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Sample records for cercidium floridum benth

  1. The influence of climatic variability on local population dynamics of Cercidium microphyllum (foothill paloverde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janice E.; Turner, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated correlations among climatic variability, population age structure, and seedling survival of a dominant Sonoran Desert tree, Cercidium microphyllum (foothill paloverde), at Tucson, Arizona, USA. A major goal was to determine whether wet years promote seedling establishment and thereby determine population structure. Plant age was estimated from basal circumference for a sample of 980 living and dead trees in twelve 0.5-ha plots. Ages ranged from 1 to 181 years. Age frequency distribution showed that the population is in decline. Most (51.2%) of the 814 living trees were 40-80 years old; only 6.5% were younger than 20 years. The average age of the 166 dead trees was 78 years. Fifty-nine percent of dead trees were aged 60-100 years. Survival of newly emerged seedlings was monitored for 7 years in a 557-m2 permanent plot. Mean survival in the 1st year of life was 1.7%. Only 2 of 1,008 seedlings lived longer than 1 year. Length of survival was not correlated with rainfall. Residual regeneration, an index of the difference between predicted and observed cohort size, showed that regeneration was high during the first half of the twentieth century and poor after the mid-1950s. Trends in regeneration did not reflect interannual variation in seasonal temperature or rain before 1950, that is, in the years before urban warming. Taken together, the seedling study and the regeneration analysis suggest that local population dynamics reflect biotic factors to such an extent that population age structure might not always be a reliable clue to past climatic influences.

  2. Environmental Assessment of Remove Objects Along Flightline at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    elements of both subdivisions; more mesic drainage areas contain desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), mesquites ( Prosopis glandulosa and P. velutina...concentrations of desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides), mesquites (Prosopid glandulosa and P. velutina) and palo verde (Cercidium floridum). Tree

  3. Chromosomal aberrations induced by Markhamia tomentosa (Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. Ex Engl. (Bignoniaceae) is used traditionally in the treatment of pain, oedema, pulmonary troubles and cancer. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of M. tomentosa was investigated using the Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay.

  4. Gymnosporia montana Benth.(Mountain Spike Thorn)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 2. Gymnosporia montana Benth. (Mountain Spike Thorn). Flowering Trees Volume 23 Issue 2 February 2018 pp 245-245. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/023/02/0245-0245 ...

  5. Mass propagation of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, U; Rahman, M S M; Islam, S; Haque, N; Khatun, M; Jubair, T A; Paul, B C

    2008-05-01

    A protocol for mass propagation through axillary bud proliferation was established for Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth. (Apocynaceae). MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) BA and 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA elicited the maximum number of shoots (4 multiple shoots) from nodal explants. These adventitious shoots were best rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) each of IBA and IAA. The in vitro raised plants were acclimatized in glass house and successfully transplanted to field condition with almost 95% survival.

  6. Chemical constituents of Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Rachel Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos]. E-mail: roc2006@farmacia.ufmg.br; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from leaves and fruits of Licania tomentosa Benth. The plant materials were successively extracted with hexane and methanol. From the extracts the following compounds were obtained: betulinic acid; licanolide, a new triterpene lactone; oleanolic acid, lupeol; palmitoleic and hexadecanoic acid; a mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol; and a mixture of tormentic, ursolic and betulinic acid. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data. (author)

  7. Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Nontopsoiled Slopes at Adobe Dam,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Olneya tesota (Ironwood), Prosopis glandulosa var torreyana (Honey Mesquite), and Psorothamnus spinosa (Smoketree) are common. Common associates...Ferocactus acanthodes (Barrel cactus) (Brown 1982). Gasser (1983) noted that Skunk Creek is lined with Cer~cidium floridum, Prosopis glandulosa var...Lycium and Prosopis . When areas predominated by Saltbush are disturbed by heavy livestock graiing, exotic annuals such as Schismus (Mediterranean Grass

  8. Occurrence and structure of extrafloral nectariesin Pterodon pubescens Benth. and Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva Élder Antônio Sousa e

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs are structurally variable and widely spread among the angiosperms. The occurrence of EFNs in leaves of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth. and Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae were detected in adult specimens, at the time of production of new buds and flowers. The goals of the present study are to register the occurrence of the EFNs in P. pubescens and P. polygalaeflorus, and provide comparative data on the anatomical structures. The EFNs occur in the rachis and are located under the insertion of each petiolule. Each nectary consists of a small elevation whose apical portion is deeply invaginated, resulting in a depression (secretory pole, a common characteristic of both species. Unicellular, nonglandular trichomes occur along the rachis, being less numerous in P. polygalaeflorus while in P. pubescens they cover the EFNs. The secretory tissue consists of parenchyma cells with dense cytoplasm compactly arranged. The nectar reaches the surface of the EFNs by rupturing the thin cuticle which covers the secretory pole, since both species lack stomata or any other interruption at the epidermis. The basic difference between the two species, in relation to the EFNs, is the density of the pubescence, which is always greater in P. pubescens. Structural and dimensional modifications may be observed, even between basal and apical nectaries in the same rachis, so it does not constitute a taxonomical tool.

  9. Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large deciduous tree with greyish bark and compound leaves. Flowers are greenish-yellow in head inflorescences. Fruit pods are yellowish-brown, flat and carry 6-10 seeds (Inset shows the entire crown of the tree covered with previous season's dry pods).

  10. (Jacq) Benth (African Locust Bean) on Hypertension in Bogou and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-09-09

    Sep 9, 2010 ... (Jack) Benth, Mimosaceae (African locust bean) by humans on the prevention of hypertension. .... Information about prior CVD and eating ..... diabetic rats. Clin exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006;. 33: 808- 812. 18 Millogo-Kone H, Guissou IP, Nacoulma O, Traore. AS. Comparative study of leaf and stem bark.

  11. Initiation and growth of shoots of Gongronema latifolia Benth stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetative propagation of Gongronema latifolia Benth commonly used as a forest leafy vegetable and spice, was studied in three rooting media (sawdust, ricehull and soil) under two seasons in Nsukka. The study showed that G. latifolia could be effectively propagated by stem cuttings. There was significant reduction in ...

  12. STUDIES ON THE EFFICACY OF BRIDELIA FERRUGINEA BENTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feasibility of using the bark extract as an additional coagulant is therefore discussed. ... Plant material. Bridelia ferruginea bark was collected from the tree of Bridelia ferruginea Benth family. Euphorbiaceae from the residential quarters of the ... magnesium were determined by the versenate titration method [16].

  13. In vitro multiplication of Pogostemon cablin Benth. through direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient method was developed to initiate multiple shoots from nodal explants of Pogostemon cablin Benth. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BA initiated a mean of 45.66 shoots/nodal explant. Within 4 weeks of initiation, regenerated multiple shoots attained a height of 3.6 cm. Subsequent transfer of these in vitro ...

  14. Dormancy break in Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate different methods for breaking dormancy in seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth., arboreal species of multiple use in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. The treatments were: control – intact seeds (T1; immersion in water until it reaches 80 °C (T2, and 100 °C (T3, concentrated sulfuric acid for five minutes (T4, 10 minutes (T5 , and 15 minutes (T6, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 (T7, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 + immersion in water for six hours (T8, and for 12 hours (T9, soaking in water for 24 hours (T10, and for 48 hours (T11. The characteristics evaluated were such: emergency, mean emergency time, shoot length, root length, number of leaves, leaf area and total dry matter. The best method for breaking dormancy of seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. is mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80.

  15. Volatile Components of Oiti Fruit (Licania tomentosa Benth.

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    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fresh fruits from Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae , were submitted to hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. Analysis of volatile oil were performed by GC and GC-MS. Comparison of results with literature data allowed the chemical characterization of 83% of compounds of mixture. Thirteen compounds were identified, three monoterpenes, five aliphatic esters, two alcohols, two ketones and one aldehyde. The alcohols were the major compounds (35.6%, but the esters showed great diversity.

  16. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

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    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  17. Constituintes químicos de licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae Chemical constituents of Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae

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    Rachel Oliveira Castilho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from leaves and fruits of Licania tomentosa Benth. The plant materials were successively extracted with hexane and methanol. From the extracts the following compounds were obtained: betulinic acid; licanolide, a new triterpene lactone; oleanolic acid, lupeol; palmitoleic and hexadecanoic acid; a mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol; and a mixture of tormentic, ursolic and betulinic acid. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data.

  18. Chemical constituents from Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, "angico"

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    Mário G. de Carvalho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the roots of Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, known as "angico", afforded sitosterol, lupeol, betuline, the chalcone isoliquiritigenin, the flavonoids, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone, 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone, 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and methyl-3,4-dihydroxy-benzoate. Both flavones were also isolated from the branches of this plant. Five derivatives of the aldehyde were obtained by diazomethane treatment. The structures of compounds were identified by IR, NMR and mass spectral data analysis of natural compounds and some derivatives, and by comparison with literature data.

  19. Chemical constituents from Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, "angico"

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    Mário G. de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the roots of Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, known as "angico", afforded sitosterol, lupeol, betuline, the chalcone isoliquiritigenin, the flavonoids, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone, 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone, 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and methyl-3,4-dihydroxy-benzoate. Both flavones were also isolated from the branches of this plant. Five derivatives of the aldehyde were obtained by diazomethane treatment. The structures of compounds were identified by IR, NMR and mass spectral data analysis of natural compounds and some derivatives, and by comparison with literature data.

  20. Diploflavone, a New Flavonoid from Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto G.S. [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Cabral, Analucia G.S.; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Silva, Marcelo S. da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica]. E-mail: jbarbosa@ltf.ufpb.br; Da Cunha, Emidio V. Leitao [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Nascimento, Silene C. do [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2005-11-15

    The chemical examination of Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. resulted in the isolation of a new 3-methoxyflavone, 3-methoxy-6-O-prenyl-6,6-dimethylchromene-(7,8,2,3)-flavone, to which was given the trivial name diploflavone (1); as well as the known 3,6-dimethoxy-6,6- dimethylchromene-(7,8,2,3)-flavone (2). The structure of the new compound was established by spectral analyses. Cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was tested against the cells NClH292 (lung carcinoma), HEp-2 (larynx carcinoma) and KB (oral epidermoid carcinoma). The cells HEp-2 were the most affected by the substances tested. (author)

  1. Phytochemical and Bioactivity Evaluation of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

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    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. is an Iranian endemic species of the genus Scrophularia, which comprises ca. 200 medicinally important herbaceous flowering plants . Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this species afforded two iridoid glycosides, scropolioside D (1 and scrophuloside B 4 (2, and two phenylalkanoid glycosides, salidroside (3 and verbascoside (4. S tructures of these compounds were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Free-radical-scavenging activity, potential antimalarial property, and contact toxicity as well as general toxicity of the extract and fractions were assessed.

  2. Physiochemical screening and antimicrobial potential of otostegia limbata benth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Farooq, U.; Khan, A.; Sarwar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Otostegia limbata (Benth.) has been used in treatment of gums diseases, dental disorders, healing of wounds, hypertension, eye inflammation, and most importantly as anticancer. The present investigation deals with the physiochemical screening of crude extract of O. limbata and antimicrobial activities of its various fractions. The results showed the presence of alkaloids, catecholic tannins, phenols, sugars, flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins. Antimicrobial activities of four fractions of O. limbata namely n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol were performed by using disc diffusion method against Salmonella setubal, Pseudomonas pickettii, Staphlococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus to evaluate its therapeutic value. All the fractions showed significant antibacterial activities but none of the fractions showed antifungal activity against Aspergilus niger and Aspergilus flavus. (author)

  3. Propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae Vegetative propagation of Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. and Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Hyptis (Lamiaceae apresenta metabolismo especial de notável variabilidade, possuindo predominância de óleos essenciais, que têm muito valor junto a diversas comunidades que utilizam essas plantas pelas propriedades terapêuticas. Diversos estudos com esse gênero têm demonstrado que os óleos essenciais apresentam propriedades antimicrobiana, antifúngica, citotóxica, antiinflamatória, anti-HIV e inseticida, entretanto, poucos são os estudos voltados para a exploração sustentável dessas espécies. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de estaca e diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, crescimento e enraizamento de estacas de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth., espécies endêmicas do semi-árido nordestino cujo valor medicinal tem sido amplamente comprovado. O experimento teve duração de quatro meses. Foram utilizadas estacas apicais, médio-apicais, médio-basais e basais tratadas com soluções de 0, 1000, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, durante 5 minutos. A utilização de estacas apicais, médio/apicais e médio/basais induzidas com 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de AIB possibilitaram melhores resultados para propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala. Para Hyptis platanifolia os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a utilização de estacas médio/basais e basais tratadas com AIB na concentração de 2000 e 4000 mg L-1.The genus Hyptis (Lamiaceae has a special metabolism with remarkable variability and predominance of essential oils of great value to the various communities that use these plants due to their therapeutic properties. A number of studies on this genus have demonstrated that its essential oils present antimicrobial, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and insecticidal activities. However, few studies have focused on the sustainable exploitation of these species

  4. Active saponins from root of Pueraria peduncularis (Grah. ex Benth.) Benth. and their molluscicidal effects on Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, ChunPing; Zhang, Min; Lei, Bo; Gong, GuoShu; Yue, GuiZhou; Chang, XiaoLi; Sun, XiaoFang; Tian, Yue; Chen, HuaBao

    2017-06-01

    Pueraria peduncularis (Grah. ex Benth.) Benth., which belongs to the Leguminosae family, exhibits resistance to many crop pests in agricultural production. Pomacea canaliculata is an important invasive snail in rice fields and causes severe yield losses. To evaluate the toxicity of P. peduncularis to P. canaliculata, in this study the molluscicidal activity of root extracts of P. peduncularis was tested against P. canaliculata; the active compounds were isolated, and the structures of these compounds were analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and mass spectral analysis. Our results showed that the molluscicidal activity of the root crude extract differed between P. canaliculata with different shell diameters after treatment for 72 h. The median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) was 5.511 mg L -1 against snails of 1.5 ± 0.2 cm diameter and 12.383 mg L -1 against snails of 2.5 ± 0.2 cm diameter. Furthermore, two active ingredients isolated from root methanol extracts were identified as pedunsaponin A and pedunsaponin C. Both pedunsaponin A and pedunsaponin C showed strong molluscicidal activities, with LC 50 values of 3.893 and 4.252 mg L -1 , respectively, against snails with shell diameters of 1.5 ± 0.2 cm after treatment for 72 h. Pueraria peduncularis extracts exhibit high molluscicidal activity and have great potential value for exploring a molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

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    Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development.

  6. Pharmacological evaluation of antihypertensive effect of aerial parts of Thymus linearis benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgeer; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Jabeen, Qaiser; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Haroon-Ur-Rash; Karim, Sabeha; Rasool, Shahid; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Khan, Kifayatullah; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally Thymus linearis Benth. have been used for treatment of various diseases including hypertension. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hypotensive and antihypertensive effect of aqueous methanolic extract of aerial parts of Thymus linearis Benth. in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Acute and subchronic studies were also conducted. The aqueous methanolic extract produced a significant decrease in SBP, DBP, MBP and heart rate of both normotensive and hypertensive rats. LDv, of the extract was found to be 3000 mg/kg. The extract also exhibited a reduction in serum ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL levels, while a significant increase in HDL level was observed. It is conceivable therefore, that Thymus linearis Benth. contains certain active compound(s) that are possibly responsible for the observed antihypertensive activity. Moreover, these findings further authenticate the traditional use of this plant in folklore medicine.

  7. STUDIUL COMPLEX Al ULEIULUI VOLATIL DIN SPECIA PEROVSCHIA ATRIPLICIFOLIA BENTH.

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    Maricica COLŢUN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available În lucrare sunt prezentate rezultatele unui studiu vast privind biologia, compoziția chimică, fitochimia cantitativă și calitativă a uleiului volatil din specia Perovskia atriplicifolia, care se comportă ca plantă perenă, erbacee din familia Lamiaceae. În R. Moldova nu este cercetată ca plantă aromatică şi medicinală. Are o plasticitate ecologică mare, nu are cerinţe deosebite faţă de factorii climaterici. Se utilizează pentru proprietăţile sale febrifuge, în medicină – pentru scăderea febrei, deține proprietăți culinare dar şi decorative ori de purificare a aerului.THE COMPLEX STUDY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF THE SPECIESPEROVSCHIA ATRIPLICIFOLIA BENTH.The paper presents the results of a vast study on the biology, chemical composition and qualitative phytochemistry of the essential oil of the species Perovskia atriplicifolia, which behaves like a perennial, herbaceous plant in the Lamiaceae family. In theRepublic ofMoldova, it has not been investigated as an aromatic and medicinal plant. It has a high ecological plasticity and no special requirements to climatic factors. It has febrifuge properties and is used in medicine to reduce fever. Besides, this plant is used for culinary, ornamental purposes and for air purification.

  8. Biostimulant on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedling vigor

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    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effects of biostimulant doses, applied through seeds, on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedlings vigor. Seeds were previously sulfuric acid scarified in two consecutive years experiments. On 2006 August (first experiment seeds were submitted on Stimulate®: 0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14 mL.0.5 Kg-1 doses (first experiment; and seeds picked in August, 2007, were Stimulate:0; 15; 20 and 25 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds treated (second experiment. After the biostimulant treatment seeds were sowed in cells trays containing 1:1 (v:v distroferric red latosol + plantmax®. The effect of different Stimulate® doses on Dimorphandra mollis seeds collected in different years were evaluated on the emergency percentage, speed emergency index, root length, aerial part height and dry seedling weight. It was conducted on entirely casualized with four repetitions of 25 seeds each treatment. The 14 mL (2006 lot and 15 mL (2007 lot 0.5Kg-1 of seeds doses provided larger percentage (50% and 66%, respectively and speed emergency indexes (0.67 and 0.9 respectively. The 20 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds dose treatment favored the aerial part length, but it didn't influenced the other Dimorphandra mollis seedlings vigor indexes.

  9. Terpenes From the Root of Salvia Hypoleuca Benth

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    Ahmad R Gohari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:The genus Salvia, with nearly 900 species, is one of the largest members of Lamiaceae family. In the Flora of Iran, the genus Salvia is represented by 58 species of which 17 species are endemic. Salvia hypoleuca Benth., is one of these species growing wildly in northern and central parts of Iran. Salvia species are well known in folk medicine and widely used for therapeutic purposes. Literature review shows that there is no report on phytochemical investigation of the roots of S. hypoleuca.Results:The separation and purification process were carried out using various chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis of NMR and MS data, in comparison with those reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were identified as sitosteryl oleate (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3, manool (4, 7α-acetoxy royleanone (5, ursolic acid (6,oleanolic acid (7, 3-epicorosolic acid (8, 3-epimaslinic acid (9 and coleonolic acid (10.Conclusions:In the present study, three sterols, two diterpenes and five triterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of S. hypoleuca. As the chemotaxonomic significance, someof the isolated compounds (1–7, 9 have not been previously reported from the species S.hypoleuca, while the triterpenes 8 and 10 are now documented from Salvia genus for the first time.

  10. Terpenes From the Root of Salvia hypoleuca Benth

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    Saeidnia Soodabeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Salvia, with nearly 900 species, is one of the largest members of Lamiaceae family. In the Flora of Iran, the genus Salvia is represented by 58 species of which 17 species are endemic. Salvia hypoleuca Benth., is one of these species growing wildly in northern and central parts of Iran. Salvia species are well known in folk medicine and widely used for therapeutic purposes. Literature review shows that there is no report on phytochemical investigation of the roots of S. hypoleuca. Results The separation and purification process were carried out using various chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis of NMR and MS data, in comparison with those reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were identified as sitosteryl oleate (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3, manool (4, 7α-acetoxy royleanone (5, ursolic acid (6, oleanolic acid (7, 3-epicorosolic acid (8, 3-epimaslinic acid (9 and coleonolic acid (10. Conclusions In the present study, three sterols, two diterpenes and five triterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of S. hypoleuca. As the chemotaxonomic significance, some of the isolated compounds (1–7, 9 have not been previously reported from the species S. hypoleuca, while the triterpenes 8 and 10 are now documented from Salvia genus for the first time.

  11. studies on the efficacy of bridelia ferruginea benth bark extract for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract in wastewater treatment was investigated. Chemical analysis found the bark to contain potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. Phytochemical tests revealed the bark to contain tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids.

  12. Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker (Fabaceae, a New Record for Central and North-West Himalayas

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    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker is reported for the first time from Central (Nepal and North-West Himalayas (India. Earlier the species was known from East Himalaya (Sikkim-India, Bhutan and China. The description and illustrations of the species are provided.

  13. Supplements to the Pteridophyte in Taiwan (III: A Newly Recorded Species Dryopteris championii (Benth. C. Chr. ex Ching (Dryopteridaceae

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    Ho-Ming Chang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dryopteris championii (Benth. C. Chr. ex Ching is newly recorded to Taiwan. This species is rare and known only from three locations in Taiwan. Taxonomic description, illustration and distribution information are provided here.

  14. Peningkatan kadar patchouli alcohol pada minyak nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth) dengan metode distilasi fraksinasi vakum

    OpenAIRE

    Rahma Isfaroiny; Mitarlis Mitarlis

    2012-01-01

    The quality of nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth) oil depend on it patchouli alcohol value. At there time nilam farmers just has produced nilam oil with patchouli alcohol value about 26–28%. To increase this value, fractional vacuum distillation had been done in this study. Nilam oil has been isolated from drying leaf of nilam plant. Patchouli alcohol in this oil was analyzed by gas chromatography, next the oil was distillated by fractional vacuum and the patchouli alcohol was determi...

  15. Perbedaan Percepatan Penyembuhan Luka Bakar dari Ekstrak Kulit Buah Jengkol (Pithecellobium lobatum Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    Darwin

    2011-01-01

    Dog fruit (Pithecellobium lobatum Benth.) is one of the herbs are efficacious. Rind dog fruit including waste in traditional markets and provide less economic value. Leaf dog fruit efficacious as eczema, scabies, sores and ulcers medicine, the bark as lowering blood sugar and rind can be used as a skin ulcer medication, insect repellent, burn. One of the chemical compounds from dog fruit rind is tannin. Serves as an astringent tannins that cause shrinkage pores of the skin, ...

  16. Pedicularis gracilis Wall. Ex Benth. (Scrophulariaceae Complex in the Himalayas – A Taxonomic Reinvestigation

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    Tariq Husain

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the complex nature of Pedicularis gracilis Wall. ex Benth. in the Himalayas and enumerates two subspecies and four varieties of this species. Morphological and distributional data have been appended to show that the subspecies – gracilis and brunoniana (Wall. ex Pennell Husain & Garg and varieties – gracilis and stricta (Wall. Husain & Garg (under subsp. gracilis and brunoniana and macrocarpa (Prain Husain & Garg (under subsp. brunoniana are distinct.

  17. Estudo anatômico do xilema secundário de Mimosa trachycarpa Benth Anatomy of the secondary xylem of Mimosa trachycarpa Benth

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os caracteres microscópicos da madeira de Mimosa trachycarpa Benth., fornecidos dados quantitativos, determinações estereológicas e fotomicrografias de sua estrutura anatômica. Foram encontrados raios muito finos, parênquima paratraqueal, fibras libriformes não septadas, pontoações ornamentadas e poros agrupados em cachos, com arranjo tendente a diagonal. A estrutura da madeira é comparada com referências da literatura para a família Leguminosae e gênero Mimosa, em análise filogenética, taxonômica e ecológica.The wood anatomy of Mimosa trachycarpa Benth. is described. Photomicrographs as well as quantitative and stereological data of its minute structure were furnished. Very fine rays, paratracheal parenchyma, libriform and not septated fibres, vestured pits and pores in clusters, tending to a diagonal pattern, were found. The wood anatomy was checked with literature of the Leguminosae family and genus Mimosa, considering its phylogenetical, taxonomical and ecological aspects.

  18. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethanolic extract of plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. Bark

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    Anil Kumar Singhal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. belongs to the family of "Lamiaceae," which is widely available in Tamil Nadu. Traditionally, plant extract is used to treat fever and common cold for children. The plant has not been yet studied pharmacologically for antipyretic activity. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the bark of plant G. prostratum (L. Benth. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 healthy white albino rats weighing 200 to 250 g were taken and divided into four groups of six animals each. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 4 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 12% of brewer′s yeast (at the dose 1 ml/100 g of animal weight in normal saline subcutaneously below the nape of neck. Ethanolic extract was given orally to groups II and III at the dose 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results are presented as mean΁SEM. Statistical analysis of data was performed using Dunnett′s test to study the difference among the mean. Results: The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The present results showed that ethanolic extract of bark of G. prostratum plant possess a significant antipyretic effect in yeast-induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. It was revealed that the extract showed dose-dependent antipyretic activity. At a dose of 200 mg/kg, it showed significant antipyretic activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of G. prostratum (L. Benth. plant has significant antipyretic activity when compared with the standard drug. So, it can be recommended for further studies.

  20. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Lepechiniaradula Benth Epling

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    Vladimir Morocho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil (EO was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Lepechiniaradula Benth Epling (Lamiaceae from Ecuador. Thirty-four compounds accounting to 93.4% of the total oil were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil were δ-3-carene (19.9%, β-pinene (17.0%, (E-β-caryophyllene (9.7% and (E-E-α-farnesene (9.4%. The essential oil of L.radula possessed strong antifungal activity against Trichophytonrubrum (ATCC® 28188 and Trichophytonmentagrophytes (ATCC® 28185.

  1. Escarificación artificial y natural de la semilla de Lupinus bilineatus Benth

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Martínez; D. A. Rodríguez-Trejo; E. Guizar-Nolazco; R. Bonilla-Beas

    2008-01-01

    Las especies de Lupinus colonizan áreas incendiadas y fijan N. En otros países las especies de este género se emplean en plantaciones forestales y sistemas agroforestales. Sus semillas presentan latencia física. En el presente estudio se realizó el análisis de semillas y se evaluó la germinación de Lupinus bilineatus Benth. considerando los siguientes factores y niveles: escarificación (natural: fuego, humo; artificial: inmersión en ácido sulfúrico durante 10, 20, 30 y 40 min y control), régi...

  2. Two New Koumine-Type Indole Alkaloids from Gelsemium elegans Benth.

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    Huanhuan Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new indole alkaloids, 21-oxokoumine (1 and furanokoumine (2, were isolated from the roots of Gelsemium elegans Benth together with three known compounds. The structures of the two novel compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including NMR, HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, CD and molecular modeling. Compound 1 is the first instance of a koumine-type alkaloid with a carbonyl at the C-21 position, while compound 2 possesses a tetrahydrofuran ring located on C-20 and C-21.

  3. Seed morphology of section Edentulae Benth. of the genus Pedicularis L. (Orobanchaceae Vent.) in the Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Peregrym O.; Futorna O.

    2013-01-01

    The seeds ultrastructure of the five species of the section EdentulaeBenth. of the Eastern Europe were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The seeds descriptions of surface of the species of this section were presented in this article. These species are heterogeneous by characteristics of seeds surface, which we consider as valuable addition features for identification within the section.

  4. Penstemon lanceolatus Benth. or P. ramosus Crosswhite in Arizona and New Mexico, a peripheral or endemic species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. L. Anderson; S. Richmond-Williams; O. Williams

    2007-01-01

    The red-flowered member of Penstemon sect. Chamaeleon from southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico has been treated taxonomically both as part of the Mexican species, P. lanceolatus Benth., and as a separate species, P. ramosus Crosswhite. Under the former treatment the Arizona and New Mexico populations are peripheral populations of a primarily Mexican...

  5. Evaluación de un sistema para la micorrización in vitro en plantas de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus, Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Manuel Núñez-Zarante; Gabriel Roveda-Hoyos; Marcela Franco-Correa; María Margarita Ramírez-Gómez; Urley Adrian Pérez-Moncada

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of an in vitro mycorrhization system of blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth). Objective. Obtain an in vitromycorrhization system in autotrophic culture systems of blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth). Materials and methods. We usedspores and root fragments with vesicles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) Glomus sp (GEV02). We established an autotrophicculture system of blackberry plantlets comparing two methods of direct inoculation of the AMF. We measured the number of...

  6. Dormancy and Germination of Castilla Blackberry Seeds (Rubus glaucus Benth / Latencia y Germinación de Semillas de Mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth

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    Díaz Diez Cipriano Arturo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We categorized the dormancy and germination ofblackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth seeds from the GermplasmBank System for Food and Agriculture of the Colombian Nation. A tetrazolium test showed normal seedling production viability, but seed coat impermeability prevented imbibition, which is considered an expression of exogenous dormancy; however, this was released by immersing the seeds in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite for 16 to 21 hours. The treatment was applied to 10 accessions of Castilla blackberry, harvested during the dry and rainy seasons. The seeds were germinated under light and dark conditions. The highest germination counts were obtained with the dry-season-collected seeds incubated in darkness and with the rainy-season seeds incubated under light conditions. Differential germination responses were also independently determined by genotype, incubation conditions (light or darkness and collecting season. / Se categorizaron la latencia y la germinación ensemillas de mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth, provenientes del Sistema de Bancos de Germoplasma para la Alimentación y la Agricultura de la Nación Colombiana. La prueba del tetrazolio demostró que las semillas tenían la capacidad para dar origen a una plántula normal; sin embargo, al contacto con el agua la imbibición fue restringida por la impermeabilidad de la testa, lo que se considera como una expresión de latencia exógena. Ésta pudo ser removida con la inmersión de las semillas durante 16 a 21 horas en hipoclorito de sodio al 5,25%. El tratamiento fue aplicado a 10 accesiones de mora de Castila cosechadas en épocas seca y lluviosa; las semillas se germinaron bajo condiciones deluz y oscuridad, con una mayor germinación al incubar lasprovenientes de tiempo seco en condiciones de oscuridad y en aquellas de época lluviosa al ser germinadas con luz. También al aplicar el procedimiento de remoción de latencia exógena se observaron respuestas germinativas diferenciales

  7. Licanol, um novo flavanol, e outros constituintes de Licania macrophylla Benth

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    Fernando Antônio de Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of L. macrophylla Benth led to the isolation of a new flavanol named licanol: (--4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin-3'-O-α-L-rhamnoside, along with nine known compounds, identified as: (--4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin, pheophytin A, 13²-hydroxy-(13²-S-pheophytin A, pheophytin B, sitosterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol-β-O-glucoside, betulinic alcohol and oleanolic acid. The structures were established based on IR, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR spectrometric data analysis with the aid of 2D techniques. The methanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark as well as the compounds licanol, 13²-hidroxi-(13²-S-feofitina A, and betulinic alcohol demonstrated antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains.

  8. Studies on the efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract for domestic wastewater treatment

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    O.M. Kolawole

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract in wastewater treatment was investigated. Chemical analysis found the bark to contain potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. Phytochemical tests revealed the bark to contain tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids. Comparative studies using varying concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 % w/v with alum and ferric chloride showed that the bark extract was effective in the clarification and sedimentation of total solids in the waste water sample. The optimum dose achieved was 2.5 % w/v with a minimum of 24 hours contact time. The total bacteria counts were reduced by 46 % after 24 hours when the extract was used whereas ferric chloride achieved 50 % reduction and alum achieved 55 % reduction under similar conditions. The feasibility of using the bark extract as an additional coagulant is therefore discussed.

  9. Peningkatan kadar patchouli alcohol pada minyak nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth dengan metode distilasi fraksinasi vakum

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    Rahma Isfaroiny

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth oil depend on it patchouli alcohol value. At there time nilam farmers just has produced nilam oil with patchouli alcohol value about 26–28%. To increase this value, fractional vacuum distillation had been done in this study. Nilam oil has been isolated from drying leaf of nilam plant. Patchouli alcohol in this oil was analyzed by gas chromatography, next the oil was distillated by fractional vacuum and the patchouli alcohol was determined from each fraction. This study showed that fractional vacuum distillation of nilam oil gives a higher patchouli alcohol value. The increasing was 23.3387%; from 35.022% at nilam oil before fractination vacuum distillation to 58.3515% at the third fraction from fractional vacuum distillation. In fact, the fourth fraction had the highest patchouli alcohol, but it had dark colour so isn’t fill the standard quality.

  10. Pyrolysis of Parinari polyandra Benth fruit shell for bio-oil production

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    Temitope E. Odetoye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional agricultural residues such as Parinari polyandra Benth fruit shell (PPBFS are potential sources of biomass feedstock that have not been investigated for bio oil production. In this study, PPBFS was pyrolyzed via an intermediate pyrolysis process for the production of bio oil. The bio oils were obtained using a fixed bed reactor within a temperature range of 375–550 oC and were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. The most abundant organic compounds present were acetic acid, toluene, 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 2-furanmethanol, phenol, guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. The bio-oil produced at 550 oC possessed a higher quantity of desirable compounds than those produced at lower temperatures. The presence of acetic acids in the bio-oil suggested the need to upgrade the bio-oil before utilization as a fuel source.

  11. Clarifying the Dioscorea buchananii Benth. species complex: a new potentially extinct subspecies for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Paul; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Dioscorea buchananii complex is shown to comprise three species, one of which is divided into two subspecies, based on morphological data. Two species, Dioscorea rupicola Kunth and Dioscorea multiloba Kunth, are endemic or subendemic to South Africa and of widespread occurrence in KwaZulu Natal. They differ markedly from each other in inflorescence and floral morphology and appear to be ecologically differentiated. The third species, Dioscorea buchananii Benth., is primarily found in southeastern tropical Africa, but a small number of specimens collected in South Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are placed in an endemic subspecies, Dioscorea buchananii subsp. undatiloba (Baker) Wilkin. The latter taxon is a high priority in terms of rediscovery and conservation. Keys, descriptions, supporting information and illustrations are provided and made available online through eMonocot biodiversity informatics tools. Three nomenclatural acts are undertaken: two names are placed in synonymy and a new combination made. PMID:25931973

  12. GROWTH OF Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., UNDER SHADE IN THE NORTHEAST SEMI-ARID REGION OF BRAZIL

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    JOSÉ RIVANILDO DE SOUZA PINTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedling production for reforestation aims to achieve the best plant growth in a minimal amount of time, to provide good survival and growth levels after transplantation. During cultivation, it is necessary to know the shading levels that lead to the best growth. The objective of this study was to assess the growth of young Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. plants provided with various amounts of shade in the northeast semi-arid region of Brazil. Four types of shade cloth were tested (0, 30, 50 and 70%. Shoot length, stem diameter, stem dry matter, leaf dry matter, total dry matter and leaf area were assessed. Leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, absolute growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate were also calculated. The different shading levels affected M. caesalpinifolia growth, with the best growth indicators observed in plants grown under 50% shade, with increases in plant height, leaf area and total dry matter observed compared to the full sun condition.

  13. Evaluation of chemical composition and antiedematogenic activity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth

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    Andreza G.R. Barbosa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Evaluations of the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants and their components have been the subject of many studies. Furthermore, the biological activities of various plant species have been reported in various pieces of literature. Hyptis martiusii Benth (Lamiaceae, popularly known as “mad balm” is commonly found in the North, Southeast, and Northeast of Brazil. Its leaves are used ethnobiologically as antiulcerogenic, antimicrobial, antitumor and as insecticide. This study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil of H. martiusii Benth (OEHM by GC/MS as well as its possible topical activity as an antiedematogenic. This is verified by the models of ear edema induced by single (acute edema and multiple (chronic edema applications of croton oil topically, and systemically verified through the model of paw edema induced by carrageenan 1%. Doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg OEHM were used in all tests. Chemical analysis of the oil revealed the 1,8-cineole (34.58% and δ-carene (21:58% as major components present in the essential oil. On the model of ear edema, acute and chronic OEHM in all the tested doses showed no significant antiedematogenic activity (p < 0.05. The systemic model of paw edema induced by carrageenin showed that a dose of 100 mg/kg effectively reduced swelling by 55.37% in the second hour evaluation when compared to the saline group. The anti-inflammatory systemic effect can give greater bioavailability of the components present in the essential oil and your interference in cytokines and leukotriene, thromboxane and prostaglandin biosynthesis. It is therefore concluded that OEHM presents systemic antiedematogenic activity but not topical activity at these doses.

  14. The water extract of Coleus barbatus Benth decreases gastric secretion in rats

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    Lygia A. Fischman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Coleus barbatus (Labiatae Benth is popularly used in Brazil "for the healing of liver and stomach diseases". The water extract (WE 1 to 10 g/Kg, p.o. of stem and leaves given to rats and mice did not induce signs of intoxication. Preveious treatment of mice with WE (1 g/kg, p.o. shortened the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p. by 37 por cento, althoyugh the extract alone did not increase the spontaneous activity nor did it induce hyperexcitability. In mice WE (2 g/Kg, p.o. increased the intestinal transit of charcoal by 30 por cento, while reduced gastric secretions ion rats treated with WE (2g/Kg intraduodenal 3,9 ± 1.0 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml/4h, respectively. The treatment also reduced the total acid secretion from 34.4 ± 11.0 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mEq/l and raisedgastric pH from 2.2 ± 0.3 to 6.5 ± 0.8. Treatment with WE (2g/Kg, p.o. protected against gastric ulcers induced by stress (5.3 ± 1.6 and 1.5 ± 0.5 ulcers/cm², but did nor protect against indonethacin induced ulcers. The results show that the water extract of C barbatus Benth produces mild stimulation of thecentral nervous system and increases intestinal movements. The extract also reduces gastric secretion indicating an antidyspeptic activity, and protects against gastric ulcers induced by stress.

  15. Cytotoxic activity of acyl phloroglucinols isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. cultivated in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Fathy M.; Fathy, Magda M.; Salama, Maha M.; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.; Saber, Fatema R.; El-Halawany, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Two acyl phloroglucinol compounds namely; Sideroxylonal B (1) and Macrocarpal A (2) were isolated from the Sideroxylonal-Rich Extract (SRE) of the juvenile leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea; F. Muell. ex Benth cultivated in Egypt. Identification of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of physico-chemical properties and spectral analysis (1D & 2D NMR). The two compounds were isolated for the first time from this species. The SRE alongside with the isolated compounds were tested again...

  16. LICOR DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth CON DIFERENTES PORCENTAJES DE PULPA BLACKBERRY LIQUOR (Rubus glaucus Benth WITH DIFFERENT PULP PERCENTAGES

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    Álvaro Montoya Gómez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth es una fruta de interés comercial y altamente perecedera, que presenta deterioro debido a su fragilidad e inadecuado manejo poscosecha, cantidades apreciables de fruta son afectadas, básicamente en sus características físicas, siendo este producto apto para el procesamiento industrial. Veinte kg de mora fueron despulpados, homogenizados y caracterizada la pulpa, determinando; grados brix de 6,0; porcentaje de acidez de 2,91 % y densidad de 0,991 g/ml en promedio. Se formularon licores, con una participación de la pulpa del 25 %, 30 %, 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 % iniciando con 35 °Brix, para todos los casos en el mosto fermentable, ajustando las formulaciones con sacarosa; la levadura inoculada fue Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen en concentración del 0,2 %; la fermentación se llevó a cabo en reactores con capacidad de 2 litros, con desfogue de manguera de látex, el mosto fermentable fue dejado en los reactores durante 20 semanas, luego los licores fueron filtrados y caracterizados físico-químicamente, evaluando el porcentaje de alcohol por destilación, encontrando que el porcentaje de 40 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor concentración con 8,36 % de volumen de alcohol en promedio. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron una diferencia significativa entre los porcentajes de participación de pulpa y su influencia sobre la producción de alcohol para los valores de 25 % y 30 % con respecto a los porcentajes 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 %. Un modelo matemático lineal apropiado para la producción de alcohol en función de la participación de pulpa fue obtenido. La prueba sensorial con 10 jueces, mostró que el licor preparado con 35 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor aceptación.The blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth is a fruit of commercial interest that is highly perishable, showing appreciable damage due to fragileness and inadequate pos-harvesting handling

  17. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential of Phlomis olivieri Benth.

