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Sample records for cercopithecus aethiops

  1. The subclavian artery and its branches in the small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus

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    Blagojević Zdenka M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within experimental, human and veterinary medicine, more and more attention has been paid to experimental animals. One of them being the small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus. The small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus has a shod muzzle, small teeth, and is mostly of gray-greenish color; the lower pan of its neck, chest, belly and inner sides of its thoracic limbs being whitish. Its total length is about 110 cm, the tail being 50 cm long. On its head, on both sides, there are white hairs directed towards the neck, reminiscent of whiskers. The monkeys have large buccal sacs. The extremities and tail are more gray than the rest of the body. The skin of the face, ears and fore limbs is black. The digits are very long, whilst the thumb short. Cell cultures from the small green monkey are used for the cultivation of poliovirus in the manufacture of vaccines against poliomyelitis. In addition, kidney cultures from the same monkey serve for detection of the virus in biological material. This was the main reason that prompted us to undertake a study of one part of the monkey's cardiosvascular system and thus contribute to a better understanding of the structure of its body.

  2. The prefrontal cortex blood supply in Cercopithecus aethiops: New approach to the non-primate model of schizophrenia

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    Filipović B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a non-human prefrontal cortex schizophrenia studying model has been a subject of interest in the past decade. Authors intended to contribute to this model with the study of the blood supply of the prefrontal cortex of Cercopithecus aethiops. Hence, we have microdissected 24 formaldehyde ethanol fixed brains (48 hemispheres of adult Cercopithecus aethiops in order to reveal the origin, calibers and pathway of the prefrontal branches. On 22 of 24 brains, prefrontal rami originated from the dorsal terminal branch of the middle cerebral artery by a common arterial trunk, while on two brains they occurred as "early cortical branches" from the terminal part of the middle cerebral artery. The average caliber of the common trunk on both sides was approximately 500 μm, or about a half of the "mother artery" without significant left - right asymmetries. The adequacy of the vascular pattern of the prefrontal cortex of the Cercopithecus aethiops for future experimental investigations of schizophrenia has also been discussed.

  3. Myocardial bridges over the ramus intervetricularis anterior and its branches in Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus

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    Nikolić Valentina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial bridges (MBs are structures consisting of heart muscle fibers running above the subepicardially positioned coronary arteries. In the light of previous studies, MBs are most often associated with the ramus interventricularis anterior (RIA which put this vessel into the focus of our research. The purpose of the present study was to determine the frequency of occurrence and quantitative analysis of myocardial bridges over the RIA and its lateral branches. The studied material consisted of 55 Cercopithecus aethiops hearts, of both sexes, preserved in formaldehyde solution. Standard anatomical methods were used in the analysis, with the help of a stereomicroscope. The presence of MBs over the RIA was confirmed in a total of 70.9% samples, with no statistically significant differences related to the gender. In 2 hearts (3.6% multiple bridges were revealed. The length of the bridges varies in the range of 0.5 mm - 31.6 mm, the distance from the origin of RIA varies between 0.5 mm - 25 mm which makes the proximal third of the anterior (paraconal interventricular groove most frequently tunneled. The lateral branches of RIA were overbridged in 5.4%, with a single muscular band. The lenght of MBs varied from 6.2 mm - 12.5 mm, and they were localized over the first lateral branch in all cases.

  4. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops

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    Adrienne L. Zihlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas.

  5. Gross and histopathological findings in Cercopithecus aethiops with experimental Cyclospora infection in Kenya

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    Nguhiu PN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purity N Nguhiu1, Claire N Wamae2,3, Japheth K Magambo4, Paul G Mbuthia5, Daniel C Chai6, Dorcas S Yole61Department of Veterinary Services, Kabete, Ministry of Livestock Development, Nairobi, 2Directorate of Research and Development, Kenya Methodist University, Meru, 3Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, 4Meru University College of Science and Technology, Meru, 5Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, 6Department of Tropical Infectious Diseases, Institute of Primate Research, Karen, Nairobi, KenyaAbstract: In 2009, experimental Cyclospora infections were established in two juvenile female and two adult male Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkeys at Nairobi's Institute of Primate Research (IPR. The study animals were humanely sacrificed, and gross and histopathological evaluation was done at seven weeks post-infection. On gross examination, the juveniles had no abnormalities except for a slight enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes, while the adults displayed more pathology of enlarged lymph nodes, hemorrhagic gastrointestinal tracts, widespread necrotic foci of the liver, and enlarged spleens. Significant histopathological findings were observed in both the juveniles and adults, which ranged from mild inflammatory reactions in the stomach and intestines to intense cellular infiltrations with mitotic activity and lymphocytic infiltrations around the periportal area of the livers. The lymph nodes had extensive hyperplasia with many mitotic cells.Keywords: Cyclospora spp., cyclosporiasis, nonhuman primates, pathological findings, histopathological findings, African green monkeys

  6. Blood supply of the insular cortex of Cercopithecus Aethiops: Another approach to establish non-human primate model for addiction

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    Filipović Branislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-human primate model has already been applied in studies about alcoholism in the last decade, demonstrating a high confidence level of similarities between humans and non-human monkeys. Authors indented to establish the definitive model for addiction by investigating the insular blood supply in Cercopithecus Aethiops. In 23 out of 24 Latex injected adult brains, the insula received blood supplied by the M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA. The cortex was supplied by two separate trunks, while perforating branches originating directly from MCA, individually, or together with lateral striate (lenticulostriate arteries. Their average caliber was about 120 µm, and the number of its branches ranged from 2 to 9. No left - right asymmetries have been recorded. Similarities with the human vascular pattern have been studied. .

  7. Effect of protein deficient cassava diet on Cercopithecus aethiops hearts and its possible role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of endomyocardial fibrosis in man.

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    Sezi, C L

    1996-05-01

    Despite the current hypotheses for its causation, the exact cause of endmyocardial fibrosis is unknown. However, endomyocardial fibrosis being a disease of the low socio-economic groups who feed on low protein high carbohydrate diets consisting exclusively of cassava in Uganda and the demonstration by the author of a bimodal age distribution among the female patients and monomodal pattern in the male patients, led the author to suspect protein deficiency and cassava as aetiological factors thereby attributing the first mode to the increased but unmet protein needs for childhood growth and the second mode to the increased but unmet protein needs for pregnancies and lactation in the 20-40 year age groups. Consequently a new hypothesis that "prolonged ingestion of tuber (cassava/tapioca) crops associated with extreme deprivation of protein causes EMF" was formulated. In order to verify this hypothesis, three Cercopithecus aethiops were fed on uncooked banana diet while another three were fed on uncooked cassava and hearts harvested for histology whenever the animal health deteriorated. Changes in the endomyocardium included cell vacuolation, interstitial fibrosis and endocardial thickening by the 130th day in the animals on cassava but the animals on bananas were free from such changes. By the 160th day, the former exhibited marked thickening of the endocardium, interstitial fibrosis, fibrous septa formation, pappillary muscle fibrosis as well as apical fibrosis of the left ventricle, which findings occur in the human disease. Calcification and inflammatory cells were absent. A repeat of the experimental feeding with cassava using a batch of five animals, one of which survived up to seven months revealed cardiac findings similar to those seen at 160 days. Thus, the pathogenetic process, hitherto obscure, begins with cardiac cell necrosis followed by fibrosis consequent upon the failure of cardiac cell repair due to protein deficiency caused by the protein free cassava

  8. Bilateral ovarian cysts originating from rete ovarii in an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops).

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    Kim, Sung-Woo; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Lee, Young-Jeon; Jung, Kang-Jin; Chang, Kwon-Sik; Kim, Doo; Son, Hwa-Young; Reu, Dong-Suck; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2012-09-01

    Ovarian cyst is common incidental finding in humans and many animals and includes follicular cysts, cystic rete ovarii and mesonephric duct cysts. Ovarian cyst is often associated with reproductive disorders in humans and animals. We found accidentally bilateral cystic masses in ovaries in an African green monkey. Grossly, the left and right ovarian cystic masses were single unilocular cystic structures measuring 0.6 and 1.8 cm in diameter, respectively. Histologically, both cysts were thin-walled structures that arose from the center of the ovary and displaced ovarian tissue peripherally. The cysts were lined by a single layer of nonciliated low cuboidal epithelium. Immunohistochemically, epithelial cells in the cysts were positive for cytokeratin, and the stromal cells were positive for smooth muscle actin but negative for vimentin. These results suggest that these ovarian cysts in an African green monkey are cystic rete ovarii. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cystic rete ovarii in African green monkeys and may be of value in relation to research of the pathogenesis and treatment of ovarian cyst. PMID:22673701

  9. Experimental infections of baboons (Papio spp. and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops with Trichinella zimbabwensis and successful treatment with ivermectin

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    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Trichinella zimbabwensis infections were established in three baboons (Papios p.and four vervet monkeys (Cercopithecuase thiops and the clinical-pathological manifestations assessed. The infected animals showed clinical signs ranging from fever, diarrhoea, periorbitaol edema and muscular pain in varying degrees. One baboon became blind due to the infection. Levels of creatinine phosphokinase and lactated ehydrogenase increased to reach a peak on Day 42 post-infection(pifor both baboons and monkeys. Blood parameters such as packed cell volume, levels of red blood cells and white blood cells did not change significantly from the normal ranges except for the levels of eosinophils which peaked above the normal ranges at Day 28 and 56 pi in baboons and at Day 56 pi in monkeys.

  10. The genome of the vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

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    Warren, Wesley C; Jasinska, Anna J; García-Pérez, Raquel; Svardal, Hannes; Tomlinson, Chad; Rocchi, Mariano; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Capozzi, Oronzo; Minx, Patrick; Montague, Michael J; Kyung, Kim; Hillier, LaDeana W; Kremitzki, Milinn; Graves, Tina; Chiang, Colby; Hughes, Jennifer; Tran, Nam; Huang, Yu; Ramensky, Vasily; Choi, Oi-Wa; Jung, Yoon J; Schmitt, Christopher A; Juretic, Nikoleta; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Turner, Trudy R; Wiseman, Roger W; Tuscher, Jennifer J; Karl, Julie A; Schmitz, Jörn E; Zahn, Roland; O'Connor, David H; Redmond, Eugene; Nisbett, Alex; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C; Brenchley, Jason M; Dione, Michel; Antonio, Martin; Schroth, Gary P; Kaplan, Jay R; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Thomas, Gregg W C; Hahn, Matthew W; Raney, Brian J; Aken, Bronwen; Nag, Rishi; Schmitz, Juergen; Churakov, Gennady; Noll, Angela; Stanyon, Roscoe; Webb, David; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Nordborg, Magnus; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Dewar, Ken; Weinstock, George M; Wilson, Richard K; Freimer, Nelson B

    2015-12-01

    We describe a genome reference of the African green monkey or vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops). This member of the Old World monkey (OWM) superfamily is uniquely valuable for genetic investigations of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), for which it is the most abundant natural host species, and of a wide range of health-related phenotypes assessed in Caribbean vervets (C. a. sabaeus), whose numbers have expanded dramatically since Europeans introduced small numbers of their ancestors from West Africa during the colonial era. We use the reference to characterize the genomic relationship between vervets and other primates, the intra-generic phylogeny of vervet subspecies, and genome-wide structural variations of a pedigreed C. a. sabaeus population. Through comparative analyses with human and rhesus macaque, we characterize at high resolution the unique chromosomal fission events that differentiate the vervets and their close relatives from most other catarrhine primates, in whom karyotype is highly conserved. We also provide a summary of transposable elements and contrast these with the rhesus macaque and human. Analysis of sequenced genomes representing each of the main vervet subspecies supports previously hypothesized relationships between these populations, which range across most of sub-Saharan Africa, while uncovering high levels of genetic diversity within each. Sequence-based analyses of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms reveal extremely low diversity in Caribbean C. a. sabaeus vervets, compared to vervets from putatively ancestral West African regions. In the C. a. sabaeus research population, we discover the first structural variations that are, in some cases, predicted to have a deleterious effect; future studies will determine the phenotypic impact of these variations. PMID:26377836

