WorldWideScience

Sample records for cercla study area

  1. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.

  2. INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

    2000-03-01

    A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

  3. CERCLA interim action at the Par Pond unit: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, H.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Matthews, S.S.; Neal, L.W. [Rust Environment and Infrastructure, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Weiss, W.R. [Rust Environment and Infrastructure, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The Par Pond unit designated under CERCLA consists of sediments within a Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling water reservoir. The sediments are contaminated with radionuclides and nonradioactive constituents from nuclear production reactor operations. The mercury in Par Pond is believed to have originated from the Savannah River. Because of Par Pond Dam safety Issues, the water level of the reservoir was drawn down, exposing more than 1300 acres of contaminated sediments and triggering the need for CERCLA interim remedial action. This paper presents the interim action approach taken with Par Pond as a case study. The approach considered the complexity of the Par Pond ecosystem, the large size of Par Pond, the volume of contaminated sediments, and the institutional controls existing at SRS. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers units with large volumes of low-concentration wastes, as is the case with Par Pond, to be {open_quotes}special sites.{close_quotes} Accordingly, EPA guidance establishes that the range of alternatives developed focus primarily on containment options and other remedial approaches that mitigate potential risks associated with the {open_quotes}special site.{close_quotes} The remedial alternatives, according to EPA, are not to be prohibitively expensive or difficult to implement. This case study also is representative of the types of issues that will need to be addressed within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex as nuclear facilities are transitioned to inactive status and corrective/remedial actions are warranted.

  4. A Cercla-Based Decision Model to Support Remedy Selection for an Uncertain Volume of Contaminants at a DOE Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christine E. Kerschus

    1999-03-31

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) operated by the Department of Energy is challenged with selecting the appropriate remediation technology to cleanup contaminants at Waste Area Group (WAG) 6. This research utilizes value-focused thinking and multiattribute preference theory concepts to produce a decision analysis model designed to aid the decision makers in their selection process. The model is based on CERCLA's five primary balancing criteria, tailored specifically to WAG 6 and the contaminants of concern, utilizes expert opinion and the best available engineering, cost, and performance data, and accounts for uncertainty in contaminant volume. The model ranks 23 remediation technologies (trains) in their ability to achieve the CERCLA criteria at various contaminant volumes. A sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the effects of changes in expert opinion and uncertainty in volume. Further analysis reveals how volume uncertainty is expected to affect technology cost, time and ability to meet the CERCLA criteria. The model provides the decision makers with a CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology that is objective, traceable, and robust to support the WAG 6 Feasibility Study. In addition, the model can be adjusted to address other DOE contaminated sites.

  5. 76 FR 26291 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative “Cost Recovery” Settlement; the Doe Run Resources Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative ``Cost Recovery'' Settlement; the Doe Run Resources Corporation.... Francois Mining Area, St. Francois County, Missouri with the following settling party: The Doe...

  6. Phase I Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (904-83G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the completed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS) for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (LAOCB)/L-Area Acid Caustic Basin (9LAACB) Solid Waste Management Unit/Operable Unit (SWMU/OU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  7. Guidance for performing site inspections under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This guidance presents EPA`s site inspection (SI) strategy. The strategy discusses procedural guidelines to investigate potential Superfund (CERCLA) sites for evaluation pursuant to the Hazard Ranking System (HRS), revised in accordance with the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The HRS is the primary means by which EPA evaluates sites for superfund`s National Priorities List (NPL).

  8. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Compliance Demonstration for DOE Order 435.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonds, J.

    2007-11-06

    This compliance demonstration document provides an analysis of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex compliance with DOE Order 435.1. The ICDF Complex includes the disposal facility (landfill), evaporation pond, administration facility, weigh scale, and various staging/storage areas. These facilities were designed and constructed to be compliant with DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery act Subtitle C, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl design and construction standards. The ICDF Complex is designated as the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) facility for the receipt, staging/storage, treatment, and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste streams.

  9. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  10. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  11. The Off-Site Rule. CERCLA Information Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, B.

    1994-03-01

    Under Section 121(d)(3) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, wastes generated as a result of CERCLA remediation activities and transferred off-site must be managed at a facility operating in compliance with federal laws. EPA issued its Off-Site Policy (OSWER Directive No. 9834, 11), which gave guidance on complying with this particular requirement. Specifically, EPA requires off-site waste management facilities to fulfill EPA`s definition of acceptability and has established detailed procedures for issuing and reviewing unacceptability determinations. EPA proposed amending the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (40 CFR part 300) to include the requirements contained in the Off-Site Policy (53 FR 48218). On September 22, 1993 EPA published the Off-Site Rules [58 FR 49200], which became effective on October 22, 1993. The primary purpose of the Off-Site Rule is to clarify and codify CERCLA`s requirement to prevent wastes generated from remediation activities conducted under CERCLA from contributing to present or future environmental problems at off-site waste management facilities that receive them. Thus, the Off-Site Rule requires that CERCLA wastes only be sent to off-site facilities that meet EPA`s acceptability criteria. The final Off-Site Rule makes two major changes to the proposed Off-Site Rule: (1) only EPA, not an authorized State, can make determinations of the acceptability of off-site facilities that manage CERCLA wastes, and (2) the Off-Site eliminate the distinction between CERCLA wastes governed under pre-SARA and post-SARA agreements. The purpose of this information Brief is to highlight and clarify EPA`s final Off-Site and its implications on DOE remedial actions under CERCLA.

  12. Hazardous Substances, CERCLA, and Nanoparticles – Can the Three be Reconciled?

    OpenAIRE

    Bashaw, John

    2011-01-01

    Toxicology research in the nanotechnology area has focused primarily on human inhalation, ingestion or dermal exposure. Less research has been published on the impact to ecological systems resulting from a release of nanomaterials. Environmental laws such as CERCLA (“Superfund”) address the release of “hazardous substances” by obligating the party releasing the substance to (a) report the release and (b) investigate the nature and extent of the release and to then remediate it to some objecti...

  13. Decision analysis applications and the CERCLA process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.T.; Lyon, B.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Risk Analysis Section]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Quantitative decision methods can be developed during environmental restoration projects that incorporate stakeholder input and can complement current efforts that are undertaken for data collection and alternatives evaluation during the CERCLA process. These decision-making tools can supplement current EPA guidance as well as focus on problems that arise as attempts are made to make informed decisions regarding remedial alternative selection. In examining the use of such applications, the authors discuss the use of decision analysis tools and their impact on collecting data and making environmental decisions from a risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based decision rules that incorporate stakeholder concerns. This represents a quantitative method for implementing the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. These objective functions can be expressed using a variety of indices to analyze problems that currently arise in the environmental field. Examples include cost, magnitude of risk, efficiency, and probability of success or failure. Based on such defined objective functions, a project can evaluate the impact of different risk and decision selection strategies on data worth and alternative selection.

  14. Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. (Beck (R.W.) and Associates, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Integrating NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs.

  16. Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ``baseline`` risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site.

  17. 76 FR 55061 - Two Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement Agreements for Long-Term Access at the Bountiful...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... infrastructure. In exchange, the settling parties' potential CERCLA civil liability at their respective... Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C....

  18. CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traceski, T.T.

    1993-11-09

    This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). Answers to these questions were prepared by EH-231 in cooperation with the EPA Federal Facilities Team in Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Site Assessment Branch, and in coordination with the Office of Environmental Compliance, Facilities Compliance Division (EH-222).

  19. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  20. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Compliance Demonstration for DOE Order 435.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Simonds

    2006-09-01

    This compliance demonstration document provides an analysis of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex compliance with DOE Order 435.1. The ICDF Complex includes the disposal facility (landfill), evaporation pond, admin facility, weigh scale, decon building, treatment systems, and various staging/storage areas. These facilities were designed and are being constructed to be compliant with DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl design and construction standards. The ICDF Complex is designated as the central Idaho National Laboratory (INL) facilityyy for the receipt, staging/storage, treatment, and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste streams. This compliance demonstration document discusses the conceptual site model for the ICDF Complex area. Within this conceptual site model, the selection of the area for the ICDF Complex is discussed. Also, the subsurface stratigraphy in the ICDF Complex area is discussed along with the existing contamination beneath the ICDF Complex area. The designs for the various ICDF Complex facilities are also included in this compliance demonstration document. These design discussions are a summary of the design as presented in the Remedial Design/Construction Work Plans for the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond and the Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility. Each of the major facilities or systems is described including the design criteria.

  1. Laguna Atascosa Wilderness study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  2. A guide to CERCLA site assessment. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This Pocket Guide is a condensed version of information provided in three EPA documents: Guidance for Performing Preliminary Assessments Under CERCLA, Guidance for Performing Site Inspections Under CERCLA, and Hazard Ranking System Guidance Manual. Additionally the guide provides a DOE perspective on site assessment issues and information on the Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket as well as data sources for DOE site assessments. The guide is intended to present this information in a simple, portable, and direct manner that will allow the user to effectively focus on those aspects of the site assessment process of interest. The guide is not intended as a substitute for the three EPA guidance documents mentioned previously. DOE investigators should be thoroughly familiar with the EPA guidance before conducting site assessments. Use this pocketguide as an overview of procedures and requirements and as a field guide.

  3. Threatened and endangered wildlife species of the Hanford Site related to CERCLA characterization activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Weiss, S.G.; Stegen, J.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has been placed on the National Priorities List, which requires that it be remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund. Potentially contaminated areas of the Hanford Site were grouped into operable units, and detailed characterization and investigation plans were formulated. The DOE Richland Operations Office requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct a biological assessment of the potential impact of these characterization activities on the threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species of the Hanford Site. Additional direction for WHC compliances with wildlife protection can be found in the Environmental Compliance Manual. This document is intended to meet these requirements, in part, for the CERCLA characterization activities, as well as for other work comparable in scope. This report documents the biological assessment and describes the pertinent components of the Hanford Site as well as the planned characterization activities. Also provided are accounts of endangered, threatened, and federal candidate wildlife species on the Hanford Site and information as to how human disturbances can affect these species. Potential effects of the characterization activities are described with recommendations for mitigation measures.

  4. Memorandum of the Establishment of Cleanup Levels for CERCLA Sites with Radioactive Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum presents clarifying guidance for establishing protective cleanup levels for radioactive contamination at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites.

  5. 78 FR 13056 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden...)(1) concerning the Factory H Superfund Site in Meriden, Connecticut (``Site'') with the following... refer to the Factory H Superfund Site, U.S. EPA Docket No. CERCLA-01-2012-0112. FOR FURTHER...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  7. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs.

  8. A comparison of the RCRA Corrective Action and CERCLA Remedial Action Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traceski, Thomas T.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a comprehensive side-by-side comparison of the RCRA corrective action and the CERCLA remedial action processes. On the even-numbered pages a discussion of the RCRA corrective action process is presented and on the odd-numbered pages a comparative discussion of the CERCLA remedial action process can be found. Because the two programs have a difference structure, there is not always a direct correlation between the two throughout the document. This document serves as an informative reference for Departmental and contractor personnel responsible for oversight or implementation of RCRA corrective action and CERCLA remedial action activities at DOE environmental restoration sites.

  9. Study area description: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mary M.; Leu, Matthias; Hanser, Steven E.; Leu, Matthias; Knick, Steven T.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2011-01-01

    The boundary for the Wyoming Basins Ecoregional Assessment (WBEA) was largely determined by the co-occurrence of some of the largest tracts of intact sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) remaining in the western United States with areas of increasing resource extraction. The WBEA area includes two ecoregions in their entirety, Wyoming Basins and Utah-Wyoming Rocky Mountains, and portions of two others (Southern Rocky Mountains and Middle Rockies-Blue Mountains). Over half the study area is in Wyoming; the remainder includes parts of Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Montana. Private landowners manage most (33.1%) of the land base in the WBEA, followed by the U.S. Forest Service (27.3%) and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (25.6%). Sagebrush is the dominant land cover type in the study area, totaling >130,000 km2 ; nearly half the sagebrush in the WBEA is managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Sagebrush in the WBEA faces many potential threats that also influence the broader sagebrush ecosystem. Climate change, drought, land-use practices (e.g., livestock grazing, oil and gas development), and human development have eliminated and fragmented the sagebrush ecosystem, altered fire regimes, and accelerated the invasion of exotic plants such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Less than 2% of sagebrush in the WBEA is permanently protected from land cover conversion.

  10. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  11. 77 FR 42310 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; City of Middletown, CT and RLO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ..., Inc., Omo Manufacturing Site, Middletown, CT AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice... administrative settlement for recovery of response costs under CERCLA, concerning the Omo Manufacturing Superfund... the Omo Manufacturing Superfund Site in Middletown, Connecticut with the following settling parties...

  12. 76 FR 51029 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Carpenter Avenue Mercury Site, Iron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Carpenter Avenue Mercury Site, Iron... proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Carpenter Avenue.... Comments should reference the Carpenter Avenue Mercury site, Iron Mountain, Dickenson County, Michigan...

  13. 15 CFR 990.20 - Relationship to the CERCLA natural resource damage assessment regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.20 Relationship to the CERCLA natural resource damage assessment regulations. (a) General. Regulations for assessing natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases under the...

  14. 76 FR 39401 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Agreement; Textron Inc., Whittaker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Agreement; Textron Inc., Whittaker... Concord, Middlesex County, Massachusetts with Textron Inc., Whittaker Corporation, United States Army,...

  15. 75 FR 34448 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation... Lakes Container Corporation Superfund Site, located in Coventry Rhode Island with the settling parties...-1216. Comments should reference the Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund Site, Coventry,...

  16. Fiscal year 1992 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    During FY 1992, the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted a field survey of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit (600 Area) and tested three sites near the 100 Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. These efforts were conducted in compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) and are part of a cultural resources review of 100 Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization studies.The results of the FY 1992 survey and test excavation efforts are discussed in this report. 518 ha in the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and conducted test excavations at three prehistoric sites near the 100-F and 100-K reactors to determine their eligibility for listing on the National Register of Historic Places.

  17. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  18. WEST PIONEER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    The West Pioneer Wilderness Study Area is in the Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana. A mineral-resource study of the area identified eight areas with molybdenum potential, four areas with gold-silver potential, one area with tungsten potential, and one area with barite potential. Several small mines were encountered, but none were accessible for the purposes of resource evaluation. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  19. Summary : Laguna Atascosa Wilderness study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a very brief report on the area designated as the Laguna Atascosa Wilderness study area. Topics covered include the area's history, its land status,...

  20. 76 FR 64943 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... AGENCY Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located in... administrative settlement for recovery of past and projected future response costs concerning the ACM Smelter and...-5027. Comments should reference the ACM Smelter and Refinery NPL Site, the EPA Docket No....

  1. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River... proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the River Forest Dry Cleaners site in River Forest, Cook County, Illinois with the following settling party: Edward...

  2. 40 CFR 35.6340 - Disposal of CERCLA-funded property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of CERCLA-funded property. 35.6340 Section 35.6340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Personal...

  3. 40 CFR 35.6325 - Title and EPA interest in CERCLA-funded property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Title and EPA interest in CERCLA-funded property. 35.6325 Section 35.6325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions...

  4. 77 FR 52021 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent for the Mercury Refining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent for the Mercury Refining... ``Settling Parties'') pertaining to the Mercury Refining Superfund Site (``Site'') located in the Towns of... each Settling Party to the EPA Hazardous Substance Superfund Mercury Refining Superfund Site Special...

  5. 78 FR 74128 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere, Boone... recovery of past response costs concerning the Cadie Auto Salvage Site in Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois... Facility; and Defense Logistics Agency. The settlement requires the non-owner Settling Parties to pay a...

  6. CERCLA {section}103 and EPCRA {section}304 Release Notification Requirements update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This guidance document updates and clarifies information provided in an earlier guidance document published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entitled Guidance for Federal Facilities on Release Notification Requirements under CERCLA and SARA Title III (EPA 9360.7-06; November 1990). Since publication of that earlier guidance document, several significant events have occurred that affect the reporting obligations of facilities owned or operated by the Department of Energy (DOE), including the publication of Executive Order 12856--Federal Compliance with Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements--and a rejection by the US Court of Appeals of EPA`s interpretation of the term release into the environment. In preparing this guidance document, the Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413), has documented responses to queries from DOE field elements on CERCLA and EPCRA release reporting requirements, as well as incorporating those Questions and Answers from the previous document that remain germane to DOE`s reporting obligations under CERCLA and EPCRA.

  7. 78 FR 77673 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere, Boone... recovery of past response costs concerning the Cadie Auto Salvage Site in Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois..., Illinois 60604. Comments should reference the Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere, Boone County,...

  8. 75 FR 8346 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement; Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site, Leadpoint, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement; Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site, Leadpoint, WA... settlement for costs associated with a removal action at the Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site in Leadpoint.... Comments should reference the Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site in Leadpoint, Washington, EPA Docket...

  9. LARAMIE PEAK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Weisner, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, most of the Laramie Peak Wilderness study area in Wyoming was concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Only three small areas in the northern part, one extending outside the study area to Esterbrook, were found to have probable mineral-resource potential for copper and lead. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil-fuel resources in the study area. There are no surface indications that geothermal energy could be developed within or near the study area.

  10. SANGRE DE CRISTO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce R.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys were undertaken of a wilderness study area which includes most of the Sangre de Cristo Range of south-central Colorado. Four areas of probable mineral-resource potential for gold, silver, and base metals lie along a northwest structural trend which follows the western margin of the range north of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument and crosses the range south of the monument. An area of probable mineral-resource potential for similar minerals plus tungsten has been identified east of Blanca Peak at the extreme southern end of the study area. Another area of probable mineral-resource potential includes molybdenum mineralization associated with the Rito Alto stock. A small area of probable geothermal resource potential exists on the west side of the area around the Valley View Hot Springs. There is little promise for the occurrence of oil and gas resources.

  11. Reporting continuous releases of hazardous and extremely hazardous substances under CERCLA and EPCRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This guidance is designed to provide basic instruction to US DOE and DOE operations contractor personnel on how to characterize CERCLA and EPCRA hazardous substance releases as continuous and how to prepare and deliver continuousreleasee reports to Federal, State, and local authorities. DOE staff should use this guidance as an overview of the continuous release requirements, a quick ready reference guide for specific topics concerning continuous releases and a step-by-step guide for the process of identifying and reporting continuous releases.

  12. Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset is meant to depict Wilderness Study Areas (WSA's), within the state of New Mexico, identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) as having...

  13. Wilderness study areas : Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief summary of two wilderness study areas located in the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history, resources, public use, and...

  14. Guide to ground water remediation at CERCLA response action and RCRA corrective action sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This Guide contains the regulatory and policy requirements governing remediation of ground water contaminated with hazardous waste [including radioactive mixed waste (RMW)], hazardous substances, or pollutants/contaminants that present (or may present) an imminent and substantial danger. It was prepared by the Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413), to assist Environmental Program Managers (ERPMs) who often encounter contaminated ground water during the performance of either response actions under CERCLA or corrective actions under Subtitle C of RCRA. The Guide begins with coverage of the regulatory and technical issues that are encountered by ERPM`s after a CERCLA Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) or the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) have been completed and releases into the environment have been confirmed. It is based on the assumption that ground water contamination is present at the site, operable unit, solid waste management unit, or facility. The Guide`s scope concludes with completion of the final RAs/corrective measures and a determination by the appropriate regulatory agencies that no further response action is necessary.

  15. Glossary of CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms and acronyms. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This glossary contains CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms that are most often encountered in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Emergency Preparedness activities. Detailed definitions are included for key terms. The CERCLA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended and related federal rulemakings. The RCRA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and related federal rulemakings. The TSCA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Toxic Substances and Control Act (TSCA) and related federal rulemakings. Definitions related to TSCA are limited to those sections in the statute and regulations concerning PCBs and asbestos.Other sources for definitions include additional federal rulemakings, assorted guidance documents prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), guidance and informational documents prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and DOE Orders. The source of each term is noted beside the term. Terms presented in this document reflect revised and new definitions published before July 1, 1993.

  16. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination.

  17. Belledune area health study : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated

  18. Area Handbook Series: Thailand. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    of the baht-see Glossary. 7 Includes fresh and canned fish, crustaceans , and mollusks. Source: Based on information from Bank of Thailand, Quarterly...364 Published Country Studies (Area Handbook Series) 550-65 Afghanistan 550-153 Ghana 550-98 Albania 550-87 Greece 550-44 Algeria 550-78 Guatemala 550

  19. Idaho Batholith Study Area Isostatic Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer isostatic gravity grid for the Idaho batholith study area. Number of columns is 331 and number of rows is 285. The order of the data is from the lower...

  20. Idaho Batholith Study Area Density Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer terrace-density grid for the Idaho batholith study area. Number of columns is 331 and number of rows is 285. The order of the data is from the lower...

  1. Biodegradation of oil refinery wastes under OPA and CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamblin, W.W.; Banipal, B.S.; Myers, J.M. [Ecology and Environment, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Land treatment of oil refinery wastes has been used as a disposal method for decades. More recently, numerous laboratory studies have been performed attempting to quantify degradation rates of more toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). This paper discusses the results of the fullscale aerobic biodegradation operations using land treatment at the Macmillan Ring-Free Oil refining facility. The tiered feasibility approach of evaluating biodegradation as a treatment method to achieve site-specific cleanup criteria, including pilot biodegradation operations, is discussed in an earlier paper. Analytical results of biodegradation indicate that degradation rates observed in the laboratory can be met and exceeded under field conditions and that site-specific cleanup criteria can be attained within a proposed project time. Also prevented are degradation rates and half-lives for PAHs for which cleanup criteria have been established. PAH degradation rates and half-life values are determined and compared with the laboratory degradation rates and half-life values which used similar oil refinery wastes by other in investigators (API 1987).

  2. Studies of aerosols advected to coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Makuch, P.; Strzalkowska, A.; Ponczkowska, A.; Drozdowska, V.; Gutowska, D.; Kowalczyk, J.; Darecki, M.; Piskozub, J.

    2012-04-01

    Characterizing aerosols involves the specification of not only their spatial and temporal distributions but their multi-component composition, particle size distribution and physical properties as well. Due to their light attenuation and scattering properties, aerosols influence radiance measured by satellite for ocean color remote sensingmaking them highly relevant for the ocean color atmospheric correction. This paper presents the results of the studies of aerosol optical properties measured using lidars and sun photometers. We describe two case studies of the combined measurements made in two coastal zones, in Crete in 2006and in Rozewie on the Baltic Sea in 2009. The combination of lidar and sun photometer measurements provides comprehensive information on both the total aerosol optical thickness in the entire atmosphere as well as the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties. Combination of such information with air mass back-trajectories and data collected at stations located on the route of air masses provides complete picture of the aerosol variations in the study area both vertically and horizontally. We show that such combined studies are especially important in the coastal areas. Additionally, aerosol particle direct and indirect radiative effects have been identified as key uncertainties for the prediction of the future global climate. This research has been made within the framework of the NASA/AERONET Program and Polish National Grants 1276/B/P01/2010/38, PBW 1283/B/P01/2010/38, POLAR-AOD, NN 306315536 and Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk funded by the European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

  3. 77 FR 31611 - Proposed CERCLA Section 122(g)(4) Administrative Agreement and Order on Consent for the Mercury...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Section 122(g)(4) Administrative Agreement and Order on Consent for the Mercury... the Mercury Refining Superfund Site (``Site'') located in the Towns of Guilderland and Colonie, Albany... Hazardous Substance Superfund Mercury Refining Superfund Site Special Account, which combined total...

  4. 77 FR 19716 - Notice of Filing of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, CERCLA and EPCRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Risk Management Plan regulations, and CERCLA and EPCRA... injunctive relief directed primarily at insuring future compliance with the Risk Management Program... be obtained by mail from the Consent Decree Library, P.O. Box 7611, U.S. Department of...

  5. 77 FR 66462 - Proposed CERCLA Settlement Relating to the Digital Equipment Corp. Site a/k/a the PCB Horizon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Settlement Relating to the Digital Equipment Corp. Site a/k/a the PCB Horizon Site... PCB Horizon Site (``Site''), located in San German, Puerto Rico. Under this Agreement, the...

  6. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

  7. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  8. Financial Responsibility Calculator to Accompany Proposed Requirements Under CERCLA Section 108(b) For Classes of Facilities in the Hardrock Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This calculator will help stakeholders (owners and operators) of hardrock mines or mineral processing facilities calculate the amount of financial responsibility they should obtain under the proposed CERCLA 108b requirements

  9. Area Handbook Series: Jordan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    archaeological evidence of occupation by paleolithic and mesolithic hunters and gatherers. A people of neolithic culture, similar to that found around...gradually extended to nearly all rural areas. Diet was generally adequate to support life and attivity. Aver- age daily caloric intake for adults in the 1980s

  10. Area Handbook Series: Mauritania: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    collection of tribute from vast stretches of the Sudan and the Sahel . The slow decline of the Mali Empire that started at the end of the fourteenth...water is nearer the surface, some flora-including acacias, soapberry trees, capers, and swallowwort-may be found. Saline areas have a particular kind of...wind. In the northern Sahel , dunes are covered with scrub grasses and spiny acacia trees. Farther south, greater rainfall permits more dense vegetation

  11. Area Handbook Series: Libya, a Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    only true mountains, Tibesti Massif, rise in southern desert. Country has several saline lakes but no peren- nial watercourses. Less than 5 percent of...facilitate expanded Sanusi missionary activities in the Sahel and in sub-Saharan Africa. The Grand Sanusi’s son, Muhammad, succeeded him as the order’s...Groundwater was in short supply in the agricultural areas. In some locations it had been so excessively drawn upon that it had become brackish or saline

  12. Area Handbook Series: Indonesia: A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    national staple, even in areas such as eastern Indonesia, where the main source of most starch was likely to be corn (known as maize in Indonesia), cassava...processed into ammonia and urea . Natural gas reserves were estimated in 1990 at 67.5 trillion standard cubic feet of proven reserves and 12 trillion standard...cubic meters 424 4,715 7,692 Sawn timber ........ -do- 2 9,437 10,854 Chemicals Urea fertilizer ....... thousands of tons 1,437 3,690 4,596 Non- urea

  13. The Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area, 2000 (cpstdyg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. The study area outline was drawn on the county lines that most closely outline the...

  14. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  15. [Study of bioelectrical properties of acupuncture areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimon, D V; Zaharia, D; Ciochină, A D; Stratulat, S; Stratone, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The research has as a goal the investigation of the bioelectrical behaviour of the acupunctural areas in order to obtain a scientific substantiation of the correspondence between the extreme--eastern medical tradition and the academical medicine. It is obvious that the Chinese traditional medicine knows a certain mechanism of ensurance of homeostasis of the organisms, a mechanism represented, according to the Chinese medical tradition, by the net of acupuncture points and meridians. The experimental data presented in this paper lead to the discovery of the fact that this net works as the fourth system of integration, the electrical--regulator one. The maintenance of the internal homeostasis of the superior organisms and their adaptation to the environment is ensured by the neuro-endocrine and circulatory systems through a mechanism described by Selye under the name of the Uncertain General Syndrome of Adaptation represented by the hypothalamo-hypophyso-corticoadrenal axis. The evolution of these systems and of their mechanisms can be supervised on the basis of the cortisole concentration. The research emphasized the direct proportionality between the cortisone levels and the variation of the electrical values of the acupuncture points, a fact that demonstrates the involvement of the net of acupuncture points and meridians in the maintenance processes of the homeostasis, control, adjustment and adaptation of the living organisms. Additionally, the analysis of the bioelectrical behavior of the acupuncture areas led to the conclusion that the morpho-functional substrate of this net is the conjunctive tissue. The physical-chemical properties of the interstitial connective tissue assures its working as an electro-regulator system on one side and as a harmonization agent of the neuro-endocrine and circulatory systems on the other side, this aspect being to be developed in a future paper.

  16. Fiscal year 1991 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.; Minthorn, P.E.

    1992-09-01

    In compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Hanford Cultured Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey during FY 1991 of the 100-Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. This survey was conducted as part of a comprehensive resources review of 100-Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization activities. The work included a lite and records review and pedestrian survey of the project area following procedures set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan.

  17. Fiscal year 1991 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.; Minthorn, P.E.

    1992-09-01

    In compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Hanford Cultured Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey during FY 1991 of the 100-Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This survey was conducted as part of a comprehensive resources review of 100-Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization activities. The work included a lite and records review and pedestrian survey of the project area following procedures set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan.

  18. Fiscal year 1991 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.; Minthorn, P.E.

    1992-09-01

    In compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Hanford Cultured Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey during FY 1991 of the 100-Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This survey was conducted as part of a comprehensive resources review of 100-Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization activities. The work included a lite and records review and pedestrian survey of the project area following procedures set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan.

  19. Fiscal year 1991 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.; Minthorn, P.E.

    1992-09-01

    In compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Hanford Cultured Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey during FY 1991 of the 100-Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. This survey was conducted as part of a comprehensive resources review of 100-Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization activities. The work included a lite and records review and pedestrian survey of the project area following procedures set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan.

  20. Area Handbook Series. Philippines: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Southeast Asian Studies, 1987. Villanueva , Honesto A. "The Independence Mission 1919: In- dependence Lies Ahead," Asian Studies [Manila], 9, No. 3...26, No. 5, May 1986, 501-17. Majul, Cesar Abid. "The Moros of the Philippines," Conflict, 8. Nos. 2-3, 1988, 169-84. Malajacan, Marcelino Q., Jr

  1. Water study report : Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary purpose of this study was to assemble and evaluate water records that are in the files of the Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Fallon, Nevada. The...

  2. Areas Nacionales de Estudio Ambiental: Una Guia. (National Environmental Study Area: A Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet, the Spanish version of SE 014 817, is a guide for teachers and resource managers who are interested in establishing National Environmental Study Areas (NESA) or interested in receiving NESA recognition for their on-going environmental study area programs. It outlines the characteristics and procedures of the program; the nature,…

  3. Research Areas in Distance Education: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    This study had three purposes: Firstly, to develop a categorization of research areas in distance education; secondly, to identify the most important research areas in distance education; and thirdly, to identify the most neglected research areas in distance education. Based on a literature review and a Delphi study, three broad levels or…

  4. 2008 USDA Forest Service Lidar: Sandy River Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Sandy River study area in collaboration with the USDA Forest Service. The areas...

  5. Area Handbook Series: Iraq: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    urea fertilizer, and in 1987 Iraq continued to import fertilizer as an emergency measure. Meanwhile, additional fertilizer plants were 151 Iraq: A...Study 1980 and 1985; 1985 production totaled almost 150,000 tons. Iraq also produced maize , millet, and oil seeds in smaller quantities. A number of

  6. Area Handbook Series: Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    processes of change. Socioeconomic statistical information has been systematically published by Argentina’s Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos in...Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos Estima- 353 Argentina: A Country Study clones y proyecdones de poblaciion, 1950-2025. Buenos Aires: 1982...Aires: Institute Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, 1983. Argentina. Ministerio de Educaciön. Departamento de Estadis- tica. Estadisticas de la

  7. Area Handbook Series: Yugoslavia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Center Press, 1988. Bukowski , Charles J. "Politics and Prospects for Economic Re- form in Yugoslavia," Eastern European Politics and Societies, 2, Winter...1988, 94-114. 312 Bibliography Bukowski , Charles J., and Mark A. Cichock (eds.). Prospects for Change in Socialist Systems. New York: Praeger, 1987...67. Biberaj, Elez. "Yugoslavia: A Continuing Crisis?" Conflict Studies [London], 225, October 1989, 1-22. Bukowski , Charles J. "Politics and

  8. Area Handbook Series: Singapore: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    strengthen the cultural ties of the Singapore Chinese to China by establishing a cultural club, a debating society, Singapore’s first Chinese-language...break up ethnic en- claves and resettle kampong dwellers in Housing and Development Board apartment complexes had a great effect on the Malays. Evi- dence...for Communications and Information 201 Singapore: A Country Study ineffective in the 1980s. The major issues were economic, involv- ing debate over the

  9. Area Handbook Series: Czechoslovakia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    1972. Kundera , Milan . "The Czech Wager," New York Review of Books, 27, Nos. 21 and 22, January 21, 1981, 21-22. 369 Czechoslovakia.: A Country Study...1916, together with Eduard Bene§ and Milan Steffinik (a Slovak war hero), Masaryk created the Czechoslovak National Council. Masaryk in the United...Czechoslovakia’s aid only if French assistance came first. In 1935 Beneg succeeded Masaryk as president, and Prime Minister Milan Hod.a took over the Ministry

  10. Area Handbook Series: Paraguay: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    University of New Mexico Press, 1978. Wilgus, A. Curtis. Historical Atlas of Latin America: Political, Geo- graphic, Economic, Cultural . New York...34 Economic Development and Cultural Change, 35, No. 3, April 1987, 601-27. Benftez, Luis G. Historia de la educacin paraguaya. Asunci6n: In- dustrial... cultural factors. Each study is written by a multidisciplinary team of social scientists. The authors seek to provide a basic understanding of the

  11. Area Handbook Series: Zaire: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    left in Bas-Zaire. 69 I- ________________________ Zaire: A Country Study In the east, the appropriation of land for ranching and planta - tions in the...tests positive for the AIDS virus ) in Kinshasa for the general popula- tion in 1987 were 6 to 8 percent; among prostitutes the figure was as high as 30...56 Kenya 550-77 Chile 550-81 Korea, North 550-60 China 550-41 Korea, South 550-26 Colombia 550-58 Laos 550-33 Commonwealth Caribbean, 550-24 Lebanon

  12. Consequences of Promoting Less-Populated Rural Areas to Urban Areas: A Case Study, Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bastin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified law of Iranian Administrative divisions has greatly altered the pattern of settlement in recent decades. The promotion of rural areas to urban areas has shifted from mere population standard to combined population-administrative standards. However, all censuses suggest that many rural areas reported as smaller than the minimum population standard have been promoted to urban areas. In the last two decades, this is a clearly prominent phenomenon in the urban system of Iran. This paper evaluates the effects and consequences of promoting small and sparsely populated rural areas to urban areas in the Bushehr province. The used methodology is analytic-descriptive using a questionnaire distributed among 380 members of the target population. Data analysis is conducted in physical, economic, social and urban servicing domains using one-sample T-test and the utility range. The results show that promotion of rural areas to urban areas has positive outcomes such as improved waste disposal system, improved quality of residential buildings, increased monitoring of the construction, increased income, prevented migration and improved health services. However, the results of utility range show that the negative consequences of this policy are more than its positive outcomes, which have been studied in detail.

  13. The Certificate Program in Western European Area and in Latin American Area Studies as Incentives to Study French and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Claude

    The University of San Francisco developed a certificate program in Western European area studies covering French-speaking countries, and subsequently a Latin American area studies program for Spanish-speaking countries, in response to uneven language enrollments and as a means of increasing intermediate-level enrollment. The French program begins…

  14. Mercury issues related to NPDES and the CERCLA watershed project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the current understanding of the issues and options surrounding compliance with the current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit conditions. This is a complicated issue that directly impacts, and will be directly impacted by, ongoing CERCLA activities in Lower East Fork Poplar Creek and the Clinch River/Poplar Creek. It may be necessary to reconstitute the whole and combine actions and decisions regarding the entire creek (origin to confluence with the Clinch River) to develop a viable long-term strategy that meets regulatory goals and requirements as well as those of DOE`s 10-Year Plan and the new watershed management permitting approach. This document presents background information on the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluents (RMPE) and NPDES programs insofar as it is needed to understand the issues and options. A tremendous amount of data has been collected to support the NPDES/RMPE and CERCLA programs. These data are not presented, although they may be referenced and conclusions based on them may be presented, as necessary, to support discussion of the options.

  15. Study on Sustainable Development in Vulnerable Eco-areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Juntao; Li Jin

    2004-01-01

    The vulnerable eco-area is one of the important research targets in the field of sustainable development. It is the requirement of building a welloff society in an all-round way that we should study more on the vulnerable eco-areas, deal with the relationship between environmental protection and economic development, speed up the economic development in these areas and increase the living standard of the local people. This paper puts forward the countermeasures of environment-economy coordination, on the basis of the recognition of ecoenvironment features and social economic conditions in the vulnerable eco-areas of China, in view of the progress in sustainable development studies of the vulnerable ones, taking the transitional areas of farming and pasturing in northeast China as an example to study the regional environment vulnerability.

  16. A comparative breastfeeding study in two contrasting areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckell, M; Thompson, R

    1995-02-01

    An apparent decline in breastfeeding rates motivated health visiting staff within Hillingdon Community Health Trust to undertake a research project on infant feeding practice. Margaret Buckell and Rosemary Thompson describe a study to measure intent to breastfeed, breastfeeding initiation rates and feeding outcomes in two contrasting areas of Hillingdon, an outer London borough, and to identify areas for further work to improve breastfeeding levels.

  17. Responses to comments on the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement for remedial action at the Chemical Plant area of the Weldon Spring site (November 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry; both areas are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced by the US Army at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency in the 1950s and 1960s. During that time, various wastes were disposed of at both areas of the site. The DOE is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The integrated remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS) documents for the chemical plant area were issued to the public in November 1992 as the draft RI/FS-EIS. (The CERCLA RI/FS is considered final when issued to the public, whereas per the NEPA process, an EIS is initially issued as a draft and is finalized after substantive public comments have been addressed.) Four documents made up the draft RI/FS-EIS, which is hereafter referred to as the RI/FS-EIS: (1) the RI (DOE 1992d), which presents general information on the site environment and the nature and extent of contamination; (2) the baseline assessment (BA) (DOE 1992a), which evaluates human health and environmental effects that might occur if no cleanup actions were taken; (3) the FS (DOE 1992b), which develops and evaluates alternatives for site cleanup; and (4) the proposed plan (PP) (DOE 1992c), which summarizes key information from the RI, BA, and FS reports and identifies DOE`s preferred alternative for remedial action. This comment response document combined with those four documents constitutes the final RI/FS-EIS for the chemical plant area.

  18. Wildlife Management Areas in Tanzania: A Study of Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2003 Tanzania established 16 pilot Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs), with ... This study examines the opportunities and challenges of this policy initiative with ... However, the prolonged, time-consuming and costly establishment process, ...

  19. Checklist of collected plants from the Fish Springs study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This checklist contains 34 families and 99 species of plants which were identified from collections made in marshes at Fish Springs study area.

  20. Hydrogeologic Areas of the Southwest Principal Aquifer (SWPA) study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster dataset represents the boundaries of the hydrogeologic areas of the Southwest Principal Aquifer (SWPA) study of the National Water Quality Assessment...

  1. 1988 Duck nesting study: Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer, 1988, we conducted a duck nesting study to determine nest success for ducks at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (WMA). We calculated nest...

  2. CENTENNIAL MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA AND IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkind, Irving J.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey conducted within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area in Montana and Idaho showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggest that there is little promise for the occurrence of base and precious metals in the area. Although the area contains other nonmetallic deposits, such as coal, building stone, and pumiceous ash they are not considered as mineral resources. There is a probable resource potential for oil and gas and significant amounts may underlie the area around the Peet Creek and Odell Creek anticlines.

  3. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-17

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

  4. Elk and Deer Study, Material Disposal Area G, Technical Area 54: Source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Ferenbaugh; P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; G. J. Gonzales; P. A. Jordan

    1999-09-01

    As nuclear research has become more prevalent, environmental contamination from the disposal of radioactive waste has become a prominent issue. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico, radioactive contamination from disposal operations has raised some very specific concerns. Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at LANL and occupies an area adjacent to land belonging to the Native American community of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Analyses of soil and vegetation collected from the perimeter of Area G have shown concentrations of radionuclides greater than background concentrations established for northern New Mexico. As a result, Pueblo residents had become concerned that contaminants from Area G could enter tribal lands through various ecological pathways. The residents specifically questioned the safety of consuming meat from elk and deer that forage near Area G and then migrate onto tribal lands. Consequently, this study addresses the uptake of {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 137}Cs by elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that forage around the perimeter of Area G and the associated doses to the animals and to humans who consume these animals. Radionuclide uptake by and internal dose to animals was estimated using equations modified from National Council on Radiological Protection Report 76. The Residual Radiation computer code was used to estimate the external dose to animals and the dose to humans consuming meat. Soil and water concentrations from the perimeter of Area G and from background regions in northern New Mexico were averaged over 4 years (1993--1996) and used as input data for the models. Concentration estimates generated by the model correspond to the concentration range measured in actual tissue samples from elk and deer collected at LANL. The highest dose estimates for both animals (0.028 mrad/d) and humans

  5. Laguna Atascosa Wilderness study area : Wilderness study report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an in-depth report containing the results of a wilderness study done of the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. It covers the objectives of...

  6. Computerized assessment of pain drawing area: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wenngren

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Anna Wenngren, Britt-Marie StålnackeDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, SwedenAim: To investigate if pain area in patients with chronic pain could be measured by a computerized assessment on previously marked pain drawings on paper figures and to analyze the further application of the method.Methods: Seventy-two patients (54 women and 18 men who were admitted to Umeå University Hospital during 2003 for assessment of chronic pain answered a set of questionnaires (pain intensity on the visual analog scale [VAS], disability on the Disability Rating Index [DRI], life satisfaction on the LiSat-11 and filled in pain drawings on paper figures of the human body. The pain drawings were later analyzed by using computerized assessment.Results: Women marked a greater pain area than men, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.433. No significant difference was shown for the previous seven days between men and women on the VAS (p = 0.914, DRI (p = 0.493, or LiSat-11 (p = 0.124. A statistically significant correlation was found between pain area and VAS for the previous seven days (r = 0.250; p = 0.046. Pain area was statistically significantly correlated to the DRI (r = 0.336; p = 0.014 and close to negatively correlated to the LiSat-11 (r = -0.687; p = 0.057.Conclusion: This pilot study shows that pain drawing area could be measured by a computerized assessment of pain drawings. The method points to the possibility of relating pain area with other instruments. In the present study, an association between the patients’ pain drawing area and pain intensity and between pain area and level of activity was shown.Keywords: musculoskeletal pain, screening, pain drawing, computerized assessment

  7. Macro Study of Spatial Development Area on Tourism Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widhianthini Widhianthini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Macro study is one approach that combines the rational method based on the results of previous studies by the authority with the empirical method utilizing the survey techniques. The purpose of this macro study is to identify and analyze the potentials, problems, and the limiting factors, and the needs of the regency; and to recommend the programs and models required by the community to achieve the sustainable development. This research uses the Participatory Rural Appraisal method, the  interview techniques (Semi Structured Interview, the technique of focused group discussion (FGD, the Rapid District Appraisal (RDA, then it is analyzed by the empirical and dynamical systems. The overview of macro studies is particularly relevant in developing the regions, especially the rural areas, based on the existing advantages, such as in Tabanan Regency. Tabanan Regency is a granary in Bali Province and the zoning of agricultural commodities in quadrant III,which is the rural farming area with combined functions between the cultivated and rural areas supported by the tourism department. The studies of the areas in the form of potential analysis, problem analysis, requirement analysis become the guidelines for preparing the development scenarios and program formats. The studies will then constitute the factors driving the realization of sustainable development of tourism villages in supporting the sustainable agriculture.

  8. Sustainability Assessment for Agriculture Scenarios in Europe's Mountain Areas: Lessons from Six Study Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partidário, Maria Rosário; Sheate, William R.; Bina, Olivia; Byron, Helen; Augusto, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability assessment (SA) is a holistic and long-range strategic instrument capable of assisting policy-making in electing, and deciding upon, future development priorities. The outcomes of an SA process become more relevant and strengthened when conducted with multi-stakeholder engagement, which provides for multiple dialogues and perspectives. This was the object of research of the SA team in the context of BioScene ( Scenarios for Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation with Declining Agriculture Use in Mountain Areas in Europe), a three-year project (2002-2005) funded by the European Union 5th Framework Program, which aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe, using three distinct methodological streams: the ecological, the socio-economic, and the SA approaches. The SA approach drew on the previous two to assess the importance for biodiversity management of different scenarios of agri-environmental change and rural policy in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom), develop causal chains, include stakeholder views, and identify potential contributions for, or conflicts with, sustainability. This article tells how SA was used, what sustainability meant in each study area through different objectives of sustainability considered, discusses the methods used in SA, and the benefits arising. The SA was conducted by a team independent of any study area, who developed and oversaw the application of the SA methodology, assisting national teams, and developing a cross-country understanding of the sustainability of proposed scenarios in the different geographical and social contexts, and their implications for policy-making. Finally, it reflects on the persistent challenges of interdisciplinary research, compounded by multi-cultural teams, and concludes on the BioScene’s lessons for the further development and application

  9. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  10. Gulf Islands Wilderness study area : Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges : Wilderness study report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  11. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  12. Termites of the Savanna ecosystem project study area, Nylsvley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, P

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the termite fauna of the Savanna Ecosystem Project study area at the Nylsvley Nature Reserve, with an illustrated key for identification of species. Twenty-one species of fifteen genera and two families are recorded, and notes...

  13. Asian Studies/Global Studies: Transcending Area Studies and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The post–World War II growth of area studies, and Asian studies in particular, posed a serious challenge to the mainstream social sciences. Yet the epistemic and institutional foundations of area studies were never well articulated or justified, and the post–Cold War years brought a pervasive sense of crisis to its intellectual mission and justification. In particular, the author focuses on the tensions, if not contradictions, between social science disciplines and area studies. In advocating a more integrated human science, which depends more on mobile networks of scholars than on fixed fields of discipline-bound professors, the author suggests global studies as a fitting field of inquiry in the age of globalization.

