explain why males and females occupy different parts of the burbot gut. PMID:26580557

  11. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands - A controlled mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@biology-research.co [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Bartolini, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Limbu, Samwel [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Cannicci, Stefano [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mgaya, Yunus [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kristensen, Erik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Paula, Jose [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. - Terebralia palustris high ecosystem engineering potential in constructed mangrove wetlands.

  12. Modeling suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in North and South America’s coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Paul H.; Young, Nicholas E.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    We used two common correlative species-distribution models to predict suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. The Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) model were applied using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling. We compared models developed using native occurrences, using non-native occurrences, and using both native and non-native occurrences. Models were trained using occurrence data collected before 2010 and evaluated with occurrence data collected from the invaded range during or after 2010. We considered a total of 22 marine environmental variables. Models built with non-native only or both native and non-native occurrence data outperformed those that used only native occurrences. Evaluation metrics based on the independent test data were highest for models that used both native and non-native occurrences. Bathymetry was the strongest environmental predictor for all models and showed increasing suitability as ocean floor depth decreased, with salinity ranking the second strongest predictor for models that used native and both native and non-native occurrences, indicating low habitat suitability for salinities <30. Our model results also suggest that red lionfish could continue to invade southern latitudes in the western Atlantic Ocean and may establish localized populations in the eastern Pacific Ocean. We reiterate the importance in the choice of the training data source (native, non-native, or native/non-native) used to develop correlative species distribution models for invasive species.

  13. Susceptibilidad y mecanismos de resistencia a insecticidas de uso en salud pública en poblaciones naturales de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) del departamento de Casanare

    OpenAIRE

    Ardila Roldán, Susanne Carolina

    2012-01-01

    El dengue constituye un grave problema de salud pública para Casanare, Orinoquía, Colombia. La principal estrategia para el manejo de la enfermedad está dirigida al control de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) el insecto que transmiten la enfermedad. Para ello se utilizan insecticidas de síntesis química que permitan cortar la transmisión de la enfermedad durante brotes o epidemias. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar el estado de susceptibilidad a insecticidas autorizados por el Gobierno N...

  14. Hepatopankreas u nekih vrsta morskih riba i struktura jetre u arbuna (Pagellus erythinus, Linnaeus) i pišmolja (Merlangius merlangus euxinus, Nordmann, 1840)

    OpenAIRE

    Nejedli, Srebrenka; Tlak Gajger, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Istraživanja su provedena na jetri 29 vrsta iz 20 različitih porodica riba iz Jadrana (Hrvatska). U jetri 20 vrsta riba hepatopankreas je pronađen, ali ne uvijek u istih porodica. Provedene su histološke i stereološke analize jetre u deset arbuna, Pagellus erythinu (Linnaeus, 1758) i pišmolja, Merlangius merlangus euxinus (Nordmann, 1840). U jetri arbuna prisutan je manji udio jetrenog tkiva 85,81% i krvnih žila 2,50% te veći udio hepatopankreasnog tkiva 14,19% i krvnih žila u hepatopankreasu...

  15. Results regarding growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) fed with an additive feed, vitamin C, in a recirculating aquaculture system.

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Ciortan Mirea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin C status on growth performance, survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) with average weight of 93±1,0 g were fed with different dietary vitamin C rations and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Growth performance , survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia were measured in groups fed diets supplemented with 100, 750, 2000 mg.kg-1L-a...

  16. Confirmation of the presence of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 (Pomacanthidae in Iraqi marine waters, Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad, L. A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens (116,119 mm TL of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and four specimens (171–190 mm TL of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 were collected from Iraqi marine waters of the Arabian Gulf. These findings confirm the presence of H. acuminatus and establish the first record of P. maculosus from Iraqi waters. The samples were captured by hook and line off the coasts of Al–Fao City Peninsula, southern Iraq. Arabian Gulf. morphometric and meristic data are provided and compared with data from other parts of the world.

  17. Behavioural responses of captive-born greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submitted to antipredator training Respostas comportamentais de emas cativas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submetidas a treinamentoanti-predação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have been diminishing greater rhea Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 populations throughout their natural distribution. The reintroductions of captive-born greater rheas have been tried but without success; since the individuals reintroduced were killed by predators. Captive-born animals that have been isolated from predators for many generations can lose their predator recognition abilities. To enhance the survival rates of the reintroduced animals, researchers are now using antipredator training techniques. We studied the response of 15 zoo-borne greater rheas to antipredator training. The animals were divided into three groups: two test groups and one control group. We ran 15 antipredator tests and four control testes with each group. Antipredator tests consisted of pairing a taxidermized predator model or a real predator (domestic dog with a simulation of a capture procedure. Control tests consisted of presenting the predator model (jaguar to the birds, after training but not associating it with an aversive event and recording behavioural responses. All tests were video-recorded and analysed a posteriori. Results showed that the trained rheas responded appropriately to the predators, becoming more vigilant and that there was considerable individual differences in response to antipredator training. The results demonstrated that antipredator training is effective and therefore an invaluable tool for reintroduction projects involving greater rheas. Furthermore, the methods employed in this research project should be applicable to other species of flightless birds.As atividades humanas têm diminuído as populações de emas Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 por toda sua área de distribuição. Reintroduções de emas nascidas em cativeiro têm sido tentadas, mas sem sucesso, uma vez que os indivíduos reintroduzidos são mortos por predadores. Animais nascidos em cativeiro que foram isolados de seus predadores por várias gera

  18. A new species of Agonopterix feeding on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in the Caucasus, with a discussion of the nomenclature of A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Depressariidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Lvovsky, Alexandr L.; Nielsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Agonopterix caucasiella sp.n. is described and compared with its closest relatives, A. ciliella (Stainton, 1849) and A. heracliana (Linnaeus, 1758). Adults and genitalia of these species are figured. The life history of A. caucasiella sp.n. in the Caucasus is described. Its larva feeds in the...

  19. DYNAMICS OF PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS LINNAEUS, 1758 AGE STRUCTURE IN THE DNIEPER LOWER REACHES IN CONNECTION WITH FISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the dynamics of pike (Esox luceus Linnaeus, 1758 age structure of the Dnieper lower reaches in conditions of the modification of fishing pressure. Methodology. An analysis of fishing situation has been performed based on data of official fishery statistics. Fish sampling was done at control-observation posts of the Institute of Fisheries of the NAAS of Ukraine and directly in the fishery. Juvenile fish yield was determined using a complex of fry fishing gears using a stationary net-station. Field and cameral processing of the material was performed using generally accepted methods. Findings. A retrospective analysis of the situation in the Dnieper-Bug lower reach system clearly indicates on the presence of continuous tendency of catch decline of representative of native fish fauna – pike. With relatively uniform indices of the “yield” of its juveniles before Dnieper flow impoundment and in conditions of present time, its commercial catches significantly dropped. The dynamics of pike current age structure indicates on an increase of relative density of age groups, which form the recruitment of the commercial portion of the population (1-1+ and a decrease of importance of the component of the right side of age series. A discrepancy between the observed changes of the age group and commercial harvest quantities indicates on increased human pressure on this species. Originality. For the first, we analyzed the dynamics of fish juvenile “yield” and age structure of pike commercial stock of the Dnieper lower reaches in the river flow transformation process. Practical value. A decrease of the ichthyomass of piscivorous fishes in the Dnieper lower reaches results in changes of fish populations of littoral biotopes towards the prevalence of the dominance of coarse species that lead to a deterioration of forage availability for a number of valuable commercial species. An increase of the number of pike can regulate the strain

  20. Cs-134 transfer from water or food to the Ciprinid Tinca tinca Linnaeus: uptake and loss kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments with 134Cs and the fish Tinca tinca Linnaeus (fam. Cyprinidae), as a part of a more extensive work, concerning a simplified freshwater trophic chain using water from Fratel dam, (at Tejo River), were undertaken. Direct uptake from water, during a period of about 30 days, leads to a kinetics expressed by the power function: CF(t) = 0.58 t0.781 (t in days), the concentration factor (CF) referred to wet weight. Retention study, showed the existence of two biological half-lives, Tb1 = 7 days and Tb2 = 87 days, which might concern respectively, the 134Cs desorption from the transit organs and the loss of the assimilated isotope from the storage organs. In the accumulation through the food chain, using planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera) as prey, a transfer factor (TF) related to wet weight of both fish and prey, is estimated through the power function: TF(t) = 0.022 t0.578 (t in days). Finally, the retention study following the food pathway contamination, stresses the existence of one long term component, with half-life Tb = 61 days. The transfer factor kinetics seems to point out to a rather slow process, leading to lower 134 Cs concentration values, than the contamination through the water. The loss of the assimilated 134Cs, uptaken through both pathways, water or food, is a slow process. The longer biological half-life is very important in Radiological Protection, once it may be attributed to the radionuclide loss from the muscular mass. (author)

  1. Fungos Filamentosos Associados às Espécies Atta sexdens (Linnaeus e Atta laevigata (F. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Dornelas

    2016-04-01

    Abstract. Leaf-cutting ants, Atta and Acromyrmex genera, are considered major pests in a neotropical agroforestry system because they cut plant material that will serve as food for the symbiotic fungus cultivated by them. Several fungi naturally occurring in the soil can be found associated with leaf-cutting ants, many of them are demonstrably entomopathogenic. However, these agents have not been used as biological control of leaf-cutting ants. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify filamentous fungi associated with forage workers of Atta sexdens (Linnaeus and Atta laevigata (F. Smith and to test their pathogenicity against workers from laboratory colonies. To isolate filamentous fungi, it was collected a total of 180 forage workers (30 in each colony in six field colonies, 90 of A. sexdens and 90 workers of A. laevigata. Six fungi species from A. sexdens were isolated and identified: Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin, Aspergillus flavus Link, Acremonium sp. 1, Aspergillus sp. 1, Colletotrichum sp. and Acremonium sp. 2. In A. laevigata, it was found four species: Mucor sp., Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani (Martius Saccardo, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem. Three of these fungi were selected for pathogenicity tests against workers of the leaf-cutting ant A. sexdens: A. flavus, A. niger and M. anisopliae. The LT50 (time to cause 50% mortality of workers in tests with A. niger and M. anisopliae were five days and significantly lower than the control group. Therefore, further tests should proceed with those isolates to demonstrate their potential use in the biological control of leaf-cutting ants.

  2. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae infestation in artificial containers in Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil

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    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide, with cases reported annually in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, the main vector of dengue, is a domiciliary species with high dispersal and survival capacities and can use various artificial containers as breeding sites. We assessed potential container breeding sites of A. aegypti in the municipality of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: In the initial phase, we analyzed 900 properties in 3 neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons (August-October 2005 and February-April 2006, respectively. During the second sampling period, September 2006-August 2007, we used 5 assessment cycles for 300 properties in a single neighborhood. RESULTS: During the dry and rainy seasons, water-storage containers comprised 55.7% (n = 1,970 and 48.5% (n = 1,836 of the total containers inspected, and showed the highest productivity of immature A. aegypti; we found 23.7 and 106.1 individuals/container, respectively, in peridomicile sites. In intradomicile sites, water-storage containers were also the most important breeding sites with 86.4% (n = 973 and 85.6% (n = 900 of all containers and a mean of 7.9 and 108.3 individuals/container in the dry and rainy seaso-October 2006 (1,342. The highest number of positives (70 was recorded in May, mostly (94% in storage containers. CONCLUSIONS: Storage containers are the principal and most productive A. aegypti breeding sites and are a major contributing factor to the maintenance of this vector in Caxias.

  3. Upstream migration, reproduction and fishery of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 in the River Ulla (NW Spain

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    Sergio Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available After a juvenile haematophagous stage developed mainly at sea, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 stop feeding and return to the river to spawn. One of the main pressures in this stage is the presence of obstacles that reduce the accessible habitat, the mobility of individuals within this section and the energy resources available for gonad development and spawning. In addition, in the River Ulla, adults are targeted in a commercial fishery, using fyke-nets in the upper estuary and fishing in pesqueiras, which are stone constructions placed on the river bed, in the low section of the river. This study advances in the knowledge of the upstream migration (and related impact of barriers, reproduction and fishery of P. marinus in the River Ulla. The study combined fieldwork (radiotelemetry tracking of 19 adults in years 2012 and 2013 and inventory and characterization of obstacles, with information on the capture of lampreys (years 2000 to 2010 by commercial fishing and by a fixed trap located in the middle section of the river. The migration period in this river runs from January, or even December, until June, followed by reproduction in May and June. A total of 48 anthropogenic obstacles (all small-medium sized barriers except the last three, which are impassable, including 20 pesqueiras, were identified as a relevant obstacle for sea lamprey migration (which joins the impact of fishing performed in these sites. Hence, still more attention must be paid to "small" barriers, as pesqueiras, and to fisheries to properly conserve and manage populations of this and other anadromous lamprey species.

  4. Induction of gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid and doubled haploid development in the brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, O; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Sapota, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-04-01

    Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation-induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation-induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes. PMID:25601334

  5. Spatially explicit genetic structure in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759 within the framework of the monopolisation hypothesis

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    Livia Lucentini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An apparent paradox is known for crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans living in inland small water bodies: a potential for wide distribution due to the presence of resting stages is coupled with marked genetic differences between nearby water bodies, with enclave distributions masking clear phylogeographic patterns. According to the monopolisation hypothesis, this is due to the accumulation of resting stages, monopolising each water body. Freshwater sponges could represent a useful system to assess the generality of the mo- nopolisation hypothesis: these organisms i live in the same habitats as crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans, ii produce resting stages that can accumulate, and iii have indeed a wide distribution. Currently, no studies on spatially explicit genetic differentiation on fresh- water sponges are available. The aim of the present study is to provide additional empirical evidence in support of the generality of the scenario for small aquatic animals with resting stages by analysing genetic diversity at different spatial scales for an additional model system, the freshwater sponge ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759. We expected that system genetic variability would follow enclave distributions, no clear phylogeographical patterns would be present, and nearby unconnected water bodies would show markedly different populations for this new model too. We analysed the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions 5.8S-ITS2-28S, the D3 domain of 28S subunit, the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI and ten specific microsatellite markers of nine Italian and one Hungarian populations. Mitochondrial and nuclear sequences showed no or very low genetic polymorphism, whereas high levels of differentiation among populations and a significant polymorphism were observed using microsatellites. Microsatellite loci also showed a high proportion of private alleles for each population and an overall correlation between geographic and genetic

  6. Environmental influences on the Indo-Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Sonia J; Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo-Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippurisLinnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests-but does not confirm-that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulataNutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblastaZou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the Isididae is in

  7. Environmental influences on the Indo–Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo–Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippuris Linnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests—but does not confirm—that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulata Nutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblasta Zou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the

  8. Ocorrência e abundância de Rynchops niger Linnaeus, no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Occurrence and abundance of Rynchops niger Linnaeus in the coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O talha-mar Rynchops niger Linnaeus, 1758 habita os grandes rios, lagos e regiões costeiras durante as migrações, na América do Sul e do Norte. Esse trabalho tem por objetivo disponibilizar informações básicas sobre a ocorrência e abundância de talha-mar no litoral de Santa Catarina. Durante o período de abril/2002 a maio/2003 foram realizados censos sazonais (trimestrais e mensais em Itajaí, com auxílio de binóculos 10 x 50. O talha-mar é mais freqüente no aterro da Baía Sul (Florianópolis, no verão e outono, na primavera-verão em São José e Tijucas e no outono-inverno no estuário do Saco da Fazenda (Itajaí. Neste estuário, a população apresentou flutuações acentuadas ao longo do ano, com as maiores abundâncias ocorrendo em agosto/2001, janeiro/2002 e março/2003.The black skimmer inhabits the great rivers, lakes and coastal areas during the migrations, in South and North America. This work aims to make available basic information about the occurrence and abundance of the black skimmer in the coast of Santa Catarina. From April/2002 to May/2003 seasonal censuses were accomplished, and monthly in Itajaí, with aid of binoculars 10 x 50. The black skimmer is more frequent in the embankment of the South Bay (Florianópolis, in the summer and autumn, in the spring-summer in São José and Tijucas and in the autumn-winter in the estuary of the Saco da Fazenda (Itajaí. In this estuary, the population presented accentuated flotation along the year, with the largest abundances happening in August/2001, January/2002 and March/2003.

  9. Presença de anticorpos da classe IgM de Leptospira interrogans em animais silvestres do Estado do Tocantins, 2002 Presence of IgM antibodies for Leptospira interrogans in wild animals from Tocantins State, 2002

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    Milton Formiga de Souza Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Quatrocentos e vinte e sete amostras de soro provenientes de animais silvestres foram testadas frente a 18 sorovariedades de Leptospira interrogans. De 286 amostras de Cebus apella, 46 (16,1% foram positivas para as sorovariedades pomona, brasiliensis, mini, swajizak, grippothyphosa, sarmin, fluminense, autumnalis, hebdomadis, guaratuba, javanica e icterohaemorhagiae. Das 82 de Alouatta caraya, 2 (2,4% foram positivas para as sorovariedades mangus e fluminense. Das 31 de Nasua nasua, 4 (12,9% foram positivas para as sorovariedades fluminense e javanica. Das 10 amostras de Cerdocyon thous, 2 (20% foram positivas para as sorovariedades fluminense e brasiliensis. Sete de Dasyprocta sp, 6 de Tamandua tetradactila e 5 de Euphractus sexcintus não apresentaram reatividade.Four hundred and twenty-seven serum samples of wild animals were tested against 18 serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Of 286 samples of Cebus apella, 46 (16.1% were positive for the serovars pomona, brasiliensis, mini, swajizak, grippotyphosa, sarmin, fluminense, autumnalis, hebdomadis, guaratuba, javanica and icterohaemorrhagiae. Of 82 samples of Alouatta caraya, 2 (2.4% were positive for the serovars mangus and fluminense. Of 31 samples of Nasua nasua, 4 (12.9% were positive for the serovars fluminense and javanica, and of 10 samples of Cerdocyon thous, 2 (20 % were positive for the serovars fluminense and brasiliensis. Seven samples of Dasyprocta sp, 6 of Tamandua tetradactyla and 5 of Euphractus sexcintus did not present reactivity.

  10. Ciclo reprodutivo do mexilhão Perna perna (Linnaeus) (Molusca, Bivalvia) da Lagoa de Itaipu, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Reproductive cycle of Perna perna (Linnaeus) from Itaipu Lagoon, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita; Marta Guimarães de Abreu; Francisco Carlos de Lima

    2001-01-01

    The gametogenic aspects of mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) from Itaipu Lagoon, Niterói, were studied through November 1998 to October 1999. Microscopic analysis was carried out at low and high dry magnifications, as well as under oil immersion. The animals collected showed variation of size from 4.8 to 9.1 cm in total length and from 2.0 to 3.9 cm in total width. Most advanced gonadal stage was detected through May, August and October of 1999 for female specimens. Male advanced gonadal st...

  11. Estudo de uma população relictual de veado-campeiro, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus) (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) no municipio da Lapa, Paraná, Brasil A relictual population study of pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus) (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) at Lapa, Paraná State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Góss Braga Mauro de Moura-Britto; Tereza Cristina Castellano Margarido

    2000-01-01

    The pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was studied between August 1996 and September 1997 at Fazenda Santa Maria (25º34' and 25º36'S, 49º46'and 49º49'W) at Lapa, Paraná State. During that period we have collected information on feeding habits, group composition, time of the year for birth of youngsters and time for antlers change. The presence of the animal in the area was confirmed by the finding of vestiges and visual occurrences. Animais were observed feeding on young lea...

  12. Inventory and bioecological aspects of parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) associated to Erinnys ello (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in cassava crops = Inventário e aspectos bioecológicos de parasitóides do gênero Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) associados a Erinnys ello (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) em cultura da mandioca

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho; Alexandre Pinho de Moura

    2006-01-01

    This work aimed to study the population dynamics, to determinate thespecies of Trichogramma occurring in cassava crops in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, as well as to evaluate biological parameters of those parasitoids associated to Erinnys ello (Linnaeus, 1758). This study was carried out from January of 2000 to February of 2003, in plants taken at 15-days intervals. The collected eggs were kept in laboratorial climatic chambers at 25±2ºC, RH of 70±10% and 12h photophase. Du...

  13. Um caso de albinismo em Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae na Serra do Mar, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná A case of albinism in Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae in Serra do Mar, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná

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    L. A. Veiga

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is a case of alhinism in lhe Peccary Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus. 1758 (Artiodaclyla. Tayassuidae. which was observed in Colônia Castelhanos. São José dos Pinhais. Paraná, in lhe Southern Bra/il. The specimen was caplured when very young. The normal peccary (Tayassu tajacu is a dark-gray animal wilh a while hand across the ehest from shoulder Io shoulder. This animal have while skin. hlued eyes bul has pigmented feet.

  14. Considerações sobre a ocorrência da garça-vaqueira, Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus (Aves, Ardeidae, em Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Samanta Della Bella

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A Garça-vaqueira, Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758, originária da Europa Mediterrânea e da África, durante o século XX expandiu sua distribuição, alcançando inclusive o Continente americano. Este trabalho reúne dados sobre sua ocorrência e reprodução em Pernambuco, sobretudo no Agreste. Durante excursões a esta região, realizadas entre os anos de 2000 e 2003, foram localizadas três colônias reprodutivas, um sítio de pernoite, além de um local com vestígios indicativos de reprodução. Apenas uma colônia mista foi avistada. O número de indivíduos de B.ibis, observado nas margens de diferentes estradas do Agreste, percorridas entre maio de 2002 e abril de 2003, apresentaram grande variação. Essa variação pode estar relacionada a flutuações populacionais em razão de deslocamentos característicos da espécie, desconhecidos no Brasil. A maioria das garças foi observada em atividade de forrageamento, associadas ao gado. A presença da Garça-vaqueira no Agreste parece trazer benefícios para a atividade pecuária, mas essa ocorrência pode causar impactos à fauna nativa.On the occurence of the Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus (Aves, Ardeidae, in Pernambuco, Brazil. The Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758, originally from Mediterranean Europe and Africa, during the 20th century has spread out its range, also reaching the American Continent. This paper presents information on the occurrence and reproduction of Cattle Egret in Pernambuco, especially in the "Agreste" region. During expeditions to this region, between 2000 and 2003, were found three breeding colonies, one roosting place, and indications of another breeding site. Only one mixed heronry was found. A variable number of B. ibis was observed, while driving along different roads in the "Agreste", between May 2002 and April 2003. Movements of Cattle Egret's populations, which are unknown in Brazil, probably influenced this variation. In most cases, Cattle

  15. Biosécurité et productivité du tilapia du Nil Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 élevé en zone rurale ivoirienne

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    Kone, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity and Productivity of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 Bred in Ivoirian's Rural Zone. Fingerlings of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were bred in three types of fish farming of rural zone in Ivory Coast to determine impacts of the compliance of biosecurity measures on zootechnical parameters of these bred fishes. Fish farming were shared out in three types of farming based on the value of biosecurity measures compliance, which were 5%, 55%, and 83%. No significant differences were observed between mean values of physic and chemical parameters of ponds water from three types of fish farming. Concerning mean values of zootechnical parameters, the fish breeding with 83% of rate compliance of biosecurity measures had registered better values of zoo technical performance with significant differences compared with others types of fish farming.

  16. Morfometría y Descripción Morfológica del Pene Erecto del Tapir de Tierras Bajas (Tapirus terrestris. Linnaeus, 1758)

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    Robin Andrés Poches-Franco

    2007-01-01

    El tapir de tierras bajas (Tapirus terrestris. Linnaeus 1758) tiene un tamaño intermedio entre el tapir mesoamericano y el tapir de montaña. Alcanza 2 a 2,2m de longitud corporal total y una altura de 1,08m medido hasta el hombro y pesa entre 150 a 250 kg. En cuanto al pene del tapir este mide 49cm desde la glándula bulbo-uretral hasta la punta del  glande en un espécimen de estudio anatómico. Los testículos tienen 10cm de largo, 6cm de ancho antero posterior y 4cm de ancho latero lateral est...

  17. Chemical Modification of Oryza sativa Linnaeus Husk with Urea for Removal of Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide Dyes from Water by Adsorption in Environmentally Benign Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oryza sativa Linnaeus is an important food item all around the world. Due to its huge consumption, a large amount of rice husk is generated as agrowaste which can be used for water treatment by adsorption. Its adsorption capacity further can be enhanced by chemical medication. In the present study, urea modified rice husk has been used for removing Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide form water in an efficient way. After optimizing operating conditions, isothermal and thermodynamical studies were carried out, which showed that maximum adsorption capacity of urea modified rice husk for removing Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide dyes were 28.93 and 30.74 mg.g/sup -1/. Adsorbent characterization was carried out by recording its FT-IR spectra. (author)

  18. Modification of the liver fatty acids by Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae) infusion, its possible effect on vascular reactivity in a metabolic syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zúñiga Muñoz, Alejandra; Beltrán-Rodríguez, Ulises; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Guarner Lans, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (HSL)-fed infusion on the fatty acid (FA) profile in liver of metabolic syndrome (MS) rats and its possible effect on vascular reactivity. Body mass, intra-abdominal fat, triglycerides, insulin, blood pressure, saturated, monounsaturated FA, NEFAs, Δ(9)-, Δ(6)-desaturases and vasoconstriction were increased, while vasorelaxation, polyunsaturated FA, endothelial nitric oxide and [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratio decreased in MS versus Control, but HSL infusion modified it and increased Δ(5)-desaturase. The results suggest that the alteration in FA liver metabolism in the MS contributes to impaired vascular reactivity, but treatment with of HSL infusion can improve this condition. PMID:23734849

  19. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

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    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  20. Hematological characterization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 reared intensively in a recirculating aquaculture system in relation to water temperature

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    Catalina Ciortan Mirea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain a basic knowledge of the hematological response of Oreochromis niloticus mantained in different tchnological condition induced by different temperatures. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 with average weight of 33,5±1,0 g, they were stocked in 12 rearing units at 20, 24,30 and 280C (control water temperature for 30 days. Diet of 41 % protein was offered as feed, 3 times daily. The sampling of Oreochromis niloticus blood from the four variants before and after the experimental trial allowed determination of hematological indices. Red blood cel count (RBCc, hematocrit values (Hct, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular concentration (MCHC, glucose and protein from blood were measured and analysed, with routine methods udes in fish hematology.

  1. Introduction to a new invasive pest, Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae)%外来入侵新害虫——无花果蜡蚧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海斌; 武三安

    2013-01-01

    无花果蜡蚧Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus)原产于非洲,是危害经济林和园林树种的重要害虫.2007年被列入《中华人民共和国进境植物检疫性有害生物名录》中.2012年4月下旬,该虫于广东省茂名市和四川省攀枝花市的榕树上被首次发现,为我国的新入侵害虫.本文介绍了其形态特征、地理分布、寄主植物、生物学和经济重要性等.

  2. Una nueva especie de Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 del suroeste de Marruecos incluida en el grupo de M. (Eurymeloe) rugosus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae)

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ L. RUIZ; García-París, M.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid) hold an extense set of entomological materials collected in Morocco along the first decades of the XXth century by the preeminent naturalist M. Martínez de la Escalera. Morphological studies of the specimens of the genus Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Meloidae) reveals the existence of populations morphologically differentiated along the coastal regions of Essaouira and Ifni. These populations are in...

  3. Heavy Metals in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Persiformes: Cichlidae), Ictalurus punctanus (Rafinesque, 1818) (Suliriformes: Ictaluridae) and Bottom Sediments from Lagos Lagoon Proximal to Egbin Power Plant, Ijede, Ikorodu, Lagos Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Denloye; M. O. Osundiya; Onwordi, C. T.; Olowu, R. A.; B.A. Moronkola; O.A. Omoyeni; O.R. Ajuwon; M. S. Owolabi; O.O. Tovide; N.O. Adebayo

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the level of the heavy metal concentration in sediment and two fish species from the Ijede end of the Lagos lagoon in order to ascertain the pollution level of the lagoon .The pollution status of sediment and two fish species namely the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Persiformes: Cichlidae) and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctanus (Rafinesque, 1818) (Suliriformes: Ictaluridae) in the Ijede end of Lagos lagoon were investigated. Samples of the test fish...

  4. Ultraestrutura do espermatozóide de Ucides cordatus Linnaeus (Crustacea, Ocypodidae) do litoral norte do Brasil Ultrastructure of spermatozoon of the crab Ucides cordatus Linaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda) of the northern littoral of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Edilson Matos; Patrícia Matos; Laura Corral; Carlos Azevedo

    2000-01-01

    Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the crab Ucides cordatus Linnaeus, 1763 is described and illustrated. Three parts can be distinguished: 1. the elongate-ovoid acrosome located anteriorly; 2. the cytoplasmic region; and 3. the nuclear region. The acrosome is composed of a thick electron-dense wall and a less electron-dense subacrosomal space. The cytoplasm region connects the acrosome with the nucleus, and three arms filled with microtubules arise from this region. The nucleus is polymorphous....

  5. Impact of the fat dormouse (Glis glis Linnaeus 1766) on hazel orchards in the area of Alta Langa and Belbo, Bormida, Uzzone Valleys (province of Cuneo, Italy): a preliminary assessment of agricultural damage

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirardi, M; Tizzani, P.; Dematteis, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 2008, the fat dormouse (Glis glis Linnaeus 1766), pest animal in the Langhe agricultural territory (Province of Cuneo, Italy), was studied with the aim of understanding its night invasion and feeding exploitation capacity on hazel orchards, in order to assess the resulting loss of marketable hazelnuts. Using 9 hazel orchards as study samples, dormice density, damage in cultivations and exploitation time were calculated and the results obtained were correlated. Damages happene...

  6. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

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    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of V. vulpes in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of V. vulpes in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  7. O mexilhão Perna perna (Linnaeus) (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) em cultivo na Armação do Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brasil The mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus) (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) in culture at the Armação of the Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano W. C. Marenzi; Branco, Joaquim O.

    2005-01-01

    Para verificar a viabilidade do cultivo do mexilhão, P. perna (Linnaeus, 1758) no sul do Brasil, duas experiências foram executadas na Armação de Itapocoroy. Das variáveis físicas e químicas foram analisadas a salinidade, temperatura e o oxigênio, que se mostraram ideais para esta espécie e, os macronutrientes também dentro dos níveis esperados para a região, não indicando poluição orgânica no local. O crescimento médio foi de 0,58 cm/mês e o aumento do peso foi de 2,57 g/mês. Curvas de cresc...

  8. Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    V.C. Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.

  9. Ocorrência de Vibrio parahaemolyticus em mexilhões (Perna perna, Linnaeus, 1758 de banco natural do litoral do município de Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brasil Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in mussels (Perna perna, Linnaeus, 1758 from a natural coastal bed in the municipality of Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria B. Archer

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Vibrio parahaemolyticus em quarenta amostras de mexilhões (Perna perna, Linnaeus, 1758 procedentes de banco natural da praia da Pinheira, município de Palhoça, Santa catarina, durante um período de três meses. Na metodologia de isolamento foi utilizada a técnica do Número Mais Provável (NMP com enriquecimento em água alcalina peptonada e subseqüente plaqueamento em ágar TCBS (thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose. Em 52,5% das amostras de mexilhões foi constatada a presença de Vibrio parahaemolyticus, com níveis de contaminação entre A study was carried out on the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in forty samples of mussels (Perna perna, Linnaeus, 1758 from a natural bed at Pinheira Beach, Municipality of Palhoça, Santa Catarina (Brazil, during a three-month period. The most probable number technique was used for isolation methodology with prior enrichment of samples in alkaline peptone water and subsequent planting on thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was found in 52.5% of samples of mussels with a most probable number range of < 3 to 93 organisms/g. Serotyping was performed on 61 isolates and our findings indicate that 36.1% of these isolates were serologically non-typable; 54.1% of isolates displayed only flagellate antigenic structures and 8.2% had both antigenic structures. None of the isolates were Kanagawa positive.

  10. A wide hybrid zone of chromosome races of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers (Belarus

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    Yu Borisov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.

  11. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  12. Descripción osteológica del rorcual común (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Barcelona

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    Carrillo, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the skeleton of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona We describe the osteology of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, L., registration code MZB 83-308 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona. The specimen was stranded and died on a beach in Llançà (Girona, Spain in 1862. The skeleton weighed 1,161.59 kg and measured 14. 6 m, although the live animal would have been longer because the invertebral tissue was not included in the length originally stated. The newly reconstructed skeleton includes the invertebral discs and is 17.5 m long. The skull weighs 484 kg and the condilobasal length is 431 cm ( 24. 84% of the total length, corresponding to the mean length of specimens in the Mediterranean. The vertebral column has 58 vertebra structured following the formula: C7 T14 L14 Cd23. It is 10.29 m long and weighs 470.95 kg. All the cervical vertebra are free and show dorsoventral compression, differing from the thoracic, lumbar and first caudal vertebra that are relatively uniform, and rounded. From Cd14 se onwards, the vertebra vary in shape and the relationship between width and height is greater than 1, indicating lateral compression. The lack of suture lines in the epiphysis of the ulna and radius indicates the specimen is an adult that has reached ossification maturation.

  13. Morfometría y Descripción Morfológica del Pene Erecto del Tapir de Tierras Bajas (Tapirus terrestris. Linnaeus, 1758

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    Robin Andrés Poches-Franco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El tapir de tierras bajas (Tapirus terrestris. Linnaeus 1758 tiene un tamaño intermedio entre el tapir mesoamericano y el tapir de montaña. Alcanza 2 a 2,2m de longitud corporal total y una altura de 1,08m medido hasta el hombro y pesa entre 150 a 250 kg. En cuanto al pene del tapir este mide 49cm desde la glándula bulbo-uretral hasta la punta del  glande en un espécimen de estudio anatómico. Los testículos tienen 10cm de largo, 6cm de ancho antero posterior y 4cm de ancho latero lateral están situados en el escroto a 15cm del ano. La cabeza del glande del pene en flacidez se dirige hacia la parte posterior y consecuentemente los tapires son capaces de rociar la orina hasta 5 metros detrás de ellos. No hay reportes acerca de la morfometría y descripción morfológica del pene erecto de los tapires.

  14. Laboratory and field evaluation of the effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid on the oviposition response of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Gloria Elsa Antonio-Arreola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assessed the suitability of using the neonicotinoid imidacloprid with standard ovitraps by evaluating the ovicidal properties of imidacloprid and its influence on the oviposition response of gravid females of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae. First, we calculated the imidacloprid lethal dose 99 (LD99 by exposing third instar larvae of the target species to different concentrations of the insecticide. Next, Ae. aegypti eggs were exposed to the imidacloprid LD99 for 24 h and hatching inhibition was recorded. Finally, we investigated any potential repellent effect of the imidacloprid solution on the oviposition response of gravid Aedes females in field and laboratory conditions. The LD99 obtained from larvae tests proved to be sufficient to keep any exposed eggs from hatching. No repellent effect was observed; females laid as many eggs in imidacloprid-treated ovitraps as in traps containing either clean water or temephos-treated water in both field and laboratory conditions. Our results indicate that imidacloprid is a suitable insecticide for treating ovitraps against Ae. aegypti.

  15. 丁鱥鱼胚胎及仔鱼发育的观察%Observations on embryonic and larvae development in Tinca tinca Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福艳; 梁万文; 冯鹏霏; 黄光华

    2011-01-01

    [Objective ]The present experiment was aimed to study the growth and development of Tinca tinca Linnaeus under high water temperatures in southern China in order to solve the lack of fry in extending production in southern China.[Method]Entire process of growth from embryonic stage to larva and fish development in Tinca tinca Linnaeus had been observed during the artificial reproduction. [Result]The parturition was found to be induced within 11 hours , and the average fertilization and hatching rate were recorded as 75.3 and 82.7% , respectively. The survival rate of larvae fish was 59.3%.The fertilization spawn of Tinca tinca Linnaeus was spherical, steel grey in color and viscous, measuring 0.50 mm to 0.77 mm in diameter. At 27 to 31℃ water temperatures, fertilized spawn experienced 1936 min to complete the fertilizing to hatching stage, the effective accumulated temperature was 908.89℃·h. The embryonic development process included 6 stages with 30 phases. The average length of hatched larvae fish was 3.84 to 3.87 mm. Ahout 60 to 80% of yolk sac was absorbed within 3 days after hatching, and approximately 30% of larvae fish began to intake the food. After 4 days of hatching, 90% yolk sac was ahsorbed, and about 90% of larvae fish began to intake food. The yolk sac was found to b absorbed completely after 5 days of' hatching. [Conclustion] Tinca tinca Linnaeus was found reproducing and raising its fry suitably in southern China in the waters with 20-27℃ temperature. The harmful things should be removed from water to keep it clean and maintain high water quality. The fish bait should be given to larvae fish timely according to the water temperature.%[目的]研究丁鳞鱼在南方较高水温条件下的生长发育情况,解决丁鱥鱼在南方推广养殖中苗种欠缺的瓶颈问题.[方法]对丁鱥亲鱼进行人工繁殖,然后对其胚胎及仔鱼发育过程进行观察记录.[结果]丁鱥鱼催产效应时间11h,受精率为75.3%,

  16. An Observation on the Reproductive Biology of Glis glis (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia; Gliridae and Body Weight Gaining of Pups in the Istranca Mountains of Turkish Thrace

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    Beytullah Ozkan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, reproductive biology of Glis glis (Linnaeus, 1766 and weight gaining of pups were studied in four localities by using wooden nestboxes and tattoo pliers method in mixed deciduous forest of Istranca Mountains in Turkish Thrace. By considering morphological peculiarities, body weight gaining and reproductive signs of adults, mating behaviors and breeding times were measured from specimens captured in nestboxes. Results showed that females were mated between June 15 and August 18 and gave a birth between July 14 and September 16. The litter size ranged from 1 to 12 (Mean 6.05, n = 100 and the least weight of newborn is 2 g. Female to male ratio were in the range of 48.2 to 51.8%, respectively (n = 82. Over wintering adult yearlings reached maturity in mid June. Yearlings arising hibernation after May gained weight during September and October and they entered hibernation at the end of November. The litters at bird gained weight daily from 0.83-1.19 g and reached to 25.16-35.7 g at mean within 30 days during August and September.

  17. Distribution of the Orange-winged Parrot Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766 (Aves, Psittacidae in the coastal region of the State of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Daniela de Carvalho Melo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-six villages along the coast of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, were visited to determine and map the occurrence of Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766. Search was conducted with binoculars and the residents of each locality were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information about the occurrence and species´s biological data. Reports of recent and old occurrences, absence and feeding areas were registered. The food items mentioned were fruits, such as cashew, cashew nuts, palm oil, and agricultural products, such as corn. The reproductive period occurred between November and December. Breeding sites were mangrove areas and coconut trees, with nests being made in tree hollows. Questionnaires helped to elaborate a distribution map of the species, in which the actual distribution was based on visual records, whilst the potential distribution of the species was based on the questionnaire answers. Furthermore, they provided an overview of the biology of the species in agreement with that reported in the literature. Current data may be used in future studies on the conservation of the species in the State of Paraíba.

  18. Use of space and temporal distribution of Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus in the region of Sagi, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil (Sirenia, Trichechidae

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    Danielle Paludo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine manatee Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758 is endangered in the Brazilian Atlantic coast due to indiscriminate hunting practiced in the past, and to the low reproductive rate of the species. This work studies its use of space and temporal occurrence in the coastal area of Sagi, Northeastern Brazil. Daily observations from the beach of the animals in the sea were made during daytime from 1990 through 1993. The presence of reefs covered with marine algae is a determinant factor in the occurrence of the manatee. They were sighted feeding on algae that grow over the reefs close to beaches that were of high energy during high tide. The range used by manatees shifted according to tide. They occur in depths of 0.4 to 3.8 m; the distance from the beach varies according to the tide level. They show marked seasonality of occurrence, with higher frequencies in December - January and lowest in June - July. Two possible causes of the seasonal occurrence are discussed. Sagi is important for the conservation of the species in Northeastern Brazil as feeding and reproductive grounds.

  19. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  20. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 103 μGy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 100 μGy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  1. Results regarding growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 fed with an additive feed, vitamin C, in a recirculating aquaculture system.

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    Catalina Ciortan Mirea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin C status on growth performance, survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 with average weight of 93±1,0 g were fed with different dietary vitamin C rations and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. Growth performance , survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia were measured in groups fed diets supplemented with 100, 750, 2000 mg.kg-1L-ascorbic acid (AA and almost ascorbate free diet (Total AA> 5 mg.kg-1 as a control. They were stocked in 12 rearing units at 28 oC water temperature for 30 days. Diet of 33 % protein was offered as feed, 3 times daily. Growth measurements of tilapia were recorded on beginning and at the end of the experiment. Results showed that growth performance for Nile tilapia had not significantly (p>0.05 differences between the control and the tretments . Survival rate was the same for al the treatments. The feed conversio ratio (FCR was not significant (p>0.05 between the control and the treatments. Resuls showed that the feed impoved with AA had no significant differences between treatments and control regarding the  optimum growth performance and survival rate at Nile tilapia.  