  11. Examining deep litter as environmental enrichment for a family group of Wolf's guenons, Cercopithecus wolfi.

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    Fuller, Grace; Sadowski, Leslie; Cassella, Christine; Lukas, Kristen E

    2010-01-01

    Manipulable substrates promote species-typical behavior and decrease abnormal behavior in a variety of primate species. However, the effects of providing litter to arboreal primates are not as well studied, and there is little information specifically concerning enrichment for guenons. To inform the captive management of an under-studied species, we evaluated deep litter substrate as environmental enrichment for a family group of Wolf's guenons, Cercopithecus wolfi. We expected it to promote species-typical behavior and to act as an intervention by reducing aggressive behaviors targeted toward a juvenile group member by his parents. We compared the guenons' behavior during baseline periods in which normal husbandry routines were followed to periods when the entire floor of their enclosure was covered with 30 cm of straw or wood wool. We then evaluated the group's preference between litters by comparing their relative use. The guenons spent more time feeding and were more active during both litter conditions, but relative to their respective baselines, they spent more time examining straw and less time examining wood wool. Straw, but not wood wool, promoted some affiliative behavior as well as greater tolerance of the juvenile's social proximity to others. However, the addition of deep litter did not ameliorate patterns of agonistic behavior among our subjects. Our results suggest that straw conferred greater behavioral benefits than wood wool as a deep litter substrate for this guenon group and may constitute a form of environmental enrichment for this species. PMID:19816906

  12. Seroprevalence of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild and captive born Sykes' monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis in Kenya

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    Otsyula Moses G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sykes' monkey and related forms (Cercopithecus mitis make up an abundant, widespread and morphologically diverse species complex in eastern Africa that naturally harbors a distinct simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsyk. We carried out a retrospective serological survey of SIV infection from both wild and captive Sykes' monkeys from Kenya. We compared two commercially available, cross-reactive ELISA tests using HIV antigens with a novel SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay and analyzed the data by origin, subspecies, age and sex. Results The SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay detected more serum samples as positive than either of the cross-reactive ELISA assays. Using this assay, we found that seroprevalence is higher than previously reported, but extremely variable in wild populations (from 0.0 to 90.9%. Females were infected more often than males in both wild and captive populations. Seropositive infants were common. However, no seropositive juveniles were identified. Conclusion We have developed a specific and sensitive Western blot assay for anti-SIVsyk antibody detection. Sykes' monkeys are commonly infected with SIVsyk, but with extremely variable prevalence in the wild. Higher infection prevalence in females suggests predominantly sexual transmission. High infection prevalence in infants, but none in juveniles, suggests maternal antibodies, but little or no vertical transmission.

  13. Identifying preferred habitats of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) through patch use.

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    Emerson, Sara E; Brown, Joel S

    2013-11-01

    To examine habitat preferences of two groups of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) in the Soutpansberg, South Africa, we used experimental food patches in fragments of tall forest and in bordering secondary growth short forest. Additionally, to test for the impacts of group cohesion and movement on habitat use, we tested for the interaction of space and time in our analyses of foraging intensity in the experimental food patches placed throughout the home ranges of the two groups. We expected the monkeys to harvest the most from patches in tall forest habitats and the least from patches in short forest. Further, because the monkeys move through their habitats in groups, we expected to see group cohesion effects illustrated by daily spatial variation in the monkeys’ use of widespread foraging grids. In the forest height experiments, the two groups differed in their foraging responses, with 8% greater foraging overall for one group. However, forest height did not significantly impact foraging in either group, meaning that, given feeding opportunities, samango monkeys are able to utilise secondary growth forest. For one group, missed opportunity costs of staying with the group appeared through the statistical interaction of day with foraging location (the monkeys did not always spread out to take advantage of all available food patches). In several subsequent experiments in widespread grids, significant daily spatial variation in foraging occurred, pointing to spatial cohesion during group movement as likely being an important predictor of habitat use. For an individual social forager, staying with the group may be more important than habitat type in driving habitat selection. PMID:24432361

  14. Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) hunt green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda.

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    Furuichi, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) were observed hunting green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda. During 2 h 39 min, I observed two cases of successful hunting and one case of unsuccessful hunting in a Ficus saussureana tree. Red-tailed monkeys stalked the pigeons until they were within 2-3 m, and then jumped and caught them. In both successful cases, blue monkeys (C. mitis) ran to the hunting site from adjacent trees in order to poach the prey, and the red-tailed monkeys fled. One of these red-tailed monkeys dropped the pigeon while fleeing, and the blue monkey climbed down from the tree to search for it. This is the first record of cercopithecoid monkeys hunting birds that are outside of the nest and moving freely, and also the first record of red-tailed monkeys hunting vertebrates. However rare it may be, the repeated hunting attempts using similar techniques and the immediate attempt of blue monkeys to poach the prey suggest that this type of hunting was not a one-time event that happened by chance. Blue monkeys and an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in and around the fig tree did not attempt to hunt. The hunting of volant birds may be enabled by the small body size and the quick movements of red-tailed monkeys. PMID:16467957

  15. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

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    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  16. Lesula: a new species of Cercopithecus monkey endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and implications for conservation of Congo's central basin.

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    John A Hart

    Full Text Available In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as "lesula" was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo's interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range.

  17. Polyspecific associations of Cercopithecus campbelli and C. petaurista with C. diana: what are the costs and benefits?

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    Buzzard, Paul J

    2010-10-01

    Polyspecific associations (PSA) are common in many African primate communities, including the diurnal primates at Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire. In this paper I use data on the PSA of two forest guenons, Campbell's (Cercopithecus campbelli) and lesser spot-nosed monkeys (C. petaurista), with Diana monkeys (C. diana) and other primates to clarify interspecific relationships during 17 months including a 3-month low-fruit period. I analyzed association in relation to fruit availability and measured forest strata use for C. campbelli and C. petaurista when alone and in associations with and without C. diana. I also measured predator risk and reactions to potential predators. C. campbelli and C. petaurista had high association rates with C. diana monkeys, and fruit availability did not influence association rates. C. campbelli and C. petaurista used higher strata when in association with C. diana than when alone, but they used even higher strata when associated with other primates without C. diana. This suggested that C. diana competitively exclude C. campbelli and C. petaurista from higher strata. There were relatively large numbers of potential predators, and C. diana were usually the first callers to threatening stimuli, suggesting that antipredator benefits of association with C. diana outweighed the competitive costs. C. campbelli spent more time in association with C. diana than C. petaurista did and appeared to be more reliant on C. diana for antipredator benefits. C. petaurista were less reliant on C. diana because of a cryptic strategy and may have associated less in some months because of high chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presence. PMID:20535628

  18. Detection of cyclospora in captive chimpanzees and macaques by a quantitative PCR-based mutation scanning approach

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    Marangi, M; A.V. Koehler; S.A. Zanzani; Manfredi, M.T.; E. Brianti; Giangaspero, A.; Gasser, R. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cyclospora is a protistan parasite that causes enteritis in several species of animals including humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Cyclospora in captive non-human primates. Methods A total of 119 faecal samples from Pan troglodytes, Macaca sylvanus, Cercopithecus cephus, Erythrocebus patas, Chlorocebus aethiops and Macaca fascicularis from a wildlife animal rescue center as well as from Macaca fascicularis from an experimental primate research center ...

  19. Validity of animal models for the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee diterpenes in human subjects

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    Roos, de, B.; Sawyer, J K; Katan, M.B.; Rudel, L L

    1999-01-01

    Cafestol and kahweol, coffee lipids present in unfiltered coffee brews, potently increase LDL-cholesterol concentration in human subjects. We searched for an animal species in which cafestol similarly increases LDL-cholesterol. Such an animal model could be used subsequently as a model to study the mechanism of action of cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol increased serum lipids in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), cebus (Cebus apella) and rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys,...

  20. The U3 promoter region of the acutely lethal simian immunodeficiency virus clone smmPBj1.9 confers related biological activity on the apathogenic clone agm3mc.

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    Dittmar, M T; Cichutek, K; Fultz, P N; Kurth, R

    1995-01-01

    Infection with the acutely pathogenic molecular virus clone SIVsmmPBj1.9, cloned from isolate PBj14 of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from sooty mangabey monkeys (Cercocebus atys), leads to acute viral and often lethal disease within days or weeks. SIVsmmPBj1.9 has the unique property of replicating in nonstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pig-tailed macaques. In contrast, molecular virus clone SIVagm3mc of SIV from African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), which is...

  1. Subchronic toxicity of chlorine dioxide and related compounds in drinking water in the nonhuman primate.

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    Bercz, J P; Jones, L.; Garner, L; Murray, D.; Ludwig, D A; Boston, J.

    1982-01-01

    Subchronic toxicities of ClO2, NaClO2, NaClO3 and NH2Cl were studied in the African Green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). The chemicals were administered in drinking water during 30-60 days subchronic rising dose protocols. The only unexpected and significant toxic effect was elicited by ClO2; this chemical inhibited thyroid metabolism in the animals at a dose of ca. 9.0 mg/kg/day. A statistically significant decrease of serum thyroxine occurred after the fourth week of exposure to 100 mg/l...

  2. [18F]fluoro-β-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine derivatives show stereo, geometrical, and regio specificities as in vivo central dopaminergic probes in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereo (D and L), geometrical (E and Z), and regiospecific (2-, 4-, and 6-[18F]fluoro) analogs of β-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (FMMT) have been investigated in adult vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus, n=12) in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET). Brain transport through the blood-brain barrier and central aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD)-mediated decarboxylation rates were established. Results show strict structural dependency of the kinetic behavior of radiofluorinated FMMT analogs, with the E-isomer exhibiting a higher specificity over the (Z) geometrical counterpart for central dopaminergic structures. The 6-[18F]fluoro substituted L-(E)-FMMT was also favored over the 2- and 4-[18F]fluorosubstituted isomers in terms of their ability to localize in the same brain areas. The role of PET in drug development is also exemplified in this work

  3. [{sup 18}F]fluoro-{beta}-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine derivatives show stereo, geometrical, and regio specificities as in vivo central dopaminergic probes in monkeys

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    Huang, S.-C.; Quintana, Javier; Satyamurthy, N.; Lacan, Goran; Yu Danchu; Phelps, Michael E.; Barrio, Jorge R

    1999-05-01

    Stereo (D and L), geometrical (E and Z), and regiospecific (2-, 4-, and 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro) analogs of {beta}-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (FMMT) have been investigated in adult vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus, n=12) in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET). Brain transport through the blood-brain barrier and central aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD)-mediated decarboxylation rates were established. Results show strict structural dependency of the kinetic behavior of radiofluorinated FMMT analogs, with the E-isomer exhibiting a higher specificity over the (Z) geometrical counterpart for central dopaminergic structures. The 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro substituted L-(E)-FMMT was also favored over the 2- and 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorosubstituted isomers in terms of their ability to localize in the same brain areas. The role of PET in drug development is also exemplified in this work.

  4. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time

  5. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruvolo, M.; Disotell, T.R.; Allard, M.W. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Brown, W.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Honeycutt, R.L. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1991-02-15

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time.

  6. Cytotoxic activity of water extracts of Trichilia hirta leaves on human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae) is traditionally used by patients suffering from cancer as an antitumoral resource. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of water extracts of Trichilia hirta leaves on tumour cells and identify through a phytochemical screening the principal families of phytocomponents contained in these extracts. The cytotoxic activity of these extracts was also evaluated on human melanoma cells (SK-mel-3) and human breast carcinoma (T-47D). The African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells Cercopithecus aethiops (Vero) were used as a non-tumour cells control. The results showed the presence of triterpenes/steroids, saponins, coumarins, reductor sugars, phenols and tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates/glycosides in the extracts. The water leaf extracts showed cytotoxic activity mainly on tumour cells, which contributes to explain the referred recovery by patients suffering form cancer that traditionally consume these extracts

  7. Nutrient contents of three commonly consumed fruits of lowe’s monkey (Cercopithecus campbelii lowei)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiafe, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    Proximate analysis of three commonly consumed fruits (maize, hog plum and banana) was conducted to determine food biochemistry of the Lowe’s monkeys with specific objectives of determining the nutrient content and chemical composition of the food of Lowe’s monkeys by ‘Weende system of Analysis’. The results indicated the following order of nutrients: Nitrogen-Free-Extract, moisture, protein, fats, ash and fiber. The proportions of the nutrients contents of the three fruits did not differ from...