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    M.R. Delnavazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Phlomis olivieri Benth. (Lamiaceae is a medicinal plant widely distributed in Iran. In the present study, we have investigated the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of the aerial parts of this species. Methods: Silica gel (normal and reversed phases and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies were used for isolation of compounds from methanol-soluble portion (MSP of the total extract obtained from P. olivieri aerial parts. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV spectral analyses. Antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of MSP were also evaluated in DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT, respectively. Results: One caffeoylquinic acid derivative, chlorogenic acid (1, one iridoid glycoside, ipolamiide (2, two phenylethanoid glycosides, phlinoside C (3 and verbascoside (5, along with two flavonoids, isoquercetin (4 and naringenin (6 were isolated and identified from MSP. The MSP exhibited considerable antioxidant activity in DPPH method (IC50; 50.4 ± 4.6 µg/mL, compared to BHT (IC50; 18.7 ± 2.1 µg/mL, without any toxic effect in BSLT at the highest tested dose (1000 µg/mL. Conclusion: the results of the present study introduce P. olivieri as a medicinal plant with valuable biological and pharmacological potentials.

  18. Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de sementes de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. em campo

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    M.F. SOUZA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae é uma espécie arbórea, encontrada no bioma Cerrado, utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas e na ornamentação. Dos frutos, extrai-se a rutina, um bioflavonoide utilizado na indústria farmacêutica, o qual atua na permeabilidade e na resistência dos vasos capilares. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos do tipo de solo e de adubos sobre a emergência e o vigor da fava-d’anta semeada diretamente no campo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro tipos de adubação e dois tipos de solo, com sete repetições de cinco sementes cada. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: emergência, primeira contagem da emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, altura e diâmetro da plântula. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores, tipo de solo e adubos. Os melhores resultados para emergência e IVE são obtidos quando a semeadura é realizada em solo local.

  19. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

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    A Della Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 μg/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  20. Flavonoids with acetylated branched glycans and bioactivity of Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Manal S; Elgindi, Omaima D; Bakr, Reham O

    2014-01-01

    The new acetylated kaempferol tetraglycoside, kaempferol-3-O-[2″(4-acetylrhamnopyranosyl)-3″-galactopyranosyl] robinobioside (1), was isolated from the aqueous methanolic leaf extract of Tipuana tipu Benth. The known kaempferol 3-[2″-(4-acetyl-rhamnosyl)] robinobioside (2), kaempferol 3-O-2″-rhamnopyranosylrutinoside (3), rutin (4), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-galactopyranoside (7), quarcetin 3-O-glucopyranoside (8), kaempferol (9) and quercetin (10) together with the chlorogenic acid (11) were also isolated and characterised. Structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The methanol extract exhibited moderate antioxidant activity, IC50 28.96 μg/mL, compared with ascorbic acid (1.83 μg/mL) and tertiary-butylhydroquinone (1.92 μg/mL). The methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited potent cytotoxic activity; the former was found to be active against larynx and liver cell lines, while the latter being active against intestine and liver cell lines.

  1. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats

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    Cássia A. O. Feres

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological parameters evaluated, no alterations in the groups of rats that received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses of D. mollis were observed, but an increase in eosinophiles occurred. Hyperactivity of the white splenic pulp was detected in the group that received the 2000 mg/kg dose of D. mollis. In the evaluation of the lymphproliferative response with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no alterations were observed, and a decrease in IgG was only observed in the studies with a 2000 mg/kg dose. The results obtained with rodents suggest that no toxicity exists with the administration of dried D. mollis extract in a 1000 mg/kg dose.

  2. Chemical investigation of the medicinal and ornamental plant Angelonia angustifolia Benth. reveals therapeutic quantities of lupeol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyrup, Stephen T; Asghar, Khush B; Chacko, Ann; Hebert, Jakob M; Samson, Eric; Talone, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Angelonia angustifolia Benth. is a small herbaceous plant with documented use as an anti-inflammatory remedy by indigenous cultures in Latin America. It has subsequently been developed as an ornamental annual widely available in nurseries in the United States. Chemical investigation led to the discovery that lupeol is the major organic soluble constituent in the roots, and is present in large quantities in the aerial structures of the plant. Lupeol was identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and quantified by HPLC-MS. The concentration of lupeol (9.14 mg/g in roots) in A. angustifolia is approximately 3 times higher than any previously reported sources. Therefore, the amount of lupeol in the roots of a single individual of A. angustifolia greatly exceeds the previously determined topical threshold for significant reduction of inflammation. The presence of topically therapeutic levels of lupeol in A. angustifolia provides chemical rationale for its indigenous use. In addition, the established cultivation of A. angustifolia could allow this plant to be used as a source of the important bioactive molecule lupeol, or to be developed as a nutraceutical without damaging wild populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. PEMANFAATAN BAKTERI PELARUT FOSFAT UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PRODUKTIVITAS KUDZU TROPIKA (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth.

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    N. G. K Roni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is one of the essential nutrients for plants that availability is strongly influenced by soil pH. In acid soils, most of the P is given will form insoluble compounds and is not available to plants. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria is a soil microorganism that can improve the provision ofP in acid soils. The study aimed to determine the effect of Phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the productivity of tropical kudzu was conducted using a completely randomized design with four treatments ie without isolate (I0, standard isolate (I1, isolate B.80.1649-1 (I2 and isolate B.80.1649-8 (I3, each treatment was repeated four times. The results showed that both isolates were isolated and selection were able to increase the length of the plants, number of leaves, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, shoot P content,  N uptake, P uptake, and production of crude protein of tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth.. The ability of isolates B.80.1649-1 higher than isolates B.80.1649-8, and comparable with standard isolate.

  4. Influência da temperatura de armazenamento na qualidade das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna

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    Pontes Claudia Aparecida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento na porcentagem de germinação e no vigor das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna, por meio de testes fisiológicos. O teor de água aumentou nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e reduziu naquelas a 20 degreesC. A porcentagem de germinação das sementes mantidas a 5 e 20 degreesC apresentou redução aos 220 e 120 dias, respectivamente. O índice de velocidade de germinação decresceu de maneira similar. A condutividade elétrica não foi alterada nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e aumentou nas que permaneceram a 20 degreesC. O envelhecimento acelerado nos períodos de 24, 48 e 72 horas detectou redução significativa na qualidade das sementes em ambos os ambientes de armazenamento. A redução da porcentagem de germinação e do vigor foi maior nas sementes armazenadas a 20 degreesC.

  5. Production of Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth. Ducke seedlings irrigated with fish farming wastewater

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    João P. N. de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of ‘jurema-branca’ seedlings (Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth. Ducke., irrigated with effluent from fish farming in order to meet the nutritional demand in the initial growth stage. The treatments consisted in the dilution of fish farming wastewater in different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% with supply water. Seeds were sown in 0.9-L polyethylene bag containing a mixture of soil and manure. At 54 days after sowing the shoot length, stem diameter, height/diameter ratio, number of leaves, leaf area, unit leaf area, dry matter of stem, leaves, shoots, roots and total, chlorophyll content index and Dickson quality index were evaluated. The growth of ‘jurema-branca’ seedlings is favored by the dilution of 25% of fish farming wastewater in the supply water. Using up to 25% of the concentration of the fish farming effluent does not significantly affect the dry biomass accumulation in ‘jurema-branca’ seedlings, in relation to the control. The reuse of fish farming wastewater diluted at proportion of up to 25% is a viable alternative to meet the water demand in the production of forest seedlings.

  6. Preparation and characterization of microcapsules of Pterodon pubescens Benth. by using natural polymers

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    Alexandre Espada Reinas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An oleaginous fraction obtained from an alcohol extract of the fruit of Pterodon pubescensBenth. (FHPp was microencapsulated in polymeric systems. These systems were developed using a complex coacervation method and consisted of alginate/medium-molecular-weight chitosan (F1-MC, alginate/chitosan with greater than 75% deacetylation (F2-MC, and alginate/low-molecular-weight chitosan (F3-MC. These developed systems have the potential to both mask the taste of the extract, and to protect its constituents against possible chemical degradation. The influence of the formulation parameters and process were determined by chemical profiling and measurement of the microencapsulation efficiency of the oleaginous fraction, and by assessment of microcapsule morphology. The obtained formulations were slightly yellow, odorless, and had a pleasant taste. The average diameters of the microcapsules were 0.4679 µm (F2-MC, 0.5885 µm (F3-MC, and 0.9033 µm (F1-MC. The best formulation was F3-MC, with FHPp microencapsulation efficiency of 61.01 ± 2.00% and an in vitro release profile of 75.88 ± 0.45%; the content of vouacapans 3-4 was 99.49 ± 2.80%. The best model to describe the release kinetics for F1-MC and F3-MC was that proposed by Higuchi; however, F2-MC release displayed first-order kinetics; the release mechanism was of the supercase II type for all formulations.

  7. (L. Benth. en bosques secundarios en Escárcega, Campeche, México

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    J. L. López-Torres

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El T´zalam Lysiloma latisiliquum (L. Benth. en la región de Escárcega, Campeche, México, es la especie más abundante y con mayor importancia económica en bosques secundarios derivados de selva mediana subperennifolia, después haber sido intervenida mediante el sistema rosa-tumba-quema. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el comportamiento del crecimiento en diámetro de esta especie, en un periodo de 20 años de desarrollo. A partir de la variable diámetro normal (d1.3, agrupada en categorías diamétricas, se estimaron los incrementos anuales medio, máximo y mínimo para cada categoría. Los resultados indican que en el escenario más ventajoso se requiere de 10.6 años para que los árboles pasen de categoría reserva a categoría aprovechable y, en promedio, es necesario de 21.5 años para alcanzar la misma condición. El incremento en diámetro fue, en promedio, de 0.511 cm y se clasifica como medio.

  8. RESISTÊNCIA NATURAL DA MADEIRA DE SABIÁ (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. A CUPINS SUBTERRÂNEOS

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    FRANCISCO HUGO HERMÓGENES DE ALENCAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the wood natural resistance of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. of phenotypes (plants with and without prickles to subterranean termite (Nasutitermes corniger Motsch. in forced feeding and feeding preference assays, under laboratory conditions. Wood test samples measuring 2.54 x 1.50 x 0.64 cm (forced feeding and 10.00 x 1.50 x 0.64 cm (feeding preference, with the largest measurement in the fiber direction, were obtained from three positions from pith to bark direction. The samples were exposed for 28 days (forced feeding and 45 days (feeding preference to Nasutitermes corniger Motsch. termites. In forced feeding assay the termites caused superficial attack in wood and lived during 8 to 10 days, thus the wood was classified as resistant. In forced feeding assay more mass loss and attack in wood of external positions to both phenotypes was observed. To the waste and survival time of termites were similar to both types. In feeding preference a larger mass loss and waste to inner position in both phenotypes was observed. In general, the plants with prickles lost more mass than the one without prickles. Therefore, the wood of plants without prickles is more suitable to be use in construction of fences, sheepfolds and other similar uses where the wood shall be subject to attack by termites.

  9. Pollination ecology of Acacia gerrardii Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae under extremely hot-dry conditions

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    Abdulaziz Saad Alqarni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth. are acacias that are native to the arid and semiarid Africa and west Asia. We investigated the flowering biology, pod set and flower visitors of Talh and discussed the role of these visitors in pollen transfer. The Talh trees blossomed laterally on the nodes of one-year-old twigs. Each node produced 21 flower buds seasonally. Each flower bud opened to a flower head (FH of 60 florets. The bagged FHs podded significantly (p ⩽ 0.05 less than did the unbagged FHs. The FHs were visited by 31 insect species (25 genera, 16 families and 5 orders. The major taxa were honeybees, megachilids, butterflies, ants, beetles and thrips. Each of honeybees, megachilids and beetles showed a significant (p ⩽ 0.05 hourly pattern, while each of butterflies, ants and thrips had no hourly pattern (p > 0.05. Furthermore, some birds and mammals touched the Talh FHs. Talh trees evolved a mass flowering behavior to face pre- and post-flowering obstacles. Megachilids seemed to play the major effort of zoophily because of their relatively high numbers of individuals and species and their effective movement behavior on the FH surface. Nevertheless, honeybees and other insects and vertebrate taxa also contributed to the pollen transfer. These results greatly contribute to our understanding of the pollination ecology of acacias, especially Arabian acacias.

  10. Pterodon pubescens Benth: stability study of microencapsulated extract and isolated compounds monitored by antinociceptive assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servat, Leila; Spindola, Humberto M.; Carvalho, Joao E. de; Foglio, Mary A.; Rodrigues, Rodney A.F.; Sousa, Ilza M.O.; Ruiz, Ana L.T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Pp) seeds, commercially available in Brazil, are used in folk medicine in anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-rheumatic preparations. The present study demonstrated the antinociceptive properties of isomers 6a-hydroxy-7β-acetoxy-vouacapan-17β--oate methyl ester and 6a-acetoxy-7β-hydroxy-vouacapan-17β-oate methyl ester (C1), isolated from (Pp), employing different experimental models. A stability study was performed to investigate the relationship of microencapsulation by spray-drying on the maintenance of antinociceptive action. Therefore, C1 and Pp extract samples were monitored in accelerated stability study, evaluating both microencapsulated and non-microencapsulated samples. It was observed that sample C1 possess antinociceptive activity revealed by writhing and formalin tests; C1 showed significantly anti-allodynic, but not ntihyperalgesic effect; the microencapsulation maintained the activity and integrity of both, sample C1 and Pp crude extract; microencapsulation by spray drying is a useful alternative to increase shelf life. (author)

  11. Atividade repelente do óleo essencial de Ocimum selloi Benth. (variedade eugenol) contra o anopheles braziliensis chagas

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, Josiane P.; Farago, Paulo V.; Checchia, Lizianne E. M.; Hirose, Karla M.; Ribas, Joao L.

    2004-01-01

    Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae) é uma planta herbácea nativa do Brasil. Seu óleo essencial tem sido utilizado como flavorizante em comidas e em produtos orais e como componente de fragrâncias. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a atividade repelente de mosquitos do óleo essencial de O. selloi (variedade eugenol) em humanos. O óleo essencial foi obtido por hidrodestilação das folhas da espécie. Em estudo de campo, no qual seis voluntários (cada qual como seu próprio contr...

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE EXTRACT OF THE BARKS OF Licania macrophylla BENTH: PHYTOCHEMICALS AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS

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    Ryan da Silva Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o perfil fitoquímico, físico-químico da espécie vegetal e determinar a toxicidade do extrato bruto etanólico de L. macrophylla Benth frente às larvas de Artemia salina L. A análise fitoquímica foi realizado por meio do extrato bruto etanólico das cascas do caule e a determinação físico-química foi realizada de acordo com a Farmacopeia Brasileira. As análises fitoquímicas detectaram a presença de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos, açúcares redutores, taninos, antraquinonas, depsídios e depsidonas. Em relação aos parâmetros físico-químicos a planta apresentou pH=4,64, pela ocorrência de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos e taninos; Lipídeos= 0,55% indica que o material vegetal apresenta poucos lipídios de baixo peso molecular; Umidade= 12,09%±0,12, o que relaciona a pouca quantidade de água, fator indispensável para a não ocorrência de desenvolvimento de microrganismo ou degradação enzimática. Os resíduos por incineração (cinzas da espécie se encontra dentro dos padrões farmacognósticos de 8,30%±0,54. O extrato bruto segundo o teste de toxicidade é atóxico com CL50=1253µg/mL, isto é, confirma-se a relação estabelecida entre a taxa de mortalidade e CL50 deve ser superior a 1000µg/mL para serem considerados atóxicos. As análises fitoquímicas confirmaram em parte a utilização da espécie para fins fitoterápicos, porém a forma de tratamento e acondicionamento pode influenciar na determinação de metabólitos secundários. Os parâmetros físico-químicos adotados mostraram que espécie encontra-se livre de agentes decompositores. Palavras-chave: Fitoquímica, L. macrophilla Benth, Toxicidade, Físico-Química. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n1p94-99

  13. Labellar anatomy and secretion in Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae: Bulbophyllinae) sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin L; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2014-10-01

    Floral secretions are common in Bulbophyllum Thouars, and the labella of a number of Asian species are said to produce secretions rich in lipids that act as food rewards for insect pollinators. Although some of these reports are based on simple histochemical tests, a much greater number are anecdotal and, hitherto, neither the ultrastructure of the labellum nor the secretory process has been investigated in detail. Furthermore, sophisticated histochemical approaches have generally not been applied. Here, both the labellar structure and the secretory process are investigated for four species of Asian Bulbophyllum sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f., namely Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng., B. morphologorum Kraenzl., B. orientale Seidenf. and B. wangkaense Seidenf., and compared with those of unequivocal lipid-secreting orchids. Labellar, secretory tissue was investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. The adaxial median longitudinal groove of the labellum contained secretory tissue comprising palisade-like epidermal cells, similar to those of certain lipid-secreting Oncidiinae Benth. However, these cells and their secretions gave positive results mainly for protein and mucilage, and their organelle complement was consistent with that of cells involved in protein and mucilage synthesis. Sub-cuticular accumulation of secretion resulted in cuticular distension and blistering. The sub-epidermal layer of isodiametric parenchyma contained starch and, like the epidermal cells, ultrastructure consistent with mucilage synthesis. Lipids were mainly confined to the cuticle, and hardly any intracellular lipid droplets were observed. It is proposed that mucilage is produced by dictyosomes present in the palisade-like epidermal cells. Mucilage precursors may also be produced by these same organelles in sub-epidermal cells and are thought to pass along the symplast via plasmodesmata into the adjoining

  14. Polyphenolic glycosides isolated from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. as novel influenza neuraminidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Cao, Wei; Deng, Chao; Wu, Zhaoquan; Zeng, Guangyao; Zhou, Yingjun

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is historically an ancient disease that causes annual epidemics and, at irregular intervals, pandemics. At present, the first-line drugs (oseltamivir and zanamivir) don't seem to be optimistic due to the spontaneously arising and spreading of oseltamivir resistance among influenza virus. Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (P. cablin) is an important traditional Chinese medicine herb that has been widely used for treatment on common cold, nausea and fever. In our previous study, we have identified an extract derived from P. cablin as a novel selective neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor. A series of polyphenolic compounds were isolated from P. cablin for their potential ability to inhibit neuraminidase of influenza A virus. Two new octaketides (1, 2), together with other twenty compounds were isolated from P. cablin. These compounds showed better inhibitory activity against NA. The significant potent compounds of this series were compounds 2 (IC50 = 3.87 ± 0.19 μ mol/ml), 11, 12, 14, 15, 19 and 20 (IC50 was in 2.12 to 3.87 μ mol/ml), which were about fourfold to doubled less potent than zanamivir and could be used to design novel influenza NA inhibitors, especially compound 2, that exhibit increased activity based on these compounds. With the help of molecular docking, we had a preliminary understanding of the mechanism of the two new compounds (1-2)' NA inhibitory activity. Fractions 6 and polyphenolic compounds isolated from fractions 6 showed higher NA inhibition than that of the initial plant exacts. The findings of this study indicate that polyphenolic compounds and fractions 6 derived from P. cablin are potential NA inhibitors. This work is one of the evidence that P. cablin has better inhibitory activity against influenza, which not only enriches the compound library of P. cablin, but also facilitates further development and promises its therapeutic potential for the rising challenge of influenza diseases.

  15. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-03-01

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Effect of Nepeta bracteata Benth. on allergic rhinitis symptoms: A randomized double-blind clinical trial

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    Mohammad Reza Hajiheydari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR is one of the health problems in the world. It is necessary to develop new treatment procedure for control of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Zofa (Nepeta bracteata Benth on AR patients. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial study, 71 patients (37 patients in treatment and 34 in placebo group participated. In treatment group, N. bracteata syrup (NBS was used for 4 weeks as three times a day. The efficacy of the drug regarding AR symptoms (rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal obstruction, itchy nose, and ocular symptoms were evaluated through a visual analog scale (VAS by 0–10 before administration and at the end of the whole treatment period. The collected information was entered in the SPSS software (version 18 and was analyzed using the Fisher's exact test, Chi-square test, independent sample t-test, and paired sample test. Results: The improvement of AR symptoms in the group receiving NBS was significantly higher compared to control group (4.73 ± 1.84 vs. 0.38 ± 2.06; P < 0.0001. Furthermore, the mean of total VAS before and after the treatment (in case group was 7.10 ± 1.92 and 2.37 ± 1.76, respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that N. bracteata has significant effects on improving the symptoms of AR. Hence, it can be a good alternative to AR symptoms relief.

  17. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae.

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    Germana Freire Rocha Caldas

    Full Text Available Hyptis martiusii Benth. is an aromatic plant found in abundance in northeastern Brazil that is used in ethnomedicine to treat gastric disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of action involved in the gastroprotection of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM and to evaluate its healing capacity. Wistar rats were exposed to different protocols and subsequently were treated with 1% Tween-80 aqueous solution (negative control, pantoprazole, carbenoxolone, N-acetylcysteine (depending on the specificity of each model or EOHM. The antisecretory activity (basal or stimulated was determined using the pyloric ligature method. The gastroprotective action of nitric oxide and sulphydryl groups (-SH groups, as well as the quantification of adherent mucus and the levels of malondialdehyde and -SH groups in gastric mucosa, were evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. The healing ability was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer model and histological and immunohistochemical analysis (HE, PAS and PCNA. EOHM (400 mg/kg reduced the volume and acidity of gastric secretion stimulated by histamine and pentagastrin. The gastroprotective effect of EOHM involves the participation of endogenous sulfhydryl groups. EOHM increased mucus production (54.8%, reduced levels of MDA (72.5% and prevented the depletion of -SH groups (73.8% in the gastric mucosa. The treatment with EOHM reduced in 70.3% the gastric lesion area, promoting significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, as confirmed by histological analysis and analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The results show that gastroprotective effect of EOHM is mediated by cytoprotective and antioxidant mechanisms and by their antisecretory activity, and suggest that the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii is a promising candidate for the treatment of gastric ulcers.

  18. Salvia leriifolia Benth (Lamiaceae) extract demonstrates in vitro antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Conforti, Filomena; Menichini, Federica; Bonesi, Marco; Nadjafi, Farsad; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Salvia leriifolia Benth extracts and fractions. The functional role of herbs and spices and their constituents is a hot topic in food-related plant research. Salvia species have been used since ancient times in folk medicine for cognitive brain function and have been subjected to extensive research. Thus, we hypothesize that S leriifolia, because of its functional properties, would be a good candidate to use as a nutraceutical product for improving memory in the elderly or patients affected by Alzheimer disease (ad). To test this hypothesis, we examined the cholinesterase inhibitory activity using the modified colorimetric Ellman's method against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The n-hexane exhibited the highest activity, with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 0.59 and 0.21 mg/mL, for AChE and BChE, respectively. This extract was fractionated, and 9 of these fractions (A-I) were obtained and tested. Fraction G, characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenes as major components, was the most active against AChE (IC(50) = 0.05 mg/mL). Because oxidative stress is a critical event in the pathogenesis of AD, we decided to screen the antioxidant activity (AA) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl test, β-carotene bleaching test, and bovine brain peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid) assay. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity, with IC(50) values of 2 and 33 μg/mL on β-carotene bleaching test and thiobarbituric acid test, respectively. These results suggest potential health benefits of S leriifolia extracts. However, this finding requires additional investigation in vivo. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous extract in rats

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    Djaman Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w., per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o., produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o. was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o. The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase (p -, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.

  20. Antifungal Screening of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae Stem Bark Extract in Mouthwash Formulations

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    Aremu Olusola Isaac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae has been known for its use in the management of oral thrush ethnomedicinally in various parts of Africa, a practice which has been justified by results of certain scientific studies. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate dosage formulation, a mouthwash and evaluate the antifungal potential of this dosage formulation against a major causative organism of oral thrush, Candida albicans. Extraction of the stem bark was carried out with boiled distilled water, the extract was formulated into mouthwashes at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%w/v. All formulations contained viscosity imparting agent, a sweetener and a preservative. Physical characterisation, viscosity, pH and palatability of the mouthwash formulations were determined. Agar-well diffusion method was used to assess antifungal activity of the formulations against Candida albicans and Nystatin oral suspension was used as reference compound. The results showed that Bridelia ferruginea stem bark extract mouthwash solutions were brown in colour, had agreeable odour and sweet astringent taste. The pH for all concentrations was in the range 5.41-5.63. The viscosity at spindle no 2, 60rpm range between 0.226-0.238 Pa.S for all concentrations studied. The formulations had antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The highest concentration (2.5%w/v gave mean zone of inhibition of 25.50±0.71mm that was comparable with Nystatin oral suspension 28.00±1.41mm, a reference compound. The foregoing suggests that with little modification in the formulation especially the adjustment of the pH, Bridellia ferruginea mouthwash solutions may be developed into commercially useful preparations.

  1. Preliminary assessment of AFLP fingerprinting of Rubus glaucus Benth. elite genotypes

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    Duarte Delgado Diana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth. is a promissory fruit crop for Colombia with potential to become an international commodity due to its high nutritional and nutraceutical value. Farmer genotypes from the national R. glaucus collection were selected from eight outstanding accessions according to their nutritional and agronomic value, for distribution among local producers. The goal of this work is to evaluate the genomic fingerprint by AFLP analysis of these elite genotypes using three primer combinations. From 179 total amplified loci produced by the three combinations, 20% resulted polymorphic. The EAGG/MCTT combination was the most informative with a 32% polymorphism and greater discrimination power. The genotypes tested showed a high average similarity (96% and the accessions San Antonio and ILS-1863 formed independent groups with good statistical support in the clustering analysis. The remaining accessions did not form discrete groups with good support (<50%, probably due to genetic homogeneity among them and/or low resolving power of markers. This study is one of the first attempts to generate a genomic fingerprint of these farmer elite genotypes for protection, seed certification and future support to breeding programs.

     

  2. In vitro antimicrobial, antiprotozoal activities and heavy metals toxicity of different parts of Ballota pseudodictamnus (L.) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Najeeb; Ahmad, Ijaz; Ahmad, Nisar; Fozia, -

    2017-11-01

    The study was done to check the antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activity of different parts of Ballota pseudodictamnus (L.) Benth. These activities were then compared with the heavy metals toxicity of different parts, which plants accumulate in different concentrations in different parts. In in-vitro antileishmanial results ethanolic extract, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions in roots of Ballota pseudodictamnus (L.) Benth showed antileishmanial activity. The ethanol, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fraction in stem revealed inhibition of amastigote form of leishmania. The ethanolic extract, chloroform, and n-butanol fraction in leaves showed inhibition of leishmanial parasite. In heavy metals study, Chromium was above permissible value in all parts except in leaves. Nickel was above WHO limit in roots. Cadmium and lead were beyond permissible limits in entire plant parts. Results revealed that different parts of the plant have different inhibition properties. So each part of plant should be checked for antimicrobial and antiprotozoal assay separately. It is concluded that various metals accumulates with miscellaneous concentrations in different plant parts.

  3. Superação da dormência em sementes de faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth Dormancy breaking of faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth. seeds

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    Irinaldo Lima do Nascimento

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A faveira é planta semidecídua, heliófita, que ocorre em formações secundárias e áreas abertas de terreno elevado do agreste nordestino e campinas amazônicas. A madeira dessa espécie é empregada para caixotaria, compensados, brinquedos, lenha e carvão, as vagens maduras constituem-se em excelente forragem para todos os ruminantes e a árvore é recomendada para arborização paisagística. O primeiro problema encontrado foi a baixa germinação das sementes devido à impermeabilidade do tegumento à água. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar a metodologia mais eficiente para superação da dormência de sementes de Parkia platycephala, as quais foram submetidas a 12 tratamentos: testemunha - sementes intactas (T1, escarificação mecânica com lixa d'água n. 80 (T2, imersão em ácido muriático concentrado (98% por 30 min e 1 h (T3 e T4, respectivamente, escarificação mecânica com brita por 5, 10 e 15 min (T5, T6 e T7, respectivamente e imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado (98% por 5, 15, 30, 45 e 60 min (T8, T9, T10, T11 e T12, respectivamente. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram avaliados através da porcentagem, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas, além de comprimento e massa seca da raiz e parte aérea. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos em todas as variáveis. A causa mais evidente da dormência foi a impermeabilidade do tegumento, cujos tratamentos mais eficientes para superar a dormência das sementes foram a escarificação mecânica do tegumento com lixa e a imersão em ácido sulfúrico (15 a 45 min.The faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth. is a perennial, heliophyte, secondary plant that occurs in (non-flooded areas of the Amazon area. The wood of this species is used to make boxes, supports and

  4. Estudo das folhas e caule de Hyptidendron canum(Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae

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    Tatiana S. Fiuza

    Full Text Available Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae, é utilizada popularmente como antimalárica, antiinflamatória, antiulcerativa, anti-hepatotóxica e anticancerígena. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo morfo-anatômico das folhas e caules e identificar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes nas folhas de H. canum, dados ainda não descritos na literatura. As folhas e caules jovens coletados em Goiânia (GO foram seccionados à mão livre e preparados para análise microscópica. Foram realizadas reações de identificação de metabólitos secundários do material dessecado e pulverizado. Preparou-se o extrato etanólico bruto, que posteriormente foi fracionado por partição líquido-líquido com hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As frações foram submetidas à análise cromatográfica em camada delgada (CCD. As lâminas foliares apresentam epiderme adaxial constituída por células poligonais com parede reta. Na epiderme abaxial observam-se células com parede reta a ondulada e estômatos diacíticos e anisocíticos. Tricomas tectores e glandulares estão presente em ambas as faces da lâmina foliar. O pecíolo apresenta aspecto canaletado, epiderme adaxial e abaxial unisseriada. O caule, em secção transversal possui contorno em geral quadrangular, com presença de tricomas tectores e glandulares. As reações e a CCD das folhas evidenciaram a presença de flavonóides, saponinas, terpenos e lignanas. Este trabalho contribuiu para um maior conhecimento da morfo-anatomia e das classes químicas presentes em H. canum.

  5. Escarificación artificial y natural de la semilla de Lupinus bilineatus Benth

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    J. M. Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de Lupinus colonizan áreas incendiadas y fijan N. En otros países las especies de este género se emplean en plantaciones forestales y sistemas agroforestales. Sus semillas presentan latencia física. En el presente estudio se realizó el análisis de semillas y se evaluó la germinación de Lupinus bilineatus Benth. considerando los siguientes factores y niveles: escarificación (natural: fuego, humo; artificial: inmersión en ácido sulfúrico durante 10, 20, 30 y 40 min y control, régimen de temperatura día/noche en cámaras de ambiente controlado (15/10, 20/15, 25/20, 30/25 °C y luz (con y sin. El diseño experimental fue en bloques al azar, con los bloques anidados dentro del factor temperatura. Se realizó un análisis de varianza mixto (con el procedimiento mixto de SAS y la prueba de Tukey. La pureza fue 97.1 %, el peso 66,666.7 semillas·kg-1, el contenido de humedad (base anhidra 7.1 % y la viabilidad 98 % (prueba de tetrazolio. Para la germinación, resultó significativa (P=0.0101 la interacción entre tratamiento escarificatorio, temperatura y luz. La máxima germinación (82.5 % se registró para semilla escarificada químicamente durante 30 o 40 min, a 25/20 °C y con luz. A mayor tiempo de escarificación química, mayor porcentaje de germinación. A 20/15 °C y con luz, la germinación posterior a la escarificación con fuego (38.5 % superó al control (18.5 %. Generalmente el control mostró valores de germinación menores a 30 % en los diferentes tratamientos, denotando latencia física con diferentes intensidades en el lote. Destaca la eficiencia de la escarificación química para cesar la latencia.

  6. Antitrypanosomal activity of Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. (Scrophulariaceae) against Trypanosoma congolense isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergia, Ermias; Shibeshi, Workineh; Terefe, Getachew; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2016-09-15

    African Trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with a large impact on the livelihood of the rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. The available drugs for managing this disease are old, expensive and are facing the problem of drug resistance. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antitrypanosomal efficacy of aqueous and absolute methanol leaf extracts of Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate. Verbascum sinaiticum (Local name 'qetetina') is a biennial plant, and 60-150 cm tall. It is traditionally used to treat wound, stomachache, viral infection, cancer, sunstroke, fever, abdominal colic, diarrhea, hemorrhage, anthrax, and hepatitis. The efficacy of aqueous and absolute methanol leaf extracts of V. sinaiticum was evaluated in a randomized experiment with Swiss albino mice infected with T. congolense field isolate. The extracts were administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection for seven days at 12 Days Post-Infection (DPI) when the peak parasitaemia level was approximately 10(8) trypanosomes/ml. Parasitaemia, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), mean survival time and change in body weight were used as indices for monitoring the efficacy of the extracts. Diminazene (28 mg/kg) was used as a positive control while 2 % Tween was used as the negative control. Phytochemicals screening were conducted following standard methods. The extracts showed no toxicity effect in Swiss albino mice and had LD50 above 2000 mg/kg. The phytochemicals screened in V. sinaiticum were alkaloids, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, steroids, phenolic compounds, and tannins. The mice treated with absolute methanol leaf extract of V. sinaiticum at 400 mg/kg dose had significantly lower mean parasitaemia (7.20 ± 0.16) (p < 0.001) as compared to the negative control group (8.82 ± 0.12) on day 14 of treatment. Animals treated with the same dose had significant (p < 0.001) higher PCV value and body

  7. [Use of chigo seed (Campsiandra comosa, Benth) in human nutrition. II. Process of non-industrial manufacture of chiga].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, J A; Brito, O; Hevia, P; Pérez, C; Orozco, M

    1984-09-01

    A quantitative study of the traditional process for making "chiga" flour was performed. The "chiga" flour is obtained from the seed of the "chigo" (Campsiandra comosa, Benth) and is utilized as a human food in areas of Venezuela in the Orinoco basin, especially in the State of Apure and in the Territorio Federal Amazonas. The block diagram with the description of the traditional process is presented, together with labor and time requirement studies of the different stages of the process. The yields as well as the requirements for raw materials are also discussed. This research work was carried out to study and provide quantitative information that may allow the duplication of the process, in order to improve the efficiency and yield of the product.

  8. Pharmacological activities and medicinal properties of endemic Moroccan medicinal plant Origanum compactum (Benth and their main compounds

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    Abdelhakim Bouyahya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Oregano [Origanum compactum Benth. (O. compactum, Lamiaceae] is an endemic Moroccan medicinal herb. It is used traditionally to fight against several disorders such as diarrhea, urolithiasis, hypertension, diabetes, and inflammation. A large number of components have been identified and isolated from the essential oil of this plant. Carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and γ-Terpinene are among the more compounds presented in O. compactum essential oil and considered to be the main biologically active components. Numerous experimental studies showed that O. compactum organic extracts, essentials oil and its main compounds possess a broader spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and anticancer activity. The present review attempts to give an overview of pharmacological studies of O. compactum and its major compounds.

  9. In vitro biological activity of Salvia leriifolia benth essential oil relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Conforti, Filomena; Nadjafi, Farsad; Statti, Giancarlo Antonio; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Menichini, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    In this study the chemical composition, cholinesterase inhibitory property and anti-inflammatory activity of S. leriifolia Benth. essential oil was evaluated for the first time. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of camphor (10.5%), 1,8-cineole (8.6%), camphene (6.2%) and alpha-pinene (4.7%) as main constituents. S. leriifolia oil exhibited a promising antioxidant activity by DPPH assay with an IC(50) 2.26 microL/mL. Interesting cholinesterase inhibitory activity was also found with IC(50) values of 0.32 and 0.29 microL/mL for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrrylcholinesterase (BChE), respectively. Moreover, this oil inhibited LPS-induced NO production with an IC(50) value of 165 microg/mL. The absence of cytotoxicity at 1000 microg/mL was evaluated by MTT assay in 142BR cells.

  10. Tannins: main component of the extract Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke inhibits growth of Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains of bovine origin

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    Vanessa de Melo Cavalcanti-Dantas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n1p109 This study evaluates the antimicrobial activity of tannins observed on the stem bark of Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth on Staphylococcus aureus strains of bovine origin. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the tannin was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. To determine the MIC, tannins were serially dissolved in distilled water at concentrations ranging between 500 mg/mL and 0.976 mg/mL. Assays were performed in triplicate. Tannins inhibited the growth of S. aureus, showing 31.25 mg/mL as the MIC value. The results of this study are promising, as they show the importance of evaluating new compounds of natural origin that fight against infections caused by S. aureus. Further studies are needed to confirm in vivo activity and evaluate the action mechanism of tannin isolated from the stem bark of Piptadenia stipulacea.

  11. Tannins: main component of the extract Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke inhibits growth of Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains of bovine origin

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    Vanessa de Melo Cavalcanti-Dantas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the antimicrobial activity of tannins observed on the stem bark of Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth on Staphylococcus aureus strains of bovine origin. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the tannin was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. To determine the MIC, tannins were serially dissolved in distilled water at concentrations ranging between 500 mg/mL and 0.976 mg/mL. Assays were performed in triplicate. Tannins inhibited the growth of S. aureus, showing 31.25 mg/mL as the MIC value. The results of this study are promising, as they show the importance of evaluating new compounds of natural origin that fight against infections caused by S. aureus. Further studies are needed to confirm in vivo activity and evaluate the action mechanism of tannin isolated from the stem bark of Piptadenia stipulacea.

  12. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE SABIÁ (MIMOSA CAESALPINIAEFOLIA BENTH. E ALGAROBA (PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SW DC

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    Salvador Barros Torres

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (SW DC em condições de laboratório. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 25°C e 30°C constantes e 20-30°C alternadas em substratos de papel toalha, papel mata-borrão e areia. O melhor resultado de germinação para as sementes de sabiá foi obtido com a temperatura de 20-30°C em substrato de papel mata-borrão e a mesma temperatura em substrato de areia, para sementes de algaroba.

  13. Composition chimique et activité antimicrobienne des huiles essentielles de Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. et Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. du Maroc

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    Chaouch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. essential oils of Morocco. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. of Morocco against seven microorganisms. The essential oils of T. ciliatus are characterized by the presence of thymol (44.2%, β-E-ocimene (25.8% and α-terpinene (12.3% as principal chemical components. The essential oils of T. algeriensis are formed mainly by camphor (27.7% and α-pinene (20.5%. The oil of T. ciliatus showed a strong antibacterial and antifungal activity against all tested bacteria and fungi. This bioactivity is due mainly to the richness of this essential oil in thymol known for its effectiveness against the microbial agents.

  14. ?-Cell protection and antidiabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth. S. Moore extract against alloxan-induced oxidative stress via regulation of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar, Entaz; Akter, Kazi-Marjahan; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Lee, Hwa-Young; Rashid, Harun-Or; Choi, Min-Kyung; Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Hossain, Mir Mohammad Monir; Ara, Joushan; Mazumder, Kishor; Raihan, Obayed; Chae, Han-Jung; Yoon, Hyonok

    2017-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are becoming more popular in the treatment of various diseases because of the adverse effects of the current therapy, especially antioxidant plant components such as phenols and flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative diseases like diabetes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate ?-cell protection and antidiabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth. S. Moore. Method The in-vitro study was...

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic content, spectral and fluorescence study of the herbal Unani drug Gul-e-Zoofa (Nepeta bracteata Benth

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    Nazish Siddiqui, Ph.D.

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: This spectral and fluorescence study of the drug will be helpful for confirming the identity and purity of the genuine drug. The total phenolic content will be helpful for developing new drugs and standardizing the drug. The presence of a high total phenolic content shows that the flowers of N. bracteata Benth may possess antioxidant properties, which could lead to a new field of research in the future.

  16. Antidiabetic, renal/hepatic/pancreas/cardiac protective and antioxidant potential of methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark (ALEx) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Danish; Kumar, Vikas; Verma, Amita; Gupta, Pushpraj S; Kumar, Hemant; Dhingra, Vishal; Mishra, Vatsala; Sharma, Manju

    2014-07-16

    Hypoglycemic and/or anti-hyperglycemic activities have been recorded with numerous plants, many of which are used as traditional herbal treatments of diabetes. Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark have been used in traditional medicine along with some preliminary reports on its hypoglycemic action. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The powdered stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth.. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) using soxhlation method and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. (ALEx) was concentrated to dryness using Rotary Evaporator. Diabetes was experimentally induced in the rats by single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). They glycemic control was measured by the blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and plasma insulin. The oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers and various biochemical parameters were assessed in diabetic control and extract treated rats. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats depicted the increased blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), diminished level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level and perturb level of antioxidant markers. Oral administration of MeAL at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days results a momentous decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and enhancement of plasma insulin level as compared with STZ induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, it significantly (p ALEx.