  14. A detailed study on Catchment delineation for Urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B.; B M, A.; Lohani, B.; Jain, A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban flood modelling is carried out for predicting, analysing and planning of floods in urban areas. Catchment information is an important input for urban flood modelling. Automatic catchment delineation at gully gratings for urban areas using appropriate software packages/methods along with an appropriate set of input data and parameters is still a research challenge. Considering the above, the aim of this study is to (i) identify the best suitable software for automatic catchment delineation by considering gully grating as outlet (ii) understand the effect of resolution of DEM on catchments delineated (iii) understand whether to consider DEM or DSM for catchment delineation (iv) study the effect of grid based and TIN based DEM. In this study catchment delineation has been investigated considering IIT Kanpur as a study site. LiDAR data are used to generate DEM/DSM of the study area. A comparative study of catchment delineation has been carried out between ArcHydro 10.1, BASINS 4.1, ArcSWAT, WMS 7.1, and HEC-GeoHMS approaches. Catchments have been delineated for different drainage threshold areas using gully grating points as outlets and their effects have been compared for the aforementioned software. In order to understand the effect of resolution of data, DEMs of 1m and 5m resolution have been generated and compared against each other. Effects of building ridge lines and their contribution to catchment delineation has been studied by generating a DSM of 1m resolution, and comparing the results with catchments delineated using 1m DEM. In order to assess the effects of the types of DEM over catchment delineation, a grid based DEM and TIN based DEM are compared against each other using WMS 7.1 software. The results for the catchment delineation using various software illustrate that ArcHydro 10.1 performs better than any other aforementioned software. Also, it is noted that varied drainage threshold area parameters, resolutions of DEM, selection of DEM

  15. Modelling catchment areas for secondary care providers: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon; Wardlaw, Jessica; Crouch, Susan; Carolan, Michelle

    2011-09-01

    Hospitals need to understand patient flows in an increasingly competitive health economy. New initiatives like Patient Choice and the Darzi Review further increase this demand. Essential to understanding patient flows are demographic and geographic profiles of health care service providers, known as 'catchment areas' and 'catchment populations'. This information helps Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) to review how their populations are accessing services, measure inequalities and commission services; likewise it assists Secondary Care Providers (SCPs) to measure and assess potential gains in market share, redesign services, evaluate admission thresholds and plan financial budgets. Unlike PCTs, SCPs do not operate within fixed geographic boundaries. Traditionally, SCPs have used administrative boundaries or arbitrary drive times to model catchment areas. Neither approach satisfactorily represents current patient flows. Furthermore, these techniques are time-consuming and can be challenging for healthcare managers to exploit. This paper presents three different approaches to define catchment areas, each more detailed than the previous method. The first approach 'First Past the Post' defines catchment areas by allocating a dominant SCP to each Census Output Area (OA). The SCP with the highest proportion of activity within each OA is considered the dominant SCP. The second approach 'Proportional Flow' allocates activity proportionally to each OA. This approach allows for cross-boundary flows to be captured in a catchment area. The third and final approach uses a gravity model to define a catchment area, which incorporates drive or travel time into the analysis. Comparing approaches helps healthcare providers to understand whether using more traditional and simplistic approaches to define catchment areas and populations achieves the same or similar results as complex mathematical modelling. This paper has demonstrated, using a case study of Manchester, that when estimating

  16. FLOOD STUDY IN THE DEJ AREA, USING MODERN COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. ST. STOICA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Floods have the potential to cause fatalities, displacement of people and damage to the environment, to severely compromise economic development and to undermine the economic activities of the Community. In developing policies referring to water and land uses Member States and the Community should consider the potential impacts that such policies might have on flood risks and the management of flood risks. In order to implement the EU directives, Romania is developing at a national level “Prevention, Protection and Minimizing Flood Effects Plan”; in Someş-Tisa hydrographic basin, the plan is implemented by Someş Tisa Water Board. This study is a brief presentation of the pilot study which is part of this program, undertaken in Dej area, at the confluence of two important rivers, Someşul Mare and Someşul Mic, where the flood of 1970 had a catastrophic impact; Dej area is a priority in the above mentioned plan.

  17. Study of Natural Background Radiation around Gurvanbulag Uranium Deposit Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, N.; Norov, N.; Bat-Erdene, B.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.; Otgooloi, B.

    2009-03-01

    In this work, we will show the study of natural background radiation level around the Gurvanbulag (GB) uranium deposit area in the eastern part of Mongolia. We collected environmental soil samples from 102 points around GB Uranium deposit. Collected samples were measured by HPGe gamma spectrometer at Nuclear Research Center, National University of Mongolia. The averaged activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, and Cs-137 were 37.1, 29, 939, and 17.7 Bq/kg, respectively.

  18. Study on Seismic Zoning of Sino-Mongolia Arc Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.

    2015-12-01

    According to the agreement of Cooperation on seismic zoning between Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration and Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Science, the data of geotectonics, active faults, seismicity and geophysical field were collected and analyzed, then field investigation proceeded for Bolnay Faults, Ar Hutul Faults and Gobi Altay Faults, and a uniform earthquake catalogue of Mongolia and North China were established for the seismic hazard study in Sino-Mongolia arc areas. Furthermore the active faults and epicenters were mapped and 2 seismic belts and their 54 potential seismic sources are determined. Based on the data and results above mentioned the seismicity parameters for the two seismic belts and their potential sources were studied. Finally, the seismic zoning with different probability in Sino-Mongolia arc areas was carried out using China probabilistic hazard analysis method. By analyzing the data and results, we draw the following main conclusions. Firstly, the origin of tectonic stress field in the study areas is the collision and pressure of the India Plate to Eurasian Plate, passing from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This is the reason why the seismicity is higher in the west than in the east, and all of earthquakes with magnitude 8 or greater occurred in the west. Secondly, the determination of the 2 arc seismic belts, Altay seismic belt and Bolnay-Baikal seismic belt, are reasonable in terms of their geotectonic location, geodynamic origin and seismicity characteristics. Finally, there are some differences between our results and the Mongolia Intensity Zoning map published in 1985 in terms of shape of seismic zoning map, especially in the areas near Ulaanbaatar. We argue that our relsults are reasonable if we take into account the data use of recent study of active faults and their parameters, so it can be used as a reference for seismic design.

  19. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  20. 78 FR 48868 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; MassDOT, MassDOT Route 1 Right-of-Way...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... AGENCY Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; MassDOT, MassDOT Route 1 Right-of-Way...), concerning the MassDOT Route 1 Right-of-Way Site in Chelsea, Massachusetts with the following Settling Party... should refer to: In re: MassDOT Route 1 Right-of- Way Site, U.S. EPA Docket No.01-2013-0031. FOR...

  1. Study on Seismicity of Sino-Mongolia Arc Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangyin; Wang, Suyun

    2016-04-01

    Using the earthquake catalogue from China, Mongolia and the global catalogue, the uniform catalogue of North China, Mongolia and adjacent areas, which is within the region 80-130°E, 40-55°N, has been established by Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration and Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Science for the seismic hazard analysis and seismic zoning map of Mongolia according to the following principles. 1) Earthquakes, which just exist in one catalogue, need to be verified further. If the earthquakes occurred in the country where the catalog comes from, then they will be adopted. If not, it should be checked with other more data. 2) The events that come from the three data sources have be checked and verified as followings. (1) The parameters of earthquakes that occurred in China will be taken from China catalog. (2)The parameters of earthquakes that occurred in Mongolia will be taken from Mongolia catalog. (3) The parameters of earthquakes that occurred in the adjacent areas will be taken from the global catalog by Song et al. According to the uniform catalogue, the seismicity of the North China, Mongolia and adjacent areas is analyzed, and the conclusions as followings are made. 1) The epicenter map can be roughly divided into two parts, bounded by the longitude line 105°E , in accordance with the "North-South Seismic Belt" of China. The seismicity is in a high level with many strong earthquakes in the west and is in a low level with little strong events in the east. 2) Most earthquakes are shallow-focus events, but there are also several middle or deep-focus events in the study area. 3) Earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5 are basically complete since 1450 A.D., and the seismicity of the study areas is in a high level since 1700 A. 4) Two seismic belts, Altay seismic belt and Bolnay-Baikal seismic belt, are determined according to the epicenters and tectonics. 5) The b-values of magnitude - frequency

  2. Studies on wind environment around high buildings in urban areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Huizhi; JIANG; Yujun; LIANG; Bin; ZHU; Fengrong; ZHAN

    2005-01-01

    High buildings or architectural complex in urban areas remarkably distort the urban surface wind fields. As the air flow approaches,local strong wind may appear around the buildings. The strong wind makes the pedestrians on sidewalks, entrances and terrace very uncomfortable and causes the pedestrian level wind environment problem. In this studies, hot-wire wind measurement, wind scouring in wind tunnel and numerical computation were carried out to evaluate the wind environment of tall buildings in the prevailing flow conditions in Beijing areas. The results obtained by three techniques were compared and mutually verified. The conclusions drawn from three approaches agree with each other. Also the advantages and limitations of each method were analyzed. It is suggested that the combination of different techniques may produce better assessment of wind environment around high buildings.

  3. Fingersomatotopy in area 3b: an fMRI-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosén Birgitta

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary sensory cortex (S1 in the postcentral gyrus is comprised of four areas that each contain a body map, where the representation of the hand is located with the thumb most laterally, anteriorly and inferiorly and the little finger most medially, posteriorly and superiorly. Previous studies on somatotopy using functional MRI have either used low field strength, have included a small number of subjects or failed to attribute activations to any area within S1. In the present study we included twenty subjects, who were investigated at 3 Tesla (T. We focused specifically on Brodmann area 3b, which neurons have discrete receptive fields with a potentially more clearcut somatotopic organisation. The spatial distribution for all fingers' peak activation was determined and group as well as individual analysis was performed. Results Activation maps from 18 subjects were of adequate quality; in 17 subjects activations were present for all fingers and these data were further analysed. In the group analysis the thumb was located most laterally, anteriorly and inferiorly with the other fingers sequentially positioned more medially, posteriorly and superiorly. At the individual level this somatotopic relationship was present for the thumb and little finger, with a higher variability for the fingers in between. The Euclidian distance between the first and fifth finger was 17.2 mm, between the first and second finger 10.6 mm and between the remaining fingers on average 6.3 mm. Conclusion Results from the group analysis, that is both the location of the fingers and the Euclidian distances, are well comparable to results from previous studies using a wide range of modalities. On the subject level the spatial localisation of the fingers showed a less stringent somatotopic order so that the location of a finger in a single subject cannot be predicted from the group result.

  4. Study of stress in nuclear area workers: silent enemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP-SP), SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.b, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear accidents occurred in Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima were influenced by human factors. The objective of this paper is to study about the factors that influence the level of stress of the nuclear area workers. The paper is based on theoretical assumptions on occupational stress and its manifestations. The methodology used is based on questionnaires and interviews, obtained from Martins' work published in 2008 about the study of human factors focused on research reactor operators IEA-R1, of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN). In that study were analyzed the accidents occurred by human failure. The results presented in this paper showed some improvements in the reactors operators' work, and health. Operational reliability and facilities safety also improved. (author)

  5. Quantitative Study of Green Area for Climate Sensitive Terraced Housing Area Design in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, O. T. S.; Saito, K.; Said, I.

    2014-02-01

    Neighbourhood plays a significant role in peoples' daily lives. Nowadays, terraced housing is common in Malaysia, and green areas in the neighborhood are not used to their maximum. The aim of the research is to quantify the types of green area that are most efficient for cooling the environment for thermal comfort and mitigation of Urban Heat Island. Spatial and environmental inputs are manipulated for the simulation using Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated with computational microclimate simulation. The outcome of this research is a climate sensitive housing environment model framework on the green area to solve the problem of Urban Heat Island.

  6. Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Mathias; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willén, Dag; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

  7. Study of Pixel Area Variations in Fully Depleted Thick CCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V.; O' Connor, P.; Kotov, A.I.; Frank, J.; Kubanek, P.; Prouza, M.; Radeka, V.; Takacs, P.

    2010-06-30

    Future wide field astronomical surveys, like Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), require photometric precision on the percent level. The accuracy of sensor calibration procedures should match these requirements. Pixel size variations found in CCDs from different manufacturers are the source of systematic errors in the flat field calibration procedure. To achieve the calibration accuracy required to meet the most demanding science goals this effect should be taken into account. The study of pixel area variations was performed for fully depleted, thick CCDs produced in a technology study for LSST. These are n-channel, 100 {micro}m thick devices. We find pixel size variations in both row and column directions. The size variation magnitude is smaller in the row direction. In addition, diffusion is found to smooth out electron density variations. It is shown that the characteristic diffusion width can be extracted from the flat field data. Results on pixel area variations and diffusion, data features, analysis technique and modeling technique are presented and discussed.

  8. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), due to launch in November 2007, will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class; pulsars will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for elucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric particle acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theoretical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all unidentified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geminga-like pulsars.

  9. Five-Year Review of CERCLA Response Actions at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. L. Jolley

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes the documentation submitted in support of the five-year review or remedial actions implemented under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Sitewide at the Idaho National Laboratory. The report also summarizes documentation and inspections conducted at the no-further-action sites. This review covered actions conducted at 9 of the 10 waste area groups at the Idaho National Laboratory, i.e. Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10. Waste Area Group 8 was not subject to this review, because it does not fall under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office. The review included past site inspections and monitoring data collected in support of the remedial actions. The remedial actions have been completed at Waste Area Groups 2, 4, 5, 6, and 9. Remedial action reports have been completed for Waste Area Groups 2 and 4, and remedial action reports are expected to be completed during 2005 for Waste Area Groups 1, 5, and 9. Remediation is ongoing at Waste Area Groups 3, 7, and 10. Remedial investigations are yet to be completed for Operable Units 3-14, 7-13/14, and 10-08. The review showed that the remedies have been constructed in accordance with the requirements of the Records of Decision and are functioning as designed. Immediate threats have been addressed, and the remedies continue to be protective. Potential short-term threats are being addressed though institutional controls. Soil cover and cap remedies are being maintained properly and inspected in accordance with the appropriate requirements. Soil removal actions and equipment or system removals have successfully achieved remedial action objectives identified in the Records of Decision. The next Sitewide five-year review is scheduled for completion by 2011.

  10. International Conflict Studies as a Research and Teaching Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Viktorovna Khudaykulova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes international conflict studies as a science and an educational discipline. The analysis of the subject field and professional terminology adopted in this area both in Russian and in English is provided. Formation of international conflict studies as a distinct field of study in the United States and Western Europe is described. The results of analysis of 10 leading foreign schools on international conflict studies are presented. The main factors that were taken into account in identifying the leading centers were the existence of a separate research (educational analysis units of international conflicts, the world's leading scientific journals on conflict resolution, as well as databases for the analysis of international conflicts. The role of professional associations, education consortia and international organizations (UNESCO in the study of international conflicts is described. An analysis of the leading think tanks on defense and national security (as rated by Philadelphia think tank ranking is also provided. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research methodology of international conflicts and the structure of educational programs at leading schools in the world in international relations. The author summarizes the recommendations of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA to create educational programs of this kind.

  11. Analysis on Residents’ Travel Activity Pattern in Historic Urban Areas: A Case Study of Historic Urban Area of Yangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel behaviors and activity patterns in the historic urban area of a city are expected to be different from the overall situations in the city area. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the residents’ travel activity patterns in historic urban area. Based on survey data conducted in the historic urban area of Yangzhou, the travel activities of local residents in a whole day were classified into five types of patterns. The multinomial logit (MNL model was developed to evaluate the impacts of explanatory variables on the choices of activity patterns. The results showed that the choice of activity pattern was significantly impacted by five contributing factors including the gender, age, occupation, car ownership, and number of electric bikes in household. The other variables, which were the family population, preschoolers, number of conventional bikes in household, motorcycle ownership, and income, were found to be not significantly related to the choice of activities. The results of this study from historic urban area were compared to findings of previous studies from overall urban area. The comparison showed that the impacts of factors on activity pattern in the historic urban area were different from those in the overall area. Findings of this study provide important suggestions for the policy makings to improve the traffic situations in historic urban areas of cities.

  12. Reflection seismic studies in the Forsmark area - stage 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Bergman Bjoern; Palm, Hans [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2002-10-01

    Reflection seismic data were acquired in the Spring of 2002 in the Forsmark area, located about 70 km northeast of Uppsala, Sweden. The Forsmark area has been targeted by SKB as a possible storage site for high level radioactive waste. About 16 km of high resolution seismic data were acquired along five separate profiles varying in length from 2 to 5 km. Non-final source and receiver spacing was 10 m with 100 active channels when recording data from a dynamite source (15-75 g). The profiles were located within a relatively undeformed lens of bedrock that trends in the NW-SE direction. The lens is surrounded by highly deformed rock on all sides. In conjunction with the reflection component of the study, all shots were also recorded on up to eleven 3-component fixed Orion seismographs. These recordings provided long offset data from which a velocity model of the uppermost 400 m of bedrock could be derived. Results from the study show that the bedrock has been well imaged down to depths of at least 3 km. The upper 1000 m of bedrock is much more reflective in the southeastern portion of the lens compared to the northwestern part close to the Forsmark reactors. This is interpreted as the bedrock being more homogeneous in the northwest. However, a major reflective zone (the A1 reflector) is interpreted to dip to the S-SE below this homogeneous bedrock. In the southeastern portion of the lens the orientation of the reflectors is well determined where the profiles cross one another. The general strike of the major reflectors is NE-SW with dips of 20-35 degrees to the southeast.

  13. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD

  14. Small Glacier Area Studies: A New Approach for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavasli, Dogukan D.; Tucker, Compton J.

    2012-01-01

    Many regions of Earth have glaciers that have been neglected for study because they are small. We report on a new approach to overcome the problem of studying small glaciers, using Turkey as an example. Prior to our study, no reliable estimates of Turkish glaciers existed because of a lack of systematic mapping, difficulty in using Landsat data collected before 1982, snowpack vs. glacier ice differentiation using existing satellite data and aerial photography, the previous high cost of Landsat images, and a lack of high-resolution imagery of small Turkish glaciers. Since 2008, a large number of Turkey. We also used five Landsat-3 Return Beam Videcon (RBV) 30 m pixel resolution images, all from 1980, for six glaciers. The total area of Turkish glaciers decreased from 23 km2 in the 1970s to 10.1 km2 in 2007-2011. By 2007-2011, six Turkish glaciers disappeared, four were < 0.3 km2, and only three were 1.0 km2 or larger. No trends in precipitation from 1970 to 2006 and cloud cover from 1980 to 2010 were found, while surface temperatures increased, with summer minimum temperatures showing the greatest increase. We conclude that increased surface temperatures during the summer were responsible for the 56% recession of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2006-2011.

  15. Flood risk management: cases studies in French Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defossez Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In France, for a long time, flood risk management has only oriented to controlling flood hazard with structural measures such as dikes. But since 1990’s many events have proved they have not totally efficient measures. So, institutions decided it’s necessary to manage flood risk with others ways like prevention. Risk management is so organize about holistic policies with different stakeholders and societies exposed at risk. Our study have the aim to demonstrate through several examples how flood risk is manage in French Mediterranean area. Post event feedback permit us to evaluate damage and crisis management. This method is use for show if this strategies is efficient or not. This study demonstrate how is risk management in France. Regulations are they efficient, so have they an influence about the reduction of deaths and damages? Individual measures are they more important than collective action? Finally, what policies and strategies are used and effective? The main results about cases studies show that natural event has most important that publics policies and it determines preventive policies.

  16. Remedial investigation work plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, located within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The entire ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of CERCLA sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites under investigation require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) of potential remedial actions. The need to complete RIs in a timely manner resulted in the establishment of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA) and the Bear Creek CA. The CA approach considers the entire watershed and examines all appropriate media within it. The UEFPC CA, which includes the main Y-12 Plant area, is an operationally and hydrogeologically complex area that contains numerous contaminants and containment sources, as well as ongoing industrial and defense-related activities. The UEFPC CA also is the suspected point of origin for off-site groundwater and surface-water contamination. The UEFPC CA RI also will address a carbon-tetrachloride/chloroform-dominated groundwater plume that extends east of the DOE property line into Union Valley, which appears to be connected with springs in the valley. In addition, surface water in UEFPC to the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek CA boundary will be addressed. Through investigation of the entire watershed as one ``site,`` data gaps and contaminated areas will be identified and prioritized more efficiently than through separate investigations of many discrete units.

  17. Remedial investigation work plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, located within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The entire ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of CERCLA sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites under investigation require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) of potential remedial actions. The need to complete RIs in a timely manner resulted in the establishment of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA) and the Bear Creek CA. The CA approach considers the entire watershed and examines all appropriate media within it. The UEFPC CA, which includes the main Y-12 Plant area, is an operationally and hydrogeologically complex area that contains numerous contaminants and containment sources, as well as ongoing industrial and defense-related activities. The UEFPC CA also is the suspected point of origin for off-site groundwater and surface-water contamination. The UEFPC CA RI also will address a carbon-tetrachloride/chloroform-dominated groundwater plume that extends east of the DOE property line into Union Valley, which appears to be connected with springs in the valley. In addition, surface water in UEFPC to the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek CA boundary will be addressed. Through investigation of the entire watershed as one ``site,`` data gaps and contaminated areas will be identified and prioritized more efficiently than through separate investigations of many discrete units.

  18. Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation: Tooele Army Depot, Utah. Volume 2. South Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-29

    Classification) Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation, Toefle Army Depot., Utah; Volume ’fl-South Area Q2 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Andris Lapins CPG, Li 3a...Regulations CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act CES Civil Engineering Squadron CGW Chemistry Groundwater File CRL...area around s rEAD . 2-12 Low humidity is a characteristic of the valley climate and visibility is generally good. During winter months, however, storm

  19. STUDY REGARDING THE DESTABILIZATION OF STABLE EMULSIONS FROM SUPLAC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA VERONICA GHEŢIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions from the wells in the Suplac area create great difficulties in removing water due to their specifications. A complex study was conducted in order to eliminate water from emulsions using alkaline-surfactants. The choice of surfactant was made after the chromatographic SARA analysis of emulsions and the determination of their physical properties: density, viscosity, organic acidity. The samples were taken from two wells in the Suplac area. In the case of samples from A well the variation of density is 907 - 955 kg·m-3 for crude oil and 928 - 970 kg·m-3 for emulsion, while the rheological behavior of the emulsion varies between 0.680 to 0.995 Pa·s at a temperature of 25 °C and between 0.049 to 0.328 Pa·s at a temperature of 80 °C. For samples from B well the variation of density is 855 - 905 kg·m-3 for crude oil and 939 - 970 kg·m-3 for emulsion, while the rheological behavior of the emulsion varies between 0.149 to 0.797 Pa·s at a temperature of 25 °C and between 0.014 to 0.397 Pa·s at a temperature of 80 °C. The justification for choosing R - DP surfactant like reagent was based on laboratory tests which showed a maximum efficiency at 80 °C (95.69 for B and 98.75 % for A.

  20. The LACDA (Los Angeles County Drainage Area) System Recreation Study, Los Angeles County Drainage Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    In orderto facilitate a comparison of bicyclists. The two-mile distance reflects the same with the earlier projects, the cost figures and format ...Trails Los Cerritos Bicycle Trail Verdugo Wash (Upper End) Bicycle and Equestrian Trails 4 13 A.k, TABLE 4 1. COST ANALYSIS FORMAT AND UNIT COSTS Coa...areaes for west as Pierce College Big Dalton - from Barranca Ave. to Foothill Boulevard, providing &cc@= to South Hills Park in Glendora Coyote Creek

  1. Offshore wind; proposed study areas; Havvind; forslag til utredningsomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drivenes, Arvid; Eirum, Tale; Johnson, Nils Henrik; Mindeberg, Sigrun Kavli; Lunde, Synnoeve; Undem, Linn Silje; Veggeland, Kirsti; Veie-Rosvoll, Brit; Voksoe, Astrid

    2010-10-15

    The report suggests areas that may be suitable for establishing of offshore wind power, and should be further evaluated in a strategic environmental impact assessment, as it is designed to through Proposition. No. 107 (2008-2009). The proposed areas is shown in Figure 1 Eleven of the areas suitable for fixed installations and four sites suitable for floating installations. The work of the report has been carried out by a Directorate group led by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate. (AG)

  2. ANALYTICAL STUDY OF POPULATION STRUCTURE BY SAMPLING IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azordegan

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the care taken to ensure the quality of date collected by enumeration and sampling, the final tabulation will sometimes give obvious indication of errors in basic information. Evaluation of these errors furnishes those who use such a study and sampling. More general, the finding in these studies should be helpful to others that conduct surveys. In order to compare the age composition of the rural areas between two provinces of IRAN, i.e. AZARBAIJAN, and ISFAHAN, a sample of each has selected (8 and 23 counties respectively.The main idea was to evaluate the errors in age recording and the effect of digit preference on the age composition of the population. It became evident that, AZARBAIJAN has a smaller family size, lower median age, higher sex ratio and lower dependency ratio than ISFAHAN. More over, the age pyramid of ISFAHAN has a better shape and more regular than AZARBAIJAN and therefore the Myer’s Index which determines the degree of dispersion in age reporting is lower in ISFAHAN which may be the result of higher literacy in ISFAHAN. Generally men in both samples report their age more precisely than women.

  3. Duke Energy Photovoltaic Integration Study: Carolinas Service Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Meng, Da; Chassin, Forrest S.; Zhang, Yu; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Warwick, William M.; Fuller, Jason C.; Diao, Ruisheng; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-03-01

    Solar energy collected using photovoltaic (PV) technology is a clean and renewable energy source that offers multiple benefits to the electric utility industry and its customers, such as cost predictability, reduced emissions, and loss reduction by distributed installations. Renewable energy goals established in North Carolina Senate Bill 3 (SB3), in combination with the state tax credit and decreases in the cost of energy from PV panels, have resulted in rapid solar power penetration within the Carolinas services areas of Duke Energy. Continued decreases in PV prices are expected to lead to greater PV penetration rates than currently required in SB3. Despite the potential benefits, significant penetration of PV energy is of concern to the utility industry because of its impact on operating reliability and integration cost to customers, and equally important, how any additional costs may be allocated to different customer groups. Some of these impacts might become limiting factors for PV energy, especially growing distributed generation installed at customer sites. Recognizing the importance of renewable energy developments for a sustainable energy future and economic growth, Duke Energy has commissioned this study to simulate the effects of high-PV penetration rates and to initiate the process of quantifying the impacts. The objective of the study is to inform resource plans, guide operation improvements, and drive infrastructure investments for a steady and smooth transition to a new energy mix that provides optimal values to customers. The study team consists of experts from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Power Costs, Inc. (PCI), Clean Power Research (CPR), Alstom Grid, and Duke Energy. PNNL, PCI, and CPR performed the study on generation impacts; Duke Energy modeled the transmission cases; and distribution simulations were conducted by Alstom Grid. PNNL analyzed the results from each work stream and produced the report.

  4. No postnatal doubling of number of neurons in human Broca's areas (Brodmann areas 44 and 45)? A stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylings, H B M; Malofeeva, L I; Bogolepova, I N; Jacobsen, A M; Amunts, K; Zilles, K

    2005-01-01

    In this study we explored whether a postnatal doubling of the total number of neurons occurs in the human Brodmann areas 44 and 45 (Broca's area). We describe the most recent error prediction formulae and their application for the modern stereological estimators for volume and number of neurons. We estimated the number of neurons in 3D optical disector probes systematically random sampled throughout the entire Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45 in developing and young adult cases. In the relatively small number of male and female cases studied no substantial postnatal increase in total number of neurons occurred in areas 44 and 45; the volume of these areas reached adult values around 7 years. In addition, we did find indications that a shift from a right-over-left to a left-over-right asymmetry may occur in the volume of BA 45 during postnatal development. No major asymmetry in total number of neurons in BA 44 and 45 was detected.

  5. INL SITEWIDE INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS, AND OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PLAN FOR CERCLA RESPONSE ACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOLLEY, WENDELL L

    2008-02-05

    On November 9, 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality approved the 'Record of Decision Experimental Breeder Reactor-I/Boiling Water Reactor Experiment Area and Miscellaneous Sites', which required a Site-wide institutional controls plan for the then Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory). This document, first issued in June 2004, fulfilled that requirement. This revision identifies and consolidates the institutional controls and operations and maintenance requirements into a single document.

  6. Study on trace elements in gangue in Huainan mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, F.; Liu, Z.; Lin, B.; Li, W.; Lu, Z. [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2008-08-15

    46 samples were gathered from coal seams and rocks of various lithological types. In these samples, trace elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IAP-MS)and instrumental neutron activation analysis (IAA). Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (KVASS), F by ion-selective electrode (IS) and major elements by chemical methods. Eleven trace elements (Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn, Hg, Mn, As, Cr, Pb, Zn, F) were selected for study, and five of them, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn, Hg, were above the background soil level (B.L.) of Huainan City, China and world averages. Respectively: Cd is 40 and 7 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Cu is about 2 and 1.5 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Ni is 8 and 7 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Sn is 3 and 2 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; and Hg is 3,602 and 1,381 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world. Their hazards caused to the environment of the mining area are explored primarily. It is thought that their hazards may be cumulative. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. A dispersion study of CO2 in a closed area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Tomas; Frana, Karel

    2016-06-01

    Predictions of air pollution dispersion in an indoor environment are important outputs to control a fresh air ventilation or energy building efficiency. This study deals with numerical simulations of a formation and dispersion of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a closed area. Numerical simulations were carried out by the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach. A simple domain with one pollution source was used for a validation of the mathematical model, in which values of the CO2 concentration were calculated using CFD and measured. The CO2 was created as a combustion product of the ethanol. There were used two different methods for the calculation of the CO2 formation. The first method adopted the species transport model with reactions and the second method was the non-premix combustion model based on the mixture fraction theory. The third method used in numerical simulations was a constant mass flow inlet of CO2. All computational methods provided a sufficient agreement of the CO2 concentration with the experimental data.

  8. Regionalization in the Black Sea Area: a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rusu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The post-Cold War period in Europe was favourable for the development of new regionalization projects which surrounded the EU. The Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea became the centre of new European sub-regions. Each project stands out now through a certain image that it received mirroring its type and level of regionalization emerged at the junction of regional dynamics and external influences. While the Nordic region is addressed as a model of multi-level, locally driven cooperation, the Mediterranean region is embedded in the North- South developmental division approach with little cooperation and strong external influences. The Black Sea’s position is debated between the two models mentioned above. Thus, I propose a comparative analysis of these three cases aiming to trace down the similarities and differences between them with the focus on the Black Sea Region. The conclusion of the study places the Black Sea Region in between the cases with a genuine potential to follow the Nordic model but with its future evolution hanging on the EU’s policies toward the area.

  9. Electrical distribution studies for the 200 Area tank farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisler, J.B.

    1994-08-26

    This is an engineering study providing reliability numbers for various design configurations as well as computer analyses (Captor/Dapper) of the existing distribution system to the 480V side of the unit substations. The objective of the study was to assure the adequacy of the existing electrical system components from the connection at the high voltage supply point through the transformation and distribution equipment to the point where it is reduced to its useful voltage level. It also was to evaluate the reasonableness of proposed solutions of identified deficiencies and recommendations of possible alternate solutions. The electrical utilities are normally considered the most vital of the utility systems on a site because all other utility systems depend on electrical power. The system accepts electric power from the external sources, reduces it to a lower voltage, and distributes it to end-use points throughout the site. By classic definition, all utility systems extend to a point 5 feet from the facility perimeter. An exception is made to this definition for the electric utilities at this site. The electrical Utility System ends at the low voltage section of the unit substation, which reduces the voltage from 13.8 kV to 2,400, 480, 277/480 or 120/208 volts. These transformers are located at various distances from existing facilities. The adequacy of the distribution system which transports the power from the main substation to the individual area substations and other load centers is evaluated and factored into the impact of the future load forecast.

  10. [Graduate studies in history: trends and prospects for the area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fico, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Historian and coordinator of the history area in Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Capes), Carlos Fico discusses the criteria and challenges of evaluation faced by Fundação Capes and analyzes the panorama of the field. He criticizes academic productivism, deals with the distortions in the training of the historian, the dilemma with respect to the expected profile of the academic master and comments on the internationalization efforts of the subject. He advocates greater maturity of the area in terms of acknowledging and meeting social demands, as well as enhancing internal procedures in the area, such as peer review.

  11. Child Labor in Pakistan: A Study of the Lahore Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mian Aftab

    1991-01-01

    Child labor is exceptionally extensive in Pakistan. An interview survey in the Lahore area documented the magnitude, causes, and effects of child labor. Steps for fighting this problem are recommended. (BC)

  12. Child Labor in Pakistan: A Study of the Lahore Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mian Aftab

    1991-01-01

    Child labor is exceptionally extensive in Pakistan. An interview survey in the Lahore area documented the magnitude, causes, and effects of child labor. Steps for fighting this problem are recommended. (BC)

  13. Earthquake Monitoring and Study in the Jingpohu Volcano Cluster Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhi; Duan Yonghong; Xu Zhaofan; Yuan Qinxi; Yang Jian; Zhou Xuesong

    2008-01-01

    Seismicity in the Jingpohu volcanic area was investigated based on the seismic data recorded by the mobile seismic network consisting of 14 stations equipped with 24-bit broad-band 3- component seismographs around Crater Forest. Results show that there appears certain seismicity in Jingpohu and its adjacent areas with a low activity level and most of the recorded earthquakes are the volcanic-tectonic ones. The results of location indicate a dominant focal depth of 10km - 30km, most of the earthquakes are smaller than ML>2.0, and are concentrated in the area of "Crater Forest" and on the Dunhua-Mishan fault which runs through the volcanic area. At station No.2, which has better observation conditions, two types of events, likely associated to volcanism, were recorded; their waveform characteristics are somewhat similar to that of the long-period volcanic event and the volcanic tremor, but with different feature of frequencies.

  14. The Biglan Studies of Differences among Academic Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Roskens, Ronald W.

    1981-01-01

    The Biglan model and its tests are reviewed. While the model has attractive features and may even reinforce popular opinion about differences among departments or subject areas, further investigations are necessary before broad propositions or generalizations can be advanced. (MLW)

  15. Study of Preparation of Large Area Standard Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly widespread application of nuclear technology, many large area contamination detectors are used to measure the contaminated surface by α, β radionuclides in nuclear facilities and isotope production places. To solve the

  16. Identifying sensitive areas on intercultural contacts: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ramos-Vidal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the negative influence that cultural friction areas can promote on intercultural contacts. First, we expose the critical incident method like cross-cultural training model (Arthur, 2001. Then we show the negative effects that sensitive cultural zones can exert on the formation of prejudices and stereotypes about culturally diverse groups, analyzing 77 critical incidents collected in two different formative contexts. The main cultural shock areas detected are a intercultural communication barriers, b gender roles, and c the cultural expressions statement. Strategies to improve the method validity are proposed.

  17. Area Handbook Series: Soviet Union: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    radicals such as the incendiary anar- chist Mikhail Bakunin and his terrorist collaborator, Sergei Nechaev, urged direct action. The calmer Petr...581; Russian acquisition of, 29, Baykal-Amur Main Line (BAM), 124, 489, 157 539, 557-58, 721; area serviced by, 558; con- Bakunin , Mikhail, 40

  18. Study of space wireless local area network application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingjun

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes the standards about wireless local area network (WLAN), and discusses the applications in formatting satellite and the types of WLAN, and give one type of WLAN conception which is Bus/Token-Ring. Finally, it describes some key technologies of the space WLAN.

  19. Area Handbook Series. Uganda: A Country Study, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    climate provides plentiful sunshine , moder- ated by the relatively high altitude of most areas of the country. Mean annual temperatures range from...spring water they called "the water of Yakan." To those who drank it, they promised restored health, eternal life, and the return of the ancestors and

  20. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: CERCLA BDAT SARM PREPARATION AND RESULTS OF PHYSICAL SOILS WASHING EXPERIMENTS (FINAL REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the results of work preparing 30,000 Ibs of SARM or synthetic analytical reference matrix, a surrogate Superfund soil containing a vide range of contaminants. It also reports the results ©f bench scale treatability experiments designed to simulate the EP...

  1. Delineating Urban Fringe Area by Land Cover Information Entropy—An Empirical Study of Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has caused many environmental problems, such as the heat island effect, intensifying air pollution, pollution from runoff, loss of wildlife habitat, etc. Accurate evaluations of these problems demand an accurate delineation of the spatial extent of the urban fringe. Conceptual and analytical ambiguity of the urban fringe and a general lack of consensus among researchers have made its measurement very difficult. This study reports a compound and reliable method to delineate the urban fringe area using a case study. Based on the 'fringe effect' theory in landscape ecology, the existing land cover information entropy model for defining the urban fringe is renewed by incorporating scale theory, cartography and urban geography theory. Results show that the urban fringe area of Guangzhou and Foshan metropolitan area covers an area of 2031 km2, and it occupies over 31% of the total study area. Result evaluation by industry structure data shows satisfactory correspondence with different land cover types. This paper reports the method and outcome of an attempt to provide an objective, repeatable and generally applicable method for mapping its spatial extent from remote sensing imageries, and could be beneficial to relevant urban studies and urban fringe management projects.

  2. Hazardous Substance Release Reporting Under CERCLA, EPCR {section}304 and DOE Emergency Management System (EMS) and DOE Occurrence Reporting Requirements. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traceski, T.T.

    1994-06-01

    Releases of various substances from DOE facilities may be subject to reporting requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), as well as DOE`s internal ``Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information`` and the ``Emergency Management System`` (EMS). CERCLA and EPCPA are Federal laws that require immediate reporting of a release of a Hazardous Substance (HS) and an Extremely Hazardous Substance (EHS), respectively, in a Reportable Quantity (RQ) or more within a 24-hour period. This guidance uses a flowchart, supplemental information, and tables to provide an overview of the process to be followed, and more detailed explanations of the actions that must be performed, when chemical releases of HSs, EHSs, pollutants, or contaminants occur at DOE facilities. This guidance should be used in conjunction with, rather than in lieu of, applicable laws, regulations, and DOE Orders. Relevant laws, regulations, and DOE Orders are referenced throughout this guidance.

  3. European Geothermal Drilling Experience-Problem Areas and Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, G.; Ungemach, P.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal drilling has long been restricted in Western Europe to the sole dry steam field of Larderello in Italy. In the last few years, a wider experience is building up as a consequence of intensified exploration and development programs carried out for evaluation and production of both low- and high-enthalpy geothermal resources. A sample of some 40 boreholes indicates the problem areas which are given.

  4. Preliminary Study on Natural Radionuclide Concentration in Samosir Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlem Marpaung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of natural radionuclides concentration in Samosirarea of Sumatera island of Indonesia aims to obtain basis data of the content of radionuclides that could be tended in the development of the area. This research was conducted using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA, which consists of a sampling of soil of SamosirIsland as the residential area and the soil surrounding ofPangururan hot-spring as the recreational area which then samples and standards were prepared. Then irradiated with thermal neutron flux 3.51013 n.cm-2.s-1 for 1 hour in a nuclear reactor, and then counted using a gamma spectrometer by HPGe detector. The analysis showed that the soil of Samosir Island samples with concentrations of Uranium of (<0.67 ppm and Thorium of (18.00 ± 0.49 ppm and soil surroundingof hot-spring Pangururan detected and found Uranium of (16.83 ± 0. 83 ppm and Thorium of (6.49 ± 0.35 ppm.

  5. Novel foods: an explorative study into their grey area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Hans; te Boekhorst, Janneke; Kamps, Lisette; van Lieshout, Marten J; Ploeger, Hilko; Verreth, Daphne; Salminen, Seppo; van Loveren, Henk

    2009-05-01

    European Union Regulation 258/97 defines novel foods as food products and food ingredients that have not been consumed to a significant degree in the European Union before May 1997. However, there are new foods that for some reason are not considered as novel foods, though we think that safety of these products is not always a priori established. We defined a 'grey area' which consists of such foods, and the present paper intends to raise awareness of this 'grey area' of unidentified novel foods. The grey area of novel foods is divided into two categories: (1) food products or ingredients for which the current Regulation leaves too much space for different interpretations and (2) food products or ingredients that are not novel according to the current Regulation, because the current Regulation contains gaps. These categories are illustrated by means of products already on the market in The Netherlands. We found about two dozen examples of products that had not been identified as novel foods according the current Regulation, yet could be considered to be classified as novel foods and hence for which a safety evaluation (toxicological and/or nutritional) would be indicated.

  6. A STUDY OF LANGUAGE TEACHERS' QUALITIES IN RURAL AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangGuohua

    2004-01-01

    Language teachers are the main language input sources forthe students in rural areas. Whether they are well-qualified ornot matters a lot for English teaching. Besides discussing Englishteachers' qualities, the writer of this article generallyinvestigates English teachers' professional qualities in a ruralcounty through a questionnaire in which 20 questions on experts'advice were designed for the teachers. Altogether 65 Englishteachers, comprising 64% of the whole, distributed in varioustypes of schools took part. The final figures revealed problemssuch as narrow adoption of modern teaching media, thedominating grammar-translation method, the lack of necessay knowledge of English culture and linguistic theory, etc.

  7. Recent Progress of RF Cavity Study at Mucool Test Area

    CERN Document Server

    Yonehara, Katsuya

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop an RF cavity that is applicable for a muon beam cooling channel, a new facility, called Mucool Test Area (MTA) has been built at Fermilab. MTA is a unique facility whose purpose is to test RF cavities in various conditions. There are 201 and 805 MHz high power sources, a 4-Tesla solenoid magnet, a cryogenic system including a Helium liquifier, an explosion proof apparatus to operate gaseous/liquid Hydrogen, and a beam transport line to send an intense H- beam from the Fermilab Linac accelerator to the MTA hall. Recent activities at MTA will be discussed in this document.

  8. Urbanisation of rural areas: A case study from Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Fabricius; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The growth of urban areas is one of the most important characteristics of spatial development in Europe during the past decades and is traditionally described with a few indicators on a relatively coarse spatial scale. However, urbanisation is not only a matter of land use change, but also socio-economic......, Denmark using socio-economic data from the entire rural population aggregated at parish level to investigate if this method may contribute to existing classifications. Through multivariate analysis and GIS analysis, five types of urbanization were identified and their spatial distribution analysed...

  9. Urbanisation of rural areas: A case study from Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Fabricius; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Fertner, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    The growth of urban areas is one of the most important characteristics of spatial development in Europe during the past decades and is traditionally described with a few indicators on a relatively coarse spatial scale. However, urbanisation is not only a matter of land use change, but also socio-economic......, Denmark using socio-economic data from the entire rural population aggregated at parish level to investigate if this method may contribute to existing classifications. Through multivariate analysis and GIS analysis, five types of urbanization were identified and their spatial distribution analysed...

  10. Salt Creek : A wilderness study area on the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  11. Sustainable development of rural areas: Case studies Vojvodina - Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forcan Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important strategic aims of Serbian economic development is supporting of the villages sustainable development through rural economy diversification where rural tourism development has an important place. In spite of this model of tourism importance recognition as a possible way of rural areas development, Serbia is in an opening phase of. Although there are several positive examples, it is significant that recent projects haven't been established according to national and European development programs, but according to private initiatives of individuals and groups. Rural tourism is an important component of integrated and sustainable development and revitalization of villages, as well an an important factor in encouraging the development of local agricultural and non-farmer activities in rural areas and villages, and also a special incentive to employment. This work highlights the importance of rural tourism in the function of the revitalization of the village, focusing on the challenges of the environment and the possible directions of development in the context of creating a recognizable tourist product and brand of rural tourism in Vojvodina.

  12. IMAGERY: A CASE STUDY IN KAYANGAN CATCHMENT AREA, YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Fitria Putri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential synthetic aperture radar in terferometry (DInSAR technique is applied to the ALOS PALSAR data to observe su rface displacement in Kayangan catchment area, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Change detecti on is implemented to extract information on several landslides that occurred in the region in a time span between 2007 and 2009. The advanced DInSAR processing of im ages (2007–2009 has shown slight surface movements before the landslide events. These results are compared and validated with available GPS measurements. Our analysis reveals that Kayangan catchment area exhibits clear indication of surface displacements varying from 5.2 to 57.9 cm/year. The occurence of landslides has been analy zed in relation to the following terrain parameters; elevation, slope, distance to stream network, geology, landuse, and distance from road. Among these factors, it is found that 18% of landslides occur in elevation >100 m, 56% in slope 30–40°, 34% in <25 m distance to stream networks, 100% in kebobutak formation, 67% in mix garden of land use types, and 100% in <25 m distance from road. The landuse is the most in fluential factor, since there are only four types of landuse that can lead to lands lide occurrence, i.e., mixed garden, dryland agriculture, bush, and settlement. The analys is of land deformation is promising for assessing acceleration caused by a destabilizing anthropogenic change, and relationship between seasonal precipitation a nd deformation variability.

  13. A study of sinkhole hazard at area of locked colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotyrba, A. [Central Mining Institute, Gwarkow (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    Transformations of polish industry began the process of mine closures. Among various mines being in process of abandoning, there are a large number of collieries, which exploited coal since 17. century. The depth of mining openings ranged from some to hundreds meters. The height of primary mining openings ranged from 1 to 9 m. Mining operations have left in geological basement large number of cavities, which still create a hazard to the surface stability. Post mining deformations of the surface can take continuous and discontinuous forms. The last ones are the topic of paper. Although those deformations can take various forms, they are commonly called as sinkholes. In paper, the sinkholes hazard has been analyzed in a scale of selected one mine area, in regard to various parameters. The selected 'Siemianowice' mine is located in northern part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. A database containing full set of sinkholes, recorded within area of mine in a period of 50 years, has been tested in geomechanical and statistical approaches. (author)

  14. Regional carrying capacity: case studies of Bohai Rim area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Carrying capacity research has been carried out for a long time. However, synthesized carrying capacity researches based on systematic views began only in the 1970s. There is even less work done in China. This paper tries to address both synthesized carrying capacity research and its utilization in China. State spaces method from the systematic science was borrowed to construct the conceptual model of regional carrying capacity. Based on the conceptual model and the surveys in the Bohai Rim area, we construct a representative indicators system for quantifying regional carrying capacity in the Bohai Rim. While employing system dynamic models we simulated the evolving trend of both the regional carrying states and regional carrying capacity from 1999 to 2015. The results proved the statement that Bohai Rim is overall over-capacity for a long time and will be over-capacity in the foreseeable future. Among all the restriction factors, water shortage and environmental pollution stand out to be the two primary obstacles for Bohai Rim's sustainable development.Regional differentiation analysis further indicates that coastal areas of the Bohai Rim burden more than its overall level. However, Shandong province shows some good signs in addressing the regional carrying capacity issues. The research is successful in addressing the quantification of regional carrying capacity issues, but nonetheless it needs further refinery and more information.

  15. Study on Planning Standards for Urban Renewal Areas in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper starts from the origin and evolution of city planning standards of Shenzhen before analyzing the new demands for the standards by the development of city renewal amid city transition,and establishes a primary framework for the planning standards and requirements.In addition,on the basis of comparing with the formulation of planning standards of Hong Kong,Shanghai,and Changsha,the paper carries out a discussion on the formulation ideas and main contents of the planning standards for the urban renewal areas in Shenzhen.Moreover,the paper also analyzes the standards for renewal objects,scope,mode,functions guidance,development control,and public facilities,all of which are quite heated issues and key elements in the process of formulation and approval of renewal planning,in order to improve the institutional structure of the City Planning Standards and Requirements of Shenzhen and meet the government’s demand in realizing a refined management.