  8. Woodland and grassland mosaic from a butterfly perspective: habitat use by Erebia aethiops (Lepidoptera: Satyridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slámová, Irena; Klečka, Jan; Konvička, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2013), s. 243-254. ISSN 1752-458X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2248; GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant ostatní: GA JU(CZ) 144/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) 145/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) 106/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) 135/2010/P; GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : conservation * grassland * habitat loss Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.937, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00212.x/pdf

  9. Diana monkeys, Cercopithecus diana, adjust their anti-predator response behaviour to human hunting strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bshary, Redouan

    2006-01-01

    In Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, humans with guns hunt monkeys for their meat. The poachers imitate animal calls to feign the presence of eagles or leopards, two predators to which monkeys react with high calling rates and approach. In the presence of humans, monkeys become silent and move off. A small area of the park is now avoided by poachers, due to the establishment of a field project on chimpanzees in 1979. This offered the opportunity to investigate whether sudden changes in predatio...

  10. Social and emotional values of sounds influence human (Homo sapiens and non-human primate (Cercopithecus campbelli auditory laterality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Basile

    Full Text Available The last decades evidenced auditory laterality in vertebrates, offering new important insights for the understanding of the origin of human language. Factors such as the social (e.g. specificity, familiarity and emotional value of sounds have been proved to influence hemispheric specialization. However, little is known about the crossed effect of these two factors in animals. In addition, human-animal comparative studies, using the same methodology, are rare. In our study, we adapted the head turn paradigm, a widely used non invasive method, on 8-9-year-old schoolgirls and on adult female Campbell's monkeys, by focusing on head and/or eye orientations in response to sound playbacks. We broadcast communicative signals (monkeys: calls, humans: speech emitted by familiar individuals presenting distinct degrees of social value (female monkeys: conspecific group members vs heterospecific neighbours, human girls: from the same vs different classroom and emotional value (monkeys: contact vs threat calls; humans: friendly vs aggressive intonation. We evidenced a crossed-categorical effect of social and emotional values in both species since only "negative" voices from same class/group members elicited a significant auditory laterality (Wilcoxon tests: monkeys, T = 0 p = 0.03; girls: T = 4.5 p = 0.03. Moreover, we found differences between species as a left and right hemisphere preference was found respectively in humans and monkeys. Furthermore while monkeys almost exclusively responded by turning their head, girls sometimes also just moved their eyes. This study supports theories defending differential roles played by the two hemispheres in primates' auditory laterality and evidenced that more systematic species comparisons are needed before raising evolutionary scenario. Moreover, the choice of sound stimuli and behavioural measures in such studies should be the focus of careful attention.

  11. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    KAUST Repository

    Chauke, Chesa G.

    2014-01-22

    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African green monkeys for 3 months. In the treated monkeys, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 43% from baseline, whereas concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased by 49% and 34%, respectively. The results suggest that in this primate model, a low dose of niacin can effectively increase concentrations of HDL cholesterol.©2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diurnal behavior and habitat preferences of Erebia aethiops, an aberrant lowland species of a mountain butterfly clade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slámová, Irena; Klečka, Jan; Konvička, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2011), s. 230-246. ISSN 0892-7553 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA ČR GAP505/10/2248 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly activity * habitat preferences * diurnal behavior Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2011

  13. Combination and monotherapy of Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice using plant extracts and herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. Makwali , Frederick M.E. Wanjala , Josyline C. Kaburi , Johnstone Ingonga , Wabwoba W. Byrum & Christopher O. Anjili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is a growing health problem in many parts of the world. Efforts to findnew chemotherapeutics for leishmaniasis remain a priority. This study was carried out to determine the effect ofcombination and monotherapies using plant extracts and herbicides on Leishmania major infection in BALB/cmice.Methods: The herbicides and saponin extract were purchased from Sigma. Roots of Plumbago capensis werecollected from Karura forest, Nairobi, Kenya. Plant extractions were done in KEMRI at Center for TraditionalMedicines and Drugs Research.Results: Lesion sizes after infection of BALB/c mice were similar in all the experimental groups till the onset oftherapeutic treatments (p >0.05. At 15 days post-treatment, significant differences (p < 0.05 were discerned inthe lesion sizes of the BALB/c mice in all the mono- and combined-treated groups. However, the combinedtherapies caused total elimination of the parasites from the lesions and significantly reduced parasite burden inliver and spleen compared to the untreated controls at the end of the experiment.Interpretation & conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that combination therapy using alternativeadministration of saponin, acriflavine, trifluralin and plumbagin is effective in treating L. major infection inmice. In this regard, an investigation into the efficacy of these combined therapies against other Leishmaniastrains should be explored further. Furthermore, studies with these combination therapies should be done onnon-human primates such as the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops.

  14. Effects of the Platelet Rich Plasma on Apexogenesis in Young Monkeys: Radiological and Hystologycal Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platelet-reach plasma (PRP) is an attractive tool in regenerative medicine due to its ability to stimulate proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Since dental pulp derived stem cells are recognized as central in apexogenesis, the aim of the study was to evaluate radiologically and histologically effects of PRP on apexogenesis in teeth with immature roots. The study included eight monkeys (Cercopithecus Aethiops) divided in two equal groups for evaluation 3 and 12 months after treatment. All participants obtained the same treatment including pulpotomy and after-treatment with: hydroxiapatite (HA)-incisor and HA+canine PRP. Radiological evaluation was performed using the long cone paralleling technique for recording of defined parameters and histological evaluation was performed using tissue removed en block for the observation of parameters related to apexogenesis. The results obtained radiologically and histologically have shown increase in bridge formation in HA+PRP (75%) group after 3 months comparing to HA group (50%). Contrary to that, after 12 months there were no significant differences between groups. The root delay was not registered in the HA+PRP group contrary to HA group where it was registered in 25% after 12 months. Results of the study suggest that PRP is a powerful tool for intensive and rapid apexogenesis since it offers clear and comprehensive results (mostly in the first three months) which are early radiologically visible without any failure in the proposed requests

  15. The effects of hydroxyapatite and platelet rich plasma on apexogenesis in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are very few data about the effects of endogenous growth factors in vital pulp therapy, and still they are often controversial. This study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP in conjugation with hydroxyapatite (HAP, as pulp capping materials, on root and periodontium formation. Eight young monkeys (Cercopithecus Aethiops with permanent dentition and incomplete root formation were involved in this study. After pulpotomy, the pulp lesion was capped with calcium hydroxide (control, HAP (experimental or HAP in conjugation with PRP (experimental. Six moths later, the animals were sacrificed, the tissue was removed en block, and prepared for histological analysis in a routine way. The results of histological analysis revealed that the healing process, characterized by dentin bridge formation, maintained morphological and functional integrity of dental pulp and complete formation of dental root and surrounding periodontium. The inflammatory reaction was scored as mild to moderate, in almost all samples in all groups, suggesting the biocompatibility of the used materials. Materials used in this study are convenient as capping agents, contributing in maintaining the integrity of the pulp tissue and facilitating root and periodontium formation. According to histological data it could be suggested that hydroxyapatite in conjugation with endogenous growth factors, represent a superior alternative to other materials used in this study.

  16. Conservation challenge: human-herbivore conflict in Chebera Churchura National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datiko, Demeke; Bekele, Afework

    2013-12-01

    An investigation on human-herbivore conflict was carried out in CCNP between 2011 and 2012 in seven randomly selected villages (Chebera, Serri, Yora, Shita, Delba, Chuchra, Chewda) around the Park. A total of 312 household samples were identified for interview. Group discussion and field observation were also carried out. Among the respondents, the majority (83.9%) faced crop damage. African elephant (Loxodonta africana), Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibious), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), Wild pig (Sus scrofa), Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), Vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) and Anubis baboon (Papio anubis) were identified as the most problematic animals in the area. However, buffalo, monkey and warthog were considered as the notorious pest. Crop damage and threats to human safety were the major problems encountered resulting in conflict between human and wildlife. Most respondents had a negative attitude towards the problem-posing animals. This will lead to a change in public attitude from one that supports wildlife conservation to sees wild herbivores as a threat and a potential negative consequence for wildlife conservation. Active measures have to be implemented to solve the problems and safeguard the future of the wildlife management in the park. PMID:24506044

  17. Psyllium husk. I: Effect on plasma lipoproteins, cholesterol metabolism, and atherosclerosis in African green monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, M R; Mehta, T; Leathers, C W; Foster, D M

    1992-08-01

    Psyllium's effects on plasma and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, cholesterol metabolism, and diet-induced atherosclerosis were studied in adult male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Animals were fed for 3.5 y one of three experimental diets: low-cholesterol cellulose (LCC), high-cholesterol cellulose (HCC), or high-cholesterol psyllium (HCP). The LCC and HCP groups had significantly (P less than 0.05) lower plasma cholesterol concentrations (39% lower) at 1 mo than did the HCC group. These responses persisted throughout the study. Plasma cholesterol changes were due to a reduction in intermediate-density and low-density lipoproteins; very-low and high-density-lipoprotein concentrations were similar among groups. Aortic atherosclerosis, evaluated as percent sudanophilia at 3.5 y, was lowest in the LCC group, intermediate in the HCP group, and highest in the HCC group. Cholesterol absorption, neutral steroid and fat excretion, HMGCoA reductase activity (in intestine and liver), and body weight were unrelated to psyllium's hypocholesterolemic effects. PMID:1322032

  18. Intestinal structural changes in African green monkeys after long term psyllium or cellulose feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulini, I; Mehta, T; Hargis, A

    1987-02-01

    Intestinal structure of male adult African Green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops ssp vervets) was studied after 3 1/2 yr of consuming diets containing 10% psyllium husk or cellulose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified mild damage (cellular swelling and disarray, and microvillar denudation and disarray) at villous tips throughout the small intestine in the psyllium-fed monkeys. The cellulose group had similar duodenal damage. Differences were not found in colons by SEM. By light microscopy, jejunum had shorter villi with psyllium feeding, based upon villous height (P less than 0.05), and length around a sectioned villus (P less than 0.1), but not based upon the number of enterocytes per villus. Jejunal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layer thicknesses were increased in psyllium-fed monkeys. Colonic mucosal height was significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced and muscle layer thickness was mildly reduced in the psyllium-fed monkeys. Group differences were not found in intestinal weight or length or in the weight of small intestinal mucosal scrapings. Psyllium husk may cause epithelial cell loss and muscle layer hypertrophy in the jejunum and ileum and thinning of the colonic wall after prolonged feeding. PMID:3031252

  19. Comparative and functional myology of the prehensile tail in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, P

    1995-06-01

    The caudal myology of prehensile-tailed monkeys (Cebus apella, Alouatta palliata, Alouatta seniculus, Lagothrix lagotricha, and Ateles paniscus) and nonprehensile-tailed primates (Eulemur fulvus, Aotus trivirgatus, Callithrix jacchus, Pithecia pithecia, Saimiri sciureus, Macaca fascicularis, and Cercopithecus aethiops) was examined and compared in order to identify muscular differences that correlate with osteological features diagnostic of tail prehensility. In addition, electrophysiological stimulation was carried out on different segments of the intertransversarii caudae muscle of an adult spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) to assess their action on the prehensile tail. Several important muscular differences characterize the prehensile tail of New World monkeys compared to the nonprehensile tail of other primates. In atelines and Cebus, the mass of extensor caudae lateralis and flexor caudae longus muscles is more uniform along the tail, and their long tendons cross a small number of vertebrae before insertion. Also, prehensile-tailed monkeys, especially atelines, are characterized by well-developed flexor and intertransversarii caudae muscles compared to nonprehensile-tailed primates. Finally, Ateles possesses a bulkier abductor caudae medialis and a more cranial origin for the first segment of intertransversarii caudae than do other prehensile-tailed platyrrhines. These myological differences between nonprehensile-tailed and prehensile-tailed primates, and among prehensile-tailed monkeys, agree with published osteological and behavioral data. Caudal myological similarities and differences found in Cebus and atelines, combined with tail-use data from the literature, support the hypothesis that prehensile tails evolved in parallel in Cebus and atelines. PMID:7595958

  20. Effects of the platelet rich plasma on apexogenesis in young monkeys: Radiological and hystologycal evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-reach plasma (PRP is an attractive tool in regenerative medicine due to its ability to stimulate proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Since dental pulp derived stem cells are recognized as central in apexogenesis, the aim of the study was to evaluate radiologically and histologically effects of PRP on apexogenesis in teeth with immature roots. The study included eight monkeys (Cercopithecus Aethiops divided in two equal groups for evaluation 3 and 12 months after treatment. All participants obtained the same treatment including pulpotomy and after-treatment with: hydroxiapatite (HA-incisor and HA+canine PRP. Radiological evaluation was performed using the long cone paralleling technique for recording of defined parameters and histological evaluation was performed using tissue removed en block for the observation of parameters related to apexogenesis. The results obtained radiologically and histologically have shown increase in bridge formation in HA+PRP (75% group after 3 months comparing to HA group (50%. Contrary to that, after 12 months there were no significant differences between groups. The root delay was not registered in the HA+PRP group contrary to HA group where it was registered in 25% after 12 months. Results of the study suggest that PRP is a powerful tool for intensive and rapid apexogenesis since it offers clear and comprehensive results (mostly in the first three months which are early radiologically visible without any failure in the proposed requests.