  17. The effects of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.) pollen grains

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Flavio; Soria, Norman; Oleas, Abrahan; Rueda, Darwin; Manjunatha, Bangeppagari; Kundapur, Rajesh R.; Maddela, Naga Raju; Rajeswari, Bugude

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of application of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of pollen grains of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.). The study was performed at Patate, Tungurahua province, Ecuador and was divided into two phases. Phase one dedicated to the study of morphology, viability, and identification of nutrient solution for better germination of pollen grains and phase two for the analysis of the e...

  18. Evaluación de un sistema para la micorrización in vitro en plantas de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus, Benth

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    Víctor Manuel Núñez-Zarante

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of an in vitro mycorrhization system of blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth. Objective. Obtain an in vitromycorrhization system in autotrophic culture systems of blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth. Materials and methods. We usedspores and root fragments with vesicles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF Glomus sp (GEV02. We established an autotrophicculture system of blackberry plantlets comparing two methods of direct inoculation of the AMF. We measured the number of sporesproduced, the length of the extraradical mycelium as well as the percentage of colonization of the AMF. Additionally, we measuredthe shoot and root length, and the fresh and dry weight of the leaf and root parts to determine the plant development. Results. Theautotrophic culture system was successful for blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth; an optimal shoot and root growth was observed.Additionally, we obtained a system that allowed the development of Glomus sp. in in vitro conditions, with the formation of structurestypical of the symbiosis as well as a good intraradical colonization, with the production of arbuscules and vesicles, development ofextraradical mycelium with branched hyphae, and formation of new spores. Conclusion. For the first time, micropropagated blackberryplants associated successfully with an AMF under in vitro conditions, enabling the development of the symbiotic system AMF Glomussp. associated to roots of micropropagated blackberry plantlets.

  19. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Ocimum selloi benth: sob condições de luz, temperatura e tempo de armazenamento Physiological quality of Ocimum selloi Benth: seeds under conditions of light, temperature and storage time

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    Larissa Corrêa do Bomfim Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O atroveran ou elixir-paregórico (Ocimum selloi Benth. é uma espécie aromática nativa do Brasil, produtora de óleo essencial rico em metil-chavicol. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da temperatura, luz e tempo de armazenamento em diferentes ambientes sobre a germinação e o vigor de sementes de O. selloi. Inicialmente, testou-se o efeito da presença e ausência de luz branca sob fotoperíodo de 12 horas para determinar o fotoblastismo das sementes em diferentes temperaturas (20, 25, 30 e 35ºC. Em seguida, testou-se a germinação e emergência no armazenamento sob duas temperaturas (ambiente e câmara fria aos 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 10 e 12 meses de armazenamento. A espécie foi classificada como fotoblástica neutra, apresentando germinação em ampla faixa de temperatura (20 a 30ºC. A germinação das sementes manteve-se por doze meses de armazenamento em câmara fria e à temperatura ambiente, entretanto, o vigor decresce a partir de seis meses em armazenamento sob temperatura ambiente."Atroveran" or "elixir-paregórico" (Ocimum selloi Benth. is a Brazilian species that produces an essential oil rich in methyl chavicol. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of light, temperature and time of storage in different environments on the germination and vigor of O. selloi seeds. We initially tested the influence of presence and absence of white light in a 12-hour photoperiod to determine the photoblastism of the seeds under different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35ºC. The physiological quality of seeds conserved under two temperatures (room temperature and cold chamber was tested at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 10 and 12 months of storage. The species was classified as neutral photoblastic with germination at a wide temperature range (20ºC-30°C. Germination was maintained for twelve months of storage in cold chamber at room temperature, but the vigor was reduced in seeds kept at room temperature after the sixth month of storage.

  20. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, insecticidal and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of the crude methanolic extract of Ajuga parviflora Benth.

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    Rahman, Najmur; Ahmad, Mansoor; Riaz, Muhammad; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Ahmad, Rizwan

    2013-07-01

    Methanolic extract of medicinal herb Ajuga parviflora Benth. was evaluated for phytochemical screening (the plant extract showed the presence of aromatic compounds, carbohydrates, glycosides, tannins, alkaloids, polyphenols, quinines and dions, aminophenols, steroids/sterols, flavonoids and terpenoids), antimicrobial activities against various strains of bacteria and fungi by using disc diffusion method and insecticidal activities against red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), wheat weevil (Sitophilis granaries) and their larvae. The crude extract showed anti-bacterial activity against all strains with a maximum zone of inhibition of 12mm diameter against Citrobacter and Pseudomonas aurogenosa. Standard drugs Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Amoxicillin were used in parallel. The crude extract did not show antifungal activity against the tested strains of fungi even at high doses. The crude methanolic extract was also used for insecticidal activity against the two types of insects and their larva. The extract showed no significant mortality in the tested strains. For brine shrimp lethality bioassay different concentrations 10, 100 and 1000ug/ml of the medicinal herb A. parviflora methanolic extract were used. After 24 hrs the percent mortality and LD50 value was calculated through probit analysis. The LD50 value of extract was 321.42μg/mL while that of standard drug cyclophosphamide was 16.09ug/ml.

  1. Phytochemical Study of the Ecuadorian Species Lepechinia mutica (Benth. Epling and High Antifungal Activity of Carnosol against Pyricularia oryzae

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    Jorge Ramírez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The plant Lepechinia mutica (Benth. Epling (family Lamiaceae is endemic to Ecuador. In the present study, we report some major non-volatile secondary metabolites from the leaves and the chemistry of the essential oil distilled from the flowers. The main identified compounds were carnosol, viridiflorol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, chrysothol, and 5-hydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxy flavone. Their structures were determined by X-ray diffraction and NMR and MS techniques. The essential oil showed a chemical composition similar to that distilled from the leaves, but with some qualitative and quantitative differences regarding several minor compounds. The main constituents (>4% were: δ-3-carene (24.23%, eudesm-7(11-en-4-ol (13.02%, thujopsan-2-α-ol (11.90%, β-pinene (7.96%, valerianol (5.19%, and co-eluting limonene and β-phellandrene (4.47%. The volatile fraction was also submitted to enantioselective analysis on a β-cyclodextrin column, obtaining the separation and identification of the enantiomers for α-thujene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, limonene and β-phellandrene. Furthermore, the anti-fungal activity of non-volatile secondary metabolites was tested in vitro, with carnosol resulting in being very active against the “blast disease” caused by the fungus Pyricularia oryzae.

  2. Influence of root-knot nematode infestation on antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll content and growth in Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

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    Bhau, B S; Borah, Bitupon; Ahmed, Reshma; Phukon, P; Gogoi, Barbi; Sarmah, D K; Lal, M; Wann, S B

    2016-04-01

    Plants adapt themselves to overcome adverse environmental conditions, and this involves a plethora of concurrent cellular activities. Physiological experiments or metabolic profiling can quantify this response. Among several diseases of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli), root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood causes severe damage to the plant and hence, the oil production. In the present study, we identified M. incognita morphologically and at molecular level using sequenced characterized amplified region marker (SCAR). M. incognita was artificially inoculated at different levels of second stage juveniles (J₂) to examine the effect on Patchouli plant growth parameters. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity and changes in the total phenol and chlorophyll contents in M. incognita was also evaluated in response to infection. The results have demonstrated that nematode infestation leads to increased peroxidase activities in the leaves of the patchouli plants and thereby, increase in phenolic content as a means of defence against nematode infestation. Chlorophyll content was also found decreased but no changes in polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity.

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Indian Borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth Leaf Extracts in Food Systems and Against Natural Microflora in Chicken Meat

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    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of a traditional Indian medicinal plant, Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth to prevent spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and papaya and natural microflora of chicken meat was evaluated. These extracts were able to reduce the bacterial counts in all food systems; however, the effective concentration varied with the complexity of the system (in descending order: cabbage, papaya and chicken. A probable mode of action of extracts was investigated by analyzing the changes they cause in bacterial cell wall and leakage of nucleic acid from bacterial cells. Both acetone and ethyl acetate extracts at their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations resulted in leakage of cell constituents to an extent of 40 to 80 and 60 to 95 %, respectively, compared to the control, and finally leading to disintegration of cell walls. These findings indicate the potential use of ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of Indian borage leaves in food preservation.

  4. Cytomictic Anomalous Male Meiosis and 2n Pollen Grain Formation in Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae from Kashmir Himalaya

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    Reyaz Ahmad Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae collected from Kashmir Himalaya, India, is cytologically analyzed for the first time revealing 2n=2x=24 (diploid. Interestingly we found 4.3–6.2% syncytic meiocytes/PMCs with 2n=4x=48 (tetraploid in addition to normal meiocytes (2n=24 during male meiosis. These comparatively larger PMCs (pollen mother cells lead to the formation of fertile giant 2n pollen grains. A frequency of 6.4–13.3% PMCs shows transfer of chromatin material at prophase-I and, therefore, results in aneuploid meiocytes. Whole chromatin transfer by the process of cytomixis could also have led to the formation of tetraploid cells. Translocation heterozygosity is also evident in the form of multivalents in 12–17% diploid (2x meiocytes at diakinesis and metaphase-I and is reported for the first time in this species. The syncytes formed depict open chain hexavalent and quadrivalent formation in the three populations with different frequencies. Moreover chromatin stickiness at metaphase-I is observed in 45% of PMCs in population-1 (P-1. Syncyte or unreduced PMC formation leading to unreduced fertile gametes is here speculated to act as a possible way out for infraspecific polyploidization in the species.

  5. Evaluation of in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth

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    Raghunath Singh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ajuga bracteosa Wall Ex Benth. (Labiateae is described in Ayurveda for the treatment of rheumatism, gout, palsy and amenorrhea.Objective: Present study was aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Neelkanthi (whole plant and to support its traditional use.Methods: Methanolic extract of plant Ajuga bracteosa (ABE was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema, egg albumin induced inflammation in rats and the study was further supported with in vitro antiinflammatory study by using Human red blood cell membrane stabilization (HRBC method. Three doses of the extract (ABE- 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, i.p. were used in the study and diclofenac sodium (5mg/kg, i.p. was used as standard. Results: ABE (500 and 750 mg/kg, i.p. significantly (P<0.05 reduced increased in paw volume induced by carrageenan and egg albumin. ABE also showed significant stabilization toward HRBC membrane. Conclusions: ABE at the dose of 500 and 750 mg/kg showed potent action on comparison with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  6. Flavonoids and their derivatives with β-amyloid aggregation inhibitory activity from the leaves and twigs of Pithecellobium clypearia Benth.

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    Wang, Yu-Xi; Ren, Qiang; Yan, Zhi-Yang; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lu; Bai, Ming; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2017-11-01

    To explore potential compounds with marked effect on Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Pithecellobium clypearia Benth., nineteen compounds (1-19) were obtained, including two new flavonoid derivatives, named pithecellobiumol A (1) and pithecellobiumol B (2) and 17 flavonoids (3-19). Their structures were elucidated based on 1D and 2D-NMR spectra as well as HR-ESI-MS data. The absolute configurations of new compounds were assigned by comparing their experimental specific rotation or ECD curves with the calculated data. The inhibitory activity on Aβ aggregation was screened by ThT assay, and compounds 7 (70.7%), 9 (86.5%), 10 (88.4%), 15 (86.1%) and 16 (87.7%) showed outstanding inhibition rate at 20μM compared to the positive control, curcumin (65.64%). In addition, docking study was performed to initially examine possible molecular mechanisms. Considering the important role of oxidative stress in AD, all the isolated compounds were tested for their H 2 O 2 -induced damage in human neuronblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Among them, compound 16 (91.0%) was the most potent candidate in the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth Seeds for “Ugba” Production

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    C. O. Nwokeleme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis.

  8. Effect of plant density and planting pattern on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Balangu (Lallenamntia royleana Benth.

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    A. Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of plant density and planting pattern on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Balangu (Lallemantia royleana Benth. as a medicinal plant, an experiment was conducted at Research station of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2011-2012. A factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with nine treatments and three replications was used. The treatments comprised three levels of planting density (60, 70 and 80 plants.m-2 and three levels of planting pattern (row planting, mixed row planting and flat planting. Studied criteria of Balangu were quantitative characteristics (such as number of lateral stems, plant height, 1000-seed weight, biological and seed yield and harvest index and qualitative characteristics (including mucilage content and yield; and swelling factor. Results showed that all quantitative characteristics of Balangu except 1000-seed weight were significantly increased by plant density. Qualitative characteristics were not significantly affected by plant density except mucilage yield but the maximum quantitative and qualitative characteristics were obtained by row planting. Interactions between plant density and planting pattern showed that the maximum of seed and mucilage yield were obtained by row planting and plant density of 80 plants.m-2. Non significantly affected by planting pattern and plant density showed that Balangu can tolerates the environmental effects and this is the important property for plants selection and development.

  9. Validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the standardisation of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, commercial extracts

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    Renata Colombo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularly known as marapuama or muirapuama or miriantã, is a species native to the Amazonian region of Brazil. Extracts of the bark of the plant have been used traditionally for its stimulating and aphrodisiac properties and currently commercialised by the herbal industry as constituents in a wide range of phytomedicines. Fractionation by open column chromatography followed by preparative HPLC-UV/PAD of the stem bark and of three commercial extracts of P. olacoides allowed the isolation of three components that were common to all extracts analysed, and these were identified by NMR to be vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid and theobromine. Vanillic acid, which has been proposed as a phytochemical marker for P. olacoides, was employed as an external standard in the development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative HPLC assay for the analyte. The recoveries values of the developed method were 99.02% and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.033 and 0.11 mg.L-1, respectively. The described method may be applied to the standardisation of herbs, extracts or phytomedicines commercialised as marapuama.

  10. Antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria and cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Anacardium occidentale L. and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Josenildo Segundo Chaves; de Castilho, Aline Rogéria Freire; Lira, Andressa Brito; Pereira, Andréia Vieira; de Azevêdo, Tatiane Kelly Barbosa; de Brito Costa, Edja Maria de Melo; Pereira, Maria do Socorro Vieira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna Freire; Pereira, Jozinete Vieira

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activity against bacteria with cariogenic relevance, toxic and genotoxic potential of the plants Anacardium occidentale L. and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Bernam. Using a microdilution technique, the extracts were submitted to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing against Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 903), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557), Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 7073), Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 15300) and Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 27609). The toxicity of the extracts was then verified against eukaryotic cells. Additionally, a micronucleus assay was performed to investigate the potential mutagenic effects of the extracts on rat erythrocytes. The Student's t-test, Bonferroni test, and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's tests were used for statistical analysis, at a significance level of 5%. While the A. occidentale extract was able to inhibit all of the tested strains, with S. mutans and S. mitis being the most susceptible to that extract́s action, the A. macrocarpa did not show antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, the hemolytic, oxidant and antioxidant activities were slightly observed for either extract, even at high concentrations (1000mg/mL). The micronucleus assay showed no significant changes in the cells exposed to the extracts. The A. occidentale extract has potential as an antimicrobial agent with low eukaryotic cell toxicity or mutagenic activity. The A. macrocarpa extract, although absent of antibacterial activity might as well be a safe and effective phytotherapeutic alternative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. IDENTIFIKASI MOLEKULER BROAD BEAN WILT VIRUS 2 (BBWV2 DAN CYMBIDIUM MOSAIC VIRUS (CYMMV ASAL TANAMAN NILAM (POGOSTEMON CABLIN BENTH.

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    Miftakhurohmah .

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular identification Broad Bean Wilt Virus 2 (BBWV2 and Cymbidium Mosaic Virus (CymMV from patchouli plant (Pogostemon cablin Benth.. Several viruses have been reported to be associated with mosaic disease on patchouli plant in Indonesia. This study aims to identify the two viruses in patchouli cultivation in West Java by studying the molecular characterization. Mosaic symptomatic leaf samples taken from patchouli cultivation in Manoko (Bandung Barat District, West Java Province. RNA extraction was performed using Xprep Plant RNA mini kit. RNA amplification with RT-PCR technique using primers for the cp gene region of BBWV2 and CymMV. The PCR product was sent to PT. Science Genetics Indonesia to do sequencing, then analyzed nucleotide sequences. Results of RT-PCR were performed successfully obtained DNA bands with size accordance with the predictions of the primer design for BBWV2 and CymMV cp region. Further, based on nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses, the two virus isolates were confirmed as BBWV2 and CymMV respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BBWV2 Manoko clustered with BBWV2 from Singapore (original host of Brazilian red-cloak, China (pepper and South Korea (chili. Whereas, CymMV Manoko become one cluster with CymMV from India (Phaius sp., Indonesia (Dendrobium, China (vanilla, Thailand (Oncidium, Hawai (Dendrobium and South Korea Cymbidium.

  12. Avaliação de atividades biológicas das sementes de Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth. (Leguminosae

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    M. C. A. Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth., conhecido como "barbatimão", é uma espécie pertencente à família Leguminosae, sub-família Mimosoideae, e é amplamente distribuído em campos e cerrados. Na medicina popular, cascas de S. obovatum são usadas no tratamento de processos inflamatórios, como cicatrizante, para diarréia, frieira. Neste trabalho investigou-se a presença de proteínas e as atividades citotóxica, antibacteriana, antifúngica do extrato salino das sementes de S. obovatum. O extrato salino S. obovatum não apresentou toxidade frente ao ensaio com Artemia salina, nem mostrou atividade antibacteriana contra Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli. Na avaliação da atividade antioxidante, o extrato salino apresentou uma CE50 de 12, 193 µg/mL, enquanto a do padrão positivo BHT foi 2,98 µg/mL. O extrato salino de S. obovatum não apresentou atividade antifúngica, tanto na técnica de bioautografia com o fungo Cladosporium sphaerospermum, quanto no método de difusão em disco, realizado com Candida albicans. Foi realizado teste de atividade enzimática na qual observou-se a hidrólise do substrato H-D-Benzoil-arginina-p-nitroanilida (Bz-Arg-pNan.

  13. KANDUNGAN KIMIA BERBAGAI EKSTRAK DAUN MIANA (COLEUS BLUMEI BENTH DAN EFEK ANTHELMINTIKNYA TERHADAP CACING PITA PADA AYAM

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    Yusuf Ridwan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Study on the chemical compound of painted nettle (Coleus blumei Benth leave extract and its anthelmintic activity against chicken tapeworm were conducted. Leave of painted nettle were collected and extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethanol and water. Phytochemical analysis was carried out to determine the chemical compound of secondary metabolites. Anthelmintic activity was evaluated with an assay using chicken tapeworm in a serial microplate dilution method by determination of efective concentration 50 (EC50 using probit analysis. The result of phytochemistry analysis showed that Coleus leaves consisted of flavonoid, steroid, tannin and saponin. Three of four extracts displayed strong anthelmintic activity with the higest activity belong to chloroform extract with EC50 5 mg/ml followed by n-hexane 9 mg/ml and metanol extract 10,2 mg/ml, while water extract has a weak anthelmintic activity with 106,2 mg/ml. In general, chloroform extract proved to be a more efficient extractant of biologically active compounds than either hexane, ethanol or water extract. The promising activity displayed by a number of extracts has led to further investigation of the active compound. Unfortunately, the result of invivo assay showed that the chloroform extract treatment with dose level 25 mg/kg BW could not to reduce the number of tapeworm in chicken. It is interesting for further investigate the differences of respon between in vitro and in vivo to determine involved factors.

  14. Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariaceae sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae

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    Nacoulma OG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariacecae on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleptera Bruchidae. This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del. (Scrophulariaceae in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L. Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emergence rate of adult beetles at the first generation. This extract shows a weak insecticide activity against adults of C. maculatus. Petroleum ether fraction (0,4% w/w of the crude extract reveals ovicidal (51% and larvicidal (72% effects which reduce the emergence rate of adults to only 9%. LD50 and LD90 are monitored during crude extract fractionation to follow ovicidal and larvicidal compounds and to evaluate their efficacy during the isolation procedure. One fraction, mainly composed of two triterpenoid compounds has been identified as responsible of the ovicidal activity of S. hermonthica while the origin of the larvicidal activity hasn’t been identified.

  15. Essential Oils of Phoebe angustifolia Meisn., Machilus velutina Champ. ex Benth. and Neolitsea polycarpa Liou (Lauraceae from Vietnam #

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    Tran D. Thang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the leaves of Phoebe angustifolia Meisn, Machilus velutina Champ. ex Benth and Neolitsea polycarpa H. Liu., were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The major compound found in the oils of Phoebe angustifolia were n -hexacadecanoic acid (13.0%, spathulenol (17.0%, sabinene (6.0%, artemisia triene (5.1% and bicyclogermacrene (5.9%. Appreciable quantities of ( E -β-ocimene (9.5%, ( Z -β-ocimene (8.2%, germacrene D (6.8%, allo-ocimene (6.4%, α-phellandrene (5.9%, β-caryophyllene and bicyclogermacrene (ca 5.5% could be identified from Machilus velutina . However, we have identified ( E -β-ocimene (85.6% as the singly abundant constituent of Neolitsea polycarpa with significant amounts of limonene (6.5%. Apart from allo-ocimene (1.8% and spathulenol (1.1%, the other nineteen compounds were identified in amount less than 1%. This is the first comprehensive report on the volatile oils of the studied species.

  16. POTENCIAL FITOTÓXICO DE Pterodon polygalaeflorus BENTH (LEGUMINOSAE SOBRE Acanthospermum australe (LOEFL. O. KUNTZE E Senna occidentalis (L. LINK

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    VALDENIR JOSÉ BELINELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were synthesize and characterize the allelopatic activity of 6a,7bdi-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-oic acid derivatives, isolated from seeds of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth (Leguminosae. The compound characterization processes involve in infrared spectrometry (IR and hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR including experiments in double dimensions (COSY 1H 1H, HMQC and HMBC. Allellopathic effects were evaluated by bioassays, carried out at controlled 25 °C temperature and photoperiod (12h light/12h dark, during 72 hours. Sample concentrations of 1,0, 100,0 and 1000,0 mg.L-1 were tested. Senna occidentalis (fedegoso and Acanthospermum australe (carrapichinho were used as the target weed plants. Was observed that the allelopatic effect of the compounds increased as a function of the enhancement of concentration, thus showing a relation dose dependence. The N-ethyl-6a-acethoxy- 7b-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-amide and N,N-diethyl-6a-acethoxy-7b-hydroxyvouacapan 17b-amide were the derivatives that present the biggest inhibitory effect on seed germination and root growth of fedegoso and carrapichinho. Therefore, these compounds represent the most allelochemical potential against these weeds.

  17. Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth., the Amazonian “Tree of Youth” Prolongs Longevity and Enhances Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Herbenya Peixoto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The tree popularly known in Brazil as mulateiro or pau-mulato (Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth. K. Schum. is deeply embedded in the herbal medicine of the Amazon region. Different preparations of the bark are claimed to have anti-aging, antioxidant, antimicrobial, emollient, wound healing, hemostatic, contraceptive, stimulant, and anti-diabetic properties. The current study aims to provide the first step towards a science-based evidence of the beneficial effects of C. spruceanum in the promotion of longevity and in the modulation of age-related markers. For this investigation, we used the model system Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate in vivo antioxidant and anti-aging activity of a water extract from C. spruceanum. To chemically characterize the extract, HPLC MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry/MS analyses were performed. Five secondary metabolites were identified in the extract, namely gardenoside, 5-hydroxymorin, cyanidin, taxifolin, and 5-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin-7-glucoside. C. spruceanum extract was able to enhance stress resistance and to extend lifespan along with attenuation of aging-associated markers in C. elegans. The demonstrated bioactivities apparently depend on the DAF-16/FOXO pathway. The data might support the popular claims of mulateiro as the “tree of youth”, however more studies are needed to clarify its putative benefits to human health.

  18. 5-H¡droxi-2-Metil-1,4-Naftoquinona obtenida de Pera nítida (Benth. Jablonski(Euforbiaceae

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    Luis E. Cuca S.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto clorofórmico de la corteza del tronco de Pera nítida (Benth. Jablonski se aisló una sustancia amarilla que fue identificada como 5—hidro.x¡-2— metil —1,4—naftoquinona. Esta sustancia es conocida como plumbagina y ha mostrado una destacada acción biológica. La estructura fue deducida con base en los datos espectroscópicos y su presencia en esta especie tiene importancia quimiotaxonómica.

  19. Micorrizas arbusculares asociadas al pasto angleton (Dichathium aristatum Benth) en fincas ganaderas del municipio de Tolú, Sucre-Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez C, Alexander; Peroza C, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. El presente estudio consistió en caracterizar el porcentaje de colonización de hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares (HMA); asociados a la rizósfera del pasto Angleton (Dichanthium aristatum) Benth de fincas ganaderas del municipio de Tolú, departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se muestrearon en total 35 fincas ganaderas, de las cuales se tomaron 10 muestras de suelo con raíces por finca a una profundidad de 20 cm. De cada muestra se aislaron esporas d...

  20. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF FIVE FLAVONOIDS FROM POGOSTEMON CABLIN BENTH BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY AND PREPARATIVE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

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    Li, Kang; Zhang, Hongwu; Xie, Huichun; Liang, Yong; Wang, Xiaohong; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) were successively used for the separation of pogostone and four flavonoids from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. An efficient HSCCC separation was achieved on a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (11:5:11:5, v/v/v/v). Three well-separated peaks were obtained in the HSCCC chromatogram. The first and the second fractions each contained two ...

  1. Respuesta al estrés por limitación de nitrógeno de plántulas de castilleja tenuiflora benth. cultivadas in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes Morales, Jorge Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (Orobanchaceae), es una planta medicinal silvestre que sintetiza diversos compuestos químicos como feniletanoides e iridoides glicosilados y flavonoides. El perfil químico de los cultivos in vitro de C. tenuiflora varía dependiendo de factores bióticos y de factores abióticos como el nitrógeno. El objetivo general de este trabajo fue evaluar la respuesta al estrés por limitación de nitrógeno de plántulas de C. tenuiflora cultivadas in vitro. Se cult...

  2. Crescimento de mudas de angico-vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan sob diferentes doses de macronutrientes Growth of angico vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan seedlings under different macronutrient doses

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    Elzimar de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar, por meio de características morfológicas, o efeito de doses de macronutrientes no crescimento e desenvolvimento de mudas de angico- vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan produzidas em amostras de três classes de solo (Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico e Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. As mudas foram plantadas em vasos com capacidade para 2,1 dm³. O experimento foi conduzido no período de dezembro de 2004 a maio de 2005. Os tratamentos foram delimitados segundo uma matriz baconiana, em que se variaram os macronutrientes em três doses diferentes, mais dois tratamentos adicionais (zero e base, com quatro repetições. As fontes de N, K e S foram parceladas em quatro vezes (0-30-60-90 dias. Em termos gerais, o maior crescimento das plantas ocorreu no Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico. O nutriente que mais surtiu efeitos significativos foi o P, sendo recomendadas doses de 150 a 250 mg dm-3. Para a aplicação de N, recomendam-se doses mínimas de 50 mg/dm³. A aplicação de S deve ser de 20 a 80 mg dm-3. As respostas à aplicação dos demais nutrientes (Ca, Mg e K, em muitos casos, não ocorreu, evidenciando-se que a espécie tem baixo requerimento por eles. Entretanto, partindo desse estudo, sugerem-se novos estudos com os nutrientes K e Ca, para produção de mudas da referida espécie nesses solos.This work aimed to evaluate, by means of morphological characteristics, the effect of macronutrient doses on the growth of angico vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan seedlings cultivated in three soils (Red Yellow Argisol, Red Yellow Dystrophic Latosol and Red Yellow alic Latosol. The seedling were sown in vases with capacity of 2.1 dm³ . The experiment was carried out from December 2004 to June 2005. The treatments were delimited according to a Baconian matrix, with macronutrients varying in three different doses, plus two additional treatments

  3. Modelagem do volume do povoamento para Mimosa scabrella Benth. na regição metropolitana de Curitiba Stand volume modelling of Mimosa scabrella benth. from Curitiba metropolitan region

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    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar o volume total com casca do povoamento da bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.. Coletaram-se dados em bracatingais com regeneração induzida pelo fogo, em 14 municípios da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba (RMC, Estado do Paraná - Brasil. Utilizou-se uma base de dados constituída por 229 unidades amostrais de 100 a 400 m². Em cada parcela, mensurou-se o diâmetro à altura do peito, bem como a altura total de todas as árvores, em bracatingais de 3 a 18 anos de idade. Para a estimativa do volume total com casca, testaram-se vários modelos de regressão selecionados da literatura, o que gerou uma matriz com 58 variáveis independentes, visando construir modelos por meio do método Stepwise. As equações de melhor ajuste foram validadas utilizando-se o teste Qui-quadrado, a análise gráfica de resíduos e o erro-padrão da estimativa. Várias equações tiveram bom desempenho, apresentaram valores de coeficiente de determinação ajustados superiores a 0,995, erro-padrão da estimativa inferior a 3% e adequada distribuição de resíduos. As duas equações de melhor desempenho foram validadas, apresentando erro-padrão da estimativa de 2,37% e 2,13%, valor não-significativo para o teste do Qui-quadrado e equilibrada distribuição dos resíduos.The objective of this research was to model the stand volume outside bark of Mimosa scabrella Benth. stands, from the Curitiba Metropolitan Region (CMR, Parana State - Brazil. To reach this aim, a database of 229 permanent and temporary sample plots measuring from 100 to 400 m² each, from 14 municipalities in the CMR, was used. In each sample plot, the diameter at breast height and the total height of all 3- to 18-year-old bracatinga trees were measured. To estimate the total volume, regression models selected from the literature were tested. A set of 58 independent variables was generated also to construct models by the Stepwise method. The equations of best

  4. Lowering blood pressure effect of Apium graviolens (seledri and Orthosipleon stamineus benth (kumis kucing in mild and moderate hypertension

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    Siti Supari

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth have been used to as traditional medicines to lower blood pressure. Since at present time is avaiLable as a combination of those phytopharmaca in the market, therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to evaLtnte the ffictivity and side effects of those phytopharmaca toward hypertensive subjects. A randomized double blind conftolled trial was conducted at area of Monica - Jakarta in South of Jalarta from July-untiL 29 October 2001 toward mild and moderate hypertensive subjects. The first group (72 subjects received phytophanmaca (Tensigard® /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} which contains Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth 3 x 250 mg, whiLe the second grottp (70 subjects had Amlodipine I x 5 mg. Obseruation were conducted for 12 weelcs, and the parameter observed wère systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, plasma lipid, blood glucose before and after treatment, and electrolyte with nvo week intervals. The Resuhs revealed that the phytopharmaca treatment for 12 weel 0,05; DBP 10.00 t0.96 mmHg vs 9.49 t 1.37 ntmHg; P> 0.05. Phytopharmaca treatment for 12

  5. Serological and molecular studies of a novel virus isolate causing yellow mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS - PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78-82% and 91-95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV.

  6. Árvores de Baginha (Stryphnodendron guianense (Aubl. Benth. em Ecossistemas de Pastagens Cultivadas na Amazônia Ocidental

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    Andrade Carlos Mauricio Soares de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito de árvores isoladas de baginha (Stryphnodendron guianense (Aubl. Benth. sobre alguns aspectos do ecossistema de pastagens cultivadas na Amazônia Ocidental. Avaliaram-se, sob a copa das árvores e na área adjacente a pleno sol, a fertilidade do solo, a serapilheira, o teor de água no solo, a transmissão de luz ao pasto, a disponibilidade de forragem e as composições química e morfológica das gramíneas (mistura de Brachiaria decumbens e B. brizantha cv. Marandu. As árvores de baginha tiveram efeito positivo sobre a fertilidade do solo, notadamente com relação ao conteúdo de matéria orgânica e de nitrogênio, sendo a deposição de grande quantidade de serapilheira, rica em nitrogênio, a principal contribuição. A forragem sombreada apresentou maiores teores de N e K e menores de Ca, na fração folha verde, do que em áreas a pleno sol. As árvores de baginha apresentaram copa pouco densa, permitindo a transmissão de 27% da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa incidente ao meio-dia. A elevada cobertura do solo (superior a 85% e a boa disponibilidade de forragem sob a copa da baginha, juntamente com outros atributos, confirmam o potencial desta leguminosa para arborização de pastagens e como componente de outras modalidades de sistemas silvipastoris no trópico úmido.

  7. Rattle tree (Albizia lebbeck Benth. effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. productivity on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

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    Kareem Alasi Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the biotite-granite area (Alfisol of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, consisting of five cropping seasons to determine the effects of the tree rows (under alley cropping and green manure of Albizia lebbeck Benth. (rattle tree on the yield / productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. (Irish potato. The experiment was a randomized complete block design comprising five treatments and three replicates. An early maturing potato variety (Bertita was employed, its pre-sprouted tubers were planted in the alleys (spaces between the tree rows of A. lebbeck two weeks after green manure was applied (5 and 10 t ha-1, pre and post experimental soil sample analyses and cultivation operations were carried out. Results indicated that the rattle tree had profound effect on the potato growth parameters (plant height, leaf count, collar girth (at P < 0.01 and yield indices (tuber count (P < 0.05 and tuber weight (P < 0.01 due to nutrients from the green manure and nitrogen fixation activities of the rattle tree. A. lebbeck green manure application at 10 t ha-1 in the alleys of A. lebbeck hedgerows emerged as the most effective treatment in terms of growth performance and optimal yield. Collar girth and leaf count of the potato accounted for 80.4 - 91.3% of the variation in yield (R2 = 0.804 - 0.913 with collar girth having the highest value (R2 =0.910 in rainy season (rain fed cropping, while leaf count had the highest value (R2=0.913 during the dry season (irrigated cropping.

  8. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de Dioclea grandiflora Mart. ex. Benth., Fabaceae

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    Luiz Lúcio Soares da Silva

    Full Text Available A espécie Dioclea grandiflora Mart. ex. Benth., Fabaceae é uma planta que pertence à família Fabaceae, popularmente conhecida como mucunã-de-caroço e olho-de-boi, e, encontra-se distribuída nas regiões da caatinga e serrado do Brasil. Os extratos aquoso, etanólico e hidroalcoólico da casca do caule, da casca da raiz e da folha de D. grandiflora, nas concentrações de 313 µg/mL a 10.000 µg/mL, foram analisados por meio de técnica de difusão em ágar, frente a vinte microrganismos representantes de bactérias Gram positivas, Gram negativas, fungos filamentosos e leveduras. O extrato aquoso da casca do caule, na concentração de 10.000 µg/mL, inibiu o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureuscom halo de 20 mm. Já o extrato hidroalcoólico da casca do caule inibiu apenas S. aureuscom halo de 18 mm, enquanto o extrato da folha inibiu o crescimento de dois dermatófitos, Trichophyton mentagrophytese Microsporum canis. Por outro lado, o extrato hidroalcoólico da casca da raiz inibiu apenas M. caniscom halo de 15 mm de diâmetro. Das frações do extrato aquoso da folha, apenas acetato de etila inibiu o crescimento de Streptococcus epidermides, Candida albicans, T. metagrophytese M. canis.Para o extrato etanólico do caule, a fração aquosa inibiu S. epidermidese S. aureus.

  9. Reproductive Behavior and Inbreeding Depression in Endangered Eremostachys superba Royle ex Benth. (Labiatae in Dehra Dun Population, India

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    Arti Garg

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of reproductive behavior and inbreeding depression, if any, in critically endangered Eremostachys superba Royle ex Benth. (Labiatae was made to unveil the factors playing vital role in it’s reproductive biology and which may be responsible for the loss of fitness, viability and vigor of the species. Breeding experiments portrayed a failure of self-fertilization and a strong tendency towards out-breeding as seed set by xenogamy was highest (44.4%. However, the narrow restricted population of the type locality in Dehra Dun Siwaliks was just a ramet population sustained by clonal propagation of rhizomatous root stock, hence any out-crossing within these homozygous individuals also amounted to inbreeding. Further, there is no other population available within the range of normal seed dispersal mechanism or insect-pollinator-flight-range. The other populations reported are only from geographically distant region of Jammu and Kashmir state of India, which is too far a distance to be covered by the Nomia rustica West. and Ceratina heiroglyphica Sm., the oligophilic pollinators of E. superba, hence any crossing taking place also amounts to selfing in strict sense. Chances of induction of genetic variation by crossing between two different populations are remote. This was also supported by the data of seed production and germination experiments. Even the healthy seeds suffered from loss of fitness and failed to germinate under natural conditions. This strongly indicated prevalence of inbreeding depression and loss of fitness of the progeny right from the stage of germination, a phenomenon hazardous for sustenance and perpetuation of species leading to rarity.

  10. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Nuramirah; Mohd Said, Shahida; Zainal Abidin, Zamirah; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2017-12-05

    In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus mitis , Streptococcus salivarius , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum . Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)). Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively), and β-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively). Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1%) and eugenol (8.1%), while α-humulene (5.5%) and germacrene D (7.7%) were dominant in F. deltoidea . The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63-2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven strains

  11. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria

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    Nuramirah Azizan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC. Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively, and β-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively. Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1% and eugenol (8.1%, while α-humulene (5.5% and germacrene D (7.7% were dominant in F. deltoidea. The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63–2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven

  12. Cytotoxic activity of acyl phloroglucinols isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. cultivated in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Fathy M.; Fathy, Magda M.; Salama, Maha M.; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.; Saber, Fatema R.; El-Halawany, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Two acyl phloroglucinol compounds namely; Sideroxylonal B (1) and Macrocarpal A (2) were isolated from the Sideroxylonal-Rich Extract (SRE) of the juvenile leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea; F. Muell. ex Benth cultivated in Egypt. Identification of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of physico-chemical properties and spectral analysis (1D & 2D NMR). The two compounds were isolated for the first time from this species. The SRE alongside with the isolated compounds were tested against three human cancer cell lines; MCF7 (breast carcinoma cell line), HEP2 (laryngeal carcinoma), CaCo (colonic adenocarcinoma) and one type of normal human cell line;10 FS (fibroblast cells). The SRE, (1), and (2) showed cytotoxic activity with IC50 13.6 ± 0.62, 7.2 ± 0.5, 14.8 ± 0.55 μg mL−1 against HEP2 respectively, 11.6 ± 0.47, 4 ± 0.36, 11.4 ± 0.45 μg mL−1 against CaCo, respectively, and 8.6 ± 0.29, 4.4 ± 0.25, and 7.8 ± 0.3 μg mL−1 against MCF7, respectively. Meanwhile, the (SRE) together with (1) and (2) exhibited low cytotoxicity against normal cell line 10 FS, with IC50 55.4 ± 1.4, 43 ± 0.8 and 50.1 ± 1.12 μg mL−1, respectively. The antiprofilerative activity of the tested compounds was evaluated. The cell cycle profile of cells treated with Sideroxylonal-B and Macrocarpal-A indicates possible S-phase specific effects. PMID:24986654

  13. Estudo do sistema de reprodução da fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    A.D.R. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal do Cerrado brasileiro encontra-se a fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth com alto potencial econômico por possuir inúmeras potencialidades medicinais e fitoquímicas. A indústria extrai dos frutos os princípios ativos rutina, quercetina, e ramnose, dentre outros, usados na fabricação de medicamentos e cosméticos, principalmente no exterior. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo da espécie é fundamental para sua conservação e manejo. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar as características morfométricas das flores e caracterizar o sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis em área de Cerrado inalterada antropomorficamente, no município de Olhos D'água - MG. Para as características morfométricas, diâmetro da flor, comprimento da flor, do ovário, e da antera, foram utilizadas cinco flores em pré-antese. Para a determinação do sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, em 40 flores. As flores da D. mollis apresentaram comprimento da flor de 3,00 mm, diâmetro da flor de 2,00 mm, comprimento do óvulo de 2,60 mm, comprimento da antera de 1,57 mm, e o número de óvulos e de anteras foram 20 e 5,8, respectivamente. A razão P:O foi 765,030, sendo que esse índice não é afetado pelas características morfométricas. O sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis foi classificado como alógama facultativa.