  16. Sea ice studies in the Spitsbergen-Greenland area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinje, T. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Detailed information on the outflow through the Fram Strait of ice from the Polar Ocean over shorter periods was obtained. It is found that the speed of the outflow may vary about 100% over periods of a few days. The core of the East Greenland Current is found between 2 deg E and 4 deg W. The speed of the surface water at 81 deg N is for a calm period estimated to be about 10 cm/s. A new surging glacier was discovered and new fronts of several glaciers were determined. The variation of the snow line with respect to distance from the coast was for the first time determined for the southern part of Spitsbergen. Great variations were observed, from 200 m in east to 550 m in the central area of the island.

  17. Development of a smart flood warning system in urban areas: A case study of Huwei area in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Chi; Hsu, Hao-Ming; Kao, Hong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we developed a smart flood warning system to clearly understand flood propagations in urban areas. The science and technology park of Huwei, located in the southwest of Taiwan, was selected as a study area. It was designated to be an important urban area of optoelectronics and biotechnology. The region has an area about 1 km2 with approximately 1 km in both length and width. The discrepancy between the highest and lowest elevations is 6.3 m and its elevation decreases along the northeast to the southwest. It is an isolated urban drainage area due to its urban construction plan. The storm sewer system in this region includes three major networks that collect the runoff and drain to the detention pond where is located in the southwest corner of the region. The proposed smart flood warning system combines three important parts, i.e. the physical world, the cyber-physical interface, and the cyber space, to identify how the flood affects urban areas from now until the next three hours. In the physical world, when a rainfall event occurs, monitoring sensors (e.g. rainfall gauges and water level gauges built in the sewer system and ground surface), which are established in several essential locations of the study area, collect in situ hydrological data and then these data being transported to the cyber-physical interface. The cyber-physical interface is a data preprocess space that includes data analysis, quality control and assurance, and data integration and standardization to produce the validated data. In the cyber space, it has missions to receive the validated data from the cyber-physical interface and to run the time machine that has flood analyses of data mining, inundation scenarios simulation, risk and economic assessments, and so on, based on the validated data. After running the time machine, it offers the analyzed results related to flooding planning, mitigation, response, and recovery. According to the analyzed results, the decision supporting

  18. Thermal Water's Isotope Geochemistry Study of Evros Area, NE Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elissavet, Dotsika; Paraskevi, Chantzi

    2016-10-01

    Thermal waters from Evros area were collected and subjected to chemical and isotopic analysis in order to understand all the physicochemical mechanisms (mixing, dilution, precipitating) that contribute to the shallow and deep geothermal water tables and determine the origin of these fluids as well as their mineralization. Physicochemical characteristics EC, T°C, pH was determined at the field. The ionic concentrations of samples indicate solutions with high salinity. Two chemical water types were arisen: Na-SO4 concerning low temperatures and shallow aquifers and Na- Cl concerning high temperatures and deeper geothermal circulation. The ratio Br/Cl definitely considered marine origin indicator is the same as the sea confirming the involvement of the seawater in the geothermal system. The marine component and water-rock interaction process under high temperatures seem to contribute to the mineralization of thermal waters. Moreover, water-rock interaction process is also responsible for the alternation of δ18O values. Geothermometers concluded to a middle enthalpy geothermal field.

  19. COASTAL STUDY, COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  20. Research trends in nanotechnology studies across geo-economic areas

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current temporal and spatial research trajectories in nanoscience and nanotechnology studies in order to display the worldwide patterns of research fields across main economic players. The results show the leadership of Europe and North America in nanotechnology research, although the role of China has been growing over time. Current nanotechnology studies have been growing in chemistry and medicine because of applications of nanomaterials mainly in...

  1. Supporting Cells-a New Area in Cochlear Physiology Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li-dong; LIU Jun; HU Yin-yan; SUN Jian-he; YANG Shi-ming

    2008-01-01

    For many years, studies about the cochlea have been mainly focused on sensory cells, i.e. the inner hair cell (IHC) and outer hair cell (OHC), and the neuron system. Supporting cells, such as Hensen's cells and Deiters' cells are less studied. Their physiological functions and other characteris-tics are not well documented. Nowadays, supporting cells are a new world attracting to scientists" inter-ests. The scope of this review is to detail the biological properties of the supporting cells, mainly Hensen's cells and Deiters' cells in the cochlea. Studies on this subject will be helpful in understanding physiology of the cochlea, and hopefully provide new approaches in treating diseases of inner ear.

  2. Optimizing malarial epidemiological studies in areas of low transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Alifrangis, Michael; van der Hoek, Wim;

    2005-01-01

    Malaria risk factor studies have traditionally used microscopy readings of blood slides as the measure of malaria infection in humans, although alternatives are available. There is the need for an assessment of how the use of these alternative diagnostic approaches will influence the efficiency a...

  3. Retrospective study of chikungunya outbreak in urban areas of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, B.N.; Saxena, Rekha; Srivastava, Aruna; Singh, Neeru; Ghosh, S.K.; Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Hemant; Sharma, Alok Suman; Chand, S.K.; Ojha, V.P.; Mohanty, S.S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Dasgupta, R.K.; Dhillon, G.P.S.; Dash, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: A retrospective study on chikungunya outbreak in India in five States viz. Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra and Kerala was conducted in 2007-2008 to know the distribution and determinants of chikungunya fever outbreak in India. Methods: On the basis of high and low incidence of chikungunya fever, two districts from each State and two wards from the selected district were taken for random selection of 1000 households from 10 districts and 5 States. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to individuals, patients, qualified health professionals and to stakeholders for collecting information. Results: The educational background and occupation of the respondents showed variations across the study States. Only in high incidence ward of Maharashtra, water storage period for 3-6 days and emptying, drying of water containers on weekly basis was noted. The study through knowledge, attitude, belief, practice (KABP) obtained individual's perception of chikungunya fever, its prevention and control. Patients’ expenditure on treatment was mainly recorded less than Rs 500 across study States. Health facility survey obtained an overview of the capacity of local health facilities. Stakeholders’ perception regarding chikungunya fever was also noted. Interpretation & Conclusions: The study revealed differences in awareness of chikungunya, cause of the disease, vector responsible, mode of transmission, biting time and elimination of breeding of mosquitoes statistically significant among high and low incidence wards of all the States. Expenditure on treatment was independent of economically active status and loss of man-days across all the States. Education and occupation did not have any relation with emptying/drying of water containers in high incidence wards. Strengthening of surveillance, information, education and communication (IEC) activities along with case management facilities may be provided by the State health department for

  4. Cogeneration feasibility study in the Gulf States Utilities service area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Sites in the Gulf States Utilities service are considered for cogeneration feasibility studies. The sources of steam considered for the Orange, Texas and Geismar, Lake Charles, and North Baton Rouge, Louisiana sites include oil, coal, HTGR steamers, consolidated nuclear steam system, atmospheric fluidized-bed coal combustion, and coal gasification. Concepts concerning cogeneration fuel systems were categorized by technical applicability as: current technology (pulverized coal-fired boilers and fuel oil-fired boilers), advanced technology under development (HTGR steamers and the CNSS), and advanced technology for future development (atmospheric fluidized-bed boilers and coal gasification). In addition to providing data on cogeneration plant generally useful in the US, the study determined the technical and economic feasibility of steam and electric power cogeneration using coal and nuclear fuels for localized industrial complexes. Details on site selection, plant descriptions, cost estimates, economic analysis, and plant schedule and implementation. (MCW)

  5. 100 Area groundwater biodenitrification bench-scale treatability study procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, B.M.; Martin, K.R.

    1993-05-01

    This document describes the methodologies and procedures for conducting the bench-scale biodenitrification treatability tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory{sup a} (PNL). Biodenitrification is the biological conversion of nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen. The tests will use statistically designed batch studies to determine if biodenitrification can reduce residual nitrate concentrations to 45 mg/L, the current maximum contaminant level (MCL). These tests will be carried out in anaerobic flasks with a carbon source added to demonstrate nitrate removal. At the pilot scale, an incremental amount of additional carbon will be required to remove the small amount of oxygen present in the incoming groundwater. These tests will be conducted under the guidance of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-92-73) and the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE/RL-92-48) using groundwater from 100-HR-3. In addition to the procedures, requirements for safety, quality assurance, reporting, and schedule are given. Appendices include analytical procedures, a Quality Assurance Project Plan, a Health and Safety Plan, and Applicable Material Data Safety Sheets. The procedures contained herein are designed specifically for the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan, and while the author believes that the methods described herein are scientifically valid, the procedures should not be construed or mistaken to be generally applicable to any other treatability study.

  6. 100 Area groundwater biodenitrification bench-scale treatability study procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, B.M.; Martin, K.R.

    1993-05-01

    This document describes the methodologies and procedures for conducting the bench-scale biodenitrification treatability tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory{sup a} (PNL). Biodenitrification is the biological conversion of nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen. The tests will use statistically designed batch studies to determine if biodenitrification can reduce residual nitrate concentrations to 45 mg/L, the current maximum contaminant level (MCL). These tests will be carried out in anaerobic flasks with a carbon source added to demonstrate nitrate removal. At the pilot scale, an incremental amount of additional carbon will be required to remove the small amount of oxygen present in the incoming groundwater. These tests will be conducted under the guidance of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-92-73) and the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE/RL-92-48) using groundwater from 100-HR-3. In addition to the procedures, requirements for safety, quality assurance, reporting, and schedule are given. Appendices include analytical procedures, a Quality Assurance Project Plan, a Health and Safety Plan, and Applicable Material Data Safety Sheets. The procedures contained herein are designed specifically for the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan, and while the author believes that the methods described herein are scientifically valid, the procedures should not be construed or mistaken to be generally applicable to any other treatability study.

  7. The nutritional composition of British bread: London area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivell, L M; Wenlock, R W

    1983-12-01

    Samples of white and brown bread, both sliced and unsliced, and of wheatgerm breads and wholemeal bread were purchased in London and analysed for a wide range of nutrients. Available carbohydrate, dietary fibre, fatty acids, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and iodine were determined in bulked samples of each type of bread and, in addition, every loaf was analysed for moisture, fat, protein, phosphorus, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, thiamin, nicotinic acid, and free and total folic acid, in order to provide an estimate the variability within each kind of bread. Virtually all the constituents that were measured in the individual loaves showed inter-loaf variation--particularly moisture contents and the levels of calcium, copper and folic acid. Unsliced loaves were more variable than sliced loaves but when expressed on a dry matter basis there were no significant differences in the nutrient levels in sliced and unsliced breads. Wheatgerm breads were relatively more homogenous products but wholemeal loaves were very unhomogenous reflecting the difficulty of accurately identifying unwrapped wholemeal loaves in retail outlets. Some differences from previously published values for all breads were found for dietary fibre, iron, thiamin and vitamin B6. Experience of sampling at retail outlets and analysis provided by this study will be integrated into the design of a planned study of breads throughout Britain.

  8. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  9. An experimental study of starting plumes over area sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M.J.; Haertel, C.; Fannelop, T.K. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics

    1999-12-01

    Experiments have been performed to study the dynamics of plumes which develop, if buoyant fluid enters a homogeneous, unstratified environment through a source of finite width. The experiments were conducted in a cubic tank of salt water with 0.8 m side length into which dyes fresh water was released at a constant volume-flow rate through a circular felt at the bottom. The governing non-dimensional parameter of the flow, namely the ratio of inflow velocity to buoyancy velocity, was varied over more than two orders of magnitude in the experiments. The flow is shown to pass through two distinct phases, and a new integral model is presented which describes the flow in the early stage. For later times and at larger distances from the source, the flow is found to be well described by Turner's model for starting plumes from point sources.

  10. Consumer nueroscience: a new area of study for biomedical engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    In scientific literature, the most accepted definition of consumer neuroscience or neuromarketing is that it is a field of study concerning the application of neuroscience methods to analyze and understand human behavior related to markets and marketing exchanges. First, it might seem strange that marketers would be interested in using neuroscience to understand consumer's preferences. Yet in practice, the basic goal of marketers is to guide the design and presentation of products in such a way that they are highly compatible with consumer preferences. To understand consumers preferences, several standard research tools are commonly used by marketers, such as personal interviews with the consumers, scoring questionnaries gathered from consumers, and focus groups. The reason marketing researchers are interested in using brain imaging tools instead of simply asking people for their preferences in front of marketing stimuli, arises from the assumption that people cannot (or do not want to) fully explain their preference when explicitly asked. Researchers in the field hypothesize that neuroimaging tools can access information within the consumer's brain during the generation of a preference or the observation of a commercial advertisement. The question of will this information be useful in further promoting the product is still up for debate in marketing literature. From the marketing researchers point of view, there is a hope that this body of brain imaging techniques will provide an efficient tradeoff between costs and benefits of the research. Currently, neuroscience methodology includes powerful brain imaging tools based on the gathering of hemodynamic or electromagnetic signals related to the human brain activity during the performance of a relevant task for marketing objectives. These tools are briefly reviewed in this article.

  11. Dose per unit area - a study of elicitation of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Arup; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-01-01

    with a patch test and a repeated open application test (ROAT). Nickel was applied on small and large areas. The varying parameters were area, total dose and dose per unit area. RESULTS: In the patch test, at a low concentration [15 microg nickel (microg Ni)/cm(2)], there were significantly higher scores...... concentrations, even though the same dose per unit area is applied.......BACKGROUND: Experimental sensitization depends upon the amount of allergen per unit skin area and is largely independent of the area size. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at testing if this also applies for elicitation of nickel allergy. PATIENTS/METHODS: 20 nickel allergic individuals were tested...

  12. Residents’ Attitudes towards Tourism Development in Different Nongjiale Areas--the Cases Study of Pixian Youai Village, Hangzhou Meijiawu Area and Shanxi Qiachuan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shuo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to examine attitudes of residents of three Nongjiale areas from different levels towards tourism development. Through doing this project, the researcher can explore the relationship between resident attitudes toward tourism and the development of the Nongjiale Tourism. This project helps Nongjiale tourism industry to find out the factors afecting the residents’ attitude and thus affecting the Nongjiale tourism of local district. Throughout the comparison of Nongjiale Districts in the high, medium, low popular levels, the study helps the medium and low popular districts learn from the high popular one by analyzing the pushing factors and learn the actions the high popular one take to influence these factors.

  13. [Contribution to the anatomical and surgical study of the infra orbital area. Clinical applications to the tear trough area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, Y; Polselli, R

    2010-01-01

    To define the anatomy of the infra orbital area and assess the possible connections with the facial morphotypes identifying the tears trough. To deduce therapeutic proposition concerning the management of this area in aesthetic medicine or surgery. Anatomic dissections of 10 fresh specimens not frozen and not formalin. Dissection layer by layer from skin to bones paying special attention to the infra orbital superficial muscles and the distribution of subcutaneous fat. In this study, it was precised the existence of zygomaticus superficialis and levator genae muscles whose variations in the connections with the orbicularis oculi muscle is probably the origin of the diversity of human facial expression. On the other hand, the tear trough seems to depend on different distributions of the anatomical complex formed by these muscles with the subcutaneous fat and skin that covers it. An anatomical classification into three muscle types has been proposed. The main variations between individual facial expression are related to a different muscular anatomy from one subject to another. The myological classical anatomic description, too stereotyped, can not explain those differences. The classification proposed by the authors can differentiate the facial morphotypes in the infra orbital area and offer therapeutic solutions.

  14. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  15. Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanisich, S.N.

    1994-12-01

    This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP.

  16. Study renewable energy - sugarcane ethanol. Traditional areas. Final report; Estudo energias renovaveis - etanol de cana. Areas tradicionais. Relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report presents the mapping of areas with potential for ethanol production in traditional areas of the Brazil. In the traditional areas, with clear emphasis in the Northeast region of Brazil, was selected ten areas in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceara. In the Southeast region two areas, between the Norte Fluminense, Southern of the Espirito Santo and eastern of the Minas Gerais.

  17. TRACY ARM-FORDS TERROR WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND VICINITY, ALASKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, David A.; Kimball, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Tracy Arm-Fords Terror Wilderness study area lies on the southwest flank of the Coast Range about 45 mi southeast of Juneau, Alaska. A mineral-resource survey of the area identified two areas with substantiated mineral-resource potential: the Sumdum Glacier mineral belt with gold, copper, and zinc potential; and the Endicott Peninsula area with zinc, silver, and gold potential. The Sumdum Glacier belt is estimated to contain between 3 and 15 mineral deposits and there are 5 known mining areas in the Endicott Peninsula. Further work, particularly in the southern part of the belt, would be of significant help in refining the evaluation of that area. Relatively little activity has occurred in the Endicott Peninsula area; intense geochemical and geophysical work would remove many of the present uncertainties and probably would refine the present limit of the favorable areas. 2 refs.

  18. Movement patterns and study area boundaries: Influences on survival estimation in capture-mark-recapture studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, G.E.; Letcher, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The inability to account for the availability of individuals in the study area during capture-mark-recapture (CMR) studies and the resultant confounding of parameter estimates can make correct interpretation of CMR model parameter estimates difficult. Although important advances based on the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model have resulted in estimators of true survival that work by unconfounding either death or recapture probability from availability for capture in the study area, these methods rely on the researcher's ability to select a method that is correctly matched to emigration patterns in the population. If incorrect assumptions regarding site fidelity (non-movement) are made, it may be difficult or impossible as well as costly to change the study design once the incorrect assumption is discovered. Subtleties in characteristics of movement (e.g. life history-dependent emigration, nomads vs territory holders) can lead to mixtures in the probability of being available for capture among members of the same population. The result of these mixtures may be only a partial unconfounding of emigration from other CMR model parameters. Biologically-based differences in individual movement can combine with constraints on study design to further complicate the problem. Because of the intricacies of movement and its interaction with other parameters in CMR models, quantification of and solutions to these problems are needed. Based on our work with stream-dwelling populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, we used a simulation approach to evaluate existing CMR models under various mixtures of movement probabilities. The Barker joint data model provided unbiased estimates of true survival under all conditions tested. The CJS and robust design models provided similarly unbiased estimates of true survival but only when emigration information could be incorporated directly into individual encounter histories. For the robust design model, Markovian emigration (future

  19. FEASIBILITY STUDY REPORT FOR THE 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-07-18

    The Hanford Site, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), encompasses approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. In 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas of the Hanford Site on the 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300, 'National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan' National Contingency Plan [NCPD], Appendix B, 'National Priorities List' (NPL), pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 200 Areas NPL sites consist of the 200 West and 200 East Areas (Figure 1-1). The 200 Areas contain waste management facilities, inactive irradiated fuel reprocessing facilities, and the 200 North Area (formerly used for interim storage and staging of irradiated fuel). Several waste sites in the 600 Area, located near the 200 Areas, also are included in the 200 Areas NPL site. The 200 Areas NPL site is in a region referred to as the 'Central Plateau' and consists of approximately 700 waste sites, excluding sites assigned to the tank farm waste management areas (WMAs). The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) consists of the groundwater located under the northern portion of the 200 West Area. Waste sources that contributed to the 200-ZP-1 OU included cribs and trenches that received liquid and/or solid waste in the past from the Z Plant and T Plant aggregate areas, WMA-T, WMA-TX/TY, and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). This feasibility study (FS) for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater OU was prepared in accordance with the requirements of CERCLA decision documents. These decision documents are part of the Administrative Record for the selection of remedial actions for each waste site and present the selected remedial actions that are chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986

  20. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness Study Area, south-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce R.; Lindsey, David A.; Bruce, R.M.; Soulliere, Sandra J.

    1987-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine the mineral values, if any, that may be present. Results must be made available to the public and to be submitted to the President and Congress. This report presents the results of geologic studies in the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness Study Area in the Rio Grande and San Isabel National Forests, south-central Colorado. The area was designated as a wilderness study area under Public Lay 96-560 in 1980. 

  1. Temporal summation in muscles and referred pain areas: an experimental human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt-Nielsen, L; Graven-Nielsen, T; Svensson, P; Jensen, T S

    1997-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess temporal summation within saline-induced, localized and referred muscle pain areas. The sensibility to single and repeated electrical stimuli were assessed in the muscle by means of needle electrodes and in the referred pain area by surface stimulation. The study demonstrates that temporal summation of nociceptive input from muscles exists and that the responses to single and repeated nociceptive stimuli of the referred pain area are facilitated.

  2. The Land Use Change in the Scenic Area: A Case Study of Huangguoshu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaozhu; CHEN

    2015-01-01

    Based on information entropy theory and ecological footprint theory,we analyze the changes in land use and land ecological carrying capacity in Huangguoshu scenic area during 2009- 2012. The results show that the area of arable land and construction land was relatively increased while the area of grassland and woodland was relatively reduced in Huangguoshu scenic area during 2009- 2012,and the information entropy showed a wavy change. It indicates that the land use in the study area poses increasing pressure on the ecological environment,and there is a need to strengthen ecological protection and achieve the coordinated development of land use and ecological environment construction.

  3. Study on Eco-climate Type Regionalization of Wheat Growing Areas in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxin; LU; Limin; CAO; Zhongping; ZHANG; Hongbo; LI

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide an objective and scientific theoretical basis for rational distribution of wheat growth in Yunnan Province,according to the relationship between Yunnan weather conditions and wheat growth adaptability,a study on eco-climate type regionalization of wheat growing areas in Yunnan was conducted using principal component analysis and GIS technology. The results show that Yunnan Province could be divided into four types,namely southern warm and humid wheat growing area,central semi-arid wheat growing area,central semi-humid wheat growing area and north-central cold wheat growing area.

  4. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-BC-2 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This work plan and attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-BC-2 operable unit in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The 100 Area is one of four areas at the Hanford Site that are on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) National Priorities List under CERCLA. The 100-BC-2 operable unit is one of two source operable units in the 100-B/C Area (Figure ES-1). Source operable units are those that contain facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination. The 100-BC-2 source operable unit contains waste sites that were formerly in the 100-BC-2, 100-BC-3, and 100-BC-4 operable units. Because of their size and geographic location, the waste sites from these two operable units were added to 100-BC-2. This allows for a more efficient and effective investigation of the remaining 100-B/C Reactor area waste sites. The investigative approach to waste sites associated with the 100-BC-2 operable unit are listed in Table ES-1. The waste sites fall into three general categories: high priority liquid waste disposal sites, low priority liquid waste disposal sites, and solid waste burial grounds. Several sites have been identified as candidates for conducting an IRM. Two sites have been identified as warranting additional limited field sampling. The two sites are the 116-C-2A pluto crib, and the 116-C-2C sand filter.

  5. 47 CFR 54.805 - Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zone and study area above benchmark revenues... Mechanism § 54.805 Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator. (a) The following steps shall be performed by the Administrator to determine Zone Above Benchmark Revenues for...

  6. [The bare area of the proximal ulna : An anatomical study on optimizing olecranon osteotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, M; Lappen, S; Neiss, W F; Scaal, M; Müller, L P; Wegmann, K

    2016-10-01

    Olecranon osteotomy is an established approach for the treatment of distal humerus fractures. It should be performed through the bare area of the proximal ulna to avoid iatrogenic cartilage lesions. The goal of this study was to analyze the anatomy of the proximal ulna with regard to the bare area and, thereby, to optimize the hitting area of the bare area when performing olecranon osteotomy. The bare areas of 30 embalmed forearm specimens were marked with a radiopaque wire and visualized three-dimensionally with a mobile C‑arm. By means of 3D reconstructions of the data sets, the following measurements were obtained: height of the bare area; span of the bare area-hitting area in transverse osteotomy; ideal angle for olecranon osteotomy to maximize the hitting area of the bare area; distance of the posterior olecranon tip to the entry point of the transverse osteotomy and the ideal osteotomy. The height of the bare area was 4.92 ± 0.81 mm. The hitting area of the transverse osteotomy averaged 3.73 ± 0.89 mm. The "ideal" angle for olecranon osteotomy was 30.7° ± 4.19°. The distance of the posterior olecranon tip to the entry point was 14.08 ± 2.75 mm for the transverse osteotomy and 24.21 ± 3.15 mm for the ideal osteotomy. The hitting area of the bare area in the ideal osteotomy was enhanced significantly when compared to the transverse osteotomy (p osteotomy of the olecranon. Moreover, a 30° angulation of the osteotomy can significantly increase the hitting area of the bare area.

  7. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  8. A multilevel study of area socio-economic status and food purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Gavin; Bentley, Rebecca; Thomas, Lyndal R; Jolley, Damien; Subramanian, Sv; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined the association between area socio-economic status (SES) and food purchasing behaviour. Data were collected by mail survey (64.2 % response rate). Area SES was indicated by the proportion of households in each area earning less than $AUS 400 per week, and individual-level socio-economic position was measured using education, occupation and household income. Food purchasing was measured on the basis of compliance with dietary guideline recommendations (for grocery foods) and variety of fruit and vegetable purchase. Multilevel regression analysis examined the association between area SES and food purchase after adjustment for individual-level demographic (age, sex, household composition) and socio-economic factors. Melbourne city, Australia, 2003. Residents of 2564 households located in fifty small areas. Residents of low-SES areas were significantly less likely than their counterparts in advantaged areas to purchase grocery foods that were high in fibre and low in fat, salt and sugar; and they purchased a smaller variety of fruits. There was no evidence of an association between area SES and vegetable variety. In Melbourne, area SES was associated with some food purchasing behaviours independent of individual-level factors, suggesting that areas in this city may be differentiated on the basis of food availability, accessibility and affordability, making the purchase of some types of foods more difficult in disadvantaged areas.

  9. Mineral resource potential map of the Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Leszcykowski, Andrew M.; Esparza, Leon E.; Rumsey, Clayton M.

    1982-01-01

    The Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area (WSA 050-0229), Clark County, Nevada, has a high potential for mineral deposits of calcium borates and lithium. The known and potential mineral deposits are concentrated in the east-central and south-central parts of the study area (see map). Zeolites (in particular clinoptilolite) are present in some tuff beds throughout much of the study area, and this resource potential is probably moderate to high. Stream-sediment sampling suggests that the Muddy Mountains area has little potential for mineral deposits of metals (other than lithium). Clay minerals are mined at one locality in the (!rea (see map). Building stone and silica sand have moderate to low potential in some places. Oil and gas potential within the study area is low, but complete evaluation of its potential is not possible without drilling.

  10. A study about the prevalence and the related factors of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver comparing the urban area to tbe industrial area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyo Eun; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu. Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    As the tertiary industry is being developed, many problems are introduced in an industrial area in Korea. This study aims to investigate the residents' health conditions, such as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography, comparing the urban with the industrial areas. The subjects were 378 adults in the urban area and 376 adults in the industrial area. Subject variables accounted for were gender, age, drinking habits, smoking habits, physical activities, waist circumferences and BMI. In blood tests, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, HDL, blood pressures, total cholesterol, AST, ALT and GGT were examined. Also, the presence and absence of fatty liver, diagnosed using ultrasonography, was investigated. As a result, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome were 43.7% in the urban area and 51.6% in the industrial area, hence it was significantly higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and waist circumference in the distribution of the individual components were 47.4, 53.7, and 16.1% in the urban area and 54.5, 61.5, and 22.9% in the industrial area respectively, so it was substantially higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. On the other hand, HDL, diastolic blood pressure, and fatty liver were 25.7, 43.4, and 44.7% in the urban area and 21.3, 19.9, and 36.7% in the industrial area respectively and thus it was much higher in the urban area than in the industrial area. In conclusion, this study shows that there were significant differences between the residents' health condition, comparing the urban area to the industrial area. Therefore, the precaution and aggressive management of metabolic syndrome may be necessary, in accordance with the characteristics of the industrial zone.

  11. Mineral Resources of the Antelope Wilderness Study Area, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardyman, Richard F.; Poole, Forrest G.; Kleinhampl, Frank J.; Turner, Robert L.; Plouff, Donald; Duval, Joe S.; Johnson, Fredrick L.; Benjamin, David A.

    1987-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of land Management, 83,100 acres of the Antelope Wilderness Study Area (NV-4)60-231/241) was studied. In this report the studied area is called the 'wilderness study area', or simply the 'study area.' No identified mineral or energy resources occur within the study area. The southern part of the area has moderate mineral resource potential for undiscovered gold and silver, and the Woodruff Formation in the southern part of the area has high resource potential for undiscovered vanadium, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, and silver (fig. 1). This assessment is based on field geochemical studies in 1984 and 1985 by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and field geochemical studies and geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1984 and 1985. The remainder of the study area has low resource potential for undiscovered gold, silver, lead, zinc, manganese, tin, and molybdenum. The study area also has low resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Antelope Wilderness Study Area is about midway between Tonopah and Eureka, Nev., in the northern Hot Creek Range and southern Antelope Range of central Nevada. It is accessible by unimproved dirt roads extending 20 mi (miles) north from U.S. Highway 6 and 40 mi south from U.S. Highway 50 (fig. 2). Most of the study area consists of rugged mountainous terrain having approximately 2,600 ft (feet) of relief. The mountain range is a block tilted gently to the east and bounded on both sides by normal faults that dip steeply to moderately west and have major displacements. Most of the study area is underlain by a thick sequence of Tertiary volcanic rocks that predominantly consist of silicic ash-flow tuff, the Windous Butte Formation. Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic (see geologic time chart in appendix) marine sediments occur along the southern margin of the study area, and lower Paleozoic rocks are exposed in the northeast corner. The areas of exposed Paleozoic-Mesozoic rocks along the southern

  12. A Study of Number Conservation With Tasks Which Vary in Length, Area and Volume. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranto, Maria; Mermelstein, Egon

    The objective of this study was an attempt to clarify the nature of number conservation with number conservation tasks using variations in length, area, and volume. According to Piagetian theory, conservation is attained successively for number, length, area, and, finally, volume. It was hypothesized that success on the number conservation tasks…

  13. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston metropolitan area, Texas, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred

    1986-01-01

    Hydro!ogic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in the Austin and Houston areas, and have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  14. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston metropolitan area, Texas, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred; Bruchmiller, J.P.; Brown, D.W.; Paul, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in the Austin and Houston areas, and have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  15. Preliminary study of pesticide drift into the Maya Mountain protected areas of Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    In Belize, Central America, many farms surrounding the Protected Areas of the Maya Mountains rely heavily on the application of agrochemicals. The purpose of this study was to test whether orographic drift of glyphosate and organophosphates into the nearby Maya Mountain Protected Areas occurred by collecting phytotelmic water from seven sites over 3 years. Regardless of location within the Maya Mountain Protected Areas, glyphosate was present; organophosphates were more common at ridge sites. Although glyphosate concentrations were low, due to the number of threatened species and the human use of stream water outside the Maya Mountain Protected Areas, better understanding of these effects is warranted.

  16. Studies of the flora in Darmian area in the Southern Khorasan province

    OpenAIRE

    Samaneh Sabaghi; Valliollah Mozaffarian; Taher Nejad-Sattari

    2014-01-01

    The basin area of the Furk and Darmian river is located in northern-east of the Southern Khorasan province. The whole area was 11137 hectares. The area is mountainous with mild weather and dry climate and the average precipitation is about 250 mm per year. In this study, 268 species belonging to 47 families were investigated and 194 genus were identified. The Asteraceae family with 44 species and 34 genera was the largest family in the area. The largest genera were Cousinia with 6 species and...

  17. Study on environmental etiology of high incidence areas of liver cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian-Feng Lin; Jie Tang; Hoteyi S. Mohamed Ismael

    2000-01-01

    China is a country with a high incidence of liver cancer in some areas[1]. Liver cancer has a wide distribution and threatens human health seriously. A rough estimation shows that out of a population of 1.2 × 108 in liver cancer areas patients are more than 1.0 × 105. The environment of the liver cancer area is very complicated and has different characteristics in different regions. But the epidemic regularity of liver cancer is obvious, and the environment in the cancer areas has also distinct characteristics that contribute to the study on the environmental etiology of liver cancer[2-5].

  18. Activation of cortical areas in music execution and imagining: a high-resolution EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, Rumyana; Chakarov, Vihren; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Spreer, Joachim

    2003-11-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that execution of a musical sequence on an instrument activates bilateral frontal opercular regions, in addition to bilateral sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas. During imagining activation of the same areas without primary sensorimotor areas was shown. We recorded EEG from 58 scalp positions to investigate the temporal sequence and the time course of activation of these areas while violin players prepared to execute, executed, prepared to imagine, or imagined a musical sequence on a violin. During the preparation for the sequence in three of seven musicians investigated the bilateral frontal opercular regions became active earlier than the motor areas and in one of them simultaneously with the motor areas. In two of the musicians a rather variable pattern of activation was observed. The frontal opercular regions were also strongly involved throughout the period of music execution or imagining. The supplementary motor area was involved in both preparation for the sequence and during execution and imagining of the sequence. The left primary sensorimotor area was involved in the preparation and termination of the musical sequence for both execution and imagining. The right sensorimotor area was strongly involved in the preparation for and during the execution of the sequence. We conclude that the bilateral frontal opercular regions are crucial in both preparation for and during music execution and imagining. They may have "mirror neurone" properties that underlie observation or imagining of one's own performance. The motor areas are differentially activated during the preparation and execution or imagining the sequence.

  19. LANDSLIDES INCIDENCE IN THE PIEDMONT OF BAIA MARE URBAN AREA (CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The landslides incidence in the piedmont of baia mare urbana area cae studies. The General Urban Plan (GUP of Baia Mare municipality requires the study of expected susceptibility for landslides in order to build infrastructure within sustainable development conditions. The complexity and diversity of local geographic area factors, strongly affected by the human pressure, favours the triggering and extension of slope processes in the municipality’s piedmont area. To prevent some major imbalances it is imperative to implement some adequate measures based on in-depth studies.

  20. Shaping vibrant urban places in Chinese inner-city station areas: A case study of Beijing West station areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Cities in China are embarked on ambitions plans to create renewed inner-city station areas, particularly evident after a series of redevelopment projects; these projects mainly focus on the development of transport infrastructures, rather than turning station areas into vibrant urban spaces. Therefo

  1. Effects of Land Use Change on Carbon Emission:A Case Study of Yuheng Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yarui; WU; Wenhai; XIA

    2014-01-01

    Land use is the main factor affecting the carbon emission. Taking Yuheng Mining Area as the research object,this paper chose two periods of remote sensing data of 1999 and 2006,and adopted the remote sensing image interpretation and supervised classification to study the changes in land use types and carbon sink in different periods in the mining area. The results showed that the area of arable land was reduced from 166. 96 km2 to 81. 10 km2,the area of woodland was increased from 46.79 km2 to 134. 53 km2,and arable land decreased by 51%,but carbon sink in the mining area still showed a rising trend; the carbon sink value increased by 16. 4 million yuan in 2006 compared to 1999,an increase of 40%,indicating that the reasonable land use pattern can improve the ecological environment,and promote the sustainable development of environment and economy in the mining area.

  2. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.

    1997-02-01

    The D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (DBRP) (431-D and 431-1D) Waste Unit is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(U) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). This decision document presents the selected remedial alternative for the DBRP located at the SRS in Aiken, South Carolina.

  3. Vulnerability analysis of Landslide hazard area: Case study of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chaeyeon; Jun, Kyewon; Kim, Younghwan

    2017-04-01

    Recently such as Landslide and debris flow are occurring over the due to climate changes, frequent sedimentation disaster in mountains area. A scientific analysis of landslide risk areas along with the collection and analysis of a variety of spatial information would be critical for minimizing damage in the event of mountainous disasters such as landslide and debris flow. We carried out a case study of the selected areas at Inje, Gangwon province which suffered from serious landslides due to flash floods by Typhoon Ewiniar in 2006. Landslide and debris flow locations were identified in the study area from interpretation of airborne image and field surveys. We used GIS to construct a spatial information database integrating the data required for a comprehensive analysis of landslide risk areas including geography, hydrology, pedology, and forestry. Furthermore, this study evaluates slope stability of the affected areas using SINMAP(Stability Index Mapping), analyzes spatial data that have high correlation with selected landslide areas using Likelihood ratio. And by applying the Weight of evidence techniques weight values (W+ and W-) which were calculated for each element. We then analyzed the spatial data which were significantly correlated with the landslide occurrence and predicted the mountainous areas with elevated risks of landslide which are vulnerable to disasters, and the hazard map was generated using GIS. Acknowledgments This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning(No.NRF-2014R1A1A3050495).

  4. Emergency assessment of seismic landslide susceptibility: a case study of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake affected area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Chuan; Zhu Jing; Liang Jingtao

    2009-01-01

    The 8.0 Mw Wenchuan earthquake triggered widespread and large scale landslides in mountainous regions.An approach was used to map and assess landslide susceptibility in a given area. A numerical rating system was applied to five factors that contribute to slope instability. Factors such as lithology, topography, streams and faults have an important influence as event-controlling factors for landslide susceptibility assessment. A final map is provided to show areas of low,medium, and high landslide susceptibility. Areas identified as having high landslide susceptibility were located in the central,northeastern, and far south regions of the study area. The assessment results will help decision makers to select safe sites for emergency placement of refuges and plan for future reconstruction. The maps may also be used as a basis for landslide risk management in the study area.

  5. DO POST-SOCIALIST URBAN AREAS MAINTAIN THEIR SUSTAINABLE COMPACT FORM? ROMANIAN URBAN AREAS AS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Raluca GRĂDINARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The compact city is regarded as an important concept in promoting sustainable development, especially within the European Union. The socialist urban planning system maintained a high compactness of the urban areas through almost exclusive predominance of the public sector in housing provision, and ideological nature of the planning strategies. After the 1990’s, the administrative decentralization allowed local authorities to adopt particular urban development strategies. However, development was directly influenced by the importance of the urban administrative centre. The aim of the paper is to determine if post-socialist urban areas maintained their compact urban form or they encountered different evolution trajectories. We determined the type of changes by calculating urban form indicators at two time moments: 1990 and 2006. Furthermore, the two-way repeated-measurement ANOVA was used to identify significant changes, and to assess the effect of the development level of the urban area on the variance of form indicators. The results show that Romanian post-socialist urban areas either shifted from the compact form, "inherited" after the collapse of socialism, to more dispersed patterns, either expanded in a compact manner. Moreover, as development level got higher, urban areas were more likely to be affected by suburbanization and periurbanization. In order to respond to these challenges, new instruments such as setting of metropolitan areas or spatial framework plans could be used. Furthermore, planning should be adapted to local circumstances and to the different development trajectories of big and mid-sized urban areas.

  6. DO POST-SOCIALIST URBAN AREAS MAINTAIN THEIR SUSTAINABLE COMPACT FORM? ROMANIAN URBAN AREAS AS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Raluca GRĂDINARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The compact city is regarded as an important concept in promoting sustainable development, especially within the European Union. The socialist urban planning system maintained a high compactness of the urban areas through almost exclusive predominance of the public sector in housing provision, and ideological nature of the planning strategies. After the 1990’s, the administrative decentralization allowed local authorities to adopt particular urban development strategies. However, development was directly influenced by the importance of the urban administrative centre. The aim of the paper is to determine if post-socialist urban areas maintained their compact urban form or they encountered different evolution trajectories. We determined the type of changes by calculating urban form indicators at two time moments: 1990 and 2006. Furthermore, the two-way repeated-measurement ANOVA was used to identify significant changes, and to assess the effect of the development level of the urban area on the variance of form indicators. The results show that Romanian post-socialist urban areas either shifted from the compact form, "inherited" after the collapse of socialism, to more dispersed patterns, either expanded in a compact manner. Moreover, as development level got higher, urban areas were more likely to be affected by suburbanization and periurbanization. In order to respond to these challenges, new instruments such as setting of metropolitan areas or spatial framework plans could be used. Furthermore, planning should be adapted to local circumstances and to the different development trajectories of big and mid-sized urban areas.

  7. Development pattern of the industry form in mountains area:Case study of the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Quanguang

    2008-01-01

    The mountainous areas (mountain,plateau and hilly area) cover more than 85% of the total land territory of China.Nature and humanity in very mountainous area has its own geographic characteristics.In the process of industrialization and urbanization in China realizing the sustainable development of the mountainous areas optiinizing man-land system,and adopting and continuously developing corresponding economic modes of the mountainous areas with mulli-functiorns of economy,ecology,culture and society to charactertze production content,mode of production,mode of operation is not only helpful to economy,society and ecological value and is of great aesthetic value,but also solve the technological problems of the subject of starting undertaking to finally transform the region al resource advantage of the mountainous area into the advantage of capital and technology for economic develop ment and to get rid of the contradiction between underdeveloped economy,and abundant resources.This paper takes the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) area for example to show that it's of great practical and theoretical significance to develop"Five Types of Agriculture" and to optimize eco-environment,industrial structure,department structure regional distribution,variety structure and quality structure.

  8. Studies on normal incidence backscattering in nodule areas using the multibeam-hydrosweep system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, D.; Chakraborty, B.

    The acoustic response from areas of varying nodule abundance and number densities in the Central Indian Ocean has been studied by using the echo peak amplitudes of the normal incidence beam in the Multibeam Hydrosweep system. It is observed...

  9. A STUDY ON IMPACT OF INDUSTRY POLLUTION ON HEALTH STAUS OF PUBLIC IN COIMBATORE URBAN AREAS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A B Angappapaillai; R Rajini

    2015-01-01

    .... [...]based on the findings of the study, the following constructive and practicable suggestions are provided to reduce or minimize the impact of dust pollution by the textile industries in Coimbatore urban area. 1...

  10. Huron Islands and Seney Wilderness study areas : Huron Islands and Seney National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on wilderness study areas located in the Huron Islands and Seney National Wildlife Refuges. It discusses the exact location of the...

  11. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Household and Non-Household Populations (DC-MADSH-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  12. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Homeless and Transient Population (DC-MADST-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  13. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  14. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  15. Dta points used in assessment of coal in the southern Piceance basin study area (psptg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and point coverage of 627 data points used in the assessment of coal in the southern Piceance Basin study area. Information in this file includes...

  16. Study on land use changes of the coal mining area based on TM image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-bo; YAO Jing; KANG Ting-jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the two temporal TM images of 1995 and 2001 of one coal mining area, analyzed the variety information of the coal mining area. Relative registration were done with the two images firstly, then cut out the study area for experimental data, classified the coal mining area using supervised classification in ERDAS, the coal mining area will be divided into five categories as water body, agricultural land, construction land, coal mining area and other land. Make land use change matrix, the result shows that in the six years of 1995 to 2001, the change of the utilize of the land is greatly, the main represent is showed as follows: the area of water body, agricultural land and coal mining land had continually increased, on the contrary, construction area and other decreased. The percentage speed of the construction land is the biggest, the value reach -1.08%. The main reasons is that with the exploitation of the coal mine and the reclaim of the land, the exploitation of the coal mining land make the agricultural land and construction area convert into coal mining land, on the other hand with the backfill of the subsided waterlogged land and the reclaim of the subsided land make the coal mining land convert into agricultural land.

  17. A study of ecological red-line area partitioning in the Chishui River Basin in Guizhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. F.; An, Y. L.

    2016-08-01

    Maintaining ecosystem balance and realizing the strategic goal of sustainable development are key objectives in the field of environmental sciences. Accordingly, drawing ecological red lines in sensitive and vulnerable environmental areas and important ecological function areas, determining the distribution range of ecological red-line areas, providing scientific guidance for developmental activities, and effectively managing the ecological environment are significant work tasks supported by policy guidance from the State Council and from knowledge gained in educational circles. Taking the Chishui River Basin in Guizhou as the study object, this research selected water and soil loss sensitivity, as well as assessments of karst rocky desertification sensitivity as background assessments of the eco-environment. Furthermore, the functions of soil conservation, water conservation, and biodiversity protection were integrated with exploitation-prohibited areas, and an organic combination of ecological needs and social service functions was created. Spatial comprehensive overlay analysis and processing revealed that the combination marked nine major ecological red-line areas in a total area of 5,030.58 km2, which occupied 44.16% of the total basin area. By combining the current eco-environmental situation of the Chishui River Basin with the marked out red-line areas, this research proposed corresponding ecological red-line area management suggestions. These suggestions are expected to provide a scientific foundation for eco-environmental protection and subsequent scientific research in Chishui River Basin.

  18. Portrayal of fuzzy recharge areas for water balance modelling - a case study in northern Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, A.; Schütze, N.; Schmitz, G. H.

    2012-06-01

    The research project IWAS Oman aims at implementing integrated water resources management (IWRM) to a pilot area in Al Batinah, Oman. This requires - amongst others - a realistic assessment of groundwater recharge to the alluvial aquifer which obviously has to be based upon the extension of recharge areas. In this context, the subsequent investigation focuses on the role of vagueness as regards the portrayal of the areas that provide water for particular aquifers. For that purpose, concepts of fuzziness in spatial analysis are applied to describe possible extents of recharge areas. In general, any water assessment is based on clearly delineated boundaries. However, in many cases, aquifer recharge areas are not clearly defined due to the nature of the study area. Hence, surfaces indicating a gradual membership to the recharge area of a particular aquifer are used in this investigation. These surfaces, which are based on available qualitative information, visualise a potential range of spatial extension. With regard to water balance calculations, functional relationships in tabular form are derived as well. Based on a regionalisation approach providing spatially distributed recharge rates, the corresponding recharge volume is calculated. Hence, this methodology provides fuzzy input data for water balance calculations. Beyond the portrayal of one singular aquifer recharge area, this approach also supports the complementary consideration of adjacent areas.

  19. Determination of fluoride source in ground water using petrographic studies in Dashtestan area, south of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh; Moore, Farid, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    The groundwater occurs in Dashtestan area, contains a high level of fluoride. Since groundwater is vastly used for drinking and irrigation purposes, the local residents are at high risk of fluoride toxicity, as already evidenced by the occurrence of dental Fluorosis in many residents. 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected in September, 2009. The results show that in 23 samples the fluoride concentration is above the permissible level (1.5ppm). Petrographic study of lithological units in the catchment area indicates that mica minerals are the most probable source of fluoride content in the study area.

  20. Development of Vocational Secondary School Students Competitiveness for Studies in the European Area of Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Dementjeva

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE PROMOTION THESIS DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ COMPETITIVENESS FOR STUDIES IN THE EUROPEAN AREA OF HIGHER EDUCATION The promotion thesis „Development of Vocational Secondary School Students’ Competitiveness for Studies in the European Area of Higher Education” in the field of general pedagogy of pedagogical science has been worked out by Olga Dementjeva under the supervision of Dr. chem. Professor Andrejs Rauhvargers at the Depart...

