WorldWideScience

Sample records for cercopithecus aethiops

  1. Comparative postcranial body shape and locomotion in Chlorocebus aethiops and Cercopithecus mitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anapol, F; Turner, T R; Mott, C S; Jolly, C J

    2005-06-01

    Body weight and length, chest girth, and seven postcranial limb segment lengths are compared between two guenon species, Chlorocebus (Cercopithecus) aethiops (vervets) and Cercopithecus mitis (blue monkeys), exhibiting different habitual locomotor preferences. The subjects, all adults, were wild caught for a non-related research project (Turner et al. [1986] Genetic and morphological studies on two species of Kenyan monkeys, C. aethiops and C. mitis. In: Else JG, Lee PC, editors. Primate evolution, proceedings of the Xth International Congress of Primatology, Cambridge. London). The morphological results are interpreted within the context of previously published observations of primate locomotion and social organization. The sample is unique in that the body weight of each individual is known, allowing the effects of body-size scaling to be assessed in interspecific and intersexual comparisons. C. mitis has a significantly (P agility, and also the requisite transition between ground and canopy. Although normally associated with arboreal monkeys, greater relative tail length occurs in the more terrestrial vervets. However, because vervets exploit both arboreal and terrestrial habitats, a longer tail may compensate for diminished balance during arboreal quadrupedalism resulting from the greater "brachial" and "crural" indices that enhance their ground quadrupedalism. Most interspecific differences in body proportions are explicable by differences in locomotor modalities. Some results, however, contradict commonly held "tenets" that relate body size and morphology exclusively to locomotion. Generally associated with terrestriality, sexual dimorphism (male/female) is greater in the more arboreal blue monkeys. A more intense, seasonal mating competition may account for this incongruity.

  2. After the fire: benefits of reduced ground cover for vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Karin Enstam; Isbell, Lynne A

    2009-03-01

    Here we describe changes in ranging behavior and other activities of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) after a wildfire eliminated grass cover in a large area near the study group's home range. Soon after the fire, the vervets ranged farther away from tall trees that provide refuge from mammalian predators, and moved into the burned area where they had never been observed to go before the fire occurred. Visibility at vervet eye-level was 10 times farther in the burned area than in unburned areas. They traveled faster, and adult females spent more time feeding and less time scanning bipedally in the burned area than in the unburned area. The burned area's greater visibility may have lowered the animals' perceived risk of predation there, and may have provided them with an unusual opportunity to eat acacia ants.

  3. Polymorphism of Mhc-DRB alleles in Cercopithecus aethiops (green monkey): generation and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal-Sánchez, M; Paz-Artal, E; Moreno-Pelayo, M A; Martínez-Quiles, N; Martínez-Laso, J; Martín-Villa, J M; Arnaiz-Villena, A

    1998-05-01

    DRB genes have been studied for the first time in green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Eleven new DRB alleles (exon 2, exon 3) have been obtained and sequenced from cDNA. A limited number of lineages have been identified: DRB1*03 (4 alleles), DRB1*07 (3 alleles), DRB5 (1 allele), DRB*w6 (1 allele), and DRB*w7 (2 alleles). The existence of Ceae-DRB1 duplications is supported by the finding of 3 DRB1 alleles in 3 different individuals. Ceae-DRB1*0701 may be non-functional because it bears serine at position 82, which hinders molecule surface expression in mice; the allele is only found in Ceae-DRB duplicated haplotypes. Base changes in cDNA Ceae-DRB alleles are consistent with the generation of polymorphism by point mutations or short segment exchanges between alleles. The eleven green monkey DRB alleles meet the requirements for functionality as antigen-presenting molecules (perhaps, excluding DRB1*0701), since: 1) they have been isolated from cDNA and do not present deletions, insertions or stop codons: 2) structural motifs necessary for a correct folding of the molecule, for the formation of DR/DR dimers and for CD4 interactions are conserved, and 3) the number of non-synonymous substitutions is higher than the number of synonymous substitutions in the peptide binding region (PBR), while the contrary holds true for the non-PBR region.

  4. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Zihlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas.

  5. A. Femoralis in the small Green Monkey(Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The small Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus in large groups inhabits the African savannah. The animals delivered to us were from East Africa, that is from Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The length of the animal is 110 cm, and the tail itself is 50 cm long. They can often be seen in Zoos. According to data, mostly by zoo gardens, these monkeys live for about 15 to 17 years, exceptionally for 20 years. The objective of our work was to investigate a part of their cardiovascular system so in that way to contribute to a better knowledge of this animal body structure and accordingly to comparative anatomy in general. The investigation included 6 Small Green Monkeys, of both gender, 3-4 years old, body weight 2000-3000 grams, obtained from The Institute for Virusology, vaccines and serums from Belgrade. For obtaining the hindlimb arterial vascularization, after exsanguination of the animal, contrast mass of gelatin coloured with tempera was injected into the abdominal aorta. After injecting, the blood vessels were prepared and photographed. In the Small Green Monkey, femoral artery (A. femoralis is an continuation of the external iliac artery (A. iliaca externa. The branches of the femoral artery are: A. profunda femoris, A. saphena, A. genus descendens and A. caudalis femoralis. A. profunda femoris separates to A. circumflexa femoris lateralis, Ramus muscularis and A. circumflexa femoris medialis. In humans A. femoralis branches into: A. epigastrica superficialis, A. circumflexa ilium superficialis, Aa. pudendae externae, A. profunda femoris and A. genus descendens (A. descendens genus. A. profunda femoris branches into: A. circumflexa femoris lateralis, A. circumflexa femoris medialis and Aa. perforantes. In domestic animals, mammals, the branches of the femoral artery (A. femoralis are: A. circumflexa femoris lateralis, A. saphena, A. genus descendens and Aa. caudales femoris In the Small Green Monkey, humans and domestic mammals A. femoralis

  6. Effects of cassava diet on Cercopithecus aethiops livers: a case for cassava as the cause of both tropical splenomegaly syndrome (TSS) and endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezi, C L

    1996-05-01

    The aetiology of endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) and tropical splenomegaly syndrome (TSS) though speculative, was considered by the author to be the same or related since the two diseases may occur in the same individual and locality. Accordingly, when attempting to prove a hypothesis for the causation of EMF that prolonged ingestion of tuber (cassava/tapioca) associated with extreme deprivation of protein causes EMF; one group of three Cercopithecus aethiops was fed on uncooked cassava while a second group was fed with uncooked bananas and in addition to harvesting the hearts whenever the animal health deteriorated, livers were also harvested for histological changes. While hearts from the animals on cassava revealed changes seen in human EMF the livers from the same animals exhibited Kupffer cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy as well as sinusoidal lymphocytosis, features seen in human TSS thereby confirming that the aetiology of these two diseases is the same. However, the banana diet did not produce such changes.

  7. Weissella confusa Infection in Primate (Cercopithecus mona)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana I. Vela; Porrero, Concepción; Goyache, Joaquín; Nieto, Ana; Sánchez, Belen; Briones, Víctor; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F.

    2003-01-01

    We describe systemic infection by Weissella confusa in a mona monkey (Cercopithecus mona) on the basis of microbiologic, molecular genetic, and histologic data. The same strain of W. confusa, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, was isolated in pure culture from the primate’s brain, liver, spleen, and intestine. Histologic lesions showed inflammatory infiltrates mainly composed of neutrophils, indicating an acute septicemic process.

  8. Experimental infections of baboons (Papio spp. and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops with Trichinella zimbabwensis and successful treatment with ivermectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Trichinella zimbabwensis infections were established in three baboons (Papios p.and four vervet monkeys (Cercopithecuase thiops and the clinical-pathological manifestations assessed. The infected animals showed clinical signs ranging from fever, diarrhoea, periorbitaol edema and muscular pain in varying degrees. One baboon became blind due to the infection. Levels of creatinine phosphokinase and lactated ehydrogenase increased to reach a peak on Day 42 post-infection(pifor both baboons and monkeys. Blood parameters such as packed cell volume, levels of red blood cells and white blood cells did not change significantly from the normal ranges except for the levels of eosinophils which peaked above the normal ranges at Day 28 and 56 pi in baboons and at Day 56 pi in monkeys.

  9. Bat Predation by Cercopithecus Monkeys: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapanes, Elizabeth; Detwiler, Kate M; Cords, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus.

  10. The genome of the vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Wesley C.; Jasinska, Anna J.; García-Pérez, Raquel; Svardal, Hannes; Tomlinson, Chad; Rocchi, Mariano; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Capozzi, Oronzo; Minx, Patrick; Montague, Michael J.; Kyung, Kim; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Kremitzki, Milinn; Graves, Tina; Chiang, Colby; Hughes, Jennifer; Tran, Nam; Huang, Yu; Ramensky, Vasily; Choi, Oi-wa; Jung, Yoon J.; Schmitt, Christopher A.; Juretic, Nikoleta; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Turner, Trudy R.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Karl, Julie A.; Schmitz, Jörn E.; Zahn, Roland; O'Connor, David H.; Redmond, Eugene; Nisbett, Alex; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Dione, Michel; Antonio, Martin; Schroth, Gary P.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Raney, Brian J.; Aken, Bronwen; Nag, Rishi; Schmitz, Juergen; Churakov, Gennady; Noll, Angela; Stanyon, Roscoe; Webb, David; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Nordborg, Magnus; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Dewar, Ken; Weinstock, George M.; Wilson, Richard K.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a genome reference of the African green monkey or vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops). This member of the Old World monkey (OWM) superfamily is uniquely valuable for genetic investigations of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), for which it is the most abundant natural host species, and of a wide range of health-related phenotypes assessed in Caribbean vervets (C. a. sabaeus), whose numbers have expanded dramatically since Europeans introduced small numbers of their ancestors from West Africa during the colonial era. We use the reference to characterize the genomic relationship between vervets and other primates, the intra-generic phylogeny of vervet subspecies, and genome-wide structural variations of a pedigreed C. a. sabaeus population. Through comparative analyses with human and rhesus macaque, we characterize at high resolution the unique chromosomal fission events that differentiate the vervets and their close relatives from most other catarrhine primates, in whom karyotype is highly conserved. We also provide a summary of transposable elements and contrast these with the rhesus macaque and human. Analysis of sequenced genomes representing each of the main vervet subspecies supports previously hypothesized relationships between these populations, which range across most of sub-Saharan Africa, while uncovering high levels of genetic diversity within each. Sequence-based analyses of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms reveal extremely low diversity in Caribbean C. a. sabaeus vervets, compared to vervets from putatively ancestral West African regions. In the C. a. sabaeus research population, we discover the first structural variations that are, in some cases, predicted to have a deleterious effect; future studies will determine the phenotypic impact of these variations. PMID:26377836

  11. Behavioral patterns in a population of Samango monkeys (Cercopithecus albogularis erythrarcus)

    OpenAIRE

    Tegner, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of behavioral patterns in different species is an important part of the proper management and conservation of wild populations of animals. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of behavioral patterns in the samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis erythrarcus) of northern South Africa. Using the scan- sampling procedure, the behaviors of an isolated population of free-ranging samango monkeys in the Soutpansberg, Limpopo Province, were recorded during 16 days in...

  12. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic gram-negative pathogen that causes mesenteric lymphadenitis, terminal ileitis, acute gastroenteritis, and septicemia in domestic animals and primates. In 2012, 46 captive African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) died during an outbreak of acutely fat...

  13. Gastro-intestinal parasites of the Samango monkey, Cercopithecus mitis, in Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, C C; Krecek, R C; Verster, A; Bruorton, M R; Lawes, M J

    1994-01-01

    Eight gastro-intestinal tracts of Cercopithecus mitis labiatus from Karkloof, Natal, and 121 fecal samples from C. m. erythrarchus from Cape Vidal, Natal, were examined for helminth parasites and/or their eggs. Fecal samples from six of the C. m. labiatus were examined for protozoan cysts. Five protozoon and six helminth species were identified from C. m labiatus. Most adult worms occurred in the caecum and colon, gut regions which also contained the highest volatile fatty acid levels. The eggs of nine helminth species were recovered from C. m. erythrarchus fecal samples; protozoans were not looked for in these samples.

  14. Breeding season influxes and the behaviour of adult male samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis albogularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzi, S P; Lawes, M

    1987-01-01

    Troops comprising a high density population of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in Natal province, South Africa, experienced an influx of adult males during the breeding season. Observation of one troop revealed that these males competed with one another and with two resident males for access to receptive females. Although both sexes initiated copulation, attempts to do so were more often successful if female-initiated. Males did not interact with non-receptive females and there were no recorded attempts at infanticide. Male-male interactions were agonistic in the presence of receptive females and neutral at other times. No ritualized displays of dominance and subordinance were seen. The significance of these observations for male reproductive strategies is discussed.

  15. Do females pay attention to secondary sexual coloration in vervet monkeys ( Chlorocebus aethiops)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Melissa S.; Ayala, James; Ruíz-Lambides, Angelina; Waitt, Corri; Weiss, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Several primate species show sexual dichromatism with males displaying conspicuous coloration of the pelage or skin. Studies of scrotal coloration in male vervet monkeys ( Chlorocebus aethiops) suggest that it is an important intrasexual signal, with relatively dark, colourful males dominating paler males. To date, no studies have examined the influence of male colour on intersexual social interactions in vervet monkeys. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate whether female vervet monkeys attend to male coloration. We experimentally introduced females, housed with either “pale” or “dark” males, to stimulus males whose scrota were pale, dark, or pale but painted to look dark. Overall, during introductions, females did not differ in time spent directing affiliative behaviour toward pale, dark, and painted males; however, females, permanently housed with dark males, spent significantly more time directing affiliative behaviour toward pale than painted males. When the stimulus male was pale, affiliative exchanges between males and females were longer than when the stimulus male was painted. Home male colour was not related to female-initiated aggression. Home male colour was also not related to male-initiated aggression, although painted stimulus males were more likely to initiate aggression than pale stimulus males. These findings lead us to conclude that females pay attention to male coloration, but do not bias their interactions toward males solely on the basis of natural male coloration.

  16. Cryptic speciation in the white-shouldered antshrike (Thamnophilus aethiops, Aves - Thamnophilidae): the tale of a transcontinental radiation across rivers in lowland Amazonia and the northeastern Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Gregory; Aleixo, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The growing knowledge on paleogeography and the recent applications of molecular biology and phylogeography to the study of the Amazonian biota have provided a framework for testing competing hypotheses of biotic diversification in this region. Here, we reconstruct the spatio-temporal context of diversification of a widespread understory polytypic Amazonian bird species (Thamnophilus aethiops) and contrast it with different hypotheses of diversification and the taxonomy currently practiced in the group. Sequences of mtDNA (cytochrome b and ND2) and nuclear (β-fibrinogen introns 5 and 7 and the Z-liked Musk4) genes, adding up to 4093bp of 89 individuals covering the Amazonian, Andean, and Atlantic Forest populations of T. aethiops were analyzed. Phylogenetic and population genetics analyses revealed ten reciprocally monophyletic and genetically isolated or nearly-isolated lineages in T. aethiops, highlighting several inconsistencies between taxonomy and evolutionary history in this group. Our data suggest that the diversification of T. aethiops started in the Andean highlands, and then proceeded into the Amazonian lowlands probably after the consolidation of the modern Amazonian drainage. The main cladogenetic events in T. aethiops may be related to the formation and structuring of large Amazonian rivers during the Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene, coinciding with the dates proposed for other lineages of Amazonian organisms. Population genetics data do not support climatic fluctuations as a major source of diversification in T. aethiops. Even though not entirely concordant with paleobiogeographic models derived from phylogenies of other vertebrate lineages, our results support a prominent role for rivers as major drivers of diversification in Amazonia, while underscoring that different diversification scenarios are probably related to the distinct evolutionary origins of groups being compared.

  17. Simultaneous uterine leiomyoma and endometrial hiperplasia in a white-nosed monkey (cercopithecus nictitans). First case report

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Carlos M.; Ibáñez, Carla; Corpa, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes histopathological and immunocytochemical features of a combined uterine leyomioma and a non atypical complex endometrial hyperplasia in a white-nosed monkey (Cercopithecus nictitans). Immunocytochemically, uterine leiomyoma was a-actin positive, and negative for desmin. By the other hand, endometrial hyperplasia showed strong immunoreaction against ciclin D1, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), oestrogen receptor, isoform A of progesterone receptor and slight p53 immunoreaction. Th...

  18. Samango monkeys (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) manage risk in a highly seasonal, human-modified landscape in Amathole Mountains, South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, K.; Wimberger, K.; Richards, S A; Hill, R. A.; Le Roux, A

    2016-01-01

    Wild species use habitats that vary in risk across space and time. This risk can derive from natural predators and also from direct and indirect human pressures. A starving forager will often take risks that a less hungry forager would not. At a highly seasonal and human-modified site, we predicted that arboreal samango monkeys (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) would show highly flexible, responsive, risk-sensitive foraging. We first determined how monkeys use horizontal and vertical space...