  14. C15083. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-02-10

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9-94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1.7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into 3 groups and 2 subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6 to -32.4%, and from -2.5 to -64.4%, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Caracterización fenotípica y molecular de poblaciones de zacate punta blanca (Digitaria californica (Benth. Henr.

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    Carlos Raúl Morales Nieto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se exploró y caracterizó la diversidad fenotípica y genotípica de poblaciones del pasto punta blanca [Digitaria californica (Benth. Henr.], en pastizales de Chihuahua. Se realizó análisis de componentes principales y conglomerados. Se observaron diferencias significativas (P<0.05 entre variables, indicando alta diversidad fenotípica y molecular entre poblaciones. Los tres primeros componentes explicaron 79 % de la variación morfológica mostrada por los 91 ecotipos. Para el CP1, las variables que mejor explicaron la variabilidad morfológica fueron densidad de tallos, rendimiento de forraje y altura de forraje, las cuales se caracterizan por agrupar variables relacionadas con producción de forraje. Al analizar la correlación del CP1 con rendimiento de forraje, se observó que a medida que la densidad de tallos se incrementó, el rendimiento de forraje se incrementó casi en la misma proporción (r= 0.94. Efecto similar ocurrió sobre rendimiento de forraje con altura de forraje (r= 0.77, altura de planta (r= 0.72 y diámetro de macollo (r= 0.72. Los marcadores moleculares presentaron 179 bandas, donde el 86.6 % presentan polimorfismo y 13.7 % monomorfismo. El número de bandas polimórficas fue de 38, 38, 38 y 40 para las combinaciones de iniciadores EcoRI-AAG+MseI-CTG, EcoRI-ACT+MseI-CTG, EcoRI-AGG+MseI-CAG y EcoRI AAC+MseI-CAG, respectivamente. El dendograma presentó cuatro grupos. Los valores de similitud, muestran a los ecotipos PB-270 y PB-277 por un lado y PB-313 y PB-337 como los de mayor heterogeneidad genética, al presentar el valor más bajo de similitud (0.14. Se identificaron y seleccionaron los ecotipos 505 y 596 por su alto potencial forrajero de acuerdo a su variabilidad morfológica.

  16. Phytotoxic Effects of Nepeta meyeri Benth. Extracts and Essential Oil on Seed Germinations and Seedling Growths of Four Weed Species

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    Saban Kordali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Nepeta meyeri Benth. by hydrodistilation was analysed by GC and GC-MS methods. A total 18 components were identified in the oil representing 100.0% of the oil. Main components were 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (80.3%, 4aα,7α,7aα–nepetalactone (10.3%, trans-pulegol (3.1%, 1, 8-cineole (3.0% and β-bourbonene (2.0%. In addition, n-hexane extract of N. meyeri was analysed by using GC and GC-MS methods and 18 components were identified. Likewise, nepetalactones, 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (83.7%, 4aα,7α,7aα–nepetalactone (3.6%, 1, 8-cineole (1.9% and α-terpinene (1.5% were the predominat compounds in the hexane extract. Three concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/mL of the essential oil and n-hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts isolated from the aerial partsand roots were tested for the herbicidal effects on the germination of the seeds of four weed species including Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense L. and Sinapsis arvensis L. The essential oil of N. meyeri completely inhibited the germination of all weed seeds whereas the extracts showed various inhibition effects on the germination of the weed species. Herbicidal effect was increased with the increasing application concentrations of the extracts. In general, the acetone extract was found to be more effective as compared to the other extracts. All extracts also exhibited various inhibition effects on the seedling growths of the weed species. All extracts also tested for their phytotoxic effects on the weeds at greenhouse condition and the results showed that the oil and extracts caused mortality with 22.00-66.00% 48h after the treatments. These findings suggest that the essential oil and the extracts of N. meyeri have potentials for use as herbicides against those weed species.

  17. The inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) against Bothrops atrox envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Valéria Mourão; da Silva, Wania Cristina Rodrigues; Raposo, Juliana D A; Freitas-de-Sousa, Luciana A; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo Bezerra; Veras Mourão, Rosa Helena

    2016-05-13

    Ethnobotanical studies have shown that Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) has been widely used in cases of snake envenomation, particularly in Northern Brazil. In light of this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction obtained from the bark of P. reticulata against the main biological activities induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BaV). The chemical composition of the aqueous extract of P. reticulata (AEPr) was first investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the extract was then fractionated by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20. This yielded five main fractions (Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5), which were analyzed by colorimetry to determine their concentrations of total phenolics, total tannins and condensed tannins and to assess their potential for blocking the phospholipase activity of BaV. The Pr5 fraction was defined as the fraction rich in condensed tannins (CTPr), and its inhibitory potential against the activities of the venom was evaluated. CTPr was evaluated in different in vivo and in vitro experimental protocols. The in vivo protocols consisted of (1) pre-incubation (venom:CTPr, w/w), (2) pre-treatment (orally administered) and (3) post-treatment (orally administered) to evaluate the effect on the hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of BaV; in the in vitro protocol the effect on phospholipase and coagulant activity using pre-incubation in both tests was evaluated. There was statistically significant inhibition (p<0.05) of hemorrhagic activity by CTPr when the pre-incubation protocol was used [55% (1:5, w/w) and 74% (1:10, w/w)] and when pre-treatment with doses of 50 and 100mg/kg was used (19% and 13%, respectively). However, for the concentrations tested, there was no statistically significant inhibition in the group subjected to post-treatment administered orally. CTPr blocked 100% of phospholipase activity and 63.3% (1:10, w/w) of coagulant activity when it was pre

  18. Liver morphology and morphometry and plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats that received leaf infusion of Rudgea viburnoides Benth. (Rubiaceae

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    Juliana Castro Monteiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rudgea viburnoides leaves are widely used in popular Brazilian medicine as a diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive and blood depurative tea. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of this infusion on the liver and on the plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats. Two groups received the R. viburnoides leaf infusion at a daily dose of 10 or 20g dry-leaves/L water, during 40 days. The histopathological analysis did not show degenerated areas or infiltration of leucocytes. Hepatic morphometry showed accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes of the treated groups. There was no significant change in the plasma levels of urea, creatinin, uric acid, direct bilirubin, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, gamma glutamyl tranferase (gamma-GT, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, chlorine, phosphate and calcium. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of triacylglycerol (TAG occurred in the group that received the higher dose.As folhas de Rudgea viburnoides Benth. são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, anti-reumáticas, depurativas do sangue e em regimes de emagrecimento. O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas de R. viburnoides nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e na morfologia e morfometria hepática de ratos Wistar adultos. Dois grupos receberam a infusão das folhas, diariamente, nas dosagens de 10 e 20 g de folhas secas/L de água, durante 40 dias. O grupo controle recebeu a mesma quantidade de água. As análises histopatológicas não mostraram áreas degeneradas e infiltrados inflamatórios. A morfometria hepática mostrou acúmulo significativo de gordura nos hepatócitos dos animais tratados, principalmente no grupo que recebeu a maior dose da infusão (8,75% de gotículas lipídicas, comparado com 0,25% delas encontradas nos animais controles. Não foram observadas alterações nos níveis plasmáticos de uréia, creatinina,

  19. Estabelecimento e desenvolvimento de Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. em duas fitofisionomias típicas dos cerrados do Brasil Central Establishment and development of Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. in two typical savanna physiognomies of Central Brazil

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    Vívian S. Braz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available As formações savânicas do Brasil Central caracterizam-se por uma camada rasteira contínua, em que predominam gramíneas, entrecortada por uma camada de arbustos e árvores de densidade variável. Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. é uma leguminosa arbórea típica dos cerrados do Planalto Central. Este estudo examinou os efeitos da seca, disponibilidade de luz, herbivoria e fogo no estabelecimento e crescimento dessa espécie no campo sujo (estrato herbáceo contínuo com árvores e arbustos esparsos e no cerrado sensu stricto, onde a vegetação arbustivoarbórea é mais densa. Mudas foram transplantadas nas duas fitofisionomias, sendo acompanhadas mensalmente as variações na altura, produção de folhas e percentagem da área foliar removida por herbivoria, ao longo de cinco anos (1993-1998. A mortalidade ocorreu principalmente durante a época chuvosa. A seca sazonal não foi um importante fator de mortalidade. Número maior de mudas sobreviveu no campo sujo. Estas mudas não foram mortas por uma queimada ao final da seca de 1994, enquanto várias morreram no cerrado. O crescimento da parte aérea foi lento, em torno de 2,2cm/ano no campo sujo e 3,1cm/ano no cerrado, ocorrido principalmente na estação chuvosa. A maioria das mudas apresentou lesões necróticas de cor preta nas folhas, causada pelo ataque do fungo Phoma sp. A queda das folhas ocorreu durante a estação seca e o número máximo de folhas foi alcançado do meio para o final da época chuvosa, sempre seguido por um pico na herbivoria. Dados de disponibilidade de luz sugerem que plantas com folhas horizontais a 5cm do solo, atingiriam em média apenas 32% da capacidade máxima de assimilação de CO2, devido ao sombreamento. Entretanto, aumento da altura da planta de 5 para 50cm, onde não há mais sombreamento do estrato herbáceo, dobraria os valores estimados de assimilação de CO2 Assim sendo, o desenvolvimento desta espécie seria limitado pela disponibilidade de água e

  20. Emergence and initial development of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. seedlings for different substrates = Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. em função de diferentes substratos

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    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the effects of different substrates on the emergence and initial development of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth seedlings. For this purpose an experiment was done in a greenhouse of the Department of Plant Sciences of Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN. The statistical design was completely randomized (CRD, where treatments were composed of nine substrates (T1: vermiculite, T2: coconut fiber, T3: trade hortimix®, T4: vermiculite, coconut fiber and compost (1: 1:1, T5: coconut fiber and compost (1:1, T6: coconut fiber and compost (1:2,T7: vermiculite and compost (1:1, T8, vermiculite and compost organic (1:2 and T9: organic compost. All treatments were represented by four replications containing 25 seeds. The following variables were evaluated: emergency percentage, emergence rate index, length of shoot and root, stem diameter, dry leaves, stem, root and total leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio, and leaf weight ratio. Data were submitted to the Tukey test at 5% probability. The coconut fiber substrates, commercial hortimix® and vermiculite proved superior promoted good emergence and early development of seedlings. The mixture of vermiculite, coconut fiber and compost (1:1:1, coconut fiber and compost (1:1, coconut fiber and compost (1:2 and organic compost and vermiculite (1: 1 was not shown to be adequate for the cultivation of seedlings. There was no emergency in the pure organic compound in the mixture of compost and vermiculite (1:2.Key words - Vermiculite. Organic compost. Coconut fiber. Sabiá. Substrates. = Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN. O delineamento estat

  1. The Main Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd. Benth

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    Ji-Wen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum Linn.var. pilosum (Willd. Benth., an endemic medicinal plant growing in China, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Fifteen compounds, representing 74.19% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (29.68%, (Z-cinnamic acid methyl ester (21.49%, cyclohexene (4.41%, α- cadinol (3.99%, 2,4-diisopropenyl-1-methyl-1-vinylcyclohexane (2.27%, 3,5-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-dimethyl-diethyl ester (2.01%, β-cubebene (1.97%, guaia-1(10,11-diene (1.58%, cadinene (1.41% (E-cinnamic acid methyl ester (1.36% and β-guaiene (1.30%. The essential oils showed significant antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Indian Borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) Leaf Extracts in Food Systems and
Against Natural Microflora in Chicken Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2016-03-01

    The ability of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of a traditional Indian medicinal plant, Indian borage ( Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) to prevent spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and papaya) and natural microflora of chicken meat was evaluated. These extracts were able to reduce the bacterial counts in all food systems; however, the effective concentration varied with the complexity of the system (cabbagepapaya

  3. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial (against Staphylococcus aureus and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oil of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

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    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. was analyzed, for the first time, by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC-FID. A total yield of 3 mg of essential oil per100 g of plant dry mass was obtained, and 27 compounds were identified, representing 97. 7 % of total oil. The essential oil were characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes and phenolic derivatives. The main constituents were eugenol (53.8%, eugenol acetate (24.5%, b -caryophyllene (5.7%, caryophyllene oxide (6.4% and aromadendrene oxide II (2.1%. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against Staphylococcus aureus using the well diffusion method, and t he free-radical-scavenging activity was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  4. Verificação da atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    KETYLIN FERNANDA MIGLIATO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Compositae, falsobarbatimão, é utilizada topicamente como cicatrizante, adstringente e antimicrobiano. No presente estudo, verificou-se a atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de D. mollis (EGD em diferentes concentrações (8, 15 e 20% e em diferentes pHs (6 e 8. Foram preparadas cinco formulações (F de sabonete: F1 - triclosan (0,1%, F2 - EGD (8%, F3 - EGD (15%, F4 - EGD (20% e F5 - sem conservante. Cascas de D. mollis foram secas em estufa de ar circulante e pulverizadas. Os extratos brutos foram preparados por turbo-extração utilizando-se etanol. Após filtração, os extratos foram concentrados em evaporador rotatório, liofilizados e ressuspendidos em propilenoglicol para a obtenção do extrato glicólico. A atividade antibacteriana foi verificada pelo método de difusão em ágar, empregando cilindros em placa. Placas contendo Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli foram incubadas a 37ºC durante 24 horas. Após incubação, as leituras foram realizadas com paquímetro, observando-se o diâmetro do halo de inibição de crescimento bacteriano. Verificouse que o sabonete líquido contendo triclosan provocou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em ambos os pHs; já os sabonetes sem conservante e contendo EGD, independente da concentração e do pH empregados, não apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antibacteriana. Sabonete líquido. Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

  5. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Various Fertilizers (N, P, K Application on Morphological and Growth Characteristics of Salvia leriifolia Benth

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    Masoud Amini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salvia leriifolia Benth. (Nowruzak is a herbal plant from Lamiaceae family, which is exclusively native of Iran and Afghanistan. Existence of this species is reported in Khorasan and Semnan provinces of Iran. As extreme pressure of grazing and harvesting the nature has put this species at risk of extinction, and on the other hand this plant has numerous herbal values and its cultivation can produce the market needs as well as preserve it from extinction. Therefore its domestication is now a priority and optimized nutrition for cultivated plants is one of the important factors in quality and quantity enhancement of the product. The aim of this research was to study the effect of three main nutrient: nitrogen, Phosphor, and potassium (NPK on growth of Nowruzak and measure its morphological reactions to these elements in the poor soil of its habitat. Materials and methods To study the effect of different nutritious elements on quantitative properties of Nowruzak, a factorial experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications in the Research Field of Islamic Azad University of Gonabad in March 2014. In this experiment, nitrogen fertilizers in three levels (N1= control, N2=100 kg.ha-1 and N3=200 kg.ha-1 based on net nitrogen, Phosphor in three levels (0, 50 and100 kg.ha-1 based on P2O5 and potassium fertilizers in two levels (0- and 50 kg.ha-1 based on K2O were applied of farm to specify the effect of each elements and their reactions on quantitative growth properties of Nowruzak. Results and discussion Results show that the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on plant height, harvest index, cover crown diameter and number of fertile branches are significant at 1% level. In a way that levels of nitrogen fertilizer are placed in first, second and third group of Duncan multiple range test, respectively. The highest plant height with average of 41.97 cm is assigned to 200 kg net nitrogen

  7. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana dos extratos e frações orgânicas de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae

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    Marcelo José Dias Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae, conhecida popularmente como sabiá e cerva viva, é uma planta arbórea encontrada na caatinga nordestina brasileira, amplamente utilizada pela população na forma de infusões para o tratamento de feridas, bronquites e anti-inflamatório. Diante do exposto, os objetivos deste estudo, foram determinar as atividades antioxidantes e antimicrobianas do extrato etanólico das folhas (EHM, caules (EHL, cascas do caule (EHC, raízes (EHR e frações obtidas das folhas de M. caesalpiniifolia Benth. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada através do método de captação do radical DPPH, enquanto a atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, sobre leveduras, bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. A capacidade antioxidante mostrou que a fração acetato de etila (Fr-EtOAc foi diretamente proporcional ao teor de polifenóis totais com IC50 de 20,08 ± 0,10 µg/ mL e 721,29±0,60 mg de EAG (equivalentes de ácido gálico por g de extrato. Na atividade antimicrobiana, todos os extratos e frações exibiram atividade inibitória de crescimento frente aos micro-organismos microrganismos avaliados e em concentrações variando de 5 a 1000 μg/mL. A Fr-EtOAc apresentou valores promissores de inibição de crescimento frente a fungos, como Candida glabrata (ATCC 90030 e Candida krusei (ATCC 6258, com concentrações de 20 e 40 μg/mL, respectivamente. Estes resultados são importantes, pois são os primeiros a serem realizados com a espécie M. caesalpiniifolia.

  8. Synthesis of amide derivatives of 6{alpha},7{beta}-di-hydroxyvouacapan-17{beta}-oic acid isolated from the Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth fruits (leguminosae); Sintese de amidas derivadas do acido 6{alpha},7{beta}-di-hidroxivouacapan-17{beta}-oico isolado dos frutos de Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth (leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, A.L.; Belinelo, V.J.; Stefani, G.M.; Pilo-Veloso, D. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: dorila@dedalus.lcc.ufmg.br; Reis, G.T. [Universidade de Itauna, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias; Ferreira-Alves, D.L. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia

    2001-04-01

    Hydro-alcoholic infusions from fruits of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth, commonly known as 'Sucupira branca', are used in Brazilian folk medicine for rheumatic problems and throat infections. Since it has been verified that furanediterpene 6?,7?-di-hydroxyvouacapan-17?-oic acid (ADV), isolated from the hexane extract of these fruits presents anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and plant growth regulatory activity, a variety of ADV derivatives has been synthesized with the aim of obtaining more information about the structure-activity relationships of this series of compounds. In this work four new amide (4-7) derivatives of ADV have been synthesized. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data, including 2D-NMR methods. (author)

  9. Caracterización de la resistencia a la antracnosis causada por Glomerella cingulata y productividad de cinco genotipos de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth.

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    Juan Manuel López-Vásquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En la vereda Betania, municipio de Guática, Risaralda (Colombia a 2160 m.s.n.m., se evaluaron cinco materiales promisorios de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth. por su resistencia a la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides y por su alta productividad, los cuales fueron previamente seleccionados por el grupo de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Biotecnología de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Diez meses después del establecimiento las plantas fueron inoculadas con diferentes cepas del hongo a una concentración de 1.2 x 10(6 conidios/ml de agua. Las variables evaluadas fueron incidencia (presencia o ausencia de lesiones en tallo, severidad (según escala de 1 a 9 y rendimiento (kg/planta. Los genotipos se clasificaron en tres grupos según su resistencia al patógeno y por su rendimiento: el primero, lo conformaron UTP-8 y UTP-7, los cuales produjeron 21 y 17.6 t/ha, respectivamente; el segundo grupo estuvo formado por el genotipo UTP-1 el cual produjo 14.3 t/ha, y el tercero por UTP-2 y UTP-4 con 9.8 y 7.9 t/ha, respectivamente.

  10. The extraction of essential oil from patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin Benth) using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Putri, D. K.; Kusuma, H. S.; E Syahputra, M.; Parasandi, D.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    Patchouli plant (Pogostemon cablin Benth) is one of the important essential oil-producing plant, contributes more than 50% of total exports of Indonesia’s essential oil. However, the extraction of patchouli oil that has been done in Indonesia is generally still used conventional methods that require enormous amount of energy, high solvent usage, and long time of extraction. Therefore, in this study, patchouli oil extraction was carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Based on this research, it is known that the extraction of patchouli oil using microwave hydrodistillation method with longer extraction time (240 min) only produced patchouli oil’s yield 1.2 times greater than solvent-free microwave extraction method which require faster extraction time (120 min). Otherwise the analysis of electric consumption and the environmental impact, the solvent-free microwave extraction method showed a smaller amount when compared with microwave hydrodistillation method. It is conclude that the use of solvent-free microwave extraction method for patchouli oil extraction is suitably method as a new green technique.

  11. The Reserpine Production and Callus Growth of Indian Snake Root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L. Benth. Ex Kurz Culture by Addition of Cu2+

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    NUNUNG NURCAHYANI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study the effects of Cu2+ addition on the reserpine production and callus growth from in vitro culture indian snake root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L. Benth. Ex Kurz. This research frame work was based on the potency of snake root which was many exploited as anti-hypertension. The addition of elicitor Cu2+ in the form of CuCl2 would influence the ion transport of cell and changed of cytoplasm pH, and also has effects on synthesis and activity of enzymes which role in reserpine production and callus growth. The research was conducted in two steps, using Completely Randomized Design. The first step was the callus initiation to promote callus growth. Second step was the treatment to induce reserpine production. The callus was divided into five groups: 0; 5; 10; 20; 40; and 80 µM. Morphology, wet weight, dry weight, growth rate, and reserpine content of callus were determined after 15 treatment day. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and continued by DMRT 5%. The result showed that reserpine production increased in addition of 5 µM and 10 µM Cu2+ in callus culture of R. serpentina and reduced in addition of Cu2+ more than 10 µM. The callus growth significantly decreased by increasing concentration of Cu2+.

  12. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance

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    Mallappa Kumara Swamy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.

  13. Insecticidal activity of Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit essential oils as fumigant against storage grain insect Tribolium castaneum Herbst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya; Singh, Priyanka; Prakash, Bhanu; Dubey, N K

    2014-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit were extracted and tested against Tribolium castaneum Herbst, the storage grain insect. The EOs were found effective against Tribolium castaneum during in vitro as well as in vivo fumigant testing. The EOs of H. suaveolens and A. conyzoides showed 100 % mortality of test insect at 250 ppm while C. aromaticus at 350 ppm. During in vivo fumigant testing of wheat samples against Tribolium castaneum, the essential oils of A. conyzoides and C. aromaticus completely checked the damage of wheat grains by the insect at 1000 ppm while essential oil of H. suaveolens checked the grain damage completely even at 500 ppm concentration. There was no adverse effect on seed germination as well as on seedling growth of EOs treated seeds showing non-phytotoxic nature of the oils. Hence, these EOs may be recommended as botanical insecticide against insect invasion of stored food commodities, thereby enhancing their shelf life.

  14. Inhibition of Neurotoxic Secretory Phospholipases A2 Enzymatic, Edematogenic, and Myotoxic Activities by Harpalycin 2, an Isoflavone Isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth

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    Rafael M. Ximenes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2 exert proinflammatory actions through lipid mediators. These enzymes have been found to be elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of harpalycin 2 (Har2, an isoflavone isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth., in the enzymatic, edematogenic, and myotoxic activities of sPLA2 from Bothrops pirajai, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Apis mellifera, and Naja naja venoms. Har2 inhibits all sPLA2 tested. PrTX-III (B. pirajai venom was inhibited at about 58.7%, Cdt F15 (C. d. terrificus venom at 78.8%, Apis (from bee venom at 87.7%, and Naja (N. naja venom at 88.1%. Edema induced by exogenous sPLA2 administration performed in mice paws showed significant inhibition by Har2 at the initial step. In addition, Har2 also inhibited the myotoxic activity of these sPLA2s. In order to understand how Har2 interacts with these enzymes, docking calculations were made, indicating that the residues His48 and Asp49 in the active site of these enzymes interacted powerfully with Har2 through hydrogen bonds. These data pointed to a possible anti-inflammatory activity of Har2 through sPLA2 inhibition.

  15. Inhibition of Neurotoxic Secretory Phospholipases A(2) Enzymatic, Edematogenic, and Myotoxic Activities by Harpalycin 2, an Isoflavone Isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Rafael M; Rabello, Marcelo M; Araújo, Renata M; Silveira, Edilberto R; Fagundes, Fábio H R; Diz-Filho, Eduardo B S; Buzzo, Simone C; Soares, Veronica C G; Toyama, Daniela de O; Gaeta, Henrique H; Hernandes, Marcelo Z; Monteiro, Helena S A; Toyama, Marcos H

    2012-01-01

    Secretory phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)) exert proinflammatory actions through lipid mediators. These enzymes have been found to be elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of harpalycin 2 (Har2), an isoflavone isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth., in the enzymatic, edematogenic, and myotoxic activities of sPLA(2) from Bothrops pirajai, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Apis mellifera, and Naja naja venoms. Har2 inhibits all sPLA(2) tested. PrTX-III (B. pirajai venom) was inhibited at about 58.7%, Cdt F15 (C. d. terrificus venom) at 78.8%, Apis (from bee venom) at 87.7%, and Naja (N. naja venom) at 88.1%. Edema induced by exogenous sPLA(2) administration performed in mice paws showed significant inhibition by Har2 at the initial step. In addition, Har2 also inhibited the myotoxic activity of these sPLA(2)s. In order to understand how Har2 interacts with these enzymes, docking calculations were made, indicating that the residues His48 and Asp49 in the active site of these enzymes interacted powerfully with Har2 through hydrogen bonds. These data pointed to a possible anti-inflammatory activity of Har2 through sPLA(2) inhibition.

  16. Inhibition of Neurotoxic Secretory Phospholipases A2 Enzymatic, Edematogenic, and Myotoxic Activities by Harpalycin 2, an Isoflavone Isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Rafael M.; Rabello, Marcelo M.; Araújo, Renata M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Fagundes, Fábio H. R.; Diz-Filho, Eduardo B. S.; Buzzo, Simone C.; Soares, Veronica C. G.; Toyama, Daniela de O.; Gaeta, Henrique H.; Hernandes, Marcelo Z.; Monteiro, Helena S. A.; Toyama, Marcos H.

    2012-01-01

    Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) exert proinflammatory actions through lipid mediators. These enzymes have been found to be elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of harpalycin 2 (Har2), an isoflavone isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth., in the enzymatic, edematogenic, and myotoxic activities of sPLA2 from Bothrops pirajai, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Apis mellifera, and Naja naja venoms. Har2 inhibits all sPLA2 tested. PrTX-III (B. pirajai venom) was inhibited at about 58.7%, Cdt F15 (C. d. terrificus venom) at 78.8%, Apis (from bee venom) at 87.7%, and Naja (N. naja venom) at 88.1%. Edema induced by exogenous sPLA2 administration performed in mice paws showed significant inhibition by Har2 at the initial step. In addition, Har2 also inhibited the myotoxic activity of these sPLA2s. In order to understand how Har2 interacts with these enzymes, docking calculations were made, indicating that the residues His48 and Asp49 in the active site of these enzymes interacted powerfully with Har2 through hydrogen bonds. These data pointed to a possible anti-inflammatory activity of Har2 through sPLA2 inhibition. PMID:22899963

  17. Separation and purification of five phenylpropanoid glycosides from Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo by a macroporous resin column combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Hui-Lan; Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Mei, Li-Juan; Shao, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Five phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), forsythoside B, verbascoside, alyssonoside, isoverbascoside, and leucosceptoside B, were isolated and purified from Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with macroporous resin (MR) column separation. In the present study, the two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (13:3:10, v/v/v) was used for HSCCC separation. A total of 27 mg of forsythoside B, 41 mg of verbascoside, 29 mg of alyssonoside, 23 mg of isoverbascoside, and 13 mg of leucosceptoside B with purities of 97.7, 99.2, 99.5, 99.3, and 97.3%, respectively, were obtained in a one-step separation within 4 h from 150 mg of crude extract. The recoveries of the five PhGs after MR-HSCCC separation were 74.5, 76.5, 72.5, 76.4, and 77.0%, respectively. The chemical structures of all five compounds were identified by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF FIVE FLAVONOIDS FROM POGOSTEMON CABLIN BENTH BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY AND PREPARATIVE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Zhang, Hongwu; Xie, Huichun; Wang, Xiaohong; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) were successively used for the separation of pogostone and four flavonoids from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. An efficient HSCCC separation was achieved on a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (11:5:11:5, v/v/v/v). Three well-separated peaks were obtained in the HSCCC chromatogram. The first and the second fractions each contained two flavonoids which were further separated by preparative HPLC. Consequently, the separation yielded 11.5 mg of 4′, 5-Dihydroxy-3′, 7-dimethoxyflavanone at a purity of 99%, 20.3 mg of 5- Hydroxy-7, 3′, 4′-trimethoxyflavanone at a purity of 98%, 18 mg of 5, 4′-Dihydroxy-3, 7, 3′-trimethoxyflavone at a purity of 96%, and 8 mg of 5-Hydroxy-3, 7, 4′-tetramethoxyflvone at a purity of 98%. The third HSCCC fraction yielded 18.5 mg of pogostone at a purity of 95%. The chemical structures of these compounds were identified by ESI-MSn, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR PMID:21949473

  19. Primeros ensayos para el cultivo y caracterización del aceite esencial de Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. para el Pacífico colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tulio González Mina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. es una planta silvestre de humedales de la que no hay antecedentes de su cultivo o domesticación. El presente trabajo intenta obtener resultados preliminares para su reproducción en condiciones experimentales de siembras simulando su entorno natural contrastada con siembras en materas. Como se ha reportado previamente interés por esta especie como fuente de aceites esenciales ricos en timol, sustancia valiosa de uso industrial y medicinal, se analiza la composición cromatográfica de los volátiles para una población local. Se enuncia un nuevo quimiotipo para el aceite esencial de C. scoparioides procedente de los humedales del Pacífico colombiano. Se presentan los resultados de los ensayos sobre la reproducción vegetativa y por semillas de la especie en cuestión, aunque los resultados reproductivos indican un limitado potencial agrícola para esta especie.

  20. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2015-05-12

    Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.

  1. Anatomia das raízes de Bacopa salzmanii (Benth. Wettst. Ex Edwall e Bacopa Monnierioides (Cham. Robinson (Scrophulariaceae em ambientes aquático e terrestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bona Cleusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho enfoca a anatomia das raízes de Bacopa salzmanii (Benth. Wettst. Ex Edwall e B. monnierioides (Cham. Robinson e suas adaptações aos ambientes aquático e terrestre. Foram analisadas raízes adventícias das duas espécies, coletadas no Município de Bonito e no Pantanal do Mato Grosso do Sul. As análises foram feitas do ápice à base da raiz, enfatizando a origem e desenvolvimento dos tecidos. O meristema apical apresenta a mesma estrutura nas duas espécies e não sofre alterações marcantes com a mudança do ambiente. Todos os tecidos se originam de três camadas distintas, na região do promeristema. A endoderme jovem é meristemática e dá origem ao córtex. O aerênquima é abundante e os septos podem conter espessamento em fi. A exoderme é unisseriada e composta por células curtas e longas. A coifa das duas espécies é pouco desenvolvida e apresenta estrutura semelhante nos dois ambientes.

  2. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Al-Huqail, A A; Shah, M A

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR).

  3. Inhibitory Effect of the Hexane Fraction of the Ethanolic Extract of the Fruits of Pterodon pubescens Benth in Acute and Chronic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Hoscheid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Pterodon pubescens Benth have been used traditionally for the treatment of rheumatism, sore throat, and respiratory disorders, and also as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, depurative, tonic, and hypoglycemic agent. The study was aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane fraction of an ethanolic extract of P. pubescens fruits. The oil from P. pubescens fruits was extracted with ethanol and partitioned with hexane. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured with increasing doses of the hexane fraction (FHPp by using a carrageenan-induced rat model of pleurisy and a rat model of complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis by using an FHPp dose of 250 mg/kg for 21 days. Treatment with an FHPp resulted in anti-inflammatory activity in both models. The results of biochemical, hematological, and histological analyses indicated a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels (18.32%, 34.20%, and 41.70%, resp. and reduction in the numbers of total leukocytes and mononuclear cells. The FHPp dose of 1000 mg/kg induced no changes in behavioral parameters, and no animal died. The results of this study extend the findings of previous reports that have shown that administration of extracts and fractions obtained from species of the genus Pterodon exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and lacks toxicity.

  4. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth. Malme. (Fabaceae in the Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAIO C.C. MISSAGIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth. Malme. (Fabaceae, endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337. Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened.

  5. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened.

  6. Enhancement of anti-candidal activity of endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. ED2, isolated from Orthosiphon stamineus Benth, by incorporation of host plant extract in culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenn, Tong Woei; Lee, Chong Chai; Ibrahim, Darah; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of host extract in the culture medium on anti-candidal activity of Phomopsis sp. ED2, previously isolated from the medicinal herb Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. Interestingly, upon addition of aqueous host extract to the culture medium, the ethyl acetate extract prepared from fermentative broth exhibited moderate anti-candidal activity in a disc diffusion assay. The minimal inhibitory concentration of this extract was 62.5 μg/ml and it only exhibited fungistatic activity against C. albicans. In the time-kill study, a 50% growth reduction of C. albicans was observed at 31.4 h for extract from the culture incorporating host extract. In the bioautography assay, only one single spot (Rf 0.59) developed from the extract exhibited anti-candidal activity. A spot with the a similar Rf was not detected for the crude extract from YES broth without host extract. This indicated that the terpenoid anti-candidal compound was only produced when the host extract was introduced into the medium. The study concluded that the incorporation of aqueous extract of the host plant into the culture medium significantly enhanced the anti-candidal activity of Phomopsis sp. ED2.

  7. Evaluación del desarrollo de Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Guapacha, Cristiam Camilo; Mesa, Jhon Jairo; Patiño, Andrés Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    En el Municipio de Quinchía, Departamento de Risaralda (Colombia), se evaluó el desarrollo de los tutores vivos Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth), también la incidencia de Peronospora sparsa y Oidium sp en plantas de mora asociadas a estos sistemas agroforestales. Se utilizo un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones cada uno. Los resultados indican que Erythrina edulis es el tutor con mejor adapta...

  8. Influencia da intensidade luminosa e do substrato no crescimento, no conteudo de clorofila e na fotossintese de Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. Subsp. canjerana, Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. e centrolobium robustum (Vell.) Mart. Ex Benth., na fase ju

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Paulo Ernani Ramalho, 1946-

    2013-01-01

    Visando estudar a auto-ecologia de três espécies florestais brasileiras; Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. subsp. canjerana (canjarana); Callophyllum brasiliense Camb. (guanandi) e Centrolobium robustum (VelI.) Mart. ex Benth. (araribá-rosa), estudou-se o comportamento na fase juvenil de mudas envasadas em dois substratos (Colombo e Santa Helena) e sob intensidades luminosas de 10%, 30%, 50% e 100%. Para todas as espécies, foram estudados vários parâmetros ecofisiológicos: altura, diâmetro do ...

  9. Dynamics of litter production and decomposition of araribá (Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth. _ Fabaceae) in a riparian forest, Jacaré-Pepira river, São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Aidar, Marcos P.M.; Joly, Carlos A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted in a remaining riparian forest (42 ha) in the Jacaré-Pepira river, where Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth., an early secondary and deciduous species, is the most important tree in the seasonal semideciduous forest. C. tomentosum's litter production reached 4.2 kg.ind-1, with two peaks of leaf shedding (January/February _ 25.1% and July/August _ 52.3%) representing an input to soil surface of (g.ind.¹ year¹): 74.7 N; 6.1 P; 29.0 K; 73.9 Ca; 25.8 Mg and 14.1 S. L...

  10. Análise química por CG-EM e toxicidade do óleo essencial de Ocimumselloi Benth. e estragol para Spodoptera frugiperda e Zabrotes subfasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Claubert Wagner Guimarães de

    2015-01-01

    A espécie Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae) possui constituintes químicos em seu óleo essencial com ação inseticida. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito inseticida por ingestão e por fumigação do óleo essencial de O. selloie do estragol sobre Spodoptera frugiperda(Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)eo efeito por fumigação do óleo essencial sobreZabrotes subfasciatus(Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). No primeiro experimento, larvas de 48 horas d...

  11. A planta facilitadora Trischidium molle (Benth.) H. E. Ireland (Leguminosae) e sua relação com a comunidade de plantas em ambiente semi-árido no Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Meiado, Marcos Vinícius

    2008-01-01

    A interação entre os arbustos de Trischidium molle (Benth.) H. E. Ireland (Leguminosae) e a comunidade de plantas em ambiente semi-árido foi avaliada para responder as seguintes questões: (1) Os fatores abióticos diferem sob a copa dos arbustos quando comparado com os locais abertos? (2) A disponibilidade de recurso é maior sob a copa dos arbustos do que nos locais abertos? (3) Os arbustos de T. molle promovem a facilitação intra-específica em ambientes semi-áridos? (4) Os efei...

  12. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase as anti-inflammatory mode of action of Plectranthus zeylanicus Benth and chemical characterization of ingredients by a mass spectrometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napagoda, Mayuri; Gerstmeier, Jana; Wesely, Sandra; Popella, Sven; Lorenz, Sybille; Scheubert, Kerstin; Svatoš, Aleš; Werz, Oliver

    2014-02-03

    The perennial herb Plectranthus zeylanicus Benth is extensively used in traditional medicine in Sri Lanka and South India for treating inflammatory conditions, but pharmacological features of Plectranthus zeylanicus are hardly explored in order to understand and rationalize its use in ethnomedicine. As 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is a key enzyme in inflammatory disorders such as asthma or atherosclerosis, we investigated 5-LO inhibition by Plectranthus zeylanicus extracts and analyzed relevant constituents. We applied cell-free and cell-based assays to investigate suppression of 5-LO activity. Cell viability, radical scavenger activities, and inhibition of reactive oxygen species formation (ROS) in neutrophils were analysed to exclude unspecific cytotoxic or antioxidant effects. Constituents of the extracts were characterized by bioassay-guided fractionation and by analysis using gas or liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric (Orbitrap) analysis. Extracts of Plectranthus zeylanicus prepared with n-hexane or dichloromethane potently suppressed 5-LO activity in stimulated human neutrophils (IC50=6.6 and 12µg/ml, respectively) and inhibited isolated human recombinant 5-LO (IC50=0.7 and 1.2µg/ml, respectively). In contrast, no significant radical scavenging activity or suppression of ROS formation was observed, and neutrophil viability was unaffected. Besides ubiquitously occurring ingredients, coleone P, cinncassiol A and C, and callistric acid were identified as constituents in the most active fraction. Together, potent inhibition of 5-LO activity, without concomitant anti-oxidant activity and cytotoxic effects, rationalizes the ethnopharmacological use of Plectranthus zeylanicus as anti-inflammatory remedy. Modern chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis reveals discrete chemical structures of relevant constituents. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and its Major Terpenes of Satureja macrostema (Moc. and Sessé ex Benth.) Briq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Rafael; García-Rodríguez, Yolanda Magdalena; Ríos-Chávez, Patricia; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; López-Meza, Joel Edmundo; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Garciglia, Rafael Salgado

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Satureja macrostema (Moc. and Sessé ex Benth.) Briq. (Lamiaceae) essential oil, a Mexican medicinal plant known as nurite. Fresh aerial parts of S. macrostema plants cultivated in greenhouse for 3 months were subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus to obtain essential oil. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry. Antioxidant effectiveness of essential oil and its major terpenes of S. macrostema was examined by three different radical scavenging methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The concentrations tested were 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/mL. The major volatile compounds were caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, menthone, and thymol. S. macrostema essential oil showed the highest free radical scavenging activity with DPPH and ABTS methods (53.10% and 92.12%, respectively) at 1 mg/mL and 98% with TAC method at 0.1 mg/mL. Thymol exerted the highest antioxidant capacity with 0.1 mg/mL, reaching 83.38%, 96.96%, and 98.57% by DPPH, ABTS, and TAC methods. Caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, and menthone exhibited an antioxidant capacity essential oil of S. macrostema and thymol showed a free radical scavenging activity close to that of the synthetic butylated hydroxytoluene. The major volatile compounds of essential oil of Satureja macrostema were caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, menthone and thymolThe essential oil of S. macrostema showed a high free radical scavengingThymol exerted the highest antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS and TAC methods. Abbreviations used: GC: Gas Chromatography; DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid; TAC: Total antioxidant capacity.