  1. Study of the wide area of a lake with remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Maria A.; Karagianni, Aikaterini C.

    2016-08-01

    Water bodies are particularly important for environment and development issues. Their study requires multiple information. Remote sensing has been proven useful in the above study. This paper concerns the wide area of Lake Orestiada in the region of Western Macedonia in Greece. The area is of particular interest because Lake Orestiada is included in the Natura 2000 network and is surrounded by diverse landcovers as built up areas and agricultural land. Multispectral and thermal Landsat 5 satellite images of two time periods are being used. Their processing is being done by Erdas Imagine software. The general physiognomy of the area and the lake shore are examined after image enhancement techniques and image interpretation. Directions of the study concern geomorphological aspects, land covers, estimation of surface temperature as well as changes through time.

  2. Decreased activation of subcortical brain areas in the motor fatigue state: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Hou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e. thalamus and basal ganglia areas are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state.

  3. Studies of the flora in Darmian area in the Southern Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Sabaghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The basin area of the Furk and Darmian river is located in northern-east of the Southern Khorasan province. The whole area was 11137 hectares. The area is mountainous with mild weather and dry climate and the average precipitation is about 250 mm per year. In this study, 268 species belonging to 47 families were investigated and 194 genus were identified. The Asteraceae family with 44 species and 34 genera was the largest family in the area. The largest genera were Cousinia with 6 species and Astragalus and Ephorbia with 5 species.The largest life forms in the Darmian area belong to Therophytes with 43% and Hemicryptophytes 37%, Phanaerophytes 9%, Chamaephytes 6%, Bulbous Geophytes and Rhizomatous Geophytes each with 2% and Tuberous Geophytes 1%.

  4. Vegetation assessment in a pipeline influence area: the case study of PETROBRAS ammonia pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Porciano, Patricia P.; Bonafini, Fabio L. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: patriciapp.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: bonafini.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P.; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Vieira, Elisa D.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: elisav@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    This ammonia pipeline is about 30 km long and links the Fertilizer Plant (FAFEN-BA) to the Urea Marine Terminal (TMU) at the Port of Aratu in Candeias (Bahia State, Brazil). In this study, we characterize the remnants of vegetation and quantify the Permanent Preservation Areas. Furthermore, we propose areas and techniques for their recovery and / or management. The methodology was based on the Rapid Ecological Assessment, which combines selection of areas through remote sensing image analysis, with rapid field campaigns in the selected points. This methodology, successfully applied in PETROBRAS refineries, is first applied in a pipeline influence area. During these campaigns, the main aspects of vegetation, such as phyto physiognomy and ecological succession stages, were registered in field data sheets prepared for this purpose. The most representative remnants of vegetation that could be quantified were Atlantic Forest fragments, as well as those in the Permanent Preservation Areas. (author)

  5. An adaptation of the Interpersonal Problem Areas Rating Scale: pilot and interrater agreement study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Ana Claudia Fontes; Frank, Ellen; Neto, Francisco Lotufo; Houck, Patricia R

    2012-01-01

    Objective This article describes the adaptation of a rating scale of interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas to include a fifth problem area appropriate to bipolar disorder and an interrater agreement study in identifying interpersonal problem areas and selecting a primary treatment focus if patients were to engage in treatment. Method Five research interpersonal psychotherapists assessed nine audiotapes of a single interview with five bipolar and four unipolar patients in which the interpersonal inventory and identification of problem areas were undertaken. Results Raters agreed on presence and absence of problem areas in seven tapes. Kappas for identification of problem areas were 1.00 (grief), 0.77 (role dispute), 0.61 (role transition), 0.57 (interpersonal deficits) and 1.00 (loss of healthy self). Kappa for agreement on a primary clinical focus if patients were to engage in interpersonal psychotherapy treatment was 0.64. Conclusions The adaptation of the original scale to include an area pertinent to bipolar disorder proved to be applicable and relevant for use with this population. The results show substantial interrater agreement in identifying problem areas and potential treatment focus. PMID:19142412

  6. A Study on regeneration cases with industrial Heritage in mining areas of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seungyeoun; Ji, Sangwoo; Yim, Giljae

    2017-04-01

    The mining areas have to face urban decline problem in population and aging after its closing. Many mines were shut down due to changes in industrial structure through 20 century. Central and local governments has been trying to solve urban decline of abandoned mine areas by enacting special acts or introducing support programs for decades. In the year of 1995, South Korean government also enacted "Special act on the assistance to the development of abandoned mine areas" to promote the economy of abandoned mine areas that is depressed following the decline of the coal industry and to help balanced regional development and to improve the living standard of the residents in such abandoned mine areas. Local authorities has been trying to revitalize the regional economy by attracting tourism industry under the financial support and deregulation by this special law. With this background, this study analysis 13 regeneration cases which are utilizing the industrial heritage of the abandoned area in S. Korea. Despite the importance of mining, negative images of abandon mine have been engraved due to environmental destruction. Most of abandoned mines were left without any action since its closing. Early stage of abandoned mine area regeneration, such as Sabuk, Munkyong, are focusing on adjacent land not on abandoned mine. Abandoned mines were restored its original state and theme park including hotels, casinos and other tourist facilities were developed on adjacent land. Eco-trails on some granite caves such as Jungsun were opened to the public as natural resources not industrial heritage. The industrial heritage was very restricted to making museums about history of mining industry. However, there has been a significant change in perception toward reusing industrial heritage for urban regeneration in recent years. From the viewpoint of urban regeneration, abandon mine areas and its facilities are receiving attention as important regional assets as industrial heritage to

  7. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

  8. Study on the polarimetric characteristics of the Lop Nur arid area using PolSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhihong; Gong, Huaze; Zhou, Xu; Shao, Yun; Yuan, Minghuan; Wang, Longfei

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative study of the arid Lop Nur lake basin is significant to investigate the environmental changes in the arid area of northwestern China and extremely arid areas of Eurasia in general. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, with its penetration capability and advantages for studying geological phenomena on a large spatial scale, is very suitable for analyzing the subsurface of the Lop Nur area. Based on the full polarimetric ALOS PALSAR data and field investigation, it was found that the two-layer scattering mechanism of the dry sediments is very special and complex. The scattering mechanism in the bright strips is more complex than that in the gray strips according to the co-polarization correlation analysis. The experimental results show that the Cloude-Pottier decomposition method is more appropriate for this area. Moreover, the polarimetric characteristics and Cloude-Pottier decomposition results are very important for the study of the past climatic change in Lop Nur area. In conclusion, full polarimetric SAR data and target decomposition theory provide a new technique for obtaining information and quantitatively studying the subsurface characteristics of arid areas.

  9. Study on Control Strategy of Sulfur Dioxide Concentration in the Urban Area of Shijiazhuang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光军; 于立军; 范丽; 王宇新; 赵根喜

    2003-01-01

    Two Gaussian air quality dispersion models, the industrial source complex short-term model (ISCST3) with and without modification have been used to simulate the pollutant concentration distribution in urban areas based on the meteorological data and the emissions distribution of sulfur dioxide. The verified data show that the modified model is more accurate in the urban area of Shijiazhuang. Using the modified model predictions, the control strategies of sulfur dioxide in the urban area have been studied, and the result show that the second long-term (to 2010) strategy can mitigate air pollution significantly and maintain pollution levels within permissible limits.

  10. 78 FR 20642 - Notice of Proposed CERCLA Agreement and Order on Consent for Removal Action by Bona Fide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Chromium Operable Unit, 264 W. Spazier Ave., Burbank, California ACTION: Notice; request for public comment... Valley Area 2 Superfund Site, Glendale Chromium Operable Unit, located at 264 W. Spazier Ave., Burbank... May 31, 2012 (Purchaser), the Bona Fide Prospective Purchaser of 264 W. Spazier Ave.,...

  11. A comparative study on the extracurricularreading environment of urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaozhao; DENG; Haiyan; YAO; Shubei; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: So far, there have been few studies that discussed children’s reading environment in China’s poverty-stricken areas, this study aims to explore differences existed in extracurricular reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area with empirical evidence.Design/methodology/approach: Using a questionnaire survey, empirical data was collected from 105 participants. Then proposed hypotheses and the reliability of the observation variables were respectively examined with ANOVA and factor analysis. The statistical analysis software SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data.Findings: Our results showed that 1) differences did exist in school and social reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area; 2) differences in family reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area were not obviously observed.Research limitations: The empirical data were collected from only one county of Chongqing Reservoir Area, which may have partially affected the generalization of our conclusions. In addition, the response rate of questionnaires was comparatively low due to a relatively limited research period. Practical implications: This study would provide some reference for governments, libraries, schools and families to consider how to jointly narrow the gap in the extracurricular reading circumstance between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area.Originality value: This is one of the first studies to explore similarities and differences in extracurricular reading environment between urban and rural children in Chinese povertystricken areas, which will help research communities to gain a deeper understanding of children’s reading environment in Chinese Reservoir Area.

  12. Soil quality and sustainable land use in urban rural marginal area: a case study of Kaifeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using the basic theories of physical geography, land resourcesand ecology, this article analyzes the soil quality of the rural-urban marginal area in Kaifeng. Computer techniques, based on soil samples analysis, are used to study soil quality changes in the Kaifeng's rural-urban marginal area. While focusing on nutrient circle key links of input and output in soil, relying on numerous practical survey data, this article reveals clearly the impact of land use change on soil quality.

  13. A study on African animal trypanosomosis in four areas of Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Ravel, Sophie; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bossard, G.; Desquesnes, M; Cuny, Gérard; Davoust, B.

    2015-01-01

    In Senegal, several areas provide great potential for agriculture and animal production, but African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is one of the major constraints to the development of more effective livestock production systems. A study was conducted to assess the current situation of AAT in this country. Surveys were carried out between June 2011 and September 2012 in four different areas: Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou region and Basse Casamance in several animal species: dogs (152), donkeys (...

  14. Valuation of goods transportation characteristics : A study of a sparsely populated area

    OpenAIRE

    Westin, Kerstin

    1994-01-01

    This study describes how consumers and providers of transportation services in a sparsely populated area valuate different transportation characteristics and estimates how these valuations might affect the total goods flows and the flows on individual Origin-Destination links. It also tests Stated-Preference methods as a tool for valuating transportation characteristics. The hypothesis was that transportation consumers in sparsely populated areas are more sensitive to changes in the transport...

  15. Long-term studies on the effects of nonvolatile organic compounds on porous media surface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikian, Crist S; Harmon, Thomas C

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-term behavior of porous media contaminated by nonvolatile organic compounds (NVOC) in terms of specific interfacial surface area. Specifically, a natural sand, Moffett sand (MS), was contaminated with naphthalene and the surface area was measured repeatedly over time using nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. A field-contaminated sand affected by lamp-black material (LB) from former manufactured gas plant operations was also studied. Lampblack is a carbonaceous skeleton containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons. It is hypothesized that soils contaminated by these types of chemicals will exhibit significantly less surface area than their clean counterparts. The surface areas for the contaminated MS samples increased toward their clean-MS values during the 700-h aging period, but achieved the clean values only after pentane extraction or heating at 60 degrees C. Heating at 50 degrees C failed to achieve a similar recovery of the clean-MS surface area value. Nonspecific mass loss tracked the increase in surface area as indirect evidence that naphthalene loss was the cause of the surface area increase. For the LB samples, aging at 100 degrees C produced a slight decrease in surface area and mass while aging at 250 degrees C caused the surface area to increase roughly threefold while the mass decreased by approximately 1%. These results suggest that, under moderate heating and over the time scale of this investigation, there is a redistribution of the complex contaminant mixture on the solid matrix. Greater temperatures remove mass more efficiently and therefore exhibited the surface area increase expected in this experiment.

  16. A Detailed Study of Debris Flow Source Areas in the Northern Colorado Front Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana-Morales, A.; Baum, R. L.; Godt, J.

    2014-12-01

    Nearly continuous, heavy rainfall occurred during 9-13 September 2013 causing flooding and widespread landslides and debris flows in the northern Colorado Front Range. Whereas many recent studies have identified erosion as the most common process leading to debris flows in the mountains of Colorado, nearly all of the debris flows mapped in this event began as small, shallow landslides. We mapped the boundaries of 415 September 2013 debris flows in the Eldorado Springs and Boulder 7.5-minute quadrangles using 0.5-m-resolution satellite imagery. We characterized the landslide source areas of six debris flows in the field as part of an effort to identify what factors controlled their locations. Four were on a dip slope in sedimentary rocks in the Pinebrook Hills area, near Boulder, and the other two were in granitic rocks near Gross Reservoir. Although we observed no obvious geomorphic differences between the source areas and surrounding non-landslide areas, we noted several characteristics that the source areas all had in common. Slopes of the source areas ranged from 28° to 35° and most occurred on planar or slightly concave slopes that were vegetated with grass, small shrubs, and sparse trees. The source areas were shallow, irregularly shaped, and elongated downslope: widths ranged from 4 to 9 m, lengths from 6 to 40 m and depths ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 m. Colluvium was the source material for all of the debris flows and bedrock was exposed in the basal surface of all of the source areas. We observed no evidence for concentrated surface runoff upslope from the sources. Local curvature and roughness of bedrock and surface topography, and depth distribution and heterogeneity of the colluvium appear to have controlled the specific locations of these shallow debris-flow source areas. The observed distribution and characteristics of the source areas help guide ongoing efforts to model initiation of the debris flows.

  17. Hydrogeological Study of Mangrove Areas Around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Cardoso da Silva Júnior;

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area covers part of the mangrove belt located around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representing a continental-marine transition, the mangrove ecosystem is very susceptible to environmental variations and impacts. The vegetation cover plays an important role in prevention of erosion and contamination processes in those areas. An ongoing extensive research effort in the Petrochemical Complex of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, focuses on the man-induced changes in the physical environment (soils, groundwater flow system, type and volumes of contaminants, geochemical aspects and the consequences on the neighboring mangrove ecosystem. This article describes the importance of hydrogeological studies in mangrove areas as part of an appropriate environmental assessment, taking as an example an industrial dumping area located in that Petrochemical Complex. Field work included extensive drilling and sampling to obtain basic geological and hydrogeological parameters and data in the pilot area, such as hydraulic conductivity and piezometric heads; emphasizing the tracking of possible contamination by industrial effluents and the marine influence; validation of the conceptual model with mathematical models (numerical and analytical models was carried out. Results show the great importance of well conducted and detailed hydrogeological studies to properly address environmental problems caused by industrial plants in mangrove areas.

  18. Study and introducing of flora of the protected area of Manesht and Qalarang in Ilam province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Darvishnia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flora of the protected area of Manesht and Qalarang in Ilam province, was surveyed. The area was located in 46° 18´ E to 46° 37´ E and 33° 26´ N to 33° 45´ N. The method of plant study was classical method of taxonomic studies. Using different botanical references and differerent flora, collected plants were identified as families, genera and species, herbarium specimens are deposited in herbarium of Payame Noor University of Ilam. It was shown that there were 52 families, 156 genera and 231 plant species in this area. The largest family was Compositae with 18 genera and 29 species, and the largest genus was Astragalus (Fabaceae with 11 species. According to Raunkiaer, life forms of the studied plants were categorized as: Hemicryptophytes (42%, Therophytes 32%, Cryptophytes 13%, Phanerophytes 9% and Chamaephytes 4%. High percentage of Irano-Touranian elements indicated that the area belonged to this phytochorion. This study also showed high species richness and palpable predominance of Hemicryptophytes which probably resulted from high elevation and cold climate encompassing the area. Also, high abundance of Throphytes species was probably due to high elevation and severe destruction of habitat, over-grazingand contiguity to the city of Ilam.

  19. Mapping Model of Groundwater Catchment Area based on Geological Fault : Case Study in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudus, N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a naturally renewable resource because groundwater is an integral part of hydrological cycle. However, in reality, there are many limiting factors which influence its usage, in both quality and quantity, the provision ability of groundwater will decrease if its availability is exceeded. The problems of ground water potential in both quantity and quality are always related to its constituents' characteristics or its geological element where the groundwater resides. This present study aims at determining the groundwater catchment area based on the geological condition of an area so that groundwater recharge can be accomplished. In addition, it is necessary for groundwater catchment area to comply with the geological condition. The geologically unfit area will only result in land movement or landslide if it is used as groundwater catchment area. The results of geo-electricity analysis which was conducted in Semarang city showed that there are 3 faults; Sukorejo fault, Tinjomoyo fault and Jangli fault which will be explained in detail in the paper. Those faults intersect the underground water stream in Semarang from south to north towards the Java Sea. The majority of underground water stream in Semarang flows from south to north. In contrary, the results of the analysis showed that there are some points that become local basins such as in the south area and southwest of Semarang where flow direction is on the opposite direction. In addition, the results of the analysis showed that some coastal areas in Semarang have experienced salt water intrusion.

  20. Fisheries Closed Areas Strengthen Scallop Larval Settlement and Connectivity Among Closed Areas and Across International Open Fishing Grounds: A Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kimberley T. A.; Gentleman, W. C.; DiBacco, C.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-09-01

    This study examined whether a measured increase in average body size of adult sea scallops inside three fishery closed areas on Georges Bank (GB), United States (US), was sufficient to increase larval supply to closed areas and open fishing areas in both US and Canadian areas of the Bank. The effects of adult scallop density-at-size and fecundity-at-size on egg production were compared among open and closed fishery areas, countries, and time periods before and after the closed areas were established. Estimated egg production was then used to define spawning conditions in a coupled biological-physical larval tracking model that simulated larval development, mortality, and dispersal. Results showed that order of magnitude increases in larval settlement after closure were facilitated by increases in size-dependant egg production inside and dispersal from Closed Areas I and II, but not Nantucket Lightship Closed Area. The distributions of both egg production and larval settlement became more uniform across the Bank, causing the relative contribution of Canadian larvae to US scallop aggregations to decrease after establishment of Closed Areas I and II. Decreases in small and medium-sized scallop density in Canada and decreases in large scallops over the US-Southern Flank after closure caused local declines in egg production but were not sufficient to negatively affect larval settlement at the regional scale. Our model suggests that the establishment of fishery closed areas on GB considerably strengthened larval supply and settlement within and among several adult scallop aggregations.

  1. Ethnic density and deliberate self harm; a small area study in south east London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wilson-Jones, C; Wessely, S

    Study objective-Relative risks are frequently used to convey how strongly outcomes like mental illness and suicidal behaviour are associated with personal characteristics Like ethnic background. This study examined whether RRs for deliberate self harm (DSH) in ethnic groups vary between small areas

  2. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred; Bruchmiller, J.P.; Hutchinson, J.S.; Paul, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in Austin, and Houston. Studies have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  3. Experimental Study of Coal and Gas Outbursts Related to Gas-Enriched Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qingyi; Cheng, Yuanping; Guo, Pinkun; Jiang, Jingyu; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Rong

    2016-09-01

    A coal and gas outburst can lead to a catastrophic failure in a coal mine. These outbursts usually occur where the distribution of coal seam gas is abnormal, commonly in tectonic belts. To study the effects of the abnormal distribution of this gas on outbursts, an experimental apparatus to collect data on simulated coal seam outbursts was constructed. Experiments on specimens containing discrete gas-enriched areas were run to induce artificial gas outbursts and further study of these outbursts using data from the experiment was conducted. The results suggest that more gas and outburst energy are contained in gas-enriched areas and this permits these areas to cause an outburst easily, even though the gas pressure in them is lower. During mining, the disappearance of the sealing effect of a coal pillar establishes the occurrence conditions for an outburst. When the enriched gas and outburst energy in the gas-enriched area is released suddenly, a reverse unloading wave and a high gas pressure gradient are formed, which have tension effects on the coal. Under these effects, the fragmentation degree of the coal intensifies and the intensity of the outburst increases. Because a high gas pressure gradient is maintained near the exposed surface and the enriched energy release reduces the coal strength, the existence of a gas-enriched area in coal leads to a faster outburst and the average thickness of the spall is smaller than where is no gas-enriched area.

  4. A medical geology study of an arsenic-contaminated area in Kouhsorkh, NE Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasi, Samira; Abedi, Arezoo

    2012-04-01

    High concentrations of arsenic were determined in sediments from the Kouhsorkh area, Khorasan province, NE Iran. The main rock formations in the area consist of Tertiary volcanic rocks as Tuffaceous sandstone, polymictic conglomerate and andesite. Furthermore, some As-Sb-Au mineralization occurred in this area. Concentrations of arsenic in sediments were determined to range between 4.2 and 268.2 ppm, exceeding US EPA (2004) limits. It seems that young volcanic activity is one of the most important factors for arsenic contamination in this area. The first stage of this medical geology study was done at 2 villages in the Kouhsorkh area in which the arsenic concentration in water is high. People in this residential area suffer from skin diseases including hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, keratosis on head, hands, and feet. The 24-h urine specimens were tested for arsenic, the level of total arsenic in urine were determined to range between 13.66 and 75.92 μg/l day, exceeding permissible limits from 5 to 40 μg/day. More systematic studies are needed to determine the link between As exposure and its related diseases.

  5. Floristic study of AqDagh sanctuary in Marakan protected area: west Azarbaijan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Nafisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AqDagh sanctuary with the area 5184.7 hectares area is one of the three sanctuaries in the Marakan protected area, in west Azarbaijan province. It is located in the semi-dry to cold semi-dry climates. In this research, 227 taxa (species, subspecies and varieties belonging to 47 families and 166 genera were identified during 2008 through 2009. Among the studied plants, 205 dicots and 21 monocots and one gymnosperm were recognized. Asteraceae (with 30 species and Lamiaceae (with 26 species were the largest families followed by Brassicaceae, Caryophylaceae and Fabaceae. Astragalus (with 9 species and Gallium (with 5 species were the most diverse genera. Twenty one endemic and 6 rare taxa plus 2 monotypic genera were identified in the studied area. In addition, 11 taxa from northwest of Iran and 29 from west Azarbaijan were reported for the first time. Therophytes (with 36.57% comprised the most dominant life form, followed by hemicryptophytes (with 27.75% in this area. From the chorological point of the view, most of the flora has been influenced by the IT (31.53% and IT-ES (27.49% elements. The highest proportion of vegetation in this area belonged to bi-tri or pluriregional elements (with 59.01%.

  6. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: a comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous dioxide (NO2) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males.

  7. A modeling study of saltwater intrusion in the Andarax delta area using multiple data sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsson, Arni Valur; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Jorreto, Sara;

    In groundwater model development, construction of the conceptual model is one of the (initial and) critical aspects that determines the model reliability and applicability in terms of e.g. system (hydrogeological) understanding, groundwater quality predictions, and general use in water resources...... the understanding of the investigated system. A density dependent saltwater intrusion model has been established for the coastal zone of the Andarax aquifer, SE Spain, with the aim of obtaining a coherent (conceptual) understanding of the area. Recently drilled deep boreholes in  the Andarax delta revealed a far...... reaching saltwater intrusion in the area. Furthermore, the geological information obtained from these boreholes laid a foundation for a new hydrogeological conceptual model of the area, which we aim to assess in this simulation study.Appraisal of the conceptual model of the Andarax delta area is conducted...

  8. Filtering Techniques on Analysis of Archeology Areas Using RADARSAT Images: Case Study of Lembah Bujang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norzailawati, M. N.; Akma, R. S.; Alias, A.; Zuraini, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Speckle noise present in radar imagery caused by interaction of out -of-phase waves with a target, the objective of this paper is attempt to test filtering techniques consist of Lee, Frost and Gamma Map to identify a potential shrines area in Lembah Bujang using RADARSAT imageries. The multi-temporal images of RADARSAT for years 2003 and 2014 have been used filtering techniques in identifying potential shrines consist of have been used and tested to selected study areas with using processing software of ENVI 4.8 and ArcGIS 10.2. Based on mathematical morphology, the speckles in these images were reduced, once the reduction is achieved, the enhancement of archaeological sites is accomplished. The finding shows that Local Adaptive Filtering on GAMMA Map filter is the best techniques in identifying potential shrines areas at once as guidance to pursuing an area as official gazette historical site in Malaysia context.

  9. Epidemiological study of canine Trypanosomosis in an urban area of Ivory coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keck N.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Following confirmed cases of trypanosomosis in military working dogs, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to evaluate the source of infection and determine the prevalence of canine infection with Trypanosoma congolense in the urban focus of Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Blood from 123 dogs were collected and subjected to PCR using specific primers for Trypanosoma congolense “forest type”. In addition, an entomological study was conducted in an urban area near the forest surronding the military camp. The observed prevalence was 30.1% and PCR positivity to Trypanosoma congolense was not significantly associated with sex or age of animals. This study demonstrates the high contamination rate of dogs in enzootic zones, the potential risk of introduction of the disease in free animal populations and the ability of Glossina palpalis to adapt to urban areas and to transmit trypanosomosis in such areas. The factors leading to a possible emergence of canine trypanosomiasis in enzootic zones need further investigations.

  10. Study of Deep Carbonate Reservoirs in the Desert Areas by Transient Electromagnetic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeZhanxiang; LiuZebin; SongQunhui; gangXianghao; LuJiangnan

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the TZ- 162 well in Tazhong area of the Tarim basin hit the lower Paleozoic dolomite reservoir at a depth of 5,900 m. The distribution of the dolomite reservoir, however,was very difficult to delineate due to the complex surface conditions and poor seismic properties. High-precision transient electromagnetic sounding (TEM) was conducted and good results obtained in this area. This paper discussed the principle,data processing and interpretation of this method. The resultsof studying the dolomite reservoirs demonstrated the effectiveness of the method in studying the low-resistance dolomite reservoirs in the high-resistance carbonates. This method should be an effective one to study reservoirs in areas with similar physical properties as well.

  11. Prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of china: a meta-analysis of published studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Chen

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the leading causes of disease burden across the world. In China, the latest nationwide survey of prevalence of hypertension was ten year ago, and data in rural areas is little known. More information about hypertension prevalence could help to improve overall antihypertensive health care. We aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China.Comprehensive electronic searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang, Weipu and SinoMed databases were conducted to identify any study in each database published from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013, reporting the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese rural areas. Prevalence estimates were stratified by age, area, sex, publication year, and sample size. All statistical calculations were made using the Stata Version 11.0 (College Station, Texas and Statsdirect Version 2.7.9.We identified 124 studies with a total population of 3,735,534 in the present meta-analysis. Among people aged 18 years old in Chinese rural areas, the summarized prevalence is 22.81% (19.41%-26.41%. Subgroup analysis shows the following results: for male 24.46% (21.19%-27.89%, for female 22.17% (18.25%-26.35%. For 2004-2006: 18.94% (14.41%-23.94%, for 2007-2009, 21.24% (15.98%-27.01% for 2010-2013: 26.68%, (20.79%-33.02%. For Northern region 25.76% (22.36%-29.32%, for Southern region 19.30%, (15.48%-24.08%.The last decade witnessed the growth in prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China compared with the fourth national investigation, which has climbed the same level as the urban area. Guidelines for screening and treatment of hypertension in rural areas need to be given enough attention.

  12. A study of area clustering using factor analysis in small area estimation (An analysis of per capita expenditures of subdistricts level in regency and municipality of Bogor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Notodiputro, Khairil Anwar; Kurnia, Anang; Anisa, Rahma

    2016-02-01

    Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (EBLUP) is one of indirect estimating methods which used to estimate parameters of small areas. EBLUP methods works in using auxiliary variables of area while adding the area random effects. In estimating non-sampled area, the standard EBLUP can no longer be used due to no information of area random effects. To obtain more proper estimation methods for non sampled area, the standard EBLUP model has to be modified by adding cluster information. The aim of this research was to study clustering methods using factor analysis by means of simulation, provide better cluster information. The criteria used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the methods in the simulation study were the mean percentage of clustering accuracy. The results of the simulation study showed the use of factor analysis in clustering has increased the average percentage of accuracy particularly when using Ward method. The method was taken into account to estimate the per capita expenditures based on Small Area Estimation (SAE) techniques. The method was eventually used to estimate the per capita expenditures from SUSENAS and the quality of the estimates was measured by RMSE. This research has shown that the standard-modified EBLUP model provided with factor analysis better estimates when compared with standard EBLUP model and the standard-modified EBLUP without the factor analysis. Moreover, it was also shown that the clustering information is important in estimating non sampled area.

  13. Geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemical study in Kalateh Taimour area, NE Iran

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    Zahra Alaminia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The area is located 20 km northwest of Kashmar and about 4 km of Kalateh Taimour in Khorasan Razavi province. The study area is part of Tertiary volcanic-plutonic belt north of Daruneh fault and its situation in tectonic inliers between two important active faults, Doruneh and Taknar. Volcanic rocks are mainly intermediate to acid pyroclastic type. They formed during early Tertiary. The volcanic rocks of the Kalateh Taimour area are predominantly andesitic basalt, andesite, latite, trachyte, dacite and rhyodacite and are observed as lava, tuff, lapilli tuff and agglomerate. Field evidences and study show several subvolcanic bodies including quartz hornblende biotite monzodiorite porphyry, quartz biotite monzodiorite porphyry, quartz diorite porphyry and microdiorite which are intruded sometime in mid-Tertiary. In this belt, new methods of image processing were used for enhancing the alteration zones to help near infra red and short wavelength infrared and bands example band ratios and principle component method. Propylitic, sericitic and argillic are the main alteration types. Minor silicification is found in some areas. Alteration is extent but mineralization is limited. Mineralization is mainly controlled by fault system. Several mineralized faults are being discovered. Open space filling features are abundant. In the study area, disseminate and stock work mineralization are abundant. The amount of sulfide minerals is very small. Ancient mining is present in the area. Stream sediment geochemical study shows a very broad and high level of gold anomaly. Rock geochemical study show very high levels of Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn and Au value is correlative to Cu, Pb, Zn and Ag values. Due to alteration modeling, non uniformity in mineralization and low abundance of sulfide mineralization suggest study in low sulphidation Au-Cu deposit.

  14. Competing Visions of Area Studies in the Interwar Period: The School of Oriental Languages in Berlin

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    Larissa Schmid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the Seminar for Oriental Languages in Berlin, the article explores competing visions on the role of area studies between two prominent Orientalists in the interwar period. It shows that tensions between blue-sky research, applied research and the provision of educational services were at the centre of this argument. In sketching the development of the academic community of Orientalists since Germany’s imperial period, it will be argued that concepts of area studies continued to be linked to visions of nationalist and expansionist foreign policies, even after 1918.

  15. Design Issues in Small-Area Studies of Environment and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Savitz, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Small-area studies are part of the tradition of spatial epidemiology, which is concerned with the analysis of geographic patterns of disease with respect to environmental, demographic, socioeconomic, and other factors. We focus on etiologic research, where the aim is to make inferences about spatially varying environmental factors influencing the risk of disease. Methods and results We illustrate the approach through three exemplars: a) magnetic fields from overhead electric power lines and the occurrence of childhood leukemia, which illustrates the use of geographic information systems to focus on areas with high exposure prevalence; b) drinking-water disinfection by-products and reproductive outcomes, taking advantage of large between- to within-area variability in exposures from the water supply; and c) chronic exposure to air pollutants and cardiorespiratory health, where issues of socioeconomic confounding are particularly important. Discussion The small-area epidemiologic approach assigns exposure estimates to individuals based on location of residence or other geographic variables such as workplace or school. In this way, large populations can be studied, increasing the ability to investigate rare exposures or rare diseases. The approach is most effective when there is well-defined exposure variation across geographic units, limited within-area variation, and good control for potential confounding across areas. Conclusions In conjunction with traditional individual-based approaches, small-area studies offer a valuable addition to the armamentarium of the environmental epidemiologist. Modeling of exposure patterns coupled with collection of individual-level data on subsamples of the population should lead to improved risk estimates (i.e., less potential for bias) and help strengthen etiologic inference. PMID:18709174

  16. Informing Healthcare Waiting Area Design Using Transparency Attributes: A Comparative Preference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Powers, Matthew; Allison, David; Vincent, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to explore people's visual preference for waiting areas in general hospital environments designed with transparency attributes that fully integrate nature. Waiting can be a tedious and frustrating experience among people seeking healthcare treatments and negatively affect their perception of the quality of care. Positive distractions and supportive designs have gained increasing attraction to improve people's waiting experience. Nature, which has shown therapeutic effects according to a growing amount of evidence, could be a distinguished positive distraction in waiting areas. Additionally, the theory of transparency was operationalized to indicate a spatial continuity between the external nature and the built interiors in general healthcare waiting area design. A survey method was adopted in the study. Twenty-one images of general healthcare waiting areas depicting three design typologies were preselected following a strict procedure, including designs with (a) no window views, (b) limited window views to nature, and (c) transparent spaces with maximum natural views. Ninety-five student participants rated the images based on their visual preference using a Likert-type scale. The results showed that transparent waiting areas were significantly preferred. A significant positive relationship existed between the level of transparency and people's preference scores. The factor analysis indicated additional supportive features that may affect people's preferences, including daylight, perceived warmth, noninstitutional furniture arrangement, visual orientation, and the use of natural materials for interior design. However, these tentative results need to be furthered tested with the real patient population as the next step of this study.

  17. Constraints in Management of Protected Areas (Case Study: Buila - Vânturariţa National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEAN L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study offers a general perspective on conservation status and socio-economic constraints in Buila-Vânturariţa National Park. Buila-Vânturariţa National Park (BVNP is a protected area established in 2004. The park isalso a protected area in the European Union, as part of the Network European Ecological Natura 2000 (as Site ofCommunity Interest: ROSCI0015 Buila - Vânturariţa, and Special Protected Area: Cozia-Buila-VânturariţaROSPA0025. Buffer zone of the park is a fragile area where economic development of Bistriţa limestone quarry needsto respect the conservation of environmental components. From a legal perspective, the park buffer zone does not alloweconomic activities which are destructive to the environment. The main constraint remains the overlapping of thesouthern limit of BVNP and Natura 2000 sites over the operational perimeter of the quarry Bistriţa (area of about 16 haand access roads to the top of the quarry. The opening activity in the top of the quarry is important for regional socioeconomiccontext (chemical industry. An environmental impact assessment was applied for quarry which is placedvery close to the park. The problems of current and future constraints need to be carefully identified and quantified inprotected areas of Romania, as do the root causes and effects of these constraints.

  18. EXPOSURE AND VULNERABILITY TO FLOODS IN URBAN AREAS. CASE STUDY OF GALAȚI CITY (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIANA BĂNUC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure and vulnerability to floods in urban areas. Case study of Galai city (Romania. Urban flooding is among the most severe ones, since it acts on highly populated areas, with high density of socio-economic objectives. After presenting the general context of urban flooding and the specific meaning of exposure/vulnerability, the first part of this paper contextualizes the case study area: Galati city, the most important Romanian river port. The authors created a geographical information system for multilayer analysis based on simulations of potential flooding at different characteristic levels: defense, attention, flooding and danger. On this base, the main elements at risk were inventoried and interpreted according to their significance and in relation with the consequences of a real historical flooding (occurred in 2010.

  19. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Cecchetti, Gaetano

    2003-09-01

    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a "Protected Sea Park" area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce.

  20. Comparative Area Studies and Middle East Politics after the Arab Uprisings

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    André Bank

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arab uprisings have brought about a new wave of Middle East political science research that seeks to comparatively account for the different political trajectories in the region. In order to situate these diverse post-2011 scholarly studies, this paper introduces Comparative Area Studies (CAS as an analytical perspective which combines the context sensitivity of area studies with the explicit and systematic use of comparisons. It finds that while intra-regional comparisons are the mainstay of political science studies of the Arab uprisings, there is also an emerging, very promising strand of cross-regional comparisons that draws on insights from, for example, the post-Soviet space or from European history. The paper concludes by evaluating the promises, risks and prospects of following a CAS perspective in the study of Middle East politics.

  1. Study of Value Assessment Model of Forest Biodiversity Based on the Habitat Area in China

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    Ying Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest biodiversity is an important part of biodiversity. There is an essential significance of studying forest biodiversity assessment for promoting the conservation of biodiversity and enhancing biodiversity management in China. This study collected forest biodiversity habitat area, output value of forestry and so on forest biodiversity assessment-related data from 2001 to 2010 in China and using optimal control methods in cybernetics to establish value assessment model of forest biodiversity based on the data of habitat area, as well as calculated the optimal price for forest biodiversity assessment. The result showed that forest biodiversity habitat assessment of the optimal price is 9,970 RMB Yuan/ha and there is a dynamic model for forest biodiversity assessment. Finally, the study suggested that studies of forest biodiversity assessment in China, in particular, studying of valuation of forest biodiversity should consider using shadow price and the social, economic and other factors should be taken into account

  2. Non-urban area ownership structure. Case study of Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Agnieszka; Janus, Jaroslaw; Bożek, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    The study shows a possible way of analyzing the diversity of ownership forms in non-urban areas, with particular focus on land co-ownership. The data in cadastral databases was processed with the use of the relational model which applied information on the geometry of areal spatial objects and descriptive attributes. The paper presents also the results of the analysis of Nowy Sącz District with the area of 1.550 sq.km and containing approximately 200.000 parcels. The area is representative for many countries in Central and Eastern Europe, where unfavorable land fragmentation indices and complex ownership structures complicate investing processes and development of rural areas what results in progressive degradation of agricultural and cultural landscape. The results indicate that the co-ownership phenomenon affects 13% of parcels in the study area. However, it varies greatly depending on the village and ranges from 3 to 67% of total parcels number. Suggested methods of analyzing the ownership structure are of universal character. In spite of this, when used during analyses conducted in other countries, certain modifications are required. It is mainly caused by the differences in cadastral data models used in those countries.

  3. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Suraya Romali, Noor; Fatimah Che Osmi, Siti; Armi Abu Samah, Mohd

    2013-06-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person-1day-1. Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  4. The minimum area requirements (MAR) for giant panda: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Jing; Yang, Zhisong; He, Ke; Zhang, Zejun; Gu, Xiaodong; Yang, Xuyu; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Biao; Qi, Dunwu; Dai, Qiang

    2016-12-08

    Habitat fragmentation can reduce population viability, especially for area-sensitive species. The Minimum Area Requirements (MAR) of a population is the area required for the population's long-term persistence. In this study, the response of occupancy probability of giant pandas against habitat patch size was studied in five of the six mountain ranges inhabited by giant panda, which cover over 78% of the global distribution of giant panda habitat. The probability of giant panda occurrence was positively associated with habitat patch area, and the observed increase in occupancy probability with patch size was higher than that due to passive sampling alone. These results suggest that the giant panda is an area-sensitive species. The MAR for giant panda was estimated to be 114.7 km(2) based on analysis of its occupancy probability. Giant panda habitats appear more fragmented in the three southern mountain ranges, while they are large and more continuous in the other two. Establishing corridors among habitat patches can mitigate habitat fragmentation, but expanding habitat patch sizes is necessary in mountain ranges where fragmentation is most intensive.

  5. Hydrogeochemical and spectroscopic studies of radioactive materials in Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas, northeastern Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Esmaeili Vardanjani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwaters hydrochemistry of Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas and geochemistry of rare earth elements, indicate Ayrakan alkali granite as the origin of uranium and other dissolved elements in groundwaters of these areas. Geochemical and hydrogeochemical studies as well as the trend of uranium and thorium transition and mobility in aqueous environments of these areas indicate uranium adsorption by iron hydroxide (goethite as the deterrent agent against uranium transition and mobility from depth to surface. Gamma-ray spectroscopic study of sediments from Cheshmeh Shotori area by HPGe detector indicates the presence of 226Ra in high contents and as the radioactive nuclide that is the reason for high activity of these sediments. Production of 226Ra from 238U decay, shorter half-life of 226Ra compared to 238U, radium transition by groundwaters from depth to surface as well as hydrogeochemical evidences, all suggest the possibility of existence of hidden uranium deposit and uranium mineralization in depth and the distance between Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas.

  6. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Nonendemic Area of South Rajasthan: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balai, Manisha; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Khare, Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Ankita; Mittal, Asit; Singh, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) usually occurs in areas with hot and dry climate. In India, the desert areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat, and the plains of Northwestern frontier are endemic for this disorder. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to describe clinicoepidemiological profile of the cases of CL from South Rajasthan, which is a nonendemic area of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: During a period of 4 years (2010–2014), a total of 23 patients with CL were diagnosed. All the suspected cases of CL were interrogated in detail regarding visit to areas where CL is known to occur. This was followed by clinical examination, relevant investigations, and treatment. All except one patient were treated with azole antifungals. In one patient, CO2 laser ablation was done. Results: There were 12 (52.17%) males and 11 (47.83%) females with age ranging from 3 to 72 years. Duration of disease ranged from 7 days to 10 months. Face (15; 65.22%) and extremities (12; 52.17%) were involved in majority of the patients. Common morphologies were noduloulcerative lesions and crusted plaques. Tissue smear for Leishmania donovani bodies was positive in all except one patient. Conclusion: The present report highlights occurrence of CL in nonendemic area. Further epidemiological studies are required for identification of vector and strain of Leishmania involved. PMID:27688441

  7. Dynamics of brain activity in motor and frontal cortical areas during music listening: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Mihai; Otsuka, Asuka; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2004-04-01

    There are formidable problems in studying how 'real' music engages the brain over wide ranges of temporal scales extending from milliseconds to a lifetime. In this work, we recorded the magnetoencephalographic signal while subjects listened to music as it unfolded over long periods of time (seconds), and we developed and applied methods to correlate the time course of the regional brain activations with the dynamic aspects of the musical sound. We showed that frontal areas generally respond with slow time constants to the music, reflecting their more integrative mode; motor-related areas showed transient-mode responses to fine temporal scale structures of the sound. The study combined novel analysis techniques designed to capture and quantify fine temporal sequencing from the authentic musical piece (characterized by a clearly defined rhythm and melodic structure) with the extraction of relevant features from the dynamics of the regional brain activations. The results demonstrated that activity in motor-related structures, specifically in lateral premotor areas, supplementary motor areas, and somatomotor areas, correlated with measures of rhythmicity derived from the music. These correlations showed distinct laterality depending on how the musical performance deviated from the strict tempo of the music score, that is, depending on the musical expression.

  8. Non-urban area ownership structure. Case study of Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glowacka Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study shows a possible way of analyzing the diversity of ownership forms in non-urban areas, with particular focus on land co-ownership. The data in cadastral databases was processed with the use of the relational model which applied information on the geometry of areal spatial objects and descriptive attributes. The paper presents also the results of the analysis of Nowy Sącz District with the area of 1.550 sq.km and containing approximately 200.000 parcels. The area is representative for many countries in Central and Eastern Europe, where unfavorable land fragmentation indices and complex ownership structures complicate investing processes and development of rural areas what results in progressive degradation of agricultural and cultural landscape. The results indicate that the co-ownership phenomenon affects 13% of parcels in the study area. However, it varies greatly depending on the village and ranges from 3 to 67% of total parcels number. Suggested methods of analyzing the ownership structure are of universal character. In spite of this, when used during analyses conducted in other countries, certain modifications are required. It is mainly caused by the differences in cadastral data models used in those countries.

  9. Methodology of determining soil structure in important groundwater areas: case studies in Kauvonkangas, Finnish Lapland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupila, Juho

    2016-04-01

    Finland is fully self-sufficient in clean groundwater and even has a capacity of exportation. There are approx. 6000 groundwater areas with a total yield of 5.4 million m3/day. Currently only 10% of this groundwater resource is in use. For the efficient and safe exploitation of these areas in the future, detailed modeling of soil structure is an important method in groundwater surveys. 3D -models improve the general knowledge of linkage between land use planning and groundwater protection. Results can be used as a base information in water supply service development and when performing the measures needed in case of environmental accidents. Also, when creating the groundwater flow models the collected information is utilized and is usually the main data source. Geological Survey of Finland has carried out soil structure studies in co-operation with authorities, municipalities and the local water suppliers. The main objectives of these projects are to determine the geological structure of groundwater area for estimating the validity of the present exclusion area, the quantity of ground water volume and recharge capability and possible risks to the groundwater. Research areas are usually under an active water supply service. Kauvonkangas groundwater area is located in the municipality of Tervola, in Southern part of Finnish Lapland. Extent of the area is 7.9 km2 and it is an important water source for the local and nearby population centers. There are two active water supply companies in the area. Field studies in the project will include general geological and hydrological mapping, soil drilling with observation pipe installation, test pumping and water sampling. Geophysical measures will play a key-role, including ground penetrating radar (GPR) and gravimetric measurements. Studies will be carried out in spring and summer 2016. The main results will be the models of the bedrock and groundwater level and main characteristics of the soil layers in the area. Results

  10. A socio-economic evaluation of a protected area - A case study: Hamadan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradpanah Haniyeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-economic issues of a protected area and participation of the local stakeholders in conservation of the protected area. This study was conducted at 7 villages in Hamedan province in the midwest part of Iran. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Reliability of the data was determined by Cronbach's alpha. In order to investigate the relationship between the average incomes of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level, there were significant differences between most villages. Furthermore, the results indicated that there was no significant relationship between mean income of Jara and Saadat Abad villages. In order to investigate the interest for the preservation of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level of, there were significant differences between Shademaneh and Maloosan, Siyah Dare and Gheshlagh Najaf, Shademaneh and Taemeh, Taemeh and Gheshlagh Najaf villages. Results also showed that the Maloosan village has the highest income in the area and willingness to participate in conservation activities was highest at this village. The results of this study show a new approach to the protection of biodiversity of protected areas with connection to economic, biological and humanistic studies.

  11. Recruiting Young Volunteers in an Area of Selective Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a small qualitative case study of a youth volunteering brokerage organisation in England, operating in an area of selective state education. Data show how brokerage workers felt grammar schools managed their students in a concerted way to improve students' chances of attending university. Conversely, workers…

  12. Urban forest restoration cost modeling: a Seattle natural areas case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels; Weston Brinkley; Michael D. Paruszkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Cities have become more committed to ecological restoration and management activities in urban natural areas. Data about costs are needed for better planning and reporting. The objective of this study is to estimate the costs for restoration activities in urban parks and green space in Seattle, Washington. Stewardship activity data were generated from a new database...

  13. 47 CFR 36.622 - National and study area average unseparated loop costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nationwide average shall be used in determining the additional interstate expense allocation for companies... reflect the update filings shall not affect the amount of the additional interstate expense allocation for... study area. (1) If a company elects to, or is required to, update the data which it has filed with...