  19. Diet and feeding behaviour of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis labiatus) in Ngoye Forest, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawes, M J; Henzi, S P; Perrin, M R

    1990-01-01

    The samango monkey occurs at the southern limit of the range of Cercopithecus mitis. Greater climatic seasonality at this latitude results in more predictable fruiting patterns. In addition, there are no diurnal sympatric primate frugivores. Under these conditions, the diet and feeding strategies of samango monkeys would be expected to differ notably from those of central or east African C. mitis subspecies. Contrary to these expectations, the preliminary observations reported here indicate that diets of samango and blue monkeys differ only superficially in the proportions of items eaten. Similarities in feeding behaviour are especially marked during the dry season period when fruit is not abundant. Both samango and blue monkeys tend to be less selective in their choice of food species and to eat available food species regardless of their energy content; a shift toward less nutritious items such as leaves is also noted. Feeding behaviour during the summer wet season is characterized by the selection of fruits with high-energy values. A high proportion of visits by the monkeys to areas of greater food availability suggests a concentration of feeding effort in food patches and the selection of higher energy food species within patches.

  20. Identifying preferred habitats of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) through patch use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Sara E; Brown, Joel S

    2013-11-01

    To examine habitat preferences of two groups of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) in the Soutpansberg, South Africa, we used experimental food patches in fragments of tall forest and in bordering secondary growth short forest. Additionally, to test for the impacts of group cohesion and movement on habitat use, we tested for the interaction of space and time in our analyses of foraging intensity in the experimental food patches placed throughout the home ranges of the two groups. We expected the monkeys to harvest the most from patches in tall forest habitats and the least from patches in short forest. Further, because the monkeys move through their habitats in groups, we expected to see group cohesion effects illustrated by daily spatial variation in the monkeys’ use of widespread foraging grids. In the forest height experiments, the two groups differed in their foraging responses, with 8% greater foraging overall for one group. However, forest height did not significantly impact foraging in either group, meaning that, given feeding opportunities, samango monkeys are able to utilise secondary growth forest. For one group, missed opportunity costs of staying with the group appeared through the statistical interaction of day with foraging location (the monkeys did not always spread out to take advantage of all available food patches). In several subsequent experiments in widespread grids, significant daily spatial variation in foraging occurred, pointing to spatial cohesion during group movement as likely being an important predictor of habitat use. For an individual social forager, staying with the group may be more important than habitat type in driving habitat selection.

  1. Identifying preferred habitats of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis, erythrarchus) through patch use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Sara E; Brown, Joel S

    2013-10-26

    To examine habitat preferences of two groups of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) in the Soutpansberg, South Africa, we used experimental food patches in fragments of tall forest and in bordering secondary growth short forest. Additionally, to test for the impacts of group cohesion and movement on habitat use, we tested for the interaction of space and time in our analyses of foraging intensity in the experimental food patches placed throughout the home ranges of the two groups. We expected the monkeys to harvest the most from patches in tall forest habitats and the least from patches in short forest. Further, because the monkeys move through their habitats in groups, we expected to see group cohesion effects illustrated by daily spatial variation in the monkeys' use of widespread foraging grids. In the forest height experiments, the two groups differed in their foraging responses, with 8% greater foraging overall for one group. However, forest height did not significantly impact foraging in either group, meaning that, given feeding opportunities, samango monkeys are able to utilize secondary growth forest. For one group, missed opportunity costs of staying with the group appeared through the statistical interaction of day with foraging location (the monkeys did not always spread out to take advantage of all available food patches). In several subsequent experiments in widespread grids, significant daily spatial variation in foraging occurred, pointing to spatial cohesion during group movement as likely being an important predictor of habitat use. For an individual social forager, staying with the group may be more important than habitat type in driving habitat selection.

  2. Sacred populations of Cercopithecus sclateri: analysis of apparent population increases from census counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lynne R; Tanimola, Adebowale A; Olubode, Oluseun S

    2014-04-01

    The development of effective conservation and management actions for populations of wild species generally requires monitoring programs that provide reliable estimates of population size over time. Primate researchers have to date given more attention to evaluating techniques for monitoring primates in natural habitats compared to populations that occur in villages or urban areas. We conducted censuses to estimate the abundance and density of two sacred, village-dwelling populations (Lagwa and Akpugoeze) of Sclater's monkey (Cercopithecus sclateri), a threatened species endemic to southeastern Nigeria, and compared these data to previous census results. We recorded population increases in both sites: a 66% increase over 4½ years in Lagwa (from 124 to 206 individuals) at an annual rate of 10.2%, and a 29% increase over 4 years in Akpugoeze (from 193 to 249 individuals) at an annual rate of 5.7%. Mean group size also increased in both sites. Density in Lagwa was 24.2 individuals/km(2) , and density in a core survey area of Akpugoeze was 36-38 individuals/km(2) . Our results may have been affected by monkey ranging and grouping patterns and improved detectability due to our revised census technique, which included secondary observers. With further work on methodology for censusing populations that occur in human-settled environments, techniques can be refined and customized to individual sites for more accurate estimates. Our investigation of Sclater's monkey in Lagwa and Akpugoeze, two sites critical for conservation of the species, indicated that both of these populations have increased, and neither faces immediate risk of extirpation. Such population growth, while encouraging, will likely exacerbate human-monkey conflict and thus should be understood in terms of potential socioeconomic impacts.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM GENAVENSE IN A DIANA MONKEY (CERCOPITHECUS DIANA) BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen M; Wack, Allison N; Bradway, Dan; Simons, Brian W; Bronson, Ellen; Osterhout, Gerard; Parrish, Nicole M; Montali, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    A 25-yr-old Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana) with a 1.5-yr history of chronic colitis and diarrhea was found to have disseminated granulomatous disease with intralesional acid fast bacilli. Bacilli were identified as Mycobacterium genavense by polymerase chain reaction, sequencing of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer (ITS) gene, and mycolic acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mycobacterium genavense is a common cause of mycobacteriosis in free-ranging and captive birds. In addition, recognition of opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients is increasing. Disease manifestations of M. genavense are similar to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and include fever, wasting, and diarrhea with disseminated disease. Similar clinical signs and lesions were observed in this monkey. Mycobacterium genavense should be considered as a differential for disseminated mycobacterial disease in nonhuman primates as this agent can mimic MAC and related mycobacteria.

  4. Fire and home range expansion: a behavioral response to burning among savanna dwelling vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nicole M; Parker, Christopher H; Keefe, Earl R; Coxworth, James; Barrett, Alan; Hawkes, Kristen

    2014-08-01

    The behavioral adaptations of primates to fire-modified landscapes are of considerable interest to anthropologists because fire is fundamental to life in the African savanna-the setting in which genus Homo evolved. Here we report the behavioral responses of a savanna-dwelling primate, vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), to fire-induced ecological change. Using behavioral and spatial data to characterize ranging patterns prior to and postburn and between burn and nonburn years, we show that these primates inhabiting small, spatially bound, riverine habitats take advantage of newly burned savanna landscapes. When subjects encountered controlled fires, they did not flee but instead avoided the path of the fire seemingly unbothered by its approach. After fire, the primates' home range expanded into newly burned but previously unused areas. These results contribute to understanding the response of non-human primates to fire-modified landscapes and can shed light on the nature and scope of opportunities and constraints posed by the emergence of fire-affected landscapes in the past. Results also expose deficiencies in our knowledge of fire-related behavioral responses in the primate lineage and highlight the need for further investigation of these responses as they relate to foraging opportunities, migration, resource use, and especially fire-centric adaptations in our own genus.

  5. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  6. Contribution à la ré-évaluation de l’aire de répartition du singe à queue de soleil (Cercopithecus solatus Contribution to the reassessment of the the sun-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus solatus distribution area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Motsch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Cercopithèque à queue de soleil (Cercopithecus solatus est uneespèce endémique du Gabon, où il a été observé pour la première fois en 1984 par Mike Harrison et décrit en 1988. A ce jour, peu d'informations sont disponibles sur cette espècediscrète et rare. Pour pallier le manque d’études sur cette espèce, le projet ECOSOL (ECOlogie de C. SOLatus, projet de recherche multidisciplinaire, a été initié en janvier 2009 pour améliorer les connaissances sur cette espèce peu connue et pour encouragersa conservation. Depuis près de 2 ans, de nouvelles données ont été acquises, en particulier sur l’aire de répartition de l’espèce, dont nous avons ici étudié la limite sud-est. Notre étude s’est déroulée dans trois régions du Gabon où la présence de c. solatus était soit démontrée (zone historique, soit suspectée, soit n’avait jamais été étudiée. Des enquêtes dans des villages et des marches de reconnaissance sur le terrain ont ainsi été réalisées. Les résultats obtenus ont 1/ confirmé la présence de C solatus dans la zone historique, 2/ semblent soutenir les hypothèses de sa présence en dehors et 3/ suggèrent même que C. solatus serait plus au sud-est et plus près de la République du Congo que ce qui a été jusqu’alors affirmé. Cette étude a contribué à réexaminer la distribution des populations de C. solatus sur le territoire gabonais, fournissant ainsi des outils supplémentaires pour juger du statut de conservation de l’espèce.The sun-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus solatus is an endemic species of Gabon, where it was first observed in 1984 by Mike Harrison and described in 1988. To date, little information is available on this cryptic and rare species. To overcome the lack of studies on this species, the ECOSOL project (ECOlogy of C. SOLatus, a multidisciplinary research project, was initiated in January 2009 to improve knowledge on this poorly known species and to

  7. Caractéristiques de l’habitat du singe à ventre rouge (Cercopithecus e. erythrogaster) dans le Sud-Bénin

    OpenAIRE

    Kassa, Barthélémy; Nobimè, Georges; Hanon, Laurence; Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem; Brice SINSIN

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le singe à ventre rouge (Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster) est une sous-espèce de cercopithèque endémique au Bénin (Grubb et al., 1999). Il colonise des habitats résiduels de forêts denses semi-décidues et les anciennes jachères de la vallée de l’Ouémé au sud du Bénin (Sinsin et al. 2002a). L’état de mosaïque qui caractérise la structure spatiale de son habitat et la taille relativement réduite de sa population nous conduisent à prendre en compte le risque de disparition...

  8. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions.

  9. Caractérisation éthologique de l’émotivité chez le cercopithèque de Brazza (Cercopithecus neglectus Ethological characterization of emotivity in the de Brazza's monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Meunier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprendre le fonctionnement des groupes sociaux implique une connaissance des caractéristiques individuelles. Il existe plusieurs niveaux de réflexion dans l’étude des différences interindividuelles, le plus complexe correspondant à l’étude des dimensions du tempérament (Budaev, 1997. C’est à ce niveau que se place notre investigation qui se base sur une approche éthologique comparative du tempérament tel que l’a définit Bates (1989. Nous nous intéresserons plus précisément à l’un des principaux traits de celui-ci : l’émotivité, définie comme la prédisposition héritée du système nerveux autonome permettant de réagir de façon particulièrement forte et durable à certaines classes de stimuli (Archer 1973. La plupart des études sur la réactivité émotionnelle n’utilisent qu’un seul test, au cours duquel n’est enregistré qu’un nombre limité de comportements (Bouissou et al., 1994. Or, le monde des émotions est complexe, englobant , entre autres, les aspects du grégarisme (Kilgour, 1975 ; Jones, 1977, 1987 et de la néophobie. Nous avons mené cette étude sur une espèce de primates non humains, le cercopithèque de Brazza (Cercopithecus neglectus, présentant une très forte tendance au grégarisme et réagissant fortement à l’isolement social (Joly 2000. Nous avons testé 5 individus adultes issus de deux groupes sociaux différents dans deux tests expérimentaux : (1 les aspects du grégarisme de la réaction émotionnelle ont été abordés par un test d’isolement social durant lequel les sujets ont été observés au sein de leur groupe social, en isolement partiel et en isolement total ; (2 les aspects de néophobie ont été étudiés à travers un test de réaction à un objet nouveau pendant lequel les sujets étaient isolés partiellement ou totalement de leur groupe social. A travers ces deux expériences, nous avons pu également tester l’influence de l

  10. Lesula: a new species of Cercopithecus monkey endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and implications for conservation of Congo's central basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Hart

    Full Text Available In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as "lesula" was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo's interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range.

  11. Degree of terrestrial activity of the elusive sun-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus solatus) in Gabon: Comparative study of behavior and postcranial morphometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsch, Peggy; Le Flohic, Guillaume; Dilger, Carole; Delahaye, Alexia; Chateau-Smith, Carmela; Couette, Sebastien

    2015-10-01

    We carried out a multidisciplinary study linking behavioral and morphological data from a little-known guenon species, Cercopithecus solatus, endemic to Gabon. Over a period of 9 months, we documented the pattern of stratum use associated with postural and locomotor behavior by direct observation (650 hrs) of a semi-free-ranging breeding colony. We also conducted a morphometric analysis of the humerus and limb proportions of 90 adult specimens from 16 guenon species, including C. solatus. Field observations indicated that C. solatus monkeys spent a third of their time on the ground, similar to semi-terrestrial guenon species. We detected two patterns of stratum use: at ground level, and in trees, at a height of 3-10 m. The monkeys spent more time on the ground during the dry season than the wet season, feeding mainly at ground level, while resting, and social behaviors occurred more frequently in the tree strata. Our study of humerus size and shape, together with the analysis of limb proportions, indicated morphofunctional adaptation of C. solatus to greater terrestriality than previously thought. We therefore characterize C. solatus as a semi-terrestrial guenon, and propose a new hypothesis for the ancestral condition. By combining behavioral and morphological results, we provide new information about the adaptive strategies of the species, and the evolutionary history of guenons, thus contributing to the conservation of the sun-tailed monkey in the wild.

  12. First detection of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in two species of nonhuman primates raised in a zoo: a fatal case in Cercopithecus diana and a strongly suspected case of spontaneous recovery in Macaca nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Kimiaki; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Uraguchi, Kohji; Mukai, Takeshi; Shibata, Chikako; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Takaesu, Noboru; Ito, Masaki; Makino, Yoshinori; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi; Yagi, Kinpei

    2014-08-01

    The causative parasite of alveolar echinococcosis, Echinococcus multilocularis, maintains its life cycle between red foxes (Vulpes vulples, the definitive hosts) and voles (the intermediate hosts) in Hokkaido, Japan. Primates, including humans, and some other mammal species can be infected by the accidental ingestion of eggs in the feces of red foxes. In August 2011, a 6-year-old zoo-raised female Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana) died from alveolar echinococcosis. E. multilocularis infection was confirmed by histopathological examination and detection of the E. multilocularis DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A field survey in the zoo showed that fox intrusion was common, and serodiagnosis of various nonhuman primates using western blotting detected a case of a 14-year-old female Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra) that was weakly positive for E. multilocularis. Computed tomography revealed only one small calcified lesion (approximately 8mm) in the macaque's liver, and both western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed a gradual decline of antibody titer. These findings strongly suggest that the animal had recovered spontaneously. Until this study, spontaneous recovery from E. multilocularis infection in a nonhuman primate had never been reported.

  13. Gut microflora of vervet and samango monkeys in relation to diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruorton, M R; Davis, C. L.; Perrin, M R

    1991-01-01

    The microflora in the gastrointestinal tracts of wild vervet and samango monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops and C. mitis, respectively) were studied, using fermentation acid analysis, electron microscopy, and culturing methods. The diets of the two species of monkey differ considerably, with that of the samango including a greater proportion of cellulose-rich leaf material, and this is reflected in the microflora. Volatile fatty acid measurements along the gut of both species showed that these e...

  14. Propagation of human hepatitis A virus in African green monkey kidney cell culture: primary isolation and serial passage.

    OpenAIRE

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Gust, I D; Purcell, R H

    1981-01-01

    Human hepatitis A virus (HAV) was propagated in primary African Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cell cultures. Three strains of HAV were used: MS-1, SD-11, and HM-175. Cells were inoculated with marmoset-passaged material or human clinical specimens and were stained by direct immunofluorescence to establish the identity of the virus. Both clinical samples and marmoset-passaged material produced immunofluorescence. HAV antigen was found scattered throughout the cytoplasm of...