  2. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776), Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758), and surface sediments of Bafa Lake (Eastern Aegean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin-Onen, S; Kucuksezgin, F; Kocak, F; Açik, S

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the bioaccumulation of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) and also in the muscle and liver of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) collected from seven stations in the Bafa Lake was investigated. Sediment samples were also collected in each site to assess heavy metal levels and to provide additional information on pollution of the lake. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in sediment, H. diversicolor, and muscle and liver of the fish were found to be in the magnitude of Cr>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cd>Hg, Zn>Cu>Cr>Pb>Hg>Cd, Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr >Hg>Cd, and Cu>Zn>Cr>Cd>Pb>Hg, respectively. Hg, Cu, and Zn in H. diversicolor and Hg and Zn in muscle and also Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn in liver of fish accumulated in a higher degree than in sediment. There was no clear relationship between metal concentrations in sediments, polychaetes, and fish, except Cr. According to international criteria and Turkish regulations, Pb and Zn values in edible muscle of the fish collected from stations S6 and S5 exceeded the food safety limits, respectively. The results of this study suggest that these sentinel species can be considered as good anthropogenic biological indicators for heavy metal pollution along the Bafa Lake. PMID:25567060

  3. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (-)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (-)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (-)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H₂DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  4. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae, against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Salvador-Neto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−-elatol and (+-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

  5. Revision of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with new and previously described species from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Scatophagidae) in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Nguyen, Ha Van; Ha, Ngo Duy; Heckmann, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam. PMID:27095662

  6. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios], E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio], E-mail: Delcy@inb.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10{sup 0} {mu}Gy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  7. Some aspects on the reproductive cycle of European conger eel, Conger conger (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Anguilliformes, Congridae captured from Western Algerian coasts: a histological description of spermatogenesis

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    Abi-ayad Sidi-Mohammed El-Amine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the annual reproductive cycle of European conger eel (Conger conger,Linnaeus, 1758 through analysis and description of spermatogenesis. A sample of 168 males was capturedbetween September 2008 and August 2009 from the Western coast of Algeria, from Béni Saf. Fish length andweight varied between 26.20-112 cm and 0.45-3.44 kg, respectively.Condition factors (K, gonadosomatic index (G.S.I. and hepatosomatic index (H.S.I. were calculatedmonthly. Factor K reached the minimum in August/September (0.10% corresponding to reproductive periodand a maximum in January (0.18%. Although G.S.I. values revealed to be statistically not significant, therewere two peaks for G.S.I., the first in March, denoting the beginning of spermatogenesis, and the second inAugust/September, indicating the reproduction period. H.S.I. reached a peak in December (1.90%, then thevalue decreased to a minimum in April.Histological analysis of testis allowed us to distinguish 5 stages summarized as follows: Stage 1:Spermatogonia A; Stage 2: Spermatogonia B; Stage 3: Spermatocytes and spermatids; Stage 4: Spermatocytes,spermatids and spermatozoa (cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa; Stage 5: Spermatozoa(spermiogenesis or cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa.

  8. Estudio genético de la estructura poblacional y conectividad de dos corales endémicos del Mediterráneo: Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766) y Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767)

    OpenAIRE

    Casado-Amezúa, P.

    2012-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo general de la presente tesis es determinar la estructura genética y el alcance de la conectividad de las poblaciones de dos corales escleractinios del Mediterráneo, Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766) y Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767). Estos procesos están generalmente ligados a diferentes características biológicas de las especies, tales como la densidad y distribución de las poblaciones, la fecundidad, el éxito reproductor, el tipo de desarrollo larvario, la capacida...

  9. Moluscos; anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces de rhizophora mangle linnaeus, en la región de santa marta, caribe colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Rosalba; Campos C, Néstor Hernando

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio trimestral cualitativo y cuantitativo de la comunidad de moluscos, anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces sumergidas del mangle rojo, Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, entre diciembre de 1988 y septiembre de 1989, en tres estaciones en la Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM) y tres en el Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona (PNNT, Bahía de Chengue y Bahía de Nenguange), Caribe colombiano. Se determinaron 181 especies: 99 crustáceos, 50 moluscos y 32 anélidos. En total se cont...

  10. Ultraestrutura do espermatozóide de Ucides cordatus Linnaeus (Crustacea, Ocypodidae do litoral norte do Brasil Ultrastructure of spermatozoon of the crab Ucides cordatus Linaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda of the northern littoral of Brazil

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    Edilson Matos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the crab Ucides cordatus Linnaeus, 1763 is described and illustrated. Three parts can be distinguished: 1. the elongate-ovoid acrosome located anteriorly; 2. the cytoplasmic region; and 3. the nuclear region. The acrosome is composed of a thick electron-dense wall and a less electron-dense subacrosomal space. The cytoplasm region connects the acrosome with the nucleus, and three arms filled with microtubules arise from this region. The nucleus is polymorphous. The spermatozoon of Ucides cordatus follows the general pattern described for other Decapods.

  11. Vessel noise pollution as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of boat noise pollution on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background noise) and 10 days of noise derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel noise treatment). The exposure to noise produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p < 0.05) of ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity in the fish exposed to vessel noise for 10 days. This study clearly highlights that anthropogenic noise negatively affects fish, and they are valuable targets for detailed investigations into the effects of this global pollutant. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this pollutant phenomenon. PMID:26581747

  12. Cestodes of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758), (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), off the west coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Oscar; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    The cestode species recovered from the spiral intestines of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported from the western coast of Baja California Sur (BCS). The sampling was undertaken on a monthly basis from January 2003 to January 2004. The helminthological examination indicated the presence of four species of cestodes: Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952; Prosobothrium japonicum Yamaguti, 1934; Anthobothrium caseyi (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke & Caira, 2009; and Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke, 1994. Of all the 27 sharks examined, 88.8% were infected with at least one cestode species. The most frequent species was P. auriculatum infecting 85% of the spiral intestines examined. In contrast the species with the highest mean intensity was P. prionacis (80.4 200). The species richness of cestodes in P. glauca is very similar in other regions of the world despite its wide distribution; however, this richness is low compared with other species of sharks within the same family. The feeding and host-specific are important factors that influence the parameters of infection of cestodes in this shark. On the west coast of BCS, Prionace glauca feeds mainly on red crab Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, 1860; squids Gonatus californiensis Young, 1972, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (D'Orbigny, 1842), Haliphron atlanticus Steenstrup, 1861, and low proportion of fish teleosts as Merluccius productus (Ayres, 1855), Sardinops sp. Hubbs, 1929 and Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1872. We speculate that these prey could be involved as the second intermediate hosts of these cestodes, as in other members of these genera, although the life cycles of none are known. PMID:27394312

  13. PCR-RFLP Analysis of 28 SrDNA for Specification of Fasciola gigantica (Cobbold, 1855 in the Infected Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1785 Snails from Northwestern Iran.

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    Mohammad Yakhchali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis in livestock is a crucial concern in the globe, mainly due to its impact on human health. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of infection with Fasciola gigantica (Cobbold, 1855 larvae in the field-collected snails of Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1785 from northwestern Iran using a molecular approach.A total of 6,759 pond snails were collected from 28 freshwater bodies in West Azarbaijan. PCR was performed to amplify a 618-bp fragment of the nuclear 28 SrRNA gene of Fasciola. The PCR products were digested by AvaII restriction enzyme to create restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP patterns specific for the detection of F. gigantica.Of the total collected snails 496 (7.34 % were L. auricularia, among which 4.64% (23 out of 496 were infected with a Fasciola species according to the PCR analysis. Only 2.22% (11 out of 496 of the infected snails were from the mountainous areas. The highest Fasciola infection rate recorded in the snails of a single site was 1.81% (9 out of 496 snails. Based on the RFLP pattern, F. gigantica accounted for 2.42% of the infection rates in the study sites.Application of PCR-RFLP was proven to be a useful approach for valid and robust detection of the infection with F. gigantica in its intermediate host snails. These findings may therefore be applicable for establishment of the control programs against dissemination of the infection in different regions.

  14. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation

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    Shanivarsanthe Leelesh Ramya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n = 13 and adults (n = 12 of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%, followed by bacilli (15.4%. Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%, bacilli (16.7% and flavobacteria (16.7%. Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32 µmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus – KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans – KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26 µmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.

  15. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Srinivasa Murthy, Kottilingam; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32μmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26μmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM. PMID:26991291

  16. Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in

  17. Inventory and bioecological aspects of parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae associated to Erinnys ello (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae in cassava crops = Inventário e aspectos bioecológicos de parasitóides do gênero Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae associados a Erinnys ello (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae em cultura da mandioca

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    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the population dynamics, to determinate thespecies of Trichogramma occurring in cassava crops in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, as well as to evaluate biological parameters of those parasitoids associated to Erinnys ello (Linnaeus, 1758. This study was carried out from January of 2000 to February of 2003, in plants taken at 15-days intervals. The collected eggs were kept in laboratorial climatic chambers at 25±2ºC, RH of 70±10% and 12h photophase. During the collecting period, variations were observed in the population dynamics of Trichogramma spp.. Variations were also observed in the months of high rainfall when, due to the high host occurrence, the parasitoids presented the highest population density. The average rate of natural parasitism of E. ello eggs was 52.6%, the sex ratio was 0.8, and deformation was 0.4%. Two species were notified on E. ello: Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983 and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879.Objetivou-se neste trabalho realizar o levantamento populacional, determinar as espécies de Trichogramma que ocorrem no município de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, associadas à cultura damandioca, bem como avaliar parâmetros biológicos desses parasitóides em Erinnys ello (Linnaeus, 1758. As coletas foram realizadas de janeiro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2003, em plantas tomadas ao acaso durante um período de busca de uma hora, em intervalos médios de 15 dias. Os ovos coletados foram mantidos no laboratório em câmaras climáticas reguladas a 25±2ºC, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Durante o período de realização desse estudo, observaram-se variações na flutuação populacional de Trichogramma spp., sendo que nos meses de elevada precipitação pluviométrica, em função da maior disponibilidade do hospedeiro, os parasitóides apresentaram maior densidade populacional. A taxa de parasitismo natural média realizada por Trichogramma spp. foi de 52

  18. Synthèses enzymatiques de néoglucoconjugués catalysées par l'alpha-glucosidase purifiée de la blatte Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus

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    Kamenan A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic synthesis of neoglucoconjugates by purified α-glucosidase from cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus. Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus contains in his digestive tract an acid (pH 5,0 and mesophile (50°C α-glucosidase. This enzyme, purified to homogeneity, hydrolyses highly maltose, sucrose and p-nitrophenyl-α-Dglucopyranoside. The ability of α-glucosidase from cockroach purified to homogeneity to catalyse transglucosylation reactions was tested using maltose and saccharose as glucosyl donors and 2-phenylethanol and phenol as acceptors. The experimental conditions were optimized in relation to the time course of the reaction, pH and concentrations of glucosyl donors and acceptors. The yields in transglucosylation reactions at 37 °C were very high and could attain 67% and 48% with 2-phenylethanol and phenol respectively as glucosyl acceptors. This α-glucosidase hydrolyzed the products formed. It seems that the products formed were the phenylethyl-α-D-glucoside and phenyl-α-D-glucoside. These results suggest that α- glucosidase from cockroach is an exoglucosidase which catalyse the splitting of the α-glucosyl residue from the non reducing terminal of the substrate to liberate α-glucose. This comportment indicates that this enzyme operated by a mechanism involving the retention of the anomeric configuration. On the basis of this work, α-glucosidase from P. americana appears to be a valuable tool for the preparation of α-neoglucoconjugates.

  19. Estudo de uma população relictual de veado-campeiro, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae no municipio da Lapa, Paraná, Brasil A relictual population study of pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae at Lapa, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Fernanda Góss Braga Mauro de Moura-Britto

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was studied between August 1996 and September 1997 at Fazenda Santa Maria (25º34' and 25º36'S, 49º46'and 49º49'W at Lapa, Paraná State. During that period we have collected information on feeding habits, group composition, time of the year for birth of youngsters and time for antlers change. The presence of the animal in the area was confirmed by the finding of vestiges and visual occurrences. Animais were observed feeding on young leaves of soya been (Glicine max, oat (Avenasaliva, ryegrass (Lolium mulliflorum and barley (Hordeum vulgare. Only one female was observed feeding on dry leaves. A stag was observed feeding on a barley ear. Group's average size was 1.5 individual. Stags/female proportion was 1: 0.96. Animais displaying velvet coated antlers were observed in June and July which is in accordance with literature about antlers change in a definite period restricted to winter. Only one youngster was observed in September 1996. It is believed that the species survive in the region despite human activities through adaptation of feeding habits with the introduction of agricultura! species. This population could disappear in a few years because of the small number of individuais and their isolation.

  20. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

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    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  1. Roadkill of wild mammals on RS-135

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    Carla Grasiele Zanin Hegel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among environmental impacts, fragmentation of habitat for agriculture and livestock has led to a distortion of the natural environment and increased rates of wildlife killed on roads. Weekly surveys of road-killed mammals were made along highway RS-135 (km 8-34 between May 2008 and May 2010. For each case, we recorded the species and location along the road. We collected 95 mammals belonging to 16 species and 12 families, with a frequency of 0.025 roadkills per kilometer. The most abundant species were Cerdocyon thous (22.11%, Nasua nasua (10.52%, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (9.47% and Cavia aperea (7.37%, which together comprised 49.5% of the cases. This study contributed with information on roadkill of wild mammals in RS-135 of Rio Grande do Sul.

  2. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae: physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Scacchetti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3 and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (G. sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, G. inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, G. pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758 from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. G. sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st, G. pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st, while G. inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a and G. cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus, and on pair 2 in G. sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in G. sylvius and G. pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in G. sylvius and two pairs in G. pantherinus; G. inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and G. cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus and G. cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of G. sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGGn indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the

  3. 条纹锯(鮨)胚胎发育及卵黄囊仔鱼形态变化的观察%Preliminary studies on embryonic development and morphology of the yolk-sac larvae of Centropristis striata Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾瑞锦; 陈超; 王鲁; 赵从明; 公光业; 孙曙光; 于宏; 王彦怀; 孙涛; 王贺

    2012-01-01

    通过观察条纹锯(鮨)的胚胎发育过程及卵黄囊仔鱼形态变化,研究其胚胎发育及卵黄囊仔鱼的形态特征、特点.采用Nikon E200显微镜对其胚胎发育形态及卵黄囊仔鱼形态变化进行连续拍照取样,详细描述了其从受精卵到初孵仔鱼的26个具体发育时期的形态特征、孵化温度、发育时间及卵黄囊仔鱼的形态变化特征.结果显示,条纹锯(鮨)的受精卵为球形、游离的浮性卵,平均卵径为0.950±0.039mm;条纹锯(鮨)受精卵孵化需经过卵裂期、囊胚期、原肠胚期、神经胚期、器官生成期和孵化期6个主要时期,在80目的孵化网箱中,水温20~20.5℃、盐度28~32、DO≥5mg/L、pH 7.6~8.4静水微充气的条件下需要46 h 53 min孵化;卵黄囊在仔鱼出膜2d后被吸收.%Nikon E200 microscope was used to observe the embryonic development of Centropristis striata Linnaeus. Detailed changes from the fertilized egg to the newly hatched fish, and morphological characteristics of 26 specific developmental stages were described. The results showed that fertilized eggs of C. striata Linnaeus were free-floating and spherical, at an average diameter of 0. 950 + 0. 039mm; Embryonic development C. striata Linnaeus experienced six main stages including cleavage, blastocyst,gastrulation, neurula embryo,organogenesis and hatching stage. The results showed that, at water temperatures of 20~20. 5 ℃, salinity 28~32, 5mg/L,and pH 7. 6~8. 4, fertilized eggs of C. striata maintained in cages with slight areation were hatched in 47 h,and yolk-sac in the larvae disappeared after 2 days.

  4. Quadro citológico vaginal, concentração plasmática de progesterona durante a gestação e medidas fetais em paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 Vaginal citology, serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and fetal measurements in paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria França Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 objetivou-se descrever aos 30, 60 e 90 dias (D de prenhez diagnosticada por ultrassonografia (US, os tipos celulares do epitélio vaginal em esfregaços vaginais, relatar as condições de abertura da vulva e as características do muco vaginal, determinar a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio, e ainda, mensurar por ultrassonografia (US o diâmetro biparietal (DBP fetal aos 60 e 90 dias de prenhez. No D30, 40% das amostras exibiram células (com características estrogênicas superficiais e presença de núcleos nus. Nos D60 e D90, células parabasais, intermediárias, superficiais e naviculares estavam presentes nas mesmas proporções, mas células endocervicais foram descritas em apenas 73,9% e 69% das amostras daqueles dias, respectivamente. No D30 a maior proporção de células naviculares e superficiais diferiu (p The objective of this work was to describe in 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 at 30, 60 and 90 days (D of pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonography (U.S. the cell types of the vaginal epithelium by vaginal smears, to report the vulva opening condition and the characteristics of vaginal mucus, to determine the progesterone (P4 serum concentration by radioimmunoassay, and also measure by ultrasound (U.S. the fetuses biparietal diameter (BPD at 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. At D30, 40% of the smears exhibited surface cells (with estrogenic characteristics and of naked nuclei. At D60 and D90, parabasal, intermediate, superficial, and navicular cells were present in the same proportions, but endocervical cells were described in only 73.9% and 69% of those day's smears, respectively. At D30 the highest proportion of navicular and surface cells differed (p < 0.05 compared with other cell types. The vaginal mucus was crystalline and fluid in 100% and 70% of females at D30 and D60, respectively. It was observed the vaginal vestibule open in around 50% of

  5. İzmir Körfezi (Orta Ege Denizi)’ndeki Hamsi Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) Yumurta ve Larvalarının Bolluk ve Dağılımı

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Taylan; Belgin Hoşsucu

    2014-01-01

    Bu çalışmada Hamsi Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) balığına ait yumurta ve larvaların İzmir Körfezi’nde 2013 yılındaki bolluk ve dağılımları incelenmiştir. Bu amaçla körfezde belirlenmiş 11 istasyondan mevsimsel olarak plankton çekimleri yapılmıştır. Hamsi yumurta ve larvaları kış mevsimi hariç ilkbahar, yaz ve sonbahar mevsimlerinde elde edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda toplam 6889 birey/m² yumurta, 3231 birey/m² larva elde edilmiştir. Elde edilen hamsi yumurtalarında minimum ve maksi...

  6. Desenvolvimento, Viabilidade e Mortalidade de Imaturos de Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus, em Água de Duas Espécies de Bromélias: Estudo Bibliográfico e Experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Maria das Graças Guimarães; Michele Serdeiro; Alexandre Oliveira; Marise Maleck

    2015-01-01

    Resumo. Criadouros naturais de Aedes aegypti Linnaeus podem ser encontrados em bromélias e outros vegetais que apresentem estrutura capaz de armazenar a água. A produtividade dos criadouros está ligada ao volume e à capacidade de manutenção de água, à oferta de nutrientes e à densidade larval e ao número de folhas do vegetal. Há controvérsias entre os pesquisadores sobre o encontro de formas imaturas de Ae. aegypti na água dos reservatórios de bromélias. Este estudo dedicou-s...

  7. Ovitrampas para Avaliação da Presença de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus e Aedes albopictus (Skuse no Município de Vassouras, Estado do Rio de Janeiro

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    Alexandre Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse are vectors of many arboviruses including urban yellow fever and dengue, the latter being one of the biggest problems in the world in cities that have hot and humid climate. Having the consecutive cases of dengue in Vassouras, RJ it was important to ascertain the presence and behavior of the vector in different seasons of year and their predominance in the city. In this study we observed the presence of 10.44% Ae. aegypti and 89.56% Ae. albopictus of the 364 viable eggs and being the Matadouro neighborhood (point 4, the local with the largest presence of these culicids. These data showed that Ae. albopictus is ever more present in urban areas.

  8. Significance of the Oviposition Records of Three Western Ghats Endemics, the Malabar Raven, Papilio dravidarum Wood-Mason, Malabar Rose, Atrophaneura pandiyana Moore and Crimson Rose, Atrophaneura hector Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae

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    V.S. Revathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made on the biology and bionomics of the three Western Ghats Endemics, the Malabar Raven (Papilio dravidarum Wood-Mason, Malabar Rose (Atrophaneura pandiyana Moore and Crimson Rose (A. hector Linnaeus. The size of the caterpillar (length and breadth, mode of feeding, pupation and emergence were recorded. The biology took 36-40 days for completion in Malabar Raven, 35-37 days in A. pandiyana and A. hector. Butterflies found in different habitats tend to show marked differences in their general appearance and biology as evidenced by the "Ecological races" reported in several species of butterflies. Thorough understanding of the life history and their behavioural patterns of immature stages will help in recognizing geographical and ecological races.

  9. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

  10. Ecologia da comunidade de metazoários parasitos da anchova Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Community ecology of metazoan parasites of bluefish Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae from the littoral of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    José Luis Luque

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five specimens of bluefish, Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus, 1766, collected at Cabo Frio (23ºS, 42ºW, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 1995 and November 1995, were necropsied to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. Sixteen species of metazoan parasites were collected. All fish were parasitized by one or more metazoan. The digeneans were the majority of the parasite specimens collected, with 44.2%, followed by the helminth larval stages (cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes with 40.6%. The Simpson index for all parasite species was 0.097, indicating lack of dominance by any species in the parasite community. Microcotyle pomatomi Goto, 1899 showed the higher frequency of dominance and mean relative dominance. The parasite species of P. saltator showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. The majority of parasite species showed positive correlation between the host's total body length and prevalence or parasite abundance. Two species, Brachyphallus parvus (Manter, 1947 and Phocanema sp. have differences in their prevalences and abundances in relation to sex of the hosts. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of P. saltator was H'=1.243±0.521, with correlation with the host's total length and without difference between male and female fish. The components of the parasite community of P. saltator showed overall positive association. All pairs confonned by ectoparasites and adult endoparasites species showed signiticant positive association or covariation between their abundances. Five pairs of endoparasites larval species showed positive association or covariation, and two pairs, showed negative association and covariation. The parasite community of P. saltator was dominated by species with high prevalence values, that composed a high number of associations, thus, is considered closer to the interactive type.

  11. 伊犁河欧鲇某些生物学特性的研究%Biological Study of Silurus glaris Linnaeus in Yili River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任波

    2012-01-01

    本文测定了移植于伊犁河的欧鲇(Silurus glaris Linnaeus)的形态、年龄与生长,观察了繁殖和食性等生物学特性,用Von.Bertalanffy生长方程等从理论上阐明生长特征。结果表明:河欧鲇在渔获物组成中的比例为:体长分布在16~121cm之间,以体长40~70为主,占60.36%;体质量在50~13400g之间,以500~20000 g为主,占56.7%;年龄为0+~8+,9个年龄组,以1+~3+龄为主,占65.1%。补充群体大于剩余群体,由Von.Berta-lanffy生长方程推导运算的生长参数为:L∞=191.1cm、W∞=59 875g、-k=0.087、to=0.038,tmax=34.5,tip=12.7。4+龄体长70 cm,体质量3500g的个体即可性成熟,6月份产卵,雄鱼有营巢和护卵孵化习性。为典型的肉食性鱼类。欧鲇生长快、个体大,适应能力以及扩展能力强,移植后极易形成群体,已成为伊犁河水系主要经济鱼类之一。%Biological study of Silurus glaris Linnaeus that was transplanted in Yili River before was conducted, including of morpholo- gy measurement, age and growth relationship, reproduction and feeding habit. Growth equation of this fish species was calculated based on Von .Bertalanffy's method. The fish catches composed of individuals with body length of 16-121 cm, mainly in 40-70cm (60.36%), individuals with body weight of 50-13400g, mainly in 500-20000g (56.7%) and individuals at 0^+-8^+ years old, mainly at 1^+-3^+ ages (55.85%). The number of recruit populations was more than that of residual populations. The growth parameters were L∞=191.1cm, W∞=59 875g, -k=0.087, t0=0.038, tmax=34.5 and trt=12.7, respectively. Silurus glaris were able to achieve sex maturity and reproduce in June every year as it growed 4^+ years old, 70cm and 3500g. The male fish had habits of construction net and protection egg, which were behaviors of typical carnivore. This fish species have advantages of fast growth, big body, strong adaptation and ex- tensive abilities

  12. ПУТИ ПРОНИКНОВЕНИЯ МИРАЦИДИЕВ FASCIOLA HEPATICA (LINNAEUS,1758) В ГЕПАТОПАНКРЕАС LYMNAEA TRUNCATULA MULLER, 1774 И LYMNAEA CUBENSIS PFEIFFER, 1839 И ВОЗНИКАЮЩИЕ ПАТОЛОГИИ

    OpenAIRE

    Соколина Ф.; Игнатьев Г.; Villasenor O.C.; Sanchez-Vega J.T.

    2010-01-01

    The investigation the mollusk tissue of Lymnaea truncatula Muller, 1774 and Lymnaea cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839 during the infection of miracidia Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) showed the dissolution of the intercellular substance, deformation the cells of the mollusk connective tissue, demolish of epithelium and liver tissue.

  13. Desenvolvimento, Viabilidade e Mortalidade de Imaturos de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus, em Água de Duas Espécies de Bromélias: Estudo Bibliográfico e Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Guimarães

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. Criadouros naturais de Aedes aegypti Linnaeus podem ser encontrados em bromélias e outros vegetais que apresentem estrutura capaz de armazenar a água. A produtividade dos criadouros está ligada ao volume e à capacidade de manutenção de água, à oferta de nutrientes e à densidade larval e ao número de folhas do vegetal. Há controvérsias entre os pesquisadores sobre o encontro de formas imaturas de Ae. aegypti na água dos reservatórios de bromélias. Este estudo dedicou-se à observação da eclosão de ovos e do desenvolvimento de Ae. aegypti em água de tanques de bromélia Aechmea fasciata (Lindley Baker eNeoregelia compacta (Mez L.B. Smith. Para cada uma das espécies de bromélias três tipos de grupos foram utilizados: dois grupos controles, um contendo água de rega e outro grupo com água dos reservatórios das bromélias sem a presença da microfauna; e o grupo teste, contendo água dos tanques com a presença da microfauna. Os resultados dos experimentos em água de A. fasciata em presença da microfauna apresentaram 45% de mortalidade larval; em água de N. compacta, em presença da microfauna, apresentou inibição de 100% de eclosão de ovos de Ae. aegypti. Há necessidade de informar e educar a população sobre o cultivo de bromélias, sobre a fauna fitotelmata competidora e predadora nos reservatórios e sobre a interação entre aquele ambiente e as larvas do Ae. aegypti. Development, Availability and Mortality of Immature Aedes(Stegomyia aegypti, Linnaeus, in Water of Two Species of Bromeliads: Bibliographic and Experimental Study Abstract. Natural breeding of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus can be found in bromeliads and other plants that have a structure capable of storing water. The productivity of the breeding is linked to the volume and the maintenance of the water content, the nutrients supply, the larval density and the number

  14. 火麻仁油及甾醇对家蚕寿命影响的观察%Observation of Influence of Semen Cannabis Oil and Sterol on Bombyx Mori Linnaeus Life-span

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寒冰; 孙静雅; 马永洁; 李根林; 任慧玲

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察火麻仁油及火麻仁甾醇对家蚕寿命的影响,探讨火麻仁油及甾醇的抗衰老作用.方法:取龄期相同、生长整齐的三眠蚕随机分为8组,即空白对照组,火麻仁油高、中、低剂量组,火麻仁甾醇高、中、低剂量组,维生素E对照组,每组110条.使用涂抹法将药液涂抹于新鲜桑叶上,4龄期内喂食3次,5龄期内喂食6次.结果:火麻仁油及甾醇高、中、低剂量组均对家蚕幼虫生存期较空白对照组明显延长(P<0.01或P<0.05),其中火麻仁甾醇能显著延长家蚕全生存期(P<0.01或P<0.05).与空白组相比,火麻仁油及甾醇均能显著延长5龄期家蚕耐饥饿时间(P<0.01).结论:火麻仁油及甾醇均能够延长家香各龄期生存期时间.%Objective:To observe the influence of Semen Cannabis oil and sterol on bombyx mori linnaeus life-span and discuss their anti-aging effect. Methods: Sanmian silkworm with the same age and growth were randomly divided into eight groups, namely blank control group, high, middle, low dose of Semen Cannabis oil group, high, meddle, low dose of Semen Cannabis oil and sterol group, positive control group. Physic liquor is daubed on the mulberry leaf ,3 times during 4 instars and 6 times during 5 instars. Results:The life-span of bombyx mori linnaeus larva was significantly longer in high, meddle, low dose of Semen Cannabis oil and sterol group compared with control group(P<0.01 or P<0.05). Semen Cannabis oil and sterol can significantly extend the all life span(P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with the blank control group, Semen Cannabis oil and sterol can significantly extend the hunger resistance time during 5 instars (P <0.01), Conclusion:both Semen Cannabis oil and sterol can extend the life span time of bombyx mori Linnaeus during any instars.

  15. Biologia da traça das crucíferas, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae, sob condições controladas de temperatura, e parasitóides associados: Part III. Estudo sobre a biologia de Apanteles piceotrichosus (Blanchard (Hymenoptera, Braconidae: análise do efeito de endocruzamento Biology of crucifer moth, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae, under controlled temperature conditions, and parasitoids associated.: Part III. Study on the biology of Apanteles piceotrichosus (Blanchard (Hymenoptera, Braconidae: analysis of the inbreeding effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelle R. Gonçalves

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O endocruzamento em populações naturais resulta em uma perda na variabilidade genética que pode influenciar, a mortalidade juvenil e adulta, o tamanho, a viabilidade e fertilidade da prole, bem como a morfologia dos indivíduos. Apanteles piceotrichosus (Blanchard, 1943 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae é um parasitóide de Plutella xylostella Linnaeus,1758 (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae que tem atraído muita atenção com o propósito de biocontrole, pois pode ser utilizado como agente de controle biológico. Para a criação e liberação destes indivíduos são necessários estudos sobre a sua biologia. O objetivo do presente estudo foi examinar o efeito do endocruzamento sobre a mortalidade, longevidade e proporção sexual de A. piceotrichosus. Também foi observada a taxa de ataque do parasitóide sobre o hospedeiro. Foram realizados cruzamentos programados, a partir de indivíduos coletados em campo e criados em laboratório sob condições controladas. Não foram observadas diferenças significantes na mortalidade e na longevidade de A. piceotrichosus, bem como na taxa de ataque do parasitóide sobre o hospedeiro. A proporção sexual apresentou diferenças significantes entre o grupo controle e o endocruzado,entretanto não foram observadas diferenças dentro do grupo endocruzados.The inbreeding in natural populations results in a loss in the genetic variability that can influence juvenile and adult mortality, the size, viability and fertility of the offspring, as well as the individuals morphology. Apanteles piceotrichosus (Blanchard, 1943 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae is a Plutella xylostella Linnaeus,1758 parasitoid (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae that has been attracting a lot of attention to a biocontrol purpose, because it can be used as agent of biological control. For the creation and liberation of parasitoids are necessary studies on its biology. The objective of the present study was carried out to examine the inbreeding effect on the

  16. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on the Activity of NAGase from Yellow Mealworm( Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus)%二甲亚砜对黄粉虫NAGase活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢进金; 陈丽娟

    2006-01-01

    研究二甲亚砜(DMSO)对黄粉虫(Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus)N-乙酰-β-D-氨基葡萄糖苷酶活力(NAGase)的影响.结果表明:该酶的剩余活力随着二甲亚砜浓度增大而呈指数下降,导致酶活力丧失50%的二甲亚砜的浓度(抑制半衰期,IC50)为5%,说明二甲亚砜对黄粉虫NA-Gase有明显的失活作用.该酶的失活过程属于可逆过程,抑制机理表现为混合型抑制类型,进一步测定游离酶(E)和底物络合物(ES)与二甲亚砜的结合常数(KI和KIS),分别为6.12%和26.2%,KI<KIS,说明底物存在对酶被二甲亚砜的失活作用有一定的保护作用.

  17. Morphological, molecular and developmental characterization of the thelastomatid nematode Thelastoma bulhoesi (de Magalhães, 1900) (Oxyuridomorpha: Thelastomatidae) parasite of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattodea: Blattidae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sota; Morffe, Jans; Vicente, Cláudia S L; Ikeda, Kenji; Shinya, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    The American cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattodea: Blattidae) has been spreading worldwide by commerce and has successfully adjusted to living with humans. There are many reports of thelastomatid parasitic nematode isolated from P. americana in many countries including USA, Canada, India, Argentina, Bulgaria, but not in Japan. We have investigated the parasitic nematodes in P. americana lab strain and field-captured individuals in Japan and found that Thelastoma bulhoesi (de Magalhães, 1900) (Oxyuridomorpha: Thelastomatidae) parasitizes with high infection rates. We described morphological, molecular, and developmental characters of the parasitic nematode because such information was missing despite it has been discovered more than one hundred years ago. We described morphometrics with DIC microscopy and fine structure of male and female adult with SEM observation. We also reveal the embryonic and postembryonic development of this nematode. This is the first report of a thelastomatid nematode isolated from American cockroach in Japan, and the data showed here is also very useful and fundamental for further analysis of the cockroach and parasite relations. PMID:27078647

  18. ATTACHMENT OF LARVA, SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF JUVENILE SCALLOPS (Pecten jacobaeus Linnaeus, 1758 IN CONTROLLED BREEDING IN ŠARINA DRAGA BAY —MOUTH OF THE KRKA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Marguš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The capture of scallops (Pecten jacobaeus Linnaeus, 1758 from natural populations in Croatia is sporadic and unorganizaed, as a secondary activity in fishing, while no controlled cultivation of this species exists. Research of the gonad index of adults, larvae attachment, survival and growth of juvenile scallops was conducted with the aim of determining the possibility of the establishment controlled cultivation and in this way the introductes new species in Croatia’s aquaculture production. The capability to replace the population varies in time and space, and is dependent upon the hydrographical characteristics of the river mouth. The most favourable period for collecting juveniles is March–June between 6 to 8 meters depth above the sea bottom. The vertical attachment of juveniles is inversely related to salinity. The lowest salinity for attachment and juveniles survived was about 20 x 10–3, while successful collection is possible at salinities above 30 x 10–3. Shellfish aged 6 months, mean size of 33.1±5.5 mm and with a mean mass of 8.8 g reached mean sizes of 83.8±9.5 mm and mean mass of 80.6 g at one year. Total mortality during this study was 33%.

  19. ATTACHMENT OF LARVA, SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF JUVENILE VARIANT SCALLOPS (Chlamys varia Linnaeus, 1758 IN CONTROLLED BREEDING IN ŠARINA DRAGA BAY — MOUTH OF THE KRKA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Marguš

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, the capture of scallop (Chlamys varia Linnaeus, 17583 from natural populations are sporadic and unorganized, while there is no controlled cultivation of this species. To determine the possibility of the establishment of their commercial cultivation, the research comprehended the condition index of adults, larval attachment, juvenile survival and growth in Šarina draga Bay, in a locality with dense scallop populations. The changes of condition index shoved on main spawning season in spring (March–May and second one, but less intensive, in autumn (October. According to results, the best season for juvenile collection is recommended the period from July to September at depths between 2 to 10 m, and salinities above 30 x 10–3. Low larval settlement at 2.5 m depth is surely result of salinity decrease by Krka river intensive fresh water inflow. Shellfish mean size from 16.4±2.1 to 17.6±2.2 mm and with a mean mass from 0.95 to 1.35 g reached mean size from 42.7±3.2 to 47.5±3.0 mm and mean mass from 12.1 to 17.5 g in one year. Total mortality during this study was ranged from 25 to 57%.

  20. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  1. How nest translocation-time, clutch size and presence of yolkless eggs affected hatching success in Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 (Testudines: Dermochelyidae, at Projeto Tamar-Ibama, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Pont Morisso, Eduardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizó el manejo de los nidos de la especie Dermochelys coriacea, utilizados por el Proyecto Tamar-Ibama entre las temporadas reproductivas de 1989/1990 a 1998/1999, para verificación del éxito de la eclosión en relación a los tiempos de traslación. El estudio se realizó en el litoral norte del Estado de Espírito Santo. Existió tendencia a que el tiempo de traslación influencie el éxito de eclosión de los nidos. Los nidos trasladados entre 6 y más de 24 horas presentaron mayor cantidad de huevos sin desarrollo embrionario. No se encontró relación entre el número de huevos inviables trasladados y el tamaño de la postura, con el porcentual de eclosión. Se sugiere que la traslación sea realizada hasta las 6 horas, o 15 días después de la oviposición. The results of managing Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 nests by Projeto TAMAR - IBAMA, in Northern Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the nesting seasons from 1989/90 to 1998/99 are analyzed. The influence of the translocation time on hatching success of the studied nests is discussed. The time translocation, in relation to natural oviposition, seems to increase the number of non-developed eggs found in each nest if translocated between 6 hours and 15 days post egg-laying. There was no relationship established between either the number of yolkless eggs in a translocated nest or the clutch size, with hatching success. The translocation of Dermochelys nests either within 6 hours or after 15 days from natural oviposition is recommended.

  2. Heavy Metals in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Persiformes: Cichlidae, Ictalurus punctanus (Rafinesque, 1818 (Suliriformes: Ictaluridae and Bottom Sediments from Lagos Lagoon Proximal to Egbin Power Plant, Ijede, Ikorodu, Lagos Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Denloye

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the level of the heavy metal concentration in sediment and two fish species from the Ijede end of the Lagos lagoon in order to ascertain the pollution level of the lagoon .The pollution status of sediment and two fish species namely the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Persiformes: Cichlidae and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctanus (Rafinesque, 1818 (Suliriformes: Ictaluridae in the Ijede end of Lagos lagoon were investigated. Samples of the test fish species and bottom sediments of the Lagoon were analyzed quantitatively for the presence of the cadmium (Cd, cobalt (Co, lead (Pb, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the sediment contained a higher concentration of the metals than the fish samples with Fe recording the highest value of 33.32 :g/g against 18.34 and19.55 :g/g in the two fish species sampled. The study on the two fish samples revealed a higher concentration of lead (2.88 :g/g in the Tilapia compared to the Catfish species indicating the pollution trend of the two fish species investigated in the lagoon. The concentration of Cd, Fe and Zn in the fish species sampled was within limits permitted by the National Food, Drug adminstration and Control (NAFDAC and the United State Food and Drug Agency (USFDA. However, the concentrations of lead (Pb in the fish species was above the recommended standard which indicate that the fish species studied in the area are unsafe for consumption.

  3. First report on the occurrence of the comb pen shell, Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus, 1767) (Bivalvia: Pinnidae) in Ulleungdo Island in the East Sea: Ecology and molecular identification of the species using COI gene sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Park, Heung-Sik; Noh, Choong Hwan; Jeong, Eui-Young; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    Pen shell is one of the largest marine bivalves inhabiting shallow subtidal soft bottoms in the west Pacific and Indian Oceans. In Korea, the comb pen shell Atrina pectinata fisheries has been established on the south and west coasts. Recently, a pen shell population has been discovered from a subtidal sand flat (25-30 m depth) in Ulleungdo Island located in the East Sea of Korea, suggesting a potential shellfish resource in this area. In the present study, we first surveyed the population density and size of the unique pen shell using SCUBA, and identified the pen shell to species level using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) sequence. An underwater survey carried out from July to September 2013 revealed that populations of pen shell patched on subtidal sand flat at a depth of 20-25 m. Grain size analysis indicated that sand particles accounted for 99% of the 600 × 700 m sand flat. The underwater survey also indicated that density of the pen shell ranged between 6-19 ind/m2, with a mean of 11 ind/m2. Shell height (i.e. longest axis of the shell) of the pen shell on the sand flat varied between 17.2 cm to 28.8 cm, with a mean of 25.1 cm, and the age was estimated to range between 1.5-7.5 yrs, with a mean of 5 yr. COI DNA sequence obtained from the pen shell in this study showed 98.9-99.2% similarity to Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus 1767) reported from Japan. In the cluster analysis, the COI DNA sequence of the pen shells from Ulleungdo Island was grouped with A. pectinata reported from Japan and China, indicating that the pen shell discovered in this study was A. pectinata, commonly distributed on the west and south coasts of Korea.

  4. Influência do período de quiescência dos ovos sobre o ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Heloisa Helena Garcia da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do período de quiescência dos ovos no ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório, na busca de informações que possam melhorar o direcionamento das ações de controle, pois sabe-se que o ovo é a forma mais resistente do ciclo biológico, possibilitando ao mosquito ampla sobrevida, devido à resistência às adversidades climáticas. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, mantida à temperatura de 28 ± 1oC, com umidade relativa de 80 ± 5% e fotofase de 12 horas. Apresentam-se os dados da influência de diferentes períodos de quiescência sobre a eclosão das larvas, desenvolvimento larval e pupal, ciclo evolutivo. Verificou-se o efeito altamente significativo do período de quiescência na eclosão das larvas. O período de quiescência não influenciou nas durações dos períodos de incubação, larval e pupal. Constatou-se que ovos de um mesmo período de quiescência apresentaram períodos de incubação estatisticamente diferentes entre si. As larvas eclodiam em grupos, definidos pela incubação, e este efeito de grupo foi significativo na duração do ciclo. Pode-se afirmar que, em 99,8% dos ciclos, a variação foi determinada pela incubação.