  14. Recruiting Young Volunteers in an Area of Selective Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a small qualitative case study of a youth volunteering brokerage organisation in England, operating in an area of selective state education. Data show how brokerage workers felt grammar schools managed their students in a concerted way to improve students' chances of attending university. Conversely, workers…

  15. Functional Imaging of Broca’s Area in Native Persian Speakers: An fMRI Study

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    A Mahdavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The problem of localization of speech associated cortices using noninvasive methods has been of utmost importance in many neuroimaging studies, but the results are difficult to resolve for specific neurosurgical applications. In this study, we used fMRI to delineate language-related brain activation patterns with emphasis on the Broca's area during the execution of two Persian language tasks."nPatients and Methods: The subjects comprised of nine healthy right-handed men who participated voluntarily in this study. They performed two consequent fMRI paradigms namely; "Word Production" and "Reverse Word Reading". The fMRI data were collected and analyzed. Then, functional images were registered to anatomical images using FSL software. The laterality indices were also calculated in regions of interest with different threshold levels."nResults: The results indicate that Broca's area, as the classical language-production center, was robustly activated while performing these two tasks. In eight out of nine subjects, the left hemisphere dominancy and Broca's area activation were observed and in one case activation was prominent in the homologous area in the right hemisphere."nConclusion: Similar pattern of cortical activation during Persian word production and Anglophone languages such as English was revealed. fMRI is a valuable means for brain mapping in language studies.

  16. Perspectives and Plans for Graduate Studies. 10. Physical Education, Kinesiology, and Related Areas 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report is one of a series of disciplinary planning assessments for graduate studies in Ontario, Canada, concerning physical education, kinesiology, and related areas. Recommendations suggest: (1) There should be a limited number of discipline oriented Ph.D. programs focused on the generation of knowledge appropriate to sociology of sport,…

  17. Cyto-embryological studies on Astragalus glycyphyllos L. from the areas of northern and central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bijok

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports karyolagical investigations on Astragalus glycyphyllos L. from sites in Poland, including development of pollen, embryo sac, process of fecundation, development of embryo and endosperm. These plaints have been examined by various authors, from the karyological aspect, but not from the area of Poland. As regards embryology, this species 'has so far not been studied.

  18. Building Virtually Free Subject Area Expertise through Social Media: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooy, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Central to the ongoing success of the liaison model is the need for liaison librarians to stay informed and up-to-date about recent developments in the subject areas of their assigned academic departments and programs. This article describes an exploratory study conducted to determine whether information obtained from the social media accounts of…

  19. A GENERAL SITE LOCATION STUDY FOR A REGIONAL COLLEGE FOR THE OKANAGAN AREA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GILES, FREDERIC T.; AND OTHERS

    THE FEASIBILITY AND GENERAL SITE LOCATION OF A REGIONAL COLLEGE FOR TEN SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN THE OKANAGAN AREA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA WAS STUDIED AND ESTABLISHED. GEOGRAPHIC CENTERS OF POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, TRANSPORTATION, GENERAL ECONOMY AND SCHOOL POPULATIONS FOR GRADES 1-12 AND 13-14 WERE DETERMINED FROM THE ANALYSIS OF DEMOGRAPHIC, GEOGRAPHIC…

  20. Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ``roadmap`` format.

  1. A STUDY OF ESSENTIAL BASIC VALUES WHICH SUPPORT SOCIAL HARMONY IN CONFLICT-PRONE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aunurrahman Aunurrahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Basically this study intended to find out essential basic values which support social harmony in conflict-prone areas, with a profound study at primary schools in Sambas regency, west Kalimantan. As revealed by a number of data sources, west Kalimantan is one of the areas which is prone to conflict. This is evidenced by the happening of several ethnic conflicts including in Sambas regency so that it is an important policy of the regional government to find a solution in order to prevent similar conflicts from happening again in the future.The profound study at primary schools is deemed highly essential since social harmony values should be instilled among the students at an early age. In addition to that, teachers are knowledgeable about the foundation which creates an attitute of harmony among their students.The method used in this research is a qualitative one, with primary school teachers as the subject of the research. They represent three characteristic areas, namely: the urban area, the suburban area and the remote area of Sambas regency. Primary data collection was carried out through interview and focus group discussion (FGD, with the interactive model proposed by Miles & Huberman as technique of qualitative data analysis. The findings obtained from data collection and analysis revealed that social harmony has an important and profound meaning for society in Sambas regency. Basically there are three pillars of essential basic values which serve as the framework of social harmony, namely: (a the basic values of mutual respect, (b the basic values of tolerance and togetherness, and (c the basic values of freedom and responsibility. Internalization of these basic values happen intensively especially in families through custom formation at households and society in Sambas regency. Meanwhile at schools these basic values are developed and reinforced through more formal custom formation by the teachers and school regulations.

  2. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  3. Study on the Resistance Indexes of Four Kinds of Desert Plants in Qinghai Lake Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the resistance of four kinds of desert plants in Qinhai Lake area.[Method] By contrasting the resistance indexes of four kinds of plants which included Ephedra intermedia,Stellera chamaejasme,Achnatherum splendens and Xanthopappus subacaulis,the resistance of four kinds of plants in Qinghai Lake area was analyzed.The resistance indexes included the soluble protein,MDA,free Pro content and the activities of SOD,POD,CAT.Moreover,the resistance of four kinds of plants wa...

  4. Feasibility Study for the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (KBPOP) is one of four BPOP areas at Savannah River Site (SRS), collectively referred to as the BPOP waste unit group. This Feasibility Study (FS) of Remedial Alternatives serves as the lead FS for the BPOP waste unit group. This section identifies the purpose and scope of the FS and presents site background information summarized from the Final Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment (RI/BRA) WSRC-RP- 95-1555, Rev. 1.2 (WSRC 1997).

  5. STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS IN A RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubeena Bano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In India smoking is a common habit prevalent in both urban and rural areas. Cigarette smoking has extensive effects on respiratory function and is clearly implicated in the etiology of a number of respiratory diseases, particularly chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial carcinoma. An attempt has been made to study the pulmonary function tests among smoker and non-smoker population in a rural area.The pulmonary functions were done on a computerized spirometer in 100 male subjects comprising of 50 smokers and 50 non smokers. Almost all the pulmonary function parameters were significantly reducedin smokers and obstructive pulmonary impairment was commonest.

  6. Study of snow cover area and depth variation of the Tianshan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianwei; Qin, Qiming

    2008-10-01

    Based on the image characteristics of Tianshan Mountains, using multi-temporal multi-band NOAA/AVHRR, MODIS images, combined with high resolution CBERS-1/2 and ETM images, a model for estimating the area of snow cover and the depth of snow cover at different places was proposed. The snow cover variation characteristics including the distribution of snow cover, the depth of snow cover and the drawing method for snow cover were focused. Based on the model, the snow cover of the area along Tianshan Highway from 1996-2006 was studied.

  7. Transformation of tourist landscapes in mountain areas: Case studies from Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Chrenka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available After two decades of deregulated free market economy the post-socialist rural mountain areas are being unprecedently commodified. Landscapes of tourist consumption with specific behaviour patterns are produced and reproduced. The paper explores how landscapes are transformed due to massive investments into tourist infrastructure with questionable impacts on quality of life and environmental sustainability. Power relations and related production of space are analysed in three case studies in the selected mountain areas in Slovakia. First, the Oščadnica case study reflects on rural landscape rapidly transformed by massive ski resort development and deforestation. Second, the Tále golf course development case study describes commodification and gentrification processes in Central Slovakia. Third, the High Tatras case study explores how power structures push on the transformation of the oldest and most visited National Park in Slovakia.

  8. A magnetotelluric study of the sensitivity of an area to seismoelectric signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, efforts at better understanding the physical properties of precursory ultra-low frequency pre-seismic electric signals (SES have been intensified. Experiments show that SES cannot be observed at all points of the Earth's surface but only at certain so-called sensitive sites. Moreover, a sensitive site is capable of collecting SES from only a restricted number of seismic areas (selectivity effect. Therefore the installation of a permanent station appropriate for SES collection should necessarily be preceded by a pilot study over a broad area and for a long duration. In short, a number of temporary stations are installed and, after the occurrence of several significant earthquakes (EQs from a given seismic area, the most appropriate (if any of these temporary stations, in the sense that they happen to collect SES, can be selected as permanent. Such a long experiment constitutes a serious disadvantage in identifying a site as SES sensitive. However, the SES sensitivity of a site should be related to the geoelectric structure of the area that hosts the site as well as the regional geoelectric structure between the station and the seismic focal area. Thus, knowledge of the local and regional geoelectric structure can dramatically reduce the time involved in identifying SES sites. In this paper the magnetotelluric method is used to investigate the conductivity structure of an area where a permanent SES station is in operation. Although general conclusions cannot be drawn, the area surrounding an SES site near Ioannina, Greece is characterized by: (1 major faults in the vicinity; (2 highly resistive structure flanked by abrupt conductivity contrasts associated with large-scale geologic contacts, and (3 local inhomogeneities in conductivity structure. The above results are consistent with the fact that electric field amplitudes from remotely-generated signals should be appreciably stronger at such sites when compared to neighboring

  9. Study on RS- and GIS-based ecological capital assessment in arid areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kefa; CHEN Xi; ZHOU Huarong; ZHANG Qing; ZUO Qiting; ZHANG Haibo; YAN Jinfeng; CHEN Chuan

    2006-01-01

    Ecological capital assessment is currently one of the important research contents in the interdisciplinary field of ecology, resources economics, environmental economics and ecological economics. To scientifically assess ecological capital redounds to decision-makers to consider the ecological cost in economic development, and is also necessary for sustainable economic development in arid areas. Based on the theory of landscape ecology,in this paper the per unit area ecological capital values in arid areas are researched by using the Landsat TM data, CBERS satellite data, meteorological data, MODIS satellite data and other ecological data,and the RS- and GIS-based models of assessing ecological capital values in arid areas are developed.Moreover, based on the field-measured data, a case study on ecological capital assessment in the Manas River basin, Xinjiang in 2003 is carried out. The basin is divided into 4 ecological capital areas so as to quantitatively calculate the ecological capital values of the ecosystems, analyze the spatial distribution of ecological capital, and chart the maps of spatial distribution of ecological capital. The results show that the total ecological capital value of the ecosystems in the Manas River basin in 2003 was 1.49454×1011yuan RMB. In spatial distribution, the ecological capital decreases from the alpine zones to the plains and from the oases to the deserts, which accords with the distribution of vegetation zonality in this arid area.The assessed results can objectively reflect the ecological capital and its spatial distribution in the arid basin, and can also provide reference for roundly carrying out the assessment of ecological capital in arid areas.

  10. [Descriptive study of cancer incidence in the area around the Ispra Joint Research Centre (JCR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Salvatore; Bianchi, Nadia; Gambino, Maria; Prandini, Beatrice; Soma, Renato; Contiero, Paolo; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Marmondi, Elio Giorgio; Banfi, Fabio; Bonarrigo, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    to assess the effects of radioactive emissions from the EU Joint Research Centre (JRC) (nuclear) at Ispra, the Local Health Authority (ASL) of Varese carried out an ecological study to measure any excess incidence of cancer in the surrounding population. after estimation of historical exposure levels in the surrounding population, the incidence rates of leukaemia and other exposure-related tumours were calculated from data in the population based Lombardy Cancer Registry (Varese Province). By indirect standardization, the expected cases (based on incidence rate in the Province) were compared with observed cases in the close-by municipality of Ispra, in municipalities within a 5 km radius of the JRC (5kmArea) and in the area covered by the District of Sesto Calende (DistrictArea). in the period 1982-1998, mean populations were 4,687 (Ispra), 32,120 (5kmArea) and 43,707 (DistrictArea); the population of the Province was 793,752. The numbers of cancers registered were 374, 2,920, 4,099 and 72,246 respectively. Significant excesses of leukaemia were not found in Ispra (SIR 0.33, 95% CI 0.07-0.96) or the 5kmArea (SIR 0.83, 95% CI 0.63-1.08). For all cancers combined and for the commonest cancers (breast, colo-rectal) the numbers of incident cases were lower than expected. consistent with the low levels of exposure detected, and despite the fears of the local people, no incidence excesses of cancers was found in Ispra, the town closest to the JRC, or inforin the surrounding areas. It may be worth searching for excess cancer among exposed workers.

  11. SELF-ATTENTION IN PREGNANCY FOR WOMEN LIVING IN RURAL AREA: A ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Sand,Isabel Cristina Pacheco; Ressel, Lúcia Beatriz; Monticelli,Marisa; Schirmer,Janine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT the study aims to recognizing self-attention practices related to pregnancy by women from rural area, as well as identifying these practices according to the different models of attention to health/birth. We carried out ethnography in three rural communities in a small city in the North Region of Rio Grande do Sul State. Seventeen informants participated in the study. Data were collected by the Observation-Participation-Reflection model and ethnographic interviews. For the analysis, ...

  12. Age-specific activation of cerebral areas in motor imagery - a fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing (China); Third Military Medical University, Department of Medical Image, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Qiu, Mingguo; Zhang, Jingna; Zhang, Ye; Sang, Linqiong [Third Military Medical University, Department of Medical Image, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Liu, Chen; Yang, Jun [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Yan, Rubing [Third Military Medical University, Department of Rehabilitation, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Zheng, Xiaolin [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing (China)

    2014-04-15

    The objectives of this study were to study the age-specific activation patterns of cerebral areas during motor execution (ME) and motor imaging (MI) of the upper extremities and to discuss the age-related neural mechanisms associated with ME or MI. The functional magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to monitor the pattern and intensity of brain activation during the ME and MI of the upper extremities in 20 elderly (>50 years) and 19 young healthy subjects (<25 years). No major differences were identified regarding the activated brain areas during ME or MI between the two groups; however, a minor difference was noted. The intensity of the activated brain area during ME was stronger in the older group than in the younger group, while the results with MI were the opposite. The posterior central gyrus and supplementary motor area during MI were more active in the younger group than in the older group. The putamen, lingual, and so on demonstrated stronger activation during dominant hand MI in the older group. The results of this study revealed that the brain structure was altered and that neuronal activity was attenuated with age, and the cerebral cortex and subcortical tissues were found to be over-activated to achieve the same level of ME and MI, indicating that the activating effects of the left hemisphere enhanced with age, whereas the inhibitory effects declined during ME, and activation of the right hemisphere became more difficult during MI. (orig.)

  13. Preliminary Study on the PGE Geochemistry of the Permian Basalts in the Jinping Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian Hong; Shen Wei; Zhang Xueshu

    2006-01-01

    To disclose and study the magma genesis of the Permian basalts in the Jinping (金平)area, the PGE and Au contents of the Permian basalts in the Jinping area were assayed by use of the ICP-MS method. The PGE data show relatively strong differentiation of basaltic magma in comparison with the primitive mantle. The primitive mantle-normalized pattern is a left-dipping curve of the Pd-Pt enriched type. The Pd/Ir ratios of the PGE of the Permian basalts in the Jinping area are higher than those of the primitive mantle and the upper primitive mantle and the chondrite meteorite. The Pd/Ir ramaterial source. It is concluded that they are derived from the basaltic magma of the upper mantle source with a lower melting degree, which shares the similar magma material source with the Emeishan Permian basalts as a whole.

  14. Study of Effective Factors on Income Inequality Decrease in Rural Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ahlowalia hypothesis (1995, the growth oftotal factor productivity (TFP beside infrastructure investmentsof government lead to income inequality decrease in ruralareas of countries. The main objective of this study is toinvestigate the effects of public investments such as agriculturalR&E, road, education and irrigation on income inequality inrural areas of Iran. In order to get results, we used ARDLmethod and time series data of 1980 to 2008. However, thisresearch attempts to survey the direction of causality betweenthe income inequality and total factor productivity (TFP inIran. Empirical results show there is a negative relation betweenincome inequality and agricultural TFP in rural areas of Iran.Hence, additional investments on rural education and agriculturalR&E have significance and different impacts on income inequality.Findings showed Ahlowalia hypothesis developed forthe relation among income inequality, TFP and investment inelectricity is not rejected in case of Iran`s rural areas.

  15. Trigemino-hypoglossal somatic reflex in the pharmacological studies of nociception in orofacial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Marek; Janecka, Anna; Zubrzycka, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Disorders involving the orofacial area represent a major medical and social problem. They are a consequence of central nociceptive processes associated with stimulation of the trigeminal nerve nucleus. A rat model of trigeminal pain, utilizing tongue jerks evoked by electrical tooth pulp stimulation during perfusion of the cerebral ventricles with various neuropeptide solutions, can be used in the pharmacological studies of nociception in orofacial area. The investigated neuropeptides diffuse through the cerebroventricular lining producing an analgesic effect either directly, through the trigemino-hypoglossal reflex arc neurons or indirectly through the periaqueductal central gray, raphe nuclei or locus coeruleus neurons. The aim of this review is to present the effect of pharmacological activity of various neuropeptides affecting the transmission of the sensory information from the orofacial area on the example of trigemino-hypoglossal reflex in rats.

  16. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang

    2008-01-01

    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety, gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production. D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centi-meter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite. In addition, this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit. Intro-duced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and ac-quired the differential interferometry based on case study data. The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.

  17. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang

    2008-01-01

    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety,gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production.D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centimeter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite.In addition,this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit.Introduced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and acquired the differential interferometry based on case study data.The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.

  18. A Study of Current Land Use in the Urban Area of Ma’anshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning ZHANG; Zhongxiang YU

    2016-01-01

    With the acceleration of urbanization,urban development poses a growing demand for land.China’s national conditions of a large population with relatively little arable land require us to intensively use land,and more and more departments have been aware of the importance of intensive urban land use.The study on the current land use in the urban area of Ma’anshan City,is not only conducive to adjustment of land use layout and structure as well as urban ecological construction,but also of guiding significance to the economical and intensive land use in Ma’anshan City.This paper first describes the natural,social and economic situation of Ma’anshan’s urban area,then analyzes the land use structure,layout and problems,and finally puts forth the recommendations for improving current land use situation in the urban area of Ma’anshan City.

  19. Local versus landscape spatial influence on biodiversity: a case study across five European industrialized areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, E; Isaia, M; Falasco, E; La Morgia, V; Soldato, G; Bona, F

    2017-03-01

    Land use change-mostly habitat loss and fragmentation-has been recognized as one of the major drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. According to the habitat amount hypothesis, these phenomena are mostly driven by the habitat area effect. As a result, species richness is a function of both the extent of suitable habitats and their availability in the surrounding landscape, irrespective of the dimension and isolation of patches of suitable habitat. In this context, we tested how the extent of natural areas, selected as proxies of suitable habitats for biodiversity, influences species richness in highly anthropogenic landscapes. We defined five circular sampling areas of 5 km radius, including both natural reserves and anthropogenic land uses, centred in five major industrial sites in France, Italy and Germany. We monitored different biodiversity indicators for both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, including breeding birds, diurnal butterflies, grassland vegetation, odonata, amphibians, aquatic plants and benthic diatoms. We studied the response of the different indicators to the extent of natural land uses in the sampling area (local effect) and in the surrounding landscape (landscape effect), identified as a peripheral ring encircling the sampling area. Results showed a positive response of five out of seven biodiversity indicators, with aquatic plants and odonata responding positively to the local effect, while birds, vegetation and diatoms showed a positive response to the landscape effect. Diatoms also showed a significant combined response to both effects. We conclude that surrounding landscapes act as important biodiversity sources, increasing the local biodiversity in highly anthropogenic contexts.

  20. Study on Ecosystem Service Value in Pingshuo Mining Area Based on Land Use Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Geng-jie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used satellite photos of 1985, 1990, 1994, 1999 and 2005 in Pingshuo mining area, for the purpose of researching on the change of Ecosystem Service Value (ESV in the past 20 years. It calculated the change amplitude, change velocity and relative change rate of ESV and compared the Sensitivity Index (SI of ESV coefficient. The result is that, the total ESV of Pingshuo mining area descended from 31270.98×104 Yuan in 1985 to 30348.14×104 Yuan in 1990. When the destroyed land had been reclaimed from 1990, ESV had been raised to 31109.05×104 Yuan in 2005. The change amplitude, change velocity and relative change rate of destroyed and reclamation land were the first and second highest among the types of land use in mining area. SI of dry land is the highest, while the destroyed land’s is the lowest. It could conclude that the ESV coefficient of mining area is inelastic. Reclamation should be strengthening in mining area in order to recover ecosystem efficiently.

  1. Advocacy coalitions and protected areas creation process: Case study in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Sandra; Leroy, Maya

    2017-08-01

    Protected areas are the cornerstones of conservation policies worldwide. However, only few researches are led to analyse the way they emerge, except for criticising top-down governmental choices. Yet, the historical approach and strategic analysis of public policy building over the long term allows a better understanding of the stakes of action capacity of these policies. We therefore mobilize the advocacy coalition framework to show that protected areas creation is always due to coalitions of actors who belong to different professional fields and act at different scales but nevertheless share common stakes. On the basis of a comparative study in French and Brazilian Amazon, we show that if all coalitions for protected areas share a common objective of limited deforestation, they are still very different according to the type of conservation they promote (strict biodiversity conservation, population-based conservation or sustainable forest management). We also show that the ability of the coalitions to build efficient public policies is highly depending on internal factors (i.e. their ability to gather strategic resources) and on external factors (i.e. socio-political context and international pressure). Finally, the comparative analysis of coalitions pleading for the same type of protected areas in two different countries allows us to insist on the importance of qualitative embedded researches when it comes to understand why some protected areas have more chances to reach environmental effectiveness in one socio-political context than in another one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of Sound Environment Influenced by the Crowd in Waiting Areas in General Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Qin; Jian Kang; Hong Jin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the crowd has been investigated and analyzed in waiting areas in large general hospitals in China in order to find the rules the variations of sound environment with the change of crowd. The field investigation, questionnaire, field-testing and computer simulation have been adopted. The results show that:the social/demographic characteristics of staff and patients are not significantly related to the satisfaction evaluation of sound environment;there is a significant correlation between the population density and LAeq of the background noise in waiting areas;when population density is 0, the LAeq of background noise is not 0 in waiting areas; the loudspeaker should be set in the waiting areas. Loudspeaker arrangements should be integrated into the ceiling lamp or construct facilities along the depth direction of the layout, and the two adjacent speakers recommended distance should be controlled at about 4 m. If the population density is controlled in the reasonable range, and sound absorption, noise reduction processing and electronic queuing system are adopted, sound environment of waiting areas will be built with noise interference relatively small in different population densities.

  3. Habitat Patch Diversity Evaluation for Sustainability: a Case Study of a Rural Area in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mancinelli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Landscape analysis is regarded as a new tool for monitoring and judging land use patterns in terms of sustainability of human activity systems at local level. A case study of evaluation for sustainability based on habitat patch diversity in an ecoregion of Central Italy is presented. In this region, ongoing land use patterns reflect both historical adaptation to local environmental constraints and positive, social-oriented management. More protective land use patterns are mostly widespread in fragile physiographic conditions like those of the mountain areas, where woodland, shrub, and grassland patches are larger and cover more than 90% of the land. This situation is regarded as a positive outcome of the traditional public ownership regime, because public lands amount to more than 70% in the mountain areas. The hilly areas, where public property drops to 28%, presents landscape metrics showing a well balanced situation between agricultural land use and protective native woods and grasslands, which provides a finegrained and harmonious Mediterranean landscape. In the low-land areas, with anthropic pressure and more favourable conditions for crop productivity, there is much more agricultural land, even if some mitigation in terms of biodiversity maintenance is offered by the presence of hedgerow ecotones. In these areas, landscape analysis is not able to supply meaningful information about cropping system design and practices which can maintain a sustainable level of soil fertility and quality of natural resources and processes, and further analysis at cropping system level should be carried out.

  4. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  5. Simplification approach to detect urban areas vulnerable to flash floods using GIS: a case study Warsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, Marzena; Osińska-Skotak, Katarzyna

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a consistent methodology to determine urban areas that are particularly vulnerable to the effects of torrential rains. They are, as a result of climate change, more and more prevalent in the temperate climate, usually spring - summer from mid-May to late August - and involve the risk of flash floods. In recent years, the increase in the incidence of such phenomena is noticeable throughout the whole Europe. It is assumed that through the analysis of environmental and infrastructural conditions, using the developed methodology, it is possible to determine areas vulnerable to flooding due to torrential rains. This may lead to a better management, quicker response in case of a phenomenon, and even to take measures to prevent the occurrence of adverse effects of torrential rains (for instance modernization of the urban drainage system and development of methods to get rid of rapidly collected water). Designation of areas particularly vulnerable to the effects of heavy rains can be achieved by adapting hydrological models, but they require an appropriate adjustment and highly accurate input data: (based on spot or radar measurements of precipitation, land cover, soil type, humidity, wind speed, vegetation species in a given area, growing season, the roughness and porosity of the cover and soil moisture) but such detailed data are generally hard to obtain or not available for less developed areas. It could also be achieved by performing spatial analysis in GIS, which is a more simplified form of modelling, but it gives results more quickly and the methodology can be adapted to the commonly available data. A case study of Warsaw's district Powiśle has been undertaken for three epochs - from 2008 to 2010 and areas, that are particularly vulnerable to the effects of flash floods and heavy rains, have been designated.

  6. Study of seismicity around Toba area based on relocation hypocenter result from BMKG catalogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdhan, Mohamad [Indonesia' s Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) Jl. Angkasa 1 No. 2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat, 10720 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Indonesia, Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2013-09-09

    Toba area has complex tectonic setting attracting many earth scientists to study and understand tectonic and geological process or setting. The area is affected by oblique subduction zone, Renun Sumatran fault sub segment and some volcanoes that are near it. The earthquake catalogue provided by BMKG from April, 2009 to December, 2011 must be relocated firstly to get the precise hypocenter. We used catalogue data of P and S phase or P phase only and double-difference method to relocate the earthquakes. The results show hypocenter position enhancement that can be interpreted tectonically. The earthquakes after relocation relating to the Sumatran fault, subduction zone, volcanoes and seismic activities beneath Toba caldera can be mapped clearly. The relocated hypocenters in this study are very important to provide information for seismic hazard assessment and disaster mitigation study.

  7. Study of seismicity around Toba area based on relocation hypocenter result from BMKG catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdhan, Mohamad; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2013-09-01

    Toba area has complex tectonic setting attracting many earth scientists to study and understand tectonic and geological process or setting. The area is affected by oblique subduction zone, Renun Sumatran fault sub segment and some volcanoes that are near it. The earthquake catalogue provided by BMKG from April, 2009 to December, 2011 must be relocated firstly to get the precise hypocenter. We used catalogue data of P and S phase or P phase only and double-difference method to relocate the earthquakes. The results show hypocenter position enhancement that can be interpreted tectonically. The earthquakes after relocation relating to the Sumatran fault, subduction zone, volcanoes and seismic activities beneath Toba caldera can be mapped clearly. The relocated hypocenters in this study are very important to provide information for seismic hazard assessment and disaster mitigation study.

  8. Agrobiodiversity of Muda Rice Agroecosystem:A case Study in Largest Granary Area of Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Shah Ruddin Md Shah; Mashhor Mansor; Shahrul Anuar Mohd Shah; Che Salmah Mohd Rawi; Abu Hassan Ahmad; Ibrahim Jaafar

    2008-01-01

    A survey was carried out at the largest rice cultivation area in Peninsular Malaysia, the Muda rice agroecosystem. The main objective of this study was to document the overall biodiversity associated with this unique agroecosystem by using a combination of sampling techniques in order to record different groups of fauna and flora. The total number of biota recorded and identified from the rice field ecosystem during the study period consisted of 46 species of zooplankton, 81 species of aquatic insects, 5 species of rodents, 7 species of bats, 87 species of birds, 11 species of fishes and 58 species of weeds. A long-term study should be carried out as more species are expected to be recorded when more of the Muda rice agroecosystem area has been sampled to obtain sufficient information on the Muda rice agrobiodiversity.

  9. Investigating the Minimum Size of Study Area for an Activity-Based Travel Demand Forecasting Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Bao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, considerable attention has been paid to the activity-based approach for transportation planning and forecasting by both researchers and practitioners. However, one of the practical limitations of applying most of the currently available activity-based models is their computation time, especially when large amount of population and detailed geographical unit level are taken into account. In this research, we investigated the possibility of restraining the size of the study area in order to reduce the computation time when applying an activity-based model, as it is often the case that only a small territory rather than the whole region is the focus of a specific study. By introducing an accuracy level of the model, we proposed in this research an iteration approach to determine the minimum size of the study area required for a target territory. In the application, we investigated the required minimum size of the study area surrounding each of the 327 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, with regard to two different transport modes, that is, car as driver and public transport. Afterwards, a validation analysis and a case study were conducted. All the experiments were carried out by using the FEATHERS, an activity-based microsimulation modeling framework currently implemented for the Flanders region of Belgium.

  10. A Study Of Protein Calorie Malnutrition Amongst Under Six Children In Slum Area Of Kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the nutritional profile amongst under six children in slum area of Kanpur.Study Design Door to door survey by collecting relevent information from head of household on a pretested questionaire. Study UnitEach of household having any child in the age group less than 6 years.Study Area The study was conducted in Katari slum area of Kalyanpur, Kanpur.Study Variable Grades of PCM as per recommendation of nutrition sub-committee of paediatrics (ICMR-1972 Statistical analysis:- By chi-square test of significance.Results The highest percentage of PCM was observed amongst 0-1 year and boys of single families whose parents were illiterate and unemployed or labourers belonging mainly to lower socio-economic class.Conclusions:- To reduce childhood mortality with reference to PCM, die literacy status of parents especially of mothers should be increased and social reform measures to be taken for engaging them in some income generating jobs/business, agriculture etc.

  11. [Landscape character assessment framework in rural area: A case study in Qiaokou, Chang-sha, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Liu, Wen-ping; Yu, Zhen-rong

    2015-05-01

    Based on the concept and methods of landscape character assessment (LCA) in England, this paper applied a complete process of landscape character assessment with a case study in Qiaokou Town, which is located in a typical southern paddy fields area in Changsha City. We drew the landscape character map of Qiaokou Town through desk classification and field survey, identified and compared the key characters of each character area, and proposed suggestions on the improvement and stewardship of landscape characters. The results showed that Qiaokou could be divided into 2 landscape character types and 7 landscape character areas with the main differences in cropland and vegetation pattern as well as aesthetic characters. The case study indicated that LCA could be a critical tool to identify the characteristics in rural area, and provide helpful guidance to protect, restore and maintain the unique culture and characters of rural landscape, which is useful for targeted rural landscape development. In the future, we suggested that the assessment on the effects of landscape construction measures on the ecosystem services should be incorporated in LCA research as well.

  12. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunyan; Persson, Bo

    2008-03-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load [1-4]. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches to zero. The present results may be very important for soft solids, e.g., rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderate high loads without plastic deformation of the solids. References: [1] C. Yang and B.N.J. Persson, arXiv:0710.0276, (to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.) [2] B.N.J. Persson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 125502 (2007) [3] L. Pei, S. Hyun, J.F. Molinari and M.O. Robbins, J. Mech. Phys. Sol. 53, 2385 (2005) [4] M. Benz, K.J. Rosenberg, E.J. Kramer and J.N. Israelachvili, J. Phy. Chem. B.110, 11884 (2006)

  13. Mitigation of urban heat stress – a modelling case study for the area of Stuttgart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallmann, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2050 the fraction of urban global population will increase to over 69%, which means that around 6.3 billion people are expected to live in urban areas (UN 2011. Cities are the predominant habitation places for humans to live and are vulnerable to extreme weather events aggravating phenomena like heat stress. Finding mitigation strategies to sustain future development is of great importance, given expected influences on human health. In this study, the mesoscale numerical model WRF is used on a regional scale for the urban area of Stuttgart, to simulate the effect of urban planning strategies on dynamical processes affecting urban climate. After comparing two urban parameterisation schemes, a sensitivity study for different scenarios is performed; it shows that a change of the reflective properties of surfaces has the highest impact on near-surface temperatures compared to an increase of urban green areas or a decrease of building density. The Urban Heat Island (UHI describes the temperature difference between urban and rural temperatures; it characterises regional urban climate and is responsible for urban-rural circulation patterns. Applying urban planning measures may decrease the intensity of the UHI in the study area by up to 2 °C by using heat-reflective roof paints or by 1 °C through replacing impervious surfaces by natural vegetation in the urban vicinity – compared to a value of 2.5 °C for the base case. Because of its topographical location in a valley and the overall high temperatures in this region, the area of Stuttgart suffers from heat stress to a comparatively large extent.

  14. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness study area : Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge : Wilderness study report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an in-depth report containing the results of a wilderness study done of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge. It covers the objectives of...

  15. Assateague Island Wilderness Study Area Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study report is presented in partial fulfillment of the review requirements of Section 3(c) of the Wilderness Act (P.L. 88-577. The entire Chincoteague National...

  16. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ahmad, E-mail: syuhada-mech@yahoo.com; Mubarak, Amir Zaki, E-mail: amir-zaki-mubarak@yahoo.com; Maulana, M. Ilham, E-mail: mil2ana@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University Jl. Syech Abdul Rauf No.7 Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  17. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  18. A national study on nurses' retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Jamal, Diana; Dimassi, Hani; Dumit, Nuhad Y; McEwen, Mary K; Jaafar, Maha; Murray, Susan F

    2013-09-30

    Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student's t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses' characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses' intent to stay in underserved areas. A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P Lebanon, especially in the hospital sector. The status quo is disquieting as it reflects an unstable and

  19. A national study on nurses’ retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. Methods This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student’s t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses’ characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses’ intent to stay in underserved areas. Results A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P Lebanon, especially in the hospital sector. The status quo is disquieting as it

  20. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BDAT INCINERATION OF CERCLA SARMS AT THE JOHN ZINK COMPANY TEST FACILITY (FINAL PROJECT REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of a treatability study of rotary kiln incineration of a synthetic "Superfund soil" bearing a wide range of chemical contaminants typically occurring at Superfund sites. This surrogate soil is referred to as a synthetic analytical reference ...

  1. A study of infant deaths in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushashree Garikipati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of neonatal deaths and its underlying correlates in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India Methods We conducted a two phase cross-sectional study (N=230. Semi-structured questionnaire schedules (in the vernacular-Telugu were used in the initial qualitative phase, to obtain specific information from mothers who delivered in a one year period prior to the study. Information from the analysed qualitative data was used to construct a questionnaire-schedule for the 2nd phase which used quantitative survey techniques. Results It was observed that Infant Mortality ratio (IMR in Vizianagaram district was 239 per 1000 live births in the tribal areas under study. This was ten times higher than that reported by the district (22/1000 and 4-5 times higher than SRS data of 2011 for AP. It was observed that 28% of infants died within first day, 68% within first week (including the first day and 81% within first month. Conclusions The high IMR observed in the within first month of life in tribal areas, interventions to tackle them should be prioritized in this ‘golden period’. The health workers should be re-trained to identify and manage the early warning signs of neonatal complications.

  2. Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

  3. Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

  4. A multilevel study of the determinants of area-level inequalities in colorectal cancer survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turrell Gavin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, associations between geographic remoteness, socioeconomic disadvantage, and colorectal cancer (CRC survival show that survival rates are lowest among residents of geographically remote regions and those living in disadvantaged areas. At present we know very little about the reasons for these inequalities, hence our capacity to intervene to reduce the inequalities is limited. Methods/Design This study, the first of its type in Australia, examines the association between CRC survival and key area- and individual-level factors. Specifically, we will use a multilevel framework to investigate the possible determinants of area- and individual-level inequalities in CRC survival and quantify the relative contribution of geographic remoteness, socioeconomic and demographic factors, disease stage, and access to diagnostic and treatment services, to these inequalities. The multilevel analysis will be based on survival data relating to people diagnosed with CRC in Queensland between 1996 and 2005 (n = 22,723 from the Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR, area-level data from other data custodians such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and individual-level data from the QCR (including extracting stage from pathology records and Queensland Hospitals. For a subset of this period (2003 and 2004 we will utilise more detailed, individual-level data (n = 1,966 covering a greater range of risk factors from a concurrent research study. Geo-coding and spatial technology will be used to calculate road travel distances from patients' residence to treatment centres. The analyses will be conducted using a multilevel Cox proportional hazards model with Level 1 comprising individual-level factors (e.g. occupation and level 2 area-level indicators of remoteness and area socioeconomic disadvantage. Discussion This study focuses on the health inequalities for rural and disadvantaged populations that have often been documented but poorly

  5. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred; Weigel, Jay F.; Bruchmiller, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in Austin, Houston, and San Antonio.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Houston, began studies in the Houston metropolitan area in 1964. The program was expanded in 1968 to include collection of water-quality data. The objectives of the Houston urban-hydrology study are as follows:To determine, on the basis of historical data and hydro!ogic analyses, the magnitude and frequency of flood peaks and flood volumes.To determine the effect of urban development on flood peaks and volumes.To ascertain the variation in water quality for different flow conditions and different seasons.This report, the sixteenth in a series of reports to be published annually, is primarily applicable to objective 2. The report presents hydro!ogic data collected in the Houston urban area for the 1979 water year (October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979).A report by Johnson and Sayre (1973) utilized records collected from 1965 to 1969 to make a study of the effects of urbanization on floods in the Houston area. The report also summarizes various basin parameters. A report by Waddell, Massey, and Jennings (1979) presents data on computed runoff from the Houston area and computed concentrations and loads of selected waterquality constituents combined in the inflow to Galveston Bay. The study utilized a variation of the "STORM" model developed by the Hydro!ogic Engineering Center of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. A report prepared by Li scum and Massey (1980) presents a technique for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in the Houston area from drainage areas, bank-full conveyance, and percentage of urban development.A definition of terms related to streamflow, water quality, and other hydrologic data, as used in this report, are defined in "U.S. Geological Survey, Water-resources data for Texas, volume 2, 1979."To facilitate the

  6. Study area boundary derived from 1:1,000,000-scale hydrographic areas and flow systems for the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system of Nevada, Utah, and parts of adjacent states

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains the amalgamation of the hydrographic area (HA) boundaries and polygons for the GBCAAS study area. The study area consists of 165 HAs based on...

  7. Integration of different geospatial data in urban areas: a case of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Francesca; Lambertini, Alessandro; Bitelli, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    Efficient management of the territory requires today the availability of comprehensive geographical data, accurate and up to date, supported by powerful databases. In this context, remote sensing data are used for a variety of applications related to urban areas; some examples are land use/cover mapping, urban growth and soil sealing evaluation, detection of green areas, updating of existing maps, energy applications and detection and characterization of buildings. This work aims to highlight how different geomatic techniques and data acquired from heterogeneous surveys can be today used together for producing or updating a digital cartography inside a GIS. The study has been conducted in the urban area of Bologna, Emilia-Romagna region, located in the North of Italy. A high resolution WorldView-2 satellite image and the DSM/DTM, obtained by airborne LiDAR, have been used to obtain a vector layer of the buildings. In particular, to distinguish the buildings among all the elements present in the study area, such as roads, trees, vegetated areas, etc., an object-oriented classification has been performed. This approach, working on groups of pixels (image objects), allows to expand the information content of the basic unit of classification. Therefore, features such as shape, texture and contextual information, coupled with spectral characteristics, potentially allow cartographers to generate products that are competitive, in terms of thematic contents, with those derived from the photo-interpretation. A first application described in this work is to perform a quick change analysis procedure based on the results of the classification compared to an existing numerical cartographic base or a previous classification.

  8. Perfusion SPECT studies with mapping of Brodmann areas in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from frontotemporal degeneration syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies with mapping of Brodmann areas (BAs) in the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTLD) syndromes. Thirty-nine patients with AD and 73 patients with FTLD syndromes [behavioural variant FTLD (bvFTLD); language variant FTLD (lvFTLD), including semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA); and corticobasal degeneration (CBD)/progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) syndromes] underwent brain perfusion SPECT. The NeuroGam software was used for the semiquantitative evaluation of perfusion in BAs of the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Compared with those in AD patients, BAs with statistically significant hypoperfusion were found in the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and cingulated cortices and Broca's areas of FTLD and bvFTLD patients; in the temporal and prefrontal cortices and Broca's areas of lvFTLD patients; in the left temporal gyrus of SD patients; in premotor and supplementary motor, prefrontal, orbitofrontal, temporal and anterior cingulated cortices and Broca's areas of PNFA patients; and in the prefrontal, temporal, posterior cingulated and primary and secondary visual cortices of CBD/PSP patients. BA 46R could differentiate AD patients from FTLD and bvFTLD patients; 21L and 25L were found to be independent predictors for lvFTLD in comparison with AD, and 25R, 21L and 23R could differentiate AD patients from PNFA, SD and CBD/PSP patients, respectively. Brain perfusion SPECT with BA mapping in AD and FTLD patients could improve the definition of brain areas that are specifically implicated in these disorders, resulting in a more accurate differential diagnosis.

  9. Study on displacement field generated by aftershocks in Landers earthquake fault zone and its adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong-ge; SHEN Zheng-kang; LAN Cong-xin

    2005-01-01

    The displacement field generated by aftershocks in Landers earthquake fault zone and its adjacent areas is calculated in this study. The result is compared with the displacement field of the main shock calculated by co-seismic slip model of Wald and Heaton (1994). The result shows that the direction of displacement generated by aftershocks in Landers seismic fault plane and its adjacent areas is consistent with that generated by main shock. The rupture of aftershock is generally inherited from main shock. The displacement generated by aftershocks is up to an order of centimeter and can be measured by GPS sites nearby. So when we use geodetic data measured after earthquake to study the geophysical problems such as crustal viscosity structure, afterslip distribution, etc., only the displacement field generated by aftershocks considered, can uncertainty be reduced to minimum and realistic result be obtained.

  10. Uranium in the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative study area, southwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna B.

    2015-10-20

    Wyoming has led the nation as the producer of uranium ore since 1995 and contains the largest reserves of any state. Approximately one third of Wyoming’s total production came from deposits in, or immediately adjacent to, the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) study area in the southwestern corner of the state including all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, Uinta, and parts of southern Fremont Counties. Conventional open-pit and underground mining methods were employed in the study area until the early 1990s. Since the early 1990s, all uranium mining has been by in-situ recovery (also called in-situ leach). It is estimated that statewide remaining resources of 141,000 tonnes of uranium are about twice the 84,000 tonnes of uranium that the state has already produced.

  11. The study of the aging behavior on large area MCP-PMT

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wen-Wen; Qi, Ming; Xia, Jing-Kai; Cheng, Ya-Ping; Ning, Zhe; Luo, Feng-Jiao; Heng, Yue-Kun; Liu, Shu-Lin; Si, Shu-Guang; Sun, Jian-Ning; Li, Dong; Wang, Xing-Chao; Huang, Guo-Rui; Tian, Jing-Shou; Wei, Yong-Lin; Liu, Hu-Lin; Li, Wei-Hua; Wang, Xing; Xin, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Aging experiments of a novel type of large area MCP-PMT made by JUNO collaboration were conducted.In these aging experiments, the multi-photoelectron spectrum and single photoelectron spectrum were measured daily,as well as the MCP resistance of the second PMT before and after the experiment. Two PMTs were aged successivelyfor cross check. The first PMT was aged for 52 days, while the other one was aged for 84 days. In order to study the mechanism of the aging process, the high voltage on the second PMT was increased to accelerate its aging process when the cumulative output of charge from its anode was about 4 C. From our study, it can be known that large area MCP-PMT aging had a strong relationship with the related MCPs. In accordance with the PMT aging curve,a PMT aging model was setup and a general aging formula was given.

  12. The study of recent seismicity in the aftershock area of Neftegorsk earthquake using waveform cross correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitov, Ivan; Turuntaev, Sergey; Konovalov, Alexei; Stepnov, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Unusually long duration of seismic activity (more than 20 years) was observed in the aftershock area of the 1995 Neftegorsk, Sakhalin, Russia catastrophic earthquake (Ms=7.6). To study the phenomena, we have processed seismic data from 130 events occurred within that area as measured between 2006 and 2015. In order to improve the accuracy of relative location and magnitude estimation of these events we have applied new techniques based on waveform cross correlation. We use 7 three-component (3-C) seismic stations which detected most of these events. Three-component waveform templates were prepared for these stations from those events which had signals with SNR>5 at vertical channels. The events with 3 and more templates are used as master-events for waveform cross correlation. Overall, the re-estimated location and magnitudes demonstrate higher precisions and are used for the statistical analysis and numerical modelling of seismo-tectonic regime within the studied zone.

  13. Spatial and Seasonal Studies of Sedimentological and Neoichnological Characteristics from Mangrove areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Us Saher

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to appraise the physicochemical properties of mangrove sediments and their influence on neoichnological properties produced by different crab species from Korangi Creek (S1 and Sandspit backwater areas (S2 and S3, Karachi. The significant spatial, seasonal and tidal differences (p <0.05 were examined in %moisture, %porosity and sorting coefficient Φ.The significant spatial and seasonal variations were observed in total organic matter, mean Φ, skewness Φ and kurtosis Φ of sediment. Neoichnological properties (burrow number, diameter and total burrow opening area were observed with significant differences among the macrohabitat (stations and microhabitat (tidal levels. The correlation analysis indicated that the neoichnological properties are strongly linked with sedimentological properties such as water contents, total organic matter and textural parameters. This study could be employed to distinguish between different paleoenvironmental controlling factors, predicated on similar paleoichnological features made by similar fossil organisms in a mangrove environment.

  14. Carbon isotopic study of individual alcohol compounds in modern sediments from Nansha Islands sea area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段毅; 文启彬; 郑国东; 罗斌杰

    1997-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions of individual n-alkanols and sterols in modern sediments from the Nan-sha Islands sea area are measured after derivatization to trimethylsilyl ethers by the new isotopic analytical technique of GC/C/IRMS. The effects of the three added silyl carbon atoms in every alcohol molecule on these compound isotopic compositions and the characteristics of their carbon isotopic compositions are studied. Then their biological sources are discussed using their carbon isotopic compositions.

  15. VOC measurements in the Grenoble area and study of the benzaldehyde behaviour in simulation chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, P.; Laffond, M.; Baussand, P.; Jacob, V.; Denis, I. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (FR))

    1991-07-01

    The main results of three measurement campaigns carried out in the Grenoble area and concerning 22 volatile organic compounds (VOC) are presented; highly volatile organic compounds follow-up is also analyzed. The effects of two irradiation powers and two types of particles (muscovite and fly ashes) on benzaldehyde degradation in presence of OH radicals are studied. The presence of particles is shown to increase the reaction kinetic constant and modify the composition of the reaction medium.