  14. Effects of Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. and Bauhinia candicans Benth infusions on onion root-tip and rat bone-marrow cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjori Leiva Camparoto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are widely used to treat various diseases, and in Brazil the plants Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. and Bauhinia candicans Benth are commonly used in popular medicine. However, there are a large number of compounds in plants which can produce alterations in genetic material, and this study was conducted to investigate any possible mutagenic and cytotoxic effects that M. ilicifolia and B. candicans infusions may have on the cell cycle and chromosomes. Infusions were prepared with in natura leaves to give two concentrations of infusions, one at the concentration normally used by the population in general and the other at 10 times this value (i.e. 3.5 and 35 mg/mL for M. ilicifolia and 0.465 and 4.65 mg/mL for B. candicans. Onion (Allium cepa L. root-tip cells (RTC and Wistar rat bone-marrow cells (BMC were used as test systems in in vivo assays. The M. ilicifolia infusions at both concentrations, and the B. candicans infusion at the lower concentration, had no statistically significant depressive mitotic effect on RTC. A statistically significant depressive mitotic effect on RTC was found with the more concentrated (4.65 mg/mL B. candicans infusion as compared with a negative control. In BMC, infusions of B. candicans and M. ilicifolia produced no statistically significant increase in the number of chromosome alterations or rates of cell division as compared to controls. The significance of these findings are discussed in the light of the use of these plants as therapeutic agents.

  15. CRESCIMENTO E QUALIDADE DE MUDAS DE VINHÁTICO (Platymenia foliolosa Benth. EM RESPOSTA À ADUBAÇÃO COM POTÁSSIO E ENXOFRE

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    Marcie Lelis Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of potassium and sulfur on growth and quality of seedlings of Platymenia foliolosa Benth. (vinhático, determining the best dose of these nutrients. An experiment was conducted using pots made of rigid polyethylene with a capacity of 1,5 dm³ and a red and yellow Latosol as the substrate. Seven doses of potassium were used as substrates (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/dm³ combined with five levels of sulfur (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/dm³, which were applied in four applications: 0, 30, 60 and 90 days after the first thinning. After 150 days of sowing collected data of height, collar diameter, aerial part dry weight and root, and the relationships height/collar diameter, height/ aerial part dry weight, aerial part dry weight/root dry weight and Dickson quality index (IQD. The addition of increasing doses of potassium to the substrate show significant (quadratic for all variables, except for the ratio of aerial part height/collar diameter, the levels of sulfur showed no significant response to any of the characteristics evaluated in this experiment. There was an interaction between K and S to height of the aerial part in ‘vinhático’ seedlings at 150 days after sowing. Based on these results, we recommend for seedlings of ‘vinhático’ (Platymenia foliolosa application of 175 mg / dm³ K and 45 mg/dm³ S parceled out evenly in four times at 0, 30th, 60th and 90 days after first thinning.

  16. CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOMÉTRICA DE SEMENTES E PLÂNTULAS E GERMINAÇÃO DE Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan

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    Silvia Sanielle Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan is a tree species belonging to the family Leguminosae- Mimosoideae which is popularly known as mimosa-black. It features characteristics of early successional, natural occurrence in Brazil and can form clusters almost homogeneous, with great potentialin the recovery of degraded areas. This study was conducted at the Center for Agricultural Sciences,University Federal of Alagoas state, aiming at the physical and morphological characterization of seeds, describing the various stages of post-seminal development, and to evaluate various conditions of temperature and substrate toperform the test germination. The seeds were manually extracted, then homogenized, where two samplesof 50 seeds were used to determine the initial moisture. Another sample, consisting of eightrepetitions of 100 seeds was used to measure the biometry and the number of seeds per fruit. Themorphological characterization and the seeds were immersed in distilled water to allow the cuts to the observed structure in microscopes. In the post-seminal study, it was observed the daily processes of seedling growth in rolledpaper filter and constant temperature of 30 °C. To assess the germination behavior,theconstant temperatures of 15 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C and 20-30 °C as well as the paper and the sand substrateswere tested and it was evaluated the percentage, the rate of germination, the relative frequencydistribution, and the testsconducted in a randomized design in factorial 5 x 2 (x substrate temperature with four replicates of 25 seeds,and the averages compared by Duncan 5 % probability. The fruits of black angico show great variation in the seed number per fruit. The embryonic axis occupies part of the central region of the seed with axial andlinear positions. The germination is epigeal and the seedlings are fanerocotylar. The temperature determinesthe 30 °C and the filter paper substrate provided higher average percentage and

  17. Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.

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    Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2012-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 μM Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 μM activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes.

  18. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  19. The effects of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.) pollen grains.

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    Padilla, Flavio; Soria, Norman; Oleas, Abrahan; Rueda, Darwin; Manjunatha, Bangeppagari; Kundapur, Rajesh R; Maddela, Naga Raju; Rajeswari, Bugude

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of application of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of pollen grains of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.). The study was performed at Patate, Tungurahua province, Ecuador and was divided into two phases. Phase one dedicated to the study of morphology, viability, and identification of nutrient solution for better germination of pollen grains and phase two for the analysis of the effect of conventional, organic, and biological pesticides on pollen grain germination and pollen tube length. To study pollen morphology, pollens were extracted by hand pressure and was analyzed by optical and electron microscopy. The viable pollen grains were identified by staining with 1% acetocarmine. Even though Tree tomato and Blackberry pollen grains are morphologically similar, their exine shapes differ. We observed four times increase in pollen germination rate when suspended in nutrient solution (Sucrose with Boric acid) than control (water). Pollen grains under nutrient solution were subjected to different groups of pesticides for the period of 2, 4, and 6 h. With respect to pesticide affect, the Blackberry pollen grain germination followed the following order: Lecaniceb > Beauveb > Metazeb => Myceb > Control. However, the effect on Tree tomato pollen grains was as follows: Lecaniceb > Myceb > Cantus > Bacillus thuringiensis > Kripton > Control. As per as pollen grain germination is concerned, we observed that the chemical pesticides are more harmful than other pesticides. So, it is necessary to perform screening test for different pesticides and their effect on pollen grain germination before applying to the fields.

  20. Direct effects of soil amendments on field emergence and growth of the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

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    Newingham, B.A.; Belnap, J.

    2006-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. is a non-native, annual grass that has invaded western North America. In SE Utah, B. tectorum generally occurs in grasslands dominated by the native perennial grass, Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth. and rarely where the natives Stipa hymenoides Roem. and Schult. and S. comata Trin. & Rupr. are dominant. This patchy invasion is likely due to differences in soil chemistry. Previous laboratory experiments investigated using soil amendments that would allow B. tectorum to germinate but would reduce B. tectorum emergence without affecting H. jamesii. For this study we selected the most successful treatments (CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl and zeolite) from a previous laboratory study and applied them in the field in two different years at B. tectorum-dominated field sites. All amendments except the lowest level of CaCl2 and zeolite negatively affected B. tectorum emergence and/or biomass. No amendments negatively affected the biomass of H. jamesii but NaCl reduced emergence. Amendment effectiveness depended on year of application and the length of time since application. The medium concentration of zeolite had the strongest negative effect on B. tectorum with little effect on H. jamesii. We conducted a laboratory experiment to determine why zeolite was effective and found it released large amounts of Na+, adsorbed Ca2+, and increased Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, exchangeable Mg2+, exchangeable K, and NH 4+ in the soil. Our results suggest several possible amendments to control B. tectorum. However, variability in effectiveness due to abiotic factors such as precipitation and soil type must be accounted for when establishing management plans. ?? Springer 2006.

  1. Validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the standardisation of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, commercial extracts Validação de método de cromatografia líquida de alta performance para padronização de extratos comerciais de Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae

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    Renata Colombo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularly known as marapuama or muirapuama or miriantã, is a species native to the Amazonian region of Brazil. Extracts of the bark of the plant have been used traditionally for its stimulating and aphrodisiac properties and currently commercialised by the herbal industry as constituents in a wide range of phytomedicines. Fractionation by open column chromatography followed by preparative HPLC-UV/PAD of the stem bark and of three commercial extracts of P. olacoides allowed the isolation of three components that were common to all extracts analysed, and these were identified by NMR to be vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid and theobromine. Vanillic acid, which has been proposed as a phytochemical marker for P. olacoides, was employed as an external standard in the development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative HPLC assay for the analyte. The recoveries values of the developed method were 99.02% and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.033 and 0.11 mg.L-1, respectively. The described method may be applied to the standardisation of herbs, extracts or phytomedicines commercialised as marapuama.Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularmente conhecida como marapuama, muirapuama ou miriantã, é uma espécie nativa da região da Amazônia do Brasil. Extratos das cascas da planta são tradicionalmente usados por suas propriedades estimulantes e afrodisíacas, e frequentemente comercializados como constituinte de uma grande variedade de formulações fitoterápicas. O fracionamento por coluna cromatográfica aberta seguida por CLAE-UV/PAD das cascas do caule de três extratos comerciais de P. olacoides permitiram o isolamento de três substâncias comuns em todos os extratos analisados. Os compostos foram identificados por RMN como ácido vanílico, ácido protocatecuíco e teobromina. O ácido vanílico foi utilizado como marcador fitoquímico para P. olacoides e empregado como padr

  2. Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação das sementes e crescimento das plântulas de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae Mobilization of the reserves during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nas reservas de carbiodratos, lipídios e proteínas foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS, por meio de testes bioquímicos nos cotilédones das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que os lipídios constituem o principal composto de reserva nos cotilédones, contribuindo com cerca de 50% de massa seca. Carboidratos solúveis representaram 32%, as proteínas solúveis 7,7% e o amido 6,8% de massa seca dos cotilédones. Os lipídios sofreram marcante decréscimo entre 5 e 10 dias após a semeadura, período em que se observou elevada taxa de crescimento das plântulas. Carboidratos e proteínas solúveis exibiram tendência gradativa de queda, enquanto no amido, isso quase não foi detectado. A redução do peso de massa seca dos cotilédones foi bem correlacionada com o aumento da biomassa da plântula.This work aimed at studying the mobilization seed reserves during germination and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. The variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein reserves were analyzed from the pre-sprouting period (0 to 5 days after sowing -DAS to the total senescence and abscission of seeds. The results showed that lipids constitute the main reserve compound in the cotyledon, contributing with almost 50 % of its dry mass weight. Soluble carbohydrates represent 32 %, the soluble proteins 7.7 % and starch 6.8 % of the dry mass weight of cotyledons. Lipids showed a marked decrease between 5 and 10 days after sowing, period of a high seedling growth rate. Carbohydrates and soluble proteins showed a gradual tendency to decrease, while starch was almost non-detectable. The reduction in cotyledon dry mass of weight

  3. Alterações fisiológicas em sementes de Tachigalia multijuga (Benth. (mamoneira relacionadas aos métodos para a superação da dormência Physiological modifications of Tachigalia multijuga (Benth. (mamoneira seeds related to dormacy overcoming methods

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    Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e Borges

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as alterações fisiológicas causadas por métodos de quebra da dormência em sementes de Tachigalia multijuga (Benth provenientes de três matrizes. Compararam-se os efeitos do ácido sulfúrico, da água fervente e do desponte na porcentagem de embebição, na porcentagem e velocidade de germinação, na atividade de alfagalactosidase e betamananase, na síntese de proteína e na alteração da membrana que recobre o embrião. Não houve germinação em sementes tratadas com água quente. Todos os tratamentos resultaram em porcentagem de germinação superior (PThis work aimed to study the effects of methods to overcome the dormancy of Tachigalia multijuga (Benth seeds. It was compared the effects of the sulfuric acid, of the boiling water and of the it blunts in the imbibition percentage, in the percentage and speed of germination, in the activity of alpha galactosidase and beta mananase, in the protein synthesis and in the alteration in the membrane that recovers the embryo. There was no germination in seeds treated with hot water. All the treatments resulted in germination percentage superior (P<0.05 to the control, except for the seeds of Cachoeira, where the treatment with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes was the same. On the other hand, the speed of germination of the control was only different (P<0.05 from all the treatments in seeds of Araponga 2. The water percentage of the seeds treated with hot water by 60 seconds went the same to those of the control and different (P<0.05 from the treated with hot water by 30 minutes and by acid for 20 minutes. The activities of the enzymes and proteins content during the germination were different (P<0.05 among the treatments with water and acid. It is discussed the alterations of the membrane sugars content that recovers the embryo seeds.

  4. Demonstration of biological activities of extracts from Isodon rugosus Wall. Ex Benth: Separation and identification of bioactive phytoconstituents by GC-MS analysis in the ethyl acetate extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Anwar; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Sadiq, Abdul

    2017-05-30

    Since long, natural sources have been explored for possible managements of various diseases. In this context, the study is designed to evaluate Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth for biological potentials including antibacterial, anthelmintic, insecticidal, anti-termites and anti-Pharaoh activities followed by GC-MS analysis of active fraction to identify various bioactive compounds. I. rugosus was investigated against eight bacterial strains using well diffusion method and microdilution method with ceftriaxone as positive control. Similarly, the insecticidal activity was carried out against Tribolium castaneum, Rhyzopertha dominica, Monomorium pharaonis and Heterotermis indicola following contact toxicity method. Likewise, anthelmintic activity was performed against Ascaridia galli and Pherethima posthuma using albendazole as positive control, in which the paralysis and death times of the worms were observed. The GC-MS analysis of the most active solvent fraction was performed for identifications of various bioactive compounds. Among the tested samples of I. rugosus, flavonoids and ethyl acetate fraction exhibited high antibacterial activities. The crude saponins showed highest anthelmintic activity against Pherethima posthuma and Ascaridia galli with death times of 27.67 and 29.22 min respectively at concentrations of 40 mg/ml. In insecticidal activity, chloroform fraction and saponins exhibited notable results against R. dominica (60 and 70%) and T. castaneum (70 and 76%) at concentration of 200 mg/ml. In anti-termite assay, all the plant samples showed overwhelming results, i.e. all the 25 termites were killed on the 3rd day. Similarly, in anti-Pharaoh activity, the chloroform, ethyl acetate and saponins fractions were most potent, each exhibiting LD 50 of ethyl linolate, cyclohexanone, hinokione, methyl palmitate, ethyl palmitate and stigmasterol acetate. Based on our current results, it can be concluded that I. rugosus possess strong antibacterial, insecticidal

  5. Comparison of the susceptibility of two hardwood species, Mimosa scabrella Benth and Eucalyptus viminalis labill, to steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis

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    L. P. Ramos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion of two hardwood species was carried out with and without addition of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 0.5%, p/v as a pretreatment catalyst. In general, wood chips of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill were shown to be more amenable to pretreatment than chips derived from bolds of Mimosa scabrella Benth (bracatinga. This was apparent from all pretreatment parameters tested including the overall recovery yields of pretreated fractions, carbohydrates (pentoses and hexoses recovered as water-solubles, yield of dehydration by-products and lignin susceptibility to acid hydrolysis. There was no evidence for complete deacetylation of both wood species during pretreatment and lignin appeared to undergo extensive acid hydrolysis at higher pretreatment severities. Steam treatment at 205ºC for 5 min without addition of an acid catalyst was shown to be uncapable of removing the hemicellulose component from bracatinga chips, as determined by chemical analysis of the steam-treated water-insoluble fractions. Nearly 30% of the hemicellulose (xylan found in bracatinga remained unhydrolysed after pretreatment, whereas more than 90% of this component could be removed from eucalypt chips under the same pretreatment conditions. Likewise, pretreatment of eucalypt chips resulted in a more extensive solubilization of glucans (cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Addition of dilute H2SO4 as a pretreatment catalyst generally increased the recovery yield of fermentable sugars in the water-soluble fractions and this effect was more pronounced for the pretreatment of bracatinga chips. Steam-treated substrates produced from bracatinga were also less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis than those produced from eucalypt chips, regardless of the use of an acid catalyst.Duas espécies de angiospermas foram comparadas em relação à suas susceptibilidades ao pré-tratamento por explosão a vapor. De um modo geral, cavacos industriais de Eucalyptus viminalis Labill apresentaram-se mais

  6. Influência da escarificação e da temperatura sobre a germinação de sementes de Samanea tubulosa (Benth. Barneby & J.W. Grimes (sete cascas Influence of scarification and temperature on seed germination of Samanea tubulosa (Benth. Barneby & J.W. Grimes (seven shells

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    Roseli Muniz Giachini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Samanea tubulosa (Benth. Barneby & J.W Grimes (sete cascas é uma planta arbórea nativa do Pantanal Matogrossense, cujas sementes possuem dormência provavelmente causada pela impermeabilidade do tegumento à água. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a eficiência da escarificação mecânica e química para superar a dormência tegumentar e o efeito da temperatura sobre a germinação de sementes de sete cascas. Foram empregados quatro diferentes procedimentos de escarificação: testemunha (sem escarificação; a escarificação mecânica; a escarificação com ácido sulfúrico durante cinco minutos e a escarificação com ácido sulfúrico durante dez minutos. Os níveis de temperatura empregados foram de 20, 25, 30 e 35ºC. A semeadura foi realizada em papel toalha germitest, na forma de rolo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 4x4. Para cada tratamento, foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Foi avaliada a porcentagem de germinação das sementes, utilizado como critério emissão da raiz primária com 2 mm de comprimento. Foi observado que a espécie S. tubulosa possui dormência tegumentar causada pela impermeabilidade do tegumento a água. As escarificações química com ácido sulfúrico por cinco e dez minutos foram eficientes para superação da dormência e as combinações de escarificação com temperatura que promoveram maiores porcentagens de germinação para a espécie foram a escarificação com imersão em ácido sulfúrico durante cinco e dez minutos e as temperaturas de 25, 30 e 35ºC.Samanea tubulosa (Benth. Barneby & JW Grimes (seven shells is a tree plant native to the Mato Grosso Pantanal, whose seeds have dormancy probably caused by impregnability of its integument to water. This work was carried out to compare the efficiency of mechanical and chemical scarification for overcoming integumentary dormancy

  7. Crescimento Inicial de Mimosa scabrella Benth., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Allophylus edulis (St. Hil. Radl. sob Diferentes Regimes de Adubação Initial Growth of Mimosa scabrella Benth., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Allophylus edulis (St. Hil. Radl. with Different Levels of Mineral Fertilization

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    Juliane Garcia Knapik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho estudou a produção de mudas em viveiro envolvendo as espécies Mimosa scabrella Benth. (bracatinga, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (aroeira-vermelha e Allophylus edulis (ST Hil. Radl (vacum. O experimento foi conduzido no Município de Colombo, PR, no viveiro da Embrapa Florestas. Em fevereiro de 2004, foi realizada a semeadura das três espécies, em tubetes com cerca de 50 cm3, preenchidos com 70% de substrato comercial a base de casca de pínus e vermiculita e 30% de fibra de coco granulada. Os tratamentos corresponderam à três diferentes dosagens de adubos, parceladas em adubação de base e de cobertura, dispostos em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas de nove mudas e sete repetições, correspondendo a 63 mudas por espécie/tratamento. Aos quatro meses após a semeadura, foi realizada a avaliação do experimento, com medições de altura e diâmetro o caule de todas as mudas, e selecionada uma muda por repetição para as análises destrutivas de biomassa seca (parte aérea e radicial, tendo como critério a escolha da muda mais próxima da média da repetição. A aroeira-vermelha foi a espécie que melhor respondeu à adubação, seguida da bracatinga. Diferentemente das demais espécies, o vacum apresentou baixa exigência quanto à adubação no processo de produção de mudas. O crescimento das espécies pode ter sido mais lento devido à época do ano, que envolveu o inverno. 
    In order to study the influence of mineral nutrition on quality and the growth of��seedlings of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Mimosa scabrella Benth. and Allophylus edulis (ST. Hil. Radl, a experiment was conducted in the nursery facilities of Embrapa Florestas, Colombo – PR. The three species were sown in plastic containers of 50 cm3 in February 2004. The substrate was a mixture of a commercial formula (pine bark and vermiculite and granulated coconut fiber in a proportion of 70% and 30

  8. Efeitos potencialmente alelopáticos dos óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervium C. DC. e Pogostemon heyneanus Benth sobre plantas daninhas Potentially allelopathic effects of the essential oils of Piper hispidinervium C. DC. and Pogostemon heyneanus (Benth on weeds

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    Antônio Pedro da Silva Souza Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a atividade potencialmente alelopática de óleos essenciais de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. e oriza (Pogostemon heyneanus Benth e analisar, comparativamente, seus efeitos alelopáticos. Óleos essenciais obtidos foram preparados em concentrações de 0,25, 0,5 e 1,0%, tendo como eluente o éter metílico, e testados sobre a germinação de sementes, desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo das plantas daninhas de área de pastagens cultivadas, malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Os óleos das duas espécies evidenciaram atividade alelopática em intensidades que variaram em função da concentração do óleo, da espécie doadora, da planta receptora e do fator da planta analisado. A germinação das sementes foi o fator mais intensamente inibido pelos óleos. As intensidades das inibições estiveram positivamente associadas à concentração, com inibições máximas verificadas a 1,0%. Malícia foi à espécie receptora mais sensível aos efeitos do óleo. Comparativamente, o óleo essencial da pimenta longa revelou maior potencial para inibir a germinação e o desenvolvimento das duas plantas receptoras, notadamente em relação à germinação de sementes, quando as diferenças foram mais marcantes. Os resultados foram atribuídos à composição química dos óleos, especialmente em relação à presença de monoterpenos, monoterpenos oxigenados e sesquiterpenos.This study aimed to characterize the potential allelopathic activity of essential oils of pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. and oriza (Pogostemon heyneanus Benth, and to examine, comparatively, their allelopathic effects. Essential oils obtained were prepared at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0%, with ether methanol as eluent, and tested upon the germination of seeds and the development of the radicle and the hypocotyl of the weeds of cultivated grassland areas, malícia (Mimosa

  9. Composição química de forrageiras e seletividade de bovinos em bosque-de-sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. nos períodos chuvoso e seco Chemical composition of forage and selectivity by bovines of "sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. in the rainy and dry seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednéia de Lucena Vieira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no período de junho de 1999 a março de 2000, com o objetivo de determinar, nos períodos chuvoso e seco, a composição química de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., com acúleo e sem acúleo, na dieta de bovinos em condições de pastejo e a composição botânica do bosque de sabiá e da dieta selecionada. Não foi observada diferença significativa quanto à composição química entre os sabiás com e sem acúleo, obtendo-se valores médios, no período chuvoso, de 26,45% de matéria seca (MS, 27,63% de proteína bruta (PB, 44,39% de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, 25,80% de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, 1,24% de cálcio (Ca, 0,22% de fósforo (P, 1,63% de potássio (K e 1,12% de sódio (Na. No período seco, os valores médios observados foram de 42,39% de MS; 19,30% de PB; 39,05% de FDN; 21,83% de FDA; 1,25% de Ca; 0,15% de P; 1,63% de K e 0,27% de Na. Para a composição botânica da dieta, observou-se que, durante o período chuvoso, as amostras de extrusa apresentaram maior participação de sabiá (83,1% que no período seco ( 12,3%. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que, durante o período chuvoso, os animais selecionaram sabiá em maior quantidade para sua dieta e que a coleta manual, como realizada, superestimou a fração fibrosa da dieta calculada a partir da composição química da extrusa.This trial was carried out from June 1999 to March 2000 to evaluate the chemical composition of samples of sabiá legume (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., with and without thorns, collected in the rainy and dry seasons and to compare the botanical composition of sabiá pasture with that of the diet selected by the grazing animals. No significant difference was observed in chemical composition between samples of sabiá with and without thorns. The mean values obtained in the rainy samples were: 26.45% drymatter (DM, 27.63% crude protein (CP, 44.39% neutral detergent fiber (NDF, 25.80% acid detergent fiber

  10. Foliar anatomical study of Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benth.) Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic characters employable for their delimitation are their habits, stomata type, length and width of stomata, length and width of epidermal cells, anticlinal walls and stomata index on the abaxial surfaces. Others are air spaces, presence of tannins and sand crystals, abundance of sclerenchyma cells and thick cuticle in ...

  11. Foliar anatomical study of Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benth.) Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are their habits, stomata type, length and width of stomata, length and width of epidermal cells, anticlinal walls ... cushion for sleeping mats (Terashima and ..... habits. This also might be the reason why they wrap more food than T. daniellii. However, T. daniellii is more widely known and more often used for food wrapping ...

  12. (Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    lifespan of flowers and environmental condi- tions are crucial for reproductive ... Effect of seed age. Germinability of freshly harvested seeds was determined by placing 25 seeds evenly in a 9 cm diameter petri-dish lined with Whatman's. Filter paper no. .... growth before the onset of flowering and thereafter senescence.

  13. Estudo comparativo da madeira de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth e Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae na caatinga nordestina Comparative study of Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae wood in the caatinga of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pela importância econômica da madeira de algumas espécies do gênero Mimosa L. ocorrentes na caatinga nordestina e pelo fato de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. (jurema-de-imbira, às vezes, ser confundida com Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (jurema-preta ou vice-versa, este trabalho objetivou apresentar novos dados referentes à anatomia e densidade básica da madeira das duas espécies, visando oferecer subsídio para identificação das duas espécies, identificar caracteres anatômicos da madeira relacionando-os com o ambiente caatinga e apresentar o potencial energético que sua madeira possui. O estudo anatômico e a determinação da densidade da madeira foram realizados com amostras ao nível do peito (1,30 m acima do solo e em dois galhos com diferentes diâmetros, de espécimes ocorrentes nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, Pernambuco, Brasil. As espécies apresentam distinção expressa através do tipo de casca, coloração do cerne e do alburno, além das características peculiares da madeira. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, constituídas por linhas de parênquima axial contendo cristais, parênquima axial escasso e menor quantidade de raios por mm². Já Mimosa tenuiflora apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, porém sem cristais, parênquima axial vasicêntrico, em faixas ou aliforme confluente, e maior percentagem de raios. Ambas apresentam algumas estruturas da madeira com as características anatômicas comuns às diversas espécies do gênero Mimosa, contribuindo assim para uma melhor caracterização do gênero. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos da madeira e pela elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que as duas espécies apresentam perspectivas seguras para a produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal desde a fase de lenho juvenil. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta maior potencial energético, pela maior percentagem de fibras e por possuir par

  14. Efeito da temperatura e do teor de umidade na iniciação e desenvolvimento do rizoma de Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. (Gesneriaceae Effect of temperature and the water content in the initiation and developmental of the rhizome of Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. (Gesneriaceae

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    Julieta Andrea Silva de Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. pertence à família Gesneriaceae e possui órgão subterrâneo, que está associado à reprodução vegetativa. Este órgão apresenta gemas envoltas por folhas modificadas, as quais armazenam amido. Em seções do rizoma (1,5 a 2,0cm compr. contendo seis gemas, só uma gema geralmente brota. Esta pode diferenciar-se em dois padrões morfológicos: parte aérea ou rizoma. Em seções mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade (1mL de água ou em sua ausência, houve brotação do padrão rizoma, em seções em substrato com elevado teor de umidade (12mL de água, brotação do padrão parte aérea. A temperatura de 20ºC também favoreceu a brotação do padrão rizoma, independente do volume de água do substrato. Seções também desenvolveram o padrão rizoma em substrato com adição de solução de polietilenoglicol 6000 (PEG, nas concentrações de 161,2; 235,2 e 340,0g/L, que geraram os potenciais de -3, -6 e -12 MPa, respectivamente. Seções mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade (1mL de água apresentaram redução de massa seca e elevada concentração osmótica em relação àquelas em substrato com elevado teor de umidade. Verificou-se que a formação do padrão rizoma foi influenciada pelos fatores teor de umidade e temperatura. Sugere-se que a brotação do padrão rizoma foi induzida pelo baixo potencial hídrico nas seções, quando mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade. Além disto, evidenciou-se que as gemas do rizoma de Kohleria eriantha apresentam elevado grau de plasticidade.Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst is a plant belonging to the family Gesneriaceae, with an underground organ, which is associated with vegetative reproduction. This organ is a rhizome, whose stem bears buds covered with modified leaves that store up starch. In small sections of this rhizome, containing six buds (1.5 to 2.0cm long, only one bud sprouted. The sprouted bud could be differentiated

  15. Características físico-químicas y composición de ácidos grasos del aceite crudo extraído de residuos de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth

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    Moreno-Álvarez, Mario José

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acids composition of oil extracted from blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth residue were determined. Mature fruits from ‘‘La Colonia Tovar’’, Aragua state, Venezuela harvested on April 2001, were processed to obtain seeds and residues of pulp. This residue was extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method. The crude oil was assayed by means of COVENIN and AOCS methods. The results showed: Iodine index 160.16 cg I2/g, refraction index to 25ºC 1.4780 , saponification value 193.76 mg K0H/g, peroxide value 30.40 meq 02/kg, free fatty acidity 2.83% (oleic acid, insaponifiable value 2.77%, phosphorus content 0.22% and stability 3.09 h (AOM. The major fatty acids found were oleic acid (55.39% and linoleic acid (29.51%.El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar físico-químicamente el aceite extraído de residuos de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth y determinar su composición de ácidos grasos. Frutos maduros procedentes de ‘‘La Colonia Tovar’’, estado Aragua, Venezuela perteneciente a la cosecha Abril 2001, fueron procesados para obtener residuos constituidos por semillas y restos de pulpa. Los residuos fueron sometidos a un proceso de extracción mediante equipo Soxhlet utilizando como solvente n-hexano. El aceite crudo extraído fue caracterizado mediante normas COVENIN y AOCS. Se determinaron valores de índice de Iodo 160,16 cg I2/g; índice de refracción 1,4780 a 25ºC; índice de saponificación 193,76 mg KOH/g; índice de peróxidos 30,40 meq O2/kg; acidez libre oleica 2,83 %; materia insaponificable 2,77 %; fósforo 0,22 % y estabilidad AOM de 3,09 horas. Los ácidos grasos mayoritarios encontrados fueron el ácido oleico (55,39% y el ácido linoleico (29,51%.

  16. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. (Zuojin Pill against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

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    Wang QS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qiang-Song Wang,1,2,* Xiao-Ning Zhu,1,* Heng-Li Jiang,1,* Gui-Fang Wang,3 Yuan-Lu Cui1 1Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, 3Pharmacy Department, Baokang Hospital, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Zuojin Pill (ZJP, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the

  17. ESCARIFICAÇÃO ÁCIDA NA SUPERAÇÃO DA DORMÊNCIA DE SEMENTES DE PAU FERRO (Caesalpinea ferrea Mart.ex Tu. var. leiostachya Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Ursulino Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Caesalpinea ferrea Mart. ex Tu. var. leiostachya Benth. present low and irregular germination due to dormancy caused by the impermeability of the tegument. With the purpose to determine an efficient method to accelerate and uniformize seed germination, they were submitted to different immersion periods (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes in sulfuric acid (95-98%, influence emergency and vigor (first count, speed index, medium time and relative frequency of emergency, length and dry matter of the seedlings. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions with an experimental design of completely randomized, with seven treatments and four replications. The pre-conditioning of the seeds with immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid was efficient to overcoming seed dormancy, by increasing the percentage and speed emergency, the first count of emergency, length and dry matter of seedlings and reduction in the medium time for emergency. The efficiency of this chemical treatment with concentrated sulfuric depends on the immersion time, and 10 to 20 minutes were the most adequate to provide larger emergency uniformity percentages and vigor.

  18. Chemical composition of total flavonoids from Salvia chinensia Benth and their pro-apoptotic effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells: potential roles of suppressing cellular NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Meixian; Su, Hanwen; Hu, Yajing; Hu, Yun; Yang, Tianming; Shu, Guangwen

    2013-12-01

    Salvia chinensia Benth (S. chinensia) is a medical plant that has been traditionally applied for centuries in the treatment of malignant diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the scientific basis underlying its anti-HCC activity has not been fully established. In this study, the chemical profiles of total flavonoids from S. chinensia (TFSC) were explored. Thirteen compounds which constituted the major components of TFSC were separated and identified. Flow cytometry analysis and caspase activity assays showed that TFSC dose-dependently induced HepG2 and Huh-7 HCC cell apoptosis. TFSC was also shown to substantially suppress NF-κB activity in HCC cells. Moreover, TFSC significantly repressed transplanted murine H22 ascitic hepatic cancer cell growth in vivo. Further studies revealed that TFSC induced HCC cell apoptosis and inhibited expressional levels of NF-κB responsive genes in transplanted tumor tissues. In addition, the toxic impact of TFSC on tumor-bearing mice was undetectable. These results indicate that TFSC induces HCC cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. The suppression of cellular NF-κB activity is implicated in the TFSC-mediated HCC cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Desarrollo de un Protocolo de propagación in vitro de Geranium chilloense Wild. ex Kuth. Y Lupinus pubescens Benth. Para la obtención de plantas completas, para la primera etapa de restauración de las quebradas de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides Silva, Thaly Gabriela; Córdova Muñoz, Adriana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Geranium chilloense Willd. ex Kunth known as geranio de los Chillos, is an ornamental plant, native of Los Andes it can be found in a wild way in the ravines of the Metropolitan District of Quito and it is part of the history of the native flora of Quito since has been described from the Alexander Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland expedition in 1802. Lupinus pubescens Benth, also known as Ashpa chocho or Allpa chocho, is an herbaceous, native and ornamental plant due to the beauty of his flowers, de...

  20. Efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de sabiá na germinação de sementes de fava Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. in seed germination of Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elane Grazielle Borba de Sousa Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. é uma planta medicinal que pode ser utilizada em sistemas agroflorestais. É empregada na composição de pastagens arbóreas, em faixas entre plantações, para enriquecer capoeiras e ainda pode ser empregada como cerca viva. A fava (Phaseolus lunatus L. é uma das quatro espécies do gênero Phaseolus exploradas comercialmente, seu consumo é preferencialmente na forma de grãos verdes cozidos ou na forma de conserva. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso do sabiá sobre a germinação de sementes e crescimento inicial de plântulas de fava. As sementes de fava foram postas para germinar em caixas plásticas, onde foram semeadas entre o substrato vermiculita, e em seguida colocados em germinador a 25 ºC e sob luz contínua. O substrato foi umedecido, com o extrato aquoso de folhas jovens de sabiá, nas concentrações de 25; 50; 75 e 100%, além da testemunha umedecida apenas com água destilada. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação além do comprimento da raiz primária. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial. No estudo da regressão polinomial foi empregada a equação que melhor se ajustou aos dados. Os valores em porcentagem foram transformados em arc sen (n/1000,5. Conclui-se que as diferentes concentrações do extrato de folhas jovens de sabiá utilizadas não prejudicaram a germinação das sementes de fava.The Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. is a medicinal plant that can be used in agroforestry systems, is also employed in the composition of pasture trees in strips between fields, to enrich brush fields and as a hedge. The Phaseolus lunatus L. is one of four species of the genus Phaseolus exploited commercially; its

  1. β-Cell protection and antidiabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth. S. Moore extract against alloxan-induced oxidative stress via regulation of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Entaz; Akter, Kazi-Marjahan; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Lee, Hwa-Young; Rashid, Harun-Or; Choi, Min-Kyung; Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Hossain, Mir Mohammad Monir; Ara, Joushan; Mazumder, Kishor; Raihan, Obayed; Chae, Han-Jung; Yoon, Hyonok

    2017-03-29

    Medicinal plants are becoming more popular in the treatment of various diseases because of the adverse effects of the current therapy, especially antioxidant plant components such as phenols and flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative diseases like diabetes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate β-cell protection and antidiabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth. S. Moore. The in-vitro study was conducted by the pancreatic β-cell culture and α-amylase inhibition technique which includes two methods, namely starch-iodine method and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) method. On the other hand, the in-vivo study was performed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) method and alloxan-induced diabetes method by using Wistar albino rat. At the end pancreatic specimens were removed and processed for histopathological study. The plant extract showed significant (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01) effect on hyperglycemia as compared to standard (Gliclazide) in OGTT. The plant extract showed efficient protection activity of pancreatic β-cell from cell death in INS-1 cell line by significantly reduced (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01) the levels alloxan-induced apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In addition, the plant extract showed a significant (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01) effect on hyperglycemia by increases in percent of β-cells present in each islet (45% - 60%) compared to the diabetic group. The result showed that C. crepidioides had β-cell protection and antidiabetic activities in pancreatic β-cell culture and Wistar albino rat.

  2. Protective effect of Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth Hara extract on acute liver injury induced by Concanavalin A in mice through inhibition of TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Feng Zhai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth Hara (ERA, a traditional Chinese medicine has antibacterial, antiviral, anti-tumor, anti-hepatitis and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the hepatoprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of ERA on acute liver injury have not been fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and liver protection of ERA against the acute liver injury induced by Concanavalin A (Con A and its underlying molecular mechanisms in mice. Mice received ERA (50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight by gavage before Con A intravenous administration. We found that ERA pretreatment was able to significantly reduce the elevated serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels and liver necrosis in Con A-induced hepatitis. In addition, ERA treatment significantly decreased the myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde levels and augmented superoxide dismutase level in the liver tissue, and also suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum, compared with Con A group by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, we observed that ERA pretreatment can significantly decrease the expression level of Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 mRNA or protein in liver tissues. Further results showed that ERA pretreatment was capable of attenuating the activation of the NF-κB pathway by inhibiting IκBα kinase and p65 phosphorylation in Con A-induced liver injury. Our results demonstrate that ERA pretreatment has hepatoprotective property against Con A-induced liver injury through inhibition of inflammatory mediators in mice. The beneficial effect of ERA may be mediated by the downregulation of TLR4 expression and the inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  3. Aporte e decomposição de serapilheira em áreas de floresta secundária, plantio de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl. na Flona Mário Xavier, RJ.

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    Milton Marques Fernandes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o aporte e a decomposição da serapilheira em áreas de floresta secundária espontânea, plantio de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e plantio de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.. Para avaliação do aporte de serapilheira, foram instalados dez coletores cônicos sendo o aporte avaliado durante o período de outubro de 2003 a setembro de 2004. Posteirormente, foi feita a quantificação dos macronutrientes (N, P e K. A avaliação da taxa de decomposição foi realizada utilizando-se o método dos litter bags. A área de plantio de andiroba aportou a maior quantidade de serrapilheira 9,20 Mg ha-1, sendo seguida pelo plantio de sabiá com 9,06 Mg ha-1 e pela floresta secundária espontânea 7,63 Mg ha-1 por ano. A serapilheira das áreas de plantio de sabiá e do plantio de andiroba apresentou maiores valores de nitrogênio e fósforo que a área de floresta secundária. A velocidade de decomposição da serapilheira foi maior nas áreas de plantio de sabiá e andiroba, podendo tal comportamento ter sido influenciado pelo maior conteúdo de nitrogênio na serapilheira. O fósforo foi o nutriente que apresentou maior velocidade de liberação.