  5. Evaluation of Impact of Pollen Grains from Bt, Bt/CpTI Transgenic Cotton and Bt Corn Plants on the Growth and Development of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-dong; YE Gong-yin; WU Kong-ming; WANG Xiao-qi; GUO Yu-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The δ-endotoxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and proteinase inhibitor (PI) genes aretwo kinds of genes popularly used for developing transgenic plants resistant to insect pests. To clarify whetherthere is any risk concerning the effects of pollens from these transgenic crops on non-target insects with eco-nomic importance, such as the effects on the growth and development as well as cocoon quality of the silk-worm, Bombyx mori Linnaeus, a series of feeding experiments were conducted, using pollens from transgeniccotton or corn containing crylAc, cry1A+-CpTI or crylAb genes, compared with pollens from non-transgenicnormal cotton and corn as well as the non-pollen treatment. In contrast to the latter ones, pollens from trans-genic plants showed no significant adverse effects on larval mortality, cocoon weight, pupa weight, cocoonshell weight, pupation rate, emergence rate and fecundity of the silkworm after neonates were fed with thepollens for 72 h. In addition, no dosage effects of pollens were found. Though the duration of 1st instar larvaewas prolonged in the case of feeding with transgenic pollens as compared with those of the non-pollen treat-ment, but they were not significantly different from those fed with pollens from non-transgenic cotton or corn.Meanwhile, the body weight of the 3rd instar molters fed with transgenic pollens was obviously different fromthose for non-pollen treatment, and was all significantly heavier than that of the controls. Consequently, it isconsidered that the adverse effect of pollens from transgenic insect-resistant cotton and corn on the growth anddevelopment of the silkworm is negligible.

  6. A Simple Method for Identifying Sex of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) Larva, Pupa and Adult%小菜蛾幼虫、蛹和成虫的雌雄形态识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艺欣; 田厚军; 魏辉; 占志雄; 黄玉清

    2011-01-01

    Based on the morphological appearances and descriptions in literature, a simple and convenient method for identifying the sex of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was developed. The results showed that the sex of the first- and second-instar larvae was not easily distinguishable by naked eyes or optical microscopic observation. However, the male third- and fourth-instar larva showed a lighter colored fifth abdominal segment than that on the female counterparts. On the male pupae, a lump on each side of a short, longitudinal slip was visible near the gonopore on the 9-1 abdominal segment. The female pupae had a long, longitudinal slip between the genital pore on the 8th abdominal segment and the oviporus on the 9th segment. The adult males had characteristic brown wings with a wavy edge on the posterior margin and a yorked abdominal end. The female adults, on the other hand, were lighter in color and bigger on body size than the males, and had their abdominal ends appeared round in shape.%在形态观察基础上,结合相关文献,系统描述了小菜蛾幼虫、蛹和成虫的雌雄形态快速识别特征.结果表明,用肉眼和光学显微镜无法区分小菜蛾1龄和2龄幼虫的性别,但可以区分3龄和4龄幼虫的性别,主要特征是雄虫在第5腹节内有睾丸,背面呈浅黄色,与相邻体节形成明显区别.小菜蛾雄蛹第9腹节腹面有1个生殖孔,形成短纵裂缝且两边各有一瘤状突起,而雌蛹第8腹节腹面有1个生殖孔,第9腹节腹面有1个产卵孔,2孔之间连成长纵裂缝.雄蛾翅后缘从翅基到外缘呈三度曲波状的黄褐色带,腹部末端钳状,抱握器微张开;雌蛾体色较雄蛾淡,个体较雄蛾大,腹部末端圆筒形.

  7. Diversidade de helmintos intestinais em mamíferos silvestres e domésticos na Caatinga do Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Sudeste do Piauí, Brasil Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandão Martha Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre biodiversidade permitem avaliações ecossistêmicas e monitoramentos de impactos e mudanças ambientais. A diversidade parasitária pode refletir o processo coevolutivo entre parasitos e hospedeiros, e mudanças ambientais que permitem a perda, ganho ou a manutenção das espécies nesse processo. O presente trabalho utilizou espécies/morfotipos de ovos de helmintos encontrados em fezes de sete mamíferos silvestres (os grupos Dasypodidae e grandes felinos, e as espécies: Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu e dois domésticos (Canis familiaris e Sus scrofa, que cohabitam o Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara (PNSC e seu entorno, para analisar a diversidade dos helmintos intestinais desses mamíferos. Neste trabalho, utilizou-se achados da fauna helmintológica de mamíferos silvestres e domésticos, para avaliar um possível fluxo de helmintos entre estes dois grupos hospedeiros usando Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA dos hospedeiros com base na composição de suas faunas helmintológicas. Os resultados indicam que a região do PNSC, ainda mantém condições ambientais que ainda propiciam a manutenção da composição da fauna de helmintos de mamíferos silvestres, diferente da encontrada nos animais domésticos.Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu and from two domestic species (Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa, which occur within the Serra da Capivara National Park (PNSC and surrounding areas in order to analise

  8. Avaliação de variáveis limnológicas e suas relações com uma floração de Euglenaceae pigmentada em viveiro povoado com tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2018 Limnologic variables evaluation and its relation to a pigmented Euglenaceae bloom in Nile Tilapia pond (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, São Paulo, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Schmidt Romeiro Mainardes Pinto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocorrência de floração de euglenas (Euglenophyceae pigmentada em viveiro povoado com tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus (Cichlidae foi estudada no Núcleo de Aquicultura de Pindamonhangaba, localizado a22º55´S, 45º27´W, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Durante um mês (Fevereiro de 2001, a cada três dias variáveis da água foram monitoradas. Destas, a amônia, os pigmentos totais, a transparência da água, o fósforo e o oxigênio dissolvido tiveram seus valores fora do recomendado. Os resultados levaram a supor que a entrada de nitrogênio e de fósforo advinda da fertilização inorgânica por superfosfato e sulfato de amônio e do arraçoamento ocasionaram a floração algácea. A mortandade de peixes provavelmente relacionou-se às baixas concentrações de oxigênio e aos níveis de amônia. Os valores baixos de oxigênio poderiam relacionar-se diretamente ao excesso de algas ou à própria decomposição da matéria orgânica advinda do arraçoamento e das células algais em senescênciaThe occurrence of algal bloom in a fish pond with Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus (Cichlidae was recorded at the Experimental Fish Culture Station in Pindamonhangaba, located at 22º55´S, 45º27´W, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. During one month (February 2001 at every three days of study the water quality was performed. From results, it was observed that the ammonia, total pigments, water transparency, phosphate and dissolved oxygen showed values out of the recommended limit. The algal bloom was associated to the loads phosphate and nitrogen and the fish mortality to the low oxygen and toxic ammonia. The low oxygen values were associated to the bloom and the organic material in decomposition

  9. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples

  10. Iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758 (Squamata: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tres ejemplares fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia, y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas. Localidad El Tigre, 11º58'15.7"S, 68º00'22.5"W; 162 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 11 julio 2010. Hora: 9:27 AM. Colectores: Alvaro J. Aguilar Kirigin y Wilson Bani Rivero. Colectado en bajíos herbáceos inundables, a orillas del río Madre de Dios.

  11. Iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758) (Squamata: Iguanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Tres ejemplares fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia, y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF), La Paz, Bolivia. Los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas. Localidad El Tigre, 11º58'15.7"S, 68º00'22.5"W; 162 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 11 julio 2010. Hora: 9:27 AM. Colectores: Alvaro J. Aguilar Kirigin y Wilson Bani Rivero. Colectado en bajíos herbáceos inundables, a orillas del río Madre ...

  12. Linnaeus II: Software for Biodiversity Research Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H. Schalk; A.C. Pierrot-Bults

    2005-01-01

    Sharing of information, and truly global collaboration is imperative to generate the knowledge needed to underpin sensible and realistic policies for a responsible use of the Earth¿s natural resources. ETI BioInformatics is a NGO in operational relation with UNESCO, dedicated to developing innovativ

  13. [Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha Lima; Chame, Marcia; Cordeiro, José Luis Passos; de Miranda Chaves, Sérgio Augusto

    2009-12-01

    Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu) and from two domestic species (Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa), which occur within the Serra da Capivara National Park (PNSC) and surrounding areas in order to analise the diversity of mammal intestinal helminths. This work used the helminthological fauna findings of wild and domestic mammals, to consider a possible helminth flux between these two host groups using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) of the hosts based on helminthological fauna composition. The results indicate that the region of the PNSC still maintains environmental conditions that still keep wild mammal helminthological fauna composition different from the one found for domestic mammals. PMID:20040186

  14. Parasites of free-ranging small canids and felids in the Bolivian Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V; Robbins, Richard G; Maffei, Leonardo; Wade, Susan E

    2006-06-01

    Parasite surveys of free-ranging wildlife provide important information for monitoring population health. Between March 2001 and March 2003, we sampled 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), eight Geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), a jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), five pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), and three crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) at three sites in the Bolivian Chaco. The objective of the study was to survey the parasite fauna of these carnivores and compare prevalence of parasites among the sites. The parasite community of these carnivores was diverse, with representatives from eight genera of nematodes, two families of cestodes, two protozoan species, and six arthropod species. Fecal parasites identified from 12 of the 13 felids and five of the six canids examined included Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Uncinaria sp., Crenosoma sp., Toxocara cati, Spirurida, Capillaria aerophila, Spirometra sp., Taeniidae, and Cystoisospora sp. Four tick species, Amblyomma parvum, A. tigrinum, A. ovale, and A. cajennense, and two flea species, Pulex irritans and Delostichus phyllotis, were identified. Two crab-eating foxes had serologic evidence of heartworm disease (HWD). Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were found in 15 of 26 animals. Although HWD was found only in canids inside the national park, parasite prevalence did not appear to differ among sites, and no evidence was found of parasite spillover from domestic to wild carnivores. PMID:17312790

  15. Dietary separation of sympatric carnivores identified by molecular analysis of scats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, L E; Roman, J; Sunquist, M E

    2000-10-01

    We studied the diets of four sympatric carnivores in the flooding savannas of western Venezuela by analysing predator DNA and prey remains in faeces. DNA was isolated and a portion of the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial genome amplified and sequenced from 20 of 34 scats. Species were diagnosed by comparing the resulting sequences to reference sequences generated from the blood of puma (Puma concolor), jaguar (Panthera onca), ocelot (Leopardus pardalus) and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). Scat size has previously been used to identify predators, but DNA data show that puma and jaguar scats overlap in size, as do those of puma, ocelot and fox. Prey-content analysis suggests minimal prey partitioning between pumas and jaguars. In field testing this technique for large carnivores, two potential limitations emerged: locating intact faecal samples and recovering DNA sequences from samples obtained in the wet season. Nonetheless, this study illustrates the tremendous potential of DNA faecal studies. The presence of domestic dog (Canis familiaris) in one puma scat and of wild pig (Sus scrofa), set as bait, in one jaguar sample exemplifies the forensic possibilities of this noninvasive analysis. In addition to defining the dietary habits of similar size sympatric mammals, DNA identifications from faeces allow wildlife managers to detect the presence of endangered taxa and manage prey for their conservation. PMID:11050553

  16. Vertebrate roadkills on State Highway 383, Rondônia, Brazil.

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    Luiz Carlos Batista Turci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Roadkills are a serious threat to many species of wildlife worldwide. In Brazil, few studies are available about the importance of roadkills. Information about roadkills in Amazonia are even more scarce when compared to central and southern Brazil. Here we describe the vertebrate roadkills on State Highway 383 in Rondônia. From May 2004 – April 2005, thirty samples were taken the along 110km of the highway between Cacoal and Alta Floresta D’Oeste. Thirty-four vertebrate species were found in 259 specimens. In terms of absolute numbers, amphibians were the most frequent roadkills, with 68 individuals of two species. Birds followed, with 67 individuals of 12 species, then reptiles (67 indiv., 12 species and mammals (63 indiv.,13 species. Eight species (Leptodactylus gr. pentadactylus, Rhinella sp, Amphisbaena sp., Liophis reginae, Crotophaga ani, Didelphis marsupialis, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cerdocyon thous were the most frequent roadkills, accounting for 76% of the vertebrate roadkills. More than half of the roadkills occurred during the dry season.

  17. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

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    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  18. Terrestrial mammals in an Atlantic Forest remnant, Paraná, Brazil

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    Gustavo Borba de Miranda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. This study aimed to provide a list of terrestrial mammal species in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in the Southwestern Paraná state, Brazil. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October 2009 using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces. We registered 20 taxa distributed into 7 orders: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia, and Xenarthra. Among these, 4 taxa were registered either by direct observation or by recording of traces and the others were registered only through traces. The most frequently occurring species were Didelphis sp. (30.6% and Cerdocyon thous (25.6%. Out of the 20 registered taxa, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, and Cuniculus paca are listed as vulnerable in the Red Book of Threatened Fauna in Parana State. Although small, the study area may assist in the availability of food and shelter for the fauna of mammals, representing an important element of the regional landscape.

  19. Food web connections and the transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma evansi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) in the Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, H M; Rocha, F L; Lisboa, C V; Rademaker, V; Mourão, G M; Jansen, A M

    2011-07-01

    We examined by parasitological tests (hemocultures and buffy coat) infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi in blood samples from Leopardus pardalis, Cerdocyon thous and domestic dogs. Besides, 25 T. cruzi isolates previously derived from feral pigs and small wild mammals were here characterized by miniexon gene and demonstrated to be in the TcI genotype. Herein, we make an overall analysis of the transmission cycle of both trypanosome species in the light of the assemblage of data collected over the last seven years. The carnivore Nasua nasua was confirmed to play a major role in the transmission cycles of both T. cruzi and T. evansi since it was the species that had the higher prevalence and higher parasitemias by both flagellate species. In addition, our results show that both trypanosomatid species may be found throughout the Pantanal landscape, in all forest strata, as shown by the infection of carnivore, arboreal and terrestrial scansorial marsupial species in complex and seasonal transmission cycles. We propose that transmission of T. cruzi and T. evansi in the southern Pantanal region takes place via an intricate ecological trophic network involving generalist and specialist mammal species that are linked through a robust food-web connection. PMID:21600622

  20. Serosurvey of small carnivores in the Bolivian Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V; Noss, Andrew J; Deem, Sharon L; Maffei, Leonardo; Dubovi, Edward J

    2007-07-01

    Five species of Bolivian carnivores, including nine Geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), ten ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), one jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), nine pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), and five crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) were sampled between March 2001 and April 2005 and tested for antibodies to common pathogens of domestic carnivores. Carnivores were trapped in three areas: a village, the region between human settlements and a protected area, and within Kaa-Iya National Park, Bolivia. Antibodies to canine distemper virus were detected in ocelots and pampas foxes. Antibodies to canine parvovirus were detected in pampas foxes and crab-eating foxes. Geoffroy's cats and all of the ocelots tested positive for antibodies to feline calicivirus (FCV), while fewer than half of Geoffroy's cats and no ocelots had antibodies to feline panleukopenia (FPV). These results confirm that these species of Bolivian carnivores are not naïve to common pathogens of domestic carnivores, and seropositive animals were found in villages as well as in the national park. PMID:17699100

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi TcI and TcII transmission among wild carnivores, small mammals and dogs in a conservation unit and surrounding areas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Arrais, Ricardo Corassa; Santos, Jean Pierre; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Cordeir-Estrela, Pedro; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2013-02-01

    Aiming to better understand the ecological aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles, wild carnivores, small mammals and dogs were examined for T. cruzi infection in the Serra da Canastra National Park region, Brazil. Isolates were genotyped using mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8 and H3) genomic targets. Trypanosoma cruzi transmission was well established in the area and occurred in both wild and peridomestic environments. Dog seroprevalence was 29·4% (63/214) and TcI and TcII genotypes, besides mixed infections were observed. Only TcI was detected in wild mammals. Marsupials displayed lower relative abundance, but a high prevalence of positive haemocultures (4/22), whereas rodents displayed positive haemocultures (9/113) mainly in the abundant Akodon montensis and Cerradomys subflavus species. The felid Leopardus pardalis was the only carnivore to display positive haemoculture and was captured in the same region where the small mammal prevalence of T. cruzi infection was high. Two canid species, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Cerdocyon thous, were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection (4/8 and 8/39, respectively), probably related to their capacity to exploit different ecological niches. Herein, dog infection not only signals T. cruzi transmission but also the genotypes present. Distinct transmission strategies of the T. cruzi genotypes are discussed. PMID:23062278

  2. Running over of mammals on roads of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

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    Anderson Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Road deaths represent a factor of great impact on fauna. This is probably one of the main causes of mortality, even for threatened species. However, studies on this subject are unknown in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. Considering this lack, the present study presents records of medium to large-sized mammals killed by vehicles on the roads of this state between August 2000 and November 2005. In total, 257 records were made from 20 mammal species, most of which were obtained from the BR 116, BR 282 and BR 470 highways. Cerdocyon thous was the commonest species (82 records; 31.9%, followed by Didelphis albiventris (44; 17.1%, Procyon cancrivorus (21; 8.2%, Conepatus chinga (19; 7.4%, Dasypus novemcinctus (14; 5.4%, Tamandua tetradactyla (14; 5.4% and Sphiggurus villosus (13; 5.1%. Leopardus tigrinus (5; 1.9%, L. wiedii (1; 0.4% and one unidentified Leopardus individual were recorded as threatened species. This indicates a high number of mammals run over on the roads of Santa Catarina state, and hence the necessity of specific studies on this subject and the construction of tunnels and fences for animal passage.

  3. Identification of blood meal sources of Lutzomyia longipalpis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cytochrome B gene

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    Vítor Yamashiro Rocha Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the dietary content of haematophagous insects can provide important information about the transmission networks of certain zoonoses. The present study evaluated the potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome B (cytb gene to differentiate between vertebrate species that were identified as possible sources of sandfly meals. The complete cytb gene sequences of 11 vertebrate species available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were digested with Aci I, Alu I, Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes in silico using Restriction Mapper software. The cytb gene fragment (358 bp was amplified from tissue samples of vertebrate species and the dietary contents of sandflies and digested with restriction enzymes. Vertebrate species presented a restriction fragment profile that differed from that of other species, with the exception of Canis familiaris and Cerdocyon thous. The 358 bp fragment was identified in 76 sandflies. Of these, 10 were evaluated using the restriction enzymes and the food sources were predicted for four: Homo sapiens (1, Bos taurus (1 and Equus caballus (2. Thus, the PCR-RFLP technique could be a potential method for identifying the food sources of arthropods. However, some points must be clarified regarding the applicability of the method, such as the extent of DNA degradation through intestinal digestion, the potential for multiple sources of blood meals and the need for greater knowledge regarding intraspecific variations in mtDNA.

  4. Serologic survey of brucellosis in captive neotropical wild carnivores in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Pinheiro, José W Junior; Souza, Marcília M A; Santana, Vânia L A; Silva, Jean C R; Mota, Rinaldo A; Sá, Fabricio B

    2012-06-01

    Abstract. This study reports the detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus and B. canis in wild neotropical carnivores kept in captivity in three zoos in northeastern Brazil. A total of 42 serum samples were examined, 17 from coatis (Nasua nasua), eight from crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), three from crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three from hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), two from little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), five from tayras (Eira barbara), two from greater grisons (Galictis vittata), and two from neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis). The Rose-Bengal test and complement fixation test (CFT) were performed to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies, whereas the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was employed to detect anti-B. canis antibodies. The overall seroprevalence varied by species and by test; in addition, CFT and AGID seemed better able to detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. canis, respectively. This is the first study on the presence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in captive carnivores from Brazil, as well as the first report of antibodies to Brucella spp. in coatis, crab-eating raccoons, hoary foxes, little spotted cats, tayras, and greater grisons. PMID:22779245

  5. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Boeger, Walter A; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vianna, Rogério T

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae) is amended to include viviparous species having a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ, two band-like projections originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and hooks evenly distributed along the haptoral margins. Two new species of Scleroductus are described from the external surfaces of siluriform fishes of Mexico and Brazil: Scleroductus lyrocleithrum n. sp. from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Heptapteridae) in a cenote on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; and Scleroductus angularis n. sp. from the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Pimelodidae) in the Rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil. Scleroductus sp. is recorded from the jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard) (Heptapteridae) in the Iguaçu drainage of southern Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA suggest that Scleroductus (represented in the analyses by Scleroductus sp. from R. quelen), Ieredactylus Schelkle, Paladini, Shinn, King, Johnson, van Oosterhout, Mohammed & Cable, 2011 (represented by its type-species) and Gyrodactyloides Bychowsky, 1947 (represented by G. bychowskii Al'bova, 1948) comprise the sister taxon to the remaining viviparous gyrodactylids, with Scleroductus serving as the sister group to Ieredactylus + Gyrodactyloides. The clade containing the three taxa is supported by two putative synapomorphic features: two band-like projections (R1 sclerites) originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ. PMID:23263939

  6. Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758 in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ruth Massote Dracz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that affects the hepatic ducts of several species of domestic and wild vertebrates, causing huge economic losses to livestock rearing worldwide. Reports on occurrences of F. hepatica in capybaras are an important epidemiological aspect of this disease, since these rodents can be a source of contamination for other animals and humans. In the present study, conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Confins, Minas Gerais, fresh feces from capybaras were collected from the ground near a lagoon at the edge of the Ribeirão da Mata river. These were examined using the technique of four metal sieves. F. hepatica eggs were recovered. This trematode species was confirmed by observing morphological characteristics and measuring the eggs recovered from the capybara feces, and through experimental infection of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 by miracidia from these eggs and subsequent infection of C57/BL06 mice with metacercariae originating from these infected mollusks. The data suggest the occurrence of natural cycle of F. hepatica in this region and provide a warning that expansion of the geographical distribution of this parasite by means of this rodent is possible. It is therefore important to adopting measures for epidemiological control of this helminthiasis.

  7. АДАПТИВНЫЙ ОРГАН ДВИЖЕНИЯ ЦЕРКАРИИ FASCIOLA HEPATICA LINNAEUS, 1758 - ХВОСТ

    OpenAIRE

    СОКОЛИНА Ф.М.; SANCHEZ-VEGA J.T.; VILLASENOR O.K.

    2014-01-01

    Введение. Изучено развитие органа движения хвоста церкарии Fasciolahepatica Linnaeus,1758 на эмбриональной стадииразвития, последующих трех днях активной части жизни и четвертого-пятого дня малоподвижного и неподвижного периода жизни. У печеночной фасциолы на стадии церкарии первыми появляются зачатки органа движения и выделительной системы....

  8. О СТАТУСЕ МАТЕРИНСКОЙ СПОРОЦИСТЫ FASCIOLA HEPATICA LINNAEUS, 1758 В ТКАНЯХ LYMNAEA TRUNCATULA MULLER, 1774

    OpenAIRE

    Соколина, Флюра

    2007-01-01

    Морфофункциональные механизмы адаптогенеза системы «паразит-хозяин» мало изучены. В статье изложены данные, полученные при гистологических исследованиях тканей Lymnaea truncatula Muller, 1774 зараженных Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758, возбудителем заболевания печени человека и животных. Уточнены места проникновения и локализации личинок фасциолы на стадии материнской спороцисты....

  9. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  10. Distribución, ecología y origen de las poblaciones de Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Müller, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora en las Cordilleras Béticas Orientales (Andalucía, España

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    Arrebola, J. R.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chorology and ecology of the andalusian terrestrial malacofauna (South of the Iberian Peninsula, has showed the presence of a group of climatic relicts characteristics from the Eurosiberian region, in the Eastern Betics Mountains Chains. The ecology and distribution of two of these species (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Millier, 1774: and Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeus, 1758 is exposed, being the main limiting factor the typical mediterranean summer drought. The adaptative response of these species against the scarcity of water depends on its different ecophysiologies. Vitrina pellucida (eurithermic lives in low-lands where the availability of water along the year is constant, as well as in dry soils of high mountains because of the cold weather. Cepaea nemoralis (stenothermic lives only in habitats with wet soils and heavy vegetal cover placed below 1500 m. The absence of similar vegetation over this altitude and the extreme climate conditions of the High Mediterranean Mountains prevents its appearance, contrarily to the High Eurosiberian Mountains.

    [fr]
    L'étude de la chorologie et de l'écologie de la malacofaune terrestre d'Andalousie (sud de la Péninsule Ibérique, a permis de déterminer la présence, dans les cordillères Bétiques Orientales, d'un groupe de reliques climatiques propres à la région Euro-sibérienne. L'écologie et la distribution de deux de ces espèces (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Müller, 1774 et Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeux, 1758 sont exposées ici, et on montre que le principal facteur limitant est la sécheresse estivale caractéristique du climat méditerranéen. La réponse adaptative de dex deux espèces face à la rareté de l'eau durant l'été est déterminée par leurs écophysiologies différentes, Vitrina pellucida (eurytherme utilise aussi bien les écosystèmes des terres basses là où la disponibilité en eau est constante tout au long de l

  11. Parasites of domestic and wild canids in the region of Serra do Cipó National Park, Brazil Parasitos de canídeos domésticos e silvestres na região do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó - Brasil

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    Juliana Lúcia Costa Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. Greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. This study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous in the Serra do Cipó National Park (43-44º W and 19-20º S and endo and ectoparasites of domestic dogs in the Morro da Pedreira Environmental Protection Area (an area surrounding the National Park. The Serra do Cipó is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the enteroparasites found in domestic and wild canids, the following taxons were identified: Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Toxocara sp., Spirocerca sp., Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Cestoda, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothriidae, Hymenolepidae, Anoplocephalidae, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Isospora sp. Domestic dogs were positive for leishmaniasis and Babesia canis in serological tests. Among the ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Ctenocephalides felis felis were observed in domestic dogs. Variations in the chaetotaxy of the meta-episternum and posterior tibia were observed in some specimens of C. felis felis.Nas últimas décadas, as doenças têm sido apontadas como importantes causas de extinção de espécies silvestres. Maior ênfase tem sido dada às doenças transmitidas por animais domésticos que crescem em número, bem como as populações humanas, em áreas naturais. O presente estudo objetivou verificar a presença de helmintos intestinais de canídeos silvestres (lobo-guará - Chrysocyon brachyurus e cachorro-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (43-44º W e 19-20º S e endo e ectoparasitos de cães domésticos da Área de Proteção Ambiental Morro da Pedreira (entorno do

  12. Avaliação da predação de Podocnemis expansa e Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae no rio Javaés, Tocantins Evaluation of predation in Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae in the Javaés River, Tocantins

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    Giovanni Salera Junior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Podocnemis expansa e P. unifilis são animais de vida longa, com uma demorada maturação sexual, o que influencia uma baixa taxa de substituição de indivíduos. Suas populações são caracterizadas por uma pequena mortalidade dos animais adultos, mas alta taxa de mortalidade de filhotes e embriões. Sendo a predação natural de ninhos e filhotes um dos fatores mais importantes do baixo sucesso de eclosão dessas espécies. No rio Javaés, os ovos e recém-eclodidos podem ser predados por uma grande diversidade de animais: dentre as aves, urubus (Coragyps atratus e Cathartes aura, carcará (Polyborus plancus, jaburu (Jabiru mycteria; lagartos (Tupinambis teguixin e mamíferos de pequeno porte, coati (Nasua nasua e cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. Do total anual de desovas de P. unifilis em média 65,98% são predadas, sendo 41,68% de forma total e 24,30% parcialmente. Enquanto que apenas 5,31% das ninhadas de P. expansa são sempre parcialmente predadas. Dentre os predadores aquáticos existem diversos peixes, principalmente piranhas (Serrasalmus nattereri e jacarés (Melanosuchus niger e Caimam crocodilus. Os predadores das fêmeas de P. unifilis são: jacaré-açu (Melanosuchus niger, onça-pintada (Panthera onca e onça-parda (Puma concolor. Enquanto que as fêmeas de P. expansa em postura, somente são predadas por P. onca. As fêmeas de P. unifilis em postura são predadas num total médio de 3,93% anualmente, enquanto que para P. expansa a média anual é 5,66% das fêmeas.Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis long lived with late sexual maturation, which influences a low replacement rate of individuals. Their populations are characterized by low adults mortality, but high mortality of embryos and hatchlings. The natural nest predation is an important factor for hatchling success. In Javaés River, the eggs and hatchlings can be predated by a large number of animals such as birds, vultures (Coragyps atratus and Cathartes aura, carcar

  13. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae associados com o ambiente em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valério Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle, which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti, 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.Neste trabalho são descritas as espécies de carrapatos de animais selvagens e domésticos e do ambiente coletados por um ano na EMBRAPA Gado de Corte localizado na área urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Dos 55 hospedeiros selvagens de seis espécies diferentes (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla e Dasyprocta aguti foram coletados 323 carrapatos. Amblyomma ovale foi encontrado apenas em quatis e Amblyomma nodosum apenas sobre tamanduás. Nenhum carrapato foi encontrado sobre macacos-prego. Por outro lado, Amblyomma cajennense foi encontrado em todos os hospedeiros

  14. Seed dispersal of Solanum thomasiifolium Sendtner (Solanaceae in the Linhares Forest, Espírito Santo state, Brazil Dispersão de sementes de Solanum thomasiifolium Sendtner (Solanaceae na Floresta de Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vasconcellos-Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse seed dispersal and establishment of Solanum thomasiifolium in an area of "nativo" vegetation in Espirito Santo state on the southeastern Brazilian coast. Ten species of birds, the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, and one species of lizard (Tropidurus torquatus fed on S. thomasiifolium fruits and dispersed viable seeds in their faeces. The proportional contribution of each of these groups to seed dispersal was 77% (birds, 19% (crab-eating fox and 4% (lizards. Ants also contributed to seed dispersal. More seeds were deposited in vegetation islands than in the surrounding open areas. Germination rates of seeds collected directly from fruit (control, bird droppings, the faeces of crab-eating foxes and lizards were, respectively, 64, 64, 53, and 80 %. Differences among these rates were all significant, except between birds and control. Lizards were important as seed carriers between nearby islands and they expelled a higher proportion of viable seeds. Birds and the crab-eating foxes did not enhance seed germination, but promoted seed dispersal over a wider area. Plant architecture, fruit productivity, fruit characteristics and the diversity of frugivores are important for the success of S. thomasiifolium in habitat colonization.O propósito deste estudo foi analisar a dispersão de sementes e o estabelecimento de Solanum thomasiifolium em uma área de vegetação de "nativo" no Estado do Espírito Santo, na costa do sudeste do Brasil. Dez espécies de aves, o cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous e uma espécie de lagarto (Tropidurus torquatus alimentaram-se de frutos de S. thomasiifolium e dispersaram sementes viáveis em suas fezes. A contribuição proporcional de cada um destes grupos na dispersão de sementes foi de 77% para aves, 19% para o cachorro-do-mato e 4% para o lagarto. Formigas também contribuíram com a dispersão de sementes. Mais sementes foram depositadas nas ilhas de vegetação do que nas

  15. Atropelamentos de vertebrados na Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Pará, Brasil Roadkills of vertebrates in Carajas National Forest, Para, Brazil

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    Fabiano Gumier-Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vários pesquisadores têm avaliado impactos de estradas. Estes podem envolver aspectos paisagísticos, degradação do solo, poluição do ar e impactos sobre a fauna, como atropelamentos. Na estrada Raimundo Mascarenhas, que atravessa a Floresta Nacional de Carajás (ca. 400 mil hectares, há intenso tráfego de veículos automotores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar se há diferenças entre trechos da estrada, em três escalas espaciais; se há alteração ao longo dos anos; se alguns táxons são mais freqüentemente atropelados, e se a freqüência de atropelamentos aumenta com a precipitação mensal. Analisamos a freqüência de atropelamentos de vertebrados de abril/2003 até outubro/2006 ao longo dos 25 km iniciais da estrada. Registramos 155 atropelamentos. O número de atropelamentos diminui ao longo dos anos (P=0,01, e com a distância do início da estrada (P=0,0002. Serpentes (Ophidia e gambás Didelphis marsupialis foram mais atropelados (7,5/ano, seguidos de aves, raposas Cerdocyon thous, quatis Nasua nasua, roedores (Rodentia, e não identificados (4,9/ano; cuíca Marmosops sp., tapeti Sylvilagus brasiliensis, guariba Alouatta sp., irara Eira barbara, jabuti Geochelone sp., lagartos (Lacertilia e macaco prego Cebus apella (1/ano. Não houve relação significativa entre o número mensal de atropelamentos e a precipitação mensal.Several researchers have evaluated impacts of highways. These can involve landscape aspects, soil degradation, air pollution, and impacts upon wildlife, such as roadkills. At the Raimundo Mascarenhas highway, that crosses the Carajás National Forest (ca. 400.000 ha, there is intense traffic of automotive vehicles. The aim of this work was to test if there were differences among higway sections on three spatial scales; if there was alteration along the years; if some taxa suffered more frequently roadkills; and if roadkill frequency increased with monthly precipitation. We analysed roadkill

  16. Occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept in captivity at the zoo from Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá

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    Paula Márcia Marques de Campos Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Control of oral lesions contributes directly to the health, survival and welfare of captive animals. In order to investigate the occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept at the zoo at the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá, we evaluated 31 oral cavities from three families of carnivores (Felidae, Canidae and Procyonidae between July 2012 and June 2013. Twelve coatis (Nasua nasua, three raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus, two maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, six crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, three ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, one cougar (Puma concolor and three wild cats (Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii and Leopardus colocolo were reviewed. The most frequent lesions were dental absences 21/31 (67.7%, dental fractures 20/31 (64.5% and tooth wear 19/31 (61.3%, which were suggestive of trauma caused from stress. Of lesser importance, we also observed occurrence of dental calculus grade I in 18/31 (58%, caries 1/31 (3.2%, foreign bodies 2/31 (6.4%, orofacial fistulas 1/31 (3.2%, hyperplasia in the oral mucosa 1/31 (3.2%, dental dimming 3/31 (9.7% and chafing of the soft tissue 5/31 (16.1%. Therefore, it was concluded that environmental enrichment strategies and oral routine evaluation must be implemented to ensure the welfare of these animals, reducing local and systemic adverse effects of oral lesions. The diet has been successful in preventing periodontal disease, suggesting that this diet for the captive animals in the institution should be maintained.

  17. Search for Mycobacterium leprae in wild mammals

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    Sílvia Cristina Barboza Pedrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is still a worldwide public health problem. Brazil and India show the highest prevalence rates of the disease. Natural infection of armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus with Mycobacterium leprae has been reported in some regions of the United States. Identification of bacilli is difficult, particularly due to its inability to grow in vitro. The use of molecular tools represents a fast and sensitive alternative method for diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. In the present study, the diagnostic methods used were bacilloscopy, histopathology, microbiology, and PCR using specific primers for M. leprae repetitive sequences. PCR were performed using genomic DNA extracted from 138 samples of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin of 44 D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous unicinctus, and C. tatouay armadillos from the Middle Western region of the state of São Paulo and from the experimental station of Embrapa Pantanal, located in Pantanal da Nhecolândia of Mato Grosso do Sul state. Also, the molecular analysis of 19 samples from internal organs of other road killed species of wild animals, such as Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati, Procyon cancrivoros (hand-skinned, Cerdocyon thous (dog-pity-bush, Cavia aperea (restless cavy, Didelphis albiventris (skunk, Sphigurrus spinosus (hedgehog, and Gallictis vittata (ferret showed PCR negative data. None of the 157 analyzed samples had shown natural mycobacterial infection. Only the armadillo inoculated with material collected from untreated multibacillary leprosy patient presented PCR positive and its genomic sequencing revealed 100% identity with M. leprae. According to these preliminary studies, based on the used methodology, it is possible to conclude that wild mammals seem not to play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy in the Middle Western region of the São Paulo state and in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state.

  18. Serologic evidence of canine parvovirus in domestic dogs, wild carnivores, and marsupials in the Argentinean Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, María Marcela; Miccio, Luciano; Enriquez, Gustavo Fabián; Iribarren, Fabián Eduardo; Gürtler, Ricardo Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The transmission of pathogens between domestic dogs and generalist wildlife species may be modified by environmental degradation, biodiversity losses, host densities, and increased contact rates in remnant forest patches. A serologic survey of canine parvovirus (CPV) in rural domestic dogs and wild mammals was conducted in two neighboring rural areas (disturbed and protected) from Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina, between 2008 and 2011. A total of 174 domestic dogs and 26 wild mammals-4 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), 3 crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), 17 white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris), and 2 gray four-eyed opossums (Philander opossum)-were examined for antibodies to CPV using a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Domestic dogs were numerous and their movements unrestricted. The main function of dogs differed significantly between areas, with more dogs used for herding or hunting around the protected area. The seroprevalence of antibodies to CPV in dogs from both areas was very high (93.9-94.6%) and increased steeply with age. Nearly all carnivores and marsupials showed high exposure to CPV. Although a higher exposure to CPV was expected in wild mammals from disturbed areas as a result of enhanced contact between dogs and wildlife, no significant differences were found between areas. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to document exposure to CPV of free-ranging Pr. cancrivorus, D. albiventris, and Ph. opossum, and include a detailed demographic study of the domestic dog populations living in the area. This study highlights that dogs and wildlife have potential opportunities for contact and shows that the edges of the protected area may be as suitable as other fragmented areas for the transmission of CPV. Rural domestic dogs may pose serious threats to the health and conservation of wild carnivores in both disturbed and protected areas, especially in the Gran Chaco, where habitat fragmentation is severely

  19. Ixodídeos em animais silvestres na Região do Planalto Serrano, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Marcia Sangaletti Lavina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da fauna de ixodídeos, bem como a potencialidade como transmissores de patógenos aos seus hospedeiros e em alguns casos aos humanos, é de grande importância para o estabelecimento de programas de saúde pública e vigilância epidemiológica. Com o objetivo de identificar ixodídeos de mamíferos silvestres no Planalto Serrano de Santa Catarina foram examinados carrapatos, coletados ou recebidos no Laboratório de Parasitologia e Doenças Parasitárias do Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias – CAV/UDESC no período 2001 a 2011. Os ixodídeos eram provenientes de animais silvestres que passaram pelo processo de triagem do Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias (HCV do CAV e de animais encontrados mortos em rodovias do Estado. De acordo com as chaves dicotômicas específicas identificou-se Amblyomma aureolatum coletados em Pseudalopex gymnocercus, Lycalopex gymnocercus, Leopardus pardalis, Cerdocyon thous, Leopardus tigrinus, Puma concolor e Bufo sp.; A. dubitatum em Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris; A. rotundatum em Puma concolor e Bohtrops sp.; A. ovale em Bufo sp.; e Rhipicephalus microplus em Mazama gouazoubira. Foi identificado um exemplar de A. longirostre que se encontrava em uma residência da área urbana do município de Lages. As espécies A. rotundatum em Bohtrops sp. e em Puma concolor; e A. longirostre, encontrada no ambiente, foram relatadas pela primeira vez no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. 

  20. РАЗВИТИЕ ГОНАД ЛЕЩА (ABRAMIS BRAMA LINNAEUS, 1758) В УСЛОВИЯХ ЗАПОРОЖСКОГО ВОДОХРАНИЛИЩА

    OpenAIRE

    Маренков, Олег; Федоненко, Елена; Габибов, Магомед; Абдуллаева, Наида

    2013-01-01

    Актуальность и цели. Ихтиофауна Запорожского водохранилища находится под значительной антропогенной нагрузкой, которая вызывает нарушения в развитии икры рыб. Цель работы – изучение современного состояния процессов воспроизводства леща Запорожского водохранилища в условиях антропогенной нагрузки. Материалы и методы. Материалом для исследований послужили половозрелые особи леща обыкновенного (A. brama Linnaeus, 1758). Для исследования репродуктивного потенциала популяции леща яичники самок отб...

  1. Karyotypic analysis of different populations of Carthamus tinctorius Linnaeus (Asteraceae

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    Anjali Malik

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Carthamus tinctorius L. were analysed. A karyotype formula for each studied population was formulated. Although all samples have 2n = 24, they could be differentiated by their karyotype formula and quantitative parameters of the karyotypes. The chromosomes were assorted into different categories on the basis of arms ratio following Levan et al. (1964. These were further subdivided into different types, on the basis of total length of the chromosomes. Based on an evolutionary point of view, variation in total chromosome length without major changes in the karyotype formula suggests that changes in the amounts of genomic DNA are proportional to the relative length of an each chromosome arm. All samples possessed symmetrical or slightly asymmetrical karyotype. The samples belonging to the same species were showing intra-specific or inter-specific chromosome polymorphism. This finding may provide useful information for Carthamus evolutionary, genetic, and breeding studies.

  2. Molecular phylogeography of the tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lajbner, Zdeněk; Linhart, Otomar; Kotlík, Petr

    Zagreb : Tipomat, 2007, s. 35-35. [European Congress of Ichthyology /12./. Cavtat (Dubrovnik) (HR), 09.09.2007-13.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Tinca tinca Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  3. Status of windowpane oyster Placuna placenta (Linnaeus) population in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B; Clemente, S.