  16. Petrological and Geochemical Studies on Granitoids in BibinagarBhongir Area, Nalgonda District, Telangana, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. Ramakrishna; Mallesh, G.; Ch. Ravi; M. Narsimha Reddy

    2016-01-01

    The Granitoids of the Bibinagar- Bhongir area in the Nalgonda district are purely high potassic calc alkaline and meta aluminous and A-type belongs to Peninsular Gneissic Complex of the Eastern Dharwar Craton. The petrographic study of granitoids indicates that of pure magmatic origin in the form of different magmatic textures viz. perthitic, porphyritic and poiklitic textures. Geochemically the granitoids are rich in K2O & Na2O suggesting source from calc-alkaline magma. The Gran...

  17. Collective Correlations of Brodmann Areas fMRI Study with RMT-Denoising

    OpenAIRE

    Burda, Zdzislaw; Kornelsen, Jennifer; Nowak, Maciej A.; Porebski, Bartosz; Sboto-Frankenstein, Uta; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Tyburczyk, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We study collective behavior of Brodmann regions of human cerebral cortex using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Random Matrix Theory (RMT). The raw fMRI data is mapped onto the cortex regions corresponding to the Brodmann areas with the aid of the Talairach coordinates. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the Pearson correlation matrix for 41 different Brodmann regions is carried out to determine their collective activity in the idle state and in the active state stimulated...

  18. Highlights of a recycling behaviour study in South Africa’s large urban areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, WF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available behaviour study in South Africa?s large urban areas WF STRYDOM CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 Email: wstrydom@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION The recently promulgated National Environmental Management...: Waste Act (RSA, 2008) requires the delivery of an efficient collection service combined with cooperation from all stakeholders to recycle, including households. This poster presents the highlights from a recycling behaviour survey conducted among a...

  19. Incorporating New Areas of Business into Business Language Studies: Social Media Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that social media marketing has established itself as a vital area of marketing for businesses both large and small, global and local, Business Language Studies (BLS) has yet to turn its full attention to this business activity that requires a keen sense of language, culture, and business. As BLS continues to build and articulate its theoretical and methodological grounds, social media marketing provides rich research and teaching possibilities. However, social media is a dyn...

  20. Association among the study area and the knowledge and practices regarding the transmition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lina María

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: HIV/AIDS is a pandemic. The present statistics showed that the youths between 15 and 24 years old are the more vulnerable population. In Colombia, 7,497 youths among 10 and 30 years old live with HIV/AIDS. Objective: Determine the association between the study area and the knowledge and behaviours in relation to the transmission of HIV/AIDS in the students of the Universidad Industrial de Santander. Methodology: Cross-sectional population survey. Stratified sampling. Survey about knowledge and behaviours related with the transmission of HIV/AIDS in 213 students of the following study areas: health, basics sciences, engineering and humanities.The statistic analysis applied logistic regression. Results: 101 women and 112 men were studied. Mean age was 22 years. 13.2% of health, 27.2% of basics sciences, 30.0% of engineering and 29.6% of humanities. Most of them know the way of transmission of HIV, 19% doesn’t consider that to have sexual relations down the effect of alcohol is a risk practice for acquired it; 96% know that the condom must be used during all time of the sexual relation; 79.8% had sexual relations but only 26.4% of them said use always the condom. Health’s students obtained a mean of correct answers significantly higher than the means of the others students. The association between behaviours and study area reported that the humanities’ students had a risk significantly higher of have inappropriate behaviour in relation to the transmission of HIV than the health’s students. Conclusions: Although this population has adequate knowledge about the disease, it presents behaviours of risk to acquire HIV infection. The students of humanities area must be objects of a program to prevent HIV infection, this program must be oriented to their specific characteristics.

  1. Progress of environmental studies in coal mining areas of western Pennsylvania and central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychaner, James H.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies related to the regional environmental effects of coal mining in the Appalachian Plateau were conducted in 1998 as part of the National Water‐Quality Assessment program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The study area of about 20,000 square miles included parts of the Allegheny and Monongahela River basins in the north and the Kanawha River basin in the south. Water in domestic wells downgradient from fully reclaimed surface coal mines was compared to water in similar wells at unmined sites. As expected, pH was lower and the concentration of sulfate was greater at mined sites in both areas, although the pH difference was greater in the southern area. Median concentrations of iron and manganese exceeded federal drinking‐water standards at mined sites in both areas and at unmined sites in the southern area. Median concentrations of radon near reclaimed mines were about half those at unmined sites. Surface water was sampled during summer base flow at about 180 sites that drain between 5 and 80 square miles; the sites also were sampled during 1979‐81. Median pH in 1998 was 7.9 in the north and 7.4 in the south, about 0.5 unit higher than in 1980 in both areas. Median concentrations of sulfate increased from 38 mg/L to 56 mg/L in the north and from 46 mg/L to 77 mg/L in the south, in apparent contradiction to the generally lower sulfur content of geologic units in the southern area. Among 52 basins where mining occurred both before and after 1980, the sulfate concentration more than doubled in 13 (25 percent), including greater than five‐fold increases in 5 (10 percent). For 16 mined basins where no mining has occurred since 1980, the median decrease in sulfate concentration was 18 percent, from which the half‐time for oxidation of mining‐related pyrite is estimated to be about 65 years.

  2. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio, E-mail: caciomn@usp.br [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Palo, Renato Miotto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (ICT/UNESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Pinto, Larissa Fernanda; Daltoe, Gisele; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi [Universidade Ibirapuera (UNIB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia

    2015-03-01

    Abstract: Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I) and WaveOne (Group II) and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III). Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation. (author)

  3. The Study of Airline Merger and Acquisition in the Great China Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zhengyi

    2003-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 20 th century has some long lasting effect on the air transportation industry in Asia, especially in the Great China Area. Starting from 1998, airlines in both China and Taiwan suffered some serious financial losses due to the diminishing travel demand caused by the economic recession. Airlines were forced to cut price to attract passengers and hence crashed the market discipline. A number of airline mergers and acquisitions were then driven by the markets and the governments. After China and Taiwan have both entered the World Trade Organization, some mega-merging cases were finalized in late 2002 for better fitting the world's aviation competitions. This paper reviews the nine merging and acquiring cases in the Great China Area in the past 5 years. Almost all the airlines in the area were involved. The new groups of airlines and the survival airlines are introduced. Market response to the airline mergers will also be examined. A general look over the performance of the new airlines will be discussed. And the future of the market will also be analyzed. Finally, the practices and the impacts of current inter-state mergers in the Great China Area will be examined. The study has expected a highly concentrated domestic market in both China and Taiwan. Each of the market will be dominated by three major airline groups of their own. Cross-holding equity within these 6 leading aviation groups would also be possible after further deregulations.

  4. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacio MOURA-NETTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I and WaveOne (Group II and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III. Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation.

  5. A Study on the Estimation Method of Risk Based Area for Jetty Safety Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Wook Nam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the importance of safety-monitoring systems was highlighted by the unprecedented collision between a ship and a jetty in Yeosu. Accordingly, in this study, we introduce the concept of risk based area and develop a methodology for a jetty safety-monitoring system. By calculating the risk based areas for a ship and a jetty, the risk of collision was evaluated. To calculate the risk based areas, we employed an automatic identification system for the ship, stopping-distance equations, and the regulation velocity near the jetty. In this paper, we suggest a risk calculation method for jetty safety monitoring that can determine the collision probability in real time and predict collisions using the amount of overlap between the two calculated risk based areas. A test was conducted at a jetty control center at GS Caltex, and the effectiveness of the proposed risk calculation method was verified. The method is currently applied to the jetty-monitoring system at GS Caltex in Yeosu for the prevention of collisions.

  6. An Experimental Study of the Noise Due to Traffic in a Congested Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M.; Sankar, P.

    2016-03-01

    Noise pollution in an urban environment is an issue of serious concern in the major cities of India. There are various factors that contribute to the increase of noise levels in urban areas. The intensity of traffic is one of the factors which contributes to a drastic increase in environmental noise. The management of noise pollution has to be considered in the decision making process. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the existing noise level due to the traffic in Velachery which is declared as a sensitive area by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF). The noise level data is collected using the MS6710 digital sound meter. The Custic simulation software version 3.2 is used for finding the propagation of noise. The spatial patterns of measurement were also calculated, in the sub-urban area of Velachery, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. A means of transmitting this data to vehicles moving in the area, through a wireless medium is simulated using NCTUns 6.0 (network simulator), to enable drivers to understand the environmental conditions. A hardware was also designed which can be used to transmit and receive the noise data using the Zigbee module. A noise transmitting station is placed at a junction, so that it can transmit this noise data to the receivers which are fitted inside the vehicles.

  7. An etnographic study of elementary education in the rural area of Dompu county, the province of West Nusa Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Nurrahmah Nurrahmah; Zamroni Zamroni; Sumarno Sumarno

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to describe: (1) public service for elementary education in rural areas; (2) the meaning of education and the implementation of elementary education in the people of rural areas; and (3) the life and meaning of poverty for people of rural areas. The study was etnographic research. The subjects were the providers and users of educational service. The research concludes that: (1) educational service in rural areas has not been coordinated and integrated both vertically and horizo...

  8. Landslide susceptibility assessment considering landslide typology. A case study in the area north of Lisbon (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Zêzere

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to confirm the importance of discriminate different types of slope movements for a better landslide susceptibility evaluation. The study was applied to the sample area of Calhandriz (11.3 km2 in the area North of Lisbon. Sixty shallow translational slides, 23 deeper translational movements and 19 rotational movements were selected for statistical analysis. Landslide susceptibility assessment was achieved using a data-driven approach: the Information Value Method (Yin and Yan, 1988. The method was applied both to the total set of considered landslides and to each type of slope movement, and the obtained success rates for the highest susceptibility classes are higher in the latter case. The different types of landslides are not equally conditioned by the considered instability factors. Information scores are higher for lithology, concordance between slope aspect and dip of the strata, and slope angle, respectively, for rotational movements, translational movements and shallow translational slides. The information value of the variables "presence of artificial cut (roads" and "presence of fluvial channel" is systematically high for the three types of slope movement, pointing out the importance of both anthropogenic influence and bank erosion on slope instability in the study area. Different types of landslides have neither the same magnitude nor equal damaging potential. Furthermore, technical strategies to mitigate landsliding also depend on landslide typology. These are additional reasons to discriminate between different types of slope movements when assessing landslide susceptibility and hazard.

  9. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca's Area: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.

  10. Wastewater collection and treatment technologies for semi-urban areas of India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaravadivel, M; Vigneswaran, S

    2001-01-01

    Sanitation and wastewater management problems in small and medium towns in India (referred to as "semi-urban areas"--SUAs) are distinctly different from those of large cities or rural villages. There is an apparent lack of choices of appropriate sanitation options for these semi-urban areas, leading them to adopt on-site sanitation technologies. A field study of four such small towns in India was conducted to evaluate the suitability of available low-cost wastewater collection and treatment technologies, in light of their current practice. Based on the field study, this paper suggests a system comprising "combined surface sewers" and "reed-bed channel" for collection and treatment of wastewater for semi-urban areas, that can utilize all the existing infrastructure to effect better sanitation at lower costs. The suggested system involves converting the existing open wastewater collection drains on the road sides, as "decentralized" networks of covered drains with simple structural modifications to collect both wastewater and stormwater; and, converting the large open drains on the outskirts of SUAs that carry wastewater to agricultural fields, as gravel media filled beds planted with local reeds. Cost estimates for the towns studied indicate this system to be over 70% cheaper compared to conventional collection and treatment systems.

  11. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca's Area: An fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kunert

    Full Text Available Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects. A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1 general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2 error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.

  12. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED ALIAKBAR REZAEI TALESHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversity index is the useful criteria for evaluating sustainability of forest ecosystems. Current study carried out in Alder (Alnus subcordata C.A. Meyer stands that located in north forests of Iran. The aim of the study is express the plant diversity indices and positive role of the trees both natural and plantation forms. Data of Alder trees and associated species were recorded in sample plots which lay down in study area randomly. The abundance, density, percentage of frequency of each species was calculated by standard methods. The results of analysis revealed that, 47 species (21 trees and shrubs species and 26 herbaceous species were abundant in 80 sample plots both in natural and plantations Alder stands. Whilst the results showed that the number of species in natural area (44 species was more than plantation stands (37 species. Comparison of species distribution in different physiographical situation showed that some species such as Alnus subcordata, Parrotia persica, Rubus hyrcanus and Prunus sp. recorded in spread rang of physiographic variables as elevation, slopes and aspects. The biodiversity criteria as Shannon H’ and Simpsons D and 1/D indexes showed that they were more in natural stands than plantation areas.

  13. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  14. Study of depression risk in geriatric population of urban area of Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh P. Kundap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As age advances there is increased morbidity and functional loss. A variety of depressive factors and occurrence of varying life events, greatly impact on one’s psychological status, making the elderly more prone to depression. Decreased care & attention, economic dependence and unorganised geriatric health services are adding to the morbidity. Objective: To study the prevalence of depression risk in the elderly population aged 65 yrs and above and identify various risk factors. Material & Methods: Study design: Cross sectional study. Study area: Urban field practice area of SKNMC & GH. Sample size and sampling technique: with 95 % confidence interval & 5 % alpha sample size was calculated to be 374 by using Epi info software version 7.1.2.0. Stratified Simple random sampling technique used. Study tool: Sociodemographic profile recorded & depression was assessed with geriatric depression scale15. GCP and ethical guidelines followed as advised for human studies. Results and conclusion: The prevalence of depression risk in the study population was 20% (Females =26%, males=15%. Depression risk was seen statistically significantly associated with increasing age, female gender, absence of spouse support, economic dependence and type of family.

  15. Long-term airborne contamination studied by attic dust in an industrial area: Ajka, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyesi, P.; Jordan, G.; Szabo, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy industrial activities such as mining, metal industry, coal fired power plants have produced large amount of by-products and wide-spread pollution, particularly in the period of centrally dictated economy after WWII, in Hungary. Several studies suggest that significant amount of these pollutants have been deposited in the urban environment. Nowadays, more than half of the world's population is living in urban areas and people spend almost 80% of their lives indoors in developed countries increasing human health risk due to contamination present in urban dwellings. Attic dust sampling was applied to determine the long-term airborne contamination load in the industrial town of Ajka (Hungary). There has been a high industrial activity in Ajka since the end of the 19th century. In addition to aluminum and alumina industry, coal mining, coal fired power plant and glass industry sites, generated numerous waste heaps which act as multi-contamination sources in the area. In October 2010 the Ajka red mud tailings pond failed and caused an accidental regional contamination of international significance. The major objective of this research was to study and map the spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in airborne attic dust samples. At 27 sampling sites 30 attic dust samples were collected. Sampling strategy followed a grid-based stratified random sampling design. In each cell a house for attic dust sample collection was selected that was located the closest to a randomly generated point in the grid cell. The project area covers a 8x8 grid of 1x1 km cells with a total area of 64 km2. In order to represent long-term industrial pollution, houses with attics kept intact for at least 30-40 years were selected for sampling. Sampling included the collection of background samples remotely placed from the industrialized urban area. The concentration of the major and toxic elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, and As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn

  16. Scabies among primary schoolchildren in Egypt: sociomedical environmental study in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegab DS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Doaa Salah Hegab,1 Abdullah Mahfouz Kato,1 Ibrahim Ali Kabbash,2 Ghada Maged Dabish3 1Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Public Health and Community, Faculty of Medicine, 3Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt Background/objectives: Scabies is a major global public health issue that might affect people from all socioeconomic levels. The primary contributing factors in contracting scabies seem to be poverty and overcrowded living conditions. Scabies often spreads among schoolchildren quite rapidly, owing to their close contact and overcrowding within the schools. However, limited information is available about its risk factors and the socioeconomic correlates among schoolchildren in Egypt. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of scabies and its risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area, Egypt. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on primary schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area. A predesigned questionnaire was used for data collection from the randomly selected 2,104 children, and clinical dermatological examination was done for them. Results: Out of 2,104 children studied, there were 92 cases of scabies with a prevalence of 4.4%. The prevalence of scabies infestation in male students was 3.9%, while it was 4.8% in females, with no statistical significance. The results showed significant variations in the risk of scabies infestation by factors such as residence, paternal education and occupation, maternal education, sleeping with others, having animals at home, dealing with animals outside the house, type of building for living, family history of itchy rash, and sharing clothes with others. Conclusion: In our community, scabies is still an important health problem affecting schoolchildren, especially in rural areas. It is characterized by a complex web of causation, particularly poor

  17. [Spatiotemporal patterns and driving forces of land use change in industrial relocation area: a case study of old industrial area in Tiexi of Shenyang, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Ling; Bing, Long-Fei; Xi, Feng-Ming; Wu, Rui; Geng, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Based on the QuickBird remote sensing images and with the support of GIS, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use change and its driving forces in old industrial area of Tiexi, Shenyang City of Liaoning Province in 2000-2010. During the study period, the industrial and mining warehouse land pattern had the greatest change, evolving from the historical pattern of residential land in the south and of industrial land in the north into residential land as the dominant land use pattern. In the last decade, the residential land area increased by 9%, mainly transferred from the industrial and mining warehouse land located in the north of Jianshe Road, while the industrial and mining warehouse land area decreased by 20%. The land areas for the commercial service and for the administrative and public services were increased by 1.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The land area for construction had a greater change, with an overall change rate being 76.9%. The land use change rate in 2000-2005 was greater than that in 2005-2010. National development strategies and policies, regional development planning, administrative reform, and industrial upgrading were the main driving forces of the land use change in old industrial area of Tiexi.

  18. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  19. Synopsis of some preliminary computational studies related to unsaturated zone transport at Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, E.

    1998-03-01

    Computational transport models are described with applications in three problem areas related to unsaturated zone moisture movement beneath Area G. These studies may be used to support the ongoing maintenance of the site Performance Assessment. The three areas include: a 1-D transient analysis with average tuff hydraulic properties in the near surface region with computed results compared to field data; the influence on near surface transient moisture percolation due to realistic distributions in hydraulic properties derived statistically from the observed variance in the field data; and the west to east moisture flow in a 2-D steady geometry approximation of the Pajarito Plateau. Results indicate that a simple transient model for transport of moisture volume fraction fits field data well compared to a moisture pulse observed in the active disposal unit, pit 37. Using realistic infiltration boundary conditions for summer showers and for spring snow melt conditions, the computed moisture pulses show significant propagation to less than 10-ft depth. Next, the hydraulic properties were varied on a 2-D grid using statistical distributions based on the field data means and variances for the hydraulic parameters. Near surface transient percolation in these conditions shows a qualitatively realistic percolation with a spatially variable wave front moving into the tuff; however, the flow does not channel into preferred paths and suggests there is no formation of fast paths which could enhance transportation of contaminants. Finally, moisture transport is modeled through an unsaturated 2-D slice representing the upper stratigraphic layers beneath Area G and a west-to-east cut of several miles to examine possible lateral movement from the west where percolation is assumed to be greater than at Area G. Results show some west-to-east moisture flux consistent with the assumed profile for the percolation boundary conditions.

  20. Orientation study of the Lake Sunapee area, New Hampshire. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karfunkel, B. S.; Sargent, K. A.

    1982-08-01

    An orientation study was conducted in the area of Lake Sunapee, New Hampshire, in preparation for a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance in glacial terrain. The study was carried out by the Savannah River Laboratory as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). Ground water, lake water, stream water, lake sediment, and stream sediment samples were collected at 188 sites. The concentrations of uranium and other elements were determined by neutron activation analysis. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the NURE program.

  1. Prolonged repeated acupuncture stimulation induces habituation effects in pain-related brain areas: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun; Park, Kyungmo; Wu, Hongli; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Bu, Junjie; Xu, Chunsheng; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36). Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM) analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  2. Study of near-surface layers of Omerelu area using low velocity layer (LVL method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajani, O.O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is important that we have good knowledge of the soil type so as to appreciate the enormous resources we are stepping on. It is more compelling for oil explorationists to know more as this will go a long way to determine the success or failure of search for minerals. Seismic methods give a good overview of a wide area though they involve greater logistics and operational requirements than some other geophysical methods. The purpose of present study is to determine the depth of the weathered layer and velocities of near-surface layers over the investigated area. Twelve sample points were picked with a grid system spread over a perimeter of approximately 4km x 4km. The in-house UpSphere computer program was utilised to analyse and display result in a way that makes final interpretation very easy. This program actually removed the burden of plotting the graphs and the contour maps manually. The depth of weathered layer in the study area varies between 12m and 13m. The velocities of the weathered layer and the consolidated layer vary between 500 m/s – 550 m/s and 1790 m/s – 1875 m/s respectively. Also the dip is in the north east – south west direction.

  3. A Study of Ground Deformation in the Guangzhou Urban Area with Persistent Scatterer Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available TheInterferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA technique and Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR images acquired over Hong Kong from 2007–2008 were used to detect ground deformation in the urban area of Guangzhou city in South China. A ground deformation rate map with scattered distribution of point targets shows the maximum subsidence (rise rate as high as -26 to -20 mma-1 (16–21 mma-1, implying that the study area is an active zone for ground deformation. Based on the point target map, a contour ground deformation rate map is generated. The map shows three major subsidence zones located in the middle-west, the east, and the southwest of the study area, respectively. All the six ground collapse accidents that occurred in 2007–2008 fall within the subsidence zones, qualitatively validating the IPTA results. Ground subsidence and geological conditions on Datansha Island are examined. The results indicate that the local geological conditions, such as limestone Karst geomorphology as well as silt layers characterized by high water content, high void ratio, high compressibility, low bearing capacity and low shear strength, and underground engineering projects are responsible for ground subsidence and ground collapse accidents occurred there.

  4. A study of ground deformation in the guangzhou urban area with persistent scatterer interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Lin, Hui; Jiang, Liming; Chen, Fulong; Cheng, Shilai

    2009-01-01

    The Interferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA) technique and Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) images acquired over Hong Kong from 2007-2008 were used to detect ground deformation in the urban area of Guangzhou city in South China. A ground deformation rate map with scattered distribution of point targets shows the maximum subsidence (rise) rate as high as -26 to -20 mma(-1) (16-21 mma(-1)), implying that the study area is an active zone for ground deformation. Based on the point target map, a contour ground deformation rate map is generated. The map shows three major subsidence zones located in the middle-west, the east, and the southwest of the study area, respectively. All the six ground collapse accidents that occurred in 2007-2008 fall within the subsidence zones, qualitatively validating the IPTA results. Ground subsidence and geological conditions on Datansha Island are examined. The results indicate that the local geological conditions, such as limestone Karst geomorphology as well as silt layers characterized by high water content, high void ratio, high compressibility, low bearing capacity and low shear strength, and underground engineering projects are responsible for ground subsidence and ground collapse accidents occurred there.

  5. A Proposed Area for Study of Accessory Section and Point of Terrestrial Permian-Triassic Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    After the establishment of the global stratotype section and point (GSSP) of the PermianTriassic boundary (PTB), the definition of the accessory section and point (ASP) of the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary (TPTB) is now on the agenda. However, all good TPTB sections so far known have the following shortcomings: (1) the exact TPTB horizon is difficult to define paleontologically with high-resolution, and (2) accurate correlation between marine and terrestrial PTBs is hard to attain. In order to enhance the understanding of the nature of the global life crisis in both the marine and terrestrial environments across the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition, these shortcomings need to be addressed. In western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, Southwest China, some fossiliferous PTB sections which include marine, paralic and terrestrial are well-developed, allowing bed-to-bed correlation of the PTB sequences.Fortunately, the marine PTB sequence in this area is almost the same as found at the Meishan Section,where the GSSP of the PTB is located, which may provide a reliable auxiliary marker for high-resolution demarcation of the TPTB. These features found in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan make this area a good place to study the ASP of the TPTB, so we propose to study the ASP of the TPTB in this area.

  6. Cortical areas related to performance of WAIS Digit Symbol Test: a functional imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Nobuo; Haji, Tomoki; Maruyama, Masakazu; Katsuyama, Narumi; Uchida, Shinya; Hozawa, Atsushi; Omori, Kahoru; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kawashima, Ryuta; Taira, Masato

    2009-09-29

    Many neuropsychological studies have shown that the Digit Symbol Test (DST) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is useful for screening for dysfunctions of the brain. However, it remains unclear which brain areas are actually involved in the performance of DST and what brain functions are used for executing this test. In this study, we examined the cortical areas related to cognitive aspects of DST using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and determined executive brain functions involved in this test on the basis of fMRI results. Eleven healthy young adults (mean=21.6 years) performed a modified DST (mDST) task and its control task, which required a simple graphomotor response during fMRI data acquisition. The direct comparison of brain activations between the mDST task and the control task revealed greater activations in a fronto-parietal cortical network, including the bilateral inferior frontal sulci, left middle frontal gyrus (close to the frontal eye field) and left posterior parietal cortex. These activations are interpreted as reflecting the visual search process and/or the updating process of working memory during the mDST task execution. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between the number of correct responses and activations in the bilateral inferior frontal regions, suggesting that these prefrontal areas have a crucial role in the performance of DST in a healthy young adult population.

  7. Spatial distribution of psychotic disorders in an urban area of France: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignon, Baptiste; Schürhoff, Franck; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Saba, Ghassen; Leboyer, Marion; Kirkbride, James B; Szöke, Andrei

    2016-05-18

    Previous analyses of neighbourhood variations of non-affective psychotic disorders (NAPD) have focused mainly on incidence. However, prevalence studies provide important insights on factors associated with disease evolution as well as for healthcare resource allocation. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of prevalent NAPD cases in an urban area in France. The number of cases in each neighbourhood was modelled as a function of potential confounders and ecological variables, namely: migrant density, economic deprivation and social fragmentation. This was modelled using statistical models of increasing complexity: frequentist models (using Poisson and negative binomial regressions), and several Bayesian models. For each model, assumptions validity were checked and compared as to how this fitted to the data, in order to test for possible spatial variation in prevalence. Data showed significant overdispersion (invalidating the Poisson regression model) and residual autocorrelation (suggesting the need to use Bayesian models). The best Bayesian model was Leroux's model (i.e. a model with both strong correlation between neighbouring areas and weaker correlation between areas further apart), with economic deprivation as an explanatory variable (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.02-1.25]). In comparison with frequentist methods, the Bayesian model showed a better fit. The number of cases showed non-random spatial distribution and was linked to economic deprivation.

  8. STUDY OF THE SITUATION OF MASS MOVEMENTS IN THE URBAN AREA OF VIÇOSA (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lucci Resende de Souza

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the relief goes by something larger than the observation at the way, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetable covering. However, the forms of the relief interfere as one of the main components of the atmosphere,being necessary its knowledge for the understanding of the dynamics of the area research object.The agreement of the relief passes for something more important that the comment of its form, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetal covering. However, the forms of the relief are inserting as the one of the main components of theenvironment, being necessary its knowledge for the agreement of the dynamic of the area research object.This knowledge is indispensable, because it is impossible to repress the occupation expansion of the spaces and much less to restraint environmental impacts caused by the men and the nature is not capable to regenerate all of the damaged spaces in a short space of time.Many of the inhabited spaces are fruits of segregation, which would be consequence of the exclusion that the effective economical system imposes to the people and spaces. On the other hand, the environmental problems are not correlated only with outlying neighborhoods, but they come very visible in places where constructions of high purchasing power prevail. But, one thing we can do is to prevent, the areas that are not busy, because it is viable naturally,environmentally and less expensive economically speaking. It is in this context, which the study of the mass movements can be of vital importance. The present work seeks to characterize the mass movements that happen in the urban area of Viçosa, with the objective to relate and to compare the rising done in the urban area of the municipal district at the scale 1: 5000 for Vieira in the year of 2000, in order to verify the evolution of the areas studied by the referred author, being analyzed these progressed or some

  9. Experimental and analytical study of interfacial area transport phenomena in a vertical two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Byung-Gil; Euh, Dong-Jin; Yun, Byong-Jo; Youn, Young-Jung; Yoon, Han-Yeong; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2005-03-01

    The number density transport equations for various bubble groups are used to predict the void fraction and the interfacial area concentration. As the closure relations for number density transport equation, the coalescence due to random collisions and the breakup due to the impact of turbulent eddies is modified based on the previous studies and the bubble expansion term due to the pressure reduction is considered. Also, the coalescence due to a wake entrainment is modeled newly to apply to the number density transport equation. In order to predict the local experimental data, the code is developed that the two-fluid model is coupled systematically with the number density transport equation for each bubble group. As for the results of the numerical analysis, the void fraction and interfacial area concentration are predicted well by the developed code and models although some deviations exist in the values between the prediction and experiment, especially, for the high void fraction conditions.

  10. MeV X-ray imaging using plastic scintillating fiber area detectors: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shi-Biao; Ma, Qingli; Yin, Zejie; Zhu, Daming

    2008-02-01

    Due to their low cost, flexibility, and convenience for long distance data transfer, plastic scintillating fibers (PSFs) have been increasingly used in building detectors or sensors for detecting various radiations and imaging. In this work, the possibility of using PSF coupled with charge-coupled devices (CCD) to build area detectors for X-ray imaging is studied using a Monte Carlo simulation. The focus is on X-ray imaging with energy from a few 100 keV to about 20 MeV. It is found that the efficiency of PSF in detecting X-ray in this energy range is low. The performance can be improved by coating a PSF with X-ray absorption layers and the MTF of the system is presented. It seems possible to build such area detectors with PSFs for imaging hard X-rays under certain environment.

  11. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  12. Integrating mathematics and other learning areas: Emerging tensions from a study Involving four classroom teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Mwakapenda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a pilot study that investigated the extent to which teachers make connections between mathematical concepts and concepts from other disciplines. Data from concept maps and interviews were collected. The analysis revealed that the kinds of connections teachers made are closely tied to teachers’ disciplines of specialisation. The findings suggest that for some teachers, though desirable, it may not be feasible to require them to make connections with disciplines that are not within their areas of specialisation. This presents tensions for learners learning mathematics in classrooms where opportunities for making connections between mathematics and other learning areas are available but are neither taken up nor appropriately used by teachers.

  13. Study on Marine Corrosion and Antifouling Behavior of Copper Alloys Exposed to Sea Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The relationship of corrosion resistance and antifouling behavior of 19 Cu alloys exposed to seawater of Qingdao ,Xiamen,Yulin sea areas in China for 1,2,4,8 year intervals was studied .The experiments were carried on by analyzing the composition of corrosion films formed on the surface of alloy specimens during the immersion time and by using OM,SEM,EDXA and AES experiment methods.The results verify the view point that it is the cuprous oxide film which played an important role in antifouling property of Cu alloys in seawater and throw a light on the view point in details further.The influence of different sea areas on the antifouling property of Cu alloys is also discussed.

  14. WATER RESOURCES IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL PLANNING. CASE STUDY: CLUJ-NAPOCA METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA OLIVIA CIMPOIEŞ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of water resources is controversial because it reveals the complex needs of the population on a certain territory, depending on the analysis scale. Public utilities or water surfaces in the surrounding rural areas of a city are rarely paid much attention to in comparison to the urban centre, though they could provide comfort attributes, aesthetic value and leisure activities. Is it a matter of social fairness, political orientation or funding accessibility for a community to benefit from the water resources in the vicinity? The present study propos ed to analyse the metropolitan area of Cluj and explain why the distribution of resources varies according to physical conditions, distance or localities’ economic statute.

  15. A study of sediment transport and erosion in the Fourchon area of south Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    Aerial photography in the form of color infrared and color positive transparencies were used as aids in evaluating the rate and effect of erosion and sediment transport in Bay Champagne, a coastal marshland of Louisiana. Problems were found in the aerial photography method used. Vegetational differences do not always reflect sediment differences. Only areas containing different soils and sediments are easily defined with aerial photography. The shoreline erosion rate is 75 to 100 ft/yr. Areas which are undergoing erosion shift due to changes in wave refraction. In canals and channels with strong currents, erosion also occurs at a rapid rate. It is recommended that drainage patterns be studied carefully before breaches are made as man-made breaches could reverse drainage.

  16. Study on the forecasting and maintenance system of special railway subsidence in mine area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜富; 朱德明; 任占营

    2003-01-01

    The fully mechanized caving coal mining under the railway in mine area will result in difficulty maintenance of railway because of great distortion and subsidence speed of terrene and railway. If the subsidence forecasting is incorrect and maintenance measure is not suitable in the preceding and the process of mining, the normal operation of the railway in mine area will not be ensured and perhaps the safety accident will be resulted. The railway subsidence forecasting and maintenance system for fully mechanized caving coal face are studied and developed in this connection. Based on the accurate subsidence forecasting of the terrene and railway, the maintenance measure for track and switch turnout in railway is put forward in this system.

  17. Areas of research and clinical approaches to the study of liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Peris, Jorge; Ramos, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze the research activity on liver abscess (LA) and identify the main topic clusters in the area. METHODS We identified all documents using the medical subject heading “LA” indexed in the MEDLINE database between 2001 and 2015. We performed a descriptive bibliometric analysis, characterizing the evolution of scientific activity, the publication types of the documents, the document categories of clinical interest (case reports, clinical trials, evaluation studies, meta-analysis, observational studies, practice guidelines and validation studies) and the geographic distribution of the research. We also carried out an analysis of networks and research clusters in order to identify the main topic areas of research. RESULTS Our search yielded a total of 1278 documents, showing a stable scientific production over the study period and a marked multidisciplinary nature. The research was dominated by case reports (65.9% of the documents analyzed). In terms of geographic distribution, researchers from the United States led in the number of signatures (n = 229), followed by those from Taiwan (n = 185), India (n = 145), Japan (n = 144), South Korea (n = 100), and China (n = 84). With regard to amebic LA, the top-producing countries were India and Mexico (n = 69 each), followed by the United States (n = 29). In the case of pyogenic LA, Taiwanese researchers led scientific production (n = 71), followed by the United States (n = 39) and China (n = 29). The most active areas of research in the field are diagnosis via computerized tomography scan, differential diagnosis with regard to liver cancer, treatment with antimicrobial agents, and Klebsiella infections (including bacteremia). CONCLUSION Clinical case reports associated with diagnosis and treatment are the main topic of study, highlighting the importance of this document type in advancing knowledge. PMID:28127209

  18. Ethnomathematics study: uncovering units of length, area, and volume in Kampung Naga Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septianawati, T.; Turmudi; Puspita, E.

    2017-02-01

    During this time, mathematics is considered as something neutral and not associated with culture. It can be seen from mathematics learning in the school which adopt many of foreign mathematics learning are considered more advanced (western). In fact, Indonesia is a rich country in cultural diversity. In the cultural activities, there are mathematical ideas that were considered a important thing in the mathematics learning. A study that examines the idea or mathematical practices in a variety of cultural activities are known as ethnomathematics. In Indonesia, there are some ethnic maintain their ancestral traditions, one of them is Kampung Naga. Therefore, this study was conducted in Kampung Naga. This study aims to uncover units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society. This study used a qualitative approach and ethnography methods. In this research, data collection is done through the principles of ethnography such as observation, interviews, documentation, and field notes. The results of this study are units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society and its conversion into standard units. This research is expected to give information to the public that mathematics has a relationship with culture and become recommendation to mathematics curriculum in Indonesia.

  19. The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starry, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water quality monitoring. We have recently adapted protocols from published leaf breakdown studies for incorporation into the UEI water quality curriculum. A 2004 pilot study of these leaf breakdown activities, conducted at four sites, compared rates of red maple breakdown to those of Norway maple, a potentially invasive urban street tree. Preliminary data from this successful pilot study suggest that leaf litter inputs from the two different tree species have varying effects on stream ecosystem function. We present this study as an example of how urban areas can be utilized for both ecological research and inclusive experiential learning through which science and mathematic knowledge can be effectively communicated.

  20. Seismic Hazard Analysis in EL Paso/juarez Area from Study of Young Fault Scarps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ashenfelter, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The El Paso-Juarez metropolitan area contains a known record of active faulting, but also has one of the most poorly known paleoseismic records. The scarcity of data means that nearly 2 million people are exposed to a seismic hazard with little known on the actual risk. Active faults are known along the eastern side of the Franklin Mountains as well as young ruptures within the Hueco Bolson in East El Paso, yet the only fault with paleoseismic studies is the East Franklin's fault. Recent population increases in the El Paso region have led to a construction boom in east El Paso, and many of these construction sites cross known Quaternary fault ruptures. This research project contains two potential components: 1) An exploratory component: students can use existing fault maps and high resolution aerial photography to seek out sites where active construction sites might be unearthing exposures of young fault ruptures. The study is exploratory, and involves carefully mapping using field GIS systems to document areas for potential study, map possible faults, etc. 2) An active fault study in an urbanized environment: The east Franklins fault is a known active fault. The scarp is exposed near trans-mountain road, and along some side streets in NE El Paso. Potential studies include careful mapping of fault scarp topographic profiles, and mapping surface traces.

  1. A naturalistic study of commuter cyclists in the greater Stockholm area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Louise; Archer, Jeffery

    2013-09-01

    Few naturalistic studies have been carried out with commuter cyclists to discover the types of problems they encounter on a daily basis. The study presented here has been commissioned by the City of Stockholm municipality and focuses specifically on commuter cyclists in the Greater Stockholm area. The aim of the study was to describe and pinpoint accessibility and safety problems, but also to generate an accessible geographical interface that could serve as a traffic planning tool for cycle network improvement. Statistical surveys in the Stockholm area have shown a rapid growth in the number of cyclists as well as an increase in problems associated with an overburdened cycle infrastructure. Given the heightened emphasis on transport system sustainability, the City of Stockholm is faced with the challenging task of trying to maintain and encourage the upward trend in commuter cycling through a process that involves problem identification, classification, prioritisation and resolution. An innovative methodology involving the use of GPS logging devices and small video cameras was developed and supported with analysis software designed specifically for the purposes of this study. Experienced commuter cyclists were recruited to cycle 17 different major cycle routes to and from the suburbs and inner city area during morning and afternoon peak traffic hours during the main cycle season. Over 500 safety and accessibility/mobility problems were identified and recorded from the data collected from 16 commuter cyclists. The method and representation of data proved successful for strategic traffic planning work at City of Stockholm and has since provided invaluable input for and the development of a new cycle plan for Greater Stockholm. Indirectly, the results of this work have also contributed to longer term safety and environmental targets.

  2. Studies of aerosols advected to coastal areas with the use of remote techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemysław; Strzałkowska, Agata; Ponczkowska, Agnieszka; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Chourdakis, Georgius; Georgoussis, George; Kratzer, Susanne

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the studies of aerosol optical properties measured using lidars and sun photometers. We describe two case studies of the combined measurements made in two coastal zones in Crete in 2006 and in Rozewie on the Baltic Sea in 2009. The combination of lidar and sun photometer measurements provides comprehensive information on both the total aerosol optical thickness in the entire atmosphere as well as the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties. Combination of such information with air mass back-trajectories and data collected at stations located on the route of air masses provides complete picture of the aerosol variations in the study area both vertically and horizontally. We show that such combined studies are especially important in the coastal areas where depending on air mass advection directions and altitudes the influence of fine or coarse mode (in this case possibly sea-salt) particles on the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties is an important issue to consider.

  3. EC multicentre study on small area variations in air quality and health (SAVIAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands); Elliott, P. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom); Briggs, D. [Huddersfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Policy Analysis; Gorynski, P. [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland); Kriz, B. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    SAVIAH is an EC-funded methodological study coordinated by Dr. Paul Elliott at the LSHTM (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). The project aims to apply, test and evaluate new and emerging methodologies in the fields of epidemiology, geography, air pollution modelling and small area health statistics, and to bring the data together in a consistent geographic framework. The study was carried out in the U.K., The Netherlands, Poland and the Czech Republic, using the example of childhood wheeze and outdoor air pollution. Specific aims of the study were, in each centre, (1) to carry out a questionnaire survey among parents of guardians of around 4000 to 5000 children aged between 7 and 11, (2) to carry out a series of air pollution surveys for NO{sub 2} as a proxy for the complex of traffic-related pollutants, and SO{sub 2} (PL), using a dense network of passive samplers, (3) to build up a detailed Geographical Information System (GIS) for each of the study areas; (4) to construct an air pollution `map` based on the NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} measurements and a health `map` based on `map smoothing` techniques and (5) to explore methods to examine relationships between health, pollution, socio-economic and other data. (author)

  4. Ende Diabetes Study: diabetes and its characteristics in rural area of East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Waspadji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are only few studies about diabetes in rural area in Indonesia. Epidemiological study are needed to formulate health policy of disease management in specific area. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of diabetes and knowledge of diabetes among the community in Nangapanda Village, Ende District, East Nusa Tenggara.Methods: A cross-sectional study “Ende Diabetes Study” was conducted in Nangapanda Village. This study use cluster random sampling method to a total number of 19756 residents in Nangapanda village. From the sampling frame of 1800 adult subjects who underwent screening with glucometer in 2008 and 2009, 125 subjects have been diagnosed as diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IFG. All of the subjects who were diagnosed as diabetes or IFG from the previous screening and 218 subjects from control (normal subjects in the 2008 and 2009 screening were included in the present study. Each subject underwent general anamnesis, nutritional interview, complete physical examinations, and laboratory test (blood and urine. The data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0.Ressult: There were 343 subjects in this study. The prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda using blood glucose criteria (using fasting and post-glucose load values was 2%; using post glucose load criteria, the prevalence of DM was 1.56%; while with HbA1c criteria, the prevalence was 2.83%. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT was 2.2%, and IFG was 6.2%. A number of 71.1% Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes.Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda (using fasting and post-glucose load criteria was 2% and 1.56% (using post-glucose load values. As much as 71.1% of Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:30-8Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Ende Diabetes Study, prevalence, rural Indonesia

  5. A study on landscape and the historical geography of two areas - Oskarshamn and Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Ulf; Berg, Johan; Bjoerklund, Annika [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Human Geography

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the land-use; the settlement and the way people have used and affected the landscape in two areas, Forsmark and Simpevarp. This preliminary report aim mainly at describing the sources and methods used in the project. Some analyses are undertaken, but a more complete interpretation will take place in the final report of Phase two. This is a project that forms a part of the environmental impact assessment work that is done for examining potential locations for a plant for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Both areas are located on the East Coast of Sweden. A number of scientific studies are carried out in this project. Fields that are included studies for the EIA and the safety assessment include geology, quaternary geology, limnology, biology and other natural sciences that focus on vegetation and the terrestrial as well as the aquatic environment.The study that is carried out at the Department of Human geography at Stockholm university is basically a study of the historical land-use, the changes in settlement and how people have been working and using the landscape over the last centuries.The methods used include historical maps, cadastral material and in a later phase interviews and fieldwork. In the first phase that ends the summer 2004 the bulk of the historical material is probed and analysed. A big effort is put into the creation of GIS-data sets that can be used for further analyses. The work during spring 2004 resulted in this preliminary report that deal with historical land-use, population, settlement from medieval times to the present and both detailed and general descriptions and investigations of the historical geography of the areas.Both the investigated areas are located by the Baltic, but are very different both physically, especially with the land upheaval in the north, and historically with a different land-use system, ownership structure and distribution of settlement. The results of this study

  6. Study of earthquake potential between two major faults in Buol area Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahli, Kiddy; Oryzavica, Vicco

    2017-07-01

    The geological structures of Sulawesi have a very complex condition. Its regional tectonic have a several phases as a result of three plates movements include Pacific, Australia, and Eurasia plates. A complex and active geological conditions in Sulawesi cause frequent earthquakes. The research area is located in the north arm of Sulawesi and between two major faults, Palu-Koro fault to the west and Gorontalo Fault to the east. This study was conducted to determine the impact of tectonic with earthquakes in the research area. Field analysis contains of joint analysis, morphological analysis from the studio and the field from the bifurcation ratio (Rb) and drainage density (Dd), and also earthquake secondary data analysis from the USGS and GPS data. downstream part of Buol sub-watershed have the drainage density (Dd) value ranged from 1.03 to 3.3828 and the value of the bifurcation ratio (Rb) from 1 to 2.3566 which indicate the presence of active tectonic. This research provide an information that Buol area was tectonically active, but from the seismicity data its shows no significant earthquake activity.

  7. A study of earthquakes induced by water injection in the Changning salt mine area, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Yang, Pengtao; Zhang, Zhiwei

    2017-04-01

    The features of earthquakes induced by water injection in the Changning salt mine area of China were analyzed using the pore pressure diffusion method. The relationships between maximum magnitude, cumulative seismic moment, and cumulative water loss volume were investigated. Results show that increased seismic activities near the Changning salt mine in recent years are closely related to water injection during salt mining. High-pressure water injection over a long period of time caused water to diffuse into rock cracks, which increased pore pressure on faults and induced ruptures. Injection-induced earthquakes were located below the injection sites, mainly aligned NW-SE, with most occurring southeast of the mine area. Such a distribution indicates that seismic activities were affected by anticline structures in the Changning area. Based on pore pressure diffusion considerations, the diffusion coefficient was estimated to be ∼0.15 m2/s, with a slightly lower value west of the injection site than to the east. A semi-logarithmic linear relationship was found between cumulative seismic moment and cumulative water loss volume, while maximum magnitude increased with increasing volume of cumulative water loss. This study may provide reference material for analysis of injection-induced earthquakes and evaluation of the danger of earthquakes induced by water injection.

  8. Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevitha Dhanabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%, Cyclospora sp. (22.2%, Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%, Giardia intestinalis (14.4%, Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%, Trichuris trichiura (1.1%, and Hymenolepis nana (2.7% were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas.

  9. A study on African animal trypanosomosis in four areas of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, Sophie; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bossard, Geraldine; Desquesnes, Marc; Cuny, Gerard; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-08-18

    In Senegal, several areas provide great potential for agriculture and animal production, but African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is one of the major constraints to the development of more effective livestock production systems. A study was conducted to assess the current situation of AAT in this country. Surveys were carried out between June 2011 and September 2012 in four different areas: Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou region and Basse Casamance in several animal species: dogs (152), donkeys (23), horses (63), sheep (43), goats (52) and cattle (104), distributed in the four sites. Molecular tools (PCR) indicated 3.4% positive animals including dogs, donkeys, a goat and cattle. The savannah type of Trypanosoma congolense Broden, 1904 (53% of positive cases) and the forest type of T. congolense (subgenus Nannomonas Hoare, 1964) were predominant. Trypanosoma vivax Ziemann, 1905 (subgenus Duttonella Chalmers, 1918) was only present in one animal and no trypanosome of the subgenus Trypanozoon Lühe, 1906 was found. Half of the positive cases were detected in Sine Saloum, where T. congolense savannah-type was predominant, and the other half in Basse Casamance, where T. congolense forest-type was predominant; no cases were found in Dakar or in the Kedougou region. A high risk of infection in dogs with T. congolense savannah-type was shown in Sine Saloum, requiring prevention and control of dogs in this area. The involvement of tsetse flies in the transmission of T. congolense in Sine Saloum and Basse Casamance is discussed.