  4. Biometria, caracterização física e rendimento lipídico do fruto de Licania rigida Benth adquiridos no município de Pombal-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. S. Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Licânia rigida Benth, popularmente oiticica, é uma vegetação típica no sertão nordestino. Destaca-se pelo alto teor de óleos em seus frutos e boa produtividade mesmo em épocas de seca, sendo capaz de promover desenvolvimento social e econômico para a região, pela utilização industrial de tintas, vernizes, sabão, lonas e esmaltes finos. Portanto, objetiva-se no presente estudo determinar a biometria, parâmetros físicos e rendimento lipídico do fruto da oiticica. Os frutos foram colhidos, selecionados, sanitizados. Em seguida, utilizou-se um paquímetro para a realização da biometria dos frutos e então sofreram separação em exocarpo-mesocarpo, endocarpo e amêndoas. As amostras foram trituradas e armazenadas ate procedidas as análises. Para a determinação do pH e condutividade, utilizou-se cerca de 5g de cada amostra, acrescidos de 50mL de água destilada e homogeneização, por conseguintemente foi utilizado o peagâmetro digital e condutivímetro, respectivamente. Para a acidez total titulável (ATT, utilizou-se as amostras anteriores e titulou-se com NaOH 0,1N, usando fenolftaleína como indicador, até as amostras alcançarem pH de 8,1. Procedeu-se a determinação do teor lipídico pelo método de Sohlext, com 2 a 5 g das amostras e hexano como solvente. Os frutos apresentaram peso médio de 9g. A variação do pH para as diferentes amostra foi irrelevante, enquanto o exocarpo-mesocarpo apresentou maior condutividade, com 308,6 mScm-1, e o endocarpo foi evidenciado por apresentar maior ATT, com 16,8%. Obteve-se na amêndoa maior percentual lipídico, com rendimento médio de 43,0%. Diante da importância e alta rentabilidade lipídica do fruto, faz-se necessário desenvolvimento de metodologias para utilização dessa matéria-prima.Biometrics, physical characteristics and yield fruit of lipid Licania rigid Benth purchased in the municipality of Pombal-PBAbstract: Licania rigid Benth, popularly oiticica, is

  5. AVALIAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E ENERGÉTICA DA MADEIRA DAS ESPÉCIES Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth. Ducke E Amburana cearensis (Allemao A. C. Smith DE OCORRÊNCIA NO SEMIÁRIDO NORDESTINO BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos César de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Caatinga’ is an exclusive Brazilian biome, which features a wide variety of fauna and flora, and a good part of these are endemic varieties. Over the years, the abolition of ‘Caatinga’ by human activities has greatly reduced this biome. This fact is mainly due to the use of the energy potential of plant species without proper concern about the sustainability of it. A better understanding of the energy potential of plant species of ‘Caatinga’ enables a more appropriate management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential energy and the physical and chemical characteristics of wood species Amburana cearensis (Germans A. C. Smith and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth. Ducke. Five trees of each species were felled, randomly sampled in ‘São Bento’ site, located in the city of Patos, Paraíba state. The trees were identified and transported to the Department of Forest Product Technology, Federal University of Campina Grande. From each tree, small discs were removed (5 cm thick to 0 (base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the commercial height of the trunk (up to 5 cm in diameter and large disks (15 cm thick before and after each small disk, the small discs were divided into four parts, wedge-shaped, passing through the medulla. Two opposing wedges were used to determine the density and the rest was reserved for the physical and chemical wood analyses and the wood discs were destined for greater achievements of carbonizations. Basic density was determined according to the method of hydrostatic balance and to determine the basic density of each tree used as a weighting factor the volume between sections of each disk. After air drying, the samples for chemical analysis were transformed into sawdust and made quantitative determinations of total extractives, lignin, ash and holocellulose content was estimated by difference from the initial mass [100% - (content total extractives + lignin + ash]. Samples intended for carbonizations were

  6. Hypoglycemic Potential of Verbesina Encelioides Benth. Roots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, there is a necessity to explore their uses and to conduct pharmacognostic and pharmacological studies to ascertain their therapeutic properties. In fact, nowadays, diabetes is a global problem. Hence, the present study aims to open new avenues for the improvement of medicinal uses of Verbesina encelioides ...

  7. The effect of ringbarking Brachystegia spiciformis Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Troupin and Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC. trees at different heights with or without the addition of a picloram/2, 4-D mixture. ... Keywords: arboricide; brachystegia spiciformis; bush control; coppice; girdling; height; julbernardia globiflora; kill rate; method; picloram; ring-barking; terminalia sericea; trees; zimbabwe ...

  8. Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (hochst.) Benth. (scrophulariaceae) : new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immediate possible control options are suggested. Dans les vallées intérieures, comparativement aux sites de plateau non inondables, l'agriculture pluviale comporte moins de risque du fait d'une disponibilité en eau plus élevée. Au Bénin, le gouvernement a aménagé des vallées intérieures où les paysans cultivent le riz.

  9. SERIANTHES Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae

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    F. R. FOSBERG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Serianthes was erected by Bentham to accomodate plants which Wallich had called Inga grandiflora, from Singapore, and those which Bertero had called Acacia myriadenia, from Tahiti. It has been accepted from the first, as it is amply distinct from Acacia and reasonably so from Inga. though it is usually placed in the tribe Ingeae. Serianthes is widespread in the southwest Pacific, usually, though not always, occurring on islands, frequently on calcareous or serpentine rocks or their derived soils. It is seldom abundant, though in places common. In habit it varies from a dwarf tree or large shrub to a forest giant. It is reported to be an excellent timber tree, but seems nowhere to be abundant enough to be important commercially. Since Bentham's original description in 1844, eleven additional species and one variety have been ascribed to it in addition to the original S. grandiflora. Three of these do not belong in Serianthes. Most of the specimens in herbaria, excepting those called S. grandiflora, have been misidentified, usually being placed in S. myriadenia. Although I first saw this genus growing and collected it in Raivavae and Rurutu in 1934, my interest in it was aroused by failure, in 1950, to find a satisfactory disposition for specimens collected in Palau, similar to those that Kanehira had referred to S. grandiflora, which they clearly were not. The more I tried to make sense of the herbarium material available in a number of herbaria the more frustrating the problem became. Notes were accumulated in a most haphazard and unsystematic manner, as I had no intention of doing more than identifying my Micronesian material. Finallyit became evident that over half of the entities discernible in the material examined were undescribed, and I felt a certain obligation to work up at least a synopsis of the genus.

  10. Essential Oil of Otostegia integrifolia Benth: Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GC/MS analyses revealed the presence of 37 constituents representing 84.88% of the oil with α- pinene (31.33%), 1-octen-3-ol (11.78%) and trans-caryophyllene (11.35%) constituting more than 50% of its ... The oil (MIC=5 μg/ml) was found to be more potent than ciprofloxacin (MIC=10 μg/ml) against some E. coli strains.

  11. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties and Aromatic Profile During Maturation of The Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth and The Bilberry (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz / Evaluación las Propiedades Antioxidantes y el Perfil Aromático Durante la Maduración

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    Luisa Juana Bernal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth and thebilberry (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz are natural sourcesof antioxidants; they are known for their preventive role against degenerative diseases. In this study, the aromatic profile was evaluated using an electronic nose, including the antioxidant properties and the vitamin C, phenolic and anthocyanin contents during three stages of blackberry and bilberry ripening. A completely random statistical design was followed and the results presented differences in the aromatic profile: a higher anthocyanin content (1.59 mg of cyn-3-glu g-1 in the bilberry and 0.26 mg of cyn-3-glu g-1 in the blackberry and total phenols (5.57 mg of caffeic acid g-1 bilberry and 2.68 mg caffeic acid g-1 blackberry. The behavior of the evaluated properties was independent in each of the fruits. / Los frutos como la mora (Rubus glaucus Benth y el agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz son fuentes naturales de sustancias antioxidantes reconocidas por su papel preventivo en el desarrollo de enfermedades degenerativas. En este estudio se evaluó el perfil aromático por medio de nariz electrónica, las propiedades antioxidantes y el contenido de vitamina C, fenoles y antocianinas totales, durante tres estados de maduración de mora y agraz. El diseño estadístico que se siguió fue completamente aleatorio y los resultados muestran que las frutas en el último estado de madurez evaluado se diferencian por su perfil aromático, un contenido mayor de antocianinas (1,59 y 0,26 mg cyn-3-glu g-1 en agraz y mora, respectivamente y fenoles totales (5,57 y 2,68 mg ácido caféico g-1 en agraz y mora, respectivamente. El comportamiento de las propiedades evaluadas es independiente en cada una de las frutas.

  12. Seleção e melhoramento do timbó: II - Estudo de uma população de 153 plantas de timbó macaquinho - Derris nicou (benth.

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    Luiz O. T. Mendes

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Para fins de seleção foi estudada, no Instituto Agronômico do Norte, uma população de 153 plantas de timbó macaquinho - Derris nicou (Benth.. Depois de colhidas as raízes e postas a secar ao ar, foram analisadas para determinação de umidade, cinzas, extratos totais (etéreo e por gravimetria, rotenona + deguelina (por colorimetria e rotenona (por gravimetria. Pelo estudo dos dados pôde-se verificar que havia dois grupos distintos de plantas: um constituído por 82 plantas (POPULAÇÃO A contendo menos de 5% de rotenona nas raízes e outro, com 71 plantas (POPULAÇÃO B, com 9% ou mais de rotenona em suas raízes. Essas populações foram estudadas separadamente. Para um estudo mais detalhado dêsses grupos de plantas também foram calculados o peso líquido das raízes, bem como o rendimento líquido, por planta e em média, em extratos totais, rotenona + deguelina e rotenona. Foram também calculados os teores em deguelina e rotenona contidos nos extratos totais e outros extratos (que não rotenona e deguelina contidos nos extratos totais e, finalmente, a rotenona contida no conjunto rotenona + deguelina. São apresentados os resultados referentes às melhores plantas selecionadas dessa população. Vários fatôres foram levados em consideração para a separação dessas plantas, tidas como os melhores. Os resultados mostram que mediante adequada multiplicação do material selecionado será possível a instalação de culturas de timbó com elevado rendimento em rotenona.A population composed of 153 plants of "timbó macaquinho" (Derris nicou was studied for selection and establishment of high yielding rotenone clones. The roots were air dried and the humidity content determined. Ashes, total extracts, rotenone + degueline and rotenone were determined by chemical analyses. Individual results of the analyses are presented. From the data were calculated the net weight per plant of: a air dried roots; b total extracts; c rotenone

  13. Influência da adubação verde e diferentes adubos orgânicos na produção de fitomassa aérea de atroveran (Ocimum selloi Benth. Influence of green manure and different organic manure on production of aereal phytomass of Ocimum selloi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.S. Morais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito de diferentes adubos orgânicos em associação ou não com adubo verde na produção de folhas de Ocimum selloi Benth., planta nativa do Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Embrapa Meio Ambiente (CNPMA, localizado no município de Jaguariúna, em duas áreas distintas, sendo uma delas submetidas anteriormente ao plantio e incorporação de adubo verde (Crotalaria juncea. Os tratamentos utilizados foram T1 - testemunha (solo sem adubação, T2 - cama de aviário (5 kg m-2, T3 - hidrolisado de peixe (produto comercial Fishfértil - 5 mL m-2 e T4 - composto orgânico (4 kg m-2. A colheita foi realizada 180 dias após o plantio, em janeiro de 2011, sendo colhidas as plantas úteis (quatro plantas por parcela. Avaliou-se o rendimento de fitomassa fresca e seca. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o esquema fatorial 2x4, com quatro repetições (blocos. As médias obtidas foram submetidas à análise de variância seguida de teste de médias (Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que a cama de aviário apresentou resultados mais satisfatórios quanto à produção de folhas de Ocimum selloi quando comparados aos demais tratamentos orgânicos, não se observando incremento nos resultados pela associação com o adubo verde Crotalaria juncea.The aim of this work was to avail the effect of different manures in association or nor with green manure on yield of leaves of Ocimum selloi Benth. The assay was accomplished on experimental area of Embrapa Environmental (Jaguariúna district, at two different spaces (with or without green manure Crotalaria juncea. The treatments used were T1 - witness (no manure, T2 - chicken manure (5 kg m-2, T3 - commercial product Fishfértil - 5 mL m-2 and T4 - composting (4 kg m-2. The cut was realized on 180 days after the planting (january - 2011, and were collected four plants/ plot. The yield of dried and fresh Ocimum

  14. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e produção de óleo essencial de patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth. após a aplicação de ácido giberélico e extrato de alga marinha

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    R.C. Storck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth., comumente conhecido como patchouli, é uma espécie aromática utilizada pela indústria de perfumes devido a fragrância amadeirada e propriedade fixadora do óleo essencial. Fatores que afetam o teor dos constituintes do óleo essencial devem ser avaliados visando obter matéria prima de melhor qualidade. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x3 e 4 repetições, sendo dois níveis de giberelina (0 e 200 mg L-1 e três níveis de extrato de alga marinha (0, 15 e 30 mg L-1. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais foi realizada 30 dias após o plantio das mudas, e a avaliação do experimento deu-se 45 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Não houve diferença significativa para a altura das plantas, a concentração de extrato de alga marinha de 15 mg L-1 promoveu aumento no número de folhas em relação à testemunha e a concentração de 30 mg L-1 promoveu decréscimo. Em relação à área foliar e ao número de folhas houve relação inversa para os níveis de extrato de alga marinha, onde o tratamento com maior concentração do regulador resultou em aumento da área foliar e redução do número de folhas. O teor de óleo essencial foi superior após a aplicação de 15 mg L-1 de extrato alga marinha isoladamente ou combinado com GA3. A produtividade do óleo essencial também aumentou com a aplicação 15 mg L-1 de extrato de alga marinha e quando utilizado somente GA3. A utilização de extrato de alga marinha aumentou a concentração de patchoulol no óleo essencial.

  15. Assessment of Bridelia ferruginea benth for its therapeutic potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    onset or first recognition during pregnancy. ... ferruginea in gestational diabetes by assessing the anti-glycaemic effects of ... oral administration of aqueous extracts of B. ferruginea to pregnant albino rats. Key words: Gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced diabetes, hypoglycaemic, glycaemic response, glucose tolerance.

  16. Management of Striga Hermonthica (Del.) Benth in Upland Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FARO 40 and WAB 56-50 did not support Striga emergence, and thus exhibited resistance to Striga hermonthica. FARO 48, a variety normally susceptible to S. hermonthica, supported delayed and low Striga emergence, exhibiting enhanced resistance. In spite of support for early and high Striga infestation, FARO 11 ...

  17. Morphometric Studies of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. ex. Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sepal length and petal length were identified as diagnostic morphological characters. Even though the phenetic groups identified within C. anisata could not be classified as morphological varieties, they could still be described and documented for general purposes such as communication, management and conservation ...

  18. Hypoglycaemic effects of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth seed extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimosoideae), its chloroform, hexane, and mother liquor fractions were evaluated in glucose-loaded and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The methanol extract of the seed exhibited a peak percentage decrease of 64% and 44.1% in blood glucose ...

  19. Integrated control of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. in Burkina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-year field study investigated integrated management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum through host crop resistance, biocontrol (Fusarium oxysporum isolate 34-FO), and fertilizer application. The experiment was conducted in a field with natural Striga infestation at Kouaré Research Station in Fada N'Gourma, Burkina ...

  20. Bioassay-guided investigation of Lonchocarpus cyanescens benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing power (FRAP), total phenol content and total flavonoid content using catechin as standard antioxidant. Bioguided column chromatographic separation was carried out and the resultant ...

  1. Contents of Aerial Parts of Salvia leriifolia Benth

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    Zahra Hosseinpoor Mohsen Abadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have reported the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of Salvia leriifolia extracts and fractions. Methanolic, n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts were screened to analysis their antioxidant activities by four complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging activity (RSA, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and ferrous ion cheating (FIC. In most cases the leaf extracts and ethyl acetate fraction had more activity. The methanolic extracts of leaf and flower showed considerable antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumonia, Acinetobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extracts showed the highest activity against P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia.

  2. Bioassay-guided investigation of Lonchocarpus cyanescens benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... Antioxidants have been reported to prevent oxidative damage caused by free radicals and can be used to ameliorate conditions ... that the leaves of Lonchocarpus cyanescens are traditionally used in Africa to treat ulcer and arthritis. This study investigates .... The final mixture was mixed and then incubated ...

  3. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth.

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    Bhanuz Dechayont

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin (Lamiaceae has been widely used in traditional medicine. In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaves from P. cablin extracts were investigated. The water extracts had the highest total phenolic content 116.88±0.48 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry plant extract. Nevertheless, high levels of total flavonoid content were found in ethanolic extracts 280.12±2.04 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dry plant extract. The highest antioxidant activities were found for the ethanolic extract (IC50=18±0.90, 20±0.24 μg/mL by DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays, respectively. Both extracts showed moderate inhibition of superoxide inhibition (O2∙- and nitric oxide (NO production in concentration-dependent manner. Antibacterial activity was calculated by disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC. The ethanolic extract had the greatest activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin sensitive S. aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes with zone diameters of 11.67±1.53, 10.33±2.52, and 10.33±1.15 mm, respectively. The corresponding MIC and MBCs were 5, 0.625, and 0.039 mg/mL. P. cablin extracts contain antioxidant and antibacterial properties that should be exploited for possible clinical application.

  4. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activities of Satureja punctata Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by measuring levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) as well as by morphologic pathology and antioxidant assay against ferric nitrilotriacetate induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Crude aqueous extract of S. punctata at ...

  5. Genetic Transformation of Coleus blumei Benth. Using Agrobacterium

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    Nataša Bauer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency in transformation of three hybrids of Coleus blumei using wild and mutant strains of Agrobacterium sp. was evaluated. Successful transformation depended on specific bacterial strain-plant genotype combination and co-cultivation treatment. The wild type B6S3 of the bacterial strains employed gave the maximum efficiency. Strains C58C1(pArA4abc, GV3101(pGV2215, 8196 and A281 were also effective. Among several co-cultivation conditions tested, the most efficient treatment was as follows: excised leaf explants were incubated immeadiately in bacterial suspension for 5 min and were co-cultured with Nicotiana tabacum crown gall callus for two days. Plant hormone autotrophy, PCR analyses and hybridization analysis confirmed genetic transformation of the cultures. Sixteen different transgenic callus and cell cultures were maintained for more than four years in the absence of exogenous growth regulators and antibiotics without deterioration in the growth rate.

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF PHLOMIS OLIVIERI BENTH. AND PHLOMIS PERSICA BOISS

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    PARISA SARKHAIL

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl acetate and n- butanol fractions obtained from the column chromatography of methanolic extract of aerial parts of P. olivieri gave chrysoeriol-7-O-β-D-glucoside (I and verbascoside (II, respectively. In addition, two flavonoid glycosides as compound (I and chrysoeriol-7-β-D- (3''-E-p-coumaroyl glucoside (III and one iridoid glycoside, namely, lamiide (IV were isolated from the ethyl acetate, ether and n- butanol fractions of a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Phlomis persica, respectively. Isolation and structural elucidation of compounds were accomplished by PTLC, CC, HPLC and spectroscopic methods (UV, FTIR, EIMS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, 1H- 1H COSY, HMQC and HMBC.

  7. Antiproliferative activity of spinasterol isolated of Stegnosperma halimifolium (Benth, 1844

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    Salvador Enrique Meneses-Sagrero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the major cause of death in the world, representing a significant public health problem. Plants have been shown as a great source of secondary metabolites with anticancer activity. The aim of this work was evaluated the antiproliferative activity of the methanolic extracts, chemical fractions and the compound spinasterol isolated of medicinal plant Stegnosperma halimifolium. The methanolic extracts of stem, leaf and stem/leaf was obtained by maceration. The methanolic extract of stem was purified by successive extractions with solvents as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The n-hexane fraction was separated by column chromatographic and monitored by thin layer chromatographic. The compound spinasterol was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass Spectrometry. Methanolic extracts, chemical, chromatographic fractions and spinasterol was evaluated against RAW 264.7, M12.C3.F6, PC-3, LS-180, A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines by the standardized method MTT for determinate the antiproliferative activity. Methanolic extract of stem shown the better antiproliferative activity against the murine macrophage cancer cell line RAW 264.7. n-Hexane chemical fraction shown antiproliferative activity against human alveolar cancer cell line A549 and RAW 264.7. Was isolated and characterized a compound by NMR 1H and 13C, revealing the presence of sterol spinasterol. Spinasterol shown to have antiproliferative activity against cervical cancer cell line HeLa and RAW 264.7, indicating that spinasterol can be a responsible compound of antiproliferative activity found in the methanolic extract of Stegnosperma halimifolium.

  8. 234 Fruiting Efficiency of Pentaclethra Macraphylla Benth: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    macrophylla was investigated in Ekpoma and Onne between 2004 and. 2007. Ten sample trees of P. macrophylla were randomly selected in a traditional agroforestry plantation in Ekpoma. Similarly, another ten sample trees were randomly ...

  9. Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    brown, flat and carry 6-10 seeds (Inset shows the entire crown of the tree covered with previous season's dry pods). The tender branchlets and leaves are used as fodder. The heartwood is dark brown, tough and durable and is used in making cart ...

  10. Salvia broussonetii Benth.: aroma profile and micromorphological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Basma; Pistelli, Luisa; Cervelli, Claudio; Fico, Gelsomina; Giuliani, Claudia

    2017-10-26

    The volatile profiles (VOC) and the essential oil (EO) composition from the aerial parts of Salvia broussonetii were analysed. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominate the VOCs from leaves (95.7%) and flowers (67.6%), followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (2.6 and 29.7%, respectively). The main common compounds are germacrene D, β-bourbonene, α-pinene, α-copaene and α-gurjunene, even if with divergent relative abundances. In the leaf EOs the sesquiterpenes prevail, even if not overwhelmingly (about 50.0%), followed by monoterpenes (23.0-35.0%) and by minor fractions of diterpene hydrocarbons and non-terpene derivates. The most abundant common compounds across the two sampling periods are α-pinene, β-pinene, isobornyl acetate, α-gurjenene, germacrene D and bifloratriene. A morphological characterisation of the trichomes responsible for the productivity in terpenes was also performed. Four different morphotypes were observed on the above ground organs of S. brussonetii: peltates and capitates of type II and III resulted the only producers of volatile substances.

  11. Response of African oil bean (Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Common uses of P. macrophylla include food, salt substitute, edible oil, seed craft, dye, fencing and palings, charcoal, carving bowls, medicine (convulsion, itching, lactogenicity, wound, diarrhea, seed wood and ornamental (Envjiugha and Agbede, 2000; Asoegwu et al., 2006). The spent lubricating oil (waste engine oil) is.

  12. Assessment of Bridelia ferruginea benth for its therapeutic potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Taiwo I.A*, Adewumi O.O, Odeigah P.G.C. Department of cell Biology and Genetics, New Science Complex, University of Lagos, Lagos 101017, ... Results: Oral glucose tolerance test showed that pregnancy induced ... by oral administration of aqueous extracts of B. ferruginea to pregnant albino rats. Key words: Gestational ...

  13. Caracterização anatômica das folhas de Cunila microcephala Benth. (Lamiaceae Anatomic characterization of Cunila microcephala Benth. (Lamiaceae leaves

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    Maria da Graça Teixeira de Toledo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho fez-se a análise da organização estrutural das folhas de Cunila microcephala em microscopia fotônica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Seguiram-se as técnicas convencionais no preparo do material para obtenção das lâminas semipermanentes. Para a preparação de lâminas permanentes utilizou-se a técnica de inclusão em glicol metacrilato (GMA. A organização estrutural das folhas desta espécie revela: estômatos em ambas as faces com predominância na face abaxial (folha anfi-hipoestomática. Os estômatos da face adaxial são do tipo diacítico. As paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas da face adaxial são sinuosas e apresentam espessamentos irregulares. As epidermes de ambas as faces são uniestratificadas. Tricomas tectores unisseriados e tricomas glandulares do tipo capitado unicelular e pluricelular se fazem presentes em ambas as faces. O mesofilo é heterogêneo dorsiventral. Idioblastos contendo cristais de inulina se fazem presentes em toda a extensão do limbo. A nervura principal em secção transversal, na porção mediana da lâmina foliar revela uma organização bastante simples, pouco saliente, na qual o parênquina clorofiliano paliçádico apresenta solução de continuidade. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais.This work has focused on the structural organization analysis of Cunila microcephala leaves in photonic microscopic and electronic scanning. Conventional techniques have been used to prepare the material for obtaining semi-permanent plates. For the preparation of permanent plates, the immersion into glycol methacrylate (GMA has been performed. The structural organization of leaves belonging to this species reveals stomata in both faces with predominance in the abaxial face (amphihypostomatic leaf. The adaxial face stomata belongs to the diacytic type. The anticlinal walls of the epidermis cells of the adaxial face are sinuous and present irregular thickening. The epidermis of both faces is single layered. Uniserial tectorial trichomes and single celled and multicelled capitate glandular trichomes are present in both faces. The mesophyll is heterogeneous dorsi-ventral. Idioblasts containing inulin crystals are present throughout the foliar plate. The central veins in cross-section, in the medium portion of the foliar plate, have shown a very simple organization, not an outstanding one, where the chlorophyllian palisade parenchyma presents a solution of continuity. The vascular fagots are collateral.

  14. OSMODESHIDRATACIÓN DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth CON TRES AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMODEHYDRATION OF BLACKBERRY (Rubus glaucus Benth WITH THREE SWEETENING AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Patricia Giraldo Bedoya

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre la deshidratación osmótica de mora de castilla con tres jarabes diferentes, sacarosa (js, sacarosa invertida (jsi y miel de caña (jmc, en iguales condiciones iniciales de concentración, 70 grados Brix, temperatura promedio de 20°C, y humedad relativa de 65% desarrollada en el Laboratorio de Frutas y Hortalizas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, permitió conocer que el jarabe de miel de caña presenta mayor poder osmótico (69,2% que los jarabes de sacarosa invertida (54,5% y sacarosa (50%, medido a partir del porcentaje de pérdida de peso de la mora. Con el proceso de estabilización del producto secado por convección forzada con aire caliente a 1,5 ms-1 de velocidad y 55°C de temperatura, durante 24 horas, logrando disminuir la humedad de los tres productos hasta 27,3%hbh, 30,8%hbh y 25,9%hbh para los jarabes de sacarosa, sacarosa invertida y miel de caña, respectivamente y mejorar las condiciones de empaque y almacenamiento, haciendo más estable el producto al ataque microbiano. Las pruebas preliminares de conservación se efectuaron en envases de vidrio de 250g durante 15 días. Se realizó además una prueba sensorial de ordenación con 10 jueces entrenados para la evaluación de las moras deshidratadas osmóticamente antes y después de la prueba de empaque y almacenamiento y como resultado se obtuvo que antes de la prueba de empaque y almacenamiento, el producto de mayor aceptación fue el correspondiente a las moras osmodeshidratadas en jarabe de sacarosa invertida y luego del empaque, la mayor aceptación fue para las moras osmodeshidratadas en jarabe de sacarosa.Studies of osmotic dehydration of blackberry with three different syrups, sucrose (ss, reverse sucrose (rss, and cane syrup (cs with identical initial concentration conditions, 70°Brix, mean temperature of 20°C, and relative humidity of 65% were undertaken in the Fruit and Vegetable Laboratory of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, showing that the cane syrup presented greater osmotic potential (69,2% compared to the reverse sucrose (54,5% and sucrose (50%, measured as the percentage weight loss of the blackberry samples. With the product dehydration process of drying with forced convection hot air at 1,5 ms-1 velocity and 55°C during 24 hours, it was possible to reduce the humidity of the three products to 27,3% hbh, 30,8% hbh and 25,9 % hbh for syrups of sucrose, reverse sucrose and cane syrup, respectively and improve the packaging and storage conditions, making the product more stable against microbial attacks. An ordenation sensorial test also was conducted with 10 judges trained for evaluation of osmotically dehydrated blackberries before and after the packing and storage process, the most accepted product was the one corresponding to the blackberries osmodehydrated in inverted sucrose syrup and after packaging the most accepted was blackberries osmodehydrated in sucrose syrup.

  15. Una nueva especie de Centrosema (DC. Benth. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae del Orinoco Una nueva especie de Centrosema (DC. Benth. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae del Orinoco

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    Schultze Kraft Rainer

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Centrosema is described and named C. tetragonolobum. It occurs in the region of the Orinoco river between latitudes 4° and 6° N in the Comisaría del Vichada, Colombia, and the Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Characteristic features of the species are winged pods, chartaceous to coriaceous leaves, and an erect-climbing growth habit. Una nueva especie de Centrosema es descrita como C. tetragonolobum. Su distribución está limitada a la región del río Orinoco entre latitudes 4° y 6° N en la Comisaría del Vichada, Colombia, y el Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Son características de la especie las legumbres aladas, hojas cartáceas a coriáceas, y un hábito de crecimiento erecto-trepador.

  16. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae); Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo Raul [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  17. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH Epotential of rhizobacterias for the growth of seedlings of sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

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    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of growth-promoting rhizobacteria for seed germination and biomass of the root system and aerial part of seedlings of sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia Peltophoroides: . Isolates pre-selected for eucalyptus were used, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 and CIIB. Thus, samples of vermiculite-based substrate and carbonized rice hull (1:1 were treated with 5 mL of a suspension of each isolate (OD540= 0.2 A/ tubette of 55 cc capacity corresponding to around 10 ufc/mL. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD with five repetitions per treatment, each constituted by 20 seeds. At 40 days, germination percentage and dry mass of the roots and the aerial parts were evaluated. A significant increase was observed in dry matter of the root and aerial part for all the rhizobacteria isolates tested, compared to the control. All the isolates provided significant germination increase, except 3918 and CIIB, which did not differ from the control. Among the tested isolates, four were the most promising (FL2, MF4, MF2 and CIIB. The results obtained show significant gains in seedling production, without any adjustment in nursery management or structure. In addition to this direct gain, it is possible to make a better use of the physical structure of the nurseries by reducing the time needed for seedling formation, reducing the production costs.

  18. Anatomia foliar de Rudgea decipiens Müll. Arg. e R. macrophylla Benth. (Rubiaceae Leaf anatomy of Rudgea decipiens Müll. Arg. and R. macrophylla Benth. [Rubiaceae

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    André Mantovani

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dados sobre a anatomia das folhas de Rudgea decipiens e R. macrophylla (Rubiaceae. Ambas ocorrem na Floresta de Tijuca (Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro. As folhas são hipostomáticas, com estômatos do tipo paralelocítico, dotadas de mesofilo dorsiventral, feixes vasculares do tipo colateral, papilas na epiderme abaxial e cutícula estriada. Em R. macrophylla, destaca-se a ocorrência de estômatos peculiares.Anatomical characteristics of Rudgea decipiens and R. macrophylla leaves were examined. The two species grow in Floresta da Tijuca (Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro municipality. The leaves are hipostomatics, with parallelocytic stomata, dorsiventral mesophyll, colateral vascular bundles, papillae on the lower surface and striate cuticle. The stomata show peculiar aspects in R. macrophylla.

  19. Separation and Purification of Two Flavone Glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth with Macroporous Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yuan; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Scutellarein-7-O-?-D-glucuronide (SG) and apigenin-7-O-?-D-glucuronide (AG) are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D...

  20. Separation and purification of two flavone glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth with macroporous resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Liu, Yuan; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Scutellarein-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide (SG) and apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide (AG) are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D141 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities and the highest desorption ratio for the two glucuronides among the tested resins. Sorption isotherms were constructed for D141 resin under optimal ethanol conditions and fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir models (R(2) > 0.95). Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests was performed on column packed with D141 resin. After one-run treatment with D141 resin, the two-constituent content in the final product was increased from 2.14% and 1.34% in the crude extract of Erigeron multiradiatus to 24.63% and 18.42% in the final products with the recoveries of 82.5% and 85.4%, respectively. The preparative separation of SG and AG can be easily and effectively achieved via adsorption and desorption on D141 resin, and the method developed can be referenced for large-scale separation and purification of flavone glucuronides from herbal raw materials.

  1. Separation and Purification of Two Flavone Glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl. Benth with Macroporous Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-feng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scutellarein-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (SG and apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (AG are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D141 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities and the highest desorption ratio for the two glucuronides among the tested resins. Sorption isotherms were constructed for D141 resin under optimal ethanol conditions and fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir models (R2>0.95. Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests was performed on column packed with D141 resin. After one-run treatment with D141 resin, the two-constituent content in the final product was increased from 2.14% and 1.34 % in the crude extract of Erigeron multiradiatus to 24.63% and 18.42% in the final products with the recoveries of 82.5% and 85.4%, respectively. The preparative separation of SG and AG can be easily and effectively achieved via adsorption and desorption on D141 resin, and the method developed can be referenced for large-scale separation and purification of flavone glucuronides from herbal raw materials.

  2. The Effect Of Sodium Chloride On Growth And Quality Of Plectranthus Forsteri Benth. ‘Nico’

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    Krzymińska Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on the response of Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ to NaCl. Plants were grown in pots of 1.5 dm3 and 0.15 dm3 water solution of NaCl at concentrations 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 g dm−3 in 2011 and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g dm−3 in 2012 were applied one time in the beginning of experiment. Sodium chloride applied at 10-40 g NaCl·dm−3 water, reduced plant growth and values of SPAD readings. It may be stated that Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ plants are tolerant to medium concentrations of sodium chloride (5-20 g NaCl·dm−3 water and therefore can be planted in flowerbeds in urbanized areas.

  3. Antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitory activities of the constituents of Plectranthus madagascariensis (Pers.) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubínová, Renata; Pořízková, Radka; Navrátilová, Alice; Farsa, Oldřich; Hanáková, Zuzana; Bačinská, Adriana; Cížek, Alois; Valentová, Marie

    2014-10-01

    Plectranthus madagascariensis is used as a traditional medicine in Southern Africa. In search of compounds and activities supporting the medicinal use, the chemical profile of the methanolic extract was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Four major constituents were isolated and identified as rosmarinic acid (1), 7β,6β-dihydroxyroyleanone (2), 7β-acetoxy-6β-hydroxyroyleanone (3) and coleon U quinone (4). The two abietane diterpenoids (2 and 3) were isolated for the first time from this species. Antimicrobial, cholinesterase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of these compounds were studied. The compounds exhibited inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase with IC50 values from 33 to 275 μM. Abietanes showed potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis.

  4. DETEKSI BAKTERI PATOGEN TERBAWA BENIH AKOR (ACACIA AURICULIFORMIS A. CUNN. EX BENTH.

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    Tati Suharti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Detection of seed-borne pathogenic bacteria of northern black wattle (Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex  enth.. Intensive research of seed-borne pathogen of A. mangium and A. crassicarpa which have been established in industrial timber estate (HTI was undertaken in Indonesia, while plantings development of northern black wattle have recently been established in the 1990s. Very limited information available on northern black wattle diseases especially seed-borne diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify seed-borne pathogenic bacteria of northern black wattle and the effects on seed germination. Methods for the isolation of bacteria were by seed soaking, seed griding, blotter test, growing-on test on paper and soil. Identification of bacteria by PCR used 63F/1387R primer. The results showed that seed-borne bacteria of northern black wattle were Paenochrobactrum sp., Ralstonia sp., Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Acinetobacter sp., Alcaligenes faecalis, Salmonella bongori, Escherichia hermannii while pathogenic bacteria cause seedling leafspot were Micrococcus luteus and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Burkholderia cepacia complex, A. faecalis, Acinetobater sp., P. stutzeri, S. bongori and Ralstonia sp. reduced seed germination and increased rotten seed, suggested that they were the pathogenic bacteria of northern black wattle seed. Ralstonia sp. significantly increased the percentage of rotten seed and decreased shoot length and root length. P. stutzeri and S. bongori significantly inhibited the root growth. Paenochrobactrum sp. and E. hermannii were assumed as pathogen with weak virulence due to seed germination, the percentage of rotten seed and vigour index were relatively similar to untreated seed.

  5. Twigs of Albizia niopoides (Spruce ex Benth. Burkart as a nesting resource for ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Otávio Guilherme Morais da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ants can use twigs from fragments of tree branches as a nesting resource. The present study analyzed gatherings of ants in twigs of Albizia niopoides, a Fabaceae native to the Atlantic Forest that is used in landscaping in parks and squares in Brazil. Expeditions were performed in an urban park located in Atlantic Forest areas between February and June 2014. A total of 70 twigs with ants were collected and included 9357 workers, 2309 broods ants, 68 winged ants and 19 queens. Four subfamilies, 10 genera and 17 species/morphospecies were recorded. The species with the largest number of nests were Nylanderia sp.1, Hypoponera sp.4, and Wasmannia auropunctata. Ants of different species were found coexisting in the same twig, and Pheidole gr. tristis was the most common species found sharing a nest. Among the species recorded, only Pseudomyrmex gracilis and P. phyllophilus are arboreal; the others also live in litter. For some species, our results indicate that the twig occupation in the litter can be structured and not by chance. No correlation was found between the twig structure and the colony components.

  6. Pharmacokinetic study of gallocatechin-7-gallate from Pithecellobium clypearia Benth. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Song, Xiaowei; Song, Junke; Pang, Xiaocong; Wang, Zhe; Zhao, Ying; Lian, Wenwen; Liu, Ailin; Du, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of gallocatechin-7-gallate (J10688) was studied in rats after intravenous administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg (i.v.) of J10688 and plasma drug concentrations were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. The pharmacokinetic software Data Analysis System (Version 3.0) was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. For different i.v. doses of J10688, the mean peak plasma concentration (C 0) values ranged from 11.26 to 50.82 mg/L, and mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t ) values ranged from 1.75 to 11.80 (mg·h/L). J10688 lacked dose-dependent pharmacokinetic properties within doses between 1 and 10 mg/kg, based on the power model. The method developed in this study was sensitive, precise, and stable. The pharmacokinetic properties of J10688 in SD rats were shown to have rapid distribution and clearance values. These pharmacokinetic results may contribute to an improved understanding of the pharmacological actions of J10688.

  7. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva

    2014-01-01

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  8. Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayker Lazaro Dantas Miranda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature.

  9. Isolation and antitrichomonal activity of the chemical constituents of the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides Benth. (Celastraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moo-Puc, Juan Alberto; Martin-Quintal, Zhelmy; Miron-Lopez, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejon, Gonzalo J., E-mail: mrejon@uady.mx [Laboratorio de Quimica Farmaceutica. Facultad de Quimica. Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan (Mexico); Moo-Puc, Rosa Esther [Unidad de Investigacion Medica Yucatan, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Yucatan (Mexico); Quijano, Leovigildo [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Cyclolignan (+)-lyoniresinol (1), veratric acid (2), vanillic acid (3), lupeol, oleanolic acid, 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4), the mixture of α- and β-amyrin, trans-polyisoprene, and β-sitosterol were isolated from the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on spectroscopic data, mainly {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Compound 1, its acetate analog 1a, and compounds 2, 3, and 4 were tested against Trichomonas vaginalis. (+)-Lyoniresinol showed activity corresponding to IC{sub 50} 17.57 μM. This is the first report on the occurrence of 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4) in the Celastraceous family and lyoniresinol in the Maytenus genus, and on the antitrichomonal activity of lyoniresinol. (author)

  10. Pharmacokinetic study of gallocatechin-7-gallate from Pithecellobium clypearia Benth. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetic profile of gallocatechin-7-gallate (J10688 was studied in rats after intravenous administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats received 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg (i.v. of J10688 and plasma drug concentrations were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC–MS method. The pharmacokinetic software Data Analysis System (Version 3.0 was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. For different i.v. doses of J10688, the mean peak plasma concentration (C0 values ranged from 11.26 to 50.82 mg/L, and mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0–t values ranged from 1.75 to 11.80 (mg·h/L. J10688 lacked dose-dependent pharmacokinetic properties within doses between 1 and 10 mg/kg, based on the power model. The method developed in this study was sensitive, precise, and stable. The pharmacokinetic properties of J10688 in SD rats were shown to have rapid distribution and clearance values. These pharmacokinetic results may contribute to an improved understanding of the pharmacological actions of J10688.

  11. Effect of Water Deficit on Water Relations, Photosynthesis and Osmolytes Accumulation of Salvia leriifolia Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dashti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of water deficit (WD stress on water relations and some physiological characteristics of Salvia leriifolia Bench., a greenhouse experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with three replications. Irrigation treatments were fully irrigated as control (-0.035 MPa, mild stress (-0.138 MPa, moderate stress (-0.516 MPa and severe stress (-1.92 MPa. One set of stressed plants were kept constantly in different levels of matric potentials and the other set (Recovery treatments irrigated to maximum water holding capacity after soil water was depleted in each stress level. Measured parameters were leaf relative water content (LRWC, membrane stability index (MSI, prolin and soluble carbohydrates content, gas exchange parameters, Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency (WUEi and Intrinsic Gas Exchange Efficiency (GEEi. The results showed that LRWC and MSI in control plants significantly (P≤0.05 were lower than mild stress but decreased 17.3% and 21% respectively in severe stress compared to control. Soluble carbohydrates content was increased with increasing WD levels but it was only significant with control plants. There was strong negative correlation between LRWC and proline content (r= -0.99***, therefore leaves proline content increased twice (1023 nmol per g fresh weight at -1.92 Mpa compared to control. Results also indicated that gas exchange parameters were not significantly difference in mild WD against control but with decreasing soil matric potential to -1.92 Mpa, net photosynthesis rate (A, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance (gs decreased 52, 62 and 75 % respectively. In contrast WUEi and GEE increased 35 and 92% respectively.

  12. Índice de diversidade para entomofauna da bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.).