  1. A comparison of adult body size between captive and wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) on the island of St. Kitts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Trudy R; Cramer, Jennifer Danzy; Nisbett, Alexis; Patrick Gray, J

    2016-04-01

    Weight and 34 morphological measurements were obtained from 103 vervet monkeys living either in the wild or in captive colonies derived from the wild populations on the island of St. Kitts in the Eastern Caribbean. All measures were taken during the same week, eliminating bias that might result from changing seasonal environmental conditions. Vervets on St. Kitts are all descended from a small number of individuals brought to the island approximately 400 years ago from West Africa, thus eliminating bias that might result from subspecific size differences. We conducted a principal components analysis (PCA) and compared individual traits between captive and wild adult animals. Morphological measures such as body, arm, and leg length did not differ significantly between animals living in the wild and animals in captivity. Weight and measures indicating condition-including body mass index (BMI), chest, thigh, and upper arm girth were all higher for animals living in captivity. More consistent available food is probably the cause of differences in measures reflecting condition. PMID:26801341

  2. Acute and sub-chronic effects of purified cathinone from khat (Catha edulis) on behavioural profiles in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyongesa, Albert W; Oduma, Jemimah A; Nakajima, Motohiro; Odongo, Hesbon O; Adoyo, Pius A; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the cumulative effects of cathinone on behavioural alterations in single-caged vervet monkeys. Fourteen adult vervets were divided into tests (12 animals) and controls (2 animals), and exposed to escalating doses of cathinone at alternate days of each week for 4 months in presence and absence of cage enrichment. One month of pre-treatment phase served to establish baseline values. Composite behavioural scores of aggression, anxiety, abnormal responses, withdrawal and appetite loss were done. A series of repeated measures analysis of variances were conducted to examine the extent to which cathinone administration was associated with patterns of changes in behavioural data. Results indicate a dose-dependent effect of cathinone on increases of aggression, anxiety, abnormal responses, withdrawal, and appetite loss. The findings demonstrate that at high doses and long-term exposure, cathinone causes behavioural alterations probably via changes in presynaptic striatal dopamine system. PMID:24154685

  3. Dose-response inhibitory effects of purified cathinone from khat (Catha edulis) on cortisol and prolactin release in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyongesa, Albert W; Oduma, Jemimah A; Nakajima, Motohiro; Odongo, Hesbon O; Adoyo, Pius A; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2014-06-01

    This study reports acute and sub-chronic effects of cathinone on hormonal alterations in single-caged vervet monkeys. Fourteen adult vervet monkeys were used, 12 of which were treated and 2 controls. Pre-treatment phase of 1 month aimed at establishing baseline levels of hormones while treatment phase of 4 months considered the dose- and time-response effects of cathinone on serum cortisol and prolactin levels. Test animals were allocated four groups of three animals each and administered 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 mg/kg body weight of cathinone orally while controls were administered normal saline. Treatment was done at alternate days of each week. Serum prolactin and cortisol immunoassays were done. Hormonal data was analysed by repeated measures ANCOVA. Results indicate a dose [F (4, 8) = 218, P < 0.001] and time [F (18, 142) = 21.7, P < 0.001] dependent effect of cathinone on cortisol levels with a significant dose by week interaction [F (71, 142) = 4.86, P < 0.001]. Similarly, there was a decrease in serum prolactin [F (4, 8) = 267, P < 0.001] with escalating doses of cathinone with a significant dose x week interaction [F (59, 118) = 13.03, P < 0.001]. The findings demonstrate that at high doses and long-term exposure, cathinone causes hormonal alterations probably via changes in hypothalamo-hypophyseo-adrenocortical and gonadal axes integrity. PMID:24190428

  4. Acid and reduction stimulated logic "and"-type combinational release mode achieved in DOX-loaded superparamagnetic nanogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meifang; Xue, Yanan; Chen, Lidi; Xia, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Lei; Yu, Bo; Long, Sihui; Huang, Shiwen; Yu, Faquan

    2016-08-01

    A superparamagnetic nanogel featured with a logic "and"-type pH/reduction combinational stimulated release mode was fabricated as a drug delivery system by virtue of parallel crosslinking. The disulfide bond and electrostatic interaction between thiolated alginate (SA-SH) and thiolated/aminated iron oxide nanoparticles (SH-MION-NH2) were employed to achieve the mechanism. The obtained DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel is 122.7±20.3nm in size with superparamagnetism. The combinational conditions of pH5.0/10mM glutathione (GSH) stimulated a significantly high accumulative release. However, either pH7.4/10mM (GSH) or pH5.0 alone induced much low release. This verified the typical logic "and"-type combinationally stimulated release mode. In vitro cytotoxicity tests clearly illustrated the effective selectivity of killing the human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) with IC50 of 1.01μg/mL and the human hepatoma cells (HepG2) with IC50 of 1.57μg/mL but significantly low cytotoxicity to the cercopithecus aethiops kidney cells (Vero). CLSM presented the internationalization of the nanogel into cytoplasm and nuclei with time. In vivo investigation revealed that the selective intratumoral accumulation and antitumor efficacy were considerably advantageous over free DOX whereas low systemic toxicity exhibited up-regulated security as compared to free DOX. Overall, the DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel with enhanced antitumor efficacy and down-regulated adverse effect was a promising nanoplatform for the clinical chemotherapy of malignancy. PMID:27157762

  5. Evolution of the thyrotropin receptor: a G protein coupled receptor with an intrinsic capacity to dimerize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczur, Viktória; Puskás, László G; Takács, Mária; Rácz, István András; Szendroi, Andrea; Tóth, Sára; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Szalai, Csaba; Balázs, Csaba; Falus, András; Knudsen, Bjarne; Farid, Nadir R

    2003-04-01

    The rapidly escalating number of genome sequences has emphasized the basic tenants of the schema of life. By the same token comparisons according to specialized function or niche within nature expose genomic strategies to optimize the use of resources and ensure biological success. Increasing complexity may result from diversification, shuffling, and re-arrangement of an otherwise limited functional genomic complement. To further test the concept of relative structural plasticity of the TSH receptor we sequenced the TSHR gene of two Old World monkey species Macaca mulatta and Cercopithecus aethiops, evolutionary removed from Homo sapiens by >20Myr. Both genes encoded a protein of 764 residues. This structure was 99% homologous between the two species of Old World monkeys while C. aethiops was 97% and M. mulatta was 96% homologous to H. sapiens. TSHR sequence comparisons were sought for an additional eight mammals as well as four (two Salmon, Tilapia, and Sea Bass) from teleosts. The amino-acid sequences of the 14 TSH receptors were similar. The most variable sequences were those of the intracellular tail and the distal cysteine-rich C-terminus flanking region of the ectodomain, whereas the trans-membrane domain was most preserved. Some sequences were decidedly H. sapiens specific, while others were primate specific or showed the changes expected of evolutionary descent. Others, however, exhibited "cross-species polymorphism," sometimes at quite remarkable evolutionary distances. As opposed to H. sapiens the sequence differences may have subtle influences on TSHR function or may affect long-range compensation for radical changes in adducts. The two Old World monkeys share with other lower mammals the absence of a glycosylation site at 113-115. Sea Bass and Tilapia have four glycosylation sites, whereas the two salmon receptors have only three. Changes in some critical residues raise questions about variation in function: thus S281 is conserved in all mammals and an

  6. Apparent hallucinations in monkeys during around-the-clock amphetamine for seven to fourteen days. Possible relevance to amphetamine psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, E B; Lyon, M; Ellison, G

    1983-04-01

    Schizophrenia-like symptoms have been experimentally produced in humans by a single, large dose of amphetamine or by relatively low level, but continuous administration of the drug. In animal studies of the psychotomimetic properties of amphetamine, high doses and, in particular, repeated daily-injection drug schedules have often been used. However, amphetamine psychosis is not always a prominent effect of repeated intake drug schedules in humans and available clinical evidence suggests that psychosis develops more readily when the drug is taken in a continuous fashion over longer periods. The state produced by single large doses of amphetamine, although clearly abnormal, has been said to bear less resemblance to schizophrenia than the delayed paranoid symptoms developing after longer periods of continuous intake. In the present experiments we have studied the behavioral effects of 7 to 14 days of continuous administration of amphetamine to monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) using subcutaneously implanted silicone capsules releasing approximately .7 to 1.5 mg/kg/day of d-amphetamine base. Around-the-clock TV monitoring of the animals revealed a general biphasic sequence of drug effects, although considerable individual variation occurred: a) an "acute" phase dominated by stereotyped movements and/or prolonged staring, lasting for 2 to 5 days; b) a "late" phase peaking during days 5 to 10 after capsule implantation and characterized by highly individual, but striking sequences of: (1) Attack or sudden threat reactions directed at invisible objects; (2) rapid orienting and flight behavior without apparent cause; (3) sudden startle reactions; (4) prolonged vocalization; (5) visual tracking of invisible objects, sometimes involving coordinated patterns of "eating behavior" and (6) prolonged and rapid grooming directed at various parts of the body. These behaviors might be termed "hallucinatory" since no eliciting stimuli could be determined for their occurrence. Motor

  7. Relation between phylogeny of African green monkey CD4 genes and their respective simian immunodeficiency virus genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Diop, Ousmane; Hansen, Jan; Mathiot, Christian; Corbet, Sylvie; Barré-Sinoussi, Francoise; Allan, Jonathan S.

    1997-01-01

    mangabeys, rhesus and pig-tail macaques, chimpanzees, and humans. Chimpanzees and humans consistently clustered together. Monkeys within the Cercopithecus genus formed a separate cluster which included pata monkeys, supporting its grouping as a member of Cercopithecus. Surprisingly, sooty mangabeys were...

  8. Nuevos registros de gasterópodos para el mar tropical del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinco especies de gasterópodos: Northia pristis (Deshayes in Lamarck, 1844, Macron aethiops (Reeve, 1847, Latirus concentricus (Reeve, 1847, Terebra elata, Hinds, 1844 y Carinodrilla adonis Pilsbry & Lowe, 1932, se reportan por primera vez para aguas tropicales del mar peruano. Se da información sobre la distribución, el hábitat y comentarios relevantes sobre cada una de las especies.

  9. Revision of the Haliday collection of Braconidae (Hymenoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Achterberg, van, T.