    - significance ing and graded according to size and quality. Shells The record of I? plnco~ta being used in Goa is dated that are bigger rhan 75 mrn are classified as first class ;IS early as [he 16Ih century (www.loriente.com). In while those less than 60... of the windows made from sheets sand extraction, overfishing and industrial pollution. of shells set in wooden frames. were used in Macao The way forward for the human use of the bivalve (China) as in India (www.loriente.com). species is through sustainable...

  4. The coronary arteries of the agouti (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766

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    Fabrício Singaretti de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the coronary arteries in the agouti. Twelve hearts set, in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution, were used. The presence of left and right coronary arteries was observed in all hearts. The fi rst arose from the aorta, between the left auricle and the pulmonary trunk, and gave off into a circumfl ex branch, whichever was directed to the right surface of this viscerae, and an interventricular paraconal branch that went through the cardiac apex, on the left atrioventricular sulcus. In 91.6% of the cases, at its origin, the paraconal branch gave off a thick side branch to the left ventricle wall, and in 100% of the cases, went deep, characterizing a large myocardial bridge. In 8.4% of the cases, this thick side branch to the left ventricle wall originated directly from the left coronary artery and not from the paraconal branch, and alterations such those to the circumfl ex branch did not occur. Regarding the right coronary artery, the origin of this vessel was from the aorta, on the atrial surface, in the direction of the right ventricular border, going through the subsinuous interventricular sulcus as an interventricular subsinuous branch.

  5. The mitochondrial genome of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianrong; Yao, Chengyi; Li, Lei; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Papilio demoleus (GenBank accession number KR024009) by long PCR and primer walking methods. The total length of mitochondrial DNA is 15,249 bp containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. The overall base composition of the genome is A (39.31%), T (41.57%), C (11.33%) and G (7.78%) with an A + T-rich region, similar to other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATG in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4, ND4L, Cob and ND1, while ATA for ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5 and ND6 genes. The stop codon was mainly TAA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes, whereas TAG was found in ND1 gene only. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et) with a length of 403 bp. PMID:26024148

  6. Iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758) (Squamata: Iguanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Kirigin, Alvaro J.

    2011-01-01

    Tres ejemplares fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia, y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF), La Paz, Bolivia. Los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Sección Primera,Municipio Ixiamas. Localidad El Tigre,11º58’15.7"S, 68º00’22.5"W; 162 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 11 julio 2010. Hora: 9:27 AM. Colectores:Alvaro J. Aguilar Kirigin y Wilson Bani Rivero.Colectado en bajíos herbáceos inundables, a orillas del río Madre de Dios. (CBF-...

  7. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Cristina Macedo; Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo; Teresa Cristina Sauer Ávila-Pires; Elane Guerreiro Giese; Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetolog...

  8. Sivi puh (Glis glis Linnaeus, 1766), od ulova do namirnice

    OpenAIRE

    Konjević, Dean; Krapinec, Krešimir

    2004-01-01

    Sivi puh (Glis glis L.) je naša autohtona divljač iz reda glodavaca (Rodentia), porodice puhova (Myoxidae) i roda puh (Glis). Tradicija lova na puhove je iznimno stara i potječe još od vremena Rimskog Carstva. U Republici Hrvatskoj se lov na puhove do danas održao na području Gorskog kotara i Like. Za razliku od negdašnjeg pristupa, danas se sivi puh lovi isključivo posebno konstruiranim lovkama, pri čemu je za lov neophodno dobiti odgovarajuću dozvolu. Ulovljeni puhovi koriste se u prehrani,...

  9. Morphology of the paca liver (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

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    Ana Laura Esper Gomes de Figueiredo Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The elements related to the morphology of the liver of paca (Cuniculus paca, the second largest rodent of the Brazilian fauna, were observed; this species present zootechnical potential. Eight animals from the animals sector of Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias – Campus of Jaboticabal – UNESP, which is duly certified by IBAMA as an experimental breeding institute, were used. Through a dissection procedure, it was found that the liver of the paca is located in the cranial portion of the abdomen, immediately after the diaphragm, to which it is connected by the triangular, coronary, and falciform ligaments, having its bigger part located right to the medium plan. The liver of this rodent presents the following lobation: right lateral lobe, right medial lobe, quadrate lobe, left medial lobe, and left lateral lobe, besides the caudate lobe formed by the papillary process of caudate lobe and the caudate process of caudate lobe. Gallbladder is located between the quadrate and right medial lobes. Fragments of this organ were collected, fixed, and histologically prepared, being the samples analyzed through light microscopy. It was microscopically observed that intralobular connective tissue is scarce, basically it consists polyhedral hepatocytes organized into cords interposed between sinusoids and the portal triads are found in the lobe, consisting of the portal vein, hepatic artery, and biliary duct.

  10. Uniparidade em pacas criadas em cativeiro (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766 Uniparity in pacas bred in captivity (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante quatro anos foram detectadas 25 prenhezes, em 13 diferentes pacas, por meio de ultra-sonografia. Após a detecção ultra-sonográfica, as fêmeas foram separadas em baias individuais para o nascimento dos filhotes e aí mantidas até o desmame. Houve nascimento de apenas um animal por parto, ressaltando a característica reprodutiva de uniparidade, o que sugere a tendência de nascimento de apenas um filhote por parto, nessa espécie.During four years 25 pregnancies were detected in 13 different pacas by means of ultrasonography at a wild animal section. After ultrasound detection, females were separated in individual sets for delivering and kept until weaning of newborns. Only one newborn by delivery occurred, remarking the reproductive characteristic of uniparity, what suggests the trend of only one newborn in each delivery.

  11. Numerical evaluation indices for differentiation dynamics of body-color of larvae of Agrius convolvuli (Linnaeus) ( Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and its application%甘薯天蛾幼虫体色分化动态的数值化评价指标及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文礼章; 龚碧涯; 许浩; 杨中侠

    2012-01-01

    To study the quantitative impact laws ot environmental or genetic lactors on the insect body color, we must first solve the measurement problem of characteristics of the standardized values of the insect body color. If different researchers who determine the color do not use the uniform standards, no matter what method is used, such as genetic, molecular, physiological or ecological methods, etc., to study it, the results would be potentially misleading. In order to solve the problem that nearly a thousand kinds of insect body colors with continuous changes can not be described accurately and computed reasonably by the text and mathematics, this study adopted the color measurement technology ofinternational standard-PFG ( Pantone Formula Guide ) color guide as the criterion of insect body color trait, and proposed some evaluation indicators on numerical description of insect body color, such as body-color element ( BCE ) , body-color group ( BCG) , body-color position ( BCP ) , high-frequency color-code index (HFI) , variegated color index (VCI) , etc., and some quantitative analytical methods. Using these indicators and methods, we studied the differentiation diversity, change process and numerical law of the body color on different body positions of different larval individuals of sweet potato hawk moth Agrius convolvuli ( Linnaeus) at different developmental ages under similar environmentalconditions. It was found that A. Convolvuli larvae had a common main body color. The body color variation occurred mainly at different developmental ages in the individuals, accounting for 72.66% of the total variation. The difference of body color on different parts of an individual was also significant, accounting for 24. 45% of the total variation, while the color difference among individuals at the same developmental age was very small, accounting for only 2. 88% of the total variation. The results indicatethat the process of color change occurred with the developmental

  12. HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF WADERS (AVES, СHARADRII)

    OpenAIRE

    L. P. Kharchenko; I. A. Lykova

    2014-01-01

    Histological structure of digestive tracts of 12 species of waders (Aves, Сharadrii) has been studied: Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758), Charadrius hiaticula (Linnaeus, 1758), Recurvirostra avosetta (Linnaeus, 1758), Tringa ochropus (Linnaeus, 1758), T. glareola (Linnaeus, 1758), T. nebularia (Gunnerus, 1767), T. erythropus (Pallas, 1764), Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus, 1758), Calidris minuta (Leisler, 1812), C. ferruginea (Pontoppidan, 1763), C. alpina (Linnaeus, 1758) and Gallinago gall...

  13. Mamíferos da Fazenda Nhumirim, sub-região de Nhecolândia, Pantanal do Mato Grosso do Sul: I - levantamento preliminar de espécies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber J.R. Alho

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The pantanal is one of the world's richest freshwater wetlands. The pantanal is located in the flood plain of the headwaters of the Paraguai river, covering 140,000km². The habitats of the Pantanal are present in a complex mosaic. The major habitat types are: pockets of forests, called capão or cordilheira, seasonally flooded grasslands or campos, and permanent or temporary lagoons, called baías. The Pantanal harbors both rich and abundant mammal fauna. A survey was conducted at Fazenda Nhumirim, a research station run by the Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Pantanal (CPAP in Corumbá, a research branch of EMBRAPA. The Fazenda covers an area of 4,310 ha in the sub-region of Nhecolândia, appoximately 150km east of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul. The area receives an average annual rainfall of 1,022mm, and has a mean monthly temperature that varies between 29.1ºC (January and 22.0ºC (June. Four routes were followed between two times during ten days of each month. The survey routes were covered on horseback by between two and four observers. Each route was followed and equal number of times in the morning and in the afternoon, to eliminate bias related to the activity patterns of mammals. In order to evaluate relative abundance of nocturnal species, we also conducted a number of nocturnal censuses. These censuses were done by car; a high intensity searchlight was used to spot the animals. We also conducted a trap-mark-recapture survey of the small mammals at Fazenda Nhumirim. After the census period, we continued to collect observations on the occurrence of mammals at the Fazenda, noting wherever possible the kind of habitat in which the animals were observed. The survey identified a diversity of mammals at Fazenda Nhumirim: six orders, 14 families, 19 genera, and 20 species. Nasua nasua was the most frequently observed species during the diurnal census, accounting for 61.5 percent of all observations. Dusicyon (formely Cerdocyon thous was

  14. Detección de Rickettsia spp. en Suero y Garrapatas de Mamíferos Silvestres en Cautiverio en Montería, Córdoba -resumen-

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    Dave Wehdeking-Hernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas son causadas por bacterias intracelulares pertenecientes al grupo de las fiebres manchadas del género Rickettsia. Estas zoonosis son algunas de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores de más antiguo conocimiento‚ e incluyen dentro de su ciclo de transmisión diversas especies de mamíferos. No obstante‚ en Colombia existen pocos trabajos enfocados a conocer la dinámica de las rickettsiosis en animales silvestres. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar‚ por medio de la técnica de PCR en tiempo real‚ la presencia de Rickettsia spp.‚ en muestras de suero y garrapatas colectadas en mamíferos mantenidos en cautiverio en el Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna Silvestre de la Corporación autónoma Regional de los Valles del Sinú y San Jorge CAV-CVS‚ entre los años 2009 y 2014. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de 14 felinos‚ de las especies Leopardus pardalis (10‚ Puma concolor (3 y Panthera onca (1; de 58 primates‚ correspondientes a las especies Ateles geofroyii (17‚ Alouatta seniculus (14‚ Cebus capucinus (14‚ Saguinus oedipus (6‚ Cebus albifrons (4 Aotus sp. (2 y Ateles belzebuth (1; y de otros mamíferos: Tayassu pecari (1‚ Procyon cancrivorous (1 y Cerdocyon thous (1. En cuanto a las garrapatas‚ se colectaron e identificaron individuos del género Haemaphysalis sp. en un ejemplar de Sylvilagus sp.‚ y de las especies Amblyomma ovale‚ Riphicephalus microplus y Dermacentor nitens en P. concolor. Posteriormente fueron organizadas en pool. No se encontraron muestras de suero positivas a Rickettsia spp. (0/72. Se detectó un pool de garrapatas de la especie A. ovale positivo a este microorganismo. Este es el primer reporte en Colombia de ectoparásitos de Puma concolor positivos a Rickettsia spp. Se requiere continuar con los muestreos de ectoparásitos para determinar si este microorganismo se encuentra circulante entre mamíferos silvestres en el país.

  15. The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil

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    da S Mourão José

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary by the residents of the municipal district of Cubati, microregion of Seridó, Paraíba State, Brazil. It sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge. Methods Field research was undertaken on a weekly or biweekly basis during the period November, 2006, to January, 2007. Free, semi-structured, and open interviews were made with local residents of the municipal district of Cubati (in both urban and rural settings as well as with venders in public markets. A total of 25 individuals of both sexes were interviewed (with ages varying from 26 to 78 years although only 16 were finally chosen as informants as these people demonstrated the greatest degree of knowledge concerning zootherapeutics. Graphs and percentages were generated using Microsoft© Excel 2007 software, and the species were identified by photographic registration and subsequent bibliographical surveys. Results Mammals constitute the main medicinal zootherapeutic source for folk veterinary medicines in the studied area, both in terms of the total number of species used and the frequency of their citation. Sheep (Ovis aries, pigs (Sus scrofa, cattle (Bos taurus, and foxes (Cerdocyon thous were mentioned by 62.5, 43.75, 37.5, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively, as being used in folk veterinary medicine. Additionally, chameleons (Iguana iguana, chickens (Gallus domesticus, and rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus were mentioned by 75, 43.75, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively. Relatively simple animal illnesses, such as furuncles, or injuries resulting from embedded thorns or skin eruptions are responsible for the largest number of zootherapeutic treatment, while, diseases of greater complexity, such as rabies and brucellosis, were not even

  16. The multiple and complex and changeable scenarios of the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle in the sylvatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ana Maria; Xavier, Samanta C C; Roque, André Luiz R

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report and discuss the results generated from over 20 years of studies of the Trypanosoma cruzi sylvatic transmission cycle. Our results have uncovered new aspects and reviewed old concepts on issues including reservoirs, true generalist species, association of mammalian species with distinct discrete typing units - DTUs, distribution of T. cruzi genotypes in the wild, mixed infections, and T. cruzi transmission ecology. Using parasitological and serological tests, we examined T. cruzi infection in 7,285 mammalian specimens from nine mammalian orders dispersed all over the Brazilian biomes. The obtained T. cruzi isolates were characterized by mini-exon gene sequence polymorphism and PCR RFLP to identify DTUs. Infection by T. cruzi was detected by serological methods in 20% of the examined animals and isolated from 41% of those infected, corresponding to 8% of all the examined mammals. Each mammal taxon responded uniquely to T. cruzi infection. Didelphis spp. are able to maintain high and long-lasting parasitemias (positive hemocultures) caused by TcI but maintain and rapidly control parasitemias caused by TcII to almost undetectable levels. In contrast, the tamarin species Leontopithecus rosalia and L. chrysomelas maintain long-lasting and high parasitemias caused by TcII similarly to Philander sp. The coati Nasua nasua maintains high parasitemias by both parental T. cruzi DTUs TcI or TcII and by TcII/TcIV (formerly Z3) at detectable levels. Wild and domestic canidae seem to display only a short period of reservoir competence. T. cruzi infection was demonstrated in the wild canid species Cerdocyon thous and Chrysocyon brachyurus, and positive hemoculture was obtained in one hyper carnivore species (Leopardus pardalis), demonstrating that T. cruzi transmission is deeply immersed in the trophic net. T. cruzi DTU distribution in nature did not exhibit any association with a particular biome or habitat. TcI predominates throughout (58% of the T. cruzi

  17. ПРОСТРАНСТВЕННО-ТЕРРИТОРИАЛЬНОЕ РАЗМЕЩЕНИЕ И ГНЕЗДОВАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ RECURVIROSTRA AVOSETTA LINNAEUS, 1758 И LARUS ICHTHYAETUS PALLAS, 1773 (AVES, CHARADRIIFORMES) В УСЛОВИЯХ ЮЖНОЙ ЧАСТИ СРЕДНЕЙ СИБИРИ

    OpenAIRE

    МЕЛЬНИК О.Н.; ГЕЛЬД Т.А.; ЗЛОТНИКОВА Т.В.

    2015-01-01

    Проведено обобщение многолетних наблюдений авторов, а также опубликованных данных. Собственные материалы получены в ходе стационарных работ на двух водоёмах в Минусинской котловине и при маршрутных учётах на степных водоёмах южных районов Красноярского края и Тывы в 2003–2014 годах. Приведены сведения о местах встреч и гнездования Recurvirostra avosetta Linnaeus, 1758 и Larus ichthyaetus Pallas, 1773. Для R. avosetta на примере двух участков, а для L. ichthyaetus на примере одного участка рас...

  18. Evaluación larvicida de suspensiones acuosas de Annona muricata Linnaeus «guanábana» sobre Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Bobadilla; Fátima Zavala; Manuel Sisniegas; Gina Zavaleta; José Mostacero; Luis Taramona

    2013-01-01

    EL presente trabajo evaluó la toxicidad larvicida de suspensiones acuosas provenientes de extractos etanólicos de las semillas, flores, hojas, corteza de ramas y corteza de raíces de Annona muricata L. «guanábana» sobre larvas del IV estadio de Aedes aegypti para determinar de esta manera los niveles de susceptibilidad. El mayor efecto tóxico correspondió a la suspensión de las semillas con un 100% de mortalidad a las 24 horas a 0,5 mg/mL, seguidos por las flores a las 48 horas a 10 mg/mL y h...

  19. Identification of bester hybrid and its parental species (♀ Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758 and ♂ Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 by nuclear markers

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    Andreea Dudu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, sturgeon farming is gaining advance, different species being raised for commercial purposes and for restocking activities. A correct identification of individuals is imposed since severe ecological damages might occur if non-native species or hybrids are used for restocking. Such identification is required also for commercial reasons, the meat and caviar from different species having different prices. The aim of our study was to analyze two sturgeon species, Huso huso and Acipenser ruthenus and their interspecific hybrid - bester, using nuclear markers, in order to set up a molecular method for their accurate identification. The genetic pattern of the species was inferred from the analysis of nine microsatellite loci (LS19, LS34, LS39, LS54, AoxD234, AnacC11, LS68, Aox45 and Aox27 amplified by multiplex PCR reactions. The genotype data were analyzed with GENETIX v4.05 and STRUCTURE. The FCA analysis grouped the individuals in three distinct clusters corresponding to each of the pure species and to the interspecific hybrids. The admixture analysis performed in STRUCTURE also assigned three groups, confirming the results highlighted by FCA. We can conclude that the selected microsatellite markers allow the unambiguously identification of the bester hybrid and its genitor species from Romanian farms.

  20. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866 por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909 parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región, Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866, are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909 parasiting alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report.

  1. Presencia y distribución de las papilas linguales en la alpaca (Lama pacos Linnaeus, 1758) Presence and distribution of lingual papillae in alpaca (Lamapacos Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Butendieck; L. Vargas

    1998-01-01

    En 12 lenguas de alpacas se estudió la presencia y distribuciónde las papilas linguales. Las papilas circunvaladas se encuentran en laparte posterior del dorso del cuerpo lingual y se disponen formando unafila, que puede estar conformada por una a cinco papilas. Las papilas fungiformesse distribuyen mayoritariamente en el dorso y superficie ventral del ápexlingual. Se comprobó la no existencia de papilas foliadas. Las papilasfiliformes son aguzadas, están orientadas aboralmente y forman unaca...

  2. Presencia y distribución de las papilas linguales en la alpaca (Lama pacos Linnaeus, 1758 Presence and distribution of lingual papillae in alpaca (Lamapacos Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Butendieck

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En 12 lenguas de alpacas se estudió la presencia y distribuciónde las papilas linguales. Las papilas circunvaladas se encuentran en laparte posterior del dorso del cuerpo lingual y se disponen formando unafila, que puede estar conformada por una a cinco papilas. Las papilas fungiformesse distribuyen mayoritariamente en el dorso y superficie ventral del ápexlingual. Se comprobó la no existencia de papilas foliadas. Las papilasfiliformes son aguzadas, están orientadas aboralmente y forman unacapa muy densa en la superficie dorsal por delante de la fosa lingual.Las papilas cónicas son muy variadas y una derivación deellas es particularmente notoria por su forma, disposición y desarrollopor lo que deberían recibir el nombre de papilas bunoformes. Seanalizan las características morfológicas de las diferentespapilas, se las compara con las de otros rumiantes y se discute su posiblesignificancia, lo que permite clasificar a la alpaca como de tipo intermedioentre herbívoros y ramoneadoresIn order to study the presence, location and distribution of thelingual papillae in alpacas (Lama pacos, 12 tongues were studied. The vallatae papillae were observed in the posterior part of the tonguebody and arranged on both sides as a line of 1 to 5 papillae. The fungiformpapillae were distributed mainly in the dorsal and ventral surface of thetip of the tongue. No foliate papillae were observed. The filiform papillaewere fine thread-like cornified processes with caudal direction mainlyclosely packed rostral to the lingual fossa. The conical papillae presenteddiverse morphological features, but a derivation of conical papillae thatwas identificated by shape, disposition and development was clearly observed,proposing their name as bunoformes papillae. The morphological features of each type of papillae were compared withthe papillae of other ruminants and their possible significance discussed

  3. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    D. González-Acuña; I. CABEZAS; Moreno, L.; Castro, D.

    2007-01-01

    Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866) por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909) parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región), Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866), are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909) parasiting alpacas in ...

  4. BIOMETRY OF PACA NEWBORNS BRED IN CAPTIVITY(AGOUTI PACA, LINNAEUS, 1766 NOTA CIENTÍFICA: BIOMETRIA DOS NEONATOS DE PACA CRIADOS EM CATIVEIRO (AGOUTI PACA, LINNAEUS, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Carlos Canola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Biometry provides important data on weight and length of wild animal newborns. After ultrasound pregnancy detection, 22 female pacas were separated in individual bails and kept until weaning of newborns. Newborns were measured with a metric tape (between the tips of the muzzle rostrally and the tail distally and weighted in a digital weight scale. Considering males and females, the average newborn length (average length ± standard deviation was 33.37 ± 0.57cm. Among males, the average weight was 33.30 ± 0.52 cm and among females 33.45 ± 0.62cm. Considering males and females, newborns weighted (average weight ± standard deviation 741.14 ± 51.23g. Among males, average weight was 717.75 ± 49.06g and among females 764.53 ± 53.40g. Female newborns are higher and heavier than males, but averages of weight and length of males and females did not differ themselves by the Tukey test (P<0.05.

    Key-words: Agouti paca, biometry, newborns.

    A biometria proporciona dados importantes no peso e comprimento de neonatos de animais selvagens. Após detecção ultra-sonográfica da prenhez, 22 pacas fêmeas foram separadas em baias individuais e mantidas até o desmame dos filhotes. Os neonatos eram medidos com uma fita métrica flexível (entre as extremidades do focinho e da caudal e então pesados em balança digital de precisão. Considerando-se machos e fêmeas, o comprimento dos neonatos (comprimento ± desvio padrão foi 33,37 ± 0,57 cm. Entre os machos, o comprimento médio foi 33,30 ± 0,52 cm e entre as fêmeas foi de 33,45 ± 0,62 cm. Em relação ao peso e considerando-se machos e fêmeas, os neonatos pesavam (peso ± desvio padrão 741,14 ± 51,23g. Entre os machos, o peso médio foi 717,75 ± 49,06g e entre as fêmeas 764,53 ± 53,40g. Os neonatos fêmeas são maiores e mais pesados que os neonatos machos de paca, mas as médias de peso e de comprimento de machos e fêmeas não diferiram entre si, pelo teste de Tukey (P<0.05.

    Palavras-chaves: Biometria, neonatos, agouti paca.

  5. Preparation and characterization of a Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussel reference material; Preparo e caracterizacao de um material de referencia de mexilhao Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson Goncalves

    2010-07-01

    The use of certified reference materials in chemical analysis is an important requirement in quality assurance systems, as it allows the validation of analytical methods and the realization of the metrological traceability of results. Then, it is possible to obtain valid and comparable results not only in space, but also in time. In this study, all the steps for the preparation of a national mussel reference material were attained, from the collection of the bulk material to processing steps such as freeze-drying, grinding, bottling and sterilization. Internationally accepted principles were applied for the homogeneity and stability assessment of the material, using instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry as analytical techniques. By means of a collaborative program with participation of Brazilian and foreign laboratories, the chemical characterization of the material was performed. Element content in the mass percentage to mg kg{sup -1} range was determined for 47 elements and some radionuclides, naturally present in the material. With the application of suitable statistical treatment to the data, it was considered that the content of 11 of those elements may be certified: As, Ca, Cl, Co, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se, Th and Zn. This study may be considered an important step in the national metrological development, as it shows that the production and characterization of biological reference materials, mussel in particular, is feasible in Brazil, as a tool for quality assurance of environmental and nutritional studies performed in the country. (author)

  6. Consideraciones ecomorfológicas del mecanismo de captura de presas en Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758 Ecomorphological considerations of the prey capture mechanism of Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Cancino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza el mecanismo de captura de presas del pez espada (Xiphias gladius, suponiendo un mecanismo de alimentación RAMy una dieta de amplio espectro trófico. Se estudia la región cefálica y se describe la osteología y miología asociada con el mecanismo de captura de presas. Se aplica el modelo de cuatro barras para evaluar la eficiencia de la apertura bucal y un modelo biocinemático para evaluar la eficacia del cierre bucal. La mayor cantidad de estructuras del neurocráneo se encuentran desplazadas hacia la región posterior, con alto grado de calcificación y prevalencia de articulaciones sinártricas biseladas y suturas. Se destaca la barra vertical del suspensorio que sostiene a la serie opercular y la mandíbula inferior. Premaxilar y maxilar íntimamente unidos sin posibilidad de movimiento relativo aunque persiste el ligamento primordial. La configuración del sistema de palancas del músculo adductor mandibular determina el sistema biocinemático cuya eficiencia en la transmisión de fuerza es del orden del 30% para el fascículo externo (A2 +A3á, mientras que para el fascículo interno (A3ß la eficiencia es del orden del 15%. El Coeficiente de Transmisión Cinemática (K = q • r-1 es de 9,75; mientras que el Coeficiente de la Fuerza Transmitida (f = q • r-1 tiene un valor de 0,102. Se analiza y discute el diseño morfofuncional que posibilita la captura de presas que desarrollan altas velocidades, ya que el coeficiente de transmisión cinemática es alto, valor coincidente con peces de hábitos piscívoros.This paper analyzes the prey capture mechanism of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius, assuming a RAM feeding mechanism and a wide dietary trophic spectrum. The complete cephalic región is studied, and the osteology and miology associated with the prey capture mechanism are described. A four-bar linkage model was applied to assess the efficiency of the mouth opening and a biokinetic model to evalúate the mouth closure efficiency. The majority of the neurocranial structures are displaced towards the posterior región, with a high degree of ossification and a prevalence of joints with beveled edges and sutures. The vertical bar of the suspensorium, which supports the opercular series and lower jaw are noteworthy. The premaxilla and maxilla are closely jointed, without any possibility of relative movement, although a primordial ligament remains. The configuration of the lever system of the adductor mandibulae muscle determines the biokinetic system, whose forcé transmission efficiency is around 30% for the external fascicles (A2 +A3á and 15% for the inner fascicle (A3ß. The kinetic transmission coefficient (K = q • r-1 is 9.75, whereas the forcé transmission coefficient (f = q • r-1 is 0.102. The morphofunctional design that allows the capture of fast-swimming prey is analyzed and discussed; the high kinematic transmission coefficient coincides with the valúes found for piscivorous fishes.

  7. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  8. Teste de ELISA indireto para diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres Indirect ELISA for the serological diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in wild canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R.B. Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Na América do Sul, alguns canídeos silvestres são considerados reservatórios naturais da Leishmania chagasi. A resposta imunológica desses animais à Leishmania é pouco conhecida, havendo a necessidade de métodos diagnósticos adequados para esse fim. No presente estudo, é descrita a padronização do ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA para o diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres brasileiros. Foram estudadas amostras de soro e plasma de 12 canídeos cativos: sete lobos-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus, três raposinhas (Lycalopex vetulus e dois cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. As amostras de um C. brachyurus e uma L. vetulus, cativos em área endêmica para LV, que apresentavam doença clínica e positividade em testes de Imunofluorescência Indireta e Reação em Cadeia de Polimerase, foram utilizadas como controles positivos. Foram comparados os conjugados anti-IgG de cão e proteína A, ambos ligados a peroxidase, cujos testes detectaram quatro (04/12 e três (03/12 C. brachyurus soropositivos para anticorpos anti-Leishmania sp., respectivamente. As médias das densidades ópticas (DOs das amostras negativas foram nitidamente mais baixas do que as médias das DOs dos positivos tanto no ELISA com anti-IgG de cão (4,8 vezes como com proteína A (15,5 vezes. Os soros de três C. brachyurus positivos no ELISA indireto foram avaliados por Western blotting e identificaram 22 bandas, sendo imunodominantes as de peso molecular de 19, 22, 24, 45 e 66 kDa. Os testes ELISA com a proteína A e o conjugado anti-IgG de cão apresentaram respectivamente concordância excelente (Kappa = 1; pIn South America, some wild canids are considered natural reservoirs of Leishmania chagasi. The immunological response of wild canids to Leishmania is not well understood, and the development of diagnostic methods is necessary for such purpose. In the present study, the standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent

  9. Inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe Serological survey of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in neotropical wild mammals from Aracaju Zoo, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert S. Pimentel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os zoológicos modernos são instituições destinadas à manutenção da fauna selvagem com o objetivo de promover a conservação, pesquisa científica, lazer, recreação e educação ambiental. A ampla variedade de espécies selvagens, vivendo em condições diferentes do seu habitat natural, representa um ambiente propício à disseminação de doenças, muitas delas zoonóticas. Devido à escassez de dados e à relevância dos mamíferos selvagens neste contexto epidemiológico, tanto na toxoplasmose, quanto na leptospirose, foi efetuado o inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe, Brasil. Para tanto foram colhidas amostras sanguíneas de 32 animais, adultos, de ambos os sexos incluindo: 14 macacos-prego (Cebus libidinosus, quatro macacos-prego-do-peito-amarelo (Cebus xanthosternus, três onças-suçuaranas (Puma concolor, uma onça-pintada (Pantheraonca, uma raposa (Cerdocyon thous, seis guaxinins (Procyon cancrivorus, dois quatis (Nasua nasua e um papa-mel (Eira barbara. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii foi utilizado o Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT ³"1:25 e para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. foi utilizado o teste de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (ponto de corte ³1:100 com uma coleção de antígenos vivos que incluiu 24 variantes sorológicas de leptospiras patogênicas e duas leptospiras saprófitas. Dentre os 32 mamíferos, 17 (53,1% apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii e quatro (12,5% foram positivos para anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. De acordo com o sexo, 60% (9/15 dos machos e 47,1% (8/17 das fêmeas foram soropositivos para T. gondii e 26,7% (4/15 dos machos apresentaram anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. Dos mamíferos que apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii, 47% (8/17 nasceram no zoológico, 41,2% (7/17 foram oriundos de outras instituições e dois (11,8% foram provenientes da natureza. Em rela

  10. Monogenoidea en Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766) de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Córdova; Antoine Pariselle

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza la diversidad de parásitos monogenoideos como un carácter indepen- diente, esperando que por su alta especifi cidad, éstos parásitos puedan caracterizar las poblaciones de sus hospederos, la piraña blanca, Serrasalmus rhombeus . El estudio se llevó acabo en cuatro sub-cuencas de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana (Iténez, Beni, Madre de Dios e Ichilo); se obtuvie- ron 1135 parásitos, los cuales fueron agrupados en seis géneros y once especies: Anacanthorus jegui, A. ama...

  11. Identification of lysozyme activity from two edible bivalves - Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Tanu; Chatterji, A.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 85 - 90 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Identification of Lysozyme Activity from Two Edible Bivalves - Perna viridis... the lysozyme from the whole body extracts of two edible and commercially important marine PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor 86 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. Vol. 32(1) 2009 Sumita Sharma, Tanu...

  12. Monogenoidea en Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766 de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Córdova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la diversidad de parásitos monogenoideos como un carácter indepen- diente, esperando que por su alta especifi cidad, éstos parásitos puedan caracterizar las poblaciones de sus hospederos, la piraña blanca, Serrasalmus rhombeus . El estudio se llevó acabo en cuatro sub-cuencas de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana (Iténez, Beni, Madre de Dios e Ichilo; se obtuvie- ron 1135 parásitos, los cuales fueron agrupados en seis géneros y once especies: Anacanthorus jegui, A. amazonicus , A. rondonensis, A. gravihamulatus, A. sciponophallus, Anacanthorus sp.1 , Anacanthorus sp.2 , Anacanthorus sp.3 ; Notothecium deleastum, N. deleastoideum, Notozothecium teinodendrum; Mymarothecium galeolum; Anphithecium diclonophallum y Enallothecium aegidatum. La elevada diversidad de parásitos encontrada puede deberse a que existe o existió un complejo de especies o poblaciones diferenciadas de Serrasalmus rhombeus.

  13. Morphology and morphometry of the reproductive system of female Saguinus midas (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Nathaly Cristine Da Silva; De Lima, Ana Rita; De Carvalho, Ana Flávia; De Carvalho Garcia, Rafael; Therrier, Joanne; Souza, Ana Carla Barros; Pereira, Luiza Correia; Branco, Erika

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the reproductive system's morphology of three young animals of the species Saguinus midas, from the bauxite mine in Paragominas, is described. The specimens were fixed and preserved in a solution of 10% aqueous formaldehyde, followed by dissection, measurement of the genital organs (uterus, vagina, ovaries, and uterine tubes), and histological processing. The vulva is delimited by the labia, with a clitoris. It is lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with sebaceous glands of holocrine secretion. The vagina is an elongated tube with an average length of 26 mm and diameter of 1 mm, presenting a non-keratinized squamous epithelium, disposed between the vestibule of the vagina and cervix, the latter being relatively short. The uterus is simple, has globular shape and is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity, with an average length of 14 mm and average width of 7 mm. It is formed by vascular and serous layers of muscles, and undergoes a bifurcation to form two structures on the bottom of blind sac. The uterine tubes are long and convoluted with an average length of 35 mm (right) and 36 mm (left), consisting of loose connective tissue and muscle layer lined by simple ciliated columnar epithelium. The ovaries are large and ellipsoid with smooth surface. Histologically, one animal showed ovulation fosse. PMID:22131285

  14. Cuticular Biominerals of the Terrestrial Crustacean Oniscus asellus (Isopoda, Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralization is a phenomenon observed in many eukaryotic organisms and evidence suggests this process began relatively early in the evolution of multicellular life (Marin F et al. 1996). Crustaceans form a large fraction of all eukaryotic biomineralizers by incorporating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) into their cuticle. Terrestrial species are challenged in their production of CaCO3 by the absence of calcium-rich waters. To cope with this limitation, the terrestrial crustacean Oniscus asellus recycles up to 80% (Auzou G 1953) of its total calcium during the molting process. This feat is accomplished by separate molting of the front and back cuticle, with temporary storage of the calcium carbonate as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the front half (Ziegler A 1997). These processes infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of proteins (Ziegler A et al. 2012). Until recently, investigations of biomineralization were largely directed toward understanding morphology and large-scale chemistry of the minerals, ignoring the mechanistic roles of biomacromolecules in mineralization processes. More recent work suggests a high involvement of these compounds on the formation of biominerals and, in some cases, the specific polymorphs thereof (Keene EC et al. 2010). This study focuses on identifying the components of the biological mineralization matrix at each stage of the process. Using chemical demineralization of the stored ACC, all biomacromolecules can be separated and purified for subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. To link the localized biochemistry more intimately to the polymorph of calcium carbonate that forms in the animal, the inorganic phase (';the mineral') will be monitored at each life stage using XRD and TEM. This analysis will reveal the organic components of a very precise biomineralization mechanism and may shed insight on its evolutionary origin. References: Marin F, Westbroek P et al., 1996, Proc Nat Acad Sci 93:1554-1559 Auzou G, 1953, L Ann Sci Nat 15:71-98 Ziegler A, 1997, Zoomorphology 117:181-187 Ziegler A et al., 2012, Cryst Growth Des 12:646-655 Keene EC et al., 2010, Cryst Growth Des 10:1383-1389

  15. Faecal bacteria in Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Bivalvia for biomonitoring coastal waters and seafood quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Igawa Martinez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban development in coastal areas is intense and leads to the increase of sewage outfall and other negative impacts as consequences. Thus, stringent regulations establishing limits to the microbiological contamination of water and seafood are needed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of Enterococci and Thermotolerant Coliform densities in the flesh of mussels Perna perna as an alternative tool for monitoring the microbiological quality of coastal waters. The study also considers allometric relations applied to clearance rates to understand rates of bacterial concentration. Bacterial loads obtained in mussels' flesh were from 50 to 4,300 times greater than in the water sampled in the vicinity of the mussels and some were considered inappropriate for consumption even when the water presented no restrictions. The mean clearance rate obtained for Enterococci retention was 317.7 ml h-1 and this rate (CR is related to the mussels' size (L by the equation CR = 28.3229L1.6421. The results showed that bacterial densities in the mussels' tissues may reflect chronic contamination of the environment and that clearance rates are important for taking the best decision in situations where, for example, it is desired to introduce mussels for aquaculture and the evaluation of the water concerned is required.O desenvolvimento urbano em áreas costeiras é intenso e o aumento das descargas de esgoto é uma das conseqüências. Assim, leis específicas que regulem limites para a contaminação microbiológica das águas e de alimentos de origem marinha são necessárias. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a utilização de Enterococos e coliformes termotolerantes na carne de mexilhões Perna perna como alternativa para o monitoramento da qualidade microbiológica de águas costeiras. O estudo também considera relações alométricas aplicadas às taxas de "clearance" para entender a concentração de bactérias pelo molusco. As densidades bacterianas obtidas no molusco foram de 50 a 4300 vezes maiores do que nas amostras de água coletadas próximas dos moluscos e alguns foram considerados impróprios para consumo, mesmo quando as águas não mostraram restrições. A taxa de "clearance" média obtida para retenção de Enterococos foi 317.7 ml h-1 e essas taxas (CR puderam ser relacionadas com o tamanho dos mexilhões (L pela equação CR = 28.3229L1.6421. Os resultados mostram que as densidades bacterianas nos tecidos dos mexilhões podem refletir a contaminação crônica do ambiente e que as taxas de "clearance" devem ser consideradas para a tomada de decisão em situações onde, por exemplo, se deseja implantar mexilhões para cultivo.

  16. Origins, distributions, and ramifications of the femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseâmely Angélica de Carvalho-Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of nerves making up the lumbosacral plexus is extremely important, because it relates the various evolutionary aspects of animals’ posture and locomotion. Taking into account that the femoral nerve is the largest one in the cranial part of the lumbosacral plexus, one aimed to describe the origins, distributions, and ramifications of femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, comparing them to the literature describing domestic and wild animals, in order to establish correlations of morphological similarities and provide the related areas with means. One used three specimens, prepared through an injection of 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution via femoral artery, for their conservation and posterior dissection. The origins in the right and left antimeres took place in the ventral braches of lumbar spinal nerves 1, 2, and 3. The distributions and ramifications were observed for the major and minor psoas, lateral and medial iliac, pectineus, adductor magnus, sartorius, and femoral quadriceps muscles. Having the origins of the M. tridactyla femoral nerves as a basis, a reframing was observed due to the variance in the number of lumbar vertebrae (L1, L2, and L3. However, a partial morphological similarity was kept with regard to the distributions and ramifications, when compared to the domestic and wild animals taken into account in this study.

  17. High exposure to Tunga penetrans (Linnaeus, 1758 correlates with intensity of infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Feldmeier

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease widespread in resource-poor urban and rural communities in Brazil. Inhabitants of an urban slum in Northeast Brazil were examined for the presence of tungiasis lesions and followed-up twice a week for a period of three weeks. Each time the number, stages, and topographic localization of lesions were recorded on a documentation sheet. The infestation rate (number of newly embedded sand fleas per individual and day remained stable during the observation period. The infestation rate was significantly related to the intensity of infestation (total number of lesions present (rho = 0.70, p < 0.0001 and the proportion of viable lesions (rho = 0.28, p < 0.0001. The results indicate that in an endemic area the infestation intensity and the proportion of viable lesions can be used as a proxy to assess the exposure of individuals at risk for tungiasis. Persistently high infestation rates during the transmission season favour the use of prevention measures against invading sand fleas (such as a repellent rather than a drug to kill already embedded parasites.

  18. Biologie a radiace šakala obecného (Canis aureus, Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Krčmová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor work is focused on biology and distribution of the species golden jackal (Canis aureus), which is the only one of three species of jackals which live outside the African continent and begins to expand increasingly into Europe and Asia. At first glance it's a reddish yellow-brown coloured beast resembling the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) or the small grey wolf (Canis lupus). Its typical distinguishing feature is partial symphysis of the digital pads in all paws, typically observabl...

  19. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya ( Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qinguyi; Thimmapuram, Jyothi

    2008-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3 draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angio...

  20. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E

    2008-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angi...