  15. Exploring of primate models of tick-borne flaviviruses infection for evaluation of vaccines and drugs efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia S Pripuzova

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV is one of the most prevalent and medically important tick-borne arboviruses in Eurasia. There are overlapping foci of two flaviviruses: TBEV and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV in Russia. Inactivated vaccines exist only against TBE. There are no antiviral drugs for treatment of both diseases. Optimal animal models are necessary to study efficacy of novel vaccines and treatment preparations against TBE and relative flaviviruses. The models for TBE and OHF using subcutaneous inoculation were tested in Cercopithecus aethiops and Macaca fascicularis monkeys with or without prior immunization with inactivated TBE vaccine. No visible clinical signs or severe pathomorphological lesions were observed in any monkey infected with TBEV or OHFV. C. aethiops challenged with OHFV showed massive hemolytic syndrome and thrombocytopenia. Infectious virus or viral RNA was revealed in visceral organs and CNS of C. aethiops infected with both viruses; however, viremia was low. Inactivated TBE vaccines induced high antibody titers against both viruses and expressed booster after challenge. The protective efficacy against TBE was shown by the absence of virus in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS of immunized animals after challenge. Despite the absence of expressed hemolytic syndrome in immunized C. aethiops TBE vaccine did not prevent the reproduction of OHFV in CNS and visceral organs. Subcutaneous inoculation of M. fascicularis with two TBEV strains led to a febrile disease with well expressed viremia, fever, and virus reproduction in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS. The optimal terms for estimation of the viral titers in CNS were defined as 8-16 days post infection. We characterized two animal models similar to humans in their susceptibility to tick-borne flaviviruses and found the most optimal scheme for evaluation of efficacy of preventive and therapeutic preparations. We also identified M. fascicularis to be more susceptible to

  16. Structural colouration of mammalian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, Richard O; Torres, Rodolfo H

    2004-05-01

    For more than a century, the blue structural colours of mammalian skin have been hypothesized to be produced by incoherent, Rayleigh or Tyndall scattering. We investigated the colour, anatomy, nanostructure and biophysics of structurally coloured skin from two species of primates - mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) and vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) - and two species of marsupials - mouse opossum (Marmosa mexicana) and wooly opossum (Caluromys derbianus). We used two-dimensional (2-D) Fourier analysis of transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) of the collagen arrays in the primate tissues to test whether these structural colours are produced by incoherent or coherent scattering (i.e. constructive interference). The structural colours in Mandrillus rump and facial skin and Cercopithecus scrotum are produced by coherent scattering by quasi-ordered arrays of parallel dermal collagen fibres. The 2-D Fourier power spectra of the collagen arrays from Mandrillus and Cercopithecus reveal ring-shaped distributions of Fourier power at intermediate spatial frequencies, demonstrating a substantial nanostructure of the appropriate spatial frequency to produce the observed blue hues by coherent scattering alone. The Fourier power spectra and the observed reflectance spectra falsify assumptions and predictions of the incoherent, Rayleigh scattering hypothesis. Samples of blue Marmosa and Caluromys scrotum conform generally to the anatomy seen in Mandrillus and Cercopithecus but were not sufficiently well preserved to conduct numerical analyses. Colour-producing collagen arrays in mammals have evolved multiple times independently within the two clades of mammals known to have trichromatic colour vision. Mammalian colour-producing collagen arrays are anatomically and mechanistically identical to structures that have evolved convergently in the dermis of many lineages of birds, the tapetum of some mammals and the cornea of some fishes. These collagen arrays constitute quasi

  17. Croisement accidentel entre deux espèces de cercopithèques, Cercopithecus mona mona (Schreber) et Cercopithecus mitis doggetti Pocock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, A.

    1964-01-01

    Lorsqu'il faut se contenter d'espaces restreints, comme c'est le cas dans le bâtiment des singes du jardin zoologique d'Anvers, il peut arriver facilement que des représentants de différentes espèces soient logés dans une même cage. Ce fut entre autre le cas d'un mâle cercopithèque mona, Cercopithec

  18. A Kunjin Replicon Virus-like Particle Vaccine Provides Protection Against Ebola Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyankov, Oleg V; Bodnev, Sergey A; Pyankova, Olga G; Solodkyi, Vladislav V; Pyankov, Stepan A; Setoh, Yin Xiang; Volchkova, Valentina A; Suhrbier, Andreas; Volchkov, Viktor V; Agafonov, Alexander A; Khromykh, Alexander A

    2015-10-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease in West Africa has demonstrated the urgent need for a vaccine. Here, we describe the evaluation of an EBOV vaccine candidate based on Kunjin replicon virus-like particles (KUN VLPs) encoding EBOV glycoprotein with a D637L mutation (GP/D637L) in nonhuman primates. Four African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) were injected subcutaneously with a dose of 10(9) KUN VLPs per animal twice with an interval of 4 weeks, and animals were challenged 3 weeks later intramuscularly with 600 plaque-forming units of Zaire EBOV. Three animals were completely protected against EBOV challenge, while one vaccinated animal and the control animal died from infection. We suggest that KUN VLPs encoding GP/D637L represent a viable EBOV vaccine candidate.

  19. A Comparative Study of Growth Patterns in Crested Langurs and Vervet Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra R. Bolter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical growth patterns of crested langurs and vervet monkeys are investigated for several unilinear dimensions. Long bone lengths, trunk height, foot length, epiphyseal fusion of the long bones and the pelvis, and cranial capacity are compared through six dental growth stages in male Trachypithecus cristatus (crested langurs and Cercopithecus aethiops (vervet monkeys. Results show that the body elements of crested langurs mature differently than those of vervets. In some dimensions, langurs and vervets grow comparably, in others vervets attain adult values in advance of crested langurs, and in one feature the langurs are accelerated. Several factors may explain this difference, including phylogeny, diet, ecology, and locomotion. This study proposes that locomotor requirements affect differences in somatic growth between the species.

  20. [{sup 18}F]fluoro-{beta}-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine derivatives show stereo, geometrical, and regio specificities as in vivo central dopaminergic probes in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.-C.; Quintana, Javier; Satyamurthy, N.; Lacan, Goran; Yu Danchu; Phelps, Michael E.; Barrio, Jorge R

    1999-05-01

    Stereo (D and L), geometrical (E and Z), and regiospecific (2-, 4-, and 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro) analogs of {beta}-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (FMMT) have been investigated in adult vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus, n=12) in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET). Brain transport through the blood-brain barrier and central aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD)-mediated decarboxylation rates were established. Results show strict structural dependency of the kinetic behavior of radiofluorinated FMMT analogs, with the E-isomer exhibiting a higher specificity over the (Z) geometrical counterpart for central dopaminergic structures. The 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro substituted L-(E)-FMMT was also favored over the 2- and 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorosubstituted isomers in terms of their ability to localize in the same brain areas. The role of PET in drug development is also exemplified in this work.

  1. Early cytoplasmic vacuolization of African green monkey kidney cells by SV40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, T; Kitahara, T

    1975-01-01

    As early as 3--4 hours after infection with SV40 at a high input multiplicity, African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cells developed cytoplasmic vacuolization. At 10--20 hours after infection, the vacuolization reached its maximal level, then disappeared and SV40 specific cytopathic change followed. This vacuolization developed before the synthesis of the specific T and V antigens. This early cytoplasmic vacuolization (ECV) was prevented by preincubating the virus with specific antiserum, or by heating the virus with MgCl2. The ECV could be induced by UV-irradiated SV40. Addition of metabolic inhibitors had no effect on the induction of the ECV. These results suggest that the capacity to induce the ECV resides in a structural component(s) of SV40 virion and the vacuolization is not associated with the replication of SV40.

  2. Early cytoplasmic vacuolization of African green monkey kidney cells by SV40. [uv radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamura, T.; Kitahara, T.

    1975-01-01

    As early as 3 to 4 hours after infection with SV 40 at a high input multiplicity, African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cells developed cytoplasmic vacuolization. At 10 to 20 hours after infection, the vacuolization reached its maximal level, then disappeared and SV 40 specific cytopathic change followed. This vacuolization developed before the synthesis of the specific T and V antigens. This early cytoplasmic vacuolization (ECV) was prevented by pre-incubating the virus with specific antiserum, or by heating the virus with MgCl/sub 2/. The ECV could be induced by uv-irradiated SV 40. Addition of metabolic inhibitors had no effect on the induction of the ECV. These results suggest that the capacity to induce the ECV resides in a structural component(s) of SV 40 virion and the vacuolization is not associated with the replication of SV 40.

  3. [Residual neurovirulence of the chimera of Langat and Denge-4 flaviviruses in intracerebral infection of monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karganova, G G; Pripuzova, N S; Tereshkina, N V; Gmyl', L V; Dzhivanian, T I; Rumiantsev, A A; Lashkevich, V A

    2005-01-01

    The residual neurovirulence of the previously obtained chimeric virus Tp21/DEN4, containing the RNA region encoding the pre M and E structural enzymes, strain Tp21, virus Langat, and the remaining part of the genome from the Denge 4 virus, was studied in experiments with monkeys Cercopithecus aethiops involving the intracerebral administration of the virus. The tick-borne encephalitis virus, strain Absettarov, was used as positive control. A comparative analysis of the experimental and published data showed the chimeric virus to be less virulent by its degree of morphological affection in the CNS zones, its spread into the CNS and by a percentage share of animals with viremia versus the Tp21 parent strain and Elantsev strain of the Langat virus.

  4. A web-based brain atlas of the vervet monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Roger P; Fears, Scott C; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Toga, Arthur W; Freimer, Nelson B

    2011-02-01

    Vervet monkeys are a frequently studied animal model in neuroscience research. Although equally distantly related to humans, the ancestors of vervets diverged from those of macaques and baboons more than 11 million years ago, antedating the divergence of the ancestors of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas. To facilitate anatomic localization in the vervet brain, two linked on-line electronic atlases are described, one based on registered MRI scans from hundreds of vervets (http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Research/Atlases/Data/vervet/vervetmratlas/vervetmratlas.html) and the other based on a high-resolution cryomacrotome study of a single vervet (http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Research/Atlases/Data/vervet/vervetatlas/vervetatlas.html). The averaged MRI atlas is also available as a volume in Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative format. In the cryomacrotome atlas, various sulcal and subcortical structures have been anatomically labeled and surface rendered views are provided along the primary planes of section. Both atlases simultaneously provide views in all three primary planes of section, rapid navigation by clicking on the displayed images, and stereotaxic coordinates in the averaged MRI atlas space. Despite the extended time period since their divergence, the major sulcal and subcortical landmarks in vervets are highly conserved relative to those described in macaques.

  5. Evaluation of the vervet (Clorocebus aethiops) as a model for the assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparman, Michelle L; Ramsey, Cathy M; Thomas, Carrie M; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Fanton, John W; Maginnis, Gwen M; Stouffer, Richard L; Wolf, Don P

    2007-08-01

    The vervet monkey was evaluated as a primate model for use in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). Eight adult female vervets were hormonally monitored for their potential use as egg donors and those six females displaying regular menstrual cycles were subjected to controlled ovarian stimulation with recombinant human gonadotropins. Three animals failed to respond while laparoscopic follicular aspiration was performed on the other three females at 27-30 h post-human chorionic gonadotropin administration. A total of 62, 40, and 18 oocytes was recovered from these three animals of which 30, 20, and 4, respectively, matured to the metaphase II stage and were subsequently inseminated using intracytoplasmic sperm injection. An average of 40+/-15% (SEM) of the inseminated oocytes were fertilized based on pronucleus formation and timely cleavage. One embryo from each of the two stimulated females developed into expanded blastocysts. Two adult male vervets were assessed as sperm donors. Neither adjusted well to the restraint and collection procedure required for penile electroejaculation. Samples collected via rectal electroejaculation were very low in sperm motility and concentration; however, cauda epididymal aspirations from one male yielded an adequate concentration of motile sperm. These results emphasize the need to establish species-specific ovarian stimulation protocols and semen collection techniques if vervets are to be considered for basic and applied (ARTs) research on primate gametes or embryos.

  6. Parasitology of five primates in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooriyama, Takanori; Hasegawa, Hideo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio; Nishida, Toshisada; Iwaki, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Parasitological surveillance in primates has been performed using coprological observation and identification of specimens from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania (Mahale). In this study, we conducted coprological surveillance to identify the fauna of parasite infection in five primate species in Mahale: red colobus (Procolobus badius tephrosceles), red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti), vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), and chimpanzees. Fecal samples were examined microscopically, and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, larvae, and adult worms. Three nematodes (Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris sp.), Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba spp. were found in all five primate species. The following infections were identified: Bertiella studeri was found in chimpanzees and yellow baboons; Balantidium coli was found in yellow baboons; three nematodes (Streptopharagus, Primasubulura, an undetermined genus of Spirurina) and Dicrocoeliidae gen. sp. were found in red-tailed monkeys, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons; Chitwoodspirura sp. was newly identified in red colobus and red-tailed monkeys; Probstmayria gombensis and Troglocorys cava were newly identified in chimpanzees, together with Troglodytella abrassarti; and Enterobius sp. was newly identified in red colobus. The parasitological data reported for red colobus, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons in Mahale are the first reports for these species.

  7. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauke, Chesa G; Arieff, Zainunisha; Kaur, Mandeep; Seier, Jurgen V

    2014-02-01

    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African green monkeys for 3 months. In the treated monkeys, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 43% from baseline, whereas concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased by 49% and 34%, respectively. The results suggest that in this primate model, a low dose of niacin can effectively increase concentrations of HDL cholesterol.

  8. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    KAUST Repository

    Chauke, Chesa G.

    2014-01-22

    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African green monkeys for 3 months. In the treated monkeys, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 43% from baseline, whereas concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased by 49% and 34%, respectively. The results suggest that in this primate model, a low dose of niacin can effectively increase concentrations of HDL cholesterol.©2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Social and emotional values of sounds influence human (Homo sapiens and non-human primate (Cercopithecus campbelli auditory laterality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Basile

    Full Text Available The last decades evidenced auditory laterality in vertebrates, offering new important insights for the understanding of the origin of human language. Factors such as the social (e.g. specificity, familiarity and emotional value of sounds have been proved to influence hemispheric specialization. However, little is known about the crossed effect of these two factors in animals. In addition, human-animal comparative studies, using the same methodology, are rare. In our study, we adapted the head turn paradigm, a widely used non invasive method, on 8-9-year-old schoolgirls and on adult female Campbell's monkeys, by focusing on head and/or eye orientations in response to sound playbacks. We broadcast communicative signals (monkeys: calls, humans: speech emitted by familiar individuals presenting distinct degrees of social value (female monkeys: conspecific group members vs heterospecific neighbours, human girls: from the same vs different classroom and emotional value (monkeys: contact vs threat calls; humans: friendly vs aggressive intonation. We evidenced a crossed-categorical effect of social and emotional values in both species since only "negative" voices from same class/group members elicited a significant auditory laterality (Wilcoxon tests: monkeys, T = 0 p = 0.03; girls: T = 4.5 p = 0.03. Moreover, we found differences between species as a left and right hemisphere preference was found respectively in humans and monkeys. Furthermore while monkeys almost exclusively responded by turning their head, girls sometimes also just moved their eyes. This study supports theories defending differential roles played by the two hemispheres in primates' auditory laterality and evidenced that more systematic species comparisons are needed before raising evolutionary scenario. Moreover, the choice of sound stimuli and behavioural measures in such studies should be the focus of careful attention.

  10. Social and emotional values of sounds influence human (Homo sapiens) and non-human primate (Cercopithecus campbelli) auditory laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Muriel; Lemasson, Alban; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2009-07-17

    The last decades evidenced auditory laterality in vertebrates, offering new important insights for the understanding of the origin of human language. Factors such as the social (e.g. specificity, familiarity) and emotional value of sounds have been proved to influence hemispheric specialization. However, little is known about the crossed effect of these two factors in animals. In addition, human-animal comparative studies, using the same methodology, are rare. In our study, we adapted the head turn paradigm, a widely used non invasive method, on 8-9-year-old schoolgirls and on adult female Campbell's monkeys, by focusing on head and/or eye orientations in response to sound playbacks. We broadcast communicative signals (monkeys: calls, humans: speech) emitted by familiar individuals presenting distinct degrees of social value (female monkeys: conspecific group members vs heterospecific neighbours, human girls: from the same vs different classroom) and emotional value (monkeys: contact vs threat calls; humans: friendly vs aggressive intonation). We evidenced a crossed-categorical effect of social and emotional values in both species since only "negative" voices from same class/group members elicited a significant auditory laterality (Wilcoxon tests: monkeys, T = 0 p = 0.03; girls: T = 4.5 p = 0.03). Moreover, we found differences between species as a left and right hemisphere preference was found respectively in humans and monkeys. Furthermore while monkeys almost exclusively responded by turning their head, girls sometimes also just moved their eyes. This study supports theories defending differential roles played by the two hemispheres in primates' auditory laterality and evidenced that more systematic species comparisons are needed before raising evolutionary scenario. Moreover, the choice of sound stimuli and behavioural measures in such studies should be the focus of careful attention.