  10. Field Implementation Plan for the In-Situ Bioremediation Treatability Study at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-31

    This Field Implementation Plan (FIP) was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) and provides instruction on conducting a series of in-situ bioremediation (ISB) tests as described in the Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern, referred to as the Revised Work Plan in this FIP. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater via three injection wells to perform bioremediation of the constituents of concern (COCs), nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE), in the regions with the highest concentrations at the Technical Area-V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern (AOC). The Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation solution delivery and COC treatment over time. This FIP is designed for SNL/NM work planning and management. It is not intended to be submitted for regulator’s approval. The technical details presented in this FIP are subject to change based on field conditions, availability of equipment and materials, feasibility, and inputs from Sandia personnel and Aboveground Injection System contractor.

  11. Comparative study of heavy metals in "soil-wheat" systems between sewage-irrigated areas and clean-water-irrigated areas in suburban Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye; Han, Sha-Sha; Chen, Zhi-Fan; Liu, Jing; Hu, Honq-Xia

    2015-01-01

    After years of irrigating farmland with wastewater, concern is increasing about health risks from heavy metals contaminating wheat grown in sewage-irrigated soils in suburban areas of Beijing, China. The study discussed in this article aimed to compare the characteristics of heavy metal distribution in a sewage-irrigated "soil-wheat" system with those from a clean-water-irrigated area by collecting and analyzing samples from both areas. The results indicated that the average concentrations of copper, chromium, lead, and zinc in sewage-irrigated soil were higher than the values in the clean-water-irrigated region. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to increased bioconcentration factors. Therefore, issues of food contamination caused by sewage irrigation deserve more attention.

  12. A study on the environmental and safety problems and their remediation around mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jeong-Sik; Kang, Sun-Duck; Lee, Sang-Kwon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The remediation or prevention of environmental problems and hazard around mining areas is required to prevent the natural environments and to protect human health. A survey were carried out to exam the characteristics of abandoned mines and to delineate contaminated sites in 4 abandoned mines (Imgee mine, Duckeum mine, Seosung mine and Jeonjuil mine). Permeability experiment was carried out to resolve clogging problems in passive treatment system. Absorption and desorption experiment was carried out to evaluate algae's ability for eliminating metals in mine drainage. In addition, a research on optimal mining method for reducing the area of forest damage in open pit mining areas was carried out. Results of permeability experiment showed that the coefficients of permeability of oak chips mixed with crushed limestone and coarse sand were 4.2 x 10{sup -2} cm/sec and 2.3 x 10{sup -2} cm/sec, respectively. As mine drainage upflowed through the column, metal hydroxide was intensively accumulated near the inlet and the outlet of columns. These phenomena contributed to lower the coefficient of permeability and caused clogging in columns. Further study on the optimal mixture of substrates for maintenance of constant flow and treatment for mine drainage in the wetland system will be required in order to prevent clogging caused by precipitation of metal hydroxides. The absorption test of algae for metals revealed that algae absorbed Fe, Cu and Al. Manganese was absorbed to the extend of 0.3 wt.% of dry algae. Therefore algae may be used for removal of Mn in passive treatment system. Plan Cut method was more superior to Bench Cut method in that the former could minimize the area of forest damage and reduce the mining environmental problems. (author). 19 refs., 39 tabs., 106 figs.

  13. Identifying desertification risk areas using fuzzy membership and geospatial technique - A case study, Kota District, Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Arunima; Sastry, K. L. N.; Dhinwa, P. S.; Rathore, V. S.; Nathawat, M. S.

    2013-08-01

    Desertification risk assessment is important in order to take proper measures for its prevention. Present research intends to identify the areas under risk of desertification along with their severity in terms of degradation in natural parameters. An integrated model with fuzzy membership analysis, fuzzy rule-based inference system and geospatial techniques was adopted, including five specific natural parameters namely slope, soil pH, soil depth, soil texture and NDVI. Individual parameters were classified according to their deviation from mean. Membership of each individual values to be in a certain class was derived using the normal probability density function of that class. Thus if a single class of a single parameter is with mean μ and standard deviation σ, the values falling beyond μ + 2 σ and μ - 2 σ are not representing that class, but a transitional zone between two subsequent classes. These are the most important areas in terms of degradation, as they have the lowest probability to be in a certain class, hence highest probability to be extended or narrowed down in next or previous class respectively. Eventually, these are the values which can be easily altered, under extrogenic influences, hence are identified as risk areas. The overall desertification risk is derived by incorporating the different risk severity of each parameter using fuzzy rule-based interference system in GIS environment. Multicriteria based geo-statistics are applied to locate the areas under different severity of desertification risk. The study revealed that in Kota, various anthropogenic pressures are accelerating land deterioration, coupled with natural erosive forces. Four major sources of desertification in Kota are, namely Gully and Ravine erosion, inappropriate mining practices, growing urbanization and random deforestation.

  14. Vaccination coverage and timeliness in three South African areas: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders David

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely vaccination is important to induce adequate protective immunity. We measured vaccination timeliness and vaccination coverage in three geographical areas in South Africa. Methods This study used vaccination information from a community-based cluster-randomized trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal between 2006 and 2008. Five interview visits were carried out between birth and up to 2 years of age (median follow-up time 18 months, and 1137 children were included in the analysis. We used Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis to describe vaccination coverage and timeliness in line with the Expanded Program on Immunization for the first eight vaccines. This included Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, four oral polio vaccines and 3 doses of the pentavalent vaccine which protects against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B. Results The proportion receiving all these eight recommended vaccines were 94% in Paarl (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-96, 62% in Rietvlei (95%CI 54-68 and 88% in Umlazi (95%CI 84-91. Slightly fewer children received all vaccines within the recommended time periods. The situation was worst for the last pentavalent- and oral polio vaccines. The hazard ratio for incomplete vaccination was 7.2 (95%CI 4.7-11 for Rietvlei compared to Paarl. Conclusions There were large differences between the different South African sites in terms of vaccination coverage and timeliness, with the poorer areas of Rietvlei performing worse than the better-off areas in Paarl. The vaccination coverage was lower for the vaccines given at an older age. There is a need for continued efforts to improve vaccination coverage and timeliness, in particular in rural areas. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150

  15. UNMET NEED OF SEX EDUCATION AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN URBAN SLUM AREA: AN INTERVENTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamboli Kshitij S, Avachat Subhada S, Tamboli Suchit S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescents comprise one-fifth of India’s total population. There is widespread ignorance associated with unprotected sex, contraceptives, among young people. As majority adolescents in slum areas have illiterate and ignorant family backgrounds; they are misguided by the myths. Hence providing sex education for them is the need of the hour. Aims: 1 To assess the knowledge and awareness of adolescents in an urban slum area regarding some aspects of reproductive health. 2 To assess the need of sex education among them. 3 To study the impact of sex education on their knowledge Material and Methods: An interventional study was done on 132 adolescents of urban slum area, selected by simple random sampling. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire prepared by literature search. Response of adolescents was recorded through questionnaires. A sensitization workshop was organized as intervention. The same questionnaire was given to them and the effect of intervention was assessed. Statistical analysis of data was done using percentage, proportion and appropriate tests of significance. Result and Conclusions: Only 31.06% adolescents had discussed the topic of reproductive health with some or other person and out of them friends were the major sources (39.2% of information. Only 38.63% knew the hazards of teenage pregnancy which significantly rose to 89.4% after intervention workshop. The study concludes that the slum adolescents profoundly lack adequate knowledge of sexuality related matters. Even before intervention workshop, unmet need of reproductive health education was 59.1% and 93.93% was the felt need in the post test.

  16. Pulmonary tuberculosis incidence and risk factors in rural areas of China: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shu, Wen; Wang, Min; Hou, Yongchun; Xia, Yinyin; Xu, Weiguo; Bai, Liqiong; Nie, Shaofa; Cheng, Shiming; Xu, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and its risk factors in China remains unclear. This study examined TB incidence and relative risk factors in rural areas of China. Participants (n = 177,529) were recruited in Xiangtan County (in the central area of China) and in Danyang County (in the eastern area of China) in 2009 and a followed-up study was conducted for one year. The incidence density of pulmonary TB and smear-positive TB were 91.6 (95% CI: 78.7, 106.0) per 100,000 person-year and 36.7 (95% CI: 33.1, 52.4) per 100,000 person-year respectively in Xiangtan, and 47.3 (95% CI: 38.2, 57.5) per 100,000 person-year and 22.7 (95% CI: 16.5, 30.8) per 100,000 person-year in Danyang. The medical history of TB was associated with TB, with the relative risk (RR) of 7.00 (95% CI: 2.76, 17.18) in Xiangtan and that of 31.08 (95% CI: 13.22, 73.10) in Danyang. The association between TB and per capita living space over median was found in Xiangtan, with the RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.01). No association was found between TB and the insurance status, the contact history with TB, the history of diabetes, smoking, or per capita annual income. The host genetic susceptibility, and social factors such as education and income could be considered in future studies.

  17. A Study on Snowstorm Weather in Coastal Area of Western Antarctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yaorong; Xue Zhenhe; Xu Cong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, based on the observational data of 1995 in the Chinese Antarctic Great Wall Station the snowstorm is studied synoptically. It is found that there are two kinds of snowstorms with different physical characteristics and that the happening of snowstorm is always accompanied by a near-ground level inversion layer. The function of the inversion layer is analyzed, too. It is indicated that the strong ESE-wind type snowstorm is mainly caused by katabatic wind and gradient wind together. This idea is new and different from the general concept that there is no katabatic wind in the western Antarctic area.

  18. Discovery and study on the structure and function of a new area in the mammalian striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In our previous study, we found a new subdivision, which is mainly composed of fusiform neurons, in the rat striatum. This new subdivision is located at the caudal border of the striatum surrounding the rostral edge of the globus pallidus. This area was named “marginal division” based on its location. The somatodendritic morphology in the marginal division revealed by Nissl staining and PHA-L label exhibits ovoid to fusiform somata with their long axes dorsoventrally parallel to the border between the striatum and the globus pallidus. The fusiform neurons have two spiny primary dendrites emerging from the two poles of the cell bodies.

  19. Study on the performance of large area MRPC with high position resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China); Wu Yucheng; Li Yuanjing; Ye Jin; Cheng Jianping; Wang Yi; Li Jin [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China)

    2012-01-01

    Multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC), which is mostly developed in high energy physics domain with excellent time resolution, is also highlighted in imaging applications. A set of 50 cm Multiplication-Sign 50 cm large area MRPC with high position resolution was successfully developed by our group and different experiments have been done to test its performances. Cosmic ray muons were used to do the test and proper high voltage and working gas were chosen. Data analysis indicates its good detection efficiency and good position resolution, which encourages further study of its application in RPC-PET and muon tomography.

  20. Primary studies of trace quantities of green vegetation in Mono Lake area using 1990 AVIRIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Kang; Elvidge, Chris D.; Groeneveld, David P.

    1992-01-01

    Our primary results in Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve indicate that high spectral resolution Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data may provide a substantial advantage in vegetation, based on the chlorophyll red edge feature from 700-780 nm. The chlorophyll red edge was detected for green vegetation cover as low as 4.8 percent. The objective of our studies in Mono Lake area is to continue the experiments performed in Jasper Ridge and to examine the persistence of red edge feature of trace quantities of green vegetation for different plant communities with non-uniform soil backgrounds.

  1. Self-potential, geoelectric and magnetotelluric studies in Italian active volcanic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of self-potential, geoelectric and magnetotelluric studies in Italian active volcanic areas as essential contributions both to structural modeling and to hazard evaluation. On Mt. Etna and Mt. Somma-Vesuvius complexes structural modeling was emphasized due to a lack of global information involving the whole apparatuses, at least from the electrical point of view. Hazard investigation was, instead, investigated with high resolution techniques on the island of Vulcano, where intense unrest phenomena have long been recorded.

  2. OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS OF GLOBALIZATION IN RURAL AREAS. CASE STUDY: BOTOSANI COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Simona Cuciureanu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The global economy plays an important role in the development of a region or a county/district as it promotes the exploitation of resources and space in a logical and rational manner. The trend of global economic uniformity allows opportunities and risks to Botoșani County since globalization involves economic development and rising living standards, but loss of cultural values, traditions and customs. The area of study currently confronts with socio-economic and demographic changes that may be addressed by globalization, but at the same time spatial development according to global standards will cause the loss of Botoșani County’s authenticity.

  3. [Cytogenetic studies on submerged plants from the Yenisei river area in the zone of radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratova, E N; Goriachkina, O V; Kornilova, M G; Pimenov, A V; Sedel'nikova, T S; Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies on three species of submerged plants from different parts of the Yenisei river area subjected to radioactive impact of the Krasnoyarsk Mining-and-Chemical Plant and the Electrochemical Factory have been conducted. A high level of irregularities in anatelophase and metaphase of mitoses has been revealed in test samples compared to the control: agglutination and fragmentation of chromosomes, lagging chromosomes, bridges, fragments, misdivisions, and others. The natuie of the disorders indicates that they are related in part to the direct damage to the chromosome structure and in part to damage to the spindle.

  4. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  5. Bird-plant interaction networks: a study on frugivory in Brazilian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva Freitas Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, few studies compare the consumption of native and exotic fruits, especially in an urban environment. The Network Theory may be useful in such studies, because it allows evaluating many bird and plant species involved in interactions. The goals of this study were: evaluate a bird frugivory interaction network in an urban environment; checking the role played by native and exotic plants in the network and comparing the consumer assemblies of these two plant groups. A literature review on bird frugivory in Brazilian urban areas was conducted, as well as an analysis to create an interaction network on a regional scale. The analysis included 15 papers with 70 bird species eating fruits from 15 plant species (6 exotic and 9 native. The exotic and native fruit consumers did not form different groups and the interaction network was significantly nested (NODF = 0.30; p < 0.01 and not modular (M = 0.36; p = 0.16. Two exotic plant species are in the generalist core of the frugivory network (Ficus microcarpa and Michelia champaca. The results point out that a relatively diversified bird group eats fruits in Brazilian urban areas in an opportunistic way, with no preference for native or exotic plants.

  6. A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY ON INFANT AND YOUNG FEEDING PRACTICES IN A RURAL AREA OF KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharvanan Udayar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childho od is critical to the development of children’s full human potential . OBJECTIVE : The main objective was to assess the Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF pra ctices and associated socio demographic variables among children aged less than two years i n rural areas METHODS: A community based, cross sectional descriptive study was done du ring Sept 09-Aug 2010 which is the rural field practice area of Shri. B. M. Patil Medical Col lege SBMPMC. The data was computed and analyzed using SPSS statistical package (version 13. 0. RESULTS: During the study period 264 mothers of infants and young children interviewed w ith the questionnaire and 159 out of 264 had received prelacteal feeds (males 64 % and female s56.3 %. Illiterate mothers (69.7% practiced more prelacteal feeding than the literate m others (54.6%. 36% received exclusive breast feeding for a period six months. Majority of the illiterate mothers were practicing early (31.4% and delayed weaning (32.5%.Poor socioecono mic status, illiteracy, birth spacing and cultural beliefs had significant effect on infant a nd young children feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS: The study re-emphasized the need for conducting con tinued infant and child feeding intervention programmes especially for the mo ther during antenatal and postnatal checkups.

  7. Use of legal reserve areas as geochemical background in hydrosedimentology studies¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Juchen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In hydrosedimentology studies the determination of the trace element concentrations at the study site is imperative, since this background can be used to assess the enrichment of sediments with these elements. This enrichment can be the result of the natural process of geological formation or of anthropogenic activities. In the latter case, guidelines are used to indicate the concentrations at which trace elements cause ecotoxicity effects on the environment. Thus, this study used legal reserve areas in the municipality of Toledo, PR, where natural forests are maintained, with no or minimal human interference to establish background levels. The results of atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled argon plasma showed that the legal reserves have lower levels of trace elements than other theoretical references, but equivalent concentrations to the safety levels recommended by international guidelines. It was concluded that determining values is fundamental to recommend this background as scientific database for research in the area of hydrosedimentology of this site and also as a way of environmental management of the watershed of this municipality.

  8. Geomechanical Studies on Granite Intrusions in Alxa Area for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological storage is an important concept for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal, and detailed studies are required to protect the environment from contamination by radionuclides. This paper presents a series of geomechanical studies on the site selection for HLW disposal in the Alxa area of China. Surface investigation in the field and RQD analyses on the drill cores are carried out to evaluate the rock mass quality. Laboratory uniaxial and triaxial compressive tests on the samples prepared from the drill cores are conducted to estimate the strength properties of the host rock. It is found that the NRG sub-area has massive granite intrusions, and NRG01 cored granite samples show the best rock quality and higher peak strength under various confinements (0–30 MPa. NRG01 granite samples are applied for more detailed laboratory studies considering the effects of strain rate and temperature. It is observed that the increasing strain rate from 1.0 × 10−5–0.6 × 10−2·s−1 can lead to a limited increase on peak strength, but a much more violent failure under uniaxial compressive tests on the NRG01 granite samples, and the temperature increasing from 20 °C–200 °C may result in a slight increase of UCS, as well as more ductile post-peak behavior in the triaxial compressive tests.

  9. Capturing heterogeneity: The role of a study area's extent for estimating net precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Voss, Sebastian; Metzger, Johanna Clara; Hildebrandt, Anke; Zimmermann, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and precise estimates of net precipitation are required for many hydrological applications. For instance, most interception models require high quality estimates of the canopy storage capacity and the free throughfall coefficient. Good estimates of these parameters, in turn, critically depend on the quality of throughfall estimates. Previous attempts to guide throughfall sampling focused on the selection of an appropriate sample size, support, and sampling design. Comparatively little attention has been given to the role of the extent, i.e. the size of the area under study. In this contribution we investigate the influence of the extent on the representativeness of mean throughfall estimates for simply structured and heterogeneous forest ecosystems. We based our investigation on stochastic simulations which we derived from large empirical throughfall datasets. Using the simulated throughfall fields, we conducted virtual sampling experiments using a number of typical extents. We ran these tests both for a range of event sizes and for accumulated data. Our findings suggest that the size of the study area should be carefully adapted to the required temporal resolution of the throughfall data (i.e. event-based versus long-term) and to the complexity of the system under study.

  10. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  11. Current Situation of Information Demand of Farmers in Taihang Mountain Area: A Case Study of Pingshan County in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lipeng; GUO; Haiyan; CAI

    2014-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,economy of mountain areas in China has realized considerable development.However,due to such factors as terrain,traffic,and individual differences,compared with plain and coastal areas,mountain areas still lag far behind.In recent years,informationization construction of China develops rapidly,but it nearly stagnates in mountain rural areas.Information has become an essential factor restricting economic development of rural areas.Based on the survey of current information demand of farmers carried out in Pingshan County in Hebei Province in 2010,this study came up with relevant recommendations,in order to speed up development of rural economic in mountain areas,narrow the regional gap,improve living condition of farmers in mountain areas,and increase income level of farmers in mountain areas.

  12. Heatwave risks in urban area - a case study for Arad municipality in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojariu, Roxana; Roxana Cica, Diana; Velea, Liliana; Turcus, Cosmin; Golea, Marius

    2013-04-01

    Robust signs of climate change, especially in temperature-related climate behaviour, are already present. Heatwave frequency, intensity and persitance are changing under climate change conditions and so are the exposure to them and associated risks. Urban areas have additional thermal-related vulnerabilities due to effects of urban heat island on large populations concentrated in a human-transformed space. The goal of our study is to use climate and socio-economic data to assess changes in heatwave risks for the urban area of Arad municipality in Romania. Arad municipality is in the top ten towns in Romania with largest contribution to gross domestic product (GDP), covering of 253 km2 and with a population of 169327. Arad is representative for towns situated over plane areas and the results of our study can be translated for other Romanian towns as well. For our purpose we used remote sense and climate data with health, demography and land use information to develop a climate change risk assessment for heatwaves. We used skin temperature from Modis products (2000-2010), air temperature from Arad weather station (1961-2010), Corine land cover and demographic information from 2004 census. Results from regional climate models obtained from FP6 ENSEMBLES project are used for future projection of air temperature in 21st century. Our analysis builds on the EU Council conclusions on "Further Developing Risk Assessment for Disaster Management within the European Union" adopted in March 2011 that aims for a common approach and harmonisation on the prevention of natural and man-made disasters setting out an overall disaster prevention framework.

  13. Challenges for resuming normal life after earthquake: a qualitative study on rural areas of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Fardin; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Fekrazad, Hussain; Kamali, Mohammad; Rafiey, Hassan; Sarrami Foroushani, Pooria; Rowell, Kevin; Ahmadi, Shokoufeh

    2014-10-17

    Growing evidence is indicating that some of disaster affected people face challenges to resume normal life several months after an earthquake. However, there is no sufficient in-depth understanding of complex process of resuming normal life after an earthquake in Iran, as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, and in rural areas as a particular setting. This study aimed to explore challenges of return to normalcy in rural earthquake-stricken areas of Iran. The study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method (Graneheim approach). Twenty people from the earthquake-stricken areas and seven qualified experts were selected via purposeful sampling .Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and field notes from August 2013 to January 2014. Data collection continued to the point of data saturation (no new information was provided by interviewees). Data saturation supported the sample size. Data analysis was based on qualitative content analysis principles. "Social uncertainty and confusion" was the most prominent challenge of return to the normal life after earthquake, which was categorized into six concepts of social vulnerability, lack of comprehensive rehabilitation plan, incomplete reconstruction, ignorance of local social capital, waste of assets, and psychological problems. Findings showed that social uncertainty and confusion occurs as a result of negligence of some important social aspects in process of returning to the normal life. This issue, in turn, can greatly interrupt the normal developmental processes. Understanding the challenges of life recovery after disasters will help policy makers consider social rehabilitation as a key factor in facilitation of return to normal life process after earthquakes. Disaster; earthquake; social rehabilitation; social uncertainty.

  14. Air pollution attributable postneonatal infant mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas: a risk assessment study

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    Krzyzanowski Michal

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of outdoor air pollution on infant mortality has not been quantified. Methods Based on exposure-response functions from a U.S. cohort study, we assessed the attributable risk of postneonatal infant mortality in 23 U.S. metropolitan areas related to particulate matter 10 as a surrogate of total air pollution. Results The estimated proportion of all cause mortality, sudden infant death syndrome (normal birth weight infants only and respiratory disease mortality (normal birth weight attributable to PM10 above a chosen reference value of 12.0 μg/m3 PM10 was 6% (95% confidence interval 3–11%, 16% (95% confidence interval 9–23% and 24% (95% confidence interval 7–44%, respectively. The expected number of infant deaths per year in the selected areas was 106 (95% confidence interval 53–185, 79 (95% confidence interval 46–111 and 15 (95% confidence interval 5–27, respectively. Approximately 75% of cases were from areas where the current levels are at or below the new U.S. PM2.5 standard of 15 μg/m3 (equivalent to 25 μg/m3 PM10. In a country where infant mortality rates and air pollution levels are relatively low, ambient air pollution as measured by particulate matter contributes to a substantial fraction of infant death, especially for those due to sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory disease. Even if all counties would comply to the new PM2.5 standard, the majority of the estimated burden would remain. Conclusion Given the inherent limitations of risk assessments, further studies are needed to support and quantify the relationship between infant mortality and air pollution.

  15. Prolonged repeated acupuncture stimulation induces habituation effects in pain-related brain areas: an FMRI study.

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    Chuanfu Li

    Full Text Available Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36. Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  16. Aircraft noise and cardiovascular disease near Heathrow airport in London: small area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Anna L; Blangiardo, Marta; Fortunato, Lea; Floud, Sarah; de Hoogh, Kees; Fecht, Daniela; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Laszlo, Helga E; Pearson, Clare; Beale, Linda; Beevers, Sean; Gulliver, John; Best, Nicky; Richardson, Sylvia; Elliott, Paul

    2013-10-08

    To investigate the association of aircraft noise with risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease in the general population. Small area study. 12 London boroughs and nine districts west of London exposed to aircraft noise related to Heathrow airport in London. About 3.6 million residents living near Heathrow airport. Risks for hospital admissions were assessed in 12 110 census output areas (average population about 300 inhabitants) and risks for mortality in 2378 super output areas (about 1500 inhabitants). Risk of hospital admissions for, and mortality from, stroke, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease, 2001-05. Hospital admissions showed statistically significant linear trends (Paircraft noise. When areas experiencing the highest levels of daytime aircraft noise were compared with those experiencing the lowest levels (>63 dB v ≤ 51 dB), the relative risk of hospital admissions for stroke was 1.24 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.43), for coronary heart disease was 1.21 (1.12 to 1.31), and for cardiovascular disease was 1.14 (1.08 to 1.20) adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, and a smoking proxy (lung cancer mortality) using a Poisson regression model including a random effect term to account for residual heterogeneity. Corresponding relative risks for mortality were of similar magnitude, although with wider confidence limits. Admissions for coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease were particularly affected by adjustment for South Asian ethnicity, which needs to be considered in interpretation. All results were robust to adjustment for particulate matter (PM10) air pollution, and road traffic noise, possible for London boroughs (population about 2.6 million). We could not distinguish between the effects of daytime or night time noise as these measures were highly correlated. High levels of aircraft noise were associated with increased risks of stroke, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease

  17. Geochemical study of urban soils in public areas of an industrialized town (Ajka, western Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacháry, D.; Jordán, Gy.; Szabó, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Soil is one of the most essential parts of urban ecosystem contributing to the biogeochemical cycles along the rock-soil-plant-animal and human pathway. Soil plays a fundamental role in plant nutrient uptake and groundwater filtration, too. Urban soils differ from non-urban soils in many aspects, including their origin, and they may also concentrate contaminants in large quantities due to intensive human activities. The pollution sources are industry, traffic, fertilizer, tailing and waste. In addition to the increasing rate of urban areas, urban soils are under growing interest and their pollution have received significant attention in the past few decades. This work focuses on the toxic element (As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni) content of soils and their spatial distribution in order to find a link between contamination sources and the receiving urban soils at sensitive receptor locations such as children's playgrounds and parks. Ajka town is located in western Hungary. It has an old-established industrial history with multiple contamination sources of heavy alumina industry and coal-based power plants supplied by the nearby bauxite and coal mines. At 44 locations 46 soil samples have been collected at a depth of 0-10 cm along a 1x1 km grid. The whole grid covers an area of 48 km2. In each grid cell a sampling site was selected at public areas. Sample preparation included drying at 40 C°, thorough homogenization and sieving to 2 mm fine earth before chemical analysis. Grain size distribution and soil pH were also determined. Samples were analyzed with ICP-OES and SEM methods. The As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni concentrations range from 2.07 ppm to 9.48 ppm, 0.02 ppm to 2.84 ppm, 5.08 ppm to 35.74 ppm, 2.55 ppm to 47.78 ppm, 17.00 ppm to 91.00 ppm, 0.07 ppm to 0.61 ppm and 5.57 ppm to 32.09 ppm, respectively. The results revealed the contaminated areas associated with past industrial sites. This study also identified locations with considerable contamination at

  18. Wide-Area Landslide Deformation Mapping with Multi-Path ALOS PALSAR Data Stacks: A Case Study of Three Gorges Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguo Shi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR has been adopted as a spaceborne geodetic tool to successfully measure surface deformation of a few well-known landslides in the Three Gorges area. In consideration of the fact that most events of slope failure happened at places other than those famous landslides since the reservoir impoundment in 2003, focusing on a limited number of slopes is insufficient to meet the requirements of regional-scale landslide disaster prevention and early warning. As a result, it has become a vital task to evaluate the overall stability of slopes across the vast area of Three Gorges using wide-coverage InSAR datasets. In this study, we explored the approach of carrying out joint analysis of multi-path InSAR data stacks for wide-area landslide deformation mapping. As an example, three ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data stacks of neighboring ascending paths covering the area along the Yangtze River from Fengjie to Zigui were analyzed. A key problem to be solved is the separation of the tropospheric signal from the interferometric phase, for which we employed a hybrid description model of the atmospheric phase screen (APS to improve APS estimation from time series interferograms. The estimated atmospheric phase was largely correlated with the seasonal rainfall in the temporal dimension. The experimental results show that about 30 slopes covering total areas of 48 km2 were identified to be landslides in active deformation and should be kept under routine surveillance. Analyses of time series displacement measurements revealed that most landslides in the mountainous area far away from Yangtze River suffered from linear deformation, whereas landslides located on the river bank were destabilized predominantly by the influences of reservoir water level fluctuation and rainfall.

  19. Impact of truncated area under the curve on failed bioequivalence studies: a computer simulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Iftekhar

    2004-01-01

    The common measures used in a bioequivalence study are area under the curve (AUC) and the maximum plasma concentration. Estimation of AUC requires frequent blood samples. For long half-life drugs, sampling for long periods of time may become cumbersome. To resolve this issue some investigators have suggested the use of truncated AUC in bioequivalence studies for long half-life drugs. The suggested length of time for the truncated AUC is 72 hours. Many studies have been conducted to show that truncated AUC till 72 hours is a suitable approach. However, the suitability of truncated AUC for failed bioequivalence study has not been demonstrated. This report of simulated plasma concentration versus time data evaluates the suitability of truncated AUC for failed bioequivalence study of two hypothetical drugs. The results of the study indicate that the truncated approach for the estimation of the AUC for long half-life drugs in bioequivalence studies may be useful but it also increases the probability of accepting drugs as being bioequivalent when they are not.

  20. A comparative study between met & unmet need groups of contraception in rural area of Maharashtra, India

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    Harsha M Solanki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To compare met & unmet need groups of contraception with socio-economic, demographic, accessibility & family Planning (FP related factors. Methods Community based cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted among 363 married women of reproductive age groups in rural area selected by stratified simple random technique. After collecting preliminary information, the study population then divided into two groups based on their contraceptive use i.e. MET Group & UNMET NEED Groups. Then the role of socio-economic, demographic, accessibility & family Planning (FP related factors were studies to determine contraceptive use between these groups. Results Mean age of study subjects was 24.12 ± 4.45 years & average number of children per women was 2.02. Males were more literate than females (69.1% Vs 47.2%. 51.8% women were belonging to lower socio-economic status. Early marriages were still prevalent in this study (53.7%. Prevalence of met group of contraception was 59.2% & that of unmet need for contraception was 44.1%. Met groups were mainly from 20-29 years age group (46.6%; most of them (46.8% were literate & were from high socio-economic group (30.9% compared to unmet need groups. On comparison to unmet groups, most of the met group (33.9% got married after 18 years of age, residing within 5km area (26.4%, had visited to FP centre (49.0% & ever visited by FP staff (43.3%. Conclusion Education, income, marriage age, accessibility, FP staff related factors definitely has role among met & unmet need groups in their contraceptive use.

  1. Inhalation Dose and Source Term Studies in a Tribal Area of Wayanad, Kerala, India

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    Reshma Bhaskaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among radiation exposure pathways to human beings, inhalation dose is the most prominent one. Radon, thoron, and their progeny contribute more than 50 per cent to the annual effective dose due to natural radioactivity. South west coast of India is classified as a High Natural Background Radioactivity Area and large scale data on natural radioactivity and dosimetry are available from these coastal regions including the Neendakara-Chavara belt in the south of Kerala. However, similar studies and reports from the northern part of Kerala are scarce. The present study involves the data collection and analysis of radon, thoron, and progeny concentration in the Wayanad district of Kerala. The radon concentration was found to be within a range of 12–378 Bq/m3. The thoron concentration varied from 15 to 621 Bq/m3. Progeny concentration of radon and thoron and the diurnal variation of radon were also studied. In order to assess source term, wall and floor exhalation studies have been done for the houses showing elevated concentration of radon and thoron. The average values of radon, thoron, and their progeny are found to be above the Indian average as well as the average values reported from the High Natural Background Radioactivity Areas of Kerala. Exhalation studies of the soil samples collected from the vicinity of the houses show that radon mass exhalation rate varied from below detectable limit (BDL to a maximum of 80 mBq/kg/h. The thoron surface exhalation rate ranged from BDL to 17470 Bq/m2/h.

  2. Prospective study of peripheral panretinal photocoagulation of areas of nonperfusion in central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaide, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect that panretinal photocoagulation to peripheral areas of retinal vascular nonperfusion has on the visual acuity and injection frequency of ranibizumab in eyes with previous central retinal vein occlusion. Patients enrolled in a prospective study of ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion were imaged with wide-field angiography using the Optos P200 system. Laser photocoagulation was carried out and the extent of laser photocoagulation was evaluated with repeat wide-field angiography. Injection of ranibizumab was based on an as needed strategy throughout the study. The injection frequency in the 6 months before laser was compared with a 6-month period starting 2 months after the laser photocoagulation. The visual acuity was measured by Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol refraction at both the end of the 6-month follow-up period and at the time of laser photocoagulation. There were 10 patients treated in this study with a mean number of 1,757 spots of laser photocoagulation in the peripheral retina. The injection frequency in the 6-month lead-in period was 3.4 and in the 6-month follow-up period was 3.1, a difference that was not significant (P = 0.26). The visual acuity at the time of laser photocoagulation was 54.2 letters (approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/80) and at the end of the observation period was 51.4 letters, a difference that was not significant (P = 0.33). In this small study, laser photocoagulation to peripheral areas of nonperfusion as visualized by wide-field angiography did not result in either decreased injection frequency or improved visual acuity in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion treated with ranibizumab.

  3. Remedial investigation work plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Characterization Area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    More than 200 contaminated sites created by past waste management practices have been identified at the Y-12 Plant. Many of the sites have been grouped into operable units based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major facilities on the ORR. The ORR contains both hazardous and mixed-waste sites that are subject to regulations promulgated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Under RCRA guidelines and requirements from the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), the Y-12 Plant initiated investigation and monitoring of various sites within its boundaries in the mid-1980s. The entire ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of CERCLA sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites under investigation require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) of potential remedial actions.

  4. Performance study of vegetated sequencing batch coal slag bed treating domestic wastewater in suburban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S.Y.; Tsang, Y.F.; Chua, H.; Sin, S.N.; Cui, L.H. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2008-06-15

    A practical and affordable wastewater treatment system serving small community in suburban areas was studied. The system was a vegetated sequencing batch coal slag bed integrated with the rhythmical movement of wastewater and air like that of a sequencing batch reactor. The removal mechanisms capitalized on the pollutant removal process in conventional constructed wetland. Cyperus alternifolius was planted into the coal slag bed to form a novel plant-soil-microbial interactive system. Nutrients in the domestic wastewater, which cause environmental nuisance like eutrophication, were targeted to be eliminated by the process design. Operated with the contact time of 18 h, the treatment systems achieved around 60% removal efficiency for carbonaceous matters. The removals of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus were about 50% and 40%, respectively, while the removal of total suspended solids was approaching 80%. From the current study.. the construction cost of the vegetated sequencing batch coal slag bed was 256 RMB/m{sup 3} and the operation cost was 0.13 RMB/m{sup 3}. With the advantages of ease of operation, low costs, desirable treatment efficiency and aesthetic value, the vegetated sequencing batch coal slag bed is proposed to be an alternative for onsite domestic wastewater treatment in suburban areas.

  5. The study of ore minerals parageneses in Ponorogo area, East Java

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    Wiwik Dyah Hastuti Endang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in the Southern Mountain Range of East Jawa, Ponorogo District. Tectonically, the region extends along the Magmatic Sunda-Banda Arc, which comprises predominantly volcanic rocks of Mandalika Formation, sedimentary rock units of Arjosari Formation, and intrusive sequences such as dacite, andesite and diorite. Structurally, the region is controlled by faults striking NE-SW, NW-SE and N-S. Mandalika Formation and Arjosari Formation have an interfingering relation and are Oligo-Miocene. Results of the field observation and analyses of petrography and mineragraphy on outcrops reveal that the region has commonly undergone alteration and mineralisation. The principle ore minerals occurring in the Ponorogo area are pyrite and sphalerite with abundant mineral assemblages of chalcopyrite, magnetite, hematite, galena, covelite, bornite, and limonite. Mineralisation occurs in argillic zone and subprophyllitic zone. Based on textures, structures and ore mineral assemblages, mineralisation in the study area can be devided at least into two stages. The earlier stage was present in relation to hypogene processes, and resulted in pyrite–sphalerite–chalcopyrite–magnetite– galena. The subsequent stage took place due to supergene enrichment processes, and yielded pyrite– sphalerite–covelite–bournite–limonite. Such mineral assemblages suggest that they are formed at temperatures of about 100–360° C.

  6. End-stage renal disease in Tabuk Area, Saudi Arabia: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Minshawy, Osama; Ghabrah, Tawfik; El Bassuoni, Eman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, etiology and risk factors of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the region of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. We studied 460 renal replacement therapy patients through a review of medical records and patient interviews and obtained patient demographics, family history, risk factors for ESRD, environmental exposure to toxins, work conditions, social history and causes of death. The estimated prevalence of treated ESRD was 460 per million populations (PMP); 350 (76%) were treated by hemodialysis, 30 (7%) by peritoneal dialysis and 80 (17%) by kidney transplantation. The mean age was 48 ± 17 years, body mass index was 25 ± 2 kg/m 2 and the male vs. female ratio was 64% vs. 36%. Most patients (55%) were living in rural areas. Etiology of the ESRD was unknown in 33%, hypertension in 24%, chronic glomerulonephritis in 8%, obstructive uropathy in 3.5%, analgesic nephropathy in 5%, Bilhaziasis in 0.5%, chronic pyelonephritis in 2% and diabetic nephropathy in 18%. Other causes such as gouty nephropathy, collagen diseases, toxemia of pregnancy and lupus nephritis constituted 6% of the cases. We conclude that the epidemiology of the treated ESRD in Tabuk area is similar to that in Egypt, but very different from that in the United States.

  7. End-stage renal disease in Tabuk Area, Saudi Arabia: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama El Minshawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, etiology and risk fac-tors of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD in the region of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. We studied 460 renal replacement therapy patients through a review of medical records and patient interviews and obtained patient demographics, family history, risk factors for ESRD, environmental exposure to toxins, work conditions, social history and causes of death. The estimated prevalence of treated ESRD was 460 per million populations (PMP; 350 (76% were treated by hemodialysis, 30 (7% by peritoneal dialysis and 80 (17% by kidney transplantation. The mean age was 48 ± 17 years, body mass index was 25 ± 2 kg/m 2 and the male vs. female ratio was 64% vs. 36%. Most patients (55% were living in rural areas. Etiology of the ESRD was unknown in 33%, hypertension in 24%, chronic glomerulonephritis in 8%, obstructive uropathy in 3.5%, analgesic nephropathy in 5%, Bilhaziasis in 0.5%, chronic pyelonephritis in 2% and diabetic nephropathy in 18%. Other causes such as gouty nephropathy, collagen diseases, toxemia of pregnancy and lupus nephritis constituted 6% of the cases. We conclude that the epidemiology of the treated ESRD in Tabuk area is similar to that in Egypt, but very different from that in the United States.

  8. Mineral Resources of the Hells Canyon Study Area, Wallowa County, Oregon, and Idaho and Adams Counties, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, George C.; Gualtieri, James L.; Close, Terry J.; Federspiel, Francis E.; Leszcykowski, Andrew M.

    2007-01-01

    Field studies supporting the evaluation of the mineral potential of the Hells Canyon study area were carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1974-76 and 1979. The study area includes (1) the Hells Canyon Wilderness; (2) parts of the Snake River, Rapid River, and West Fork Rapid River Wild and Scenic Rivers; (3) lands included in the second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II); and (4) part of the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area. The survey is one of a series of studies to appraise the suitability of the area for inclusion in the National Wilderness Preservation System as required by the Wilderness Act of 1964. The spectacular and mineralized area covers nearly 950 mi2 (2,460 km2) in northeast Oregon and west-central Idaho at the junction of the Northern Rocky Mountains and the Columbia Plateau.

  9. An ethnozoological study in the adjoining areas of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahawar Madan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that human beings are familiar with use of animals for food, cloth, medicine, etc. since ancient times. Enormous work has been done on ethnobotany and traditional medicine. Like plants, animal and their products are also possessing medicinal properties that can be exploited for the benefit of human beings. In India, many ethnic communities are dispersed all over the country and these people are still totally depended on local traditional medicinal system for their health care. India is gifted with faunal and floral biodiversity, Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary is also one of them, and thus the aim of this work was to take an ethnozoological field survey among Garasiya people (main tribal group of this area in the adjoining areas of this sanctuary. Method In order to document the ethnozoological information about animal and their products prevalent among these people in the adjoining area of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, a study was carried out from January, 2008 to April, 2008. Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire and open interview with 25 (16 male and 9 female selected Garasiya people. The name of animal and other ethnozoological information were documented. Photographs and discussion were also recorded with the help of camera and voice recorder. Result A total of 24 animal species were used in 35 different medicinal purposes including asthma, weakness, tuberculosis, cough, paralysis and blister and for other religious purposes. It has been find out that animal used by Garasiya, consist of fourteen mammals, five birds, three reptiles, one arthropods and one amphibian. The meat of Cynopterus sphinx used to relieved fever and cough has the highest FL (96% although flesh of Sus scrofa and tooth of Elephas maximus have the lowest FL (12%. Some protected species such as Elephas maximus (elephant, Semnopithecus priam (monkey, Cervus unicolor (sambhar were also mentioned as important medicinal

  10. Cogeneration institutional study in the Geismar, LA, and Orange, Texas areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a better understanding of the institutional problems involved in the use of coal-fueled cogeneration. The viewpoints of industry, utilities, and government were probed extensively through indepth confidential interviews. To provide a real-life basis for this investigation, two existing industrial sites in the Gulf Coast area were studied. The projected effects of the installation of coal-burning cogeneration plants supplying steam and electricity to several industries, replacing existing oil and gas burning boilers, were studied for each site. This report provides insights into the overall institutional problem that will be useful at other locations. It covers the regulatory, economic, financial, engineering, operating, contractual, and corporate relations aspects of cogeneration. It concludes with suggestions for future action by the Federal government, state governments, industries, and utilities that should be helpful in removing the institutional constraints that are retarding cogeneration installations and the use of coal.

  11. Case study: could ultrasound and elastography visualized densified areas inside the deep fascia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luomala, Tuulia; Pihlman, Mika; Heiskanen, Jouko; Stecco, Carla

    2014-07-01

    Many manual techniques describe palpable changes in the subcutaneous tissue. Many manual therapists have perceived palpable tissue stiffness and how it changes after treatment. No clear demonstration exists of the presence of specific alterations in the subcutaneous tissue and even less a visualization of their changes following manual therapy. This case study visualizes by ultrasound and elastography an alteration of the deep fascia in a 40-year-old male with subacute pain in the calf area. Ultrasound and elastography permits visualization of gliding, echogenicity and elasticity of deep fascia and their changes, after manual therapy (Fascial Manipulation(©)). This study suggests the possible use of the ultrasound and elastography to furnish a more objective picture of the "sensations" that are commonly reported by manual therapists, and which supports clinicians in the diagnosis of the myofascial pain.

  12. The Occurrence of Haze in Malaysia: A Case Study in an Urban Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleiman, A.; Othman, M.; Samah, A. A.; Sulaiman, N. M.; Radojevic, M.

    - Klang Valley, a heavily industrialized urban area in Malaysia, has experienced severe haze episodes since the early 1980s. Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSP) is used in studying this phenomenon. Three severe haze episodes during the early 1990s are reviewed; August 1990, October 1991, and August-October 1994. The nature of these episodes, their possible causes, and their major features are discussed. Meteorological conditions associated with these episodes were analyzed. Results of the study indicate that stability and trapping of particles are the main factors affecting the pollution during haze periods. Maximum total suspended matter (TSP) was recorded in October 1991. The August-October 1994 episode was the most persistent and least affected by meteorological variables. Analysis of wind direction data showed that southerly and southwesterly winds coincided with the worst haze periods.

  13. Land Use Planning in the Urban Sensitive Areas Case Study, Farahzad Valley Stream-Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafieian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Abstract1-Introduction As an important fundamental Issue in urban planning, land use suitability assessment provides important reference for planning, planning management, planning implementation and planning evaluation. Whether at home or abroad, many scholars and planning workers have made in-depth study and explore at the approaches of land suitability assessment, especially in the use of GIS technology. Land use suitability assessment is an important fundamental work in urban planning. Be restricted by technology and means, qualitative analysis methods are wider used in evaluating land use suitability. It is necessary to explore a quantitative evaluation method to provide a reliable basis for in-depth analysis of urban planning and improve the persuasiveness of the decision-making and objectivity and science of the urban planning. 2-Theoritical BasesUrban valley stream is one of the important factors in making structural and functional evolutions of cities. In these natural corridors, in addition to, permanent or periodic flow of water, visual and natural values, as well as different function/ action pattern -in the form of tourism- recreation, economical functions, and even human life- are existed. In theories related to urban sustainable development, optimum utilization of these areas in the framework of sensitive areas and urban vital plans is considered by urban institution. Urban Managers are using a number of programs and policies to guide and control growth in the urban valley streams. These growth management measures include such policies as:Smart growth programs - includes a range of approaches to contain development by using more efficient and compact urban development patterns that preserve open space and protect environmentally sensitive areas.Alternative zoning ordinances-These can be used to protect forests, wetlands, floodplains, or environmentally sensitive land. There are several different forms of alternative

  14. Application of the Sketch Match method in Sulina coastal study area within PEGASO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Eugenia; Nichersu, Iuliana; Mierla, Marian; Trifanov, Cristian; Nichersu, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    The Sketch Match approach for Sulina pilot case was carried out in the frame of the project "People for Ecosystem Based Governance in Assessing Sustainable Development of Ocean and Coast" - PEGASO, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme. The PEGASO project has been designed to identify common threats and solutions in relation to the long-term sustainable development and environmental protection of coastal zones bordering the Mediterranean and Black Seas in ways relevant to the implementation of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol (ICZM) for the Mediterranean. PEGASO will use the model of the existing ICZM Protocol for the Mediterranean and adjust it to the needs of the Black Sea through innovative actions, one of them being Refine and develop efficient and easy to use tools for making sustainability assessments in the coastal zone tested through a number of relevant pilot sites. Thus, for the Romania case study, the Sketch Match approach was selected, being an interactive public participation planning method, developed by the Dutch Government, and applied for Sulina area in order to stimulate support and involvement from stakeholders regarding Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol by consulting and involving these people in the planning process and making use of a coherent package of interactive methods. Participants were representatives of a wide range of stakeholders, varying from local fisherman to representatives of the Local and County council and Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Authority. They participated in a two-day design session, focused on problems and potentials of the area, with the aim to work out possible solutions for an integrated coastal spatial planning, focusing on the parallel enhance of the various local functions in the spatial design (coastal area protection next to industry, tourism, nature, recreation, and other activities).