  1. Retention and removal 137Cs in Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) in dressing and cooking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japanese catfish contaminated by 137Cs have been used to investigate how the dressing and cook-ing method affect the removal of radioactivity from the fish. During the dressing, 6.0% of the initial 137Cs activity was removed by washing the live fish, further 30.3% of the activity relative to washed fish was removed by discarding the non-edible body parts (skeletons, fins, visceral mass, liver, kidney etc.) and washing the chopped fish. Fish curry was cooked using various spices, green-stuffs and vegetable oil following a method commonly used in South East and East Asian countries. The cooking process removed a further 61.6% of the 137Cs activity relative to the activity in dressed fish. Taken together, this normal domestic fish dressing and culinary process removed 74.7% of the initial 137Cs activity present in the live fish. During the cook-ing, the radioactivity removed from the fish pieces was found to distributed over the ingredients of the curry. The cooked fish pieces retained an average, 38.5% of the radioactivity present in the dressed raw fish pieces. Among the ingredients, the gravy was found to contain an average of 34.8% of the activity of the dressed fish. The activity in green-stuffs was found to vary from 4.0% (in cauliflower) to 7.2% (in potato). It may be concluded that normal home preparation and culinary processes removed the radio-activity from the fish to a great extent. In addition, discarding the gravy and green-stuffs of the curry further reduce the radioactivity intake into the human body. (author)

  2. Gross morphology and morphometry of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758 female genital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Branco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross anatomy of the genital organs of four specimens of young female of Saimiri sciureus was investigated. The animals were bred in captivity at the Centro Nacional de Primatas and had died from natural causes. The vulva was limited by the labium minus and presented a well-developed clitoris which seemed to represent a rudimentary penis. The vaginal vestibule was the first cavity and was very short, presenting a thick muscular wall which extended from the vulva comissure to the vaginal ostium. The vagina was constituted by an elongated and dorsally flattened muscular tube with a thin wall between the vaginal vestibule and cervix. The cervix was short with well-developed musculature. The uterus was simple, presenting a global fundus located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. The uterine tubes were elongated and rectilinear, connected to the ovaries which were large, ellipsoid in shape, and presented a smooth surface.

  3. Chemical composition of flesh of diploid and triploid population of tench (Tinca tinca, Linnaeus 1758)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, H.; Vorlová, L.; Svobodová, Z.; Flajšhans, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2005), s. 213-219. ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : tench * genome polyploidy * dry matter Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.254, year: 2005

  4. Rearing of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Cecília Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Lymnaea columella, collected in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was reared in our laboratory. The aim of the current study was to standardize a rearing and maintenance technique. Two kinds of diet were tested: fresh lettuce (A and rodent ration + 10% CaCO3 plus fresh lettuce (B. The age for the beginning of oviposition ranged from 27 to 57 days. Ten days after oviposition at 24.7°C, 100% eclosion occurred. The complete life cycle varied from 37 to 67 days. The average numbers of eggs per egg mass were 26.3 and 31.1 with diets (A and (B, respectively. The lettuce and ration fed snails presented a increased growth although the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The mortality rate varied from 40 to 64% after 90 days. The maximum longevity was 183 days, 21.5 mm length and 11 mm wide. The methodology to mass breed and maintain these snails was found to be suitable in the laboratory

  5. Arterial Vascularization of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2016-06-01

    Based on gross dissection of fifteen adult animals (11 females, 4 males), we described the arterial supply of the stomach and intestines of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a South American endangered species. The coeliac artery emitted the splenic, left gastric and hepatic arteries. The splenic artery directed towards the spleen, and the right ruminal artery, which is its only collateral directed towards the stomach, being the main artery of the rumen. The left gastric artery gave origin to the left ruminal, the reticular and the left gastroepiploic arteries. The left gastroepiploic artery originated the reticular accessory artery. Both arteries, gastric and left gastroepiploic, anastomosed their right counterparts derived from the hepatic artery on the curvatures of the abomasum. The cranial mesenteric artery irrigated the second half of the duodenum until the beginning of the descending colon. The thickest branch emitted by the cranial mesenteric artery was the ileocolic artery, which was destined to the ascending colon, caecum and ileum. The colic branches and the right colic arteries were irradiated on the right surface of the spiral loop of the ascending colon and distributed to both centripetal and centrifugal coils of the ascending colon; the colic branches were also anastomosed with the last jejunals and ileals and with the right colic arteries. There were no variations in the origin of any of the main branches derived from the coeliac and cranial mesenteric arteries. This species had a basic pattern of arterial distribution similar to small domestic ruminants. PMID:26224544

  6. Monogenean parasites of Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus introduced into the River Durance, France

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlátová, Lucie; Ondračková, Markéta; Přikrylová, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2015), s. 323-330. ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : non-native fish * invasive species * parasites * sunfish * Monogenea * host introductions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.678, year: 2014

  7. Genetic structure of populations of the tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lajbner, Zdeněk; Linhart, Otomar; Kotlík, Petr

    Praha : Univerzita Karlova, 2007, s. 157-158. [Česká ichtyologická konference /10./. Praha (CZ), 26.06.2007-27.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Tinca tinca Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  8. New metacestodes of gryporhynchid tapeworms (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) from Mozambique, Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Boane, C.; Saraiva, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2008), s. 315-320. ISSN 1525-2647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cestode larvae * Gryporhynchidae * morphology * freshwater fish Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2008

  9. Oxygen dynamics around buried lesser sandeels Ammodytes tobianus (Linnaeus 1785): mode of ventilation and oxygen requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W; Stahl, Henrik J; Steffensen, John F;

    2007-01-01

    plume with <15% air saturation around the gills. During this quasi-steady ventilation mode, fish extracted 86.2+/-4.8% (N=7) of the oxygen from the inspired water. However, 13% of the investigated fish (2 of 15) occasionally wriggled their bodies and thereby transported almost fully air-saturated water...... down along the body, referred to as ;plume ventilation'. Yet, within approximately 30 min the oxic plume was replenished by oxygen-depleted water from the gills. The potential for cutaneous respiration by the buried fish was thus of no quantitative importance. Calculations derived by three independent......The oxygen environment around buried sandeels (Ammodytes tobianus) was monitored by planar optodes. The oxygen penetration depth at the sediment interface was only a few mm. Thus fish, typically buried at 1-4 cm depth, were generally in anoxic sediment. However, they induced an advective transport...

  10. Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) mussels irradiated by 60CO gamma rays cytotoxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work was the study of ionizing radiation effects on aquatic biota regarding the location of nuclear facilities nearby coastal areas assuming the risk of leaks and nuclear accidents. Bivalve mollusks have been widely used in the monitoring of aquatic environment studies mainly for their sessile habit and pollutants bioconcentration ability. So marine mussel Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) was used as organism test in this study. The study of radioactive toxicity was performed by cytotoxicity test exposing the organisms to 11Gy gamma radiation dose. After radiation the neutral red retention assay evaluated the lysosomal membrane integrity in the mussel hemocytes. 50% lethal dose assay (LD50) of gamma radiation on Perna perna mussels was carried out by exposure the organisms to 60Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 0 to 3000 Gy. The result of gamma radiation LD50 for these mussels was 1068 Gy and the neutral red retention time of irradiated organisms was about 47% lower than the control, non irradiated organisms. With the obtained results is expected to contribute in the study to identify the range of ionizing radiation doses which can cause toxic effects in marine invertebrates. (author)

  11. Modulatory antibacterial activity of body fat from Gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the popular belief ,which uses fat from G. g. domesticus. (domestic chicken, to combat infectious and inflammatory processes, this work aims to evaluate the antibacterial action of lipids in adipose tissue of these animals besides verifying association with antibiotics observing the modulating effect of natural products against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and multiresistant of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical isolates. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of the samples, determining the minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC by microdilution method. And after testing was conducted to verify the possible synergistic action between the samples and the antimicrobials using fat tissues in a sub inhibitory concentration.The interactions of aminoglycosides with the samples at concentrations of 128g /ml(MIC1/8were effective against S.aureos 358,and amikacin activity associated with the TAGCc with most representative reduction from 64 to 8μg/mL. The results of this study indicate that the TAGc and TAGi are an alternative source of natural products with antibacterial action, as possible to potentiate the activity of aminoglycosides against the strains of S.aureus 358. Both deserving continuing to elucidate the antimicrobial and toxicological action.

  12. Morfologia, ultraestrutura e morfometria do tegumento da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G.M.P. Isola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a falta de informações detalhadas sobre a morfologia da paca, sendo o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira, de excelente qualidade de carne e, dada a importância do tegumento comum, inclusive para o bom manejo em cativeiro, e até mesmo estudos como uma opção de animal de experimentação, descreveu-se a morfologia, morfometria e a ultraestrutura da pele de oito pacas (Cuniculus paca machos e fêmeas, mediante a análise comparativa de segmentos cutâneos das regiões cervical, dorsal e medial do carpo. Observaram-se macroscopicamente as características da pelagem. Parte dos segmentos das regiões cutâneas foi analisada à microscopia de luz e parte, à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras da derme, epiderme, camada córnea, perfis das fibras de colágeno da derme reticular e a área dos perfis das células das glândulas sebáceas repletas. Analisaram-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva e teste "T" (p<0,001. A coloração da pelagem da paca é castanho avermelhado com cerdas organizadas em grupos. A arquitetura da cútis e os anexos cutâneos se assemelham aos dos mamíferos em geral, embora haja ausência de glândulas sudoríparas. De acordo com a analise morfométrica, pôde-se inferir que a arquitetura da cútis de pacas machos e fêmeas apresenta diferenças quando comparada entre os sexos e também em um mesmo animal, diferenciando-se entre diversas regiões corpóreas.

  13. Morphology and topography of the external male genital organs of spotted paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spotted paca (Cuniculus paca is a rodent species from the family Cuniculidae, found in South America, from the Orinoco River Basin to Paraguay. Although widely studied with regard to its morphological and reproductive aspects, still there’re no records on the morphology of the male reproductive system in this species. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate not only the macro and microscopic anatomy of the external genital organs in this species, but also their topography. We studied the external genital organs of 10 adult spotted pacas; 5 specimens, fixed in a 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution, were macroscopically studied and from 5 specimens we collected fragments from the reproductive system, for microscopic analysis. The testicles showed a parenchyma structured in seminiferous tubules and the germinal epithelium rested on its basal membrane. These organs were located in the abdominal cavity, the inguinal path, or within the scrotum. Penis, fibroelastic, was located in the pubic region, in caudal direction. Its glans, coated by keratinized epithelium, were covered by the prepuce and, below this, we identified a slender cartilaginous structure with serrated edges. A couple of bone spurs was located into a bag ventral to the urethra, whose mucosa was lined by transitional epithelium. The epididymal duct was balled up in the head, had a body and tail, and its head was lined by pseudo-stratified stereociliated epithelium, and the tail by simple cubic epithelium; from this, the deferent duct stemmed, lined by columnar stratified epithelium.

  14. Human envenomation by an aglyphous colubrid snake, Liophis miliaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Costa, María Cristina; Di Bernardo, Marcos

    2001-01-01

    In Brazil, some snakes of the family Colubridae usually regarded as not venomous, are responsable by serious and even so fatal accidents. Some opisthoglyphous snakes that occur in southern Brazil. as Philodrias olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823), Boiruna maculata (Boulenger, 1896), Phalotris lemniscatus trilineatus Boulenger. 1889 and Thamnodynastes strigatus (Günther, 1858) deserve greatest attention because they have already caused human envenomation as reported by many authors (Hoge, 1952; Lema...

  15. Nurse egg consumption and intracapsular development in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven

    2013-03-01

    Intracapsular development is common in marine gastropods. In many species, embryos develop alongside nurse eggs, which provide nutrition during ontogeny. The common whelk Buccinum undatum is a commercially important North Atlantic shallow-water gastropod. Development is intracapsular in this species, with individuals hatching as crawling juveniles. While its reproductive cycle has been well documented, further work is necessary to provide a complete description of encapsulated development. Here, using B. undatum egg masses from the south coast of England intracapsular development at 6 °C is described. Number of eggs, veligers and juveniles per capsule are compared, and nurse egg partitioning, timing of nurse egg consumption and intracapsular size differences through development are discussed. Total development took between 133 and 140 days, over which 7 ontogenetic stages were identified. The number of both eggs and veligers were significantly related to capsule volume, with approximately 1 % of eggs developing per capsule. Each early veliger consumed nurse eggs rapidly over just 3-7 days. Within each capsule, initial development was asynchronous, but it became synchronous during the veliger stage. No evidence for cannibalism was found during development, but large size differences between embryos developing within each capsule were observed, and occasionally `empty' veligers were seen, which had not successfully consumed any nurse eggs. These results indicate a high level of competition for nurse eggs within each capsule during development in the common whelk. The initial differences observed in nurse egg uptake may affect individual predisposition in later life.

  16. Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, JUN 30 2015 (2015), 033. ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Central Europe * Danube River basin * Elbe River basin * Oder River basin * fish * host specificity * parasite fauna * species diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  17. Protacanthamoeba bohemica n. sp., isolated from the liver of tench, Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Veverková-Fialová, M.; Fiala, Ivan; Dvořáková, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2005), s. 369-376. ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : amphizoic amoeba e * Protacanthamoeba bohemica * morphology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.987, year: 2005

  18. Food and feeding habits of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Ambajogai, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwas Balasaheb Sakhare; Ashvini Dnayndeo Chalak

    2014-01-01

    The food analysis of 150 specimens of Clarias batrachus revealed that the food consisted of insect larvae, small fish, shrimps and organic debris. Small fish and insect larvae were preferred as the primary food item in all the seasons. On average for all months of the study period, small fish dominated the list with a percentage of 30.27.The other food items in descending order are insect larvae (27.66%), worms (20.27%), shrimps (14.3%) and organic debris (7.05%).The feeding intensity in matu...

  19. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

  20. Biological activities of Wiedemannia multifida (Linnaeus) Bentham and Wiedemannnia orientalis Fisch. & Mey.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sevil Albayrak; Ahmet Aksoy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate total phenolic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the Wiedemannia multifida (W. multifida) and Wiedemannnia orientalis (W. orientalis). Methods: Phosmomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity andβ-carotene-linoleate bleaching were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Results: The total phenolics were found to be (22.45±0.60) and (9.53±0.00) mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g in W. multifida and W. orientalis extracts, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in the both extracts were rutin+ellagic acid and kaempferol. Total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity of W. multifida were higher than W. orientalis. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the agar diffusion method against fifteen microorganisms. Both extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity. Conclusions:The present study suggests that methanolic extracts of W. multifida and W. orientalis could be a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in foods, pharmaceuticals preparations.

  1. Gill monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindoria, Nehemiah Mogoi; Mungai, Lewis Kamau; Yasindi, Andrew Wamalwa; Otachi, Elick Onyango

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of gill monogeneans from the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the blue spotted tilapia Oreochromis leucostictus (50 individuals per species) was done between the months of November 2014 to February 2015 in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Standard parasitological procedures were used to examine fish gills for the presence of monogeneans. The observed monogeneans were collected, preliminarily identified using identification keys, quantified and fixed in 4 % formalin for morphological studies and absolute ethanol for molecular studies. Four parasite species comprising of three species of the genus Cichlidogyrus and one species of the genus Scutogyrus were recovered. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae infested both fish species but the C. sclerosus was most prevalent in O. leucostictus (Prevalence (P) = 100 %, Mean intensity (MI) = 3.4) and C. tilapiae in O. niloticus (P = 8 %, MI = 4). Cichlidogyrus tilapiae had a P = 12 % and MI = 5.0 and a P = 6 % and MI = 3.0 in O. niloticus and O. leucostictus, respectively. Cichlidogyrus halli (P = 4 %, MI = 15.5) and Scutogyrus gravivaginus (P = 2 %, MI = 1.0) were only found in O. leucostictus. This is the first time that these monogeneans have been identified from Lake Naivasha, Kenya, presenting new geographical records. It was concluded that Ancyrocephalids (Cichilidogyrus spp.) dominated the two cichlid fish species in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. PMID:26691859

  2. Prevalence of Cercariae Infection in Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758 in NorthWest of Iran

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    Abbas Imani-Baran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pond snail Lymnaea auricularia serves as an intermediate host for many digenian species. In West Azerbaijan province, northwestern Iran, the cercariae infection investigation was undertaken in L. auricularia from May to November 2010. Of 6759 collected Lymnaeid snails, 370(5.5% L. auricularia snails were identified. Cercariae infection was found in a number of 276 (74.56 % snails. The results showed that removed cercariae from L. auricularia belonged to Echinostomcercariae (96.38 % and Furcocercariae (3.62 % which were found in two out of 28 sites during the course of study. In summer and fall, the highest prevalence of cercariae infection was recorded for both identified cercariae. It is concluded that L. auricularia could be an important intermediate host of large group digenian trematodes in the region, which is necessary to take consideration in the control program of trematode infection.

  3. Screening of antibacterial drugs from marine gastropod Chicoreus ramosus (Linnaeus, 1758

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    Pasiyappazham Ramasamy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the antibacterial drugs from different solvent extracts of tissue and egg of marine gastropods Chicoreus ramosus against clinically isolated human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Different solvent extracts of Chicoreus ramosus was screened for their activity against Vibrio parehaemolyticus (J13300, Aeromonus hydrophilla (IDH1585, Salmonella typhi (C6953, Salmonella paratyphi A (C6915, Vibrio cholerae (IDH5439 and Escherichia coli (H10407 using standard well diffusion method and its minimum inhibitory concentration. Results: The study revealed that the acetone and chloroform extract of both the tissues and egg inhibited the growth of the tested pathogenic bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both the extract ranged from 4 to 12 mg/mL. Conclusions: These results suggest that marine gastropods tissue and egg extract contains comparatively good antibacterial activity.

  4. Morfologia, ultraestrutura e morfometria do tegumento da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766) criada em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    José G.M.P. Isola; Paola C. Moraes; Rahal, Sheila C; Márcia R.F. Machado

    2013-01-01

    Considerando-se a falta de informações detalhadas sobre a morfologia da paca, sendo o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira, de excelente qualidade de carne e, dada a importância do tegumento comum, inclusive para o bom manejo em cativeiro, e até mesmo estudos como uma opção de animal de experimentação, descreveu-se a morfologia, morfometria e a ultraestrutura da pele de oito pacas (Cuniculus paca) machos e fêmeas, mediante a análise comparativa de segmentos cutâneos das regiões cervical, ...

  5. Anatomical aspect of the hard palate of the Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1766 primates

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    Andréia Luciana Martins Ramos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen hard palates of neotropical primates were studied (Cebus apella, fixed on formaldehyde (10% and preserved in ethylic alcohol (70%, collected according to the International Bioethics Committee. The animals were supplied by the Medicine College Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnica of the University of São Paulo in 1994. They originated from the São Paulo Zoo. They had died naturally. Measurement (in centimeters of the viscerocranium (8 adults and 6 young animals was made, including palatine length (PL, interpremolar distance (ID, intermolar distance (ID, interorbital distance (IDi, and midface height (MH. The palatine anatomy showed complete right crests (7.64 to 1.22, complete left crests (8.07 to 1.71, incomplete right crests (1.71 to 1.43, and incomplete left crests (1.64 to 1.3. The diasten between the lateral incisive teeth was the main anatomical landmark for the anterior end of the crest, and the landmark for the posterior end was the second molar teeth for all the specimens. The palate is very peculiar: mild concave, from the dental arcade to the median line, covered by the non-pigmented mucous tissue, with osseous structure composed of horizontal layers of the maxilar and palatine bones; sub mucous tissue attached to the periosteum and mucous tissue showing relatively prominent palatine crests. The crests appear as a rigid elevation of the mucous tissue, with some variations at the antimers. It may be concluded that the length of the hard palate is strongly related to the maturity of the animal, relative to the interorbital distance, and that the latter is also related to the length of the palate and the labial opening.

  6. Anatomical aspect of the hard palate of the Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1766) primates

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia Luciana Martins Ramos; Polyana Alves Siqueira; Vanessa da Silva Ferreira; Amanda Rocha Mortoza; Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Fourteen hard palates of neotropical primates were studied (Cebus apella), fixed on formaldehyde (10%) and preserved in ethylic alcohol (70%), collected according to the International Bioethics Committee. The animals were supplied by the Medicine College Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnica of the University of São Paulo in 1994. They originated from the São Paulo Zoo. They had died naturally. Measurement (in centimeters) of the viscerocranium (8 adults and 6 young animals) was made, including ...

  7. Oral susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus to Zika virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MeiZhi Irene Li

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. In Africa, where it was first isolated, ZIKV is mainly transmitted by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus has also been isolated from Ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. Transmission of the virus by an African strain of Ae. aegypti has also been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study is to describe the oral susceptibility of a Singapore strain of Ae. aegypti to ZIKV, under conditions that simulate local climate.To assess the receptivity of Singapore's Ae. aegypti to the virus, we orally exposed a local mosquito strain to a Ugandan strain of ZIKV. Upon exposure, fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29 °C and 70-75% RH. Eight mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day 1 to day 7, and subsequently on days 10 and 14 post exposure (pe. The virus titer of the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using a tissue culture infectious dose(50 (TCID(50 assay. High midgut infection and salivary gland dissemination rates were observed. By day 5 after the infectious blood meal, ZIKV was found in the salivary glands of more than half of the mosquitoes tested (62%; and by day 10, all mosquitoes were potentially infective.This study showed that Singapore's urban Ae. aegypti are susceptible and are potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV. The virus could be established in Singapore should it be introduced. Nevertheless, Singapore's current dengue control strategy is applicable to control ZIKV.

  8. Food and feeding habits of Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus, 1758) along the northwest coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswar, A.K.; GEORGE, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Megalaspis cordyla as one of the shoaling commercially important pelagic fish in the Northwest coast of India. The study on food and feeding habits of this fish revealed that it is predominantly a carnivorous species feeding primarily on sergestied shrimps like Acetes indicus and small fishes such as Stolephorus species. In addition it feeds on juveniles of Trichiurus, Apogon, Coilia, Sardinella, Nemipterus, Thryssa, and sciaenids. The food of M. cordyla also comprises the young ones of mollu...

  9. The unexpected mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Hope, Neva B; Wares, John P

    2016-05-01

    Androdioecy was first described by Darwin in his seminal work on barnacle diversity; he identified males and hermaphrodites in the same reproductive population. Today, we realize that many androdioecious plants and animals share astonishing similarities, particularly with regard to their evolutionary history and mating system. Notably, these species were ancestrally dioecious, and their mating system has the following characteristics: hermaphrodites self-fertilize frequently, males are more successful in large mating groups, and males have a mating advantage. A male mating advantage makes androdioecy more likely to persist over evolutionary times. Androdioecious barnacles, however, appear to persist as an outlier with a different evolutionary trajectory: they originate from hermaphroditic species. Although sexual systems of androdioecious barnacles are known, no information on the mating system of androdioecious barnacles is available. This study assessed the mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria. In contrast to other androdioecious species, C. testudinaria does not self-fertilize, males do not have a mating advantage over hermaphrodites, and the average mating group is quite small, averaging only three individuals. Mating success is increased by proximity to the mate and penis length. Taken together, the mating system of C. testudinaria is unusual in comparison with other androdioecious plants and animals, and the lack of a male mating advantage suggests that the mating system alone does not provide an explanation for the maintenance of androdioecy in this species. Instead, we propose that sex-specific life history equalizes male and hermaphroditic overall fitness. PMID:26923636

  10. ARIES: an expert system supporting legislative tasks. Identifying animal materials using the Linnaeus II software

    OpenAIRE

    van Raamsdonk, Leo W.D.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad cow disease) is generally considered to be caused by recycling animal by-products as ingredient in animal, especially ruminant, feed. Feed bans were enforced to minimize the risk on infections, and monitoring programs are effectuated for controlling the ban. The only official detection method is visual (microscopic) examination of the presence of primarily bone fragments, but muscle fibres, hairs, feather filaments, and fish bones a...

  11. Prevalence of Cercariae Infection in Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758) in NorthWest of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Imani-Baran; Mohammad Yakhchali; Reza Malekzadeh Viayeh; Farhad Farhangpajuh

    2011-01-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea auricularia serves as an intermediate host for many digenian species. In West Azerbaijan province, northwestern Iran, the cercariae infection investigation was undertaken in L. auricularia from May to November 2010. Of 6759 collected Lymnaeid snails, 370(5.5%) L. auricularia snails were identified. Cercariae infection was found in a number of 276 (74.56 %) snails. The results showed that removed cercariae from L. auricularia belonged to Echinostomcercariae (96.38 %) and...

  12. Morphology of the male genital organs in the coati (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus 1766

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    Daniele dos Santos Martins

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to describe the morphology of the male genital organs in Nasua nasua. Five coati from the CECRIMPAS Scientific Breeding School were used (UNIfeob. The humanely sacrificed animals were fixed in formaldehyde solution 10% and were subsequently dissected. For light microscopic examination, pieces from the genital organs were used that had been processed and immersed in paraffin, cut and stained, for photo documentation. Macroscopically, the penis of the Nasua nasua was not suspended, but was stuck to the abdominal skin in two of the sexually immature animals, while in the three other mature animals, the penis was suspended between the pelvic members. Surrounding the most distal portion of the prepuce, a gland with a white, pasty secretion was observed. The head of the penis presented a proximal dilatation, hard to the touch, that was constituted on the widest part of baculum. The position of the testes inside the scrotum was horizontal. The prostate gland was in globoid form surrounding the urethra. Microscopically, the testes were coated by dense connective tissue, the tunica albuginea. The ductus epididymis was coated by pseudostratified epithelia with stereocilia. The urethra of the penis was surrounded by the corpus spongiosum and the remaining portion presented a corpus cavernosum (erectile tissue.

  13. Morphology of the bronchial tree of coati lungs (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1966

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    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The coati (Nasua nasua is a diurnal, terrestrial and arboricola procionidae. It feeds extensively on the ground and uses trees to procriate, to sleep overnight and to take refuge. Its diet is omnivorous and it feeds on fruits, small vertebrates and invertebrates, nectar, eggs and vegetables. The aim of this work was to characterize microscopically the bronchial tree of the coati. Four coatis (two males and two females, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%, were used from previous research conducted at CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB (IBAMA-02027.003731/04-76. For this work, the tissue samples were embedded in paraffin by routine technique and processed for light microscopy in HE staining for analysis under a light microscope. It was found that microscopically, the bronchial tree of the coati is similar to that of other mammals described in the literature, i.e. it has great variations in its architecture, such as a reduced height of the epithelium which changes from ciliated pseudostratified in the larger bronchi to being cubic in the smaller bronchioles, an absence of cilia and glands in the smaller bronchioles, and a decrease in diameter and thickness of its walls.

  14. Topography of the medullary cone in coatimundi (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus 1766

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    Guilherme Buzon Gregores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidural anesthesia is a regional anesthetic technique that is generally used with good, safe results, and it has been applied in the last 80 years through numerous methodologies aimed at testing anesthesia of the spinal nerves of the lumbar and sacral regions. It is necessary to know not only the anesthetic procedures, but also to apply anatomical knowledge of the species to be manipulated. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the topography of the medullary cone of the coati, supporting the implementation of anesthetic techniques in this species of wild carnivores. We used three adult animals obtained from the CECRIMPAS scientific breeding unit. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Fundação de Ensino Octávio Bastos – UNIFEOB. The animals were fixed and dissected along the entire length of the medullary cord. The conus had its base between the 5th and 6th lumbar vertebrae and apex at the 3rd sacral vertebra, with total length ranging between 5.2cm and 5.8cm. Thus, we conclude that the most appropriate place to perform epidural anesthesia in the coatimundi is in the sacrocaudal region.

  15. The recent population expansion of boarfish, Capros aper (Linnaeus, 1758): Interactions of climate, growth and recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coad, Julie Olivia; Hüssy, Karin; Farrell, E.D.; Clarke, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether temperature changes in the Northeast Atlantic influence the growth and recruitment dynamics of boarfish, Capros aper. Two geographically separate areas were examined, 'north' at the northern distribution range west of Ireland and 'south' on the...... growth and temperature was observed, while growth in the 'south' was positively related to temperature up to approximately 16°C growth rates were suppressed in the years with temperatures above that. Recruitment showed a positive correlation with adult growth the previous year for the Spanish recruitment...... index only, suggesting spatial connectivity between the Celtic Sea and the Bay of Biscay. The age distributions were similar in both areas and despite the boarfish's longevity of >30 years, are dominated by the age classes corresponding to the years with high recruitment, suggesting that increased...

  16. Gross morphology and anatomy of the large intestine of the paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    Camila Paes Bürger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the potential of using the paca as livestock involves understanding the morphophysiology of its digestive tract so its nutrition can be properly managed. The morphological and anatomical aspects of the large intestine of this species were investigated by inspecting material that was fresh and fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde. The material was provided by the Setor de Animais Selvagens do Departamento de Zootecnia da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal – UNESP (FCAV – UNESP. The large intestine of the paca is formed by cecum, colon and rectum, and is located in the abdominal and pelvic cavity near the third or fourth lumbar vertebrae. It was found, in the 10 samples analyzed, that there was no change in the pattern of this arrangement and that this pattern resembles that of mammals in general.

  17. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da veia cava de paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

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    Sérgio Pinter Garcia Filho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A paca (Cuniculus paca é o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira. Apresenta carne de excelente qualidade, o que incentiva a criação comercial. Além disso, este animal pode tornar-se uma opção válida em experimentação embora poucas sejam as informações detalhadas sobre sua morfologia. Assim, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções cranial e caudal da veia cava de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca adultas excedentes do plantel do Setor de Animais Silvestres do Departamento de Zootecnia da FCAV-Unesp. Os segmentos venosos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram mensuradas as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia e analisou-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva, teste "T" pareado (p<0,05. Em relação à espessura das túnicas estudadas, comprovou-se que os valores da espessura das túnicas íntima, média e adventícia, para todos os animais, foram significativamente maiores no segmento cranial. As camadas das paredes dos vasos apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente devido a uma adaptação à exigência funcional.

  18. The Hindlimb Arterial Vessels in Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, L M; de Freitas, H M G; Sasahara, T H C; Machado, M R F

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of the hindlimb arterial vessels. Five adult lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca) were used. Stained and diluted latex was injected, caudally to the aorta. After fixation in 10% paraformaldehyde for 72 h, we dissected to visualize and identify the vessels. It was found out that the vascularization of the hindlimb in lowland paca derives from the terminal branch of the abdominal aorta. The common iliac artery divides into external iliac and internal iliac. The external iliac artery emits the deep iliac circumflex artery, the pudendal epigastric trunk, the deep femoral artery; the femoral artery originates the saphenous artery, it bifurcates into cranial and caudal saphenous arteries. Immediately after the knee joint, the femoral artery is called popliteal artery, which divides into tibial cranial and tibial caudal arteries at the level of the crural inter-osseous space. The origin and distribution of arteries in the hindlimb of lowland paca resembles that in other wild rodents, as well as in the domestic mammals. PMID:25370292

  19. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da aorta de paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Garcia Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreveram-se a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções torácica e abdominal da aorta de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca adultas. Os segmentos aórticos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia. Os valores referentes à espessura do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média da aorta torácica cranial foram significativamente maiores (média: 702,19µm que os valores de outros segmentos aórticos analisados (médias: 354,18µm; 243,55µm. As camadas das paredes do vaso apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente em razão de adaptação à exigência funcional.

  20. Behavioral Responses of the Freshwater Fish, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) Following Sublethal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos

    OpenAIRE

    Halappa, Ramesh; David, Muniswamy

    2009-01-01

    Common carp fingerlings were exposed to different concentrations (0.120 to 0.200 mg/L) of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (20% EC) for 96 h. The acute toxicity (LC50) of chlorpyrifos by static renewal (semi-static) bioassay test was found to be 0.160 mg/L. One-seventh (0.0224 mg/L) and one-fourteenth (0.0112 mg/L) of the 96 h LC50 were selected as sublethal concentrations for subacute studies. The fish were exposed to both the sublethal concentrations for 1, 7 and 14 days and allow...

  1. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  2. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758): Biochemical response

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Banaee; Behzad Nematdoust Haghi; Ahmed Th. A. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...

  3. Neue Taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1987-01-01

    12 new species and 3 new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards from Greece and Turkey are described or defined. The new taxa are: T. (L.) montifer tasucuensis, T. (L.) musensis, T. (L.) vermooleni, T. (L.) lyrion, Tipula (Lunatipula) paravelox, T. (L.) soosi izmirensis, T. (L.) brinki, T. (L.) canakkalen

  4. Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) mussels irradiated by {sup 60}CO gamma rays cytotoxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Gisela A.; Pusceddu, Fabio H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto, E-mail: gisela.martini@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present work was the study of ionizing radiation effects on aquatic biota regarding the location of nuclear facilities nearby coastal areas assuming the risk of leaks and nuclear accidents. Bivalve mollusks have been widely used in the monitoring of aquatic environment studies mainly for their sessile habit and pollutants bioconcentration ability. So marine mussel Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) was used as organism test in this study. The study of radioactive toxicity was performed by cytotoxicity test exposing the organisms to 11Gy gamma radiation dose. After radiation the neutral red retention assay evaluated the lysosomal membrane integrity in the mussel hemocytes. 50% lethal dose assay (LD50) of gamma radiation on Perna perna mussels was carried out by exposure the organisms to {sup 60}Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 0 to 3000 Gy. The result of gamma radiation LD50 for these mussels was 1068 Gy and the neutral red retention time of irradiated organisms was about 47% lower than the control, non irradiated organisms. With the obtained results is expected to contribute in the study to identify the range of ionizing radiation doses which can cause toxic effects in marine invertebrates. (author)

  5. Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus) (Echinoidea, Echinometridae) als Wirt einer komplexen Lebensgemeinschaft im Karibischen Meer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe, Sabine

    1991-09-01

    The association between Acyrtus rubiginosus (Gobiesocidae), Clastotoechus vanderhorsti (Porcellanidae), Ophiothrix sp. (Ophiotrichidae) and their rock-boring host Echinometra lucunter (Echinometridae) has been studied on the rocky shores of Santa Marta, Colombia. The three inhabitants of the sea urchin dwellings benefit from their cohabitation by receiving effective shelter from intertidal effects and from predators. The sea urchin, by contrast, seems neither to be benefitted nor harmed by the association.

  6. Ontogenia da cartilagem e do osso em dourada, Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Faustino, Manuel Almeida dos Ramos

    1996-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Química Celular, Unidade de Ciências Exactas e Humanas, Universidade do Algarve, 1996 A dourada (Sparus aurata L) é uma das mais importantes espécies comerciais do sul da Europa, tendo o seu cultivo em cativeiro sido grandemente incrementado, entre nós, na última década. O estudo e caracterização da ontogenia das estruturas que formam o esqueleto, fornece-nos conhecimentos essenciais, para posteriores melhoramentos na produção de larvas e, provavelmente um melho...

  7. Seasonal food habits of brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus Linnaeus, 1758 in Cenral Alborz Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Nezami Balouchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountains of Central Alborz Protected Area hold a big population of brown bear, the largest varnivore species in Iran. Understanding food habits is crucial to understanding the ecology of the species. Diet influences many ecological and life-history traits, such as spatial distribution, social and foraging behavior, body mass and reproduction. Therefore, during Jun 2006 to May 2007 we had a comprehensive study on brown bear food habits, as the largest omnivorous of the country in Central Alborz Protected Area. Our investigation showed that plant materials composed the main proportion of food items of the brown bears in the spring until mid-summer. Insects, especially ants were predominantly eaten in the first half of summer. As approaching to hibernation period in late autumn, fruits played the main role of bear food items having high fat content. We never witnessed bear attack on wild herbivores. Furthermore, we never found remains of wild herbivores except a few livestock remains in brown bear scats during our survey period. Accordingly, we concluded that brown bears were almost herbivorous in the Central Alborz Protected Area. We never found any bear scats or fresh signs in three consecutive years, between first of December until mid of March. Also, no direct sighting of brown bear was reported to us by local people and game keepers within the mentioned period. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the brown bears hibernate for a period of 3-3.5 months in winter in the Central Alborz Protected Area.

  8. Effects of the European hornet (Vespa crabro Linnaeus 1761) crude venom on its own species

    OpenAIRE

    Nadolski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Background Lethal dose 50% is a classical index of toxicity that usually employs small rodents as experimental animals. Therefore, scarce data are available on the effects of venom on invertebrates, particularly the impact of wasp venom on its own species. Findings In the present study, the lethality of Vespa crabro venom on its own species was studied. Lethal dose 50% values of crude venom on workers of hornet Vespa crabro were estimated to be 4.0 mg/kg of body weight. Conclusions Wasps can ...

  9. Duplicación de miembro anterior en Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758: registro de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Germán Cupul-Magaña

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota registra el caso de polimelia en una hembra juvenil de iguana verde o Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae de entre cinco y seis meses de edad (camada del 2012, con talla de 43 cm y peso de 60 g.

  10. Duplicación de miembro anterior en Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758): registro de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Germán Cupul-Magaña; Rafael García de Quevedo-Machain; Jorge Alfredo Tovar-Ramos; Jesús Aarón Curiel-Beltrán

    2014-01-01

    Esta nota registra el caso de polimelia en una hembra juvenil de iguana verde o Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae) de entre cinco y seis meses de edad (camada del 2012), con talla de 43 cm y peso de 60 g.

  11. Individual variation related to testicular biometry and semen characteristics in collared peccaries (Tayassu Tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Castelo, T S; Silva, A M; Bezerra, J A B; Souza, A L P; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this research was to study the individual variation with regard to the morphometry of the testes evaluated by ultrasonography and semen characteristics and to verify the existence of relationship between these variables in collared peccaries. In addition, the testes of the animals were evaluated by histology in order to determine the proportion occupied by the seminiferous tubules. A total of 52 ejaculates were obtained from ten adult specimens that had been restrained by anesthesia. The testicular measurements (length, height, and width) were performed by ultrasonography, and the testicular volume was calculated according to Lambert's formula. The scrotal circumference was measured by encircling the thickest portion of the testicle with a graduated nylon tape. The semen was collected by electroejaculation. Testicular fragments were analyzed through classic histology for the determination of the area occupied by the seminiferous tubules. The results show a great amount of individual variation with regard to testicular morphometry and semen characteristics. No significant correlations were obtained between testicular measurements and semen characteristics. The histometric analysis revealed that 67.8% of the testes are occupied by seminiferous tubules. Results show that the measurement of testicular dimensions does not serve as an indicator of the quality of semen obtained by electroejaculation in collared peccaries, as there is no correlation between testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in this species that presents large variations among individuals. PMID:22964034

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758 Living in San Carlos (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Eduardo Troncoso Toro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies about seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Chile; therefore, this article aims to determine seroprevalence in cats in the district of San Carlos, by ELISA Immuno- Comb® serological technique, and, at the same time, to examine association with variables of sex, age, diet, and habitat. To the effect, 60 cats over 2 months old were randomly sampled. Sera were analyzed using the ELISA ImmunoComb® Biogal Toxo & Chlamydia test kit, which detects specific immunoglobulin G-type antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 100%. The study evidenced that 29 individuals were positive (48.3% seroprevalence; when broken down by gender this corresponded to 9 males and 20 females (39.1% and 54%, respectively. By age, seropositivity was higher in the “Adult” group (76.7%, followed by groups “Over 7 years” (50% and “Young” (25%. With respect to diet, higher seropositivity was obtained in animals fed on mixed diet, as opposed to commercial diet (60% vs. 47.2%. By variable habitat, 16 indoor and 13 outdoor cats were positive (45.7% and 52%, showing statistically significant difference only for the variable age (p < 0.05. Finally, through relating age with seropositivity, a negative correlation was evidenced (r = –0.3, indicating that older individuals had lower seroprevalence. The results show the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats.

  13. POSSIBILITIES OF CULTIVATION OF CHAMELEA GALLINA (LINNAEUS, 1758 CLAM ALONG EASTERN ADRIATIC COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Dupčić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Chamelea gallina clam is among 16 shellfish species commonly present on Croatian fish markets. In the year 2000, European fishermen collected 39,819 tons of this species. The most abundant settlements of Chamelea gallina are situated along western Adriatic coast, however, there are settlements along eastern Adriatic coast especially in the estuaries of Neretva and Cetina, Nin and Novigradsko more areas, as well as along the coasts of islands; Brač, Rab and Susak. Ecological parameters affect growth rates, reproduction and mortality. Due to great temperature oscillations insufficient spat recruitment occurs on occasion. Temperature values determine the time and the intensity of spawning. Hatcheries insure constant and secure spat resource. Adults from brood stock mature during conditioning process, after which they are transferred into spawning tanks for fertilization. Brood stock, larvae, and spat are fed by cultured phytoplankton species.

  14. Oral Susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) to Zika Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, MeiZhi Irene; Wong, Pei Sze Jeslyn; Ng, Lee Ching; Tan, Cheong Huat

    2012-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. In Africa, where it was first isolated, ZIKV is mainly transmitted by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus has also been isolated from Ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. Transmission of the virus by an African strain of Ae. aegypti has...