  11. Chemical Synthesis, Characterisation, and Biocompatibility of Nanometre Scale Porous Anodic Aluminium Oxide Membranes for Use as a Cell Culture Substrate for the Vero Cell Line: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérrard Eddy Jai Poinern

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary study we investigate for the first time the biomedical potential of using porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO membranes as a cell substrate for culturing the Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkey Kidney (Vero epithelial cell line. One advantage of using the inorganic AAO membrane is the presence of nanometre scale pore channels that allow the exchange of molecules and nutrients across the membrane. The size of the pore channels can be preselected by adjusting the controlling parameters of a temperature controlled two-step anodization process. The cellular interaction and response of the Vero cell line with an in-house synthesised AAO membrane, a commercially available membrane, and a glass control were assessed by investigating cell adhesion, morphology, and proliferation over a 72 h period. The number of viable cells proliferating over the respective membrane surfaces revealed that the locally produced in-house AAO membrane had cells numbers similar to the glass control. The study revealed evidence of focal adhesion sites over the surface of the nanoporous membranes and the penetration of cellular extensions into the pore structure as well. The outcome of the study has revealed that nanometre scale porous AAO membranes have the potential to become practical cell culture scaffold substrates with the capability to enhance adhesion and proliferation of Vero cells.

  12. Methylphenidate, apomorphine, THIP, and diazepam in monkeys: dopamine-GABA behavior related to psychoses and tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, J; Bjørndal, N; Christensson, E

    1984-01-01

    In eight monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), previously treated with haloperidol for 4-14 months, we have examined the behavioral effect of: (1) methylphenidate vs apomorphine; (2) 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-(5,4-c)-pyridin-3-ol(THIP, a GABA agonist) vs diazepam; and (3) THIP and diazepam in methylphenidate-induced behavior. Methylphenidate (0.5-5.0 mg/kg) and apomorphine (0.1-0.5 mg/kg) both increased locomotion, but otherwise exhibited different behavioral profiles. Methylphenidate induced repetitive movements of head, limbs, and trunk, and hallucinatory-like behavior, but not oral hyperkinesia (licking and gnawing), whereas apomorphine preferentially caused oral hyperkinesia. THIP produced a syndrome of bradykinesia, dystonia, ataxia, myoclonus, sedation, and decreased responsiveness, whereas diazepam produced only bradykinesia, ataxia, sedation, and decreased responsiveness, but not dystonia and myoclonus. Methylphenidate-induced locomotion and repetitive movements were reduced by THIP and diazepam, whereas hallucinatory-like behavior was markedly aggravated by THIP, but not by diazepam.

  13. Gut microflora of vervet and samango monkeys in relation to diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruorton, M R; Davis, C L; Perrin, M R

    1991-02-01

    The microflora in the gastrointestinal tracts of wild vervet and samango monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops and C. mitis, respectively) were studied, using fermentation acid analysis, electron microscopy, and culturing methods. The diets of the two species of monkey differ considerably, with that of the samango including a greater proportion of cellulose-rich leaf material, and this is reflected in the microflora. Volatile fatty acid measurements along the gut of both species showed that these end products of bacterial metabolism were concentrated in the cecum and colon. Electron microscopy indicated that morphologically similar bacteria were present in the cecum and colon of both species, but the samango possessed a distinct stomach microflora. Bacteria in the lumina of the four main regions of the gut of the monkeys (stomach, small intestine, cecum, and colon) were plated on a number of anaerobic media (Mann, Rogosa, and Sharp; clostridial basal; and complex media). The cecum and colon were found to contain higher numbers of microbes per gram (wet weight) of gut content than the stomach and small intestine. Microbial isolates were able to catabolize carboxymethyl cellulose and other polymers. This may aid the monkeys, particularly samangos, in the digestion of fibrous dietary components such as leaves.

  14. Chemical synthesis, characterisation, and biocompatibility of nanometre scale porous anodic aluminium oxide membranes for use as a cell culture substrate for the vero cell line: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Le, Xuan Thi; O'Dea, Mark; Becker, Thomas; Fawcett, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In this preliminary study we investigate for the first time the biomedical potential of using porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes as a cell substrate for culturing the Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkey) Kidney (Vero) epithelial cell line. One advantage of using the inorganic AAO membrane is the presence of nanometre scale pore channels that allow the exchange of molecules and nutrients across the membrane. The size of the pore channels can be preselected by adjusting the controlling parameters of a temperature controlled two-step anodization process. The cellular interaction and response of the Vero cell line with an in-house synthesised AAO membrane, a commercially available membrane, and a glass control were assessed by investigating cell adhesion, morphology, and proliferation over a 72 h period. The number of viable cells proliferating over the respective membrane surfaces revealed that the locally produced in-house AAO membrane had cells numbers similar to the glass control. The study revealed evidence of focal adhesion sites over the surface of the nanoporous membranes and the penetration of cellular extensions into the pore structure as well. The outcome of the study has revealed that nanometre scale porous AAO membranes have the potential to become practical cell culture scaffold substrates with the capability to enhance adhesion and proliferation of Vero cells.

  15. Histological evaluation of platelet rich plasma and hydroxiapatite in apexogenesis: Study on experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There are very few data about the effects of endogenous growth factors in vital pulp therapy, and still they are often controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP in conjugation with hydroxyapatite (HAP, as pulp capping materials, to root and periodontium formation. Methods. Eight young monkeys (Cercopithecus Aethiops with permanent dentition and incomplete root formation were involved in this study. After pulpotomy, the pulp lesion was capped with calcium hydroxide (control, hydroxyapatite (experimental group I or hydroxyapatite in conjugation with PRP (experimental group II. Six months later, the animals were sacrificed, the tissue was removed en block, and prepared for the histological analysis in a routine way. Results. The results of the histological analysis revealed that healing process was characterised by dentin bridge formation, maintained morphological and functional integrity of dental pulp and complete formation of dental root and surrounding periodontium. The inflammatory reaction was scored as mild to moderate, in almost all the samples in all groups, suggesting the biocompatibility of the used materials. Conclusion. Materials used in this study are convenient as capping agents, contributing maintaining the integrity of the pulp tissue and facilitating root and periodontium formation. According to histological data it could be suggested that hydroxyapatite in conjugation with endogenous growth factors, represents superior alternative to other materials used in this study.

  16. Combination and monotherapy of Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice using plant extracts and herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. Makwali , Frederick M.E. Wanjala , Josyline C. Kaburi , Johnstone Ingonga , Wabwoba W. Byrum & Christopher O. Anjili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is a growing health problem in many parts of the world. Efforts to findnew chemotherapeutics for leishmaniasis remain a priority. This study was carried out to determine the effect ofcombination and monotherapies using plant extracts and herbicides on Leishmania major infection in BALB/cmice.Methods: The herbicides and saponin extract were purchased from Sigma. Roots of Plumbago capensis werecollected from Karura forest, Nairobi, Kenya. Plant extractions were done in KEMRI at Center for TraditionalMedicines and Drugs Research.Results: Lesion sizes after infection of BALB/c mice were similar in all the experimental groups till the onset oftherapeutic treatments (p >0.05. At 15 days post-treatment, significant differences (p < 0.05 were discerned inthe lesion sizes of the BALB/c mice in all the mono- and combined-treated groups. However, the combinedtherapies caused total elimination of the parasites from the lesions and significantly reduced parasite burden inliver and spleen compared to the untreated controls at the end of the experiment.Interpretation & conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that combination therapy using alternativeadministration of saponin, acriflavine, trifluralin and plumbagin is effective in treating L. major infection inmice. In this regard, an investigation into the efficacy of these combined therapies against other Leishmaniastrains should be explored further. Furthermore, studies with these combination therapies should be done onnon-human primates such as the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops.

  17. Effects of the platelet rich plasma on apexogenesis in young monkeys: Radiological and hystologycal evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-reach plasma (PRP is an attractive tool in regenerative medicine due to its ability to stimulate proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Since dental pulp derived stem cells are recognized as central in apexogenesis, the aim of the study was to evaluate radiologically and histologically effects of PRP on apexogenesis in teeth with immature roots. The study included eight monkeys (Cercopithecus Aethiops divided in two equal groups for evaluation 3 and 12 months after treatment. All participants obtained the same treatment including pulpotomy and after-treatment with: hydroxiapatite (HA-incisor and HA+canine PRP. Radiological evaluation was performed using the long cone paralleling technique for recording of defined parameters and histological evaluation was performed using tissue removed en block for the observation of parameters related to apexogenesis. The results obtained radiologically and histologically have shown increase in bridge formation in HA+PRP (75% group after 3 months comparing to HA group (50%. Contrary to that, after 12 months there were no significant differences between groups. The root delay was not registered in the HA+PRP group contrary to HA group where it was registered in 25% after 12 months. Results of the study suggest that PRP is a powerful tool for intensive and rapid apexogenesis since it offers clear and comprehensive results (mostly in the first three months which are early radiologically visible without any failure in the proposed requests.

  18. Propagation of human hepatitis A virus in African green monkey kidney cell culture: primary isolation and serial passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Gust, I D; Purcell, R H

    1981-04-01

    Human hepatitis A virus (HAV) was propagated in primary African Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cell cultures. Three strains of HAV were used: MS-1, SD-11, and HM-175. Cells were inoculated with marmoset-passaged material or human clinical specimens and were stained by direct immunofluorescence to establish the identity of the virus. Both clinical samples and marmoset-passaged material produced immunofluorescence. HAV antigen was found scattered throughout the cytoplasm of inoculated cultures. The HM-175 strain produced the most intense immunofluorescence. This strain of HAV had been serially passaged in cell culture seven times. Blocking experiments with paired human sera from naturally acquired HAV infections and hyperimmune chimpanzee serum from an experimentally infected animal established that the immunofluorescence was specific. The viral antigen was found to be exclusively intracellular. The interval to maximum HAV antigen expression was decreased by serial passage. The HAV strain described herein, which was recovered directly from the stool specimen of a patient with HAV in primary AGMK cell culture, may prove useful as a source of antigen for serological tests and as a candidate vaccine strain.

  19. The Use of a Low-Concentration Heparin Solution to Extend the Life of Central Venous Catheters in the African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-28

    rhesus macaques developed catheter-related septice- mia, and antibiotic therapy and catheter removal was required to resolve the bacteremia.2 Materials ...the internal jugular vein from the remainder of the vascular bundle. A trocar was used to cre- ate a subcutaneous tunnel from the cervical surgery...site, over the right shoulder, to a point in the center of the back, where a small incision was made to expose the trocar tip. The catheter was

  20. The structure of the shell and polar plugs of the egg of the whipworm, Trichuris trichiura (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from the Samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, C C; White, B J

    1989-12-01

    The structure of the shell of the egg of Trichuris trichiura was examined using light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results confirmed its three-layered structure and provided evidence that the cores of the polar plugs, which could be seen to be extensions of the shell's middle layer, could be lost en bloc, either mechanically or chemically, and in this way probably provided an exit for the first stage larva at hatching.

  1. Use of blends of bioabsorbable poly(L-lactic acid/poly(hydroxybutyrate- co-hydroxyvalerate as surfaces for Vero cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Santos Jr.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Vero cells, a cell line established from the kidney of the African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops, were cultured in F-10 Ham medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum at 37°C on membranes of poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV and their blends in different proportions (100/0, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, and 0/100. The present study evaluated morphology of cells grown on different polymeric substrates after 24 h of culture by scanning electron microscopy. Cell adhesion was also analyzed after 2 h of inoculation. For cell growth evaluation, the cells were maintained in culture for 48, 120, 240, and 360 h. For cytochemical study, the cells were cultured for 120 or 240 h, fixed, processed for histological analysis, and stained with Toluidine blue, pH 4.0, and Xylidine ponceau, pH 2.5. Our results showed that cell adhesion was better when 60/40 and 50/50 blends were used although cells were able to grow and proliferate on all blends tested. When using PLLA/PHBV (50/50 slightly flattened cells were observed on porous and smooth areas. PLLA/PHBV (40/60 blends presented flattened cells on smooth areas. PLLA/PHBV (0/100, which presented no pores, also supported spreading cells interconnected by thin filaments. Histological sections showed that cells grew as a confluent monolayer on different substrates. Cytochemical analysis showed basophilic cells, indicating a large amount of RNA and proteins. Hence, we detected changes in cell morphology induced by alterations in blend proportions. This suggests that the cells changed their differentiation pattern when on various PLLA/PHBV blend surfaces.

  2. Heterochrony and cross-species intersensory matching by infant vervet monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Zangenehpour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the evolutionary origins of a phenotype requires understanding the relationship between ontogenetic and phylogenetic processes. Human infants have been shown to undergo a process of perceptual narrowing during their first year of life, whereby their intersensory ability to match the faces and voices of another species declines as they get older. We investigated the evolutionary origins of this behavioral phenotype by examining whether or not this developmental process occurs in non-human primates as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the ability of infant vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops, ranging in age from 23 to 65 weeks, to match the faces and voices of another non-human primate species (the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. Even though the vervets had no prior exposure to rhesus monkey faces and vocalizations, our findings show that infant vervets can, in fact, recognize the correspondence between rhesus monkey faces and voices (but indicate that they do so by looking at the non-matching face for a greater proportion of overall looking time, and can do so well beyond the age of perceptual narrowing in human infants. Our results further suggest that the pattern of matching by vervet monkeys is influenced by the emotional saliency of the Face+Voice combination. That is, although they looked at the non-matching screen for Face+Voice combinations, they switched to looking at the matching screen when the Voice was replaced with a complex tone of equal duration. Furthermore, an analysis of pupillary responses revealed that their pupils showed greater dilation when looking at the matching natural face/voice combination versus the face/tone combination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because the infant vervets in the current study exhibited cross-species intersensory matching far later in development than do human infants, our findings suggest either that intersensory perceptual narrowing does not occur in Old

  3. Effect of palm olein oil in a moderate-fat diet on plasma lipoprotein profile and aortic atherosclerosis in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jaarsveld, Paul J; Smuts, Cornelius M; Benadé, A Spinnler

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the effect of palm olein oil (PO; palmitic acid content approximately 38%) incorporation into the diet on blood cholesterol concentration. Information on the effect of PO on atherosclerosis is, however, lacking. In vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concen-trations can be modulated by the type and amount of fat in the diet. The vervet is a proven model for both the type and composition of human atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PO in a moderate-fat moderate-cholesterol diet (MFD) on plasma lipoproteins and the progression of atherosclerosis in a non-human primate model after 25.5 months of dietary exposure. Thirty adult male vervets, never exposed to a Western-type atherogenic diet, were stabilised on a MFD (28%E fat; 26 mg cholesterol/1000 kJ) with a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio of 0.4 for six weeks. Baseline LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C and bodyweight were used to stratify the vervets into three comparable groups of 10 each. One group continued with the MFD in which 11.0%E was derived from lard (AF). In the other two groups, the AF was substituted isocalorically with either sunflower oil (SO) or PO. Plasma lipids were measured at 6-monthly intervals and atherosclerosis was assessed in the aorta and in five peripheral arteries after 25.5 months of dietary exposure. The frequency of atherosclerosis in peripheral arteries and aortas was low. PO, relative to SO and AF, significantly reduced the risk for developing early lesions in peripheral arteries (P = 0.0277 and P = 0.0038, respectively) and, relative to AF, in aortas (P = 0.0335). The cholesterolaemic effect of MFD-PO was not significantly different from MFD-SO and MFD-AF. However, at 24 months the plasma total cholesterol concentration with MFD-AF was significantly higher than with MFD-SO (P = 0.0256). It is confirmed that a MFD with PO is no different

  4. Low concentrations of bisphenol a suppress thyroid hormone receptor transcription through a nongenomic mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Tang, Yuan [Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, 30 Yanzheng Street, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Yu-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Yuan, Ye; Zhao, Bao-Quan [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Chao, Xi-Juan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Ben-Zhan, E-mail: bzhu@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Bisphenol (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Various rodent and in vitro studies have shown that thyroid hormone (TH) function can be impaired by BPA. However, it is still unknown if low concentrations of BPA can suppress the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) transcription. The present study aims to investigate the possible suppressing effects of low concentrations of BPA on TR transcription and the involved mechanism(s) in CV-1 cells derived from cercopithecus aethiops monkey kidneys. Using gene reporter assays, BPA at concentrations as low as 10{sup −9} M suppresses TR or steroid receptor coactivator-1(SRC-1)-enhanced TR transcription, but not reducing TR/SRC-1 interaction in mammalian two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down studies. It has been further shown that both nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) are recruited to the TR-β1 by BPA in the presence of physiologic concentrations of T3 or T4. However, the overexpression of β3 integrin or c-Src significantly reduces BPA-induced recruitment of N-CoR/SMRT to TR or suppression of TR transcription. Furthermore, BPA inhibits the T3/T4-mediated interassociation of the β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways by the co-immunoprecipitation. These results indicate that low concentrations of BPA suppress the TR transcription by disrupting physiologic concentrations of T3/T4-mediated β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways, followed by recruiting N-CoR/SMRT to TR-β1, providing a novel insight regarding the TH disruption effects of low concentration BPA. -- Highlights: ► Environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA suppress TR transcription. ► BPA recruits the N-CoR/SMRT to TR under the physiologic concentrations of T3/T4. ► BPA disrupts T3/T4-mediated β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways.