    1997-01-01

    The type-series of the taxa of the family Braconidae described by A.H. Haliday (1806-1870) are reviewed, 99 lectotypes are designated, 24 new synonyms and 22 new combinations are given. Lectotypes are designated for the following nominal species: Alysia (Dacnusa) abdita Haliday, 1839; Opius (Opius) aethiops Haliday, 1836; Microgaster albipennis Haliday, 1834; Alysia (Alysia) ancilla Haliday, 1838; Alysia (Alysia) angustula Haliday, 1838; Microgaster annularis Haliday, 1834; Leiophron antennal...

  10. Red colobus as prey: the leaping habits of five sympatric Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael; Goldstone, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the leaping habits of five sympatric Old World monkeys (Colobus badius, Colobus guereza, Cercopithecus ascanius, Cercopithecus mitis and Cercocebus albigena) in an attempt to determine why chimpanzees prefer to hunt red colobus. We videotaped the leaps of the monkeys for 3 months in Uganda's Kibale National Park. Data were collected on leap preparation time as well as several other variables of the leaps. The leap preparation time of red colobus was found to be about double that of the other species studied. This difference is a likely reason why red colobus represent the preferred prey of chimpanzees. The hypothesis that red colobus spend more time in isolated trees than do other species was not supported. PMID:15775681

  11. 灵长类社会玩耍的行为模式、影响因素及其功能风险%Behavioral patterns, influencing factors, functions and risks of social play in primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓卫; 赵海涛; 齐晓光; 王程亮; 杨斌; 李保国

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the behavioral patterns, influencing factors, functions and risks of social play in primates, including information from published references and a study of Rhinopithecus roxellana by the authors. Social play involves the interaction between two or more individuals who often adjust to or influence the others' behavior. Play behavior is common among immature primates and can affect present individual survival and future reproductive success. The categories of social play in primates include common behaviors such as chasing, wrestling and jumping. Some species have developed novel behaviors such as play panting in chimpanzees ( Pan troglodyte) , spinning in vervet monkeys ( Cercopithecus aethiops) and bridging in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana). Generally, primates play most during late infancy and early juvenility, after which the average frequency of play behavior will gradually decline through adolescence to adulthood. The play behaviors of species which are evolutionarily closest to humans are more complicated and human-like than those of less developed species. Immature males often engage more in social play than females of the same age, but this varies with species, age and other factors, and in some cases the opposite is true. When selecting play partners, young primates appear to have a preference for partners who are kin, of the same sex, of similar age, and of similar dominance status because of the similarity in play motivation, less risk of being hurt, and the opportunity to form social allies. Individuals who prefer playing with partners of high dominance have increased access to food, water resources and opportunities for copulation. The frequency of play behavior of individuals living in high quality habitat is usually higher than that of individuals with low quality habitat. The same is true for individuals in larger groups and with an abundance of food compared to those in smaller groups and with a scarcity of food

  12. Genetic heterogeneity and phylogeny of Trichuris spp. from captive non-human primates based on ribosomal DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallero, Serena; De Liberato, Claudio; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cave, David; Masella, Valentina; D'Amelio, Stefano; Berrilli, Federica

    2015-08-01

    Nematodes of the genus Trichuris, known as whipworms, are recognized to infect numerous mammalian species including humans and non-human primates. Several Trichuris spp. have been described and species designation/identification is traditionally based on host-affiliation, although cross-infection and hybridization events may complicate species boundaries. The main aims of the present study were to genetically characterize adult Trichuris specimens from captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and grivets (Chlorocebus aethiops), using the ribosomal DNA (ITS) as molecular marker and to investigate the phylogeny and the extent of genetic variation also by comparison with data on isolates from other humans, non-human primates and other hosts. The phylogenetic analysis of Trichuris sequences from M. fuscata and C. aethiops provided evidences of distinct clades and subclades thus advocating the existence of additional separated taxa. Neighbor Joining and Bayesian trees suggest that specimens from M. fuscata may be distinct from, but related to Trichuris trichiura, while a close relationship is suggested between the subclade formed by the specimens from C. aethiops and the subclade formed by T. suis. The tendency to associate Trichuris sp. to host species can lead to misleading taxonomic interpretations (i.e. whipworms found in primates are identified as T. trichiura). The results here obtained confirm previous evidences suggesting the existence of Trichuris spp. other than T. trichiura infecting non-human living primates. PMID:26066463

  13. Plant-ants use symbiotic fungi as a food source: new insight into the nutritional ecology of ant-plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Mondolot, Laurence; La Fisca, Philippe; Voglmayr, Hermann; McKey, Doyle

    2012-10-01

    Usually studied as pairwise interactions, mutualisms often involve networks of interacting species. Numerous tropical arboreal ants are specialist inhabitants of myrmecophytes (plants bearing domatia, i.e. hollow structures specialized to host ants) and are thought to rely almost exclusively on resources derived from the host plant. Recent studies, following up on century-old reports, have shown that fungi of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales live in symbiosis with plant-ants within domatia. We tested the hypothesis that ants use domatia-inhabiting fungi as food in three ant-plant symbioses: Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana, Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa and Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. Labelling domatia fungal patches in the field with either a fluorescent dye or (15)N showed that larvae ingested domatia fungi. Furthermore, when the natural fungal patch was replaced with a piece of a (15)N-labelled pure culture of either of two Chaetothyriales strains isolated from T. aethiops colonies, these fungi were also consumed. These two fungi often co-occur in the same ant colony. Interestingly, T. aethiops workers and larvae ingested preferentially one of the two strains. Our results add a new piece in the puzzle of the nutritional ecology of plant-ants. PMID:22859596

  14. Eye structure, activity rhythms and visually-driven behavior are tuned to visual niche in ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eYilmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insects have evolved physiological adaptations and behavioural strategies that allow them to cope with a broad spectrum of environmental challenges and contribute to their evolutionary success. Visual performance plays a key role in this success. Correlates between life style and eye organization have been reported in various insect species. Yet, if and how visual ecology translates effectively into different visual discrimination and learning capabilities has been less explored. Here we report results from optical and behavioural analyses performed in two sympatric ant species, Formica cunicularia and Camponotus aethiops. We show that the former are diurnal while the latter are cathemeral. Accordingly, F. cunicularia workers present compound eyes with higher resolution, while C. aethiops workers exhibit eyes with lower resolution but higher sensitivity. The discrimination and learning of visual stimuli differs significantly between these species in controlled dual-choice experiments: discrimination learning of small-field visual stimuli is achieved by F. cunicularia but not by C. aethiops, while both species master the discrimination of large-field visual stimuli. Our work thus provides a paradigmatic example about how timing of foraging activities and visual environment match the organization of compound eyes and visually-driven behaviour. This correspondence underlines the relevance of an ecological/evolutionary framework for analyses in behavioural neuroscience.

  15. Manual laterality for pointing gestures compared to grasping actions in guenons and mangabeys

    OpenAIRE

    Maille, Audrey; Chapelain, Amandine; Déruti, Laure; Bec, Philippe; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In both humans and apes, the production of communicative gestures appears to be controlled by cerebral structures in the left hemisphere that would be distinct from those involved in noncommunicative actions. Whether communicative gestures also rely on specific lateralized systems in monkeys remains unclear. We assessed manual laterality for requesting gestures, i.e. pointing, and for grasping actions in two species of Old World monkeys, Campbell's monkeys, Cercopithecus campbelli, and red-ca...

  16. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

    OpenAIRE

    Bronikowski, Anne M.; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B.; William F. Morris

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei...

  17. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N’goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  18. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  19. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouassi Roland Yao Wa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp., 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp., and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.. Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park.

  20. Wax On, Wax Off: Nest Soil Facilitates Indirect Transfer of Recognition Cues between Ant Nestmates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nick; Grinsted, Lena; Holman, Luke

    2011-01-01

    test for another mechanism of cue exchange: indirect transfer of cuticular hydrocarbons via the nest material. Using a combination of chemical analysis and behavioral experiments with Camponotus aethiops ants, we show that nest soil indirectly transfers hydrocarbons between ants and affects recognition...... behavior. We also found evidence that olfactory cues on the nest soil influence nestmate recognition, but this effect was not observed in all colonies. These results demonstrate that cuticular hydrocarbons deposited on the nest soil are important in creating uniformity in the odor label and may also...

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13740-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SEQU... 46 1.2 1 ( AC212961 ) Chlorocebus aethiops clone CH252-75D21, WORKING D... 46 1.2 1 ( AC204464 ) Procavia ca...tula chromosome 7 BAC clone mth2-7... 46 0.40 5 ( AC188521 ) Canis Familiaris chr...cillus cereus E33L, complete genome. 48 0.30 1 ( AE017355 ) Bacillus thuringiensis serovar konkukian str. 97...n's Ho... 46 1.2 1 ( AP008218 ) Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) genomic DN... 46 1.2 1 ( AL844880 ) O...01214.B21_N16 PT-GT-FL-A-3 Populus trichocarpa ... 34 1.7 2 ( DV774025 ) McClintock_54_D01.ab1 Homarus EST librar

  2. Sick ants become unsociable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nicky Peter Maria; Lefevre, T.; Jensen, A.B.;

    2012-01-01

    Parasites represent a severe threat to social insects, which form high-density colonies of related individuals, and selection should favour host traits that reduce infection risk. Here, using a carpenter ant (Camponotus aethiops) and a generalist insect pathogenic fungus (Metarhizium brunneum), we...... show that infected ants radically change their behaviour over time to reduce the risk of colony infection. Infected individuals (i) performed less social interactions than their uninfected counterparts, (ii) did not interact with brood anymore and (iii) spent most of their time outside the nest from...... day 3 post-infection until death. Furthermore, infected ants displayed an increased aggressiveness towards non-nestmates. Finally, infected ants did not alter their cuticular chemical profile, suggesting that infected individuals do not signal their physiological status to nestmates. Our results...

  3. Disentangling environmental and heritable nestmate recognition cues in a carpenter ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle S; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    diagnostic power between colonies. The presence of a queen had little influence on nestmate discrimination abilities. Our results suggest that heritable cues of workers are the dominant factor influencing nestmate discrimination in these carpenter ants and highlight the importance of colony kin structure for...... variation in cuticular hydrocarbons, which can include heritable cues from the workers, as well as acquired cues from the environment or queen-derived cues. We tracked the profile of six colonies of the ant Camponotus aethiops for a year under homogeneous laboratory conditions. We performed chemical and...... behavioral analyses. We show that nestmate recognition was not impaired by constant environment, even though cuticular hydrocarbon profiles changed over time and were slightly converging among colonies. Linear hydrocarbons increased over time, especially in queenless colonies, but appeared to have weak...

  4. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckova, Irena; Klecka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of woodland species may be

  5. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kleckova

    Full Text Available Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of

  6. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckova, Irena; Klecka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of woodland species may be

  7. Small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Swanepoel

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park resulted in a checklist, as well as information on relative numbers, distribution within the Park, reproductive activity, sex ratios, and body measurements. Forty mammals species occur in the Park, while three re-introduced species probably do not occur any longer. Of the 40 species 28 are considered small mammals comprising 13 rodent, eight carnivore, two shrew, two bat, one primate and one lagomorph species, as well as the aardvark: Crociduraflavescens, C. cyanea infumata, Rousettus aegyptiacus, Eptesicus capensis, Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Canis mesomelas, Ictonyx striatus, Poecilogale albinucha, Genetta sp., Herpestes pulverulentus, Suricata suricatta, Proteles cristatus, Felis caracal, Orycteropus afer, Lepus saxatilis, Cryptomys hottentotus, Hystrix africae-australis, Pedetes capensis, Graphiurus murinus, Aethomys namaquensis, Praomys natalensis, Rhabdomys pumilio, Mus minutoides, Rattus rattus, Saccostomys campestris, Desmodillus auricularis, Otomys irroratus and 0. unisulcatus.