    OpenAIRE

    Ervandil Corrêa Costa; Dionisio Link; Liliana D. de Medina

    2009-01-01

    No período de abril de 1983 a setembro de 1984, efetuou-se o levantamento da entomofauna da bracatinga, em Almirante Tamandaré, PR. Os levantamentos foram efetuados quinzenalmente em copas de talhões com 8, 42 e 60 meses de idade, através da rede de copa e, de seus respectivos sub-bosques com rede de varredura. Para o cálculo do índice de diversidade utilizou-se a fórmula  alfa = (S-1)/log N. Para a tabulação dos dados, optou-se pelas ordens Homoptera, Hemíptera e Coleóptera que apresentar...

  13. ÍNDICE DE DIVERSIDADE PARA ENTOMOFAUNA DA BRACATINGA (Mimosa scabrella Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana D. de Medina; Dionísio Link; Ervandil Correa Costa

    1993-01-01

    No período de abril de 1983 a setembro de 1984, efetuou-se o levantamento da entomofauna da bracatinga, em Almirante Tamandaré, PR. Os levantamentos foram efetuados quinzenalmente em copas de talhões com 8, 42 e 60 meses de idade, através da rede de copa e, de seus respectivos sub-bosques com rede de varredura. Para o cálculo do índice de diversidade utilizou-se a fórmula alfa = (S-1)/log N. Para a tabulação dos dados, optou-se pelas ordens Homoptera, Hemíptera e Coleóptera que apresentaram m...

  14. ÍNDICE DE DIVERSIDADE PARA ENTOMOFAUNA DA BRACATINGA (Mimosa scabrella Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana D. de Medina

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de abril de 1983 a setembro de 1984, efetuou-se o levantamento da entomofauna da bracatinga, em Almirante Tamandaré, PR. Os levantamentos foram efetuados quinzenalmente em copas de talhões com 8, 42 e 60 meses de idade, através da rede de copa e, de seus respectivos sub-bosques com rede de varredura. Para o cálculo do índice de diversidade utilizou-se a fórmula alfa = (S-1/log N. Para a tabulação dos dados, optou-se pelas ordens Homoptera, Hemíptera e Coleóptera que apresentaram maior consistência quali-quantitativa. De acordo com os resultados obtidos ficou evidenciado que com o aumento da idade da planta e de seu respectivo sub-bosque ocorre um aumento concomitante e gradativo da diversidade das espécies. Com relação aos dois ecossistemas estudados o sub-bosque apresentou um valor maior para o índice de diversidade e no que se refere a diversidade das espécies entre famílias, separadamente, Chrysomelidae destacou-se com o mais alto índice para o ecossistema formado pelas copas e, entre os diferentes sub-bosques destacou-se a família Curculionidae.

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum canum Sims. and Ocimum selloi Benth.

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    Jeferson C. Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the volatile oils of Ocimum canum and Ocimum selloi, both occurring in Jequié/BA, northeastern Brazil. The plants were collected in the winter/2005 andsummer/2006, the oils extracted by steam distillation and further analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 and 31 compounds was identified from the oils of O. selloi and O. canum, respectively. It was observed that the oil content of O. canum showed variation during the seasons, while the oils of O. selloi did not. Methylchavicol and linalool were the main chemical components found in the aerial parts and leaves of O. canum. This finding permitted to characterize this specimen as a new chemotype of O. canum. Regarding the aerial parts of O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineole, transcaryophyllene and linalool were identified as their major components. All extracted oils from the aerial parts showed biological activity against gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 - but only the O. canum one showed activity against gram-negative bacilli - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.Este trabalho descreve a composição química e a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos voláteis de Ocimum canum e Ocimum selloi, que ocorrem em Jequié/BA, nordeste do Brasil. As plantas foram colhidas no inverno de 2005 e verão de 2006 e os óleos extraídos por destilação a vapor foram posteriormente analisados por GC-MS. Um total de 30 e 31 compostos foi identificado a partir dos óleos de O. selloi e O. canum, respectivamente. Foi observado que o teor de óleo de O. canum apresentou variação durante as estações do ano, enquanto o óleo de O. selloi não. Metilchavicol e linalol foram os principais componentes químicos encontrados na parte aérea e folhas de O. canum. Esta descoberta permitiu caracterizar este espécime como um novo quimiotipo de O. canum. Com relação às partes aéreas de O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineol, trans-cariofileno e linalol foram identificadas como os seus principais componentes. Todos os óleos extraídos das partes aéreas apresentaram atividade biológica contra cocos gram-positivo - Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 - mas apenas aquele de O. canum apresentou atividade contra bacilo gram-negativo - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao; Guo, Sen; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Yang, Meiqi; Liu, Qingchao; Zhang, Li; Ho, Chi-Tang; Bai, Naisheng

    2018-02-01

    Ptychopetalum olacoides is a folk medicinal plant for health care in market, especially in Brazil. Fourteen known compounds were isolated from P. olacoides and their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data, including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, UV, IR and HR-ESI-MS. The 14 known compounds were identified as N-trans-feruloyl-3,5-dihydroxyindolin-2-one (1), magnoflorine (2), menisperine (3), 4-coumaroylserotonin (4), moschamine (5), luteolin (6), 4'-methoxyluteolin (7), 3-methoxyluteolin (8), 3, 7-dimethoxyluteolin (9), caffeic acid (10), ferulic acid (11), vanillic acid (12), syringic acid (13) and ginsenoside Re (14). To our knowledge, compounds (1-6, 13-14) were isolated from the plant for the first time. Additionally, quantitative analysis results indicated that calibration equations of compounds (1-3, 6, 9, 11-13) exhibited good linear regressions within the test ranges (R 2  ≥ 0.9990) and magnoflorine and menisperine were the major constituents in the barks of P. olacoides. The contents of magnoflorine and menisperine accounted for 75.96% of all analytes. However, the content of phenolic components was smaller and the highest content was no more than 1.04 mg/g. Collectively, these results suggested that alkaloids are the dominant substances in P. olacoides, which can make a difference for the quality control and further use of P. olacoides.

  17. Antioxidant and Toxicity Studies of 50% Methanolic Extract of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth

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    Mun Fei Yam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity and potential toxicity of 50% methanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus (Lamiaceae leaves (MEOS after acute and subchronic administration in rats. Superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and ferrous ion chelating methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the extract. In acute toxicity study, single dose of MEOS, 5000 mg/kg, was administered to rats by oral gavage, and the treated rats were monitored for 14 days. While in the subchronic toxicity study, MEOS was administered orally, at doses of 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. From the results, MEOS showed good superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating, and antilipid peroxidation activities. There was no mortality detected or any signs of toxicity in acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in bodyweight, relative organ weight, and haematological and biochemical parameters between both male and female treated rats in any doses tested. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The oral lethal dose determined was more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL of MEOS for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day.

  18. Antifungal activities and active ingredients of Melodinus suaveolens Champ. ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanan; Ling, Siquan; Zeng, Dongqiang; Tang, Wenwei

    2017-07-16

    Four Melodinus species with antifungal activity were found in survey of the floral resources, in Shiwan Mountain Natural Reserve, Guangxi Province, China. Crude methanolic extracts of the twigs and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens exhibited potent antifungal activities against the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum graminicola, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria musae, and the ethyl acetate fraction inhibited these pathogens at rates of 85.37, 91.47, 72.77 and 89.87%, respectively (5 mg/mL). A new compound, (2R, 3S, 5S, 6R)-1-O-methyl- chiro-inositol was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction, along with 15 known compounds. The antifungal activities of compounds (1-16) were evaluated for the first time. Compound (4) had potent antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides, C. graminicola and A. musae.

  19. Quality characterization of Andean blackberry fruits (Rubus glaucus Benth. in different maturity stages in Antioquia, Colombia

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    Catarina Pedro Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Product quality and safety are two essential characteristics for the fruit market, making it necessary to normalize and standardize processes in order to improve their commercialization. In this study, the quality of two Andean blackberry cultivars grown in two regions of Antioquia (Envigado and Guarne, Colombia, from different maturity stages as defined by the Norma Tecnica Colombiana 7146 (NTC Spanish was characterized. The parameters that were found suitable for the fruit quality characterization were: weight, total solid soluble content (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, maturity index (MI, color index (CI and firmness (F. The equatorial diameter (ED maintained its importance relative to the standard and the market, along with the juice yield (JY. The quotient a*/b* presented the best correlation with the visual color scale as defined in the standard. The TSS ranges defined in NTC 4106 were not verified in this studied for fruits grown in the agro-climatic conditions of Antioquia. Linear regression models are a useful tool for making quick and easy comparisons and estimations of the quality parameters.

  20. Phenotype-specific apoptosis induced by three new triterpenoid saponins from Albizia glaberrima (Schumach. & Thonn.) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noté, Olivier Placide; Azouaou, Sarah Ali; Simo, Line; Antheaume, Cyril; Guillaume, Dominique; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Muller, Christian Dominique; Lobstein, Annelise

    2016-03-01

    As part of our search of new bioactive saponins from Cameroonian medicinal plants, phytochemical investigation of the roots of Albizia glaberrima led to the isolation of three new oleanane-type saponins, named glaberrimosides A-C (1-3). Their structures were established by direct interpretation of their spectral data, mainly HRESIMS, 1D NMR (1H, 13C NMR, and DEPT) and 2D NMR (COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) as 3-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid (1), 3-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid (2), and 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-fucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid (3). The pro-apoptotic effect of the three saponins was evaluated on three human cell lines (pancreatic carcinoma AsPC-1, hematopoietic monocytic THP-1, and human fibroblast cell line BJ). Saponins 1-3 specifically induced apoptosis of pancreatic carcinoma cell (AsPC-1) in a dose-dependent manner. More interestingly, there were inactive on monocytic (THP-1) and normal human fibroblast (BJ) cell lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antidiarrheal Activity of 19-Deoxyicetexone Isolated from Salvia ballotiflora Benth in Mice and Rats

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    Ernesto Sánchez-Mendoza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The antidiarrheal properties of 19-deoxyicetexone, a diterpenoid isolated from Salvia ballotiflora were evaluated on castor oil-, arachidonic acid (AA- and prostaglandin (PGE2-induced diarrhea in rodent models. The structure of 19-deoxyicetexone was determined by X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry (EI-MS, as well as ultraviolet (UV-Vis, infrared (FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies. This compound significantly and dose-dependently reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, and at dose of 25 mg/kg it also inhibited diarrhea induced with AA, while it had no effect on PGE2-induced diarrhea. This compound at doses of 25 mg/kg also diminished castor oil-induced enteropooling and intestinal motility, and inhibited the contraction of the rats’ ileum induced by carbachol chloride at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. 19-Deoxyicetexone did not present acute toxicity at doses of 625 mg/kg. Its antidiarrheal activity may be due to increased reabsorption of NaCl and water and inhibition of the release of prostaglandins, gastrointestinal motility and fluid accumulation in the intestinal tracts of rats. These findings suggest that 19-deoxyicetexone may be used in the treatment of diarrhea, although more studies must be carried out to confirm this.

  2. CARACTERIZACION FISICOQUÍMICA DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth. EN SEIS ESTADOS DE MADUREZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEIDY CAROLINA AYALA S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El interés de productores, comercializadores y consumidores de la región por la mora de Castilla producida en el municipio de Ibagué y la poca información sobre sus cualidades dieron origen a la presente caracterización del fruto en seis estados de madurez. Los resultados morfológicos y fisicoquímicos indican que el grado óptimo de recolección es 5 atendiendo al buen índice de cosecha, firmeza, peso, sólidos solubles totales (SST, rendimiento y material insoluble en alcohol (MIA, en esta fase de maduración la acidez limita el crecimiento bacteriano no obstante persistan problemas fúngicos como Botritys Cinérea. Así mismo, la cosecha en grados de madurez 4 y 6 no son viables, debido a bajo peso y volumen; y fragilidad estructural que con frecuencia incide en la lixiviación, fermentación y magullado de la fruta respectivamente. En general el análisis estadístico pone de manifiesto diferencias significativas entre grados de madurez respecto a peso, diámetro mayor, volumen, acidez, SST, minerales y MIA, ratificando la importante relación entre el momento de cosecha y estado de desarrollo del fruto debido a su incidencia directa en la calidad del producto y competitividad comercial.

  3. A pharmacognostic study of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) : bioactivity, safety, and phytochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toyang, Ngeh Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The world continues to be plagued by numerous diseases and health complications. Unfortunately, current drug discovery efforts are lagging behind compared to the pace of emergence of new diseases or the development of resistance to current therapies. Medicinal plants especially for people in

  4. New Betaproteobacterial Rhizobium Strains Able To Efficiently Nodulate Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulé, Cecilia; Zabaleta, María; Mareque, Cintia; Platero, Raúl; Sanjurjo, Lucía; Sicardi, Margarita; Frioni, Lillian; Battistoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Among the leguminous trees native to Uruguay, Parapiptadenia rigida (Angico), a Mimosoideae legume, is one of the most promising species for agroforestry. Like many other legumes, it is able to establish symbiotic associations with rhizobia and belongs to the group known as nitrogen-fixing trees, which are major components of agroforestry systems. Information about rhizobial symbionts for this genus is scarce, and thus, the aim of this work was to identify and characterize rhizobia associated with P. rigida. A collection of Angico-nodulating isolates was obtained, and 47 isolates were selected for genetic studies. According to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of their nifH and 16S rRNA genes, the isolates could be grouped into seven genotypes, including the genera Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium, among which the Burkholderia genotypes were the predominant group. Phylogenetic studies of nifH, nodA, and nodC sequences from the Burkholderia and the Cupriavidus isolates indicated a close relationship of these genes with those from betaproteobacterial rhizobia (beta-rhizobia) rather than from alphaproteobacterial rhizobia (alpha-rhizobia). In addition, nodulation assays with representative isolates showed that while the Cupriavidus isolates were able to effectively nodulate Mimosa pudica, the Burkholderia isolates produced white and ineffective nodules on this host. PMID:22226956

  5. The effect of 60Co γ irradiation on culture in vitro of Pogostemon cablin (blanco) benth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lirong; He Hong; Zhang Yanling; Liu Xing; Lin Xiaohua

    2008-01-01

    The 60 Co γ-irradiation on culture in vitro of Pogostemon cablin is studied to breed new variety. The explants used for 60 Co γ-irradiation were the leaf segments, nodular stem segments, stem segments and root tips from Pogostemon cablin. The media for culture in vitro were MT basal media containing 0.05mg/L BA. As irradiation dosage increased, the mortality of different explants from Pogostemon cablin increased. The irradiation dosage of LD50 for leaf segments, nodular stem segments and stem segments were 72, 64 and 66Gy, respectively, which were deduced from the regression equation. As the irradiation dosage increased, the ability of the plant regeneration of the explants decreased. 60 Co γ-irradiation could make the explants damage or die. Irradiation could inhibit the regeneration of explants from Pogostemon cablin obviously. The changes in the appearance of the regenerated plants were also observed. (authors)

  6. Biofabrication of copper oxide nanoparticles using Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) fruit and leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Brajesh Kumar; Kumari Smita; Luis Cumbal; Alexis Debut; Yolanda Angulo

    2017-01-01

    Biofabrication of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) of a desired size remains a significant challenge. In this report, CuO-NPs were fabricated by treating 10 mM copper nitrate with Andean blackberry fruit (ABF) and leaf (ABL); and evaluated its antioxidant activity. As-prepared NPs characterization were determined by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...

  7. Biofabrication of copper oxide nanoparticles using Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth. fruit and leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofabrication of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs of a desired size remains a significant challenge. In this report, CuO-NPs were fabricated by treating 10 mM copper nitrate with Andean blackberry fruit (ABF and leaf (ABL; and evaluated its antioxidant activity. As-prepared NPs characterization were determined by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM with selected area electron diffraction (SAED and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. UV–visible spectroscopy showed an electronic excitonic transition at 250–255 nm clearly reveals the formation of ABF and ABL CuO-NPs. DLS analysis demonstrated mean diameter of ABF CuO-NPs (43.3 nm smaller than ABL CuO-NPs (52.5 nm. TEM with SAED confirmed the CuO-NPs are spherical and of partial crystalline nature. Furthermore, the antioxidant efficacy of ABF CuO-NPs showed 89.02%, 1 mM whereas ABL CuO-NPs 75.92%, 1 mM against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green CuO-NPs could be used effectively in future biomedical concerns.

  8. Crown-Stump Diameter Model for Parkia biglobosa Benth. Species in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chukwu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The crown of tree is the centre of physiological activity which gives an indication of the potential photosynthetic capacity on a tree. Though, its measurement remains a challenge in forest inventory task. The ability to predict crown diameter from stump diameter provides an effective technique of obtaining its estimate. This helps in detecting the excessive tree felling than actual requirements and wildlife suitability.The main objective of this study was to develop and test crown diameter prediction models for silvicultural management of naturally grown Parkia biglobosa within the University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Nine 100 m x 100 m temporary sample plots were established using simple random sampling method. Crown diameter and stump diameter were measured in all living P. biglobosa trees with stump diameter ≥10.0 cm. Least square method was used to convert the counted stumps into harvested crown dimension. Three linear and three non-linear models using stump diameter as the exploratory variable were developed and evaluated using the adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2, standard error of estimate (SEE, prediction error sum of squares (PRESS and Akaike information criterion (AIC. The crown-stump diameter relationship was best described by the double logarithmic function with .The result showed that Crown diameter estimation was feasible even when the only information available is stump diameter.The resulting equation was tested for validation with independent data obtained from additional plots and was found to be desirable for estimating the crown diameter for Parkia biglobosa in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

  9. Effect of Salvia leriifolia Benth. root extracts on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle

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    Nassiri-Asl Marjan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salvia leriifolia have been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury in brain tissues. In this study, the effects of S. leriifolia aqueous and ethanolic extracts were evaluated on an animal model of I/R injury in the rat hind limb. Methods Ischemia was induced using free-flap surgery in skeletal muscle. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. leriifolia (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg root and normal saline (10 ml/kg were administered intraperitoneally 1 h prior reperfusion. During preischemia, ischemia and reperfusion conditions the electromyographic (EMG potentials in the muscles were recorded. The markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, total sulfhydryl (SH groups and antioxidant capacity of muscle (using FRAP assay were measured. Results In peripheral ischemia, the average peak-to-peak amplitude during ischemic-reperfusion was found to be significantly larger in extracts groups in comparison with control group. Following extracts administration, the total SH contents and antioxidant capacity were elevated in muscle flap. The MDA level was also declined significantly in test groups. Conclusion It is concluded that S. leriifolia root extracts have some protective effects on different markers of oxidative damage in muscle tissue injury caused by lower limb ischemia-reperfusion.

  10. Effect of Salvia leriifolia Benth. root extracts on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Hosseini, Azar; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Sadeghnia, Hamid-Reza

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Salvia leriifolia have been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in brain tissues. In this study, the effects of S. leriifolia aqueous and ethanolic extracts were evaluated on an animal model of I/R injury in the rat hind limb. Methods Ischemia was induced using free-flap surgery in skeletal muscle. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. leriifolia (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) root and normal saline (10 ml/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 1 h prior repe...

  11. Effect of Salvia leriifolia Benth. root extracts on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Hosseini, Azar; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Sadeghnia, Hamid-Reza

    2007-07-07

    Salvia leriifolia have been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in brain tissues. In this study, the effects of S. leriifolia aqueous and ethanolic extracts were evaluated on an animal model of I/R injury in the rat hind limb. Ischemia was induced using free-flap surgery in skeletal muscle. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. leriifolia (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) root and normal saline (10 ml/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 1 h prior reperfusion. During preischemia, ischemia and reperfusion conditions the electromyographic (EMG) potentials in the muscles were recorded. The markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total sulfhydryl (SH) groups and antioxidant capacity of muscle (using FRAP assay) were measured. In peripheral ischemia, the average peak-to-peak amplitude during ischemic-reperfusion was found to be significantly larger in extracts groups in comparison with control group. Following extracts administration, the total SH contents and antioxidant capacity were elevated in muscle flap. The MDA level was also declined significantly in test groups. It is concluded that S. leriifolia root extracts have some protective effects on different markers of oxidative damage in muscle tissue injury caused by lower limb ischemia-reperfusion.

  12. Growth of a leguminous tree (Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth.) inoculated with Rhizobium and mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M S; Gonçalves, L M; Lemos-Filho, J P; Rocha, D; Vale, M T; Scotti, M R

    1997-01-01

    Leguminous trees are being suggested for revegetation programs due to their ability to develop associations with rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi. The growth of a native species of the Tropical Atlantic Forest, Centrolobium tomentosum, was evaluated in a native forest soil and in a Eucalyptus forest soil under different treatments of inoculation. C. tomentosum produced more biomass under nursery conditions after inoculation with Rhizobium BHICB-Ab1 associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM). This treatment improved shoot and root growth and nodule weight under forest soil condition, while in eucalyptus soil only shoot biomass and nodule weight were significantly modified. In another experiment, using forest soil, height and stem diameter were also increased by dual inoculation procedures. The height and diameter growth promoting effect was observed when BHICB-Ab1 was used as inoculant associated with AM, but not with BHICB-Ab1 alone. In contrast, plants inoculated with BHICB-Ab3 alone were similar in height and diameter growth, to those which were inoculated with BHICB-Ab3 associated with AM. These results suggest that benefits of dual inoculation depend on triparty symbiosis and especially on the choice of Rhizobium strain.

  13. Picrorhiza kurroa (Kutaki Royle ex Benth as a hepatoprotective agent--experimental & clinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya A

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Picrorhiza kurroa (Pk, a known hepatoprotective plant, was studied in experimental and clinical situtations. The standardization of active principles--Picroside 1 and 2 was done with High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Picroside 1 ranged from 2.72 to 2.88 mg/capsule and picroside 2 from 5.50 to 6.00 mg/capsule. In the galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats, Pk at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05 in liver lipid content, GOT and GPT. In a randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial in patients diagnosed to have acute viral hepatitis (HBsAg negative, Pk root powder 375 mg three times a day was given for 2 weeks (n = 15 or a matching placebo (n = 18 was given. Difference in values of bilirubin, SGOT and SGPT was significant between placebo and Pk groups. The time in days required for total serum bilirubin to drop to average value of 2.5 mg% was 75.9 days in placebo as against 27.44 days in Pk group. The present study has shown a biological plausability of efficacy of Pk as supported by clinical trial in viral hepatitis, hepatoprotection in animal model and an approach for standardizing extracts based on picroside content.

  14. Antileishmanial activity of 12-methoxycarnosic acid from Salvia repens Burch. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoka, TA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, Salvia repens is used traditionally to treat sores, stomach ache and diarrhoea. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based activity profiling of S. repens whole plant extract showed an active abietane diterpene...

  15. Karyotypic studies of Cratylia argentea (Desv.) O. Kuntze and C. mollis Mart. ex Benth. (Fabaceae - Papilionoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, S M; Torres, G A; Sobrinho, F S; Pereira, A V; Davide, L C

    2007-09-30

    Cratylia argentea and C. mollis (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae) are legume shrubs native to the Cerrado and Caatinga, respectively. Both species show great resistance to drought and high nutritive value, which makes them a valuable forage resource in tropical regions. Cytogenetic studies were carried out on accessions of C. argentea and C. mollis from Germplasm Banks of Embrapa Gado de Leite (Juiz de Fora, MG) and Embrapa Semi-Arido (Petrolina, PE), respectively. Root tips were treated with 3 mM 8-hydroxyquinoline and slides were made using the air-dry technique. Karyotype description for each accession took into account the following features: chromosome number; total length, relative length and arm ratio of each chromosome; haploid set length, and degree of asymmetry. Mitotic metaphases in both species showed 2n = 22 chromosomes, where this is the first report of diploid number for C. mollis. Chromosome length was also quite similar for the two species, ranging from 5.08 to 2.50 microm in C. argentea and 5.12 to 2.51 microm in C. mollis, with haploid sets of equal size, measuring 38.10 and 37.85 microm, respectively. However, they did not show the same karyotypic formula, which was 5 m + 4 sm + 2 st for C. argentea and 7 m + 2 sm + 2 st for C. mollis. This indicates the occurrence of rearrangements within chromosomes I and VI. Both karyotypes showed a tendency for asymmetry.

  16. Controlled release fertilizer and container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan seedlings

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    Ezequiel Gasparin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for native tree seedlings will require improvements in quality standards of production processes through the use of more efficient cultivation techniques. This study evaluated the effects of different doses of controlled release fertilizer (CRF and different container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida seedlings. We examined the effects of five different concentrations (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g L-1 substrate of CRF (18-5-9 NPK and three different container volumes (50, 110 and 180 cm3 on seedling height (H and collar diameter (CD measured monthly for seven months and then calculated H/CD ratios. After 210 days of growth, the dry masses of the aerial portions, root systems, and total masses were determined, as well as the concentrations of macro- and micronutrients in the aerial portions of the seedlings. In general, the dose 9 g L-1 substrate combined with the 180 cm3 cultivation tubes demonstrated the best results in terms of the morphological variables analyzed, resulting in consistent quality seedlings for field planting.

  17. Notas sobre el género Anetanthus hieron. ex Benth. (Gesneriaceae en Colombia

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    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution in Colombia of Anetanthus (Gesneriaceae at one species with two subspecies in its territory is presented. One of this, new subspecies, is described and illustrated in this note.Se presenta la distribución en Colombia del género Anetanthus (Gesneriaceae, representado en el territorio por una especie con dos subespecies. Una de ellas, subespecie nueva, se describe e ilustra en esta nota.

  18. Reproductive phenology and pollination biology of Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae.

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    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the phenology and biology of the pollination of C. brasiliensis in an area of its natural occurrence (Pocinhos – PB. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit appeared. Visitors to flowers were observed throughout the experiment, and the frequency, time and behavior of their visits was registered. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrated a pattern of annual flowering which was continuous, of long duration, with periods of greater flowering activity in the dry season. The inflorescence is of the paniculatum type, with flowers whose attributes are related to the syndrome of melittophily. Anthesis occurs during the day, beginning at 05h00. Nectar is produced from the phase of pre-anthesis, with a concentration of sugars around 44-60%. Visits by bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta and X. sp., Apis mellifera and Centris similis and birds (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura and Coereba flaveola were observed. Xylocopa frontalis acted as an effective pollinator.

  19. Essential Oil Composition of Nepeta raphanorhiza Benth growing in Kashmir valley

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    Bilal A. Dar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of the aerial parts of Nepeta raphanorhiza is reported for the first time. Capillary GC-FID & GC-MS analysis of the essential oil led to the identification of 16 components accounting for 97.5% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominated the oil composition accounting for 65.3 % followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons constituting 19.5 % of the total oil composition. The major components were (Z β-farnesene (49.2%, δ-3-carene (12.3%, α bisabolene (9.4% and germacrene D 4 ol (5.8%.

  20. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of 7-Hydroxy-calamenene-Rich Essential Oils from Croton cajucara Benth.

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    Celuta S. Alviano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton cajucara is a shrub native to the Amazon region locally known as “sacaca”. Two morphotypes are known: white and red “sacaca”. The essential oils (EO obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%–37.5%. The effectiveness of these EO regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. Among the microorganisms tested, the essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the oils were determined using the broth dilution assay. It was possible to observe that 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich oils presented high antimicrobial activity, with MIC of 4.76 × 10−3 μg/mL for MRSA, 4.88 μg/mL for M. tuberculosis, 39.06 μg/mL for M. smegmatis, and 0.152 μg/mL for R. oryzae and 3.63 × 10−8 μg/mL for M. circinelloides. The antioxidant activity of this EO suggests that 7-hydroxycalamenene provides more antioxidant activity according with EC50 less than 63.59 μg/mL. Considering the bioactive potential of EOs and 7-hydroxycalamenene could be of great interest for development of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in humans and/or veterinary practice.

  1. Isolation and antitrichomonal activity of the chemical constituents of the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides Benth. (Celastraceae

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    Juan Alberto Moo-Puc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclolignan (+-lyoniresinol (1, veratric acid (2, vanillic acid (3, lupeol, oleanolic acid, 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4, the mixture of α- and β-amyrin, trans-polyisoprene, and β-sitosterol were isolated from the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on spectroscopic data, mainly ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Compound 1, its acetate analog 1a, and compounds 2, 3, and 4 were tested against Trichomonas vaginalis. (+-Lyoniresinol showed activity corresponding to IC50 17.57 µM. This is the first report on the occurrence of 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4 in the Celastraceous family and lyoniresinol in the Maytenus genus, and on the antitrichomonal activity of lyoniresinol.

  2. Arsenic toxicity in Acacia mangium willd. and mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia benth. seedlings

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    Henrique Nery Cipriani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia are fast-growing woody fabaceous species that might be suitable for phytoremediation of arsenic (As-contaminated sites. To date, few studies on their tolerance to As toxicity have been published. Therefore, this study assessed As toxicity symptoms in A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia seedlings under As stress in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Acacia mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia were grown for 120 d in an Oxisol-sand mixture with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 As, in four replications in four randomized blocks. The plants were assessed for visible toxicity symptoms, dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, root anatomy and As uptake. Analyses of variance and regression showed that the growth of A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia was severely hindered by As, with a reduction in dry matter production of more than 80 % at the highest As rate. The root/shoot ratio increased with increasing As rates. At a rate of 400 mg kg-1 As, whitish chlorosis appeared on Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia seedlings. The root anatomy of both species was altered, resulting in cell collapse, death of root buds and accumulation of phenolic compounds. Arsenic concentration was several times greater in roots than in shoots, with more than 150 and 350 mg kg-1 in M. caesalpiniaefolia and A. mangium roots, respectively. These species could be suitable for phytostabilization of As-contaminated sites, but growth-stimulating measures should be used.

  3. Índice de diversidade para entomofauna da bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth..

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    Ervandil Corrêa Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 No período de abril de 1983 a setembro de 1984, efetuou-se o levantamento da entomofauna da bracatinga, em Almirante Tamandaré, PR. Os levantamentos foram efetuados quinzenalmente em copas de talhões com 8, 42 e 60 meses de idade, através da rede de copa e, de seus respectivos sub-bosques com rede de varredura. Para o cálculo do índice de diversidade utilizou-se a fórmula  alfa = (S-1/log N. Para a tabulação dos dados, optou-se pelas ordens Homoptera, Hemíptera e Coleóptera que apresentaram maior consistência quali-quantitativa. De acordo com os resultados obtidos ficou evidenciado que com o aumento da idade da planta e de seu respectivo sub-bosque ocorre um aumento concomitante e gradativo da diversidade das espécies. Com relação aos dois ecossistemas estudados o sub-bosque apresentou um valor  maior  para  o  índice de diversidade e no que se refere a diversidade das espécies entre famílias, separadamente, Chrysomelidae destacou-se com o mais alto  índice para o ecossistema formado pelas copas e, entre os diferentes sub-bosques destacou-se a família Curculionidae.

  4. Influência do armazenamento de folhas secas no óleo essencial de patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth. Storage influence of dried leaves on patchouly (Pogostemon cablin Benth. essential oil

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    Trícia Cavalcanti Pergentino de Sant'ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of five storage times of dry leaves of two patchouli genotypes on its essential oil content and chemical composition. Harvest was realized four months after planting. Storage influenced essential oil content of genotype POG-002. Patchoulol was the majority compound. Storage of dry leaves increased significatively the content of the compounds α-bulnesene and germacrene A of genotype POG-021 and longicanfenilone, pogostol and patchoulol of POG-002. However, storage reduced significatively the content of the compounds cicloseichelene, β-cariofilene, α-guaiene, acifilene and α-bulnesene of the essential oil of genotype POG-002.

  5. Mortalidade de abelhas visitantes de flores de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth (Leguminosae no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Mortality of bees visiting Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth (Leguminosae flowers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marco Antonio Del Lama

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatada a mortalidade de abelhas (213 fêmeas e 60 machos pertencentes a 20 espécies ao visitarem as inflorescências de Caesalpinia peltophoroides. A presença presumida de um composto tóxico no néctar mostrou grande variação espacial e temporal. Árvores individuais produziram ou não mortalidade de abelhas em diferentes períodos de floração e árvores vizinhas mostraram efeitos distintos em cada floração. A toxicidade sobre as abelhas foi igualmente variável. A maior parte das abelhas morria logo após visitarem as flores; algumas mostravam sinais de narcose, morrendo em seguida; poucas, após um período de narcose, deixaram este estado e voaram. Utilizando o índice de desgaste alar foram observadas abelhas jovens (29%, velhas (26% e de idade intermediária (45% (n = 227 entre as abelhas mortas. Se a presença do presumido composto tóxico afeta ou não o fitness da planta requer inicialmente a identificação de qual(is fator(es elicia(m seu aparecimento. Uma vez que C. peltophoroides é amplamente utilizada em projetos paisagísticos urbanos, é necess��rio estimar o potencial efeito negativo sobre as comunidades de abelhas que vivem em áreas urbanas de diferentes regiões do Brasil. Até que este efeito seja conhecido, recomenda-se aos profissionais do planejamento urbano a não utilização paisagística da sibipiruna em nossas cidades.It is reported the mortality of bees (213 females and 60 males belonging to 20 species when visiting the inflorescences of Caesalpinia peltophoroides. The presumed presence of a toxic compound in the nectar showed considerable spatial and temporal variation. Sibipiruna trees may or may not kill bees during different flowering periods and neighboring trees showed distinct effects on bee mortality. The toxicity effect on bees was quite variable. Most of the bees died immediately after visiting some flowers; a few showed signals of narcosis, but after some time they came out of this state and flew away. Using a wing-wear index, 'young' (29%, 'old' (26% and intermediate aged bees (45% (n = 227 were observed among the dead insects. Determining whether the presence of a toxic nectar affects plant fitness requires the identification of this chemical and the knowledge of what factor or factors elicit its production. As C. peltophoroides is widely used in urban landscape projects, it is necessary to estimate the potencial negative effect on bee communities living in urban areas of Bazil. We recommend that urban planners avoid the use of sibipiruna trees for landscape purposes until the real mortality effect on bees is clarified.

  6. Efecto de la escarificación húmeda y seca en la emergencia de plántulas de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth Effect of moist and dry scarification on the emergence of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. seedlings

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    Marlen Navarro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la aplicación de diferentes métodos de escarificación para favorecer la emergencia de plántulas a partir de semillas de A. lebbeck almacenadas al ambiente, para lo cual se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con arreglo factorial 4 x 13 y 3 x 13 para la escarificación húmeda y la seca, respectivamente. Se encontró interacción significativa entre los factores para la escarificación húmeda (PThe application of different scarification methods to favour seedling emergence from A. lebbeck seeds stored under ambient conditions was evaluated, for which a completely randomized design was used with 4 x 13 and 3 x 13 factorial arrangement for moist and dry scarification, respectively. Significant interaction was found among the factors for moist scarification (P<0,001. The best values for the acid, hot water and soaking were found at 4 mos; they were lower than the control and among them only water and soaking and water and control were statistically different. The contrast between the values at 6 mos for the acid (6,3% and the control (40,1% stands out; in this last evaluation the highest emergence for moist scarification was achieved. In dry scarification, the highest percentage was obtained in the treatment based on the coat cut and 3 mos (71,0%, and differed statistically from the rest. In the cutting method all the emergence records were higher than the control. For the cut and puncture, statistical differences were detected only between 2 and 3 mos; in both the prevailing value was that of the cutting method. The emergence results allow to evaluate the coat cut as an appropriate method for A. lebbeck seeds, without obviating that soaking also constitutes an alternative for scarification.

  7. Armazenamento e germinação de sementes de Tabebuia aurea (manso Benth. & Hook. f. ex. S. Moore Storage and germination of seeds of Tabebuia aurea (Manso Benth. & Hook. f. ex. S. Moore

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    Edna Lopes Cabral

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes foram acondicionadas em sacos de papel, de algodão e plástico de natureza permeável, em ambiente frio e seco (15ºC e 40% de UR por quatro meses. Inicialmente, testou-se a influência da presença e ausência contínua de luz branca e fotoperíodo de 12 h, a fim de determinar o fotoblastismo das sementes, na temperatura de 25ºC. Verificou-se a influência das temperaturas constantes de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40ºC na germinação e determinou-se as temperaturas cardeais (mínima, ótima e máxima. Testou-se a viabilidade das sementes aos 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento, empregando-se teste de germinação, e a velocidade de embebição aos 30, 60 e 90 dias, utilizando-se amostras provenientes de cada tipo de embalagem. As embalagens utilizadas no armazenamento não afetaram significativamente as variáveis estudadas. A espécie em estudo pode ser classificada como fotoblástica neutra à 25ºC, com percentagem média de germinação alta, variando de 88 a 98%. A temperatura ótima de germinação foi de 35ºC, a mínima de 20ºC e a máxima de 40ºC, na ausência de luz. As embalagens utilizadas no armazenamento mantiveram a viabilidade das sementes por até 120 dias, com altos percentuais de germinação, variando de 88 a 97%. As sementes apresentaram velocidade de embebição rápida atingindo 100% a partir das quatro horas de embebição.The seeds were conditioned in paper, cotton and permeable plastic bags, in cold and dry environment (15ºC and 40% RU for four months. Initially, was tested the influence of the presence and absence continuos of white light and photoperiod of 12 h at 25ºC. The effect of constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40ºC on germination was evaluated and cardinal temperatures were determined (minimum, optimum and maximum. Viability of the seeds was evaluated through germination tests at 60, 90, and 120 days. Imbibition velocity tests were carried out using samples proceeding from each storage package, at 30, 60, and 90 days. The storage packages utilized had no significant effect on the studied variables. The species studied was classified as neutral photoblastic at 25ºC, with a high average germination percentage, varying from 88 to 98%. Optimal germination temperature was of 35ºC, with a minimum at 20ºC and a maximum at 40ºC, in the absence of light. The utilized storage packages extended the viability of the seeds up to 120 days, with high germination percentages, varying from 88 to 97%. The seeds showed accelerated velocity of imbibition, reaching 100% from four hours of imbibition exposure on.

  8. Conservação de Dimorphandra mollis benth. (fabaceae baseada na estrutura genética de populações naturais Conservation of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (fabaceae based on the genetic structure of natural populations

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    Ana Cecília Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis é uma espécie nativa do Cerrado com grande potencial econômico e tem sido alvo de intensa exploração, principalmente de seus frutos por causa do princípio ativo do composto rutina, importante para a produção de fármacos. Algumas propostas têm surgido para uma coleta controlada desses frutos, de forma a minimizar a perda de diversidade genética, entretanto existem poucas informações sobre aspectos ecológicos e genéticos da espécie. Nesse sentido, realizou-se o estudo da estrutura genética por meio de marcadores aloenzimáticos, visando dar subsídios a propostas de conservação de populações naturais de D. mollis. Dez locos polimórficos foram utilizados para estimar as frequências alélicas referentes a 180 indivíduos, distribuídos em três populações naturais (Campina Verde, Vargem da Cruz e Pau de Fruta no Município de Jequitaí, Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os resultados indicam alta diversidade genética da espécie ( ou = 0,463, sendo pequena a variabilidade genética entre populações ( > ou = 0,025. Foi verificada ausência de endogamia dentro das populaçõe s( ou = -0,018 ( 0,007. O fluxo gênico estimado no conjunto das populações foi alto, com igual a 4,0, e suficiente para contrapor os efeitos da deriva genética. a alta diversidade genética nas populações da espécie indica potencial para a conservação genética in situ e também para o seu manejo. As estratégias de manejo da espécie devem considerar o tamanho efetivo populacional, no intuito de manter os níveis de variabilidade genética observados e a regeneração natural nas áreas. Palavras-chave: Fava d'anta, Marcadores aloenzimáticos e Variabilidade genética.Dimorphandra mollis is a native species of Cerrado and has high economic value due to the active compound Rutin present in its fruit, which has made it a target of intense commercial exploitation. Some proposals to minimize the negatives genetic/physiological effects of exploitation have been proposed, but little is known about the ecology or genetic structure of natural populations of this species. To delineate conservation programs, it is necessary to elucidate the levels of genetic variation in local natural populations. The genetic variability was assessed using ten allozyme loci. The genetic structure of the species was carried out using a sample of 180 individuals distributed in three natural populations located in the North of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results showed a high level of genetic diversity within the species ( or = 0.463. Analysis of genetic structure indicated that most of the genetic variability of D. mollis is within its natural populations with low difference among populations ( or = 0.025. Inbreeding within the populations ( or = -0.018 and among them ( or = 0.007 was insignificant. Gene flow among populations was or = 4.0, indicating to be enough to prevent the effects of genetic drift. The high genetic diversity index in these populations indicates potential for in situ genetic conservation and management. Management strategies for this species should take into consideration the effective population size in order to keep the high levels of genetic variability observed and allow natural regeneration in the areas.