  5. Regional variability in secondary remodeling within long bone cortices of catarrhine primates: the influence of bone growth history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Shannon C; Terranova, Carl J; Zihlman, Adrienne L; Enlow, Donald H; Bromage, Timothy G

    2008-09-01

    Secondary intracortical remodeling of bone varies considerably among and within vertebrate skeletons. Although prior research has shed important light on its biomechanical significance, factors accounting for this variability remain poorly understood. We examined regional patterning of secondary osteonal bone in an ontogenetic series of wild-collected primates, at the midshaft femur and humerus of Chlorocebus (Cercopithecus) aethiops (n = 32) and Hylobates lar (n = 28), and the midshaft femur of Pan troglodytes (n = 12). Our major objectives were: 1) to determine whether secondary osteonal bone exhibits significant regional patterning across inner, mid-cortical and outer circumferential cortical rings within cross-sections; and if so, 2) to consider the manner in which this regional patterning may reflect the influence of relative tissue age and other circumstances of bone growth. Using same field-of-view images of 100-microm-thick cross-sections acquired in brightfield and circularly polarized light microscopy, we quantified the percent area of secondary osteonal bone (%HAV) for whole cross-sections and across the three circumferential rings within cross-sections. We expected bone areas with inner and middle rings to exhibit higher %HAV than the outer cortical ring within cross-sections, the latter comprising tissues of more recent depositional history. Observations of primary bone microstructural development provided an additional context in which to evaluate regional patterning of intracortical remodeling. Results demonstrated significant regional variability in %HAV within all skeletal sites. As predicted,%HAV was usually lowest in the outer cortical ring within cross-sections. However, regional patterning across inner vs. mid-cortical rings showed a more variable pattern across taxa, age classes, and skeletal sites examined. Observations of primary bone microstructure revealed that the distribution of endosteally deposited bone had an important influence on

  6. Effect of palm olein oil in a moderate-fat diet on low-density lipoprotein composition in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jaarsveld, Paul J; Benadé, A J Spinnler

    2002-01-01

    Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) can be modulated by the type and amount of fat in the diet. There is, however, a paucity of information on the effect of different types and quantity of dietary fat on the plasma LDL composition in vervets. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sources of dietary fat on the concentrations and composition of circulating plasma LDL in vervets consuming moderate-fat diets containing either animal fat, sunflower oil or palm olein. Fifty adult male vervets, never exposed to a Western-type atherogenic diet, were randomly assigned to two groups. For 6 weeks 30 vervets were fed a moderate-fat (28%E) moderate-cholesterol (26 mg cholesterol/1000 kJ) diet (MFD) with a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) of 0.4; 20 vervets were fed a high-fat (34%E) high-cholesterol (98 mg cholesterol/1000 kJ) diet (HFD) with a P/S ratio of 0.6. Fasting blood samples were collected from all 50 vervets for plasma lipid measurements. The 30 vervets receiving the MFD were stratified into three comparable experimental groups of 10 each according to their LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and bodyweight. One group continued with the MFD, in which 11%E was derived from lard (MFD-AF); in the other two groups the lard was substituted isocalorically with either sunflower oil (SO) (MFD-SO) or palm olein oil (PO) (MFD-PO). The three groups were fed the respective experimental diets for 24 months and LDL component concentrations and composition were assessed at 6-monthly intervals. In the long-term study the MFD-AF, MFD-SO and MFD-PO groups showed no significant time-specific group differences at 6, 12, 18 or 24 months with regard to the LDL component concentrations, composition, as well as the LDL molecular weight. As expected, after 6 weeks of dietary exposure the HFD group had significantly higher plasma and

  7. Male blue monkeys alarm call in response to danger experienced by others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papworth, Sarah; Böse, Anne-Sophie; Barker, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    Male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) of Budongo Forest, Uganda, produce two acoustically distinct alarm calls: hacks to crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and pyows to leopards (Panthera pardus) and a range of other disturbances. In playback experiments, males responded...

  8. Diversity and spation distribution of vectors and hosts of T. brucei gambiense in forest zones of Southern Cameroon: Epidemiological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massussi, J.A.; Mbida Mbida, J.A.; Djieto-Lordon, C.; Njiokou, F.; Laveissière, C.; Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Host and vector distribution of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense was studied in relation to habitat types and seasons. Six (19.35%) of the 31 mammal species recorded in Bipindi were reservoir hosts. Cercopithecus nictitans was confined to the undisturbed forest and the low intensive shifting cultivation

  9. Filaria wäkerlini sp. n.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, van P.H.

    1925-01-01

    (Institute of Tropical Medicine and Laboratory of Comparative Pathology and Parasitology of Leyden.) Four females 2) were collected by J. C. Wäkerlin in 1909 under the skin of a Cercopithecus brazzae, which died in the zoological garden of Rotterdam. The monkey originated from the Mid-Congo in Afric

  10. First records of Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena Lapeva-Gjonova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The myrmecophilous fungi Rickia wasmannii Cavara, 1899 and Laboulbenia camponoti S. W. T. Batra, 1963 (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. Rickia wasmannii was found on Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in South-eastern Bulgaria near to the Black Sea coast. This is the easternmost record of Rickia wasmannii in Europe. Laboulbenia camponoti was found in six different localities in Bulgaria on the carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798, C. universitatis Forel, 1890 and C. pilicornis (Roger, 1859. Camponotus aethiops and C. universitatis are new hosts for the fungus. For both fungi species the known distribution and host ranges summarized. This is the first record of the ant species Camponotus pilicornis for the Bulgarian fauna.

  11. Novel Techniques for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Gottingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    interference from the impedance leads. The subcutaneous layer, tacked down to the external sheath of the linea alba to reduce dead space , was closed...2014 468 to paramedian implantation between the external and internal abdominal musculature, as typically is performed in our African green monkeys ...McMonagle JD, McGinley MJ, Evans J. 2007. The toxicity of soman in the African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops). Toxicol Mech Methods 17:255–264

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-1023 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-1023 sp|P56492|CCR3_CERAE RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 3; Short=C-C CKR-3; Short...=CC-CKR-3; Short=CCR-3; Short=CCR3; Short=CKR3; AltName: CD_antigen=CD193 emb|CAA74106.1| C-C chemokine receptor-3 [Chlorocebus aethiops] P56492 0.0 91% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1276 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1276 sp|P56492|CCR3_CERAE RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 3; Short=C-C CKR-3; Short...=CC-CKR-3; Short=CCR-3; Short=CCR3; Short=CKR3; AltName: CD_antigen=CD193 emb|CAA74106.1| C-C chemokine receptor-3 [Chlorocebus aethiops] P56492 0.0 96% ...

  14. Genetic heterogeneity and phylogeny of Trichuris spp. from captive non-human primates based on ribosomal DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallero, Serena; De Liberato, Claudio; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cave, David; Masella, Valentina; D'Amelio, Stefano; Berrilli, Federica

    2015-08-01

    Nematodes of the genus Trichuris, known as whipworms, are recognized to infect numerous mammalian species including humans and non-human primates. Several Trichuris spp. have been described and species designation/identification is traditionally based on host-affiliation, although cross-infection and hybridization events may complicate species boundaries. The main aims of the present study were to genetically characterize adult Trichuris specimens from captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and grivets (Chlorocebus aethiops), using the ribosomal DNA (ITS) as molecular marker and to investigate the phylogeny and the extent of genetic variation also by comparison with data on isolates from other humans, non-human primates and other hosts. The phylogenetic analysis of Trichuris sequences from M. fuscata and C. aethiops provided evidences of distinct clades and subclades thus advocating the existence of additional separated taxa. Neighbor Joining and Bayesian trees suggest that specimens from M. fuscata may be distinct from, but related to Trichuris trichiura, while a close relationship is suggested between the subclade formed by the specimens from C. aethiops and the subclade formed by T. suis. The tendency to associate Trichuris sp. to host species can lead to misleading taxonomic interpretations (i.e. whipworms found in primates are identified as T. trichiura). The results here obtained confirm previous evidences suggesting the existence of Trichuris spp. other than T. trichiura infecting non-human living primates.

  15. Eye structure, activity rhythms and visually-driven behavior are tuned to visual niche in ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eYilmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insects have evolved physiological adaptations and behavioural strategies that allow them to cope with a broad spectrum of environmental challenges and contribute to their evolutionary success. Visual performance plays a key role in this success. Correlates between life style and eye organization have been reported in various insect species. Yet, if and how visual ecology translates effectively into different visual discrimination and learning capabilities has been less explored. Here we report results from optical and behavioural analyses performed in two sympatric ant species, Formica cunicularia and Camponotus aethiops. We show that the former are diurnal while the latter are cathemeral. Accordingly, F. cunicularia workers present compound eyes with higher resolution, while C. aethiops workers exhibit eyes with lower resolution but higher sensitivity. The discrimination and learning of visual stimuli differs significantly between these species in controlled dual-choice experiments: discrimination learning of small-field visual stimuli is achieved by F. cunicularia but not by C. aethiops, while both species master the discrimination of large-field visual stimuli. Our work thus provides a paradigmatic example about how timing of foraging activities and visual environment match the organization of compound eyes and visually-driven behaviour. This correspondence underlines the relevance of an ecological/evolutionary framework for analyses in behavioural neuroscience.

  16. Relation between phylogeny of African green monkey CD4 genes and their respective simian immunodeficiency virus genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Diop, Ousmane

    1997-01-01

    An apparent species-specific relatedness of SIVagm suggests a coevolution with their natural hosts. However, the exact species or subspecies classification of African green monkeys, AGM, is uncertain because current classification schemes rely on phenotype markers, while more definitive genetic...... data are lacking. In this study, the CD4 protein involved in tissue type recognition was gentically cloned and sequence from PBMC RNA from all AGM species, including Barbados green monkeys (BGM). Phylogenetic trees were constructed that also included genomic CD4 nucleotide sequences from patas, sooty...... mangabeys, rhesus and pig-tail macaques, chimpanzees, and humans. Chimpanzees and humans consistently clustered together. Monkeys within the Cercopithecus genus formed a separate cluster which included pata monkeys, supporting its grouping as a member of Cercopithecus. Surprisingly, sooty mangabeys were...

  17. Living in a landscape of fear : the impact of predation, resource availability and habitat structure on primate range use.

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, B.T.; Hill, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial variation in predation risk generates a ‘landscape of fear’, with prey animals modifying their distribution and behaviour in response to this variable predation risk. In systems comprising multiple predators and prey species, a key challenge is distinguishing the independent effects of different predator guilds on prey responses. We exploited the acoustically distinct alarm calls of samango monkeys, Cercopithecus mitis erythrarchus, to create a predator-specific landscape of fear from...

  18. Cooperation and competition in two forest monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Eckardt, Winnie; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Putty-nosed monkeys, Cercopithecus nictitans stampflii, occur at various sites in West Africa, particularly in the transition zone between rainforest and savannah. The species is sometimes seen in primary rainforest, although at a curiously low density compared with that of other monkey species. We conducted a 24-month field study in the tropical rainforest of Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, and found that putty-nosed monkeys require an ecological niche almost identical to that of the Diana m...

  19. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouassi Roland Yao Wa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp., 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp., and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.. Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park.

  20. Revisiting play elements and self-handicapping in play: a comparative ethogram of five Old World monkey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrů, Milada; Spinka, Marek; Charvátová, Veronika; Lhota, Stanislav

    2009-08-01

    Play behavior has been viewed as a mixture of elements drawn from "serious" behavior, interspersed by ritualized play signals. Two other types of play behaviors have been overlooked: patterns that are dissimilar from any serious behavior and patterns with self-handicapping character, that is, those that put the animal into unnecessary disadvantageous positions or situations. Here the authors show that these 2 types of patterns can constitute a major part of play repertoire. From our own videorecordings and observations, we constructed play ethograms of 5 monkey species (Semnopithecus entellus, Erythrocebus patas, Chlorocebus pygerythrus, Cercopithecus neglectus, and Cercopithecus diana). The authors evaluated the self-handicapping character of each pattern and in Hanuman langurs also the (dis)similarity to serious behavior. Of the 74 patterns in the 5 species, 33 (45%) were judged to have a self-handicapping character. Of 48 patterns observed in langurs, 16 (33%) were totally dissimilar to any serious langur behavior known to us. The authors discuss the possibility that the different types of play elements may have different functions in play.

  1. Falsification of a single species hypothesis using the coefficient of variation: a simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, D A; Lacy, M G

    1992-11-01

    Dental variation remains an important criterion for assessing whether a morphologically homogeneous fossil primate sample includes more than one species. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) has commonly been used to compare variation in a fossil sample of unknown taxonomic composition with that of extant single-species samples, in order to determine whether more than one species might be present. However, statistical tests for differences between fossil and single species reference sample CVs often lack power, because fossil samples are usually small and confidence limits of the CV are consequently large. The present study presents a new methodology for using the CV to test the hypothesis that a sample represents only one species. Simulated sampling distributions of single-species and pooled-species CVs are generated based on variation observed in dental samples of extant Cercopithecus species. These simulated distributions are used to test a single-species hypothesis for 13 different combinations of two or three sympatric Cercopithecus species across four dental characteristics at different sample sizes. Two different ways to generate the reference value of the CV are used. Results show the proposed methodology has substantially greater power than previous methods for detecting multiple-species composition, while maintaining an acceptable Type I error rate. Results are also presented concerning the dependence of power on sample size and on the average difference between means in a pooled-species combination.

  2. Significance of chemical recognition cues is context dependent in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, N.; Guerrieri, F.J.; d'Ettorre, P.

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of group members is of fundamental importance in social animals, allowing individuals to protect resources against intruders and parasites, as well as ensuring social cohesion within the group. In ants and other social insects, social recognition relies on multicomponent chemical...... been suggested that associative learning might play a role in nestmate recognition. We investigated whether Camponotus aethiops ants can associate a complete cuticular hydrocarbon profile, consisting of about 40 compounds, with a food reward and whether the new association, developed in an appetitive...... context, affects aggression against non-nestmates carrying the hydrocarbon profile associated with food. Individual ant workers were able to associate the non-nestmate chemical profile with food. However, conditioned ants were still aggressive when encountering a non-nestmate carrying the odour profile...

  3. Sick ants become unsociable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nicky Peter Maria; Lefevre, T.; Jensen, A.B.;

    2012-01-01

    Parasites represent a severe threat to social insects, which form high-density colonies of related individuals, and selection should favour host traits that reduce infection risk. Here, using a carpenter ant (Camponotus aethiops) and a generalist insect pathogenic fungus (Metarhizium brunneum), we...... show that infected ants radically change their behaviour over time to reduce the risk of colony infection. Infected individuals (i) performed less social interactions than their uninfected counterparts, (ii) did not interact with brood anymore and (iii) spent most of their time outside the nest from...... day 3 post-infection until death. Furthermore, infected ants displayed an increased aggressiveness towards non-nestmates. Finally, infected ants did not alter their cuticular chemical profile, suggesting that infected individuals do not signal their physiological status to nestmates. Our results...

  4. Sick ants become unsociable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, N; Lefèvre, T; Jensen, A B; d'Ettorre, P

    2012-02-01

    Parasites represent a severe threat to social insects, which form high-density colonies of related individuals, and selection should favour host traits that reduce infection risk. Here, using a carpenter ant (Camponotus aethiops) and a generalist insect pathogenic fungus (Metarhizium brunneum), we show that infected ants radically change their behaviour over time to reduce the risk of colony infection. Infected individuals (i) performed less social interactions than their uninfected counterparts, (ii) did not interact with brood anymore and (iii) spent most of their time outside the nest from day 3 post-infection until death. Furthermore, infected ants displayed an increased aggressiveness towards non-nestmates. Finally, infected ants did not alter their cuticular chemical profile, suggesting that infected individuals do not signal their physiological status to nestmates. Our results provide evidence for the evolution of unsociability following pathogen infection in a social animal and suggest an important role of inclusive fitness in driving such evolution.

  5. BrainMaps.org - Interactive High-Resolution Digital Brain Atlases and Virtual Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Shawn; Stone, James M; Jones, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    BrainMaps.org is an interactive high-resolution digital brain atlas and virtual microscope that is based on over 20 million megapixels of scanned images of serial sections of both primate and non-primate brains and that is integrated with a high-speed database for querying and retrieving data about brain structure and function over the internet. Complete brain datasets for various species, including Homo sapiens, Macaca mulatta, Chlorocebus aethiops, Felis catus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Tyto alba, are accessible online. The methods and tools we describe are useful for both research and teaching, and can be replicated by labs seeking to increase accessibility and sharing of neuroanatomical data. These tools offer the possibility of visualizing and exploring completely digitized sections of brains at a sub-neuronal level, and can facilitate large-scale connectional tracing, histochemical and stereological analyses.