  15. Partição de recursos florais de espécies de Sida Linnaeus e Malvastrum coromandelianum (Linnaeus Garcke (Malvaceae entre Cephalurgus anomalus Moure & Oliveira (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae, Panurginae e Melissoptila cnecomala (Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Eucerini Floral resource partitioning on Sida Linnaeus and Malvastrum coromandelianum (Linnaeus Garcke (Malvaceae between Cephalurgus anomalus Moure & Oliveira (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae, Panurginae and Melissoptila cnecomala (Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Eucerini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Ferreira Morato

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The flowering pattern and the visiting bee species on Sida spp. and Malvastrum coromandelianum (L. Garcke were studied in a restricted area at the campus of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. There were differences among plant species but not among individuals in relation to the flowering time along the day and the time at which the flowers were visited by bees. Melissoptila cnecomala (Moure, 1944 and Cephalurgus anomalus Moure & Oliveira, 1962 were the most frequent visitors. Both species foraged on flowers for nectar and pollen. C. anomalus visited mainly plants with anthesis in the morning and M. cnecomala plants with anthesis in the afternoon. This fact sugests that those species of bees may be showing contrasting foraging strategies and can share the floral resources of Sida and Malvastrum. The males of C. anomalus mate on flowers of Sida and exhibit a behavior known as rendevouz pollination.

  16. Investigation of the Selectivity Parameters for Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) in Seyhan Dam Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Özyurt, Caner Enver; Avşar, Dursun

    2005-01-01

    Selectivity studies are very important for sustainable fisheries. Therefore, in this study, selectivity parameters for the carp in Seyhan Dam Lake were estimated using gill nets having a mesh size of 28, 32, 40 and 45 mm. Gill nets used in pikeperch fishing of mesh size of 28, 30 and 32 mm could cause growth in the overfishing of carp. Therefore, it is recommended that longline fishing should be commonly used instead of gill nets on pikeperch fishing. Consequently gill nets having minimum 50 ...

  17. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João C. P.; Fujihara, Caroline J.; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; Pantoja, José C. F.; Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots’ physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3–9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural disorders and stress in this bird species, and could also help in their captive management. PMID:26717147

  18. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C P Ferreira

    Full Text Available Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva, two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1 and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2: Control (undisturbed, Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM, Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM. Treatments (always one week apart were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment. Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations. Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median at the peak (after 3-9 h, and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural disorders and stress in this bird species, and could also help in their captive management.

  19. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, João C. P.; Caroline J Fujihara; Erika Fruhvald; Eduardo Trevisol; Destro, Flavia C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; José C.F. Pantoja; Elizabeth M.S. Schmidt; Rupert Palme

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling ...

  20. Arterial anatomosurgical segments of the mammary glands in dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty mammary complexes (sixty antimers) from cross bred multiparous bitches, were injected with latex and then studied by means of radiology and dissection. The different anatomo-surgical arterial segments thus obtained were identified and designated according to the anatomical zone of irrigation of each mammary gland as follows: 1. Thoracic segment, by means of the fourth and fifth perforant arteries, penetrates the first mammary gland in 85% of the cases; 2. Thoracoabdominal segment, by means of the sixth and seventh perforant arteries, penetrates the second mammary gland in 48.33 % of the cases. This segment can also be divided as follows: 2.1. Retrograde branches of the cranial superficial epigastric artery that penetrates the second mammary gland in about 51.66% of the cases, as the toracoabdominal cranial segment; 2.2. Terminal branches of the last artery penetrate the third mammary gland in 73.32% of the cases, as the toracoabdominal caudal segment. 3. Inguinoabdominal segment may also possess two sub-- segments: 3.1. Caudal superficial epigastric artery with primary branches penetrating the fourth mamma and the ventral labial branches, penetrating the fifth mamma in 96.66% of the cases, as inguinoabdomninal caudal segment. 3.2. Terminal branches of the caudal superficial epigastric artery penetrates the third mamma in 51.66% of the cases as inguinoabdominal cranial segment. The anastomosis observed in 78.33% of the cases may not have significance in mastectomy

  1. Stems, nodes, crown clades, and rank-free lists: is Linnaeus dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, M J

    2000-11-01

    Recent radical proposals to overhaul the methods of biological classification are reviewed. The proposals of phylogenetic nomenclature are to translate cladistic phylogenies directly into classifications, and to define taxon names in terms of clades. The method has a number of radical consequences for biologists: taxon names must depend rigidly on the particular cladogram favoured at the moment, familiar names may be reassigned to unfamiliar groupings, Linnaean category terms (e.g. phylum, order, family) are abandoned, and the Linnaean binomen (e.g. Homo sapiens) is abandoned. The tenets of phylogenetic nomenclature have gained strong support among some vocal theoreticians, and rigid principles for legislative control of clade names and definitions have been outlined in the PhyloCode. The consequences of this semantic maelstrom have not been worked out. In pratice, phylogenetic nomenclature will bc disastrous, promoting confusion and instability, and it should be abandoned. It is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the difference between a phylogeny (which is real) and a classification (which is utilitarian). Under the new view, classifications are identical to phlylogenies, and so the proponents of phylogenetic nomenclature will end up abandoning classifications altogether. PMID:11117201

  2. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

  3. Seasonal variation in growth and survival of Strombus canarium (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cob, Z C; Arshad, A; Bujang, J S; Ghaffar, M A

    2009-05-01

    This study was conducted to analyze variation in Strombus canarium larvae development, growth and survivals when cultured during wet (main reproductive period) and dry seasons. Larvae were reared at 200 larvae L(-1) in filtered seawater (0.22 microm) and fed with Isochrysis galbana at 1000 cells mL(-1) ad libitum. The culture environment was maintained at 29 +/- 1 degrees C, salinity of 30 +/- 1 PSU and photoperiod of 12:12 light dark cycle. Growth of the larvae was described on a length-at-age basis using the modified Gompertz regression. There was high correlation in shell length-at-age relationship for both wet season (R2 = 0.99) and dry season (R2 = 0.98) culture experiments. The maximal growth rate (M) and survival rate (S) were higher for larvae cultured during wet season (M = 62.44 microm day(-1), S = 14.36-2.31%), compared with dry season (M = 43.05 microm day(-1), S = 5 +/- 1.15%). The maximal attainable larval size (a) was however lower during wet season (950.19 +/- 66.93 microm shell length) compared with dry season (1343.05 +/- 586.51 microm shell length), which might be due to significantly low larvae density in the latter. Further studies are needed to investigate variation in bio-chemical composition of the egg mass, which was suggested as the main reason for the differences. PMID:19634470

  4. Ultrassonografia abdominal de tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) mantidos em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Érika R. Lopes; Thaís O. Morgado; Yara S. Meireles; Adriano A. Jorge; Arielli A.Q. Zago; Sandra H.R. Corrêa; Regina C.R. da Paz; Pedro B. Néspoli

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO: A ultrassonografia é um método de imagem não invasivo e uma ferramenta importante para o diagnóstico de uma variedade de enfermidades de animais. Neste trabalho foi realizada a técnica de ultrassonografia transabdominal em cinco tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), dois machos e três fêmeas, pertencentes ao Zoológico da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso e acompanhada a necrópsia de um animal morto de causas naturais. Os animais do zoológico foram anestesiados com Tiletamina...

  5. Ultrassonografia abdominal de tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika R. Lopes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A ultrassonografia é um método de imagem não invasivo e uma ferramenta importante para o diagnóstico de uma variedade de enfermidades de animais. Neste trabalho foi realizada a técnica de ultrassonografia transabdominal em cinco tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, dois machos e três fêmeas, pertencentes ao Zoológico da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso e acompanhada a necrópsia de um animal morto de causas naturais. Os animais do zoológico foram anestesiados com Tiletamina e Zolazepam (Zoletil® e mantidos em plano anestésico com Isofluorano. Foram realizadas varreduras com transdutor linear (LA332 multifrequencial de 3,0 a 11 MHz do fígado, vesícula biliar, estômago, baço, rins, bexiga e testículos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que existem semelhanças entre a arquitetura esplênica, a textura e ecogenicidade hepática, a posição e a aparência ultrassonográfica da vesícula biliar quando comparado com a dos caninos. Existem diferenças como localização renal, localização dos testículos, espessura da parede do estômago e presença de liquido livre anecóico entre o estômago, baço e rim esquerdo em todos os animais estudados.

  6. Bacterial symbionts of the leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Grzywacz, Beata; Szwedo, Jacek; Michalik, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed. PMID:25900723

  7. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species. PMID:27167617

  8. In vitro exposure of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) to gasoline - Biochemical and morphological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Fernanda Kokowicz; Ramlov, Fernanda; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Débora Tomazi; Costa, Christopher; de Oliveira, Eva Regina; Bauer, Cláudia M; Rocha, Miguel; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Refined fuels have considerable share of pollution of marine ecosystems. Gasoline is one of the most consumed fuel worldwide, but its effects on marine benthic primary producers are poorly investigated. In this study, Ulva lactuca was chosen as a biological model due to its cosmopolitan nature and tolerance to high levels and wide range of xenobiotics and our goal was to evaluate the effects of gasoline on ultrastructure and metabolism of that seaweed. The experimental design consisted of in vitro exposure of U. lactuca to four concentrations of gasoline (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0%, v/v) over 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, and 24 h, followed by cytochemical, SEM, and biochemical analysis. Increase in the number of cytoplasmic granules, loss of cell turgor, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and alterations in the mucilage were some of the ultrastructural alterations observed in thalli exposed to gasoline. Decrease in carotenoid and polyphenol contents, as well as increase of soluble sugars and starch contents were associated with the time of exposure to the xenobiotic. In combination, the results revealed important morphological and biochemical alterations in the phenotype of U. lactuca upon acute exposure to gasoline. This seaweed contain certain metabolites assigned as candidates to biomarkers of the environmental stress investigated and it is thought to be a promise species for usage in coastal ecosystems perturbation monitoring system. In addition, the findings suggest that U. lactuca is able to metabolize gasoline hydrocarbons and use them as energy source, acting as bioremediator of marine waters contaminated by petroleum derivatives. PMID:27192480

  9. The unique sound production of the Death's-head hawkmoth ( Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758)) revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Gunnar; Fischer, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav; Kleinteich, Thomas; Kühn, Bernhard; Neubert, David; Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Wurdinger, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    When disturbed, adults of the Death's-head hawkmoth (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae: Acherontia atropos) produce short squeaks by drawing in and deflating air into and out of the pharynx as a defence mechanism. We took a new look at Prell's hypothesis of a two-phase mechanism by providing new insights into the functional morphology behind the pharyngeal sound production of this species. First, we compared the head anatomy of A. atropos with another sphingid species, Manduca sexta, by using micro-computed tomography (CT) and 3D reconstruction methods. Despite differences in feeding behaviour and capability of sound production in the two species, the musculature in the head is surprisingly similar. However, A. atropos has a much shorter proboscis and a modified epipharynx with a distinct sclerotised lobe projecting into the opening of the pharynx. Second, we observed the sound production in vivo with X-ray videography, mammography CT and high-speed videography. Third, we analysed acoustic pressure over time and spectral frequency composition of six A. atropos specimens, both intact and with a removed proboscis. Single squeaks of A. atropos last for ca. 200 ms and consist of an inflation phase, a short pause and a deflation phase. The inflation phase is characterised by a burst of ca. 50 pulses with decreasing pulse frequency and a major frequency peak at ca. 8 kHz, followed by harmonics ranging up to more than 60 kHz. The deflation phase is characterised by a less clear acoustic pattern, a lower amplitude and more pronounced peaks in the same frequency range. The removal of the proboscis resulted in a significantly shortened squeak, a lower acoustic pressure level and a slightly more limited frequency spectrum. We hypothesise that the uptake of viscous honey facilitated the evolution of an efficient valve at the opening of the pharynx (i.e. a modified epipharynx), and that sound production could relatively easily have evolved based on this morphological pre-adaptation.

  10. Notes on two interesting specimens of Hippotion celerio (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Catania, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Moths of the genus Hippotion Hübner, 1822 (Family: Sphingidae) are distributed in Africa, Central and southern Asia and as migrants in southern Europe and Australia. Currently, around 30 species are accommodated in this genus. Hippotion celerio is a regular migrant to the Maltese Islands. On the onset of warmer weather conditions, colonies establish themselves in North Africa and Europe. It is a resident species in the Azores and the Atlantic coast of Morocco and most probably als...

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species. PMID:27167617

  12. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Alessandra; dos Santos, Rafaelle Cunha; Carvalho, Nadino; Martins, Áurea Linhares; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen a large number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites. The mean female and male sizes were 230.2 × 200.4 μm and 137.6 × 104.9 μm. Based on the morphologic characteristics and morphometric analysis, this mite was classified as Notoedres cati. This is the first report of notoedric mange in L. pardalis from Brazilian Amazon. PMID:22166390

  13. Two new species of the genus Cobitis Linnaeus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongxia; Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Na; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-05-01

    Two new species of the genus Cobitis from southern China, C. hereromacula from the Luohe River in Guangdong Province and C. baishagensis from the Nandujiang River in Hainan Province, are described and illustrated here. C. hereromacula can be distinguished from its congeners by possessing the following combination of characteristics: absence of the second and third pigmentary zones of Gambetta; 13-16 oval blotches on the dorsum and 10-13 vertical, elongated triangular blotches below the midlateral line with more than 20 vertical dark brown bars between them; 6-7 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical oval spot smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; pointed mental lobes of the lower lip pointed with a slightly filiform tip; one slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the base of the first branched ray of the male pectoral fins. C. baishagensis can be distinguished from its congeners by the fourth Gambetta zone being covered by 10-12 transverse elongated blotches; 4-5 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical blotch smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; males with a slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the second branched pectoral fin ray in males; large scales with a slightly large focal zone; undeveloped mental lobes with a lower lip that does not end posteriorly in a filiform tip.

  14. Granulomas caused by Mycobacterium sp. in farmed Turbot Scopthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. JERONIMO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Turbot, Scophthlalmus maximus, is a Pleuronectiformes fish that occurs in northeast Atlantic along the European coast and in the Mediterranean Sea and is produced in aquaculture since the last quarter of the twentieth century. During a survey conducted in a turbot fish farm nodular formations were occasionally observed in several organs, especially in the kidney and in the spleen. Microscopic observations showed that these nodules contained acid-fast bacilli. The molecular identification of the isolated bacteria conducted to the Mycobacterium genus. Although no abnormal mortalities were evident morbidity was observed. The normal development and welfare of infected fish decrease and the condition factor, the haematocrit and the haemoglobin concentration in blood decreases significantly with the increase of nodules abundance.

  15. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host’s demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ13CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ13C) between cockroach (δ13CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ13CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using 13C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ13CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  16. Comportamiento reproductivo y mutilaciones en el cangrejo de las rocas Grapsus grapsus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea, Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Romero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza información de las mudas y observaciones del comportamiento reproductivo de G. grapsus, relacionando las frecuencias de mutilaciones y el comportamiento caní- bal observado en las cópulas. Las colectas de mudas y observaciones sobre las cópulas se llevaron a cabo entre diciembre de 1990 y diciembre de 2001, en 200 m de una orilla rocosa al sur de la Bahía de Ancón, Lima, Perú. G. grapsus vive en grupos de número variable y asociados a grietas donde los individuos buscan refugio. El comportamiento de cortejo observado fue el de "búsqueda-intercepción" he incluyó diferencias como la defensa de territorios no temporales, largas persecusiones e intercepción por varios machos. Un total de 312 cópulas fueron observadas siendo más frecuentes durante el verano. Un total de once intentos de cópula produjeron la muerte de los individuos, siete fueron machos. En todo el periodo de estudio se colectaron un total de 8421 mudas de las cuales 418 presentaban mutilaciones o heridas en el cefalotórax o abdomen. No se observan diferencias significativas entre las tallas de mutilados de ambos sexos. El 73% de las mudas mutiladas presentan una sola mutilación, el 20% presentan dos mutilaciones y el 6% tres; se encontraron mudas hasta con siete apéndices mutilados. Las frecuencias de mutilaciones son significativamente mayores en machos. Las mutilaciones de las quelas y la segunda pata caminadora son más frecuentes en machos, mientras que en las hembras las mutilaciones de la cuarta y tercera pata caminadora son más frecuentes. Se propone que las mutilaciones se producen durante los intentos de cópula, principalmente por diferencias entre el tamaño de los individuos.

  17. Intestinal alterations in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to microplastics: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedà, Cristina; Caccamo, Letteria; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Gai, Francesco; Andaloro, Franco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Perdichizzi, Anna; Romeo, Teresa; Maricchiolo, Giulia

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates, for the first time, the intestinal responses of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax chronically exposed to microplastics through ingestion. Fish (n = 162) were fed with 3 different treatment diets for 90 days: control, native polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polluted polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pellets. Intestines were fixed and processed for histological analysis using standard techniques. Histopathological alterations were examined using a score value (from 0 to 4). The distal part of intestine in all samples proved to be the most affected by pathological alterations, showing a gradual change varying from moderate to severe related to exposure times. The histological picture that characterizes both groups especially after 90 days of exposure, suggests that the intestinal functions can be in some cases totally compromised. The worst condition is increasingly evident in the distal intestine of fish fed with polluted PVC pellets respect to control groups (p < 0.05) to different exposure times. These first results underline the need to assess the impact of increasing microplastics pollution on the marine trophic web. PMID:26851981

  18. Cultivation of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 in low salinity inland brackish geothermal water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Appelbaum

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the course of attempting to culture gilthead sea bream in inland brackish geothermal water, indoor and outdoor research studies have been ongoing from early 2006 at the "Bengis Centre for Desert Aquaculture" of the Institutes for Desert Research in Israel, some of which are described below. Gilthead sea bream fingerlings with an average weight of 19 g were acclimated to and reared for 56 days in brackish water of three salinities: 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 ppt collected from three different locations. At the salinity of 3.5 ppt the fish grew best (P Artemia nauplii plus larval dry feed and were grown in brackish water of 2.6 ppt salinity for 8 weeks reaching a weight gain of 92% at a survival rate of 83%. The control groups at sea water (39 ppt reached at the same time a weight gain of 95% at a survival rate of 98%. In a further study gilthead sea bream juveniles with an average weight of 2.24 g were reared in brackish water with a salinity of 3.6 ppt for 8 weeks and received salt added diets of 4% and 6%. Compared with the control diet with no salt added, both salt rich diets significantly improved the fingerlings growth and survival rates as well as the feed conversion ratio. The 6% salt rich diet promoted fish weight gain by 560% which was the best performance (P <0.05 followed by 448% weight gain with the 4% salt rich diet while the lowest performance with a weight gain of only 360% was obtained with the control (no salt added diet. The next study with higher levels of salt added diets showed that gilthead sea bream post larvae with an average weight of 0.58 g reared in brackish geothermal water of 2.9 ppt salinity for 10 weeks grew best (P < 0.05 obtaining a weight gain of 778% with the highest survival rate of 88% when fed a diet containing 12% salt. In the studies with the salt rich diets, the salt incorporated was obtained by the evaporation of brine produced during the process of desalination of the brackish geothermal water from the same well supplying the fish rearing water. Worth mentioning at this point is that sea bream, after the termination of the experiments, were further kept for several months in the same brackish water showing further growth with no detrimental effects. The above mentioned research findings show conclusively the possibility of utilizing inland brackish water for culturing gilthead sea bream as an additional alternative to traditional marine farming. This is not surprising, considering the biology of the euryhaline gilthead sea bream, the juvenile of which appears at some stage in their life cycle in low salinity lagoons and river estuaries.

  19. Geographic variation in the morphology of Macrovipera lebetina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Ophidia: Viperidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeim Moradi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Levantine viper, Macrovipera lebetina, has an extensive geographical range being distributed in central Asia and the Middle East. The species exhibits high levels of polymorphism, especially in colouration and pattern. Recent studies revealed significant morphological differences between the two subspecies from northeastern and western portions of Iran. However, considering limited geographic samplings, taxonomic status of Iranian Macrovipera are controversial. In this study, uni- and multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyze geographic variation in 31 morphological characters measured in 117 specimens of Macrovipera lebetina covering its entire range in Iran. Sexual dimorphism was obvious in number of scales across the head and subcaudals. Univariate analyses detected substantial geographic variation in several meristic characters. Pholidosis exhibits a general north-south pattern of variation and most scale counts averaged higher in southern regions. Colouration displayed a pattern of strong clinal variation among three broad areas consisting of the combined western and northwestern, northeastern, and southern highland regions. Also, morphometric characters exhibited a general north-south pattern of geographic variation and some characters averaged lower in southern regions. Populations from the southern regions remained clearly distinct in Principal Component, Cluster and Discriminant analyses. In the light of these differences, it is concluded that the southern Iranian populations should not be identified as belonging to Macrovipera lebetina obtusa (Dwigubsky, 1832, which occurs in northwestern and western regions of the Iranian Plateau.

  20. A contribution to the intraspecific systematics of Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de L.

    1973-01-01

    A biometrical analysis of preserved specimens of Bufo bufo, supplemented by a detailed examination of the shape of the skin warts, was performed in order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the form described as B.b.spinosus. Indications of a N.-S. clinal variation in the formation of wart thorns a

  1. Preparation and characterization of a Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussel reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of certified reference materials in chemical analysis is an important requirement in quality assurance systems, as it allows the validation of analytical methods and the realization of the metrological traceability of results. Then, it is possible to obtain valid and comparable results not only in space, but also in time. In this study, all the steps for the preparation of a national mussel reference material were attained, from the collection of the bulk material to processing steps such as freeze-drying, grinding, bottling and sterilization. Internationally accepted principles were applied for the homogeneity and stability assessment of the material, using instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry as analytical techniques. By means of a collaborative program with participation of Brazilian and foreign laboratories, the chemical characterization of the material was performed. Element content in the mass percentage to mg kg-1 range was determined for 47 elements and some radionuclides, naturally present in the material. With the application of suitable statistical treatment to the data, it was considered that the content of 11 of those elements may be certified: As, Ca, Cl, Co, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se, Th and Zn. This study may be considered an important step in the national metrological development, as it shows that the production and characterization of biological reference materials, mussel in particular, is feasible in Brazil, as a tool for quality assurance of environmental and nutritional studies performed in the country. (author)

  2. Macroscopic description of the external and middle ear of paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766)

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro L. Martins; Ijanete Almeida-Silva; Maria Rossato; Adriana A.B. Murashima; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Marcia R.F. Machado

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Paca (Cuniculus paca), one of the largest rodents of the Brazilian fauna, has inherent characteristics of its species which can conribute as a new option for animal experimantation. As there is a growing demand for suitable experimental models in audiologic and otologic surgical research, the gross anatomy and ultrastructural ear of this rodent have been analyzed and described in detail. Fifteen adult pacas from the Wild Animals Sector herd of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veteri...

  3. Macroscopic description of the external and middle ear of paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro L. Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Paca (Cuniculus paca, one of the largest rodents of the Brazilian fauna, has inherent characteristics of its species which can conribute as a new option for animal experimantation. As there is a growing demand for suitable experimental models in audiologic and otologic surgical research, the gross anatomy and ultrastructural ear of this rodent have been analyzed and described in detail. Fifteen adult pacas from the Wild Animals Sector herd of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp-Jaboticabal, were used in this study. After anesthesia and euthanasia, we evaluated the entire composition of the external ear, registering and ddescribing the details; the temporal region was often dissected for a better view and detailing of the tympanic bulla which was removed and opened to expose the ear structures analyzed mascroscopically and ultrastructurally. The ear pinna has a triangular and concave shape with irregular ridges and sharp apex. The external auditory canal is winding in its path to the tympanic mebrane. The tympanic bulla is is on the back-bottom of the skull. The middle ear is formed by a cavity region filled with bone and membranous structures bounded by the tympanic membrane and the oval and round windows. The tympanic membrane is flat and seals the ear canal. The anatomy of the paca ear is similar to the guinea pig and from the viewpoint of experimental model has major advantages compared with the mouse ear.

  4. Dieta de Leptodactylus ocellatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Anura:Leptodactylidae en un humedal del oeste de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Sanabria

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo estudia la dieta de una población de Leptodactylus ocellatus de los Humedales de Zonda, San Juan, al oeste de Argentina. Se analizaron 35 estómagos, las presas fueron clasificadas y los individuos se midieron en ancho y largo para calcular su volumen con la fórmula de la esfera elipsoide; además, se estimó la frecuencia de ocurrencia y abundancia. Se calcularon índices de diversidad, de similitud, amplitud de nicho e importancia relativa (IRI. Los presas mas importantes fueron: Hymenoptera, Anura, Coleoptera. Las presas con mayor porcentaje de presencia fueron los Hymenoptera Formicidae que representaron el 22,4%. No se encontró una relación significativa entre el ancho de la boca del depredador y el tamaño medio de la presa. La dieta observada en ambos sexos resultó similar.

  5. Effect of feeding frequency and various shelter of blue swimming crab larvae, Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vutthichai Oniam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to improve blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, rearing techniques by investigating (1 the applied frequency of feeding and (2 the effect of shelter on crab larvae survival. The results showed that the feeding frequency at 2 times (0900 hrs and 1500 hrs, 4 times (0700 hrs, 1300 hrs, 1900 hrs and 2300 hrs and 6 times (0700 hrs, 1100 hrs, 1500 hrs, 1900 hrs, 2300 hrs and 0300 hrs per day did not affect the survival rate of crab larvae from the zoea I (Z1 to first crab (C1 stages. The survival rate of crab larvae from the megalopa (M to C1 stages with shelter was higher than without shelter, and the type of shelter affected the survival rate of the crab larvae. The survival rate of the C1 stage with artificial seaweed made of plastic shield membrane (36.61±3.64% and artificial seaweed made of polyvinyl rope (35.79±6.04% as shelters were not significantly different and higher than for artificial plastic grass as shelter (22.18±4.00%. In addition, the survival rates of the C1 stage with vertical shelter, horizontal shelter and a combination of vertical and horizontal shelter on the bottom of the tank were not significantly different. This study recommends that crab larvae rearing with shelters is important for increasing the survival rate and that the type of shelter affected the survival rate of crab larvae.

  6. Intracapsular development and dispersal polymorphism in the predatory gastropod Ocenebra erinaceus (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

    2015-09-01

    Intraspecific polymorphism during development, such as poecilogony or dispersal polymorphism, has rarely been observed in the marine environment. The ecological advantages of this bet-hedging strategy, whereby the offspring from one species exhibit multiple developmental modes, include the potential for rapid colonization of new habitats while simultaneously achieving a degree of gene flow between populations. The muricid gastropod, Ocenebra erinaceus, is a common, shallow-water marine predator found across England and France. Historically, O. erinaceus caused significant damage to shellfisheries, but more recently it has been impacted by TBT-induced imposex. Despite the previous attention given to this species, little is known about its encapsulated development. Studying O. erinaceus egg capsules from the Solent, UK, we describe intracapsular development at 15 °C, the in situ temperature at time of oviposition. Within each capsule, all embryos developed; no nurse eggs were present. Development was categorized into eight ontogenetic stages, although not all individuals displayed every stage; embryos hatched as either swimming late-pediveliger larvae or crawling juveniles after 59-69 days, indicating dispersal polymorphism to occur in this species. Swimming late-pediveliger larvae completed metamorphosis within 72 h of hatching. As O. erinaceus continues to recover from TBT pollution, dispersal polymorphism may facilitate a rapid expansion in both population size and range. If this occurs, O. erinaceus has the potential to, once again, become a serious problem for shellfisheries around Europe.

  7. The recent population expansion of boarfish, Capros aper (Linnaeus, 1758): Interactions of climate, growth and recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coad, Julie Olivia; Hüssy, Karin; Farrell, E.D.; Clarke, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    main fishing grounds south of Ireland. No significant differences in length-at-age were observed between the two areas. Interannual otolith growth patterns were similar between the two areas with distinct years of faster and slower growth. In the 'north', no significant relationship between adult...

  8. External Morphology of Adult Citrus Butterfly, Papilio memnon (Linnaeus, 1758) and Seasonal Abundance of the Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexual dimorphism is obvious in Papilio memnon. The female adult resembles that of Papilio polytes another citrus butterfly species. However, marked difference is observed in the size and red spots on the base of the forewing. The adult male P. memnon is blue black in colour and red spots are present on the base of the underside of both for and hind wings. The win span of sexes ranges from 120mm to 150mm. The breeding season is from end of June to early part of January, the peak being in the month of November. The recorded diagnostic external features of this studied species are described supported by scaled photographs. Seasonal abundance of this species is also mentioned. It is learnt through the internet that a mounted specimen of this species fetched $2.95 in Malaysia. It is therefore concluded that successful rearing of this species in captivity could be of benefit to the country.

  9. Ultraestructura de esporofitos jovenes de Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus C. Agardh (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Córdova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el desarrollo anatómico de esporofitos jóvenes de Macrocystis pyrifera obtenidos a partir de cigotos en cultivos de laboratorio. Los talos eran monostromáticos luego de dos semanas de crecimiento y las células eran similares entre sí, fotosintéticas y conectadas por campos de puntuación primarios. A las cinco semanas, los talos eran poliestromáticos y estaban diferenciados internamente en meristodermo, corteza y médula. Filamentos cribosos longitudinales aparecieron en la médula, desarrollándose de la corteza interna y rodeados por una matriz intercelular. Cada elemento criboso presentaba un núcleo, cloroplastos y varios plasmodesmos, los cuales estaban distribuidos más o menos al azar en paredes transversales o agrupados en campos de puntuación primarios en paredes longitudinales. Luego de nueve semanas, los talos eran más gruesos y estaban diferenciados morfológicamente en una lámina, estípite y grampón rizoidal. Además de los filamentos cribosos, aparecieron filamentos menores o «hifas» en la médula. Se discute el desarrollo del esporofito joven y la relación de nuestras observaciones con estudios en otras algas pardas.

  10. First report of Filaria martis Gmelin, 1790 in the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André, Adrien; Urra Maya, Fermín; Giralda Carrera, Gloria; Fournier, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The riparian European mink (Mustela lutreola), currently surviving in only three unconnected sites in Europe, is now listed as a critically endangered species according to the IUCN. Habitat loss and degradation, anthropic mortality, interaction with the feral American mink (Neovison vison), and infectious diseases are among the principal causes of its decline. Surveys of helminth parasites of this host that also include focus on subcutaneous potentially pathogenic helminths such as those belonging to the genus Filaria are very scarce. We report here the presence of specimens of Filaria martis in the subcutaneous connective tissues of three M. lutreola individuals from Spain. This is the first finding of a subcutaneous nematode in a representative of the genus Mustela. The report also enlarges the known range of the definitive hosts of this nematode. These worms were mainly located in the dorsal region of mink and more rarely in the knees, elbows, and hips. Skin sloughing was only observed in one M. lutreola with both septicaemia and an associated high burden of F. martis. Therefore, more attention should be paid to potentially pathogenic helminths when designing conservation programs dedicated to M. lutreola. PMID:27008189

  11. A Study on Mustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1766 (Mammalia: Carnivora) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Ercüment; YİĞİT, Nuri; Sözen, Mustafa

    1999-01-01

    In this study, five specimens of Mustela nivalis collected from five localities in Turkey were examined based on karyological, morphological, bacular and some ecological aspects. The karyotype of M. nivalis has 2n=42, NFa=72 and FN=76. The baculum seems to be similar to that of specimens of M. nivalis dinniki from Erivan (Armenia).

  12. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivatedArtemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alberto Martínez-Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthiumbased on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs. The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11 against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9. The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.

  13. POSSIBILITIES OF EXTRACTION AND CULTURE OF RED CORAL (Corallium rubrum, Linnaeus, 1758) IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Petar Kružić; Emi Teskeredžić

    2002-01-01

    The historical and religious significances of the red corals are presented in the paper. Its biology and physiology are described in details. The possibility of the controlled culture is shown as well as the needs of further development. To get some answers on many unknowns of biology, physiology and pathology of this very interesting organism, the basic trends of the scientific investigations are presented. Obtained data point at the careful exploitation of this natural resources.

  14. POSSIBILITIES OF EXTRACTION AND CULTURE OF RED CORAL (Corallium rubrum, Linnaeus, 1758 IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kružić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical and religious significances of the red corals are presented in the paper. Its biology and physiology are described in details. The possibility of the controlled culture is shown as well as the needs of further development. To get some answers on many unknowns of biology, physiology and pathology of this very interesting organism, the basic trends of the scientific investigations are presented. Obtained data point at the careful exploitation of this natural resources.

  15. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST, Gene Ontology (GO, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species.

  16. Two new species of the genus Cobitis linnaeus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongxia; Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Na; Chen, Yifeng

    2015-10-01

    Two new species of the genus Cobitis from southern China, C. hereromacula from the Luohe River in Guangdong Province and C. baishagensis from the Nandujiang River in Hainan Province, are described and illustrated here. C. hereromacula can be distinguished from its congeners by possessing the following combination of characteristics: absence of the second and third pigmentary zones of Gambetta; 13-16 oval blotches on the dorsum and 10-13 vertical, elongated triangular blotches below the midlateral line with more than 20 vertical dark brown bars between them; 6-7 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical oval spot smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; pointed mental lobes of the lower lip pointed with a slightly filiform tip; one slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the base of the first branched ray of the male pectoral fins. C. baishagensis can be distinguished from its congeners by the fourth Gambetta zone being covered by 10-12 transverse elongated blotches; 4-5 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical blotch smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; males with a slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the second branched pectoral fin ray in males; large scales with a slightly large focal zone; undeveloped mental lobes with a lower lip that does not end posteriorly in a filiform tip.

  17. Manganese effects on haematopoietic cells and circulating coelomocytes of Asterias rubens (Linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese (Mn) is a naturally abundant metal in marine sediments where it mainly occurs as MnO2. During hypoxic conditions it is converted into a bioavailable state, Mn2+, and can reach levels that previously have shown effects on immune competent cells of the crustacean, Nephrops norvegicus. Here we investigated if Mn also affects circulating coelomocytes and their renewal in the common sea star, Asterias rubens, when exposed to concentrations of Mn that can be found in nature. When the sea stars were exposed to Mn it accumulated in the coelomic fluid and the number of circulating coelomocytes, in contrast to what was recorded in Nephrops, increased significantly. By using the substitute nucleotide, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU, for tracing cell division and by recording mitotic index by nuclei staining, we found that Mn induced proliferation of cells from a putative haematopoietic tissue, the coelomic epithelium. In addition, the haematopoietic tissue and coelomocytes showed stress response in terms of changes in HSP70 levels and protein carbonyls, as judged by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Measurement of dehydrogenase activity, using MTS/PMS, revealed that Mn showed cytotoxic properties. We also found that the phagocytotic capacity of coelomocytes was significantly inhibited by Mn. It was concluded that the exposure of A. rubens to Mn induced renewal of coelomocytes and impaired their immune response

  18. Manganese effects on haematopoietic cells and circulating coelomocytes of Asterias rubens (Linnaeus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oweson, Carolina; Skoeld, Helen [Department of Marine Ecology, Goeteborg University, Kristineberg 566, 45034 Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden); Pinsino, Annalisa; Matranga, Valeria [Istituto di Biomedicina e Immunologia Molecolare ' A. Monroy' , Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Hernroth, Bodil [The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Kristineberg 566, 45034 Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden)], E-mail: bodil.hernroth@marecol.gu.se

    2008-08-29

    Manganese (Mn) is a naturally abundant metal in marine sediments where it mainly occurs as MnO{sub 2}. During hypoxic conditions it is converted into a bioavailable state, Mn{sup 2+}, and can reach levels that previously have shown effects on immune competent cells of the crustacean, Nephrops norvegicus. Here we investigated if Mn also affects circulating coelomocytes and their renewal in the common sea star, Asterias rubens, when exposed to concentrations of Mn that can be found in nature. When the sea stars were exposed to Mn it accumulated in the coelomic fluid and the number of circulating coelomocytes, in contrast to what was recorded in Nephrops, increased significantly. By using the substitute nucleotide, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU, for tracing cell division and by recording mitotic index by nuclei staining, we found that Mn induced proliferation of cells from a putative haematopoietic tissue, the coelomic epithelium. In addition, the haematopoietic tissue and coelomocytes showed stress response in terms of changes in HSP70 levels and protein carbonyls, as judged by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Measurement of dehydrogenase activity, using MTS/PMS, revealed that Mn showed cytotoxic properties. We also found that the phagocytotic capacity of coelomocytes was significantly inhibited by Mn. It was concluded that the exposure of A. rubens to Mn induced renewal of coelomocytes and impaired their immune response.

  19. Effect of gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) [Lep., Pyralidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a lepidoptera insect; its larval stage, feeds on wax and pollen stored in combs of active honey bee colonies (Milam, 1970). It does not attack adult bees but destructs combs of a weak colony by chewing the comb; spinning silk-lined tunnels through the cell wall and over the face of the comb, which prevent the bees to emerge by their abdomen from their cell, so they die by starvation as they unable to escape from their cell. They also eat out a place to spin their cocoons in the soft wood of the bee hive. Galleria mellonella can also destroy stored honey combs. Therefore, it is considered a major pest of the honeybee. Damage will vary with the level of infestation and the time that has elapsed since the infestation first began. In time, stored combs may be completely destroyed and the frames and combs become filled with a mass of tough, silky web. In ideal conditions for wax moth development, a box (super) of combs may be rendered useless in about a week. Damage occurs mainly in the warm and hot months of the year when wax moths are most active. However, considerable damage can still occur during the cool part of late autumn and early spring as greater wax moth can produce a large amount of metabolic heat which can raise the immediate temperature around them by up to 25 degree C above the normal environment temperature. At the time of storage, combs that are apparently free of wax moth may contain eggs that will hatch later. They should be monitored

  20. Evolutionary divergence of geographic subspecies within the scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus 1758.

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    Shane D Lavery

    Full Text Available Panulirus homarus is an economically important spiny lobster that is widespread through the Indo-West Pacific Region, but has an uncertain taxonomic status, with three or four geographic subspecies having been described. This study used mitochondrial (16S, COI and control region and nuclear (18S, ITS-1 DNA sequences to examine specimens of all putative subspecies and forms from throughout their range, in order to determine their genetic validity, and understand the evolutionary history of this species. Despite the range of diversity present in the loci examined, the results were consistent across genes. P. h. rubellus from the SW Indian Ocean comprised the most divergent lineage that was reciprocally monophyletic with respect to all other P. homarus (approx. 9% divergence in COI, and has likely evolved reproductive barriers. The putative P. h. "Brown" subspecies from the Marquesas Is in the central Pacific also comprised a somewhat divergent monophyletic lineage (approx. 3% in COI, but may simply be an allopatric population. The widespread P. h. homarus was not diverged at all from the described P. h. megasculpta from the NW Indian Ocean. The degree of evolutionary divergence of populations at the extremes distribution of the species is somewhat surprising, given the long pelagic larval stage, but suggests that allopatric speciation has been an important driver in the evolution of the genus.

  1. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Forneris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by H. irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of H. irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes. In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of H. irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B. All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination.

  2. Sperm ultrastructure of the European hornet Vespa crabro (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Karina; Lino-Neto, José; Dolder, Heidi; Dallai, Romano

    2009-01-01

    This study represents the first sperm description of a Vespinae species (Vespa crabro). The acrosome consists of an acrosomal vesicle and a perforatorium. The nucleus has compact chromatin and shows lenticular structures on the nuclear envelope. These structures, which have never been observed in a hymenopteran sperm, could be clusters of nuclear pores. The centriolar adjunct has an asymmetric pattern and shows a structured periphery. The centriole consists of 9 accessory microtubules and 9 doublet microtubules devoid of arms and spokes. The axoneme has a 9+9+2 microtubule pattern and the accessory microtubules have 16 protofilaments. The mitochondrial derivatives differ in length and diameter. The larger one is adjacent to the nuclear base, while the smaller one begins below the centriolar adjunct. They possess three distinct areas and a large paracrystalline region, which occurs only in the large one. The large mitochondrial derivative ends first, followed by the small one. The axoneme gradually disorganizes: first the central microtubules disappear, then the doublets, which show opened B-tubules, and finally the accessory microtubules. The sperm morphology of V. crabro is very similar to that of the polistine wasp, Agelaia vicina. This can indicate that, in Vespidae, sperm morphology is maintained without important variations among subfamilies and/or that this similarity indicates close phylogenetic relationship between these two subfamilies. Although Vespidae phylogenetically related to Formicidae, these data suggest that the former more closely related to Apoidea than to Formicidae. PMID:18675936

  3. Population Biology of Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus (Echinodermata in Seagrass Beds of Southern Guimaras, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Militar Regalado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla is a major grazer found in seagrass beds of southern Guimaras, Philippines. Monthly length-frequency data from January 2008 to June 2009 were used to estimate the growth, recruitment pattern and mortality rate with the use of FiSAT II. The estimated values for the Von Bertalanffy growth parameters L(n/k(asymptotic length and K (growth coefficient were 114.2 mm and 1.08 respectively. Monthly densities ranged from 0.06 to 0.58 per m² with a mean value of 0.26 per m². Monthly biomass ranged from 4.1 to 49.5 grams per m² with a mean value of 21.15 grams per m². T. gratilla density and biomass were observed to be highest during the month of November 2008. The recruitment pattern showed a major broad peak and a minor peak separated by four months. Total mortality (Z from the length-converted catch curve was computed to be 4.74 per year.