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses and flaviviruses in free-ranging game animals and nonhuman primates in the greater Congo basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kading, Rebekah C; Borland, Erin M; Cranfield, Mike; Powers, Ann M

    2013-07-01

    Vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. The role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. We investigated the exposure history of various African wildlife species from the Congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. Sera from 24 African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), 34 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 40 duikers (Cephalophus and Philantomba spp.), 25 mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 32 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), five Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), two L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti), two golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti), and three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sampled between 1991 and 2009 were tested for antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), and yellow fever virus (YFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test. Specific neutralizing antibodies against ONNV were found in African forest buffalo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Gabon, duikers in the DRC, and mandrills in Gabon, providing novel evidence of enzootic circulation of ONNV in these countries. African forest buffalo in the DRC and Gabon also demonstrated evidence of exposure to CHIKV, WNV, and DENV-2, while mandrills in Gabon were antibody positive for CHIKV, DENV-2, WNV, and YFV. All of the elephants tested had a strong neutralizing antibody response to WNV. We also document results from a survey of gorillas for arboviruses, of which 4/32 (13%) had antibody to an alphavirus or flavivirus. Overall, our results demonstrate a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against multiple arboviruses in wildlife in equatorial Africa. PMID:23778608

  9. Social complexity parallels vocal complexity: a comparison of three nonhuman primate species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eBOUCHET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social factors play a key role in the structuring of vocal repertoires at the individual level, notably in nonhuman primates. Some authors suggested that, at the species level too, social life may have driven the evolution of communicative complexity, but this has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we use a comparative approach to address this issue. We investigated vocal variability, at both the call type and the repertoire levels, in three forest-dwelling species of Cercopithecinae presenting striking differences in their social systems, in terms of social organization as well as social structure. We collected female call recordings from twelve De Brazza’s monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus, six Campbell’s monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli and seven red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus housed in similar conditions. First, we noted that the level of acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness found in several call types was related to their importance in social functioning. Contact calls, essential to intra-group cohesion, were the most individually distinctive regardless of the species, while threat calls were more structurally variable in mangabeys, the most ‘despotic’ of our three species. Second, we found a parallel between the degree of complexity of the species’ social structure and the size, diversity, and usage of its vocal repertoire. Mangabeys (most complex social structure called twice as often as guenons and displayed the largest and most complex repertoire. De Brazza’s monkeys (simplest social structure displayed the smallest and simplest repertoire. Campbell’s monkeys displayed an intermediate pattern. Providing evidence of higher levels of vocal variability in species presenting a more complex social system, our results are in line with the theory of a social-vocal coevolution of communicative abilities, opening new perspectives for comparative research on the evolution of communication systems in

  10. Distribution and abundance of sacred monkeys in Igboland, southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lynne R; Tanimola, Adebowale A; Olubode, Oluseun S; Garshelis, David L

    2009-07-01

    Although primates are hunted on a global scale, some species are protected against harassment and killing by taboos or religious doctrines. Sites where the killing of sacred monkeys or the destruction of sacred groves is forbidden may be integral to the conservation of certain species. In 2004, as part of a distribution survey of Sclater's guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri) in southern Nigeria, we investigated reports of sacred monkeys in the Igbo-speaking region of Nigeria. We confirmed nine new sites where primates are protected as sacred: four with tantalus monkeys (Chlorocebus tantalus) and five with mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona). During 2004-2006, we visited two communities (Akpugoeze and Lagwa) previously known to harbor sacred populations of Ce. sclateri to estimate population abundance and trends. We directly counted all groups and compared our estimates with previous counts when available. We also estimated the size of sacred groves and compared these with grove sizes reported in the literature. The mean size of the sacred groves in Akpugoeze (2.06 ha, n = 10) was similar to others in Africa south of the Sahel, but larger than the average grove in Lagwa (0.49 ha, n = 15). We estimated a total population of 124 Sclater's monkeys in 15 groups in Lagwa and 193 monkeys in 20 groups in Akpugoeze. The Akpugoeze population was relatively stable over two decades, although the proportion of infants declined, and the number of groups increased. As Sclater's monkey does not occur in any official protected areas, sacred populations are important to the species' long-term conservation. Despite the monkeys' destruction of human crops, most local people still adhere to the custom of not killing monkeys. These sites represent ideal locations in which to study the ecology of Sclater's monkey and human-wildlife interactions. PMID:19408287

  11. Effects of heated hydrotherapy on muscle HSP70 and glucose metabolism in old and young vervet monkeys.

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    Kavanagh, Kylie; Davis, Ashely T; Jenkins, Kurt A; Flynn, D Mickey

    2016-07-01

    Increasing heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in aged and/or insulin-resistant animal models confers benefits to healthspan and lifespan. Heat application to increase core temperature induces HSPs in metabolically important tissues, and preliminary human and animal data suggest that heated hydrotherapy is an effective method to achieve increased HSPs. However, safety concerns exist, particularly in geriatric medicine where organ and cardiovascular disease commonly will preexist. We evaluated young vervet monkeys compared to old, insulin-resistant vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in their core temperatures, glucose tolerance, muscle HSP70 level, and selected safety biomarkers after 10 sessions of hot water immersions administered twice weekly. Hot water immersion robustly induced the heat shock response in muscles. We observed that heat-treated old and young monkeys have significantly higher muscle HSP70 than control monkeys and treatment was without significant adverse effects on organ or cardiovascular health. Heat therapy improved pancreatic responses to glucose challenge and tended to normalize glucose excursions. A trend for worsened blood pressure and glucose values in the control monkeys and improved values in heat-treated monkeys were seen to support further investigation into the safety and efficacy of this intervention for metabolic syndrome or diabetes in young or old persons unable to exercise. PMID:27188431

  12. Immunogenicity and some safety features of a VEGF-based cancer therapeutic vaccine in rats, rabbits and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, Yanelys; Bequet-Romero, Mónica; Ayala, Marta; Velazco, Jorge Castro; Pérez, Pedro Puente; Alba, Jesús Suárez; Ancizar, Julio; Rodríguez, Meilyn; Cosme, Karelia; Gavilondo, Jorge V

    2010-04-26

    We have developed a cancer vaccine candidate (hereafter denominated CIGB-247), based on recombinant modified human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as antigen, and the adjuvant VSSP (very small sized proteoliposomes of Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane). In mice, previous work of our group had shown that vaccination with CIGB-247 extended tumor-take time, slowed tumor growth, and increased animal survival. Immunization elicited anti-human and murine VEGF-neutralizing antibodies, and spleen cells of vaccinated mice are cytotoxic in vitro to tumor cells that produce VEGF. We have now tested the immunogenicity of CIGB-247 in Wistar rats, New Zealand White rabbits and the non-human primate Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus. Using weekly, biweekly and biweekly plus montanide immunization schemes, all three species develop antigen-specific IgG antibodies that can block the interaction of VEGF and VEGF receptor 2 in an ELISA assay. Antibody titers decline after vaccination stops, but can be boosted with new immunizations. In monkeys, DTH and direct cell cytotoxicity experiments suggest that specific T-cell responses are elicited by vaccination. Immunization with CIGB-247 had no effect on normal behavior, hematology, blood biochemistry and histology of critical organs, in the tested animals. Skin deep wound healing was not affected in vaccinated rats and monkeys. PMID:20197134

  13. Interaction of non-human primate complement and antibodies with hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae.

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    Soto, Esteban; Marchi, Sylvia; Beierschmitt, Amy; Kearney, Michael; Francis, Stewart; VanNess, Kimberly; Vandenplas, Michel; Thrall, MaryAnna; Palmour, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Emergent hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotypes of Klebsiella pneumoniae have been associated with increased invasiveness and pathogenicity in primates. In this study, we investigated the interaction of African green monkeys (AGM) (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) complement and antibody with HMV and non-HMV isolates as in vitro models of primate infection. Significantly greater survival of HMV isolates was evident after incubation in normal serum or whole blood (p AGM donors when compared to non-HMV strains. Greater survival of HMV strains (p AGM leukocytes when complement was active (p AGM serum, nor washed whole blood effectively killed HMV isolates; however, assays using heparinized whole blood of seronegative donors significantly reduced viability of HMV and non-HMV strains. The lack of bacterial killing observed in seropositive donors treatments could be at least partially associated with low IgG2 present in these animals. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of klebsiellosis in primates and host immune response is necessary to identify surface molecules that can induce both opsonizing and bactericidal antibody facilitating killing of Klebsiella, and the development of vaccines in human and animals. PMID:26951091

  14. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.

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    A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana. PMID:22136175

  15. A floristic description and utilisation of two home ranges by vervet monkeys in Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa

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    Alan S. Barrett

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The plant communities occurring in the home ranges of two vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops troops (referred to as the Donga and Picnic troops were investigated as part of a comprehensive research project on the spatial and temporal patterns in resource dispersion or distribution and range use. From two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN multivariate classifications refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, seven plant communities that can be placed into three major groups were identified in the home range of the Donga troop, and eight plant communities that can be placed into four major groups were identified in the home range of the Picnic troop. Classifications and descriptions of the major groups, including vegetation maps, are presented. Diagnostic as well as prominent species of tree, shrub, forb and grass strata are outlined. Ordinations and floristic analyses were undertaken for the two home ranges to highlight vegetative differences between the areas. The phenology of vervet resources and the available resource energy were determined as a basis for the comprehensive study.Conservation implications: This vegetation description and phenology provide valuable information on the utilisation of home ranges by vervets and demonstrate how various management applications can affect the home range dependence of troops.

  16. Social Behaviours and Networks of Vervet Monkeys Are Influenced by Gastrointestinal Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin A; Friant, Sagan; Godfrey, Kathleen; Liu, Cynthia; Sakar, Dipto; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sengupta, Raja; Twinomugisha, Dennis; Valenta, Kim; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial research has shown that while some parasite infections can be fatal to hosts, most infections are sub-clinical and non-lethal. Such sub-clinical infections can nonetheless have negative consequences for the long-term fitness of the host such as reducing juvenile growth and the host's ability to compete for food and mates. With such effects, infected individuals are expected to exhibit behavioural changes. Here we use a parasite removal experiment to quantify how gastrointestinal parasite infections affect the behaviour of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda. Behavioural profiles and the structure of nearest neighbour relationships varied significantly. As predicted, after deworming the duration of the resting events decreased, which is consistent with the idea that parasite infections are energetically costly. In contrast to what was predicted, we could not reject the null hypothesis and we observed no change in either the frequency or duration of grooming, but we found that the duration of travel events increased. A network analysis revealed that after deworming, individuals tended to have more nearest neighbours and hence probably more frequent interactions, with this effect being particularly marked for juveniles. The heightened response by juveniles may indicate that they are avoiding infected individuals more than other age classes because it is too costly to move energy away from growth. We consider that populations with high parasite burden may have difficulties developing social networks and behaviours that could have cascading effects that impact the population in general. PMID:27580121

  17. Buccal dental microwear analyses support greater specialization in consumption of hard foodstuffs for Australopithecus anamensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebaranz, Ferran; Galbany, Jordi; Martínez, Laura; Turbón, Daniel; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Molar occlusal microwear texture and anisotropy analyses of 3 Australopithecus anamensis fossil specimens have shown complexity values similar to those of Au. afarensis, indicating that neither of these hominin species had a diet dominated by hard food. However, many researchers have suggested that these were some of the earliest hominins to have such diets. Here we examine buccal microwear patterns of 5 Au. anamensis, 26 Au. afarensis, 48 Hominoidea and 80 Cercopithecoidea primate specimens for independent evidence of dietary adaptations of Au. anamensis. The buccal microwear results obtained suggest that the diet of Au. anamensis relied heavily on hard, brittle food, at least seasonally. This is similar to the diet of the extant Cercopithecoidea primates, including Papio anubis and Chlorocebus aethiops, both of which live in wooded, seasonal savannah environments and have diets that include fruit and grasses, but also underground storage organs (USOs), such as corms or blades, as well as leaves and seeds, and also Mandrillus and Cercocebus, from forested environments with frugivorous-granivorous diets. Furthermore, the buccal microwear patterns of Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis clearly differed - in clear contrast to occlusal enamel texture observations-, which support previous dietary interpretations based on both anatomical and palaeocological reconstructions. PMID:22781583

  18. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

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    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  19. Sequence divergence, polymorphism and evolution of the middle-wave and long-wave visual pigment genes of great apes and Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulai, K S; Bowmaker, J K; Mollon, J D; Hunt, D M