  6. Discrimination Behavior in the Supercolonial Pharaoh Ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi

    ones and that low genetically diverse colonies discriminated high diverse non-nestmates better than vice versa. In the second chapter I investigated whether the high genetic differentiation characterizing natural colonies of pharaoh ants is sufficient to prevent unrelated colonies to fuse and how...... compiled datasets of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and aggression between colonies of three species of ants (Formica exsecta, Camponotus aethiops and Monomorium pharaonis) and a simulated dataset. Then, using the available information about the exact cues used for nestmate recognition in F. exsecta, we...... evaluated the power of different combinations of data transformation and chemical distance calculation in differentiating between true nestmate recognition (NMR) cues and other compounds. We found that particular combinations of statistical procedures are more effective in differentiating NMR cues from...

  7. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckova, Irena; Klecka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of woodland species may be

  8. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kleckova

    Full Text Available Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of

  9. Small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Swanepoel

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park resulted in a checklist, as well as information on relative numbers, distribution within the Park, reproductive activity, sex ratios, and body measurements. Forty mammals species occur in the Park, while three re-introduced species probably do not occur any longer. Of the 40 species 28 are considered small mammals comprising 13 rodent, eight carnivore, two shrew, two bat, one primate and one lagomorph species, as well as the aardvark: Crociduraflavescens, C. cyanea infumata, Rousettus aegyptiacus, Eptesicus capensis, Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Canis mesomelas, Ictonyx striatus, Poecilogale albinucha, Genetta sp., Herpestes pulverulentus, Suricata suricatta, Proteles cristatus, Felis caracal, Orycteropus afer, Lepus saxatilis, Cryptomys hottentotus, Hystrix africae-australis, Pedetes capensis, Graphiurus murinus, Aethomys namaquensis, Praomys natalensis, Rhabdomys pumilio, Mus minutoides, Rattus rattus, Saccostomys campestris, Desmodillus auricularis, Otomys irroratus and 0. unisulcatus.

  10. Counteraction of tetherin antiviral activity by two closely related SIVs differing by the presence of a Vpu gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Nikovics

    Full Text Available In different primate lentiviruses, three proteins (Vpu, Env and Nef have been shown to have anti-tetherin activities. SIVden is a primate lentivirus harbored by a Cercopithecus denti (C. denti whose genome code for a Vpu gene. We have compared the activity of HIV-1 Vpu and of SIVden Vpu on tetherin proteins from humans, from C. denti and from Cercopithecus neglectus (C. neglectus, a monkey species that is naturally infected by SIVdeb, a virus closely related to SIVden but which does not encode a Vpu protein. Here, we demonstrate that SIVden Vpu, is active against C. denti tetherin, but not against human tetherin. Interestingly, C. neglectus tetherin was more sensitive to SIVden Vpu than to HIV-1 Vpu. We also identify residues in the tetherin transmembrane domains that are responsible for the species-specific Vpu effect. Simultaneous mutation (P40L and T45I of human tetherin conferred sensitivity to SIVden Vpu, while abolishing its sensitivity to HIV-1 Vpu. We next analyzed the anti-tetherin activity of the Nef proteins from HIV-1, SIVden and SIVdeb. All three Nef proteins were unable to rescue virus release in the presence of human or C. denti tetherin. Conversely, SIVdeb Nef enhanced virus release in the presence of C. neglectus tetherin, suggesting that SIVdeb relies on Nef in its natural host. Finally, while HIV-1 Vpu not only removed human tetherin from the cell surface but also directed it for degradation, SIVden Vpu only induced the redistribution of both C. denti and C. neglectus tetherins, resulting in a predominantly perinuclear localization.

  11. Social complexity parallels vocal complexity: a comparison of three nonhuman primate species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eBOUCHET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social factors play a key role in the structuring of vocal repertoires at the individual level, notably in nonhuman primates. Some authors suggested that, at the species level too, social life may have driven the evolution of communicative complexity, but this has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we use a comparative approach to address this issue. We investigated vocal variability, at both the call type and the repertoire levels, in three forest-dwelling species of Cercopithecinae presenting striking differences in their social systems, in terms of social organization as well as social structure. We collected female call recordings from twelve De Brazza’s monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus, six Campbell’s monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli and seven red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus housed in similar conditions. First, we noted that the level of acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness found in several call types was related to their importance in social functioning. Contact calls, essential to intra-group cohesion, were the most individually distinctive regardless of the species, while threat calls were more structurally variable in mangabeys, the most ‘despotic’ of our three species. Second, we found a parallel between the degree of complexity of the species’ social structure and the size, diversity, and usage of its vocal repertoire. Mangabeys (most complex social structure called twice as often as guenons and displayed the largest and most complex repertoire. De Brazza’s monkeys (simplest social structure displayed the smallest and simplest repertoire. Campbell’s monkeys displayed an intermediate pattern. Providing evidence of higher levels of vocal variability in species presenting a more complex social system, our results are in line with the theory of a social-vocal coevolution of communicative abilities, opening new perspectives for comparative research on the evolution of communication systems in

  12. Prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses and flaviviruses in free-ranging game animals and nonhuman primates in the greater Congo basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kading, Rebekah C; Borland, Erin M; Cranfield, Mike; Powers, Ann M

    2013-07-01

    Vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. The role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. We investigated the exposure history of various African wildlife species from the Congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. Sera from 24 African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), 34 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 40 duikers (Cephalophus and Philantomba spp.), 25 mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 32 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), five Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), two L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti), two golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti), and three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sampled between 1991 and 2009 were tested for antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), and yellow fever virus (YFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test. Specific neutralizing antibodies against ONNV were found in African forest buffalo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Gabon, duikers in the DRC, and mandrills in Gabon, providing novel evidence of enzootic circulation of ONNV in these countries. African forest buffalo in the DRC and Gabon also demonstrated evidence of exposure to CHIKV, WNV, and DENV-2, while mandrills in Gabon were antibody positive for CHIKV, DENV-2, WNV, and YFV. All of the elephants tested had a strong neutralizing antibody response to WNV. We also document results from a survey of gorillas for arboviruses, of which 4/32 (13%) had antibody to an alphavirus or flavivirus. Overall, our results demonstrate a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against multiple arboviruses in wildlife in equatorial Africa.

  13. Estudios palinológicos de especies argentinas de los géneros Cereus, Cleistocactus, Denmoza, Echinopsis y Monvillea (Cactaceae, Cactoideae Palynological studies in Argentina species of the genera Cereus, Cleistocactus, Denmoza, Echinopsis and Monvillea (Cactaceae, Cactoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Lattar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la morfología del polen de 19 especies pertenecientes a cinco géneros (Cereus, Cleistocactus, Denmoza, Echinopsis y Monvillea de la subfamilia Cactoideae (Cactaceae en Argentina, fueron descriptas usando microscopio óptico y microscopio electrónico de barrido: Cereus aethiops Haw., C. argentinensis Britton & Rose, C. forbesii Otto ex C.F.Först., C. haenkeanus F.A.C. Weber ex K. Schum., C. stenogonus K. Schum., C. uruguayanus R. Kiesling; Cleistocactus baumannii (Lem. Lem., C. hyalacanthus (K. Schum. Gosselin, C. smaragdiflorus (F.A.C. Weber Britton & Rose; Denmoza rhodacantha (Salm-Dyck Britton & Rose; Echinopsis ancistrophora Speg., E. aurea Britton & Rose, E. leucantha (Gillies ex Salm-Dyck Walp., E. mamillosa Gürke, E. oxygona (Lynk Zucc., E. rhodotricha K. Schum., E. tubiflora (Pfeiff. & Zucc., Monvillea cavendischii (Monv. Britton & Rose y M. spegazzinii (F.A.C. Weber Britton & Rose. Los granos de polen de las especies analizadas son estenopalínicos, principalmente tricolpados, subesferoidales a prolatos, con téctum microperforado, espinulado, microespinulado o nanoespinulado. Encontrándose pequenas diferencias en forma y tamano. Se determinaron dos tipos polínicos: Polen Tipo Cereus argentinensis y Polen Tipo Echinopsis mamillosa. Se presenta una clave para identificar y distinguir los tipos citados.Pollen grains morphology of nineteen species belonging to five genera (Cereus, Cleistocactus, Denmoza, Echinopsis and Monvillea of the subfamily Cactoideae (Cactaceae in Argentina, are described using optical and scanning electron microscopy: Cereus aethiops Haw., C. argentinensis Britton & Rose, C. forbesii Otto ex C.F.Först., C. haenkeanus F.A.C. Weber ex K. Schum., C. stenogonus K. Schum., C. uruguayanus R. Kiesling; Cleistocactus baumannii (Lem. Lem., C. hyalacanthus (K. Schum. Gosselin, C. smaragdiflorus (F.A.C. Weber Britton & Rose; Denmoza rhodacantha (Salm-Dyck Britton & Rose; Echinopsis ancistrophora Speg., E

  14. Social Behaviours and Networks of Vervet Monkeys Are Influenced by Gastrointestinal Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friant, Sagan; Godfrey, Kathleen; Liu, Cynthia; Sakar, Dipto; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Sengupta, Raja; Twinomugisha, Dennis; Valenta, Kim; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2016-01-01

    Substantial research has shown that while some parasite infections can be fatal to hosts, most infections are sub-clinical and non-lethal. Such sub-clinical infections can nonetheless have negative consequences for the long-term fitness of the host such as reducing juvenile growth and the host’s ability to compete for food and mates. With such effects, infected individuals are expected to exhibit behavioural changes. Here we use a parasite removal experiment to quantify how gastrointestinal parasite infections affect the behaviour of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda. Behavioural profiles and the structure of nearest neighbour relationships varied significantly. As predicted, after deworming the duration of the resting events decreased, which is consistent with the idea that parasite infections are energetically costly. In contrast to what was predicted, we could not reject the null hypothesis and we observed no change in either the frequency or duration of grooming, but we found that the duration of travel events increased. A network analysis revealed that after deworming, individuals tended to have more nearest neighbours and hence probably more frequent interactions, with this effect being particularly marked for juveniles. The heightened response by juveniles may indicate that they are avoiding infected individuals more than other age classes because it is too costly to move energy away from growth. We consider that populations with high parasite burden may have difficulties developing social networks and behaviours that could have cascading effects that impact the population in general. PMID:27580121

  15. Effects of heated hydrotherapy on muscle HSP70 and glucose metabolism in old and young vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Davis, Ashely T; Jenkins, Kurt A; Flynn, D Mickey

    2016-07-01

    Increasing heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in aged and/or insulin-resistant animal models confers benefits to healthspan and lifespan. Heat application to increase core temperature induces HSPs in metabolically important tissues, and preliminary human and animal data suggest that heated hydrotherapy is an effective method to achieve increased HSPs. However, safety concerns exist, particularly in geriatric medicine where organ and cardiovascular disease commonly will preexist. We evaluated young vervet monkeys compared to old, insulin-resistant vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in their core temperatures, glucose tolerance, muscle HSP70 level, and selected safety biomarkers after 10 sessions of hot water immersions administered twice weekly. Hot water immersion robustly induced the heat shock response in muscles. We observed that heat-treated old and young monkeys have significantly higher muscle HSP70 than control monkeys and treatment was without significant adverse effects on organ or cardiovascular health. Heat therapy improved pancreatic responses to glucose challenge and tended to normalize glucose excursions. A trend for worsened blood pressure and glucose values in the control monkeys and improved values in heat-treated monkeys were seen to support further investigation into the safety and efficacy of this intervention for metabolic syndrome or diabetes in young or old persons unable to exercise.

  16. Disentangling environmental and heritable nestmate recognition cues in a carpenter ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zweden, Jelle S; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-02-01

    Discriminating between group members and strangers is a key feature of social life. Nestmate recognition is very effective in social insects and is manifested by aggression and rejection of alien individuals, which are prohibited to enter the nest. Nestmate recognition is based on the quantitative variation in cuticular hydrocarbons, which can include heritable cues from the workers, as well as acquired cues from the environment or queen-derived cues. We tracked the profile of six colonies of the ant Camponotus aethiops for a year under homogeneous laboratory conditions. We performed chemical and behavioral analyses. We show that nestmate recognition was not impaired by constant environment, even though cuticular hydrocarbon profiles changed over time and were slightly converging among colonies. Linear hydrocarbons increased over time, especially in queenless colonies, but appeared to have weak diagnostic power between colonies. The presence of a queen had little influence on nestmate discrimination abilities. Our results suggest that heritable cues of workers are the dominant factor influencing nestmate discrimination in these carpenter ants and highlight the importance of colony kin structure for the evolution of eusociality.

  17. Asymmetry in olfactory generalization and the inclusion criterion in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Animals constantly face the challenge of extracting important information out of their environment, and for many animals much of this information is chemical in nature. The ability to discriminate and generalize between chemical stimuli is extremely important and is commonly thought to depend mostly on the structural similarity between the different stimuli. However, we previously provided evidence that in the carpenter ant Camponotus aethiops, generalization not only depends on structural similarity, but also on the animal's previous training experience. When individual ants were conditioned to substance A, they generalized toward a mixture of A and B. However, when trained to substance B, they did not generalize toward this mixture, resulting in asymmetrical generalization. This asymmetry followed an inclusion criterion, where the ants consistently generalized from a molecule with a long carbon chain to molecules with a shorter chain, but not the other way around. Here I will review the evidence for the inclusion criterion, describe possible proximate mechanisms underlying this phenomenon as well as discuss its potential adaptive significance.

  18. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana.

  19. The Multibasic Cleavage Site of the Hemagglutinin of Highly Pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) Avian Influenza Virus Acts as a Virulence Factor in a Host-Specific Manner in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suguitan, Amorsolo L.; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Lau, Yuk-Fai; Santos, Celia P.; Vogel, Leatrice; Cheng, Lily I.; Orandle, Marlene

    2012-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes typically possess multiple basic amino acids around the cleavage site (MBS) of their hemagglutinin (HA) protein, a recognized virulence motif in poultry. To determine the importance of the H5 HA MBS as a virulence factor in mammals, recombinant wild-type HPAI A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) viruses that possessed (H5N1) or lacked (ΔH5N1) the H5 HA MBS were generated and evaluated for their virulence in BALB/c mice, ferrets, and African green monkeys (AGMs) (Chlorocebus aethiops). The presence of the H5 HA MBS was associated with lethality, significantly higher virus titers in the respiratory tract, virus dissemination to extrapulmonary organs, lymphopenia, significantly elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and inflammation in the lungs of mice and ferrets. In AGMs, neither H5N1 nor ΔH5N1 virus was lethal and neither caused clinical symptoms. The H5 HA MBS was associated with mild enhancement of replication and delayed virus clearance. Thus, the contribution of H5 HA MBS to the virulence of the HPAI H5N1 virus varies among mammalian hosts and is most significant in mice and ferrets and less remarkable in nonhuman primates. PMID:22205751

  20. Male food defence as a by-product of intersexual cooperation in a non-human primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneau-Robar, T. Jean M.; Müller, Eliane; Taucher, Anouk L.; van Schaik, Carel P.; Willems, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Males in a number of group-living species fight in intergroup conflicts to defend access to food resources, a seemingly paradoxical behaviour, given that this resource does not usually limit male fitness directly. We investigated the mechanism(s) driving apparent male food defence in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus) by testing the effect that female resource access, and female audience size and activity had on the response of focal males during simulated intergroup encounters. Males do not appear to defend food to increase the reproductive success of female group members because their response was not influenced by the presence of provisioning boxes that only females could access. Female audience size was also unimportant, suggesting males do not participate in intergroup encounters to advertise their quality to potential mates. However, focal males almost always followed/supported female group members who initiated an approach towards simulated intruders, supporting that male participation largely functions to gain status as a cooperative group member, and that apparent male food defence in this species arises as a by-product of intersexual cooperation. Our study highlights that considering audience composition and activity can reveal the presence of social incentives and illuminate the evolutionary mechanism(s) promoting joint action in intergroup aggression. PMID:27775042

  1. The phylogeny and taxonomy of austral monodontine topshells (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trochidae), inferred from DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten M; Kennedy, Martyn; Spencer, Hamish G

    2005-11-01

    The systematics of topshells (family Trochidae) is currently unresolved: at present even the generic boundaries within this group are poorly defined. In this study, we used sequence data of two mitochondrial genes (16S and cytochrome oxidase 1, COI) and one nuclear gene (actin) to resolve the phylogeny of a closely related subgroup of the Trochidae, 30 species of largely Southern Hemisphere monodontine topshells. The phylogenies constructed revealed five well-supported generic clades: a South African clade (genus Oxystele Philippi, 1847), which lay basally to four internal Pacific clades (genera Chlorodiloma Pilsbry, 1889; Monodonta Lamarck, 1799; Austrocochlea Fischer, 1885; and Diloma Philippi, 1845). The molecular phylogenies constructed in this study shed light on previously unresolved relationships between different groups of topshells, allowing for the first time assignation (based on DNA sequence) of clearly defined, well-supported taxonomic and nomenclatural classification of monodontine topshells species. Austrocochlea crinita (Philippi, 1849), A. odontis (Wood, 1828), A. adelaidae (Philippi, 1849), and A. millelineata (Bonnet, 1864) are placed in the genus Chlorodiloma, which we resurrect from synonymy with Austrocochlea. The Japanese M. confusa Tapparone-Canefri, 1874 is treated as a separate species from M. labio (Linné, 1758). Melagraphia Gray, 1847 is synonymised with Diloma and its sole member, M. aethiops (Gmelin, 1791), along with A. concamerata (Wood, 1828), is transferred to that genus. The Juan Fernandez endemic D. crusoeana (Pilsbry, 1889) is synonymised with D. nigerrima (Gmelin, 1791). We find that morphologically cryptic species are not necessarily close genetically.