  4. On the fecundity of the bogue Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Turkish Aegean Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burcu Taylan; Bahar Bayhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the fecundity of Boops boops (B. boops) from Aegean Sea coast of Turkey. Methods: A total of 470 specimens of B. boops were collected monthly from November in 2008 to October of 2009 in Izmir Bay (central Aegean Sea). Total length and total weight of each fish were measured and the maturity stages of gonads were determined. About 30 mature ovariums were taken to determine fecundity and oocysts were counted by using gravimetric method. Results: About 210 were females (44.7%) and 226 males (48.1%) while 34 (7.2%) were hermafrodite in terms of sexuality with sex ratio (female: male) of 0.93:1.00. The fecundity of the bogue was assessed by the gravimetric method with 30 ovaries from females between the total length of 19.6 and 27.6 cm [(mean: 23.5 ± 2.1) cm]. Estimates of total fecundity varied between 33072 and 66123 oocytes (mean: 49008 ± 8826) and fecundity–total length, fecundity–weight relationships were expressed as :F = 8207.6e0.075TL, F = 30297e0.003TW respectively. Conclusions: The results of the study will contribute to the reproductive biology of B. boops and will be useful for management of fisheries.

  5. Aspects of the reproductive biology of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1857) in Bonny Estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Sikoki, F.D.; Hart, S.A.; A.I. Hart; Adeleye-Wokoma, I.P.

    2001-01-01

    Aspects of the reproductive biology of Mugil cephalus in the Bonny estuary (Nigeria) were studied between January and December 1996. Males were observed to be more slender than females while the females have deeper bodies. The male:female ratio (1:0:95) was not significantly different. The minimum size at maturity was 16.6cm (0.5 yr). Fish matured at 24.3cm TL(1.76 yr) with median maturity size of 19.5cm TL(0.71 yr). Median maturity for male and female fish were 16.4cm TL(0.41 yr) and 18.2cm ...

  6. A non-proteinaceous toxin from the venomous spines of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M S; Cheung, P; Leong, I; Ruggieri, G D

    1985-01-01

    The venomous spines of P. volitans contain a non-proteinaceous ichthyotoxin of low molecular weight. This toxin could be isolated only from spines excised from the living fish; the toxin is apparently destroyed following death, as the extracts of the spines of the dead fish were non-toxic. PMID:4024148

  7. Lionfish, Pterois volitans Linnaeus 1758, the complete mitochondrial DNA of an invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Vargas-Peralta, Carmen E; Machkour-M'Rabet, Salima; Hénaut, Yann; García-De-León, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterois volitans, native from the Indo-Pacific, has been found in Atlantic and Caribbean waters and is considered as an invasive species. Here we sequence its mitogenome (Genbank accession number KJ739816), which has a total length of 16,500 bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA similar to other Pteroinae subfamily (family Scorpaenidae). This mitogenome will be useful for phylogenetic and population genetic studies of this invasive species. PMID:25187501

  8. Toxoplasmosis Silvestre: relación presa-predador y papel funcional de pequeños felinos silvestres neotropicales en la transmisión -resumen-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Cañón-Franco

    2014-12-01

    el impacto de variables biológicas de las especies predadas (edad‚ sexo‚ peso y dieta y de variables ecológicas (uso vertical y horizontal del espacio‚ densidad de la especie‚ tiempo de vida y distribución en el bioma en la toxoplasmosis silvestre en tres diferentes biomas del estado de Mato Grosso (Brasil. Actualmente‚ están siendo analizados tejidos de roedores (géneros Necromys‚ Oecomys‚ Oligoryzomys‚ Oryzomys‚ Oxymycterus‚ Proechimys‚ Calomys‚ Cavia‚ Holochilus‚ Necromys‚ Oecomys‚ marsupiales (géneros Philander‚ Didelphis‚ Marmosa‚ Marmosops‚ Metachirus‚ Micoureus‚ Monodidelphis y de otros mamíferos silvestres de la región (Familia Felidae‚ Canidae‚ Myrmecophagidae‚ Cebidae‚ Dasypodidae‚ Mustelidae. Los resultados parciales de la investigación demuestran la circulación de Toxoplasma entre carnívoros (Cerdocyon thous y primates (Sapajus sp‚ con resultados negativos para las demás especies en estudio‚ indicando que otros niveles biológicos participan en la transmisión.

  9. Danos qualitativos e quantitativos de Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae em mudas de Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae1 Qualitative and quantitative damage by Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae on Pinus taeda Linnaeus seedlings (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheila R. M. Zaleski

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O pulgão-gigante-do-pinus, Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, é considerado atualmente uma das principais pragas dos reflorestamentos de pinus no Brasil. Como a informação sobre os danos causados por esta praga é restrita, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo caracterizar e quantificar os danos de C. atlantica em Pinus taeda. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram testados três níveis de infestação com densidades populacionais de zero (testemunha protegida com inseticida 10 ± 2, 20 ± 2 e 50 ± 2 afídeos por muda de P. taeda com idades de 90 e 150 dias. As mudas atacadas apresentaram redução no desenvolvimento, entortamento do fuste, superbrotação e presença abundante de fumagina devido ao desenvolvimento de fungo sobre o honeydew eliminado pelos afídeos. O diâmetro do colo diminuiu significativamente em 16,1% na densidade de 50 ± 2 afídeos/planta, nas mudas com 90 dias, quando comparado à testemunha. Nas mudas com 150 dias não houve diferença significativa no diâmetro do colo entre as parcelas infestadas e a testemunha. Houve uma redução de 24,4% na altura das mudas de 90 dias com a densidade de 50 ± 2 afídeos e 32,6% nas mudas de 150 dias, com intensidade de 20 ± 2 afídeos.The giant conifer aphid, Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, is one of the main insect pests on pine reforestation areas in Southern Brazil, nowadays. Since there is very few information about its damage, the objective of this study was to characterize and quantify the damage of C. atlantica on Pinus taeda. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, using a random design, with three infestation levels: 0 (control, 10 ± 2, 20 ± 2 and 50 ± 2 aphids on each P. taeda seedling of 90 and 150 days old, with 20 replicates/treatment. The main damage observed were stunting, twisting, oversprouting and large amount of sooty mold on honeydew. The basal diameter was significantly reduced by 16.1% under 50 ± 2 aphids/plant of 90 days compared to the control. For the 150 days old seedlings, there was no statistical difference between the infestation levels. The plant height reduction was of 24.4% for the 90 days old plants with 50 ± 2 aphids and 32.6% for the 150 days old with 20 ± 2 aphids.

  10. Desenvolvimento de juvenis de lambari Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, sob diferentes densidades de estocagem em tanques-rede Development of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758 juveniles at different stocking densities in net ponds

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    Carmino Hayashi

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da densidade de estocagem sobre o desenvolvimento de juvenis de lambari (Astyanax bimaculatus, em tanques-rede, em sua fase inicial. Foram utilizados 300 peixes, com peso vivo inicial médio com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Foram utilizadas as densidades de 31, 62, 93 e 124 peixes/m3 . Os parâmetros físico-químicos foram tomados a cada três dias. Observou-se efeito quadrático (p 3 proporciona indivíduos maiores; não obstante podem-se utilizar 124 peixes/m3 no cultivo de juvenis de lambari em tanques-rede, resultando em maior biomassa total, apesar de resultarem indivíduos menoresThe influence of stocking density on the development of juveniles at the initial phase in experimental net ponds is analyzed. Three hundred individuals with 0.50 to 0.02g mean initial live weight were distributed into a totally randomized design with four treatments and six repetitions. The density rates of 31, 62, 93 and 124 animals/m3 were used. The physical and chemical parameters were verified every three days. Although a quadratic effect (p 3 is the most efficient for their development. On the other hand, the rate of 124 individuals/m3 for the breeding of juveniles in net ponds is also practicable, though resulting in smaller individuals

  11. Primer registro de corvineta ocelada Sciaenops ocellatus Linnaeus 1766 (Perciformes: Sciaenidae en Campeche, México First record of Red Drum Sciaenops ocellatus Linnaeus 1766 (Perciformes: Sciaenidae in Campeche, Mexico

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    Armando T. Wakida-Kusunoki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta la presencia de Sciaenops ocellatus en Campeche, México en las capturas de pescadores artesanales en Isla Arena, en la ciudad de Campeche y en Champotón. La posible fuente de introducción es atribuida a escapes de especímenes de jaulas de cultivo en zonas cercanas a Seybaplaya e Isla Arena. Es necesario realizar más investigación para estimar los impactos ecológicos de esta especie exótica en la zona.The presence of Sciaenops ocellatus in Campeche Me xico, in catches of small scale fishermen in Isla Arena, Campeche City and Champoton is reported. The probable source of this introduction is attributed to escape of specimens from aquaculture floating cages located in nearby of Seybaplaya and Isla Arena, Campeche. Further research is required to assess the ecological impacts of this exotic species in the zone.

  12. Bioquímica plasmática de cascavéis (Caudisona durissa LINNAEUS, 1758 em cativeiro Blood biochemical parameters from captivity rattlesnake (Caudisona durissa LINNAEUS, 1758

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    Wellington Bandeira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acidentes com seres humanos envolvendo a espécie Caudisona durissa possuem a mais alta taxa de letalidade dentre os viperídeos brasileiros. Ressalta-se então a importância para a saúde pública da criação dessa espécie em cativeiro para produção de soro antiofídico. No entanto, essa atividade ainda hoje encontra alguns desafios como a instalação de doenças no plantel, evidenciando a importância de estudos sobre a fisiologia de serpentes. Dessa forma, foram realizadas análises de bioquímica plasmática em 53 serpentes da espécie Caudisona durissa, mantidas em cativeiro. Foram utilizadas amostras de plasma com heparina e as dosagens bioquímicas realizadas em aparelho automatizado (Ciba Corning - Express Plus®. Os resultados e seus respectivos desvios-padrões foram: uréia -1,32mg dL-1 (±1,1; ácido úrico - 2,08mg dL-1 (±1,4; creatinina - 0,52mg dL-1 (±0,2; proteína total - 3,7g dL-1 (±0,7; albumina - 1,62g dL-1 (±0,4; globulinas - 2,08g dL-1 (±0,5; cálcio - 15,25mg dL-1 (±2,8; fósforo - 4,61mg dL-1 (±1,9; colesterol - 171,58mg dL-1 (±52,7; triglicerídeos - 19,29mg dL-1 (±14,3; fosfatase alcalina - 31,04U L-1 (±12,4; aspartato aminotransferase (AST - 22,25U L-1 (±11,4; alanina aminotransferase (ALT - 7,11U L-1 (±5,4 e Amilase - 1385,23U L-1 (±568,7. Foram calculados os seguintes índices: relação uréia/creatinina - 2,5 e relação cálcio/fósforo - 3,3. O conjunto de resultados das análises bioquímicas do sangue das cascavéis em cativeiro pode servir como referência para apoio diagnóstico na espécie estudada e para outros trabalhos com o mesmo caráter de observação.Human accidents involving rattlesnake Caudisona durissa have the highest fatality rate among the Brazilian Viperidae family. Breeding this specie in captivity in order to produce antivenoms is very important to public health. Nevertheless, there are some challenges that this activity must face, like the onset of diseases on the breeding stock, justifying the importance of studying these snakes' physiology. Blood biochemical analysis of 53 Caudisona durissa was performed using plasma samples in an automated equipment (Ciba Corning - Express Plus®. Mean values and its respective Standard deviations are: blood urea nitrogen (BUN -1.32mg dL-1 (±1.1; uric acid - 2.08mg dL-1 (±1.4; creatinine - 0.52mg dL-1 (±0.2; total protein - 3.7g dL-1 (±0.7; albumin - 1.62g dL-1 (±0.4; globulins - 2.08g dL-1 (±0.5; calcium - 15.25mg dL-1 (±2.8; phosphorus - 4.61mg dL-1 (±1.9; cholesterol - 171.58mg dL-1 (±52.7; triglycerides - 19.29mg dL-1 (±14.3; alkaline phosfatase - 31.04U L-1 (±12.4; aspartate aminotransferase (AST - 22.25U L-1 (±11.4; alanin aminotransferase (ALT 7.11U L-1 (±5.4; amylases - 1385.23U L-1 (±568.7. The following indexes were calculated: BUN/creatinine ratio - 2.5 and calcium/phosphorus ratio -3.3. Rattlesnake blood biochemical results above could be used as reference in clinical evaluation for captivity C. durissa.

  13. Hemi-ovariossalpingohisterectomia em pacas prenhes e posterior ocorrência de prenhez (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766 Hemiovarysalpingohysterectomy in pregnant pacas and further occurrency of pregnancy (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766

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    Fabrício Singaretti de Oliveira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi descrita a hemi-ovariossalpingohisterectomia em cinco pacas prenhes mantidas em cativeiro no Setor de Animais Silvestres da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV-UNESP de Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil, a fim de observar futura prenhez no corno restante. A tranqüilização foi obtida após aplicação de azaperone (4mg/kg seguida da aplicação de sulfato de atropina (0,06mg/kg e da associação de cloridrato de quetamina (20mg/kg e cloridrato de xilazina (1,5mg/kg, ambos na mesma seringa, para indução da anestesia. A anestesia geral foi obtida mediante inalação de halotano por máscara. Por meio de laparotomia mediana, foram retirados o corno uterino prenhe, o ovário e a tuba uterina, todos do mesmo antímero. Antibióticos (30.000UI/kg de três penicilinas e 12,5mg/kg de duas estreptomicinas e analgésico (0,02mg/kg de buprenorfina foram aplicados imediatamente após a cirurgia, sendo repetidos após dois dias. Todas as aplicações foram feitas por via intramuscular. Apesar da permanência de apenas um ovário após a cirurgia, nova prenhez ocorreu no corno restante nas cinco fêmeas submetidas à cirurgia, com o nascimento de filhotes (apenas um por parto após 215, 248, 276, 302 e 310 dias da hemi-ovariossalpingohisterectomia.The hemiovarysalpingohysterectomy in five captive pregnant pacas kept on the Wild Animal Section at the College of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences (FCAV-UNESP in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, was conducted aiming at verifying the further occurrence of pregnancy on the remaining uterine horn. The tranquilization was achieved by using azaperone (4mg/kg and consequent application of atropine sulphate (0.06mg/kg and the association of ketamine (20mg/kg and xylazine (1.5mg/kg cloridrates, on the same syringe, for induction of anesthesia. The general anesthesia was performed via a face mask with halothane. By means of median laparotomy, the uterine horn with the fetus, the ovary and the uterine tube, all from the same antimere, were taken out. Antibiotics (30,000IU/kg of three penicillins and 12.5mg/kg of two streptomycins and analgesic (buprenorfine 0.02 mg/kg were injected immediately after surgery and repeated after two days. All injections were made intramuscularly. In spite of the permanence of only one ovary after surgery, new pregnancy occurred in the remaining uterine horn in the five females which went through surgery, and the birth (solely one by delivery happened 210, 248, 276, 302 and 310 days after the hemiovarysalpingohysterectomy.

  14. Effect of zinc and benzene on respiration and excretion of mussel larvae (Perna perna) (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca; Bivalvia) Bioenergética de larvas de mexilhão (Perna perna) (Linnaeus, 1758)

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    RADLVC. Jorge; D. Lemos; GS. Moreira

    2007-01-01

    The presence of pollutants in the ocean may affect different physiological parameters of animals. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were evaluated in D-shaped larvae of mussels (Perna perna) exposed to zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) and benzene (C6H6). When compared to the control group, both pollutants presented a significant reduction in oxygen consumption. A reduction in the ammonia excretion was also observed, both for ZnSO4 and C6H6 and also in the oxygen consumption. The results indicate ...

  15. Patogenicidade de isolados de três fungos entomopatogênicos a soldados de Atta sexdens sexdens (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera : Formicidae Pathogenicity of isolates of three entomopathogenic fungi against soldiers of Atta sexdens sexdens (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera : Formicidae

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    Elisângela de Souza Loureiro

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available As formigas cortadeiras atacam diversas culturas agrícolas, pastagens e os reflorestamentos, atuando sobre muitas espécies vegetais. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade dos fungos Beauveria bassiana (isolados AM 9 e JAB 06, Metarhizium anisopliae (isolados E 9 e AL e Paecilomyces farinosus (isolados CG 189 e CG 195 a soldados de Atta sexdens sexdens, em condições de laboratório. Após a coleta em formigueiro isento de produtos fitossanitários, exemplares de soldados foram cuidadosamente separados em grupos de oito indivíduos e, a seguir, banhados em suspensões contendo 1,0 x 10(6, 1,0 x 10(7, 1,0 x 10(8 e 1,0 x 10(9 conídios/mL de cada isolado. Em seguida, cada grupo de formigas foi transferido para unidades de câmara úmida e mantido, sem alimentação, a 27 ± 1 ºC. A mortalidade foi verificada diariamente. Os três fungos se mostraram eficientes patógenos, pois provocaram alta mortalidade, matando mais que 80% dos soldados nos quatro primeiros dias após a inoculação. Os melhores isolados foram JAB 06 e AL, na concentração de 1,0 x 10(9 con./mL. Os isolados JAB 06, AL, CG 195 apresentaram maior capacidade de esporular nos cadáveres das formigas e os tempos letais decresceram com o aumento da concentração de conídios usada.Leaf-cutting ants attack several crops, pastures and the planted forests, acting on numerous vegetable species. The present work aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of the fungi Beauveria bassiana (isolates AM 9 and JAB 06, Metarhizium anisopliae (isolates E 9 and Al and Paecilomyces farinosus (isolates CG 189 and CG 195 against soldiers of Atta sexdens sexdens, in laboratory conditions. These fungi were inoculated on soldiers after collection in nests without pesticides application. Specimens of soldiers were separated in groups of eight insects, which were bathed in suspensions containing 1.0 x 10(6, 1.0 x 10(7, 1.0 x 10(8 and 1.0 x 10(9 conidia/ml. Following the bath, each group of ants was taken to moist chamber units, and maintained for a period of starvation under at 27 ± 1ºC. The mortality was updated on a daily basis. The three species of fungi were highly pathogenic to A. sexdens sexdens soldiers causing high mortality rates, above 80%, killing the ants in the first four days after inoculation. The bests isolates were JAB 06 and AL, at the concentration 1.0 x 10(9 con./ml. The isolates JAB 06, AL and CG 195 showed higher capacity of spore production on ant cadavers and there was a decrease in lethal time with the increase in the spore concentration used.

  16. Dieta del pez espada Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, en aguas oceánicas de Chile central en invierno de 2003 Diet of the swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 in oceanic waters off central Chile in winter 2003

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    Christian M Ibáñez; Carlos González; Luis Cubillos

    2004-01-01

    Se analiza la dieta del pez espada en tres zonas de pesca en aguas oceánicas de Chile central durante el invierno de 2003, considerando como hipótesis que el tamaño de las presas se incrementa significativamente con el tamaño del depredador, conjuntamente con una disminución del número de presas. El estudio se realizó sobre la base de 48 estómagos de Xiphias gladius con contenido estomacal. Para su análisis se utilizó los descriptores cuantitativos de frecuencia de ocurrencia y método numéric...

  17. Criadouros de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 em bromélias nativas na Cidade de Vitória, ES Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 breeding sites in native bromeliads in Vitória City, ES

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    José Benedito Malta Varejão

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns insetos transmissores de doenças procriam exclusivamente nas proximidades das residências. O Aedes aegypti, responsável por epidemias de dengue em cidades brasileiras, representa sério risco também para a febre amarela. Com o insucesso da campanha de erradicação do inseto, justifica-se a busca de criadouros fora do alcance das medidas de controle atualmente adotadas. Na Cidade de Vitória, ES, investigou-se a ocorrência de criadouros de Aedes aegypti na água coletada em bromélias nativas, sobre as rochas. Paralelamente, avaliou-se a infestação predial nas áreas urbanas contíguas. Em quatro das cinco áreas investigadas foram encontradas larvas de culicídeos nas bromélias, sendo que em duas foi identificado Aedes aegypti. A presença dos criadouros em bromélias não guardou relação com a infestação predial nas áreas próximas. Torna-se necessário definir se os criadouros em bromélias constituem focos primários do Aedes aegypti, ou se representam uma conseqüência da elevada infestação urbana.Some insects that are vectors of human diseases have accompanied man in his migrations throughout the world and breed exclusively in the proximity of human dwellings. The mosquito Aedes aegypti has been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Brazil and its presence also constitutes a serious risk for future outbreaks of urban yellow fever. The failure of campaigns to eradicate this species justifies the search for alternative breeding sites, which may be beyond the reach of present control measures. In this study the occurrence of Aedes aegypti breeding sites in native bromeliads on rocky slopes was investigated in five areas of Vitória, capital of the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo, ES. Water contained in the bromeliads was collected with the aid of a suction apparatus to search for culicid larvae. The degree of infestation of buildings in adjacent urban areas was evaluated simultaneously. Culicid larvae were found in bromeliads in four of the five areas investigated, Aedes aegypti being present in two areas. The presence of breeding sites in bromeliads was not related to indices of infestation of buildings in adjacent areas. Further studies are necessary to define whether breeding sites in bromeliads constitute primary foci of Aedes aegypti, or are a consequence of high infestation levels in urban areas.

  18. Habitat use and relative abundance of the Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Cuniculidae and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae in Guatopo National Park, Venezuela

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    Elinor Jax

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina are affected by habitat loss and hunting.  In Venezuela, their conservation status is unknown, even within protected areas.  The objective of this study was to estimate the relative abundance, activity patterns, habitat use, and effect of human activities on these species in Venezuela.  To achieve this, 26 camera-trap stations (20.8km2 were established in Guatopo National Park between February and April 2011, characterization of the habitat was undertaken and occupancy models were created.  The relative abundance of the Spotted Paca was 1.62 captures/100trap-nights, with a fully nocturnal activity pattern.  The relative abundance of the Red-rumped Agouti was 2.32 captures/100trap-nights, with a pronounced diurnal activity pattern. The occupation probability of the Red-rumped Agouti (0.61 SE 0.02 was higher than that of the Spotted Paca (0.27 SE 0.02. Spotted Pacas were mainly found in areas with mature forest and high tree density, whereas the  Red-rumped Agoutis were most frequently found in valleys with little disturbed forest.  A positive correlation was found between illegal hunting activities and areas occupied by the Spotted Paca.  It is important to strengthen the park control measurements to reduce illegal hunting of Spotted Pacas.

  19. Hemi-ovariossalpingohisterectomia em pacas prenhes e posterior ocorrência de prenhez (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766) Hemiovarysalpingohysterectomy in pregnant pacas and further occurrency of pregnancy (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766)

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    Fabrício Singaretti de Oliveira; Gilson Hélio Toniollo; Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado; Daniela Paura

    2003-01-01

    Foi descrita a hemi-ovariossalpingohisterectomia em cinco pacas prenhes mantidas em cativeiro no Setor de Animais Silvestres da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV-UNESP) de Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil, a fim de observar futura prenhez no corno restante. A tranqüilização foi obtida após aplicação de azaperone (4mg/kg) seguida da aplicação de sulfato de atropina (0,06mg/kg) e da associação de cloridrato de quetamina (20mg/kg) e cloridrato de xilazina (1,5mg/kg), ambos na mes...

  20. Human pseudomyiasis caused by Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae in Goiás Pseudomiíase humana causada por Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae em Goiás

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    Marco Tulio A. Garcia-Zapata

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to register the first proven cases of human pseudomyiasis due to Eristalis tenax in Goiás State, Brazil, underscoring their clinical manifestations and direct relationship with hygiene. The taxonomic identification of the instars was done according to the descriptions and keys presented by James (1947, Hartley (1961 and Guimarães & Papavero (1999. Two cases were observed. In both cases there was no evidence of apparent mental disturbance. The clinical picture of these cases was self limited. The water supply, sewer system, socioeconomic level and habits of the suspect species of the flies are criteria that should be investigated.O presente trabalho visa registrar os primeiros casos evidenciados de pseudomiíases humanos por Eristalis tenax no estado de Goiás, Brasil, destacando suas manifestações clínicas e suas relações diretas com os hábitos higiênicos. A identificação taxonômica das larvas foi realizada com base nas descrições e chaves apresentadas por James (1947, Hartley (1961 e Guimarães & Papavero (1999. Observaram-se dois casos. Em ambos não havia evidência de pertubações mentais claras. O quadro clínico de ambos os casos era mesmo limitado. O abastecimento de água, o nível sócio-econômico e o hábito das espécies das moscas são critérios que devem ser considerados na investigação.

  1. Do captive-born greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae remember antipredator training? Emas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae se lembram do treinamento anti-predação?

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    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The antipredator training is a powerful tool now being used to help the reintroduced animals to recognise and escape from their predators. Testing the memory capacity of the animals after antipredator training is important to evaluate if the application of the training is worthwhile. A group of 15 captive-born greater rheas was studied at Belo Horizonte Zoo. Eight birds were antipredator trained and seven birds were not. After the end of the antipredator training sessions, we run four memory tests at 40, 55, 70 and 88 days after training was completed. The memory tests consisted of showing a predator model to the rheas and recording their behavioural responses. It was measured the capacity of antipredator information storage, the influence of the group size on the behaviour of the birds and the influence of the antipredator training on the elicitation of the correct behavioural responses of the birds when confronted by a predator. The results showed that the rheas retained predator recognition for almost three months, that the group size affected the responses of the birds (more defence behaviours expressed when tested alone and that the antipredator training is essential to elicit the adequate antipredatory responses, since untrained birds behaved in a tranquil manner when confronted by a predator model. We concluded that antipredator training is worthwhile for future reintroduction programs for greater rheas, since their memory capacity is considerable.O treinamento anti-predação é uma ferramenta poderosa usada atualmente para ajudar os animais reintroduzidos a reconhecer e escapar de seus predadores. Testar a capacidade de memória dos animais após o treinamento é importante para se avaliar a validade de sua aplicação. Um grupo de 15 emas nascidas em cativeiro foi estudado no zoológico de Belo Horizonte. Oito aves foram treinadas contra predadores e sete não. Após o término dos treinamentos, foram realizados quatro testes de memória após 40, 55, 70 e 88 dias. Os testes de memória consistiam em apresentar um modelo de predador para as emas e anotar as respostas comportamentais exibidas. Foram medidas a capacidade de memória das aves, a influência do tamanho do grupo no comportamento das aves e a influência do treinamento anti-predação na estimulação de respostas comportamentais adequadas. Os resultados mostraram que as emas retiveram a capacidade de reconhecimento do predador por quase três meses após o término dos treinamentos, que o tamanho do grupo afeta as respostas das aves (mais comportamentos de defesa quando sozinhas e que o treinamento anti-predação é essencial para estimular uma resposta comportamental adequada, uma vez que o grupo não treinado se comportou tranqüilamente perante o predador. Conclui-se que o treinamento anti-predação é válido para futuros programas de reintrodução de emas, uma vez que a capacidade de memória dessas aves é considerável.

  2. ANÁLISE DA ORIGEM E DISTRIBUIÇÃO DOS NERVOS PERIFÉRICOS DO PLEXO BRAQUIAL DA PACA (Agouti paca, LINNAEUS, 1766) ORIGIN AND DITRIBUTION ANALYSIS OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS PERIPHERAL NERVES OF PACA (Agouti paca, LINNAEUS, 1766)

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    Sílvia Helena Brendolan Gerbasi; Fabrício Singaretti de Oliveira; Gregório Corrêa Guimarães; Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado; Alessandra Regina Freixo Scavone

    2008-01-01

    O plexo braquial é um conjunto de nervos que surge na região medular cervicotorácica e que se distribui pelos membros torácicos e porção interna do tórax. O plexo braquial de oito pacas foi dissecado para evidenciação da origem e distribuição de seus nervos. O nervo supraescapular distribuía-se para os músculos supra e infra-espinhal, e o subescapular para o músculo subescapular. O nervo axilar ramificava-se para os músculos redondo maior, subescapular, redondo menor e deltóide. Os nervos uln...

  3. Atividade larvicida do óleo de Anacardium humile Saint Hill sobre Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae Larvicidal activity of Anacardium humile Saint Hill oil on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Karla Rejane de Andrade Porto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial do cajuzinho do cerrado (Anacardium humile sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti. Os extratos hexânico, etanólico, aquoso e o óleo das folhas foram obtidos do material vegetal coletado em fragmento de cerrado. Estes foram testados nas concentrações 1%; 0,5%, 0,25%, 0,125%, 0,05% e 0,0125% diluídas em dimetil sulfóxido 1%. A contagem das larvas mortas foi realizada após 24 horas. Utilizou-se o método Probit de análise para obtenção das CL50 e respectivos intervalos de confiança. Conclui-se que apenas o óleo extraído de folhas de Anacardium humile causa 100% de mortalidade em larvas de 4º estádio de Aedes aegypti nas concentrações até 0,125%, o que parece indicar que os ingredientes ativos estão na fase mais apolar. O que indica a potencialidade de uso da planta como larvicida de Aedes aegypti, entretanto, novos testes deverão ser conduzidos utilizando outros órgãos vegetais, assim como outros métodos e solventes utilizados na extração.The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Anacardium humile (monkey nuts against Aedes aegypti larvae. Hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts and oil from leaves were obtained from plant material collected from the Brazilian savanna. These were tested at concentrations of 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%, 0.05% and 0.0125%, diluted in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. The dead larvae were counted 24 hours later. The Probit analysis method was used to obtain the LC50 and the respective confidence intervals. The conclusion was that only the oil extracted from Anacardium humile leaves caused 100% mortality among fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae, using concentrations of up to 0.125%. This seems to indicate that the active ingredients are present in the most apolar phase. This indicates that this plant has potential use as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti. However, new tests should be carried out using other plant organs, as well as using other methods and solvents for the extraction.

  4. Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758 infection in Brazilian cattle of Minas Gerais, Brazil Ocorrência de Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 em rebanhos bovinos do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter dos Santos Lima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease which is caused by digenetic trematodes, such as Fasciola hepatica, and which occurs worldwide. The disease causes significant economic losses in cattle because of the reduction in milk and meat production and because the parasitized livers have no economic value. Also, abortion and mortality rates increase. To determine the occurrence and dispersal of F. hepatica in the state of Minas Gerais, fecal samples were collected from bovines aged 12 months and older between April 2005 and April 2006. The bovines came from 1,251 rural farms of 120 municipalities/cities in Minas Gerais. Water was collected to ascertain the presence of the intermediate host in the properties where infected bovines were found. A total of 16 municipalities had infected bovines and 13 had the presence of Lymnaea columella. We detected infected bovines in 70% of the rural farms visited in the municipality of Itajubá. Itajubá was also found to have infected snails with the larval stage of F. hepatica. The results revealed that infection by F. hepatica in bovines of Minas Gerais was associated with the presence of the intermediate host and favorable epidemiological factors, drawing attention to the necessity of adopting proper control measures in the area.A fasciolose é uma doença parasitária que ocorre em todo o mundo e é causada por um trematódeo digenético conhecido como Fasciola hepatica. A doença é responsável por causar perdas econômicas significativas em bovinos, devido à diminuição na produção de carne e leite, condenação de fígados parasitados e aumento na mortalidade. Para determinar a ocorrência e a dispersão da F. hepatica no estado de Minas Gerais, amostras de fezes de bovinos com idade superior a 12 meses foram coletadas, no período de Abril de 2005 a Abril de 2006. Foram examinados bovinos provenientes de 1.251 propriedades rurais de 120 municípios do estado de Minas Gerais. Coleções hídricas também foram examinadas, a fim de verificar a presença de hospedeiros intermediários nas propriedades onde foram encontrados bovinos parasitados. Para um total de 16 municípios foi relatada a presença de bovinos infectados por F. hepatica e destes, 13 apresentaram também o molusco Lymnaea columella. Foi possível diagnosticar bovinos infectados em 70% das propriedades visitadas no município de Itajubá. Além disso, no município de Itajubá foi possível detectar a presença de moluscos naturalmente infectados com diferentes estádios larvais de F. hepatica. Os resultados evidenciam a necessidade de medidas de controle para esta parasitose na área estudada, uma vez que foi possível verificar a presença de bovinos e moluscos infectados por F. hepatica, associada a fatores epidemiológicos favoráveis a dispersão do parasito.

  5. Avaliação da resposta inflamatória hematológica em cascavéis (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 inoculadas com BCG Assessment of blood inflammatory response in BCG stimulated rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bandeira da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A criação de serpentes peçonhentas em cativeiro para produção de soros antipeçonhas possui crescente importância para a saúde pública devido ao aumento do número de notificações de acidentes ofídicos a cada ano no Brasil. Iniciado no século XX, ainda hoje essa atividade apresenta alguns desafios como a instalação de doenças no plantel. O hemograma é um exame de triagem clínica que auxilia no diagnóstico de diversas moléstias que acometem diferentes espécies de animais, no entanto ainda pouco estudado em serpentes. A caracterização das alterações hematológicas em cascavéis inoculadas experimentalmente com BCG pode servir de base na utilização deste exame no auxílio ao diagnóstico de infecções bacterianas na espécie. Dessa forma, foram realizados exames hematológicos em 10 serpentes da espécie Crotalus durissus pertencentes ao plantel da Divisão de Herpetologia do Instituto Vital Brazil. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos (Grupos 1 e 2, homogêneos entre si em relação ao peso e proporção sexual. Os dois grupos foram inoculados com BCG e submetidos à coleta de sangue antes da inoculação e em três momentos pós-inoculação (3º, 5º, e 7º dias para o Grupo 1 e 11º, 17º e 21º dias para o Grupo 2. O hemograma foi realizado por método semidireto pela utilização de líquido de Natt e Herrick e as lâminas foram coradas pelo Giemsa. Observou-se anemia discreta, com redução dos valores de concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média e da hemoglobina globular média no Grupo 1 que foi relacionada à doença inflamatória. A trombocitopenia observada no Grupo 2 sugeriu a atuação deste tipo celular em processos inflamatórios. Um único animal do Grupo 1 apresentou granulocitose e alguns animais apresentaram discreta azurofilia. Observaram-se alterações morfológicas nos leucócitos. Os granulócitos apresentaram granulações grosseiras e os azurófilos apresentaram aumento de tamanho e grandes vacúolos. De forma geral, a inoculação de BCG em cascavéis desencadeia respostas inflamatórias hematológicas caracterizadas pela participação de trombócitos, granulócitos e azurófilos.The high demand for anti-venom production in response to the increased number of cases of snakebite envenomation highlights the importance of raising and breeding venomous snakes in captivity. Knowledge of types of venoms and anti-venoms is of great interest to public health. The maintenance of venomous serpents in captivity started in the early twentieth century, but still nowadays it is a challenge to manage and prevent diseases in captive fauna. Hematology is commonly used for general health assessment and illness detection. However, data on serpent blood analysis are still scarce. Alterations in hematological parameters were experimentally induced in rattlesnakes by the inoculation of BCG. Based on this, hemograms can be used as a health auxiliary diagnosis method for bacterial diseases in this species. In this study, blood samples were taken from 10 healthy specimens of rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus born and bred in captivity in the Herpetological Division of Vital Brazil Institute. Animals were divided into two groups (group 1 and 2 with similar live weight and sex proportion, and were then inoculated subcutaneously with BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Blood samples were taken before and after inoculation at three experimental times (days 3, 5 and 7 for group 1 and days 11, 17 and 21 for group 2. Hematological analysis was performed through semi-direct technique, blood samples were diluted in Natt and Herrick solution and smears were stained by Giemsa. Serpents from group 1 developed discrete anemia due to the inflammatory syndrome, and showed significant decrease of MCH and MCHC. Granulocytes were characterized by the presence of rough granules. The azurophils varied in shape and size and showed large amount of cytoplasmic vacuoles. The thrombocytopenia observed in group 2 suggests that these cells participate in the inflammatory process. A single individual from group 1 showed granulocytosis and a few animals showed a discrete azurophilia. In general, BCG inoculation unleashes hematological inflammatory responses characterized by the presence of thrombocytes, azurophils and granulocytes cells.

  6. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) in the amazon region, Brazil Primeiro relato de sarna notoédrica em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) na região amazônica, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Scofield; Rafaelle Cunha dos Santos; Nadino Carvalho; Áurea Linhares Martins; Gustavo Góes-Cavalcante

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen ...

  7. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758 in the amazon region, Brazil Primeiro relato de sarna notoédrica em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758 na região amazônica, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Scofield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen a large number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites. The mean female and male sizes were 230.2 × 200.4 µm and 137.6 × 104.9 µm. Based on the morphologic characteristics and morphometric analysis, this mite was classified as Notoedres cati. This is the first report of notoedric mange in L. pardalis from Brazilian Amazon.O presente estudo descreve um caso de sarna notoédrica em uma jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis na região da Amazônia Brasileira. Um macho jovem com aproximadamente quatro meses de idade, ilegalmente mantido como animal de estimação, foi apreendido em uma residência em Altamira, Estado do Pará, Brasil. O animal foi transportado para o Parque Mangal das Garças, município de Belém, estado do Pará. A jaguatirica apresentava prurido e lesões sugestivas de escabiose na cabeça, por isso um raspado cutâneo foi realizado e examinado ao microscópio óptico. Foi observado um grande número de ovos, larvas, ninfas e ácaros adultos. Os exemplares fêmeas mediram em média 230,2 × 200,4 µm, e os exemplares machos mensuraram 137,6 × 104,9 µm. Com base nas características morfológicas e análises morfométricas, o ácaro foi classificado como Notoedres cati. Esse é o primeiro relato da sarna notoédrica em L. pardalis na Amazônia Brasileira.

  8. Aspectos bioecológicos de Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771), Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) e Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) na reserva natural Salto Morato, Guaraqueçaba, Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Vidolin, Gisley Paula

    2013-01-01

    De janeiro de 2000 a agosto de 2002, foi realizado um estudo com Puma concolor (puma), Leopardus pardaus (jaguatirica) e Leopardus tigrinus (gato-do-mato-pequeno) na Reserva Natural Salto Morato, Guaraqueçaba, com os objetivos de determinar e caracterizar as áreas utilizadas pelas espécies; descrever a sua dieta; verificar se há correlação da freqüência dos itens encontrados nas fezes, em função de sua disponibilidade na natureza (médio e grandes mamíferos); gerar informações sobre os tipos d...

  9. Ocorrência de Puma concolor (Linnaeus (Felidae, Carnivora em áreas de vegetação remanescente de Santa Catarina, Brasil Presence of Puma concolor (Linnaeus (Felidae, Carnivora on remnant habitats in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mazzolli

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Several reports on puma (Puma concolor have been made in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, most of them in remnant original habitats above 800 meters. These records show a thight relationship between the puma with altitude and mainly with habitat quality. The eastern boundary of the puma range isset by the mountain chains of Serra do Mar and Serra Geral. The definite implementation of National Parks and Reserves, studies of movements, and polimorfism analyses are suggested, in order to provide protected habitats and assure the genetic flow amongst puma populations.

  10. Ocorrência de Puma concolor (Linnaeus) (Felidae, Carnivora) em áreas de vegetação remanescente de Santa Catarina, Brasil Presence of Puma concolor (Linnaeus) (Felidae, Carnivora) on remnant habitats in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Mazzolli

    1993-01-01

    Several reports on puma (Puma concolor) have been made in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, most of them in remnant original habitats above 800 meters. These records show a thight relationship between the puma with altitude and mainly with habitat quality. The eastern boundary of the puma range isset by the mountain chains of Serra do Mar and Serra Geral. The definite implementation of National Parks and Reserves, studies of movements, and polimorfism analyses are suggested, in or...

  11. Sensivity of acetylcholinesterase from the tissues of commercially important bivalve species WARTY VENUS VENUS VERRUCOSA (LINNAEUS, 1758) and NOAH’S ARK SHELL ARCA NOAE (LINNAEUS, 1758) to organophosphorous pesticide

    OpenAIRE

    Perić, Lorena; Nerlović, Vedrana; Ribarić, Luka

    2012-01-01

    Marine environment is subjected to the input of wide range of chemical compounds. Among them, organophosphorous pesticides (OP’s) that are commonly applied in agriculture could represent a considerable threat to cultivated and wildlife populations of marine non-target organisms in the near-shore coastal areas. These compounds selectively inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a serine hydrolase essential for transmission of nerve signals. Kinetic properties of AChE and its sensitivity to OP’s h...

  12. Invastigation About Fauna and Distribution of Species Which Belong to Pieridae (Lepidoptera) Family in the Plateau Baskonus and Tekir (Kahramanmaras Province)

    OpenAIRE

    Boylu, Ökkeş Akın; Bahadıroğlu, Cengiz; BOZDOĞAN, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    In this study which was materialized in the years 2009-2010, the species belonging to Pieridae (Lepidoptera) family, their fauna and distribution have been examined, in total 8 genera and 11 species Gonepteryx cleopatra,( Linnaeus, 1767), Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus 1758 ), Colias crocea (Fourcroy 1785), Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus 1758), Pieris rapae (Linnaeus 1758), Pontia edusa (Fabricius 1777), Euchloe ausonia, (Hübner 1804), Aporia crataegi (Linnaeus 1758), Anthocharis cardamines (Linn...

  13. El manatí (Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus,1758) (Sirenia) una especie sombrilla, para el Sistema Lagunar de Alvarado, Veracruz

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Rentería, Iliana del Carmen; Serrano Solís, Arturo; Sánchez Rojas, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    The most emblematic mammal in the Alvarado Lagoon System (ALS) is the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus). In July 1975 was considered as endangered species by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES), since 1982 as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and is considered an endangered species under Mexican laws. The manatee is a poorly studied animal in the state of Veracruz because in natur...