  15. GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING AND GEODIVERSITY: STUDY AT THE MINAS DO CAMAQUÃ GEOSITE PROTECTION AREA (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Mendes Von Ahn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphological mapping allows the evaluation of geoheritage and subsidizes geoconservation efforts. This work aimed at identifying and analyzing the landforms at the Minas do Camaquã Geosite Protection Area (MCGPA – Rio Grande do Sul state – Brazil, emphasizing the anthropogenic morphologies to subsidize the conservation of the studied area’s geomorphological heritage. A geomorphological map (2015 of the MCGPA was made (1:25.000 to recognize and identify the natural and anthropogenic landforms. Based on this map, four sectors were identified according to the representativeness of the landforms: (1 Mineral extraction sector; (2 Tailings deposition sector; (3 Structural features sector; and (4 Boundary sector. The mining activities were the main reason for the geomorphological alterations and the creation of anthropogenic morphologies in the site. Despite the significant disturbance caused by the mining activity, there are still features of geologic-geomorphological interest fairly preserved. The identified and analyzed anthropogenic morphologies can describe the history of the mining activities that took place in the area and which formed a set of landforms currently present in the MCGPA. Although the surface features are not originated from natural morphogenesis, they belong to the area’s geodiversity. Furthermore, considering these features as geoheritage would create the need for management aiming at avoiding the collapse and degradation of these forms. Nowadays, the mining activities have remained inactive, and this set of anthropogenic morphologies need to be understood under a geomorphological point of view which will allow future exploitation of its potential touristic, scientific, pedagogical and cultural uses. The best way to promote and develop strategies of geoconservation for this place is to create and foment geotourism in this area.

  16. Spatial variations and development of land use regression models of oxidative potential in ten European study areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedynska, Aleksandra; Hoek, Gerard; Wang, Meng; Yang, Aileen; Eeftens, Marloes; Cyrys, Josef; Keuken, Menno; Ampe, Christophe; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Cirach, Marta; de Hoogh, Kees; De Nazelle, Audrey; Nystad, Wenche; Akhlaghi, Helgah Makarem; Declercq, Christophe; Stempfelet, Morgane; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Lanki, Timo; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Brunekreef, Bert; Kooter, Ingeborg M.

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative potential (OP) has been suggested as a health-relevant measure of air pollution. Little information is available about OP spatial variation and the possibility to model its spatial variability. Our aim was to measure the spatial variation of OP within and between 10 European study areas. The second aim was to develop land use regression (LUR) models to explain the measured spatial variation. OP was determined with the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay in ten European study areas. DTT of PM2.5 was measured at 16-40 sites per study area, divided over street, urban and regional background sites. Three two-week samples were taken per site in a one-year period in three different seasons. We developed study-area specific LUR models and a LUR model for all study areas combined to explain the spatial variation of OP. Significant contrasts between study areas in OP were found. OP DTT levels were highest in southern Europe. DTT levels at street sites were on average 1.10 times higher than at urban background locations. In 5 of the 10 study areas LUR models could be developed with a median R2 of 33%. A combined study area model explained 30% of the measured spatial variability. Overall, LUR models did not explain spatial variation well, possibly due to low levels of OP DTT and a lack of specific predictor variables.

  17. Perception vs. Observation, or the Contributions of Rational Choice Theory and Area Studies to Contemporary Political Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chalmers

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the notion that the empiricism of economics is more valid (and therefore more valuable) to the field of political science than the more subjective efforts of area studies. Specifically responds to Robert Bates's categorization of area studies as "unscientific" and unduly "humanist." Briefly discusses significant works within area…

  18. Environmental Attitudes of the 6th Grade Students from Rural and Urban Areas: A Case Study for Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Gaye; Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated environmental attitude of 6th grade students living in rural and urban areas in Ankara. Hundred and thirty-eight students were selected from four schools located in these areas. A 45-item questionnaire consisting of four dimensions was used to measure students' environmental attitude. Results of the study revealed that,…

  19. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  20. Capturing heterogeneity: The role of a study area's extent for estimating mean throughfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Voss, Sebastian; Metzger, Johanna Clara; Hildebrandt, Anke; Zimmermann, Beate

    2016-11-01

    The selection of an appropriate spatial extent of a sampling plot is one among several important decisions involved in planning a throughfall sampling scheme. In fact, the choice of the extent may determine whether or not a study can adequately characterize the hydrological fluxes of the studied ecosystem. Previous attempts to optimize throughfall sampling schemes focused on the selection of an appropriate sample size, support, and sampling design, while comparatively little attention has been given to the role of the extent. In this contribution, we investigated the influence of the extent on the representativeness of mean throughfall estimates for three forest ecosystems of varying stand structure. Our study is based on virtual sampling of simulated throughfall fields. We derived these fields from throughfall data sampled in a simply structured forest (young tropical forest) and two heterogeneous forests (old tropical forest, unmanaged mixed European beech forest). We then sampled the simulated throughfall fields with three common extents and various sample sizes for a range of events and for accumulated data. Our findings suggest that the size of the study area should be carefully adapted to the complexity of the system under study and to the required temporal resolution of the throughfall data (i.e. event-based versus accumulated). Generally, event-based sampling in complex structured forests (conditions that favor comparatively long autocorrelations in throughfall) requires the largest extents. For event-based sampling, the choice of an appropriate extent can be as important as using an adequate sample size.

  1. [Breast feeding and child care: a case study of 2 rural areas of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil-Romo, S E; Rueda-Arróniz, F; Díez-Urdanivia-Coria, S

    1993-01-01

    The present research is included in the fields of public health, social sciences and gender studies. Its objective is to provide insight into the nursing behaviour of two groups of mothers, their domestic and extra-domestic child care arrangements and their attitudes towards breast-feeding. Thirty-five mothers were selected in Malinalco, Mexico, and 35 in the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca. Each mother had at least two children and one of them under three years of age. The study was exploratory in its initial phase, subsequently cross-sectional, comparative and prospective. It constitutes a foundation for longitudinal case studies. A pre-coded questionnaire, including the following issues, was administered: family composition; maternal schooling; maternal employment; nursing behaviour with the last child; child care and attitudes towards breast-feeding. The main information regarding 33 mothers in Malinalco and 31 in Oaxaca revealed that in both areas mothers decided how to feed their children during the first days; during the first month, 55 per cent of mothers in Malinalco breast-fed their child, while approximately 90 per cent did so in Oaxaca. The majority of women worked outside home and resorted to extra-domestic arrangements for child care. No relation was found between the feeding method chosen with the last child and maternal employment. About 90 per cent of women in both areas were "happy" to have been born females and breast-feeding was considered a "must". Seventy five per cent of mothers would not allow other women to breast feed their child, even though they were aware that maternal milk is the best.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Implications of ecotourism development in protected areas: a study from Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana MP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on visitors profile study of protected area based tourist spots of Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary (RKWS, Bangladesh to ascertain the potential of ecotourism. Study findings shows that 69% male constitute the visitors group while the maximum number of visitors was found in the age of below 30 years. Most of the visitors were literate and among them 43% visitors were student. Most (53% of visitors preferred to get recreation in holidays as they were employed. Visitors were highly preferred to come with friends group. About 92% respondents showed positive mind to come here in future while 89% respondents view that park has tourism potential. Most of the respondents reported the presence of wildlife (48% most notable followed by plant diversity and tribal community as recreational. From χ2 test it is found that highly significance association present between tourism potentiality of the wildlife sanctuary and some demographic variable like income of tourists (χ2 = 49.138, p < 0.000, visiting pattern (χ2 = 19.344, p < 0.000, education of tourists (χ2 = 50.226, p < 0.000, travelling distance (Km - χ2 = 11.427, p < 0.022, duration of staying (χ2 = 12.867, p < 0.002, frequency of visit (χ2 = 8.456, p < 0.015, visiting time (χ2 = 6.530, p < 0.011, problem in the study area (χ2 = 14.962, p < 0.021, occupation of tourists (χ2 = 8.848, p < 0.031. If the problems addressed by the visitors were solved, RKWS would be a bright place of eco-tourism in Bangladesh.

  3. Numerical Studies of Radioactive Sediment Deposition on Reservoirs in Fukushima Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Susumu; Itakura, Mitsuhiro; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2014-05-01

    The transportation of radioactive Cs is mainly brought about by movement of silt- and clay-sized particles in rivers. Therefore, predicting such a fine sediment flow and deposition in rivers has been one of central issues toward environmental recovery after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. For the purpose of the Cs transport prediction, we concentrate on a few reservoirs in Fukushima costal area, since they are temporal destinations for contaminated silt and clay transported by rivers. We numerically study how the river water together with floating silt and clays penetrate into the reservoirs and where the sediments settle on the bottom surface of the reservoirs by using 2D river simulation framework named iRIC developed by Shimizu et al. In this presentation, we reveal the typical deposition pattern in the target reservoirs and compare the results with direct sampling data for the sediments on the reservoir bottom surfaces. We believe that the obtained information is useful in planning the water supply and treatment for highly-contaminated districts in Fukushima costal area.

  4. [Regional ecosecurity pattern in urban area based on land use analysis: a case study in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shubo; Xiao, Dunin; An, Shuqing

    2005-12-01

    Mid-scale regional ecosecurity, which takes practical ecosecurity issues as its priority, should be viewed as the core of the multi-scale concept of ecosecurity. For urban area, a special region taking ecological infrastructure as its core mission, the construction of regional ecosecurity pattern may provide a good chance to realize its sustainable development. Based on land use analysis, a qualitative and quantitative research on the landscape pattern, ecovalue evaluation, and driving force analysis of social economy could provide an effective approach to construct the ecosecurity pattern in urban area. This study showed that in Lanzhou, the ecosecurity pattern consisted of three parts, i.e., eco-safeguarding system, eco-buffering system and eco-percolating system, among which, eco-buffering system was the decisive part determining ecosecurity pattern construction. The quantitative analysis of urban spatial expansion pattern was taken as the decisive function to determine the security level of the ecosecurity pattern, which was divided into low, middle and high levels.

  5. A Study Of 370 Live Births In A Rural Area Of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Surinder

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in12 Anganwadi areas of ferozepur District in Punjab to know about the various aspects of reproduction of the population. A total of 13, 782 population was covered. The sex ratio of the surveyed population was 900.7 females to 1000 males. The crude Birth rate of the area came to be 26.83 per 1000 population. In 94.87% of the births, the delivery occurred at the completion of 36 weeks of Gestation period & majority of the births (91.63% occurred to the mothers in the age group of 20 to 35 years . 24.86% of the children were born to the mothers with parity of five and above. 46.75% of the births took place between the months of July and October. 96.22% of the deliveries were conducted at home and majority (93.79% of the mothers utilized the services of indigenous dais( 73.52% of trained dais and 20.27% of untrained dais for the conduction of delivery.

  6. STUDY ON THE CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POLLUTING FOG IN GUANGZHOU AREA IN SPRING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dui; LI Fei; DENG Xue-jiao; BI Xue-yan; WANG Xin-hua; HUANG Xiao-ying

    2009-01-01

    Samples of fog water collected in the area of Guangzhou during February,March and April of 2005 are used in this work to study the chemical composition of fog water in polluting fog there. Three typical episodes of polluting tbg are analyzed in terms of ionic concentration and their possible sources. It is fuund that the concentration of various ions in fog water is much higher than those in rainwater. Fog not only blocks visual range but contains liquid particles that result in high degree of pollution and are very harmful to human health. SO4= is the anion with the highest concentration in fog water,followed by NO3.For the cation,Ca++ and NH4+ are the highest in concentration. It is then known that rainwater is more acidic than lbg water,indicating that ionic concentration of lbg water is much higher than that of rainwater,but there are much more buffering materials in fog water,like NH4+ and Ca++. There is significant enrichment of Ca++,SO4=. and Mg++ in fog water. In the Guangzhou area,tbg water from polluting fog is mainly influenced continental environment and human activity. The episodes of serious fog pollution during the time have immediate relationships with the presence of abundant water vapor and large amount of polluting aerosol particles.

  7. Cross-sectional study on AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Na; Cheng Yi-min; Li Ying; Guo Xin; Wu Jun-qing; Ru Xiao-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To understand AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas, and to analyze the influencing factors of condom use. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the cluster-sampling method. 4,800 subjects, randomly selected from six counties in China, were questioned using an anonymous survey. Results: 36% of the subjects knew that tooth extraction could transmit AIDS. 38.4% of the subjects knew that the use of public razors could transmit AIDS. 27.1% of the subjects had used a condom in the last year. The influencing factors of condom use were: sex (OR=1.325), age (OR=1.419), AIDS counseling (OR=2.181), educational level (OR=0.622), location of registered permanent residence (OR=0.732), AIDS knowledge score (OR=0.736), and resident of high AIDS prevalent province (OR=0.354). Conclusion: AIDS knowledge in rural areas is still lacking. The rate of condom use was very low. The main influencing factors of low condom use were being female, elderly, and no AIDS counseling. Higher educational level, registered permanent resident in town, high AIDS knowledge score, and resident of high AIDS prevalent provinces were the propitious factors for condom use.

  8. Carbon isotopic studies of individual lipids in organisms from the Nansha sea area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN; Yi; SONG; Jinming; ZHANG; Hui

    2004-01-01

    Carbon isotopes of individual lipids in typical organisms from the Nansha sea area were measured by the GC-IRMS analytical technique. δ13C values of saturated fatty acids in different organisms examined are from -25.6‰ to -29.7‰ with the average values ranging from -26.4‰ to -28.2‰ and the variance range of 1.8‰ between different organisms is also observed.Unsaturated fatty acids have heavy carbon isotopic compositions and the mean differences of 2.9‰-6.8‰ compared to the same carbon number saturated fatty acids. δ13C values of n-alkanes range from -27.5‰ to -29.7‰ and their mean values, ranging from -28.6‰ to -28.9‰, are very close in different organisms. The mean difference in δ13C between the saturated fatty acids and n-alkanes is only 1.5‰, indicating that they have similar biosynthetic pathways. The carbon isotopic variations between the different carbon-number lipids are mostly within ±2.0‰, reflecting that they experienced a biosynthetic process of the carbon chain elongation. At the same time, the carbon isotopic genetic relationships between the biological and sedimentary lipids are established by comparative studies of carbon isotopic compositions of individual lipids in organisms and sediments from the Nansha sea area, which provides scientific basis for carbon isotopic applied research of individual lipids.

  9. Study on Effects of Human Activities on Rehabilitation of Vegetation on Red Soil in Hilly Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Gengling

    2000-01-01

    Based on the two long-term experiments on red soil in hilly areas in the southern part of Hunan Province, a study on rehabilitation of natural vegetation in this area has been carried out.The results showed that when the more frequently vegetation was cut, the less bio-mass and the fewer the species of the vegetation were year by year, especially the growth of xylophyto. For example,in plot 1 (under annual cutting), the bio-mass of vegetation decreased from 90. 2kg/plot to 45. 0kg/polt, the species of the vegetation decreased from 15 to 4, and the proportion of the xylophyta biomass decreased from 17% to 0.9% in 1991. As for imparata cylindrica var. major during the process of restoration of natural vegetation, applying fertilizer made it reproduced excessively, then eliminate. With frequently cutting, the soil fertility was exhausted gradually and the biomass of Imparata cylindrica decreased sharply, especially under the condition of N fertilizer application.

  10. Ecological study of hantavirus infection in wild rodents in an endemic area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Gentile, Rosana; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Teixeira, Bernardo Rodrigues; Vaz, Vanderson; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Vicente, Luciana Helena Bassan; da Costa-Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Bonvicino, Cibele; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Lemos, Elba R S

    2014-03-01

    A 3-year ecological study of small mammals was carried out in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the state of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. A total of 994 rodents of 14 different species corresponding to the subfamilies of Sigmodontinae, Murinae, Eumysopinae, and Caviinae were captured during 2004-2006. Oligoryzomys nigripes and Akodon montensis were the most abundant species and showed a clear seasonal pattern with higher population sizes during the winter. Rodent population outbreaks, associated within bamboo mast seeding events, were detected predominantly in areas where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases were notified in the state. Antibody reactivity to Hantavirus was detected in five sigmodontine species: O. nigripes (39/435), A. montensis (15/318), Akodon paranaensis (4/37), Thaptomys nigrita (1/86) and Sooretamys angouya (1/12). The highest hantavirus antibody prevalence occurred during the period of highest population size in A. montensis. For O. nigripes, hantavirus prevalence was higher in late spring, when reproduction was more frequent. Co-circulation of Juquitiba (JUQV) and Jabora (JABV) viruses was observed - JABV in A. paranaensis and A. montensis; JUQV in O. nigripes and T. nigrita. JABV occurrence was associated to gender and population size of the rodent while JUQV was related to gender, season, temperature, and locality.

  11. Ecological Compensation Mechanism in Water Conservation Area: A Case Study of Dongjiang River

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    Kong Fanbin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate economic compensation from downstream to upstream watershed is important to solve China’s social and economic imbalances between regions and can potentially enhance water resources protection and ecological security. The study analyzes the implementation of ecological compensation policy and related legal basis under ecological compensation mechanism theory and practice patterns, based on current natural environment and socio-economic development of national origin in Dongjiang water conservation areas. Under the principle of “Users pay”, the Dongjiang River is the subject of ecological compensation and recipient. By using the “cost-benefit analysis” and “cost method of industrial development opportunity”, we estimate that the total ecological compensation amounted to 513.35 million yuan. When estimated by the indicators such as water quantity, water quality and water use efficiency, we establish the “environmental and ecological protection cost sharing model” and measure the total cost of protecting downstream watershed areas, the Guangdong Province, is about 108.61 million yuan. The implementation of the Dongjiang source region that follows the principles of ecological compensation and approaches are also designed

  12. Comparative study of urban development and groundwater condition in coastal areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Capítulo, Leandro; Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a sand-dune barrier in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is analyzed as a factor regulating the fresh groundwater reserves available. The impact of geomorphological evolution and the consequences for the social and economic development of two coastal areas are assessed. This is one of the most important tourist destinations in the country; for study purposes, it was divided into a northern sector and a southern sector. In the southern sector, the exploitable groundwater is associated with the Holocene and upper Pleistocene geomorphological evolution, which generated three interrelated aquifer units, constituting a system whose useful thickness reaches at least 45 m. In contrast, the northern sector is restricted to two Holocene aquifer units, whose total thickness is on the order of 12 m. The morphological characteristics and the occurrence of the largest fresh groundwater reserves in the southern sector are indicators of better conditions for economic growth, which is mainly reflected on the expansion of real estate ventures. The relationships of transmissivity vs area of real estate ventures (Arev), and total water consumption vs Arev, are indicators for the sustainable management of the water resources. The approach chosen may be used by decision makers in other regions to assess the feasibility of future tourism projects on the basis of the availability of water resources associated with geomorphological features.

  13. KARAKTERISTIK PERILAKU MALSUAI SISWA PENGHUNI AREA PROSTITUSI (Studi Kasus Siswa SMPN2 Limpung Batang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskur *

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is on the negative behavior of the students that appear to hamper their adjustment ability. Deviant behavior arises from ineffective behavior to deviant behavior inappropriate performed by them, both from the social regulations and religious norms. Self reporting, self-disclosure, and interviews were used to obtain the data. Observations were also carried out to observe the physiological reactions, action subject spontaneity that occurred outside the control of the subject, due to mental stress or feeling, as a subject of psychological phenomena. Descriptive-interpretative analysis, as teoritized by Milles and Huberman, was used to analyze the data. This research found that 51 of the 83 students who lived in the area of prostitution still had a positive self-adjustment capability, although residing around or near the area of prostitution. While the rest (32 students had various problem to adjust their behavior to the school code of conduct, social norms and religious norms. Their deviant behavior appeared in truant behavior. becoming a helper on a truck until cross the province, smoking, rough with friends and teachers, consumption of liquor and dextro pills, like dealing with spirits, search pander prostitutes, to do free sex . The factors that affected the appearance of their deviant behavior was their parents' behavior that was often out of control, as well as family members. Environment and school friends and networks outside the school also became a strong factor influencing the emergence deviant behavior.

  14. Modelling of PM10 concentration for industrialized area in Malaysia: A case study in Shah Alam

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, Norazian Mohamed; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Tan, Cheng-yau; Ramli, N. A.; Yahaya, A. S.; Fitri, N. F. M. Y.

    In Malaysia, the predominant air pollutants are suspended particulate matter (SPM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). This research is on PM10 as they may trigger harm to human health as well as environment. Six distributions, namely Weibull, log-normal, gamma, Rayleigh, Gumbel and Frechet were chosen to model the PM10 observations at the chosen industrial area i.e. Shah Alam. One-year period hourly average data for 2006 and 2007 were used for this research. For parameters estimation, method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was selected. Four performance indicators that are mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), coefficient of determination (R2) and prediction accuracy (PA), were applied to determine the goodness-of-fit criteria of the distributions. The best distribution that fits with the PM10 observations in Shah Alamwas found to be log-normal distribution. The probabilities of the exceedences concentration were calculated and the return period for the coming year was predicted from the cumulative density function (cdf) obtained from the best-fit distributions. For the 2006 data, Shah Alam was predicted to exceed 150 μg/m3 for 5.9 days in 2007 with a return period of one occurrence per 62 days. For 2007, the studied area does not exceed the MAAQG of 150 μg/m3

  15. Comparative study of urban development and groundwater condition in coastal areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Capítulo, Leandro; Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-02-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a sand-dune barrier in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is analyzed as a factor regulating the fresh groundwater reserves available. The impact of geomorphological evolution and the consequences for the social and economic development of two coastal areas are assessed. This is one of the most important tourist destinations in the country; for study purposes, it was divided into a northern sector and a southern sector. In the southern sector, the exploitable groundwater is associated with the Holocene and upper Pleistocene geomorphological evolution, which generated three interrelated aquifer units, constituting a system whose useful thickness reaches at least 45 m. In contrast, the northern sector is restricted to two Holocene aquifer units, whose total thickness is on the order of 12 m. The morphological characteristics and the occurrence of the largest fresh groundwater reserves in the southern sector are indicators of better conditions for economic growth, which is mainly reflected on the expansion of real estate ventures. The relationships of transmissivity vs area of real estate ventures (Arev), and total water consumption vs Arev, are indicators for the sustainable management of the water resources. The approach chosen may be used by decision makers in other regions to assess the feasibility of future tourism projects on the basis of the availability of water resources associated with geomorphological features.

  16. Case study: purification efficiency of a treatment wetland used at a peat extraction area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Riku; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The inflow and outflow of a treatment wetland was intensively monitored between March 2012 and October 2012. Sampling was done with automated sampling equipment bidaily during the snowmelt period and daily for the rest of the study period. The treatment wetland is located downstream of a peat extraction area with a surface area of 208 ha. Drainage network at the peat extraction area has been fitted with peak flow control structures and a sedimentation basin from which the water is pumped to the treatment wetland. The treatment wetland has a surface area of 11 ha of peatland soil and is covered by grassy vegetation during the summer season. After flowing through the wetland water is discharging to a small stream through a v-notch weir. All samples were analysed for electric conductivity (EC), suspended solids (SS), Colour, Turbidity and pH. Additional analyses for various elements and nutrients were done for samples selected on the basis of hydrology. Results of the additional analyses represent the dissolved fraction of analysed elements as the samples were first filtrated with 0.45 µm filter for SS. Our results show that the purification efficiency varies during the measurement period. For example, to SS the overall purification efficiency was 62 %. However during the spring flood the purification efficiency is negative which can be caused by snowmelt water flushing previous year's dead vegetation or particulate matter accumulated during the winter period. After midsummer we can observe drastic increase in the retention of SS. Similar pattern can be seen in the retention of phosphorous with overall retention of 11 % of the total phosphorous. In the case of nitrogen the overall performance for the wetland is poor. Some of this can be explained by poor retention of NO2-3-N due to cold weather during spring melt season. However during the summer time denitrification process seems to be working as the retention of N improves. Retention of dissolved organic carbon

  17. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko [Kinki Univ., Atomic Energy Research Institute, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have influences various forms as the sources of terrecial environmental {gamma} radiation and of radon in to the human life environment and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. The environmental radiation is higher than that of the other on the west Japan where generally consist rich of granite strata. We deeply appreciate in regard to natural radiation and would carry the studies on the movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides on high background radiation area consisted rich granite strata. We have selected and observed on Ikeda mineral spring district Ota-shi Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tohaku-gun, Tottori pref. on Chugoku area, Muro district Uda-gun, Hachibuse district, Nafa-shi Nara pref., and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref., Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. on Kinki area and Masutomi spa, Koma-gun, Yamanashi pref., for HBRA, and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref., for CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides, and reported these results on following; (1) Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors which are easy handling in spite of need of long sampling period, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell with 300 ml volume by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used cellulose nitrate (LR-115 type II, Kodak Co.) as solid state track detector. Among these characteristics of radon monitors, though minimum detectable limit of cup method for 3 months sampling is higher than those by the other method, it is able to measure mean Rn-222 concentration for 3 months. Rn-222 concentration by pico-rad method is able to get briefly mean concentration for 24 hours, is small detector and many

  18. Evaluation of Urban Polder Drainage System performance in Jakarta. Case Study Kelapa gading Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmah, L.; Suryadi, F.X.; Schultz, E.

    2010-01-01

    Kelapa Gading area is located in the plains of North Jakarta about 6 km from the coastline of Jakarta Bay. Kelapa Gading area covers 1288 ha it consists of three large compartments and next to that the Kodamar Unit separated system from Kelapa Gading excess water of the area is discharged to Sunter

  19. An epidemiological study of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and Rural areas of kanpur

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem Ahmad; Suresh Chandra; R P Sharma; J P Srivastava

    2003-01-01

    Research Question : - What is the magnitude of Diabetes mellitus in the urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Objectives:To study the prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To compare the magnitude of problem of diabetes mellitus between urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To study the possible associates and socio-demographic variables related to diabetes mellitus.Study Design : Cross sectional study.Setting : The study was performed o...

  20. The emergence of the area of Science and Mathematics Teaching like a scientific community: a documentary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clériston Ribeiro Ramos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the changes in the area of teaching of Science and Mathematics, were raised by the documents from CAPES between the years 2000 and 2013 more discussions were aggregated from scientific societies on the subject. To support this study, relationships were drawn to the theory of Thomas Kuhn, for paradigms, scientific community, and other related. We make a timeline for the area, it was revealed that emerged from practices that have occurred since the 60s, while having its own area boundary only in 2000, when it moved from the area of Education and was restructured in 2011 to the area of teaching. It is believed that the area will consolidate, because with the increased quantity and quality of graduate programs, most committed researchers will contribute to the identity of the area of teaching of Science and Mathematic in Brazil.

  1. Using bearing area parameters to quantify early erosive tooth surface changes in enamel: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, James; German, Matthew; Waterhouse, Paula

    2013-11-01

    Most in vitro studies investigate the erosive process using relatively simple roughness parameters such as roughness average (Ra). In isolation, Ra may misrepresent the surface features. Further, few studies report baseline surface characteristics after sample preparation. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that measuring the bearing area parameters in addition to Ra may be useful when qualifying the surface of enamel at baseline and after an erosive challenge. The null hypothesis for this study was that the bearing area parameters provide no more useful information than Ra alone, when qualifying the surface of enamel at baseline and after an erosive challenge. Enamel slabs (n=20) were prepared from human (n=2) and bovine (n=4) incisor teeth and polished with 0.05μm paste. Roughness average (Ra) and bearing parameters (MR1, MR2, Rpk, Rk, Rvk) were used to record baseline characteristics. Specimens were subjected to erosion with 1% citric acid solution for 1min. Profilometric characteristics were recorded post-erosion, along with the maximum height changes within the profile. T-tests were carried out in order to compare baseline surface characteristics between tissue types. Post-erosion, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the effects of tissue type (bovine or human). There was no significant difference in Ra between human and bovine incisor enamel at baseline (human 0.11μm, bovine 0.12μm P>0.05), and no significant difference was observed post-erosion (human 0.23μm, bovine 0.20μm P>0.05). There were significant differences in bearing parameters at baseline and post-erosion that were not identified by the Ra measurement alone. The results suggest that if Ra alone is measured, important differences in surface characteristics may be missed. The null hypothesis is rejected, and the recommendation is made that bearing parameters are included within profile measurements in order to further triangulate the results of surface analysis studies. In

  2. FMRI study relevant to the Mozart effect: brain areas involved in spatial-temporal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, M; Muftuler, L T; Nalcioglu, O; Shaw, G L

    2001-10-01

    Behavioral studies, motivated by columnar cortical model predictions, have given evidence for music causally enhancing spatial-temporal reasoning. A wide range of behavioral experiments showed that listening to a Mozart Sonata (K.448) gave subsequent enhancements. An EEG coherence study gave evidence for a carryover from that Mozart Sonata listening condition to the subsequent spatial-temporal task in specific cortical regions. Here we present fMRI studies comparing cortical blood flow activation by the Mozart Sonata vs. other music. In addition to expected temporal cortex activation, we report dramatic statistically significant differences in activation by the Mozart Sonata (in comparison to Beethoven's Fur Elise and 1930s piano music) in dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex, occipital cortex and cerebellum, all expected to be important for spatial-temporal reasoning. It would be of great interest to explicitly test this expectation. We propose an fMRI study comparing (subject by subject) brain areas activated in music listening conditions and in spatial-temporal tasks.

  3. An Epidemiological Study on Infant Mortality and Factors Affecting it in Rural Areas of Birjand, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokab Namakin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Infant mortality rate is one of the most expressive indicators of development in all countries. The aim of this study was to determine the cause of infant mortality and risk factors in rural areas of Birjand in Iran. Methods: This population based case-control study covered 156 infants who died when aged less than one-year in health houses of Birjand between January 2004 and December 2005. For each case, two controls were selected matching one-to-one to the case considering variables of residency and their date of birth. The data was collected through interview with mothers and reviewing infants files in health houses. Findings: 57.7 percent of deaths in under one year old infants happened during the first month of their lives. The most important causes of death in neonates were prematurity and low birth weight (44.4% later gastroenteritis (30.3%. In addition, the study showed that 9.6 percent of infants had died because of narcotic toxicosis. Moreover, the study showed a significant relationship between infant mortality and parents level of education, mothers addiction, age of mother in the first pregnancy, prematurity, low birth weight, type of delivery and exclusive breast feeding. Conclusion: Special attention to infantile period and special care for infants born to at-risk mothers, as well as providing special health education can cause a dramatic reduction in infants mortality rate.

  4. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waygood, E Owen D; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-12-15

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment's influence on the World Health Organization's recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence.

  5. Income, social stratification, class, and private health insurance: a study of the Baltimore metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Parsons, P E

    1996-01-01

    Most studies of inequalities and access to health care have used income as the sole indicator of social stratification. Despite the significance of social theory in health insurance research, there are no empirical studies comparing the ability of different models of social stratification to predict health insurance coverage. The aim of this study is to provide a comparative analysis using a variety of theory-driven indicators of social stratification and assess the relative strength of the association between these indicators and private health insurance. Data were collected in a 1993 telephone interview of a random digit dialing sample of the white population in the Baltimore Metropolitan Statistical Area. Indicators of social stratification included employment status, full-time work, education, occupation, industry, household income, firm size, and three types of assets: ownership, organizational, and skill/credential. The association between social stratification and private health insurance was strongest for those having higher household incomes, having attained at least a bachelor's degree, and working in a firm with more than 50 employees, followed by being an owner or manager, and by being employed. The addition of education and firm size improved the prediction of the household income model. The authors conclude that studies of inequalities in health insurance coverage can benefit from the inclusion of theory-driven indicators of social stratification such as human capital, labor market segmentation, and control over productive assets.

  6. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE DURING MENOPAUSE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN URBAN AREA OF DISTRICT VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - Menopause is a universal reproductive phenomenon. All the nutrients plays important role at the time of menopause and in prevention of diseases. Deficiency of vitamin D is one of the major contributory factors responsible for lower bone mineral density (BMD in menopausal women. Iron deficiency anemia is common among menopausal women. The present study was conducted to assess the views on importance of nutrition & intake of various food items during menopause.Methods: - Community based   cross sectional study. A total of 100 women aged 45-55 years in post-menopausal phase were selected from urban areas of district Varanasi during 2012-13. Data were collected by pretested questionnaire cum interview method.Results: - In the present study half of respondent belonged to 40-45 years age group. When they were asked about importance of nutrition during menopause 70% respondent said that they paid attention on their diet during menopause. 79% women preferred food being cooked in their kitchen. 69% women took milk in their regular diet. 95% women’s took fruits and vegetables in their diet. Only 76% have knowledge of added requirement of iron & calcium but only 59% women had iron and calcium reach foods in their regular diet.Conclusion: - In the present study about three fourth respondents knew about nutritional importance during menopause.

  7. Adapted strategic plannig model applied to small business: a case study in the fitness area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Tirelli Hennig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategic planning is an important management tool in the corporate scenario and shall not be restricted to big Companies. However, this kind of planning process in small business may need special adaptations due to their own characteristics. This paper aims to identify and adapt the existent models of strategic planning to the scenario of a small business in the fitness area. Initially, it is accomplished a comparative study among models of different authors to identify theirs phases and activities. Then, it is defined which of these phases and activities should be present in a model that will be utilized in a small business. That model was applied to a Pilates studio; it involves the establishment of an organizational identity, an environmental analysis as well as the definition of strategic goals, strategies and actions to reach them. Finally, benefits to the organization could be identified, as well as hurdles in the implementation of the tool.

  8. Sedimentary dykes in the Oskarshamn-Vaestervik area. A study of the mechanism of formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeshoff, Kennert [BBK AB, Solna (Sweden); Cosgrove, John [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences and Engineering

    2002-07-01

    This study of the sedimentary dykes from the Oskarshamn-Vaestervik area, near Aespoe and surrounding region, is aimed at understanding the mechanism of their formation. In particular it is important to establish whether or not they formed by the injection of high pressure fluidized sediments and if so what the likely effect of any future over pressured sediments will be on the stability of the fracture network in the basement rocks at Aespoe. This report is made up of a review of the literature on sedimentary dykes, a discussion of the various mechanical models for hydraulic fracturing and a description of the field and laboratory study carried out on the sedimentary dykes. The literature review indicates a remarkable consensus on the mode of formation of these structures based on their fabric (particularly layering generated in part by variation in clast size) and the composition of the infilling material. Two modes of origin have been recognised. These are the passive infilling of dykes where the dyke material has entered an open fracture under the influence of gravity, and active, i.e. forceful injection of a fluidized sediment under high pressure into a pre-existing fracture or into a fracture generated by the high pressure fluid. The discussion of the theory of fluid induced fracturing leads to the recognition of three systems which are the two end members and an intermediate form of a complete spectrum of materials ranging from unconsolidated and incohesive sediments, through cemented but porous rocks to crystalline rocks with no intrinsic porosity and whose only porosity relates to that imparted by the fracture network that the rock contains. The theory best suited to analyses this latter system is one based on fracture mechanics and is known as the theory of external hydraulic fracturing. From the point of view of the sedimentary dykes in the study area around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, where the dykes occur in the fractured granitic basement, this is

  9. Study of the 3D displacement field in Lorca (Murcia, Spain) subsidence area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jose; Prieto, Juan F.; Palano, Mimmo; Abajo, Tamara; Perez, Enrique; Escayo, Joaquin; Velasco, Jesus; Herrero, Tomas; Camacho, Antonio G.; Bru, Guadalupe; Molina, Inigo; Lopez, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Velasco, Gema; Gomez, Israel

    2017-04-01

    González and Fernández (2011) revealed that the Alto Guadalentín Basin, located in southern Spain, is affected by the highest subsidence rates measured in Europe (about 10 cm/yr) as a direct consequence of long-term aquifer exploitation. They used ERS and ENVISAT radar data spanning the 1992 - 2007 period. They identify a delayed transient nonlinear compaction of the Alto Guadalentín aquifer due to the 1990-1995 drought period. González et al. (2012) evaluated the relationship between crust unloading due to groundwater overexploitation and stress change on regional active tectonic faults in the same in relation with the May 2008 Lorca earthquake. Bonì et al. (2014) extended these previous studies using advanced DInSAR techniques and ALOS PALSAR (2007-2010) and COSMO-SkyMed (2011-2012) radar images for the time period 1992-2012. Additionally, the satellite measurements provide locally comparable results with measurements acquired by two permanent GNSS stations located in the study area. Furthermore, new geological and hydrogeological data were collected and analyzed in order to assess aquifer system compressibility and groundwater level changes in the past 50 years. The comparison of these data with advanced DInSAR displacement measurements allowed for a better spatial and temporal understanding of the governing mechanisms of subsidence due to overexploitation of the Alto Guadalentín aquifer system. But even though the aforementioned achievements have been reached, all regional studies of the area to date are based on satellite radar interferometry using just ascending or descending acquisitions, without any combination among them to obtain vertical and horizontal (E-W) components. Therefore, only the regional LOS displacement field is known and it is assumed to correspond to vertical displacement. However, it is important to obtain the 3D motion field in order to perform a correct interpretation of the observations, as well as to carry out an advanced

  10. Seismicity studies at Moluccas area based on the result of hypocenter relocation using HypoDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, Muhammad Reza July; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T.

    2015-04-01

    The precise hypocenter was determined location using double difference method around subduction zone in Moluccas area eastern part of Indonesia. The initial hypocenter location from MCGA data catalogue of 1,945 earthquake events. Basically the principle of double-difference algorithm assumes if the distance between two earthquake hypocenter distribution is very small compared to the distance between the station to the earthquake source, the ray path can be considered close to both earthquakes. The results show the initial earthquakes with a certain depth (fix depth 10 km) relocated and can be interpreted more reliable in term of seismicity and geological setting. The relocation of the intra slab earthquakes beneath Banda Arc are also clearly observed down to depth of about 400 km. The precise relocated hypocenter will give invaluable seismicity information for other seismological and tectonic studies especially for seismic hazard analysis in this region.

  11. Seismicity studies at Moluccas area based on the result of hypocenter relocation using HypoDD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utama, Muhammad Reza July, E-mail: muhammad.reza@bmkg.go.id [Student of Geophysical Engineering Study Program, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Indonesian Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jakarta (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T. [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, ITB (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    The precise hypocenter was determined location using double difference method around subduction zone in Moluccas area eastern part of Indonesia. The initial hypocenter location from MCGA data catalogue of 1,945 earthquake events. Basically the principle of double-difference algorithm assumes if the distance between two earthquake hypocenter distribution is very small compared to the distance between the station to the earthquake source, the ray path can be considered close to both earthquakes. The results show the initial earthquakes with a certain depth (fix depth 10 km) relocated and can be interpreted more reliable in term of seismicity and geological setting. The relocation of the intra slab earthquakes beneath Banda Arc are also clearly observed down to depth of about 400 km. The precise relocated hypocenter will give invaluable seismicity information for other seismological and tectonic studies especially for seismic hazard analysis in this region.

  12. Improved stress release model: Application to the study of earthquake prediction in Taiwan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱守彪; 石耀霖

    2002-01-01

    tress release model used to be applied to seismicity study of large historical earthquakes in a space of large scale. In this paper, we improve the stress release model, and discuss whether the stress release model is still applicable or not in the case of smaller spatio-temporal scale and weaker earthquakes. As an example of testing the model, we have analyzed the M(6 earthquakes in recent about 100 years. The result shows that the stress release model is still applicable. The earthquake conditional probability intensity in Taiwan area is calculated with the improved stress release model. We see that accuracy of earthquake occurrence time predicted by the improved stress release model is higher than that by Poisson model in the test of retrospect earthquake prediction.

  13. A study of dietary habits and eating-out behavior of college students in Cheongju area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Eun; Yoon, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    To find out the effects of the general characteristic on dietary habits and eating out behavior of college students in Cheongju area. The ratios of major were 50.3% (80/159) for food and nutrition and 49.7% (79/159) for the others. The most of respondents missed breakfast and the most reason for skipping meal was no time. Older and younger group were different significantly in skipping meal, reason of meal skip, place of lunch, cost of lunch, and preferred lunch menu (Pdietary habits or eating-out behaviors in the results of this study through education, and by seeking for alternatives from different angles such as various nutrition education and nutrition improvement programs.

  14. Supplementary motor area seizures: propagation pathways as studied with invasive recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, C; Flint, R; Tuxhorn, I; Van Ness, P C; Kosalko, J; Olbrich, A; Almer, G; Novak, K; Lüders, H O

    1996-02-01

    We studied propagation of epileptic discharges in five patients with supplementary motor area (SMA) seizures with subdural grid electrodes implanted over the dorsolateral frontal neocortex and in the interhemispheric fissure. We found that both interictal and ictal epileptic discharges occurred synchronously in the SMA and the primary cortex. The actively involved electrodes were separated by silent electrodes. The time lag between the SMA and the primary motor cortex averaged 25 msec for interictal and 100 msec for ictal discharges. Cortical stimulations of the affected electrodes showed motor effects in corresponding body parts. All patients underwent resections of the EEG onset zone within the SMA while sparing the primary motor cortex and experienced a significant (>90%) reduction of seizure frequency. We conclude that epileptic activity is propagated between the SMA and the primary motor cortex by a somatotopically organized monosynaptic pathway.

  15. Studying municipal solid waste generation and composition in the urban areas of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Dulal, Ichharam; Yangden, Dechen; Tenzin, Ugyen M; Herat, Sunil; Shon, Hokyong; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2010-06-01

    Bhutan lacks the solid waste data which are essential parameters for planning and scheduling of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems. The first ever large-scale research survey on solid waste generation and characterization in the urban areas of Bhutan was conducted between November 2007 and January 2008 using the method of waste sampling at source. The MSW generation rates in the urban centres were 0.53 kg capita(-1) day(- 1), which consists predominantly of organic waste materials of up to 58% indicating a great opportunity for composting. Domestic waste from the households contributed the maximum (47%) component of the total MSW generated from the urban centres followed by wastes from the commercial establishments. Attempt to study the correlation between household monthly income and the waste per capita generation rates did not yield any conclusive result.

  16. Collective Correlations of Brodmann Areas fMRI Study with RMT-Denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burda, Z.; Kornelsen, J.; Nowak, M. A.; Porebski, B.; Sboto-Frankenstein, U.; Tomanek, B.; Tyburczyk, J.

    We study collective behavior of Brodmann regions of human cerebral cortex using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Random Matrix Theory (RMT). The raw fMRI data is mapped onto the cortex regions corresponding to the Brodmann areas with the aid of the Talairach coordinates. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the Pearson correlation matrix for 41 different Brodmann regions is carried out to determine their collective activity in the idle state and in the active state stimulated by tapping. The collective brain activity is identified through the statistical analysis of the eigenvectors to the largest eigenvalues of the Pearson correlation matrix. The leading eigenvectors have a large participation ratio. This indicates that several Broadmann regions collectively give rise to the brain activity associated with these eigenvectors. We apply random matrix theory to interpret the underlying multivariate data.

  17. [Studies on multiple factor intervention in stroke of ten areas in northeast, north China and Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Guo, Z; Wang, Y

    1996-03-01

    In order to explore the ways to prevent from the disease, 4,793 subjects aged over 40 at high risk of stroke from a total population of 250,000 in communities with high incidence of it were studied with multiple factor intervention, by oral administration of "Nao An" capsules as a major measure in 10 areas of north and northeast China, as well as Shanghai, during 1990 to 1993. Three years after intervention, incidence of stroke decreased by 49.17% in the population, with reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, levels of blood sugar, cholesterol and triglyceride. Lowering of stroke incidence correlated positively with that of blood pressure in the population. It suggests stroke can be prevented effectively by concentrated efforts in comprehensive intervention in individuals at high risk.

  18. Study on non-target area of LLL image statistical characteristics under different illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Hu, Qing-ping

    2016-10-01

    Low light level (LLL) imaging mainly relies on to detect weak night sky of targets reflecting, and environmental illumination is one of the important factors affecting the LLL image features. Germany's third-generation image intensifiers, Toshiba Terry company CS8620Ci types of CCD device as the main core to build LLL image acquisition experimental system, and LLL images are collected in a dark room with different illumination. This paper analyzes relationship between the statistical properties of the LLL image non-target area and environmental illumination, studies the laws between the mean, variance, autocorrelation, variance of sum and environmental illumination. And these laws based on experimental data were fitted to obtained specific mathematical expressions.

  19. Study on Vegetation Root Strength of Pioneer Plants for Forest Areas in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-bin; LIANG Da-qing; YE Xu-rong

    2005-01-01

    Forest plant roots may restrain the occurrence of shallow landslides for forest land and pioneer tree species can also reduce runoff and soil erosion;thus they are useful practical ecological materials for landslide control and erosion control.In this study,two important pioneer plant species;Formosan Alder (Alnus formosana Makino) and Roxburgh Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill.Var.roxburghi i(DC.) Rehd.) were selected at landslide areas under vegetation treatments for soil and water conservation.In order to obtain the root strength model for the factors affecting pulling resistance and root tensile strength,experimental materials were tested and the data were analyzed using regression techniques.These models could be used to provide the index of slope stability and to quantify the root-strength using non-destructive methods.

  20. Exploring Urbanization Patterns for Counties in Underdeveloped Mountainous Areas: A Case Study of Hubei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; Xiaoru

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, features of urbanization of 24 underdeveloped mountainous counties(UMCs) in Hubei Province are analyzed and summarized, which includes low rates of urbanization, signifi cant nonlocal urbanization, undeveloped three industries, and a homogeneous spatial layout of underdeveloped towns. Moreover, our analysis reveals that driving forces originating from favorable macro policies, medium economy, and micro elements are needed to speed up the urbanization in such areas. Based on the case study, we proposes a new path pattern for urbanization of these UMCs in western & central China. In principle, this pattern mainly consists of two important strategies which are driven by a simultaneous development of industry and trade and the exploitation of local characteristics in both economics and culture. In addition, the practice of such a new urbanization path should be carried out through incremental development together with the construction of node-centralizing towns.