  2. Ascaridoid nematodes of South American mammals, with a definition of a new genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprent, J F

    1982-09-01

    Ascaridoid nematodes occurring in South American mammals are divided into categories based on their possible origin. The affinities are discussed of five species so far known only from the Neotropical Region. Toxocara alienata (Rudolphi 1819) is reported from Nasua rufa socialis, Procyon cancrivorus, and Tayassus torquatus. The specimens from T. torquatus are described and found most closely to resemble Toxocara mackerrasae from south-east Asian and Austrialian rodents. Anisakis insignis from Inia geoffrensis is transferred back to Peritrachelius Diesing, 1851, on account of the structure of the lips and spicules. P. insignis is shown to exhibit remarkable convergence of lip structure with Lagochilascaris turgida from Didelphis marsupialis. Galeiceps longispiculum (Freitas & Lent, 1941) from Pteronura brasiliensis is confirmed as a species distinct from G. cucullus (Linstow, 1899) and G. spinicollis (Baylis, 1923), but G. simiae (Mosgovoy, 1951) is considered to be a synonym of G. spinicollis. An error in the host record of G. spinicollis is corrected from Cercopithecus leucampyx kandti to Lutra maculicollis kivuana. Ascaris dasypodina Baylis, 1922 from armadillos, including Cabassous unicinctus and Tolypeutes matacos, is redescribed and placed in a new genus Bairdascaris. The question is raised as to whether some species in Lagochilascaris, Galeiceps, and Toxocara may have crossed directly by sea from Africa to South America, rather than entering via North America.

  3. Identification of trypanosomes in wild animals from Southern Cameroon using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herder S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available One possible explanation of the maintenance of many historical foci of sleeping sickness in Central Africa could be the existence of a wild animal reservoir. In this study, PCR was used to detect the different trypanosome species present in wild animal captured by hunters in the southern forest belt of Cameroon (Bipindi. Trypanosomes were also detected by a parasitological method (Quantitative buffy coat : QBC. Parasite could not be isolated in culture medium (Kit for in vitro isolation : KIVI. Specific primers of T. brucei s.l., T. congolense forest type, T. congolense savannah type, T. vivax, T. simiae and T. b. gambiense group 1 were used to identify parasites in the blood of 164 animals belonging to 24 different species including ungulates, rodents, pangolins, carnivores, reptiles and primates. Of the 24 studied species, eight were carrying T. b. gambiense group 1. Those parasites pathogenic to man were found in monkeys (Cercocebus torquatus and Cercopithecus nictitans, in ungulates (Cephalophus dorsalis and C. monticola, in carnivores (Nandinia binotata and Genetta servalina and in rodents (Cricetomys gambianus and Atherurus africanus. 13 species (54 % were carrying T. brucei s.l. identified as non-gambiense group 1.

  4. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in primate bushmeat and pets in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrut, X; Diffo, J L D; Somo, R M; Bilong Bilong, C F; Delaporte, E; LeBreton, M; Gonzalez, J P

    2011-01-10

    To document the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Cameroonian monkeys and to assess the risk of transmission to humans, we sampled 125 primates belonging to 15 species, of which 78 had been captured for bushmeat in the wild, and 47 were pets kept in urban areas. Seven nematode species, one trematode, one cestode and three protozoa were detected. Eight different parasite species were found in Cercopithecus nictitans and six in C. neglectus, C. pogonias and Cercocebus agilis. Helminths were found in 77% of monkeys, and protozoa in 36%. Trichuris sp. and Entamoeba coli were the most frequent parasites, being found in 54% and 36% of animals, respectively. Helminths were more frequent in adults than in juveniles, while the prevalence of protozoa was not age-related. No significant gender difference was found. Bushmeat monkeys had a significantly higher prevalence of helminth infection than pets (92% versus 51%), whereas there was no significant difference in the prevalence of protozoa (32% versus 43%). Among helminth species, Strongyloides fulleborni was more prevalent in bushmeat monkeys than in pets (55% versus 15%), as were Ancylostoma spp. (62% versus 9%). As these parasites are transmitted transcutaneously by infectious larva, they have a high potential for transmission to humans, during butchering. One pet monkey kept in an urban household in Yaoundé was infected by Schistosoma mansoni. The potential public health implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  6. A simple rule for the costs of vigilance: empirical evidence from a social forager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, Guy; Lawes, Michael J; Lightbody, Margaret; Martin, Alison; Pettifor, Richard; Rowcliffe, J Marcus

    2004-01-07

    It is commonly assumed that anti-predator vigilance by foraging animals is costly because it interrupts food searching and handling time, leading to a reduction in feeding rate. When food handling does not require visual attention, however, a forager may handle food while simultaneously searching for the next food item or scanning for predators. We present a simple model of this process, showing that when the length of such compatible handling time Hc is long relative to search time S, specifically Hc/S > 1, it is possible to perform vigilance without a reduction in feeding rate. We test three predictions of this model regarding the relationships between feeding rate, vigilance and the Hc/S ratio, with data collected from a wild population of social foragers (samango monkeys, Cercopithecus mitis erythrarchus). These analyses consistently support our model, including our key prediction: as Hc/S increases, the negative relationship between feeding rate and the proportion of time spent scanning becomes progressively shallower. This pattern is more strongly driven by changes in median scan duration than scan frequency. Our study thus provides a simple rule that describes the extent to which vigilance can be expected to incur a feeding rate cost.

  7. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiré L Dalton

    Full Text Available The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  8. Public health significance of zoonotic bacterial pathogens from bushmeat sold in urban markets of Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachand, Nicholas; Ravel, André; Onanga, Richard; Arsenault, Julie; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2012-07-01

    Wild animal meat represents an important source of protein for many people in central Africa. Also known as bushmeat, this meat commodity is derived from wild animals hunted under uncontrolled conditions, transported to distant markets under rudimentary or no hygienic methods, and often eviscerated >24 hr after death. Considering the plausible role of wildlife as a reservoir for bacterial zoonotic pathogens, bushmeat may be an important public health risk in Central Africa. This cross-sectional survey served to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella in the muscle tissue of 128 wild animal carcasses from several hunted wildlife species (guenons [Cercopithecus spp.], collared mangabeys [Cercocebus torquatus], gray-cheeked mangabeys [Lophocebus albigena], African crested porcupines [Atherurus africanus], duikers [Cephalophus spp.], and red river hogs [Potamocherus porcus]) sold in two markets of Port-Gentil, Gabon, in July and August 2010. Salmonella was detected from one carcass; no Campylobacter or Shigella was detected. If Campylobacter and Shigella were present, the maximum expected prevalence was estimated at 6% and 1%, respectively. In light of such very low apparent muscle contamination levels, bushmeat likely does not represent a health risk per se with respect to Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Shigella. However, because carcass evisceration and skinning can take place within households prior to consumption, consumers should follow strict hygiene and food safety practices to avoid potential health hazards associated with the handling, preparation, or consumption of bushmeat.

  9. Neurogranin is expressed by principal cells but not interneurons in the rodent and monkey neocortex and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singec, Ilyas; Knoth, Rolf; Ditter, Margarethe; Volk, Benedikt; Frotscher, Michael

    2004-11-01

    As a substrate of protein kinase C (PKC), neurogranin (NG) is involved in the regulation of calcium signaling and activity-dependent plasticity. Recently, we have shown that, in the rodent cerebellum, NG is exclusively expressed by gamma-aminobutyric acidergic Golgi cells, whereas, in the monkey cerebellum, brush cells were the only neuronal population expressing NG (Singec et al. [2003] J. Comp. Neurol. 459:278-289). In the present study, we analyzed the neocortical and hippocampal expression patterns of NG in adult mouse (C57Bl/6), rat (Wistar), and monkey (Cercopithecus aetiops). By using immunocytochemistry and nonradioactive in situ hybridization, we demonstrate strong NG expression by principal cells in different neocortical layers and in the hippocampus by granule cells of the dentate gyrus and pyramidal neurons of CA1-CA3. In contrast, double-labeling experiments in rodents revealed that neocortical and hippocampal interneurons expressing glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) were consistently devoid of NG. In addition, by using antibodies against parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin, we could demonstrate the absence of NG in interneurons of monkey frontal cortex and hippocampus. Together these findings corroborate the idea of different calcium signaling pathways in excitatory and inhibitory cells that may contribute to different modes of synaptic plasticity in these neurons.

  10. Frequent water drinking by Zanzibar red colobus (Procolobus kirkii) in a mangrove forest refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Katarzyna

    2008-11-01

    Isolated populations of Procolobus kirkii on Uzi Island, Zanzibar, use Rhizophora mucronata-dominated mangrove forest for refuge. Three groups, observed over 14 months, spent up to 85% of total observation time in mangroves with brief excursions to adjacent upland coral rag forest, habitat degraded by human cutting. A large proportion of monkeys' diets consisted of plant parts of five mangrove species. Water drinking was common and 326 water-drinking events were recorded at a rate of up to 0.87 drinks hr(-1). Groups used different strategies to obtain water including licking dew, drinking from treeholes, licking rain off leaves and tree trunks, and drinking from coral rock crevices with Cercopithecus mitis albogularis. Drinking frequency increased with time spent in and consumption of mangroves. Strategies for obtaining water were group-specific and likely the result of learning. Drinking appeared to be an acquired behavior in movement-restricted groups living in a habitat with low plant species diversity and limited salty foods.

  11. Facial anatomy of Victoriapithecus and its relevance to the ancestral cranial morphology of Old World monkeys and apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefit, B R; McCrossin, M L

    1993-11-01

    Recently discovered craniofacial fossils of the middle Miocene cercopithecoid Victoriapithecus are described. The frontal, zygomatic, maxilla, and premaxilla anatomy differ from the previously proposed colobine-like ancestral cercopithecoid morphotype in several significant respects. This morphotype was based on the assumption that features held in common by subordinate hominoid and cercopithecoid morphotypes (Colobinae and Hylobatidae) are primitive for Old World monkeys. Cranial similarities between Victoriapithecus, which represents the sister-group of both colobine and cercopithecine monkeys, and the shorter-snouted Cercopithecinae (Macaca and Cercopithecus) indicate that the last common ancestor of Old World monkeys possessed the following features: a narrow interorbital septum, moderately long snout, moderately long and anteriorly tapering premaxilla, large procumbent upper central incisors set anterior to and with longer roots than lateral incisors, moderately tall face below the orbits, teardrop-shaped nasal aperture of low height and moderate width, and probably long and narrow nasal bones. The Victoriapithecus cranium is also characterized by features not present in modern cercopithecids. These include a deep malar region of the zygomatic and the presence of a frontal trigon due to the occurrence of temporal lines that merge with supraorbital costae close to the midline of each orbit and converge anterior to bregma. These features are interpreted as primitive retentions from the basal catarrhine condition as indicated by the occurrence of these features among primitive catarrhines (Aegyptopithecus) and Miocene hominoids (Afropithecus).

  12. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Anne M; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K; Fedigan, Linda M; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B; Morris, William F

    2016-03-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution.

  13. Discovery and characterization of distinct simian pegiviruses in three wild African Old World monkey species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Sibley

    Full Text Available Within the Flaviviridae, the recently designated genus Pegivirus has expanded greatly due to new discoveries in bats, horses, and rodents. Here we report the discovery and characterization of three simian pegiviruses (SPgV that resemble human pegivirus (HPgV and infect red colobus monkeys (Procolobus tephrosceles, red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius and an olive baboon (Papio anubis. We have designated these viruses SPgVkrc, SPgVkrtg and SPgVkbab, reflecting their host species' common names, which include reference to their location of origin in Kibale National Park, Uganda. SPgVkrc and SPgVkrtg were detected in 47% (28/60 of red colobus and 42% (5/12 red-tailed guenons, respectively, while SPgVkbab infection was observed in 1 of 23 olive baboons tested. Infections were not associated with any apparent disease, despite the generally high viral loads observed for each variant. These viruses were monophyletic and equally divergent from HPgV and pegiviruses previously identified in chimpanzees (SPgVcpz. Overall, the high degree of conservation of genetic features among the novel SPgVs, HPgV and SPgVcpz suggests conservation of function among these closely related viruses. Our study describes the first primate pegiviruses detected in Old World monkeys, expanding the known genetic diversity and host range of pegiviruses and providing insight into the natural history of this genus.

  14. Leveraging human genomic information to identify nonhuman primate sequences for expression array development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Nicholas F

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonhuman primates (NHPs are essential for biomedical research due to their similarities to humans. The utility of NHPs will be greatly increased by the application of genomics-based approaches such as gene expression profiling. Sequence information from the 3' end of genes is the key resource needed to create oligonucleotide expression arrays. Results We have developed the algorithms and procedures necessary to quickly acquire sequence information from the 3' end of nonhuman primate orthologs of human genes. To accomplish this, we identified terminal exons of over 15,000 human genes by aligning mRNA sequences with genomic sequence. We found the mean length of complete last exons to be approximately 1,400 bp, significantly longer than previous estimates. We designed primers to amplify genomic DNA, which included at least 300 bp of the terminal exon. We cloned and sequenced the PCR products representing over 5,500 Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey orthologs of human genes. This sequence information has been used to select probes for rhesus gene expression profiling. We have also tested 10 sets of primers with genomic DNA from Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus monkey, Papio hamadryas (Baboon, and Chlorocebus aethiops (African green monkey, vervet. The results indicate that the primers developed for this study will be useful for acquiring sequence from the 3' end of genes for other nonhuman primate species. Conclusion This study demonstrates that human genomic DNA sequence can be leveraged to obtain sequence from the 3' end of NHP orthologs and that this sequence can then be used to generate NHP oligonucleotide microarrays. Affymetrix and Agilent used sequences obtained with this approach in the design of their rhesus macaque oligonucleotide microarrays.

  15. Levofloxacin cures experimental pneumonic plague in African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colby Layton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is considered a potential bioweapon due to rapid lethality when delivered as an aerosol. Levofloxacin was tested for primary pneumonic plague treatment in a nonhuman primate model mimicking human disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four African Green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus aethiops were challenged via head-only aerosol inhalation with 3-145 (mean = 65 50% lethal (LD(50 doses of Y. pestis strain CO92. Telemetered body temperature >39 °C initiated intravenous infusions to seven 5% dextrose controls or 17 levofloxacin treated animals. Levofloxacin was administered as a "humanized" dose regimen of alternating 8 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg 30-min infusions every 24-h, continuing until animal death or 20 total infusions, followed by 14 days of observation. Fever appeared at 53-165 h and radiographs found multilobar pneumonia in all exposed animals. All control animals died of severe pneumonic plague within five days of aerosol exposure. All 16 animals infused with levofloxacin for 10 days survived. Levofloxacin treatment abolished bacteremia within 24 h in animals with confirmed pre-infusion bacteremia, and reduced tachypnea and leukocytosis but not fever during the first 2 days of infusions. CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin cures established pneumonic plague when treatment is initiated after the onset of fever in the lethal aerosol-challenged AGM nonhuman primate model, and can be considered for treatment of other forms of plague. Levofloxacin may also be considered for primary presumptive-use, multi-agent antibiotic in bioterrorism events prior to identification of the pathogen.