  14. One orphaned marine manatee calf´s feeding, breeding and behavior in captivity (Trichechus manataus, Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Kleber Grubel da Silva; Ricardo José Soavinski; Eunice Maria Almeida de Oliveira; Maria Claudia Mibielli Kohler

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, although there are records of marine manatee in captivity, few information report the management of this species. As a way of reducing this gap, this work aims to report the obtained results through the feeding control, the behavior observation and the monitoring of a female orphaned Trichechus manatus and compare with similar studies conducted on animals in captivity of the same species, populations Florida (USA). The specimen of manatee, female, was captured in a fishing corral a...

  15. Effect of rearing strategy and gamma radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a serious pest of pome fruit worldwide. In an effort to reduce the use of pesticides to control this pest, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being used or considered as an integrated pest control tactic. Rearing codling moths through diapause has been...

  16. Enzyme Polymorphism in Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763 and Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle das Neves Bespalhok

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beetles of the species Sitophilus oryzae and S. zeamais are pests of great economic importance since they attack not only rice and maize but also several other cereals. In fact, these beetles are one of the most visible threats to sustainable food production. Current study estimated the genetic variability of S. oryzae in two samples, one from the State of Paraná (PR, Brazil, and another from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil, and a sample of S. zeamais from the State of Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil. Isozyme electrophoresis in starch gel technique was employed to analyze eight enzyme systems (AAT, ACP, GDH, GPI, IDH, MDH, PGM and ME. Average heterozygosity rates were 0.0091, 0.0100 and 0.0000 and expected heterozygosity rates were 0.0419, 0.0452 and 0.0000 respectively for the samples of PR, SC and RS samples. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 30% in the PR sample, 0% in the RS sample and 30% in the SC sample. Genetic identity rates were I=0.9983 between samples from PR and RS; I = 0.6892 between PR and SC, and I = 0.6925 between SC and RS. Nei´s (1978 genetic distance rates  were 0.0017, 0.3722 and 0.3675. Samples presented low genetic variability.

  17. Genotoxicity, potential cytotoxicity and cell uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignardi, Caroline P., E-mail: carolpatvig@usp.br [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Hasue, Fabio M., E-mail: humbigutis@gmail.com [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Sartório, Priscila V., E-mail: pri.sartorio@gmail.com [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Cardoso, Caroline M., E-mail: camargonato@gmail.com [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Machado, Alex S.D., E-mail: mamiferomarinho@gmail.com [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Integrated College North of Minas Osmane Barbosa Avenue, 11111, JK, Montes Claros, MG 39404006 (Brazil); and others

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}–NP cytogenotoxicity and cell uptake in marine fish was studied. • TiO{sub 2}–NP suspension was in primary particle, agglomerated and aggregated form. • TiO{sub 2}–NP genotoxicity was time/dose dependent and may induce cell uptake. • Methodology proved to be efficient for evaluating the toxic effect of TiO{sub 2}–NP. - Abstract: Nanoparticles have physicochemical characteristics that make them useful in areas such as science, technology, medicine and in products of everyday use. Recently the manufacture and variety of these products has grown rapidly, raising concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Adverse effects of exposure to nanoparticles have been reported for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, but the toxic effects of the substances on marine organisms remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of TiO{sub 2}–NP in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus, through cytogenotoxic methods. The fish received two different doses of 1.5 μg and 3.0 μg–TiO{sub 2}–NP g{sup −1} by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, comet assay (pH > 13), micronucleus (MN) and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) 24, 48 and 72 h after injection. The possible cell uptake of TiO{sub 2}–NP in fish injected with the higher dose was investigated after 72 h using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that TiO{sub 2}–NP is genotoxic and potentially cytotoxic for this species, causing DNA damage, inducing the formation of MN and other ENA, and decreasing erythrocyte viability. TEM examination revealed that cell uptake of TiO{sub 2}–NP was mainly in the kidney, liver, gills and to a lesser degree in muscle. To the extent of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first in vivo study of genotoxicity and other effects of TiO{sub 2}–NP in a marine fish.

  18. Biodiversity, Bioindication and Helminth communities of Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Danube River and Lake Srebarna, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    KIRIN, Diana; HANZELOVÁ, Vladimira; SHUKEROVA, Sonya; KUZMANOVA, Dimitrinka

    2014-01-01

    Biomonitoring from water of the River Danube and Srebarna Lake was performed using freshwater fish and their parasites and parasite communities as bioindicators. During 2013, 78 specimens of freshwater bream (Abramis brama (L., 1758) were examined with standard techniques for parasites. Three species of parasites (Gyrodactylus elegans Nordmann, 1832, Diplozoon paradoxum Nordmann, 1832 and Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Rudilphi, 1809)) were fixed. The analysis of the dominant structure of the f...

  19. Evaluation of the molluscicidal potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linnaeus, 1753 on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Filho, Adalberto Alves; França, Clícia Rosane Costa; Oliveira, Dorlam's da Silva; Mendes, Renato Juvino de Aragão; Gonçalves, José de Ribamar Santos; Rosa, Ivone Garros

    2014-01-01

    The action of extracts from the stem, leaves, and fruit of Jatropha gossypiifolia on Biomphalaria glabrata was studied by analyzing survival, feeding capacity and oviposition ability. The extracts were obtained by macerating the plant parts in 92% ethanol, which were then evaporated until a dry residue was obtained and phytochemically studied. The molluscicidal activity on B. glabrata was investigated using the procedures recommended by WHO (1965). The amount of food ingested and oviposition were measured during each experiment. The extract of leaves from J. gossypiifolia was shown to be a strong molluscicidal agent, causing 100% mortality of B. glabrata, even in the lowest concentration tested, of 25 ppm. Regarding the fruit extract, there was variation in the mortality, depending on the concentration used (100, 75, 50 and 25 ppm). The snails that were in contact with the fruit extract had significant reduction in feeding and number of embryos in comparison to the control. The stem extract did not present molluscicidal activity nor had any influence on the feeding and oviposition abilities of B. glabrata, in the concentrations tested. In conclusion, the extracts of leaves and fruits of J. gossypiifolia investigated in this work show molluscicidal effect and may be sources of useful compounds for the schistosomiasis control. PMID:25351545

  20. A synthesis of the early life history of the anglerfish, Lophius piscatorius (Linnaeus, 1758) in northern British waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hislop, J.R.G.; Gallego, A.; Heath, M.R.;

    2001-01-01

    and an examination of the geographical distribution of pelagic and demersal anglerfish. Otolith incremental analysis indicates that the pelagic phase is relatively long(ca. 120 days) and growth during the first year of life is rapid. A particle tracking model predicts that pelagic post larvae of known...... age caught west of the outer Hebrides could originate from the shelf edge west of Ireland. the Rockall Plateau and the northern perimeter of the North Sea. whereas those caught in the northern North Sea are likely to originate from the western edge of the Norwegian Deep and the shelf edge west and...

  1. Origin, distribution, and insertion of the brachial plexus nerves in Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Achôa Filho; Marcio Nogueira Rodrigues; Erika Toledo da Fonseca; Rafael Magdanelo Leandro; Vanessa Bertagia Pasqualetti; Maria Angélica Miglino

    2014-01-01

    Brazil has about 80 species of parrots cataloged, and five of them are identified as Macaws. As the vast majority of birds, Macaws use flight as their primary means of locomotion. However, the strength and power generated during the cycle of beating wings require a mechanism of active neuromuscular control and specialized adaptations of muscles responsible for flight, which are innervated by the brachial plexus. This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of peripheral nerves that...

  2. Thyroid calcitonin cells in response to glucagon-induced hypocalcaemia in the Indian jackal, Canis aureus (Linnaeus--lex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarup, K; Tewari, N P

    1980-01-01

    Jackal (Canis aureus) puppies (10) were subjected to hypocalcaemia by a single intravenous injection of crystalline porcine glucagon (Eli Lilly and Co.) in a dosage of 0.2 mg/kg body weight. Fasting blood samples from each specimen were collected 30 minutes before injection. Then again after an interval of 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270 and 300 minutes blood samples were taken. For histological study animals were killed after 30, 90, 120, 240 and 300 minutes of the injection. The mean serum calcium level records a fall upto 90 minutes but it tends to return to normal and at 300 minutes it returns to the preinjection level. The mean serum inorganic phosphate level records a fall upto 180 minutes and therafter the value increases approaching the preinjection levles after 300 minutes. Specific stains were used for staining the calcitonin cells. Animals killed 30 minutes after the injection exhibit beginning of degranulation of secretory granules in their C cells, while those killed after 300 minutes show marked degranulation. A progressive degranulation of calcitonin cells at the various stages of experimentation displays correspondingly poorer response to the staining reaction. There is no change in the histological picture of the parathyroid. PMID:7424080

  3. Morphological analysis of the oviduct, oviducal gland and isthmus of the blue shark Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758 (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhiniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca S. Rangel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oviducal gland present in elasmobranchs is correlated to the organism's reproductive strategy, and its functions are to produce mucus, to form the egg's tertiary envelope and to store sperm. The gland contains four zones: club, papillary,baffle and terminal. The structures of the oviduct, oviducal gland and isthmus of blue shark Prionace glauca were described using macroscopic, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The epithelium of the oviduct and isthmus is folded and is a simple, columnar, ciliated lining epithelium with glandular cells. In the oviducal gland, the lining tissues in the four zones are similar to the oviduct and isthmus lining. The terminal zone shows the presence of sperm in the lumen of the secretory tubules, which remains stored even in the absence of recent copulation. Here, these organs were studied and their connections in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms of reproduction in the blue shark, showing the three-dimensional aspects, thus adding morphological information important for the understanding of the structure and functioning of these organs of fundamental importance in the life of the majority of elasmobranchs.

  4. The first report of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in free-living European bison (Bison bonasus bonasus Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Anna C; Werner, Anna; Cabaj, Władysław; Moskwa, Bozena

    2014-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 is an apicomplexan parasite with a worldwide distribution. It is of great medical and veterinary importance because it may cause abortion or congenital disease in its intermediate hosts, including man. The European bison, the largest herbivorous animal in Europe, is a species that has been saved from extinction. Twenty-four of 95 examined sera of the European bison (Bison bonasus bonasus) from the Białowieza Forest, Poland collected from 2008 to 2011 were found to be positive for the presence of T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies using a direct agglutination test, with the antibody titre in positive animals ranging from 40 to 18000. Statistically significant differences were observed only between years of sample collection. This is the first report on T. gondii in lowland European bison living in the natural environment. PMID:24684049

  5. Senilia senilis (Linnaeus, 1758), a biogenic archive of environmental conditions on the Banc d'Arguin (Mauritania)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavaud, R.; Thébault, J.; Lorrain, A.; van der Geest, M.; Chauvaud, L.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental archives are useful tools for describing past and current climate variations and they provide an opportunity to assess the anthropogenic contribution in coastal ecological changes. Along the West African coast, few studies have focused on such archives in coastal ecosystems. The bloody

  6. A New Species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Common Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Columbidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jamriška, J.; Modrý, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2012), s. 329-333. ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coccidia * Eimeria columbapalumbi * Columbiformes * Columba palumbus. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2012

  7. Population – genetic structure on European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes: Engraulide from Mediterranean Basin and Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya P. IVANOVA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle proteins of the European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus L. were analyzed using starch gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing on thin polyacrylamide ampholine gel. Twenty-two protein loci were analyzed and polymorphism was found in six of them. Based on genetic-biochemical data, we hypothesize that there are two anchovy subspecies, European and African. The former inhabits the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean coast of Europe, and the Aegean, Marmora, Black, and Azov Seas. The latter is found in the Cape Blank region of the Atlantic Ocean and, probably, along the northwestern part of the African coast. The Aegean anchovy consists of hybrid populations, resulting from introgressive hybridization between the European and the African populations. No evidence for subspecies differentiation between the populations from the European coast of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean was found. Genetic distances between the Azov and Black Sea populations show that the former probably entered the Black Sea during the Karangad period and the latter during the last connection of the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. The genetic distance between the Black Sea anchovy and the Azov anchovy shows that they could be specified as two different populations. Probably some earlier subspecies differences disappeared as a result of introgressive hybridization.

  8. Studies on Life Fecundity Tables of Tobacco Leaf Eatingcaterpillar, Spodoptera Litura (Fabricius) On Tobacco, Nicotiana Tabacum (Linnaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, R. A.; D. M. Mehta; B. L. Jat; L. V. Ghetiya

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Life tables of Spodoptera litura, were carried out on bidi tobacco cv ABD-101 under laboratory condition at 26 ± 1 °C temperature at Bidi Tobacco Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat). The results on number of individuals survived during development revealed that there was no mortality during egg stage and the maximum durations of egg, larva and pupa were 4, 22 and 14 days, respectively. The number that survived from 100 eggs to adult emergence was 76. Th...

  9. Diverse Microbiota Identified in Whole Intact Nest Chambers of the Red Mason Bee Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Keller; Gudrun Grimmer; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter

    2013-01-01

    Microbial activity is known to have profound impact on bee ecology and physiology, both by beneficial and pathogenic effects. Most information about such associations is available for colony-building organisms, and especially the honey bee. There, active manipulations through worker bees result in a restricted diversity of microbes present within the colony environment. Microbial diversity in solitary bee nests remains unstudied, although their larvae face a very different situation compared ...

  10. Diverse microbiota identified in whole intact nest chambers of the red mason bee Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Keller

    Full Text Available Microbial activity is known to have profound impact on bee ecology and physiology, both by beneficial and pathogenic effects. Most information about such associations is available for colony-building organisms, and especially the honey bee. There, active manipulations through worker bees result in a restricted diversity of microbes present within the colony environment. Microbial diversity in solitary bee nests remains unstudied, although their larvae face a very different situation compared with social bees by growing up in isolated compartments. Here, we assessed the microbiota present in nests and pre-adults of Osmia bicornis, the red mason bee, by culture-independent pyrosequencing. We found high bacterial diversity not comparable with honey bee colonies. We identified a variety of bacteria potentially with positive or negative interactions for bee larvae. However, most of the other diverse bacteria present in the nests seem to originate from environmental sources through incorporated nest building material and stored pollen. This diversity of microorganisms may cause severe larval mortality and require specific physiological or symbiotic adaptations against microbial threats. They may however also profit from such a diverse environment through gain of mutualistic partners. We conclude that further studies of microbiota interaction in solitary bees will improve the understanding of fitness components and populations dynamics.

  11. Diverse microbiota identified in whole intact nest chambers of the red mason bee Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Alexander; Grimmer, Gudrun; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Microbial activity is known to have profound impact on bee ecology and physiology, both by beneficial and pathogenic effects. Most information about such associations is available for colony-building organisms, and especially the honey bee. There, active manipulations through worker bees result in a restricted diversity of microbes present within the colony environment. Microbial diversity in solitary bee nests remains unstudied, although their larvae face a very different situation compared with social bees by growing up in isolated compartments. Here, we assessed the microbiota present in nests and pre-adults of Osmia bicornis, the red mason bee, by culture-independent pyrosequencing. We found high bacterial diversity not comparable with honey bee colonies. We identified a variety of bacteria potentially with positive or negative interactions for bee larvae. However, most of the other diverse bacteria present in the nests seem to originate from environmental sources through incorporated nest building material and stored pollen. This diversity of microorganisms may cause severe larval mortality and require specific physiological or symbiotic adaptations against microbial threats. They may however also profit from such a diverse environment through gain of mutualistic partners. We conclude that further studies of microbiota interaction in solitary bees will improve the understanding of fitness components and populations dynamics. PMID:24205188

  12. A COI Nonsynonymous Mutation as Diagnostic Tool for Intraspecific Discrimination in the European Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Federico, Concetta; Sabella, Giorgio; Saccone, Salvatore; Ferrito, Venera

    2015-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, is currently one of the principal target species for commercial fisheries in Europe. In this study, the mitochondrial Control Region (CR) and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene were analyzed in 74 specimens of E. encrasicolus from four localities in the central Mediterranean. In both populations, the two markers revealed the presence of two main haplogroups, A and B, already detected in previous investigations of different classes of molecular markers. Both CR and COI markers consistently identified two haplogroups. The COI sequence analysis identified a non-synonymous transversion (T to G) at position 116 of the translated sequence, resulting in an amino acid change. All COI sequences of haplogroup A had an amino acid sequence with alanine in this position, while serine was present in the same position in haplogroup B. The two haplogroups A and B were also discriminated by the variable number of TACA elements at the 5’-end of the mitochondrial CR. The selection tests applied to the COI dataset revealed that codon 116 was not under positive selection, that seven amino acid changes were under purifying selection, and that two amino acids were under episodic positive selection. PMID:26599908

  13. Biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical Triclosan in the marine mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triclosan (5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is an antibacterial compound widely employed in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Although this emerging compound has been detected in aquatic environments, scarce information is found on the effects of Triclosan to marine organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a concentration range of Triclosan through fertilization assay (reproductive success), embryo-larval development assay (early life stage) and physiological stress (Neutral Red Retention Time assay - NRRT) (adult stage) in the marine sentinel organism Perna perna. The mean inhibition concentrations for fertilization (IC50 = 0.490 mg L−1) and embryo-larval development (IC50 = 0.135 mg L−1) tests were above environmental relevant concentrations (ng L−1) given by previous studies. Differently, significant reduction on NRRT results was found at 12 ng L−1, demonstrating the current risk of the continuous introduction of Triclosan into aquatic environments, and the need of ecotoxicological studies oriented by the mechanism of action of the compound. - Highlights: ► Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmental relevant concentrations. ► Mechanisms of action oriented assays were more sensitive to detect biological damages. ► Currently there is environmental risks concerned Triclosan in aquatic ecosystems. - Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  14. Sobre nidos aéreos de rata negra, Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758), en el naranjal saguntino (Valencia)

    OpenAIRE

    Faus Percha, Félix Vicente; Vericad Coromina, Juan Ramón

    1981-01-01

    El estudio de diversos aspectos ecológicos sobre la nidificación aérea de rata negra, R. rattus, en una parcela de naranjales del municipio de Sagunto (Valencia, España) muestra una tendencia de la especie a nidificar en este tipo de cultivo. Los nidos aéreos, de forma generalmente esférica, han presentado una composición cualitativa uniforme a base de ramilletes con hojas y hojas sueltas procedentes de los mismos naranjos; su utilización como lugar de parto y cría así co...

  15. Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca:Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Periyasamy N; Srinivasan M; Balakrishnan S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens. Methods: Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied. Results:The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed againstStaphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candidaalbicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges. Conclusions: The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds.

  16. Elephant Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae migration paths in the Nilgiri Hills, India in the late 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R.C. Davidar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study presented was carried out in 1978 with the support of the Asian Elephant Specialist Group (AsESG of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC. Its objective was to investigate the impediments to elephant movement in the Nilgiri Hills, in the Western Ghats of India, in an attempt to suggest positive steps to encourage movement through the provision of corridors. The report was left unpublished, but given its importance as a reference document for the conservation of the Asian elephant in the Nilgiris, in 2011 the last two authors decided to publish it. The process of habitat fragmentation has been going on ever since man started agriculture. But this problem has, of late, become much more acute due to mounting pressure on land. The corridor concept applied to wildlife is the provision of a free and, as far as possible, unimpeded way for the passage of wild animals between two wildlife zones. A corridor’s more important function is to prevent wild animals from getting isolated in small pocket-like islands. Maintaining elephant habitat connectivity in and around the Nilgiris rests upon the understanding that elephant populations of the several protected areas of the now Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve must remain active. The first author surveyed the Nilgiris on foot and on elephant back for several months in 1978. It was concluded that four areas (the Nilgiri north slopes and Deccan Plateau, the south and southeastern slopes, the Gudalur Plateau, and the upper plateau harboured together 10 corridors that needed to be maintained, or restored, or even partially restored.

  17. Limnological characteristics of a reservoir in semiarid Northeastern Brazil subject to intensive tilapia farming (Orechromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758

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    Luis Artur Valões Bezerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: There is currently no consensus regarding the physical and chemical variability of tropical reservoirs. In semiarid Northeastern Brazil, reservoirs are among other things used for human consumption, industrial water supply and intensive fish farming, all of which can impact water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical variability of the water in Sítios Novos, a reservoir in semiarid Northeastern Brazil, comparing samples collected in areas of intensive tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus farming to samples from areas not directly impacted by aquaculture, in both the dry and the rainy season. METHODS: Between October 2010 and July 2011, data were collected on temperature, conductivity, pH, turbidity, salinity, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen levels in the water column using a multiparametric probe at four different sampling locations. Physical and chemical differences between the four locations were evaluated with the Kruskal-Wallis (KW test and Dunn's post test, while the t test, followed by Welchʼs correction, was used to compare samples collected in different seasons. RESULTS: No influence of intensive aquaculture was detected when comparing sampling locations near fish farms (180C and 300C to locations not directly impacted by aquaculture (LIMN1, near the dam, and LIMN2, near the debouch of the São Gonçalo river. However, the sampling locations differed significantly (p<0.05 with regard to conductivity, pH, turbidity and chlorophyll a levels. CONCLUSIONS: The physical and chemical variability was greater between seasons than between locations when the data were analyzed with the t test. That analysis showed significant differences for 22 of 40 comparisons between the 10 physical and chemical parameters in the two seasons at the four sampling locations. In conclusion, the physical and chemical variability registered for the Sítios Novos reservoir throughout the study period indicates morphometric, meteorological and hydrological heterogeneity, with emphasis on the differences between LIMN2 and the other three sampling locations and between the rainy season and the dry season. According to the calculated trophic status index, the reservoir is supereutrophic in the rainy season and supereutrophic to hypereutrophic in the dry season.

  18. [Phylogeography and phenotypic diversity of the pumpkinseed Sunfish Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) of the Northern Black Sea Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slynko, E E; Novitsky, R A; Bangs, M R; Douglas, M R; Douglas, M E; Khrystenko, D S; Kasyanov, A N; Slynko, Yu V

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the origin and the genetic and morphological diversity of the pumpkinseed sunfish, a North American invader that is actively expanding its range in the Northern Black Sea Coast. Based on an analysis of variability of the nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA cyt b locus, it was found that all populations of the Northern Black Sea Coast (basins of Dnieper, Dniester, and Danube rivers) are represented by one haplotype. Intraspecific variability is absent. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that the most related haplotype is in a population of pumpkinseed sunfish from New Germany Lake in the Potomac Riverbasin (Maryland, United States), which makes it possible to consider it a parent of the investigated populations. Morphological variation oin countable traits was highly homogeneous. Significant differentiation of a sample from the population of the Dnieper Reservoir from the populations of the Danube and Dniester was found for plastic traits of both the body and cranium. Analysis of the trajectories of development showed that the Dnieper is inhabited by a "pelagic" morpho-ecological form of pumpkinseed sunfish, while the Dniester and Danube is inhabited by a "littoral" form. It is suggested that the success of the settlement of this North American species in the Northern Black Sea Coast does not depend on the origin or the level of its genetic diversity but is instead likely to be ensured by the realization of its available discrete morpho-ecological variability. PMID:25966587

  19. Mercúrio total em músculo de cação Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758 e de espadarte Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, na costa sul-sudeste do Brasil e suas implicações para a saúde pública Total mercury in muscle of the shark Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758 and swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, from the South-Southeast coast of Brazil and the implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. L. Dias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as concentrações de mercúrio total (THg em tecido muscular do tubarão azul Prionace glauca e do teleósteo Xiphias gladius, vulgarmente conhecido como espadarte, provenientes das regiões sul e sudeste da costa brasileira, para verificar se estas se encontram dentro dos padrões legais para consumo humano. As amostras foram obtidas utilizando-se o programa REVIZEE, de agosto a setembro de 2001, e por intermédio de uma empresa de pesca em Itajaí, Santa Catarina. Foi analisado um total de 95 espécimes, testando-se as correlações entre THg, comprimento (cm e peso (kg. As concentrações de mercúrio total em todas as amostras variaram de 0,13 a 2,26µgg-1 (peso úmido. A média de mercúrio total em P. glauca foi de 0,76 ± 0,48µgg-1 (p.u., e em X. gladius foi de 0,62 ± 0,31µgg-1 (p.u. com diferença não significativa (teste Mann-Whitney, p Total mercury (THg was analyzed in muscle tissue from the blue shark Prionace glauca and the swordfish Xiphias gladius, obtained from the South and Southeast coast of Brazil, to verify compliance with current limits for human consumption. Samples were obtained through the REVIZEE Program and a commercial fishery in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State. A total of 95 specimens were analyzed (48 X. gladius and 47 P. glauca, and correlations were checked between THg and fish length and weight. THg ranged from 0.13 to 2.26µgg-1 (fresh weight, and there was no significant difference between the means for P. glauca, 0.76 ± 0.48µgg-1 (f.w. and X. gladius, 0.62 ± 0.31 (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05. In 16% of samples, THg was above the limits set by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, namely 1µgg-1, and 62% exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO limit of 0.5µgg-1. The ingestion of 100g/ day-1 of P. glauca or X. gladius would result in a daily THg intake of more than twice the WHO (1990 suggested limit.

  20. Diet and prey selection of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca Linnaeus, 1758 population in Lake Eğirdir (Turkey

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    Yağci M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet and prey selection of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L., 1758 were assessed by determining the frequency of occurrence, numeric and weight percentages, and the index of relative importance (IRI% between January 2010 and December 2010 in Lake Eğirdir, Turkey. Pearre’s index was used to estimate diet selectivity, while the Schoener Overlap Index was utilized to compare diets. The stomach contents of 241 S. lucioperca were analyzed. Pikeperch diet included prey fish, insects and other organisms. The diet was predominantly fish, consisting of Atherina boyeri, Knipowitschia caucasica, Aphanius anatoliae, Seminemacheilus ispartensis and Carassius gibelio. A. boyeri was the most abundant prey fish in the lake; it was a positively selected food item (V= 0.130, X2= 3.359, p> 0.05 and was not statistically significant. C. gibelio also inhabits the lake, but was not preferred by pikeperch (V=0.134, X2= 3.582, p> 0.05. In addition, A. anatoliae (V=-0.223, X2=9.977, p50 cm in length pikeperch. Cannibalism was not evident during a decade, due to there being enough food for pikeperch in the lake.

  1. Dujardinascaris mormyropsis n. sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the osteoglossiform fish Mormyrops anguilloides (Linnaeus) (Mormyridae) in Central Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Jirků, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-62. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GAP506/10/2330 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fish parasites * Anisakidae * Central Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  2. The effect of temperature and salinity on the physiological rates of the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Charrid Resgalla Jr; Elisângela de Souza Brasil; Luis Carlos Salomão

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the rates of respiration, clearance, excretion and absorption efficiency at different temperature and salinity under laboratory conditions for Perna perna. Results showed variations in physiological rates and in acclimatization capacity which, taken together, enabled to understand its behavior in the environment, as well as to estimate its scope for growth. All experiments were carried out in static conditions, in ten replicas with one mussel by flasks. Perna...

  3. Efficiency in pollen foraging by honey bees: Time, motion and pollen depletion on flowers of Sisyrinchium palmifolium Linnaeus (Asparagales: Iridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno M. Freitas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees depend on flower resources (nectar and pollen to supply individual and colony needs. Although behavioural studies already assessed optimum foraging patterns of bumblebees, honey bees foraging behavioural patterns have been poorly assessed. We used Sysirinchium palmifolium L. (Iridaceae, a low-growing, abundant and anthophilous grassland flower to test the hypotheses that Apis mellifera workers would i spend more time, ii visit a greater number of flowers, and iii travel greater distances within patches of S. palmifolium which were newly opened or not been visited by other pollinators when compared to foraging on patches that were available to pollinators during its whole blooming period (only one day. In two different sunny days, we measured bee activities in an area opened for visitation during the whole anthesis (OP plot treatment and another opened for visitation only half of anthesis (CL plot treatment. We observed bees spending more time, visiting more flowers and travelling more in S. palmifolium CL treatment than the OP plot treatment. Previous studies already showed bees alter their foraging behaviour in the lack of resources. Honey bees are able to remember the period of the day when resources are usually the higher, they probably detect the most promising period to gather resources on S. palmifolium flowers. Since A. mellifera is a pollinator with a wide-distribution and is considered an important cause of changes on native pollinator communities, we support additional studies evaluating its foraging behaviours to better understand how it explores flower resources.

  4. Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a host of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana LI, LI, HUANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Czesław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, for the first time, the occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana (anamorph: Beauveria bassiana on the imago of the endangered beetle Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina from the Low Beskid Mountains (the Carpathians, SE Poland. Furthermore, an isolate of the saprotrophic fungus Hypoxylon fragiforme was obtained as a result of laboratory tests on R. alpina specimens. Relationships between the identified fungi and R. alpina are discussed.

  5. Population density and photosynthetic pigment content in symbiotic dinoflagellates in the Brazilian scleractinian coral Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus, 1767

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane F. Costa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal dynamics of cell density and photosynthetic pigment contents of the zooxanthellae hosted by Montastrea cavernosa were investigated on coastal reefs off Picãozinho (06º42'05"/07º07'30"S and 34º48'37"/34º50'00" W, Northeast Brazil between September 1999 and 2000. A distinct pattern of these parameters was found: cell numbers were greater during the rainy season (autumn/winter while photosynthetic pigments were greater during the dry season (summer. Both parameters showed drastic reductions during heavy rains (June and July 1999. We speculate that this pattern is largely influenced by the rain cycles which, owing to their magnitude and frequency, affect the water clarity and the seasonal physiological condition of the cells.A dinâmica sazonal na densidade de células e na concentração de pigmentos fotossintetizantes das zooxantelas de Montastrea cavernosa foram analisados no período setembro/1999 a setembro/2000 nos Recifes do Picãozinho (06º42'05"/07º07'30" S e 34º48'37"/34º50'00" W, Nordeste do Brasil. Verificou-se que existe um padrão distinto entre estes parâmetros, com maior quantidade de células no período chuvoso e maior concentração de pigmentos fotossintetizantes na época de estiagem. Ambos os parâmetros apresentaram, no entanto, uma nítida redução em seus valores nos meses de maiores índices pluviométricos (junho e julho /1999. Especulamos que tal fato deve estar relacionado com o regime de chuvas que pode variar em magnitude e freqüência, afetando a qualidade ótica da água e o estado fisiológico das células.

  6. Population density and photosynthetic pigment content in symbiotic dinoflagellates in the Brazilian scleractinian coral Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus, 1767)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane F. Costa; Roberto Sassi; Fernanda D. Amaral

    2004-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of cell density and photosynthetic pigment contents of the zooxanthellae hosted by Montastrea cavernosa were investigated on coastal reefs off Picãozinho (06º42'05"/07º07'30"S and 34º48'37"/34º50'00" W), Northeast Brazil between September 1999 and 2000. A distinct pattern of these parameters was found: cell numbers were greater during the rainy season (autumn/winter) while photosynthetic pigments were greater during the dry season (summer). Both parameters showed drastic...

  7. Fungos Filamentosos Associados às Espécies Atta sexdens (Linnaeus) e Atta laevigata (F. Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Dornelas; Renato Sarmento; Gil dos Santos; Mariela Nascimento; Danival de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Resumo. As formigas-cortadeiras, Atta e Acromyrmex, são consideradas as principais pragas no sistema agroflorestal da Região Neotropical. Isso porque cortam material vegetal que servirá de alimento ao fungo simbionte que elas cultivam. Diversos fungos, que ocorrem em condições naturais no solo, podem ser encontrados associados às formigas-cortadeiras, muitos deles comprovadamente entomopatogênicos. No entanto, esses agentes não têm sido usados em programa de controle biológico des...

  8. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Saad El-Shahawy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16 × 12 (10-12.9 μm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3. The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an oocyst residuum. The oocysts have a distinct two-layered wall, which is ~1.7 μm thick. The outer layer has a smooth texture; it fills ~¾ of the total thickness and appears bicolored. The sporocysts are boat-shaped, of about 10 (9-11 × 4 (4-4.7 μm; their average shape-index is 2.5 μm with a small pointed Stieda body and a smooth, thin single-layered wall. No substieda body is detected. The sporocysts contain numerous, nearly uniform granular residua. The sporozoites are banana-shaped, 6 × 3 μm and each has two different-sized refractile bodies.

  9. FIRST RECORDING OF THE SPECIES Acerina cernua Linnaeus, 1758 IN THE WATERS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgiev

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the general importance of this fish species and deals with its first registration in the waters of Macedonia in 1997. Its basic ichthyological parameters are presented, as well as the ichthyofauna of the reservoir where it was found. Based on available data it was tried to trace the origin of this species in Macedonia.

  10. A comparative study on the feeding habits of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) in Nyanza Gulf Lake Victoria and sewage fish ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Getabu, A.

    1994-01-01

    Gut content analysis of Oreochromis niloticus from the Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria showed that the bulk of the food items ingested constituted bottom deposits and blue green algae. Among the live food items ingested, blue green algae (Cyanophyceae) constituted 53.6%, the diatoms (Bacillariophyaceae) 19.7%, aquatic invertebrates (mainly Copepoda, Cladocera, and Rotifera) 12.9%, desmids (Desmidaceae) 7.7% and lastly the green algae (Chlorophyceae) 6.2%. ...

  11. Floodplain fishery of the lower Sondu-Miriu River with emphasis on the Nile perch (Lates niloticus) (Linnaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Manyala, J.O.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental beach seine surveys in 1990 in the lower Sondu-Miriu River in Kenya indicate a potential catch rate of up to 59.8 kg ha super(-1) hr super(-1). Lates niloticus dominated the catches in the lower reaches (37.5%), while catches in the upper reaches were dominated by Labeo victorianus, Schilbe mystus and Barbus altianalis. L. victorianus contributed up to 84.8% of the catch in the upper reaches by weight. Catches in the floodplain were domin...

  12. Aspectos alimentarios del dorado coryphaena hippurus linnaeus, 1758 en Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, México

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabé Aguilar Palomino; Felipe Galván Magaña; L. Andrés Abitia Cárdenas; Arturo F. Muhlia Melo; Jesús Rodríguez Romero

    1998-01-01

    Se presenta el análisis del contenido estomacal de 500 dorados, Coryphaena hippurus, capturados por pesca deportiva entre la línea de costa y 25 millas afuera, frente a Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, México. Se identificaron 51 organismos presa en el componente trófico del dorado, los cuales pertenecen a tres grandes grupos: peces, cefalópodos y crustáceos, representando en orden del índice de importancia relativa el 56.3%, 23.1% y 20.6%, respectivamente. De las 51 presas, 18 registraro...

  13. The influence of feeding behaviour on growth of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, Linnaeus, 1758) in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Andersen, Niels Gerner; Pedersen, Eva Maria

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to resolve key mechanisms driving individual growth patterns of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Growth dynamics were analysed by linking growth patterns with stomach content composition and environmental temperature. Samples were collected in August/September of the...... years 2009, 2010 and 2011 in the north-eastern part of the central North Sea. Prey selection was assessed by identification of individual prey items in the stomach content to species. Ten feeding groups were identified consisting of individuals with one prey type dominating their stomach contents (≥75...... opportunistic in their prey selection, but at the same time indicated that the total, broad feeding niche width of the population is dominated by individual diet specialization and that many individuals temporally show a preference for a particular prey type. The contribution of invertebrates and particularly...

  14. Infection and pathogenecity of Myroides odoratimimus (NIOCR-12) isolated from the gut of grey mullet (Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758))

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, C.; Varatharajan, G.R.; Rajasabapathy R.; Vasudevan, L.; Sreepada, R.A.

    , the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes of mullet before and after challenge was measured, an indicator of the innate immune system. The mullet infection increased the respiratory burst activity...

  15. Oogenesis and plasma levels of sex steroids in cultured females of brown trout (Salmo trutta linnaeus, 1758) in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estay, Francisco; Díaz, Andrés; Pedrazza, Rodrigo; Colihueque, Nelson

    2003-07-01

    Naturalized brown trout populations in Chile are a valuable genetic resource with aquaculture potential. The oogenesis of a three-year-old brown trout cultured population was studied in southern Chile. Gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth, gonadal microscopic characteristics, and plasma levels of estradiol-17beta (E2), testosterone (T), and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-HP) were measured bimonthly for a nine-month period before spawning. The maximum GSI level (22%) was similar to that described for other salmonids, although it was reached in May, more than one month before the population started spawning. Oocyte growth increases strongly from January when diameter reaches more than 1 mm. The vitellogenic period (six-seven months) is consistent with the long vitellogenesis, described for salmonid females maturing at three years old. E2 shows a slow increase from November, reaching its peak value in March (65.2+/-0.7 ng/ml), during maximal vitellogenic activity. T increases as oogenesis progresses, reaching a maximum of 90+/-20 ng/ml during May, and falling considerably during ovulation. Following a typical pattern of progestogens in salmonid oogenesis, 17alpha-HP stays at basal levels during most of oogenesis, but experiences a strong surge (2.0+/-0.4 ng/ml) just before ovulation. PMID:12840840

  16. Relative growth and reproductive cycle of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga (Linnaeus, 1758) sampled from the Bizerte Bay (Northern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefi, Ferdaous Jaafar; Boubaker, Samir; Menif, Najoua Trigui El

    2014-09-01

    Relative growth and the reproductive cycle of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga were studied from September 2002 to October 2003 in the Bizerte Bay (Northern Tunisia). Relationships between shell length and shell width, shell height as well as volume-related variables (shell dry weight, soft tissues dry weight and total wet weight) showed negative allometries in both sexes except for shell width in males (isometry) and shell height in both sexes (positive allometry). The sex ratio was unbalanced, within the length range of 6-48 mm, 49.43 % of the animals were males, 24.39 % females and 26.17 % sexually undifferentiated; within the length range of 49-92 mm, the respective values were 41.19, 52.7 and 6.1 %. Histological investigations as well as analyses of the condition index and the gonadosomatic index (CI and GSI) revealed the presence of a single reproductive cycle per year. Spawning occurred at the end of August and early September and was associated with a decrease in seawater temperature and salinity. A resting phase occurred in winter, coinciding with the lowest water temperatures. Histological examinations of the gonads of a total of 130 specimens revealed only two cases of hermaphroditism. The present study constitutes a useful baseline for a sustainable management of local wild stocks of L. lithophaga.

  17. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) and Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y-H; Zheng, X-S; Gao, X-W

    2016-08-01

    The aphid species Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi are the most important pests in wheat growing regions of many countries. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity in both aphid species by comparing 3-h exposure for one or three generations. Our results indicated that 3-h exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid for one generation had no discernible effect on the survival, fecundity, longevity, or enzyme activity levels of aphids. However, when pulse exposures to imidacloprid were sustained over three generations, both fecundity and longevity were significantly decreased in both S. avenae and R. padi. Interestingly, the fecundity of R. padi had almost recovered by the F5 generation, but its longevity was still deleteriously affected. These results indicated that R. padi laid eggs in shorter time lags and has a more fast resilience. The change in reproduction behavior may be a phenomenon of R. padi to compensate its early death. If this is stable for the next generation, it means that the next generation is more competitive than unexposed populations, which could be the reason underlying population outbreaks that occur after longer-term exposure to an insecticide. This laboratory-based study highlights the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the longevity and fecundity of descendants and provides an empirical basis from which to consider management decisions for chemical control in the field. PMID:27161277

  18. Occurrence of Eriogaster catax (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lasiocampidae, Lepidoptera) and the proposed protective actions on the Polish territory

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Chrzanowski; Robert Kuźmiński; Andrzej Łabędzki; Andrzej Mazur; Paweł Rutkowski

    2013-01-01

    The study presents the location of Eriogaster catax in Poland. Research from this point of view was conducted in 2006-2007. As a result of analysis of this position, it was found that the main host plant of E. catax – Prunus spinosa is over 50% refugia. It was not stated that any other tree species were host plants. For the most appropriate habitats of the species refugia, were considered those located in habitats of fresh and fresh mixed sites. The most important threats to species and...

  19. Occurrence of Eriogaster catax (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lasiocampidae, Lepidoptera and the proposed protective actions on the Polish territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Chrzanowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the location of Eriogaster catax in Poland. Research from this point of view was conducted in 2006-2007. As a result of analysis of this position, it was found that the main host plant of E. catax – Prunus spinosa is over 50% refugia. It was not stated that any other tree species were host plants. For the most appropriate habitats of the species refugia, were considered those located in habitats of fresh and fresh mixed sites. The most important threats to species and propositions of methods of protection of sites on Polish territory have been presented.

  20. First report of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus,1758 (Trematoda: Digenea in Argentina

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    Prepelitchi Lucila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first evidence of natural infection of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica in Argentina. A sample of 601 snails was collected in May 2003 in northeastern Corrientes, a province bounded on the north by Paraguay, on the east by Brazil and on the southeast by Uruguay. Among 500 examined snails, 44 (8.8% were exclusively infected with F. hepatica. Parasite identification was based on morphological features of cercariae from snails, and of eggs and adult flukes from Wistar rats. We discuss the events suggesting that an enzootic transmission cycle of F. hepatica has been recently established in northeastern Corrientes.