    1994-10-01

    In man, the spectral shift between the middle-wave (MW) and long-wave (LW) visual pigments is largely achieved by amino acid substitution at two codons, both located in exon 5. A third amino acid site coded by exon 3 is polymorphic between pigments. We have studied the equivalent regions of the cone opsin genes in two members of the Hominidea (the gorilla, Gorilla gorilla and the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes) and in three members of the Cercopithecoidea family of Old World primates (the diana monkey, Cercopithecus diana, the talapoin monkey, Miopithecus talapoin, and the crab-eating macaque, Macaca fascicularis). No variation in the codons that specify the amino acids involved in spectral tuning were found. We predict therefore that the MW and LW pigments of gorilla and chimpanzee have similar spectral characteristics to those of man. Multiple copies of the same opsin gene sequence were identified in the chimpanzee, talapoin and macaque and we also show that non-human Old World primates are similar to man in showing a bunching of polymorphic sites in exon 3. We discuss the ancestry of the separate MW and LW genes of Old World primates and the equivalent polymorphic gene of the marmoset, a New World primate. PMID:7975287

  20. Some new mammal records from the rainforests of south-eastern Nigeria

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    Francesco Angelici

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we report new data on the occurrence and range of seven mammal species in the rainforest region of south-eastern Nigeria. The species in question are: Potamogale velox (Insectivora, Cercopithecus sclateri, Procolobus badius epieni (Primates, Manis tetradactyla (Pholidota, Funisciurus pyrropus talboti (Rodentia, Trichechus senegalensis (Sirenia and Tragelaphus spekii gratus (Artiodactyla. In terms of conservation (according to latest IUCN criteria and categories, we discovered some critical information concerning the mammal fauna in the area. In fact, out of these seven species, one is Critically Endangered (CR, four are Endangered (EN, one is Lower Risk, least concern (LR, lc, and one is Not Evaluated (NE. Deforestation and excessive hunting pressure are the biggest threats for mammals in the Niger Delta. In particular, endemic taxa and species whose range and status are unknown, could be particularly endangered.

  1. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. PMID:22394275

  2. Analysis of the probability of multiple taxa in a combined sample of Swartkrans and Kromdraai dental material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, K

    1996-11-01

    It has been argued (Grine, [1988] Evolutionary History of the "Robust" Australopithecines [New York. Aldine de Gruyter], pp. 223-243) that the australopithecine material from Swartkrans and Kromdraai represents distinct species. In an attempt to test the validity of separate taxa at Swartkrans and Kromdraai, Cope's (Cope [1989] Systematic Variation in Cercopithecus Dental Samples [Austin: University of Texas]) method of analysis was adapted and utilized. This procedure includes an analysis of the coefficients of variation (CVs) of the individual posterior teeth (buccal-lingual breadth) of a combined fossil sample compared with the CVs of several known single taxon reference groups. The Cope and Lacy (Cope and Lacy [1992] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 89:359-378) stimulation technique was also employed in the analysis. Based on these analyses, there is no justification for a taxonomic separation between the australopithecine material from Swartkrans and Kromdraai. Therefore, the assertion that the Swartkrans and Kromdraai material represent two distinct species is not indicated by the available dental metric evidence. PMID:8922186

  3. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Anne M; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K; Fedigan, Linda M; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B; Morris, William F

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution. PMID:26928014

  4. Levofloxacin cures experimental pneumonic plague in African green monkeys.

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    Robert Colby Layton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is considered a potential bioweapon due to rapid lethality when delivered as an aerosol. Levofloxacin was tested for primary pneumonic plague treatment in a nonhuman primate model mimicking human disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four African Green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus aethiops were challenged via head-only aerosol inhalation with 3-145 (mean = 65 50% lethal (LD(50 doses of Y. pestis strain CO92. Telemetered body temperature >39 °C initiated intravenous infusions to seven 5% dextrose controls or 17 levofloxacin treated animals. Levofloxacin was administered as a "humanized" dose regimen of alternating 8 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg 30-min infusions every 24-h, continuing until animal death or 20 total infusions, followed by 14 days of observation. Fever appeared at 53-165 h and radiographs found multilobar pneumonia in all exposed animals. All control animals died of severe pneumonic plague within five days of aerosol exposure. All 16 animals infused with levofloxacin for 10 days survived. Levofloxacin treatment abolished bacteremia within 24 h in animals with confirmed pre-infusion bacteremia, and reduced tachypnea and leukocytosis but not fever during the first 2 days of infusions. CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin cures established pneumonic plague when treatment is initiated after the onset of fever in the lethal aerosol-challenged AGM nonhuman primate model, and can be considered for treatment of other forms of plague. Levofloxacin may also be considered for primary presumptive-use, multi-agent antibiotic in bioterrorism events prior to identification of the pathogen.

  5. A Comparison of the Pathogenesis of Marburg Virus Disease in Humans and Nonhuman Primates and Evaluation of the Suitability of These Animal Models for Predicting Clinical Efficacy under the 'Animal Rule'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Elizabeth R; Roy, Michael J; Dalrymple, Lonnie W; Lanning, Lynda L

    2015-06-01

    Marburg virus outbreaks are sporadic, infrequent, brief, and relatively small in terms of numbers of subjects affected. In addition, outbreaks most likely will occur in remote regions where clinical trials are not feasible; therefore, definitive, well-controlled human efficacy studies to test the effectiveness of a drug or biologic product are not feasible. Healthy human volunteers cannot ethically be deliberately exposed to a lethal agent such as Marburg virus in order to test the efficacy of a therapy or preventive prior to licensure. When human efficacy studies are neither ethical nor feasible, the US Food and Drug Administration may grant marketing approval of a drug or biologic product under the 'Animal Rule,' through which demonstration of the efficacy of a product can be 'based on adequate and well-controlled animal efficacy studies when the results of those studies establish that the drug is reasonably likely to produce clinical benefit in humans.' This process requires that the pathogenic determinants of the disease in the animal model are similar to those that have been identified in humans. After reviewing primarily English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles, we here summarize the clinical manifestations of Marburg virus disease and the results of studies in NHP showing the characteristics and progression of the disease. We also include a detailed comparison of the characteristics of the human disease relative to those for NHP. This review reveals that the disease characteristics of Marburg virus disease are generally similar for humans and 3 NHP species: cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). PMID:26141449

  6. Retrospective analysis of suspected rabies cases reported at Bugando Referral Hospital, Mwanza, Tanzania

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    Humphrey D Mazigo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of humans being bitten by rabies-suspected animals, and the victims′ adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP regimen. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of data of victims treated at Bugando Medical Centre during the period 2002-2006 (n=5 years was done. Results: A total of 767 bite injuries inflicted by rabies-suspected animals were reported, giving a mean annual incidence of ~58 cases per 100,000 (52.5% males, 47.5% females. The proportion of children bitten was relatively higher than that of adults. All victims were treated by using inactivated diploid-cell rabies vaccine and were recommended to appear for the second and third doses. However, only 28% of the victims completed the vaccination regime. Domestic dogs were involved in 95.44% of the human bite cases, whereas cats (3.9%, spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta (0.03%, vervet monkey (Cercopithecur aethiops (0.01% and black-backed jackal (0.01% played a minor role. The majority of rabies-suspected case reports were from Nyamagana district and occurred most frequently from June to October each year. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study revealed that incidences of humans being bitten by dogs suspected of rabies are common in Tanzania, involve mostly children, and victims do not comply with the prophylactic regimen. Rigorous surveillance to determine the status of rabies and the risk factors for human rabies, as well as formulation and institution of appropriate rabies-control policies, is required.

  7. Characterization of the fecal microbiome from non-human wild primates reveals species specific microbial communities.

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    Suleyman Yildirim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Host-associated microbes comprise an integral part of animal digestive systems and these interactions have a long evolutionary history. It has been hypothesized that the gastrointestinal microbiome of humans and other non-human primates may have played significant roles in host evolution by facilitating a range of dietary adaptations. We have undertaken a comparative sequencing survey of the gastrointestinal microbiomes of several non-human primate species, with the goal of better understanding how these microbiomes relate to the evolution of non-human primate diversity. Here we present a comparative analysis of gastrointestinal microbial communities from three different species of Old World wild monkeys. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed fecal samples from three different wild non-human primate species (black-and-white colobus [Colubus guereza], red colobus [Piliocolobus tephrosceles], and red-tailed guenon [Cercopithecus ascanius]. Three samples from each species were subjected to small subunit rRNA tag pyrosequencing. Firmicutes comprised the vast majority of the phyla in each sample. Other phyla represented were Bacterioidetes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae, Tenericutes, Planctomycetes, Fibrobacateres, and TM7. Bray-Curtis similarity analysis of these microbiomes indicated that microbial community composition within the same primate species are more similar to each other than to those of different primate species. Comparison of fecal microbiota from non-human primates with microbiota of human stool samples obtained in previous studies revealed that the gut microbiota of these primates are distinct and reflect host phylogeny. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis provides evidence that the fecal microbiomes of wild primates co-vary with their hosts, and that this is manifested in higher intraspecies similarity among wild primate species, perhaps reflecting species

  8. Chimpanzee-red colobus encounter rates show a red colobus population decline associated with predation by chimpanzees at Ngogo.

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    Watts, David P; Amsler, Sylvia J

    2013-09-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) hunt various primates, but concentrate on red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus spp.) wherever the two species are sympatric. The extraordinarily large Ngogo chimpanzee community in Kibale National Park, Uganda, preys heavily on the local population of red colobus (P. tephrosceles). Census data showed a steep decline in this population in the center of the chimpanzees' home range between 1975 and 2007 [Lwanga et al., 2011; Teelen, 2007b]. Given no obvious change in food availability, predation by chimpanzees was the most likely cause [ibid.; Teelen, 2008]. However, census data from other parts of the home range raised the possibility that the decline was restricted to this central area [Teelen, 2007a] We present data from 1998 to 2012 on the rate of encounters between chimpanzees and red colobus that provide a chimpanzee-centered estimate of red colobus density, thus of predation opportunities, throughout the home range. These corroborate census data by showing a long-term decline in encounters near the center. They also show that encounters become relatively more common at increasing distances from the center, but encounter rates have decreased even in peripheral areas and, by implication, the red colobus population has declined throughout the study area. These data corroborate Teelen's [2008] conclusion that chimpanzee predation on red colobus during the 1990s and early 2000s was unsustainable. Hunting rates and prey offtake rates have also declined markedly; whether this will allow the red colobus population to recover is unknown. In contrast, rates at which chimpanzees encountered redtail monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) and grey-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena) did not decrease. Neither did they increase, however, contrary to long-term census data from the center of the study area [Lwanga et al., 2011]. PMID:23775942

  9. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed

  10. Agonism and dominance in female blue monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Keren; Cords, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years. We assessed where blue monkeys fall along despotic, tolerant, and nepotistic spectra, how their dominance system compares to other primates, primarily cercopithecines, and whether their agonistic behavior matches socioecological model predictions. Blue monkeys showed low rates of mainly low-intensity agonism and little counter-aggression. Rates increased with rank and group size. Dominance asymmetry varied at different organizational levels, being more pronounced at the level of interactions than dyad or group. Hierarchies were quite stable, had moderate-to-high linearity and directional consistency and moderate steepness. There was clear maternal rank inheritance, but inconsistent adherence to Kawamura's rules. There was little between-group variation, although hierarchy metrics showed considerable variation across group-years. Overall, blue monkeys have moderately despotic, moderately tolerant, and nepotistic dominance hierarchies. They resemble other cercopithecines in having significantly linear and steep hierarchies with a generally stable, matriline-based structure, suggesting a phylogenetic basis to this aspect of their social system. Blue monkeys most closely match Sterck et al.'s [1997] Resident-Nepotistic-Tolerant dominance category, although they do not fully conform to predictions of any one socioecological model. Our results suggest that socioecological models might better predict variation within than across clades, thereby

  11. Genetic characterization of simian foamy viruses infecting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Réjane; Betsem, Edouard; Calattini, Sara; Saib, Ali; Gessain, Antoine