  16. A Comparison of the Pathogenesis of Marburg Virus Disease in Humans and Nonhuman Primates and Evaluation of the Suitability of These Animal Models for Predicting Clinical Efficacy under the 'Animal Rule'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Elizabeth R; Roy, Michael J; Dalrymple, Lonnie W; Lanning, Lynda L

    2015-06-01

    Marburg virus outbreaks are sporadic, infrequent, brief, and relatively small in terms of numbers of subjects affected. In addition, outbreaks most likely will occur in remote regions where clinical trials are not feasible; therefore, definitive, well-controlled human efficacy studies to test the effectiveness of a drug or biologic product are not feasible. Healthy human volunteers cannot ethically be deliberately exposed to a lethal agent such as Marburg virus in order to test the efficacy of a therapy or preventive prior to licensure. When human efficacy studies are neither ethical nor feasible, the US Food and Drug Administration may grant marketing approval of a drug or biologic product under the 'Animal Rule,' through which demonstration of the efficacy of a product can be 'based on adequate and well-controlled animal efficacy studies when the results of those studies establish that the drug is reasonably likely to produce clinical benefit in humans.' This process requires that the pathogenic determinants of the disease in the animal model are similar to those that have been identified in humans. After reviewing primarily English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles, we here summarize the clinical manifestations of Marburg virus disease and the results of studies in NHP showing the characteristics and progression of the disease. We also include a detailed comparison of the characteristics of the human disease relative to those for NHP. This review reveals that the disease characteristics of Marburg virus disease are generally similar for humans and 3 NHP species: cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

  17. Retrospective analysis of suspected rabies cases reported at Bugando Referral Hospital, Mwanza, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey D Mazigo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of humans being bitten by rabies-suspected animals, and the victims′ adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP regimen. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of data of victims treated at Bugando Medical Centre during the period 2002-2006 (n=5 years was done. Results: A total of 767 bite injuries inflicted by rabies-suspected animals were reported, giving a mean annual incidence of ~58 cases per 100,000 (52.5% males, 47.5% females. The proportion of children bitten was relatively higher than that of adults. All victims were treated by using inactivated diploid-cell rabies vaccine and were recommended to appear for the second and third doses. However, only 28% of the victims completed the vaccination regime. Domestic dogs were involved in 95.44% of the human bite cases, whereas cats (3.9%, spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta (0.03%, vervet monkey (Cercopithecur aethiops (0.01% and black-backed jackal (0.01% played a minor role. The majority of rabies-suspected case reports were from Nyamagana district and occurred most frequently from June to October each year. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study revealed that incidences of humans being bitten by dogs suspected of rabies are common in Tanzania, involve mostly children, and victims do not comply with the prophylactic regimen. Rigorous surveillance to determine the status of rabies and the risk factors for human rabies, as well as formulation and institution of appropriate rabies-control policies, is required.

  18. Rapid decision-making with side-specific perceptual discrimination in ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Stroeymeyt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Timely decision making is crucial for survival and reproduction. Organisms often face a speed-accuracy trade-off, as fully informed, accurate decisions require time-consuming gathering and treatment of information. Optimal strategies for decision-making should therefore vary depending on the context. In mammals, there is mounting evidence that multiple systems of perceptual discrimination based on different neural circuits emphasize either fast responses or accurate treatment of stimuli depending on the context. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the ant Camponotus aethiops to test the prediction that fast information processing achieved through direct neural pathways should be favored in situations where quick reactions are adaptive. Social insects discriminate readily between harmless group-members and dangerous strangers using easily accessible cuticular hydrocarbons as nestmate recognition cues. We show that i tethered ants display rapid aggressive reactions upon presentation of non-nestmate odor (120 to 160 ms; ii ants' aggressiveness towards non-nestmates can be specifically reduced by exposure to non-nestmate odor only, showing that social interactions are not required to alter responses towards non-nestmates; iii decision-making by ants does not require information transfer between brain hemispheres, but relies on side-specific decision rules. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results strongly suggest that first-order olfactory processing centers (up to the antennal lobes are likely to play a key role in ant nestmate recognition. We hypothesize that the coarse level of discrimination achieved in the antennal lobes early in odor processing provides enough information to determine appropriate behavioral responses towards non-nestmates. This asks for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying social recognition in insects.

  19. Primates decline rapidly in unprotected forests: evidence from a monitoring program with data constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovero, Francesco; Mtui, Arafat; Kitegile, Amani; Jacob, Philipo; Araldi, Alessandro; Tenan, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Growing threats to primates in tropical forests make robust and long-term population abundance assessments increasingly important for conservation. Concomitantly, monitoring becomes particularly relevant in countries with primate habitat. Yet monitoring schemes in these countries often suffer from logistic constraints and/or poor rigor in data collection, and a lack of consideration of sources of bias in analysis. To address the need for feasible monitoring schemes and flexible analytical tools for robust trend estimates, we analyzed data collected by local technicians on abundance of three species of arboreal monkey in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania (two Colobus species and one Cercopithecus), an area of international importance for primate endemism and conservation. We counted primate social groups along eight line transects in two forest blocks in the area, one protected and one unprotected, over a span of 11 years. We applied a recently proposed open metapopulation model to estimate abundance trends while controlling for confounding effects of observer, site, and season. Primate populations were stable in the protected forest, while the colobines, including the endemic Udzungwa red colobus, declined severely in the unprotected forest. Targeted hunting pressure at this second site is the most plausible explanation for the trend observed. The unexplained variability in detection probability among transects was greater than the variability due to observers, indicating consistency in data collection among observers. There were no significant differences in both primate abundance and detectability between wet and dry seasons, supporting the choice of sampling during the dry season only based on minimizing practical constraints. Results show that simple monitoring routines implemented by trained local technicians can effectively detect changes in primate populations in tropical countries. The hierarchical Bayesian model formulation adopted provides a flexible

  20. Detection of viruses using discarded plants from wild mountain gorillas and golden monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley Evans, Tierra; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Barry, Peter A; Ssebide, Benard Jasper; Kinani, Jean Felix; Nizeyimana, Fred; Noheri, Jean Bosco; Byarugaba, Denis K; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Cranfield, Michael R; Mazet, Jonna A K; Johnson, Christine K

    2016-11-01

    Infectious diseases pose one of the most significant threats to the survival of great apes in the wild. The critically endangered mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) is at high risk for contracting human pathogens because approximately 60% of the population is habituated to humans to support a thriving ecotourism program. Disease surveillance for human and non-human primate pathogens is important for population health and management of protected primate species. Here, we evaluate discarded plants from mountain gorillas and sympatric golden monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis kandti), as a novel biological sample to detect viruses that are shed orally. Discarded plant samples were tested for the presence of mammalian-specific genetic material and two ubiquitous DNA and RNA primate viruses, herpesviruses, and simian foamy virus. We collected discarded plant samples from 383 wild human-habituated mountain gorillas and from 18 habituated golden monkeys. Mammalian-specific genetic material was recovered from all plant species and portions of plant bitten or chewed by gorillas and golden monkeys. Gorilla herpesviral DNA was most consistently recovered from plants in which leafy portions were eaten by gorillas. Simian foamy virus nucleic acid was recovered from plants discarded by golden monkeys, indicating that it is also possible to detect RNA viruses from bitten or chewed plants. Our findings show that discarded plants are a useful non-invasive sampling method for detection of viruses that are shed orally in mountain gorillas, sympatric golden monkeys, and potentially other species. This method of collecting specimens from discarded plants is a new non-invasive sampling protocol that can be combined with collection of feces and urine to evaluate the most common routes of viral shedding in wild primates. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1222-1234, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Nodule worm infection in humans and wild primates in Uganda: cryptic species in a newly identified region of human transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria R Ghai

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs are a major health concern in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Oesophagostomum infection is considered endemic to West Africa but has also been identified in Uganda, East Africa, among primates (including humans. However, the taxonomy and ecology of Oesophagostomum in Uganda have not been studied, except for in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, which are infected by both O. bifurcum and O. stephanostomum. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied Oesophagostomum in Uganda in a community of non-human primates that live in close proximity to humans. Prevalence estimates based on microscopy were lower than those based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR, indicating greater sensitivity of PCR. Prevalence varied among host species, with humans and red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus infected at lowest prevalence (25% and 41% by PCR, respectively, and chimpanzees, olive baboons (Papio anubis, and l'hoest monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti infected at highest prevalence (100% by PCR in all three species. Phylogenetic regression showed that primates travelling further and in smaller groups are at greatest risk of infection. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed three cryptic clades of Oesophagostomum that were not distinguishable based on morphological characteristics of their eggs. Of these, the clade with the greatest host range had not previously been described genetically. This novel clade infects humans, as well as five other species of primates. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple cryptic forms of Oesophagostomum circulate in the people and primates of western Uganda, and parasite clades differ in host range and cross-species transmission potential. Our results expand knowledge about human Oesophagostomum infection beyond the West African countries of Togo and Ghana, where the parasite is a known public health concern. Oesophagostomum infection in humans may be common throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, and the transmission of

  2. Modern Literary Methods and the Hellenistic Greek Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahela Šibal

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The article "Modern Literary Methods and the Hellenistic Greek Novel" mainly explores the approach of Slovene literary criticism to the Hellenistic Greek novel. The first part focuses on two Slovene studies, i.e. the preface of Dušan Pirjevec to Kafka's Castle and the preface of Primož Simoniti to the Aethiopic stories by Heliodorus, which are the only Slovene studies to deal with the topic from a strictly literary point of view. Preliminary to this discussion, however, the paper addresses the following issues: 1. What is the significance of introducing new methods into literary studies (including those dealing with ancient literature? 2. Which are the new methods and how do they differ from the traditional ones? 3. What have been the implications of these changes for the novel in general, which was a neglected genre for centuries and only flourished as late as the twentieth century, both in terms of productivity and as an object of literary theory? 4. What has the development in the studies of the novel brought specifically to the Hellenistic Greek novel? 5. What has been the response of the Slovene circles engaged in research into the ancient Greek novel? Twentieth-century literary criticism developed new methods, which examined literature from new points of view and contributed to a better understanding of the art of literature. In terms of the three factors which constitute the object of literary studies, the interest of literary criticism moved from the first factor of the communication model, i.e. the author and production, to the second and third factors, i.e. the text and the reader or the recipient. The Slovene articles examined in this paper were written before research into the ancient novel was influenced by these shifts. Therefore the paper continues by describing some of the modern methods which have proved conducive to better insights into the Hellenistic Greek novels and could serve as suggestions for future lines of research

  3. Écologie des stomoxes (Diptera : Muscidae au Gabon. II. Origine des repas de sang et conséquences épidémiologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavoungou J.F.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pour déterminer l’origine des repas de sang des stomoxes (Diptera : Muscidae au Gabon, 1 021 mouches appartenant à sept espèces différentes ont été capturées et disséquées dans la région de Makokou. Au total, 798 n’étaient pas gorgées et 223 repas de sang ont pu être recueillis sur papier filtre. L’identification de l’origine de ces repas a été faite par amplification du gène mitochondrial Cytb puis formation d’hétéroduplex en utilisant le rat de Gambie comme driver. Les prélèvements de faune, sur le marché local, comprenaient 24 mammifères et deux reptiles, auxquels il faut ajouter l’homme, soit 27 hôtes potentiels. 19 repas n’ont pu être amplifiés pour des raisons techniques ; 65 ont été amplifiés, mais les patterns obtenus ne correspondaient à aucun des profils des hôtes potentiels testés. Sur les 139 repas identifiés, 55 % ont été pris sur le Céphalophe à front noir (Cephalophus nigrifrons et 19 % sur le porc. Stomoxys transvittatus, espèce la plus abondante à Makokou, est très opportuniste : 68 % des repas ont été pris sur six hôtes différents, dont 48 % sur le céphalophe à front noir, et 32 % n’ont pas été identifiés sur les hôtes testés. S. xanthomelas a pris 50 % de ses repas sur singe Moustac (Cercopithecus cephus et 7 % sur homme. S. calcitrans, espèce des milieux anthropisés, a pris 33 % de ses repas sur homme. Ces trois espèces peuvent donc prendre leurs repas de sang sur la faune sauvage et sur homme. Elles pourraient ainsi jouer un rôle important dans l’émergence de zoonoses. Les quatre autres espèces n’ont pris leurs repas que sur la faune sauvage et le porc, seul exemple d’animal domestique dans cette étude. Cette étude préliminaire doit être poursuivie sur un plus grand nombre d’individus, en augmentant la diversité des hôtes potentiels testés

  4. The social structure and strategies of delphinids: predictions based on an ecological framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowans, Shannon; Würsig, Bernd; Karczmarski, Leszek

    2007-01-01

    Dolphins live in complex social groupings with a wide variety of social strategies. In this chapter we investigate the role that differing habitats and ecological conditions have played in the evolution of delphinid social strategies. We propose a conceptual framework for understanding natural patterns of delphinid social structure in which the spatial and temporal predictability of resources influences the ranging patterns of individuals and communities. The framework predicts that when resources are spatially and temporally predictable, dolphins should remain resident in relatively small areas. Predictable resources are often found in complex inshore environments where dolphins may hide from predators or avoid areas with high predator density. Additionally, available food resources may limit group size. Thus, we predict that there are few benefits to forming large groups and potentially many benefits to being solitary or in small groups. Males may be able to sequester solitary females, controlling mating opportunities. Observations of inshore populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) and island-associated spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) seem to fit this pattern well, along with forest-dwelling African antelope and primates such as vervets (Cercopithicus aethiops), baboons (Papio sp.), macaques (Macaca sp.) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In contrast, the framework predicts that when resources such as food are unpredictable, individuals must range further to find the necessary resources. Forming groups may be the only strategy available to avoid predation, especially in the open ocean. Larger home ranges are likely to support a greater number of individuals; however, prey is often sparsely distributed, which may act to reduce foraging competition. Cooperative foraging and herding of prey schools may be advantageous, potentially facilitating the formation of long-term bonds. Alternately, individuals may display many short-term affiliations

  5. Le collezioni di Mammiferi del Museo Civico di Zoologia di Roma: una sintesi storica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Svampa

    2003-10-01

    , della Società Geografica Italiana (materiale Ragazzi, Antonelli e Antinori, Ministero della Guerra (Traversi, dell?ex Museo Coloniale di Roma, Gronca (circumnavigazione della ?Caracciolo?, Chierchia (circumnavigazione della ?Vittor Pisani?, Holub, non sia stato tutto studiato approfonditamente da esperti teriologi. Infatti, a titolo di esempio, il Museo possiede entrambe le specie di facocero oggi esistenti, ma nessuno di questi esemplari viene citato nella recente revisione del Phacochoerus aethiopicus realizzata da Huart e Grubb (2001. Recentemente, il Museo si è attivato per acquisire la collezione Zammarano di Mammiferi africani, alcuni dei quali, come il Cercopithecus albogularis zammaranoi, di grande valore scientifico. Una linea di ricerca che si potrà esplorare in futuro riguarda lo studio del materiale osteologico di esemplari vissuti in cattività per rilevare eventuali patologie o gli effetti di differenti metodi di allevamento. A tale proposito sarà fondamentale incrociare i dati museali con quelli storici del Giardino Zoologico. Nel contempo, si intende anche rilanciare il ruolo del Museo nella ricerca e divulgazione sulla mammalofauna locale. Nel poster viene infine presentata una completa bibliografia storica sugli studi mammalogici svolti sulla collezione.

  6. A revision of the Axylus group of Agraeciini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae) and of some other species formerly included in Nicsara or Anthracites Revision of the Indo-Australian Conocephalinae, Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrisch, Sigfrid

    2015-11-23

    . and E. ornata (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov. (from Axylus); Heminicsara excisa (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., H. insulana (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov., H. schlaginhaufeni (Karny, 1912) comb. nov., and H. viridipes (Karny, 1912) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Heminicsara castaneipictus (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov., H. insularis (Willemse, 1942) comb. nov., and H. palauensis (Vickery & Kevan, 1999) comb. nov. (from Spinisternum); Heminicsara decipiens (Karny, 1926) comb. nov. and H. griffinii (Karny, 1911) comb. nov. (from Gonatacanthus); Heminicsara novaeguineae (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov. (from Eucoptaspis); Sulasara aethiops (Karny, 1931) comb. nov., S. karnyi (Willemse, 1932) comb. nov., and Sulasara sarasini (Karny, 1931) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Papuacites nigrifrons (Karny, 1912) comb. nov. and P. nakanaiensis (Naskrecki & Rentz, 2010) comb. nov. (from Anthracites); Paramacroxiphus multispinosa (Bolivar, 1898) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Palaeoagraecia globiceratus Vickery & Kevan, 1999 comb. nov. (from Macroxiphus). Odontocoryphus pullus Karny, 1907 becomes a new synonym of Macroxiphus sumatranus sumatranus (Haan, 1842). 87 species are described as new: nine species in Axylus: A. brachypterus sp. nov., A. dulang sp. nov., A. furcatus sp. nov., A. mengkoka sp. nov., A. montanus sp. nov., A. negros sp. nov. , A. superior sp. nov., A. totop sp. nov. , A. unicolor sp. nov.; six species in Anthracites: A. bilineatus sp. nov., A. flagellatus sp. nov., A. pyramidalis sp. nov., A. romblon sp. nov., A. sinuatus sp. nov., A. unispinus sp. nov.; four species in Euanthracites: E. bispinus sp. nov., E. eboreus sp. nov., E. ile sp. nov., E. uru sp. nov.; six species in Eucoptaspis: E. adonara sp. nov., E. hexamaculatus sp. nov., E. remotus sp. nov., E. stylatus sp. nov., E. trapezoides sp. nov., E. wawo sp. nov.; eight species in Eulobaspis: E. bacan C.Willemse & Ingrisch sp. nov., E. baduri sp. nov., E. buruensis sp. nov., E. ceramica C.Willemse & Ingrisch sp. nov., E. morotai sp. nov., E