    2012-12-01

    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses that are widespread among nonhuman primates (NHPs). SFVs actively replicate in their oral cavity and can be transmitted to humans after NHP bites, giving rise to a persistent infection even decades after primary infection. Very few data on the genetic structure of such SFVs found in humans are available. In the framework of ongoing studies searching for SFV-infected humans in south Cameroon rainforest villages, we studied 38 SFV-infected hunters whose times of infection had presumably been determined. By long-term cocultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with BHK-21 cells, we isolated five new SFV strains and obtained complete genomes of SFV strains from chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes; strains BAD327 and AG15), monkey (Cercopithecus nictitans; strain AG16), and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla; strains BAK74 and BAD468). These zoonotic strains share a very high degree of similarity with their NHP counterparts and have a high degree of conservation of the genetic elements important for viral replication. Interestingly, analysis of FV DNA sequences obtained before cultivation revealed variants with deletions in both the U3 region and tas that may correlate with in vivo chronicity in humans. Genomic changes in bet (a premature stop codon) and gag were also observed. To determine if such changes were specific to zoonotic strains, we studied local SFV-infected chimpanzees and found the same genomic changes. Our study reveals that natural polymorphism of SFV strains does exist at both the intersubspecies level (gag, bet) and the intrasubspecies (U3, tas) levels but does not seem to reflect a viral adaptation specific to zoonotic SFV strains. PMID:23015714

  12. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Captive Non-Human Primates in Qinling Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuai-Zhi; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Shao, Jun-Feng; Fang, Yan-Qin; Tian, Ge-Ru; Zhang, Long-Xian; Wang, Rong-Jun; Wang, Hai-Yan; Qi, Meng; Yu, San-Ke

    2015-08-01

    Non-human primates (NHPs) are confirmed as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. In this study, 197 fresh fecal samples from 8 NHP species in Qinling Mountains, northwestern China, were collected and examined using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. The results showed that 35 (17.8%) samples were positive for tested parasites, including Cryptosporidium spp. (3.0%), G. intestinalis (2.0%), and E. bieneusi (12.7%). Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 6 fecal samples of Macaca mulatta, and were identified as C. parvum (n=1) and C. andersoni (n=5). Subtyping analysis showed Cryptosporidium spp. belonged to the C. andersoni MLST subtype (A4, A4, A4, and A1) and C. parvum 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) subtype IId A15G2R1. G. intestinalis assemblage E was detected in 3 M. mulatta and 1 Saimiri sciureus. Intra-variations were observed at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), beta giardin (bg), and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) loci, with 3, 1, and 2 new subtypes found in respective locus. E. bieneusi was found in Cercopithecus neglectus (25.0%), Papio hamadrayas (16.7%), M. mulatta (16.3%), S. sciureus (10%), and Rhinopithecus roxellana (9.5%), with 5 ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genotypes: 2 known genotypes (D and BEB6) and 3 novel genotypes (MH, XH, and BSH). These findings indicated the presence of zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in NHPs in Qinling Mountains. This is the first report of C. andersoni in NHPs. The present study provided basic information for control of cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis in human and animals in this area. PMID:26323837

  13. Catarrhine primate divergence dates estimated from complete mitochondrial genomes: concordance with fossil and nuclear DNA evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaum, Ryan L; Sterner, Kirstin N; Noviello, Colleen M; Stewart, Caro-Beth; Disotell, Todd R

    2005-03-01

    Accurate divergence date estimates improve scenarios of primate evolutionary history and aid in interpretation of the natural history of disease-causing agents. While molecule-based estimates of divergence dates of taxa within the superfamily Hominoidea (apes and humans) are common in the literature, few such estimates are available for the Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys), the sister taxon of the hominoids in the primate infraorder Catarrhini. To help fill this gap, we have sequenced the entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from a representative of three cercopithecoid tribes, Cercopithecini (Chlorocebus aethiops), Colobini (Colobus guereza), and Presbytini (Trachypithecus obscurus), and analyzed these new data together with other catarrhine mtDNA genomes available in public databases. Molecular divergence date estimates are dependent on calibration points gleaned from the paleontological record. We defined criteria for the selection of good calibration points and identified three points meeting these criteria: Homo-Pan, 6.0 Ma; Pongo-hominines, 14.0 Ma; hominoid/cercopithecoid, 23.0 Ma. Because a uniform molecular clock does not fit the catarrhine mtDNA data, we estimated divergence dates using a penalized likelihood and a Bayesian method, both of which take into account the effects of rate differences on lineages, phylogenetic tree structure, and multiple calibration points. The penalized likelihood method applied to the coding regions of the mtDNA genome yielded the following divergence date estimates, with approximate 95% confidence intervals: cercopithecine-colobine, 16.2 (14.4-17.9) Ma; colobin-presbytin, 10.9 (9.6-12.3) Ma; cercopithecin-papionin, 11.6 (10.3-12.9) Ma; and Macaca-Papio, 9.8 (8.6-10.9) Ma. Within the hominoids, the following dates were inferred: hylobatid-hominid, 16.8 (15.0-18.5) Ma; Gorilla-Homo+Pan, 8.1 (7.1-9.0) Ma; Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus-P. p. abelii, 4.1 (3.5-4.7) Ma; and Pan troglodytes-P. paniscus, 2.4 (2.0-2.7) Ma. These

  14. The sweet taste quality is linked to a cluster of taste fibers in primates: lactisole diminishes preference and responses to sweet in S fibers (sweet best chorda tympani fibers of M. fascicularis monkey

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    Koposov Alexey

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychophysically, sweet and bitter have long been considered separate taste qualities, evident already to the newborn human. The identification of different receptors for sweet and bitter located on separate cells of the taste buds substantiated this separation. However, this finding leads to the next question: is bitter and sweet also kept separated in the next link from the taste buds, the fibers of the taste nerves? Previous studies in non-human primates, P. troglodytes, C. aethiops, M. mulatta, M. fascicularis and C. jacchus, suggest that the sweet and bitter taste qualities are linked to specific groups of fibers called S and Q fibers. In this study we apply a new sweet taste modifier, lactisole, commercially available as a suppressor of the sweetness of sugars on the human tongue, to test our hypothesis that sweet taste is conveyed in S fibers. Results We first ascertained that lactisole exerted similar suppression of sweetness in M. fascicularis, as reported in humans, by recording their preference of sweeteners and non- sweeteners with and without lactisole in two-bottle tests. The addition of lactisole significantly diminished the preference for all sweeteners but had no effect on the intake of non-sweet compounds or the intake of water. We then recorded the response to the same taste stimuli in 40 single chorda tympani nerve fibers. Comparison between single fiber nerve responses to stimuli with and without lactisole showed that lactisole only suppressed the responses to sweeteners in S fibers. It had no effect on the responses to any other stimuli in all other taste fibers. Conclusion In M. fascicularis, lactisole diminishes the attractiveness of compounds, which taste sweet to humans. This behavior is linked to activity of fibers in the S-cluster. Assuming that lactisole blocks the T1R3 monomer of the sweet taste receptor T1R2/R3, these results present further support for the hypothesis that S fibers convey taste

  15. Molecular ecology and natural history of simian foamy virus infection in wild-living chimpanzees.

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    Weimin Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Identifying microbial pathogens with zoonotic potential in wild-living primates can be important to human health, as evidenced by human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 and Ebola virus. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs are ancient retroviruses that infect Old and New World monkeys and apes. Although not known to cause disease, these viruses are of public health interest because they have the potential to infect humans and thus provide a more general indication of zoonotic exposure risks. Surprisingly, no information exists concerning the prevalence, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity of SFVs in wild-living monkeys and apes. Here, we report the first comprehensive survey of SFVcpz infection in free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes using newly developed, fecal-based assays. Chimpanzee fecal samples (n = 724 were collected at 25 field sites throughout equatorial Africa and tested for SFVcpz-specific antibodies (n = 706 or viral nucleic acids (n = 392. SFVcpz infection was documented at all field sites, with prevalence rates ranging from 44% to 100%. In two habituated communities, adult chimpanzees had significantly higher SFVcpz infection rates than infants and juveniles, indicating predominantly horizontal rather than vertical transmission routes. Some chimpanzees were co-infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz; however, there was no evidence that SFVcpz and SIVcpz were epidemiologically linked. SFVcpz nucleic acids were recovered from 177 fecal samples, all of which contained SFVcpz RNA and not DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of partial gag (616 bp, pol-RT (717 bp, and pol-IN (425 bp sequences identified a diverse group of viruses, which could be subdivided into four distinct SFVcpz lineages according to their chimpanzee subspecies of origin. Within these lineages, there was evidence of frequent superinfection and viral recombination. One chimpanzee was infected by a foamy virus from a Cercopithecus monkey

  16. Vpu-mediated CD4 down-regulation and degradation is conserved among highly divergent SIVcpz strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) along with simian immunodeficiency viruses from chimpanzees (SIVcpz) and three species of Old World monkeys from the genus Cercopithecus have been shown to encode a Vpu protein. To date, the functional characterization of Vpu has been limited to a small number of subtype B and more recently subtype C Vpu proteins. Using a recently developed VpuEGFP reporter system, we have shown that the subtype B and C Vpus are capable of preventing CD4 from being expressed on the cell surface. Using the same reporter system, we report here on the expression and functional analysis of Vpu protein from four SIVcpz isolates (CAM13, ANT, TAN1, and GAB1). All four SIV Vpu fusion proteins were efficiently expressed and prevented CD4 expression on the cell surface and induced CD4 degradation. This was surprising as three of the SIVcpz Vpu fusion proteins had only one canonical casein kinase II (CK-II) site (CAM13, ANT, TAN1) while previous studies with laboratory adapted HXB2 had indicated that both CK-II sites were required for CD4 degradation. Both ANT and TAN1 Vpu sequences encoded five consecutive negatively charged amino acids residues following the only CKII site (SAIEEDEE for ANT; SGVEEDEE for TAN1). We thus explored the possibility that this stretch of negatively charged amino acids might substitute for the lack of second CK-II site. Substitution of the aspartic acid at position 61 and glutamic acid at position 63 in the SIVcpz ANT Vpu within with lysine residues abolished the ability of this protein to down-modulate cell surface expression of CD4. Similarly, change of a serine to an alanine residue following the single consensus CK-II site of the CAM13 Vpu (SGNESDGGEEE) abolished CD4-down-regulation, suggesting that this serine was phosphorylated in the absence of a canonical CK-II site. Our results indicate that the serine was required, suggesting that this serine was phosphorylated by CK-II or possibly another cellular kinase. Taken

  17. Le collezioni di Mammiferi del Museo Civico di Zoologia di Roma: una sintesi storica

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    Gloria Svampa

    2003-10-01

    , della Società Geografica Italiana (materiale Ragazzi, Antonelli e Antinori, Ministero della Guerra (Traversi, dell?ex Museo Coloniale di Roma, Gronca (circumnavigazione della ?Caracciolo?, Chierchia (circumnavigazione della ?Vittor Pisani?, Holub, non sia stato tutto studiato approfonditamente da esperti teriologi. Infatti, a titolo di esempio, il Museo possiede entrambe le specie di facocero oggi esistenti, ma nessuno di questi esemplari viene citato nella recente revisione del Phacochoerus aethiopicus realizzata da Huart e Grubb (2001. Recentemente, il Museo si è attivato per acquisire la collezione Zammarano di Mammiferi africani, alcuni dei quali, come il Cercopithecus albogularis zammaranoi, di grande valore scientifico. Una linea di ricerca che si potrà esplorare in futuro riguarda lo studio del materiale osteologico di esemplari vissuti in cattività per rilevare eventuali patologie o gli effetti di differenti metodi di allevamento. A tale proposito sarà fondamentale incrociare i dati museali con quelli storici del Giardino Zoologico. Nel contempo, si intende anche rilanciare il ruolo del Museo nella ricerca e divulgazione sulla mammalofauna locale. Nel poster viene infine presentata una completa bibliografia storica sugli studi mammalogici svolti sulla collezione.