  9. PENINGKATAN KADAR PATCHOULI ALKOHOL MINYAK NILAM (Pogostemon cablin Benth DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MEMBRAN SELULOSA ASETAT Increase of the Content of Patchouli Alcohol in Patchouli Oil (Pogostemon cablin Benth Using Cellulose Acetate Membrane

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    Yuliani Aisyah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to increase patchouli alcohol content of patchouli oil using cellulose acetate membrane and evaluated performance  of the membrane. The nanofiltration  cellulose acetate membrane used in this study was the Vivaspin 15R. The filtration process of patchouli oil was carried out using centrifugation speed 212, 850 and 1912 g, and centrifugation time 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 6 minutes. Analysis of patchouli oil was carried out using gas chromatography, meanwhile  the separation performance membrane can be described as a permeability  (flux and selectivity. The nanofiltration  process of patchouli oil using cellulose acetate membrane showed that the patchouli  alcohol content increase 2 times (58.11 % of the initial content of patchouli alcohol (30.08 % by using centrifugation speed of 1912 g and centrifugation time of 50 minutes. There are significant effect of centrifugation speed and centrifugation time on patchouli alcohol content, flux and selectivity. The highest value of flux is 166,81 L/m2.jam and selectivity is 44.91 %. ABSTRAK Telah dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kadar patchouli alkohol dalam minyak nilam dengan menggunakan membran nanofiltrasi  selulosa asetat dan mengevaluasi  kinerja membran yang digunakan. Membran yang digunakan adalah membran nanofiltrasi selulosa asetat tipe Vivaspin 15R. Proses filtrasi  minyak  nilam  dilakukan dengan menggunakan kecepatan sentrifugasi 212 , 850, dan 1912 g serta  waktu sentrifugasi 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, dan 60 menit.  �adar patchouli  alkohol  di analisis menggunakan kromatografi  gas, sedangkan kinerja  membran dinyatakan sebagai permeabilitas (fluks dan selektivitas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa filtrasi dengan menggunakan membran nanofiltrasi selulosa asetat dapat meningkatkan  kadar patchouli  alkohol  sebesar 2 kali (61,52 % dari kadar patchouli alkohol awal (30,08% pada kecepatan sentrifgasi 1912 g dan waktu sentrifugasi 50 menit. Kecepatan dan waktu sentrifugasi berpengaruh signifikan terhadap nilai fluks dan selektivitas membran �ilai fluks tertinggi diperoleh sebesar 166,81 L/m2.jam dan selektivitas membran sebesar 44,91 %.

  10. Effect of the extract of the Plectranthus barbatus (Andr. Benth in the reproductive performance of Rattus novergicus (Berkenhout, 1769

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    Gisélida Maria Baquini da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The supposed use of the extract from Plectranthus barbatus for abortive purposes motivated this investigation about the possible toxic effects of ‘False-boldo’ on the embryos and on the offspring of female Wistar rats. Twenty-seven females and nine males, divided into three groups, were used in the experiment. The teas were prepared following the method of infusion, using the leaves of plants fully grown, gathered in residencial areas. After the first day of mating, the animals were submitted to different treatments: (T1 received water, (T2 received the dose of tea considered to be colloquial, and (T3 received a 200% higher dose. To evaluate the quality and to verify the stage of embryonic development, on the fourth day of mating, six females from each group were laparotomized (median abdominal laparotomy in order to perform a uterine lavage, and the collected material was submitted to laboratorial analysis. The offspring resulting from the female rats that did not go through surgery were analyzed five days after their birth. The results did not show any interference with the embryonic development of any group. The offspring of the animals submitted to different treatments presented a normal pattern when compared to the control group. Congenital abnormalities were not observed.

  11. A New Furofuran Lignan Diglycoside and Other Secondary Metabolites from the Antidepressant Extract of Castilleja tenuiflora Benth

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    Maribel Herrera-Ruiz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Castilleja tenuiflora has been used for the treatment of several Central Nervous System (CNS diseases. Herein we report the antidepressant activity of the methanol extract from the leaves of this medicinal plant. The oral administration of MeOH extract (500 mg/kg induced a significant (p < 0.05 decrement of the immobility parameter on Forced Swimming Test (FST and an increment in the latency and duration of the hypnosis, induced by administration of sodium pentobarbital (Pbi, 40 mg/kg, i.p.. Chemical analysis of this antidepressant extract allowed the isolation of (+-piperitol-4-O-xylopyranosyl-(1→6-O-glucopyranoside. This new furofuran lignan diglycoside was named tenuifloroside (1 and its complete chemical structure elucidation on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra analysis of the natural compound 1 and its peracetylated derivative 1a is described. This compound was found together with two flavones—apigenin and luteolin 5-methyl ether—a phenylethanoid—verbascoside—and three iridoids—geniposide, caryoptoside and aucubin. All these compounds were purified by successive normal and reverse phase column chromatography. Tenuifloroside, caryoptoside and luteolin 5-methyl ether were isolated from Castilleja genus for the first time. These findings demonstrate that C. tenuiflora methanol extract has beneficial effect on depressive behaviors, and the knowledge of its chemical constitution allows us to propose a new standardized treatment for future investigations of this species in depressive illness.

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF PATCHOULI OIL (POGOSTEMON CABLIN, BENTH WITH STEAM DISTILLATION ASSISTED BY PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD VIA RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

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    SUKARDI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the role of pulsed electric field (PEF treatment before hydro-distillation of the patchouli oil. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize PEF treatment (voltages, frequencies and times of distillation of patchouli oil from dried patchouli crops. The experimental design and analysis the result to obtain the optimal processing parameters was a Box-Behnken Design (BBD. Three variables were examined in this study: voltages (1,000-2,000 volt; frequencies (1,000-2,000 Hz; and distillation time (4-8 hours. The results showed that the voltage greatly affects the volume of patchouli oil obtained and optimum condition of PEF was voltages of 2,000 volts, frequencies of 1,874 Hz, and 8 hours distillation. The patchouli oil obtained is 8.037 ml of 300 g of dry material (±2.7%. The verification of the model shows that 96.6% (7.76±0.15 ml can adequately for reflecting the expected optimization.

  13. Estimación de la Fitomasa Aérea del Gatuño (Mimosa biuncifera Benth.

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    Gabriel Córdova Duarte

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was realized in the shrubland area of the Instituto de Ciencias Agrícolas (ICA of the Universidad de Guanajuato, to determine the regression equation and dimensional variables that forecast with greater exactitude the aerial biomass of catclaw (Mimosa biuncifera, a shrub important for its density and the part it plays in the ecosystems where it is found. A random sample of 15 shrubs was taken in the stages of growth, flowering, maturity and latency, measuring the height, number of basel stems and their diameter; the greater and lesser diameter of the shrub top; and in determining the area and volume of the shrub. The biomass of the leaves plus the small branches and stems was obtained, culting the shrubs even with the soil. A multiple linear regression analysis was made. In the estimation of the biomass of leaves plus small branches the most important dimensional variable and the r2 value of the equation for growth, flowering and maturity was 0.7118, 0.8561 and 0.9507 respectively, while in latency it was the minor canopy diameter and r2 = 0.7117. For the estimation of dry weight of stems it was plant height and r2 =0.9104, the minor canopy diameter and r2 =0.8851, the number of stems and r2 =0.9728, and the minor canopy diameter and r2 =0.6275. Este estudio se realizó en un área de matorral del Instituto de Ciencias Agrícolas (ICA de la Universidad de Guanajuato; buscando determinar la ecuación de regresión y las variables dimensionales que predicen con mayor exactitud la biomasa aérea del gatuño (Mimosa biuncifera, arbusto importante por su densidad y por el papel que desempeña en los ecosistemas donde se encuentra. Se muestrearon al azar 15 arbustos por fase fenológica: Crecimiento, Floración, Madurez y Latencia, midiéndoles altura, número y diámetro de tallos basales; diámetro mayor y menor de la copa, determinándose área y volumen. La biomasa de hojas más ramitas y la de tallos, se obtuvo, cortando las plantas al ras del suelo. Se aplicó la regresión lineal múltiple. En la estimación de la biomasa de hojas más ramitas, la variable dimensional más importante y la r2 de la ecuación para el Crecimiento, Floración y Madurez, fueron el volumen y 0.7118, 0.8561 y 0.9507, respectivamente, en Latencia fue el diámetro menor de la copa y 0.7117. Para la estimación del peso seco de tallos fueron la altura de planta y 0.9104, el diámetro menor de la copa y 0.8851, el número de tallos y 0.9728 y el diámetro menor de la copa y 0.6275 para el orden mencionado.

  14. Modes of Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase by Aqueous Extract of Morinda lucida Benth Leaf

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    M. I. Kazeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α-glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. This was performed using α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae and α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida gave the highest percentage yield (9.99% of the plant out of the three extracts (compared to acetone and ethanolic extracts and possesses the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 value of 2.30 mg/mL and α-glucosidase (IC50 value of 2.00 mg/mL. Kinetic analysis revealed that the aqueous extract of this plant leaf inhibited the α-amylase competitively but displayed mixed noncompetitive mode of inhibition towards α-glucosidase. It can be concluded that aqueous extract of Morinda lucida exhibited the best inhibitory activity on the two enzymes studied and the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, and tannins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract.

  15. Production of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica

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    Sanha Panichajakul

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica were first established from various parts of explants with the objective of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein production. The cultures were studied on their growth and isoflavone production by various combinations of growth regulators, auxins and cytokinins at 25±2ºC. Daidzein and genistein accumulated in the cells were determined. The results revealed that callus of P. candollei var. mirifica was capable of producing high level of both isoflavones consistently. The culture temperature played an important role in the growth and isoflavone production. Over twofold of growth and threefold of isoflavone production were demonstrated at 32±2ºC. The callus established from the stems in MS medium supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-D and 0.46 µM kinetin produced the highest yield of daidzein (5.12 mg/g, DW and genistein (2.77 mg/g, DW, which was remarkably higher than the intact plants.

  16. Isolation, characterization and HPLC quantification of compounds from Aquilegia fragrans Benth: Their in vitro antibacterial activities against bovine mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Saleem; Aga, Mushtaq A; Qazi, Parvaiz H; Ali, Md Niamat; Shah, Aabid Manzoor; Lone, Sajad Ahmad; Shah, Aiyatullah; Hussain, Aehtesham; Rasool, Faheem; Dar, Hafizullah; Shah, Zeeshan Hamid; Lone, Shabir H

    2016-02-03

    The underground parts of Aquilegia fragrans are traditionally used for the treatment of wounds and various inflammatory diseases like bovine mastitis. However, there are no reports on the phytochemical characterization and antibacterial studies of A. fragrans. To isolate compounds from the methanol extract of the underground parts of A. fragrans and determine their antibacterial activity against the pathogens of bovine mastitis. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of A. fragrans. Five compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the underground parts of A. fragrans using silica gel column chromatography. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done using spectral data analysis and comparison with literature. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of isolated compounds in the crude methanol extract. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activities against mastitis pathogens using broth micro-dilution technique. The five isolated compounds were identified as (1) 2, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester (2) β-sitosterol (3) Aquilegiolide (4) Glochidionolactone-A and (5) Magnoflorine. A quick and sensitive HPLC method was developed for the first time for qualitative and quantitative determination of four isolated marker compounds from A. fragrans. The crude methanol extract and compound 5 exhibited weak antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (MIC=500-3000 µg/ml). The above results show that the crude methanol extract and isolated compounds from A. fragrans exhibit weak antibacterial activities. Further phytochemical and pharmacological studies are required for proper scientific validation of the folk use of this plant species in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases like bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Yield enhancement strategies for the production of picroliv from hairy root culture of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.

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    Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Harpal; Negi, Arvind Singh; Saxena, Gauri; Rahman, Laiq-Ur; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Fast-growing hairy root cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes offers a potential production system for iridoid glycosides. In present study we have investigated the effects of various nutrient medium formulations viz B5, MS, WP and NN, and sucrose concentrations (1-8%) on the biomass and glycoside production of selected clone (14-P) of P. kurroa hairy root. Full strength B5 medium was found to be most suitable for maximum biomass yield on the 40th day of culture (GI = 32.72 ± 0.44) followed by the NN medium of the same strength (GI = 22.9 ± 0.43). Secondary metabolite production was 1.1 and 1.3 times higher in half strength B5 medium respectively in comparison to MS medium. Maximum biomass accumulation along with the maximum picroliv content was achieved with 4% sucrose concentration in basal medium. RT vitamin and Thiamine-HCl effected the growth and secondary metabolite production of hairy roots growing on MS medium but did not show any effect on other media. The pH of the medium played significant role in growth and secondary metabolite production and was found to be highest at pH 6.0 while lowest at pH 3.0 and pH 8.0. To enhance the production of biomass and Picroliv 5 liter working capacity bioreactor was used, 27-fold (324 g FW) higher growth was observed in bioreactor than shake flask and secondary metabolite production was similarly enhanced.

  18. Growth of Jacaranda-da-Bahia (Dalbergia nigra((Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth under different levels of NPK

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    Elzimar de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of well-nourished and quality seedlings is one of the factors that contribute to the successful implementation of forest plantations. The present study aimed to verify, by means of morphological characteristics, the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the growth of jacarandá-da-bahia seedlings (Dalbergia nigra ((Vell. Fr. All. in order to establish the optimal dose of each nutrient to be added in different substrates thus aiming to ensure the production of seedlings with better quality. The seedlings were produced in three types of soils: mesotrophic Ultisol (PVAm, Alic Oxisol (LVAa and distrofic Oxisol (LVAd. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions from February to June of 2006. 11 treatments were defined according baconian matrix, in which the nutrients (N, P and K ranged in three different doses and two additional treatments (Zero and Reference. A completely randomized design with four replications was adopted. The seedlings were planted in pots with a capacity of 2.1 dm3 and 120 days after sowing the data was collected. After analyzing the data, it was concluded that for the production of jacarandá-da-bahia seedlings it is recommended an addition of dosages greater than or equal to 600 mg.dm-3 of P and 200 mg.dm-3 of N when using underground earth in the production of seedlings, from distrofic Oxisol and 300 mg.dm-3 of P and 90 mg.dm-3 of N when using mesotrophic Ultisol. As for the addition of K, since the seedlings were undemanding or the available contents in the soil were sufficient to supply their needs, it is recommended the application of the minimum tested dose of 50 mg.dm-3 of soil until further studies with lower doses is tested.

  19. Composition chimique du netetu, condiment alimentaire produit par fermentation des graines de caroubier africain Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Benth.

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    Wathelet B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of netetu, a food condiment from fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds. The seed oils and cakes of netetu of different origins available on the Senegalian market have been studied to evaluate the nutritional potentialities of this important food condiment used in many African countries. The total oil content ranged from 141 to 349 g per kg. Careful gas chromatography and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry investigations revealed seven major fatty acids among which linoleic (41.9-46.8/ of the total fatty acids, oleic (12.6-14.6/, palmitic (10.2-11.3/, stearic (10.0-13.4/, and behenic (12.6-13.4/ predominate. Significant differences were observed between fermented and non-fermented seeds as well as between netetu of different origins. The tocopherol content was found very low (17.7 to 30.6 mg per 100g fat. The total amino acid patterns showed that beside high level of proteins (331 a 540 g per kg and interesting levels of essential constituents, there is an important deficiency of tryptophane, cysteine, methionine and threonine.

  20. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,André G. da; Rodrigues,Judith F.; Paula,Regina Célia M. de

    1998-01-01

    A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a p...

  1. In-vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Roots of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth Kurz

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    Aniel K. OWK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens develop resistance to antibiotics after repeated administration during the treatment of infectious diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to find alternative antimicrobial drugs and the present trend is focused on medicinal plants. The hereby research work was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activity of solvents as well as aqueous extracts of Rauwolfia serpentina roots. The extracts were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that methanol extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity against multi drug resistance S. aureus at 100 mg/ml concentration, while S. aureus was the most susceptible bacterium to all extracts. However, E. faecalis, M. luteus and S. pneumoniae were also susceptible to the experimented solvents and extracts. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae was resistant against the solvent and aqueous extracts. The present study suggested that methanol extracts of R.  serpentina roots would be helpful in treating diseases caused by human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. In particular, based on the results obtained in the current experiment, it can be recommended for the control of infectious Gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Effect of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae) ethyl acetate and acetone fractions on insulin resistance in fructose drinking mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoma, Batomayena; Berké, Bénédicte; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Kwashie; Agbonon, Amegnona; Aklikokou, Kodjo; Gbeassor, Messanvi; Moore, Nicholas

    2014-05-14

    The root of Bridelia ferruginea is traditionally used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. The present study was investigated to evaluate the effect of Bridelia ferruginea root bark fractions on some markers of type 2 diabetes on fructose drinking mice. Mice received a solution of fructose 15% during 42 days ad libitum; at the 15th day to the 42nd day, they received distilled water for fructose drinking control group, metformin 50 mg/kg per day or fractions 50 mg/kg per day for treatment groups. The normal control group received only distilled water during the experiment. After 6 weeks of experiment, OGTT, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, AST and ALT levels were measured. Fructose drinking control group (F) showed significant (pethyl acetate fraction, acetone fraction and metformin at the same dose of 50 mg/kg per day during 4 weeks administration. In ethyl acetate fraction and metformin treated groups, biochemical parameters and insulin index were significantly (pethyl acetate fraction improved insulin resistance as metformin significantly in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

  4. Almacenamiento refrigerado de frutos de mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth. en empaques con atmósfera modificada

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    Sora Ángel Dayron

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el objeto de aumentar la vida útil de la mora de Castilla en poscosecha, se colocaron frutos en el grado de madurez (GM 3 y 5, según Icontec (Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación, en atmósferas modificadas activas con concentraciones de gases de 25% CO2, 5% O2, 70% N2 y 20% CO2, 10% O2, 70% N2, empleando empaques de polietileno de baja densidad (PEBD y polipropileno (PP, calibre   (0,035 mm. La temperatura de almacenamiento fue 4 ºC, la humedad relativa varió entre 90% y 95% y el tiempo de almacenamiento fue 16 d. Los empaques con atmósferas modificadas activas disminuyeron las tasas respiratorias y las pérdidas de peso de los frutos, comparados con los almacenados sin atmósfera modificada y sin película plástica. El pH, los sólidos solubles totales y la relación de madurez aumentaron progresivamente en los frutos con los días de almacenamiento, mientras que la acidez titulable disminuyó. Los frutos en el GM 5 mantuvieron las características organolépticas (sabor hasta los 6 d de almacenamiento, cuando se almacenaron en empaque de PEBD y una atmósfera modificada activa con concentración de gases de 20% CO2, 10% O2 y 70% N2; el mismo comportamiento benéfico se observó con los frutos que se almacenaron en el GM 3, película de PP y una atmósfera modificada activa de 25% de CO2, 5% de O2 y 70% de N2. Los resultados indican que los empaques con atmósferas modificadas activas  disminuyen los procesos de la maduración del fruto de la mora.

  5. A study of standardized extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth in experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Sapna N Shetty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major organ of intermediary metabolism, the liver is exposed to a variety of metabolic insults due to diseases and xenobiotics viz., insulin resistance (IR drugs, toxins, microbial products, etc. One of the consequences of these metabolic insults including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The recent alarming increase in the prevalence of NAFLD compels the need to develop an appropriate animal model of the disease so as to evolve effective interventions. In this study, we have developed, in the rat, a new model of NAFLD showing several key features akin to the disease in humans. Male Wistar rats were challenged with 30% high fat diet (HFD - butter, for 2 weeks to induce NAFLD. A hydroalcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa was administered to study the possible reversal of fatty changes in the liver. The extract was given in two doses viz., 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.i.d., p.o. for a period of 4 weeks. There were three control groups (n = 6/group - vehicle with a regular diet, vehicle with HFD, and HFD with silymarin - a known hepatoprotective. Histopathology showed that the P. kurroa extract brought about a reversal of the fatty infiltration of the liver (mg/g and a lowering of the quantity of hepatic lipids (mg/g compared to that in the HFD control group (38.33 ± 5.35 for 200mg/kg; 29.44 ± 8.49 for 400mg/kg of P. kurroa vs.130.07 ± 6.36mg/g of liver tissue in the HFD control group; P<0.001. Compared to the standard dose of the known hepatoprotective silymarin, P. kurroa reduced the lipid content (mg/g of the liver more significantly at the dose of 400mg/kg (57.71 ± 12.45mg/kg vs. 29.44 ± 8.49 for the silymarin group vs. 400mg/kg of P. kurroa, P<0.001. In view of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, P. kurroa should be investigated by the reverse pharmacology path as a potential drug for the treatment of NAFLD, and essential safety studies and preformulation research for concentration of the putative actives should be carried out.

  6. Physiological and biochemical changes attenuate the effects of drought on the Cerrado species Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth.) Ducke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Evandro Alves; Silva, Maria das Graças; Moro, Camila Fernandes; Laura, Valdemir Antônio

    2017-06-01

    Drought is considered the main abiotic stress because it influences the distribution of plant species and limits the productivity of ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought on physiological and biochemical parameters during the initial development of Vatairea macrocarpa, a native cerrado species. Plants were subjected to daily watering (control); suppression of watering during 90 days with field capacity (fc) 50% and 25% and then followed by rewatering. Relative leaf water content (RWC), gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments content, carbohydrate and amino acids content, antioxidant activities and growth were recorded. The RWC decreased according to the soil water restriction, causing reduction in stomatal conductance and decrease of 76.4% in net photosynthesis in plants submitted to 25% fc. Water restriction decreased the chlorophyll content, however increased carotenoid content and also improved the antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT). In addition, high levels of sugars (sucrose, raffinose) and amino acids (proline, tryptophan, valine, glutamine and GABA) were detected in drought stressed plants, contributing to osmoregulation and as sources of carbon and nitrogen after rehydration. Decreases in carbon assimilation promoted a reduction of the leaf area, however an increase in the root surface area was observed. After rewatering, the analized parameters became similar to the control plants indicating that the severe water stress did not impair the survival of young plants. Instead, adjustments were made to protect them against drought such as the maintenance of the assimilatory metabolism at minimal levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. New species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae associated with Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth. (Fabaceae

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    Carolina de Almeida Garcia

    Full Text Available Abstract A new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen, 1908 induces leaf galls on Andira humilis (Fabaceae in the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savanna of Bahia, Mato Grosso and São Paulo states, Brazil. Larva, pupa, female, and male of this new species of gall midge are described and illustrated in this paper.

  8. Methanolic Root Extract of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth Improves the Glycemic, Antiatherogenic, and Cardioprotective Indices in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Muhammad Bilal Azmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemistry and the effect of methanolic root extract (MREt of Rauwolfia serpentina on alloxan-induced diabetic Wister male mice. Mice were divided in control (distilled water at 1 mL/kg and alloxan-induced diabetic mice which subdivided into diabetic (distilled water at 1 mL/kg, negative (0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide at 1 mL/kg, positive (glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg controls, and three test groups (MREt at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg. All treatments were given orally for 14 days. Qualitatively MREt showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenoids, while quantitatively extract was rich in total phenols. The flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were also determined in root powder. MREt found effective in improving the body weights, glucose and insulin levels, insulin/glucose ratio, glycosylated and total hemoglobin in test groups as compared to diabetic control. Similarly, significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c cholesterols were found in test groups. Significant lipolysis with improved glycogenesis was also found in liver tissues of all test groups. ALT levels were found normal in all groups. Thus, MREt improves the glycemic, antiatherogenic, coronary risk, and cardioprotective indices in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

  9. Antidepressive and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract and fruticuline A from Salvia lachnostachys Benth leaves on rodents.

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    Joyce Alencar Santos

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract (SLEE and pure fruticuline A obtained from Salvia lachnostachys leaves on rats and mice.In this study, SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. route was evaluated for its effects on spared nerve injury (SNI in rats. The animals were submitted to mechanical sensitivity, forced swim (FST and cold sensitivity tests 10 and 15 days after surgery. SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. and fruticuline A (3 mg/kg, p.o. were also evaluated with respect to nociceptive behavior induced by formalin. In addition, clonidine-induced depressive-like behavior was also analyzed.The oral administration of SLEE for up to 15 days and the subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg of ketamine (positive control significantly inhibited SNI-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased immobility in the FST. On the 15th day of oral treatment, SLEE prevented the SNI-induced increase in cold sensitivity. In the formalin test, SLEE and fruticuline A significantly reduced the frequency of paw licking during the first and second phases and decreased the formation of edema. In locomotor analysis (open field test without clonidine treatment, SLEE and fruticuline A did not alter the response. SLEE and fruticuline A significantly attenuated clonidine-induced suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity (squares invaded and licking and emotionality (grooming and freezing compared with controls, similar to the naive group.SLEE exhibits antihyperalgesic, antidepressant, and antinociceptive effects, and fruticuline A appears to be at least partly responsible for the effects of SLEE. Together, these results demonstrate the antidepressive effects of SLEE and fruticuline A and indicate that both derivatives obtained from S. lachnostachys act against spontaneous neuropathic pain.

  10. Chemical Composition, In Vitro Antimicrobial, Free-Radical-Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Leucas inflata Benth

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    Ramzi A. Mothana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Leucas inflata Balf.f. (Lamiaceae, collected in Yemen, was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. Forty-three components were recognized, representing 89.2% of the total oil. The L. inflata volatile oil was found to contain a high percentage of aliphatic acids (51.1%. Hexadecanoic acid (32.8% and n-dodecanoic acid (7.8% were identified as the major compounds. Oxygenated monoterpenes were distinguished as the second significant group of constituents (16.0%. Camphor (6.1% and linalool (3.2% were found to be the main components among the oxygenated monoterpenes. In addition, the volatile oil was assessed for its antimicrobial activity against four bacterial strains and one yeast species using broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. In addition, antioxidant activity was measured utilizing the anti-radical activity of the sable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-Carotene-linoleic acid assays. The oil of L. inflata showed an excellent antibacterial activity against only the tested Gram-positive bacteria with a MIC-value of 0.81 mg/mL. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated, at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, a weak to moderate antiradical and antioxidant activity of 38% and 32%, respectively.

  11. A study of standardized extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth in experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sapna N; Mengi, Sushma; Vaidya, Rama; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2010-07-01

    As a major organ of intermediary metabolism, the liver is exposed to a variety of metabolic insults due to diseases and xenobiotics viz., insulin resistance (IR) drugs, toxins, microbial products, etc. One of the consequences of these metabolic insults including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The recent alarming increase in the prevalence of NAFLD compels the need to develop an appropriate animal model of the disease so as to evolve effective interventions. In this study, we have developed, in the rat, a new model of NAFLD showing several key features akin to the disease in humans. Male Wistar rats were challenged with 30% high fat diet (HFD) - butter, for 2 weeks to induce NAFLD. A hydroalcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa was administered to study the possible reversal of fatty changes in the liver. The extract was given in two doses viz., 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.i.d., p.o. for a period of 4 weeks. There were three control groups (n = 6/group) - vehicle with a regular diet, vehicle with HFD, and HFD with silymarin - a known hepatoprotective.Histopathology showed that the P. kurroa extract brought about a reversal of the fatty infiltration of the liver (mg/g) and a lowering of the quantity of hepatic lipids (mg/g) compared to that in the HFD control group (38.33 ± 5.35 for 200mg/kg; 29.44 ± 8.49 for 400mg/kg of P. kurroa vs.130.07 ± 6.36mg/g of liver tissue in the HFD control group; P<0.001). Compared to the standard dose of the known hepatoprotective silymarin, P. kurroa reduced the lipid content (mg/g) of the liver more significantly at the dose of 400mg/kg (57.71 ± 12.45mg/kg vs. 29.44 ± 8.49 for the silymarin group vs. 400mg/kg of P. kurroa, P<0.001). In view of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, P. kurroa should be investigated by the reverse pharmacology path as a potential drug for the treatment of NAFLD, and essential safety studies and preformulation research for concentration of the putative actives should be carried out.

  12. Fruit consumption and seed ispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae by the lowland tapir in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. X. A. Bizerril

    Full Text Available Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  13. Growth and yield of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin, Benth) due to mulching and method of fertilizer on rain-fed land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasruddin; Harahap, E. M.; Hanum, C.; Siregar, L. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    The drought stress that occurs during growth results in a drastic reduction in growth and yield. This study was aimed to study the effect of mulching and method of fertilizer application in reducing the impact of drought stress on patchouli plants. The experiment was conducted from July to December 2016 using a split plot design into three replications with two treatment factors. The first factor was mulch factor with three levels, i.e. M0 (without mulch), M1 (rice straw mulch) and M2 (silver black plastic mulch). The second factor was the method of fertilizer application consisting of three stages: C1 (once), C2 (twice), C3 (three times). The parameters included plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, root length, wet weight of plant, root canopy ratio, total of chlorophyll, soil temperature and soil moisture content. The results showed the use of straw mulch reduce the impact of drought stress on patchouli plants. Two times fertilizer application gave better growth and yield. The use of straw mulch produced lower temperature degrees and maintained soil moisture content.

  14. Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. (Sausage tree): Phytochemistry and pharmacological review of a quintessential African traditional medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Idris; Shehu, Mustapha W; Musa, Mustapha; Zaini Asmawi, Mohd; Mahmud, Roziahanim

    2016-08-02

    Kigelia africana is a quintessential African herbal medicinal plant with a pan-African distribution and immense indigenous medicinal and non-medicinal applications. The plant is use traditionally as a remedy for numerous disease such as use wounds healing, rheumatism, psoriasis, diarrhea and stomach ailments. It is also use as an aphrodisiac and for skin care. The present review aims to compile an up-to-date review of the progress made in the continuous pharmacological and phytochemistry investigation of K. africana and the corresponding commercial and pharmaceutical application of these findings with the ultimate objective of providing a guide for future research on this plant. The scholarly information needed for this paper were predominantly sourced from the electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar; publishing sites such as Elsevier, scienceDirect, BMC, PubMed; other scientific database sites for chemicals such as ChemSpider, PubChem, and also from online books. Pharmacological investigations conducted confirm the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anticancer activity of the extract of different parts of the plant. Bioactive constituents are found to be present in all parts of the plant. So far, approximately 150 compounds have been characterized from different part of the plant. Iridoids, naphthoquinones, flavonoids, terpenes and phenylethanoglycosides are the major class of compounds isolated. Novel compounds with potent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effect such as verbascoside, verminoside and pinnatal among others, have been identified. Commercial trade of K. africana has boosted in the las few decades. Its effect in the maintenance of skin has been recognized resulting in a handful of skin formulations in the market. The pharmaceutical potentials of K. africana has been recognized and have witness a surge in research interest. However, till date, many of its traditional medicinal uses has not been investigated scientifically. Further probing of the existential researches on its pharmacological activity is recommended with the end-goal of unravelling the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical relevance and possible toxicity and side effects of both the extract and the active ingredients isolated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo localization of manganese in the hyperaccumulator Gossia bidwillii (Benth.) N. Snow & Guymer (Myrtaceae) by cryo-SEM/EDAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Batianoff, George N; Baker, Alan J; Woodrow, Ian E

    2006-05-01

    Gossia bidwillii (Myrtaceae) is a manganese (Mn)-hyperaccumulating tree native to subtropical eastern Australia. It typically contains foliar Mn levels in excess of 1% dry weight. However, in G. bidwillii and other Mn-hyperaccumulating species, the cellular and subcellular localization of Mn has not been measured. Quantitative in vivo cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) was used to localize Mn and other elements in tissue collected from mature trees growing in a natural population. Cryo-SEM showed that the leaf mesophyll is differentiated as a double-layer palisade mesophyll above spongy mesophyll. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the palisade and epidermal cells are highly vacuolated. EDAX data were used to estimate in situ vacuolar Mn concentrations of all cell types in fresh cryo-fixed leaf tissues. The highest average vacuolar Mn concentration of over 500 mM was found in the upper-layer palisade mesophyll, while the lowest concentration of around 100 mM was found in the spongy mesophyll. Qualitative in vivo cryo-SEM/EDAX was employed to further investigate the spatial distribution of Mn in fresh leaf tissues and young bark tissue, which was also found to have a high Mn concentration. It is concluded that Mn distribution in G. bidwillii is quantitatively different to metal distribution in other hyperaccumulating species where the highest localized concentrations of these elements occur in non-photosynthmetic tissues such as epidermal cells and associated dermal structures including trichomes and leaf hairs.

  16. Pollination and breeding system of Couepia uiti (Mart. and Zucc. Benth (Chrysobalanaceae in the Pantanal da Nhecolândia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HF Paulino-Neto

    Full Text Available The pollination biology and breeding system of Couepia uiti was studied. In this species, flowers opened at 06:00 AM anthesis, and nectar production began at around 0800 h, reached a maximum volume from 09:30 AM to 10:30 AM, and decreased thereafter. The nectar sugar concentration increased continuously, but showed an abrupt increase from 10:00 AM to 12:00 AM. Pollen release occurred at about 09:30 AM and was quickly collected. The stigmas became receptive at around 12:00 AM. The pollinators of C. uiti included the bees Apis mellifera, Xylocopa sp. and Bombus sp., and three species of wasps. This conclusion was based on the observation that these hymenopterans had C. uiti pollen on their bodies, visited the receptive flowers, and touched the anthers and stigmas, thereby promoting pollination. Of these floral visitors, A. mellifera was considered to be the most efficient pollinator. However, mixed pollination also occurred. The number of C. uiti flowers visited in the morning (n = 52 was three times smaller than in the afternoon (n = 62, and the species richness of floral visitors was also bigger in the afternoon (eight in the afternoon versus five in the morning. This finding indicated that these floral visitors preferred to exploit nectar rather than pollen. Controlled pollination experiments showed that C. uiti was a self-incompatible species that produced fruits only by cross-pollination. Treatments such as agamospermy and spontaneous and self-pollinations did not produce fruits.

  17. 1917-IJBCS-Article-Bathélemy Yelemou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    +. +. -. Sporobolus festivus Hochst. ex A. Rich. Poaceae. +. +. +. Sporobolus pyramidalis P. Beauv. Poaceae. -. -. +. Stachytarpheta angustilolia (Mill.) Vahl. Verbenaceae. -. +. +. Striga hermontheca (Del.) Benth. Scrophulariaceae. +. +. +. Striga macrantha Benth. Scrophulariaceae. -. -. +. Stylochiton hypogaeus Lepr. Araceae.

  18. New combinationsand a new name for Sri Lankan Coleus species (Labiatae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    Seven Coleus species, of which six occur in Sri Lanka and one in East Africa, are transferred to Plectranthus. The following new names are published: P. grandis (Cramer) Willemse, P. inflatus (Benth.) Willemse, P. malabaricus ( (Benth.) Willemse, var. malabaricus and var. leptostachys (Benth.)

  19. A qualidade do solo afeta a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fagundes,Marcílio; Camargos,Maria Gisely; Costa,Fernanda Vieira da

    2011-01-01

    Os frutos de Dimorphandra mollis são coletados de forma indiscriminada para fins comerciais, comprometendo a viabilidade das populações naturais. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da qualidade do solo na germinação das sementes e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de D. mollis. Solos de três procedências (cerrado arenoso, cerrado argiloso e mata seca) foram usados como substratos nos testes de germinação e desenvolvimento das plântulas. As sementes de D. mollis apresentaram maior g...

  20. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE ALBÍZIA (ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L. BENTH EM FUNÇÃO DA LUZ E DO REGIME DE TEMPERATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alek Sandro Dutra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The albizia is a species arbores of the Leguminosae - Mimosoideae family (Momosaceas, native of Tropical Asia and characterized for presenting a speed growth, ability to fix nitrogen and to improve the structure of earth, especially in areas degraded, having uses multiples and facility to co associate with cultures agricultural. The research was lead in two experiments with the objective of to identify methods to superation of dormancy in seeds of albizia and to verify the effect of light and temperatures in germination of this species. In first the seeds were submitted the twelve methods to superation of dormancy: humid heat, immersion in hot water, immersion in sulfuric acid, and escarification mechanic, beyond of the witness, being determined the percentage of germination of seeds seard and deceased. In second experiment, after treatment with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes, the seeds were sowed in tabledoch paper type Germitest and put to germinate under nine combinations: continue light and constant temperature of 25oC; continue light and constant temperature of 35oC; continue light and alternated temperature (35oC/8h and 25oC/16h; dark continue and constant temperature of 25oC; dark continue and constant temperature of 35oC; dark continue and alternated temperature (35oC/8h and 25oC/16h; alternance of light (light/8h and dark/16h, 25oC; alternance of light (light/8h and dark/16h, 35oC and alternance of light and temperature (light/35oC/8h and dark/20oC/16h. Conclusion the specie Albizia lebbeck presents seeds dormancy, detach-itself the escarification mechanic and the sulfuric acid as efficient methods to the superation of dormancy; the seeds of albizia are insensitive to the light and your germination was not influenced by the temperatures useds.

  1. STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM Rubus glaucus Benth AND Solanum betaceum Cav.dark-red strain AS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE, STORAGE TIME AND WATER ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    C.M. OLAYA; M.P. CASTAÑO; G.A. GARZÓN

    2009-01-01

    Se comparó el efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento, la temperatura y la actividad de agua (Aw) sobre la estabilidad de antocianinas microencapsuladas de Mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus) y tamarillo (Solanum betaceum). Las frutas se sometieron a deshidratación osmótica con etanol y el extracto antociánico se microencapsuló con maltodextrina ED 20 por atomización. La vida media de las antocianinas; los cambios en color, fenoles totales y actividad antioxidante se analizaron durante el almacenami...

  2. Análise Químico-Morfológica de Hyptis Jacq. e Hypenia (Mart. ex Benth.) R. Harley (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Julierme Gonçalves da

    2012-01-01

    O Cerrado é a segunda maior formação vegetal brasileira, ocupando 24% do território nacional. No entanto, restam apenas 61% de áreas preservadas de Cerrado. Desta forma, estudos para caracterização e preservação desta riqueza natural são necessários. Com este intuito, reavaliou-se a relação sistemática entre 88 espécies de Hyptis Jacq. com base em caracteres morfológicos e reprodutivos (capítulo 1). A análise estatística multivariada foi aplicada para determinar o padrão de distribuição dos t...

  3. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podadera, Diego S; Engel, Vera L; Parrotta, John A; Machado, Deivid L; Sato, Luciane M; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings.

  4. Effects of Aqueous Shoot Extract of Tithonia diversifolia on the Growth of Seedlings of Monodora tenuifolia (Benth., Dialium guineense (Willd. and Hildegardia barteri (Mast. Kosterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMSON OLAJIDE OKE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A.Gray, an invasive species introduced into Africa from North and Central America, on the growth of seedlings of three woody species: Monodora tenuifolia, Dialium guineense and Hildegardia barteri were investigated. The fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia was applied to the established seedlings of the three woody species over a period of ten weeks. The fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia had a significant effect (inhibitory and stimulatory on growth parameters such as shoot hThe allelopathic effects of fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray, an invasive species introduced into Africa from North and Central America, on the growth of seedlings of three woody species: Monodora tenuifolia, Dialium guineense and Hildegardia barteri were investigated. The fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia was applied to the established seedlings of the three woody species over a period of ten weeks. The fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia had a significant effect (inhibitory and stimulatory on growth parameters such as shoot height, leaf area, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of the three woody species.The study revealed that the fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversofolia have different effects (inhibitory and stimulatory on the seedlings and the mode of action depends on the associated woody plant species.eight, leaf area, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of the three woody species.The study revealed that the fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversofolia have different effects (inhibitory and stimulatory on the seedlings and the mode of action depends on the associated woody plant species.

  5. Effects of Aqueous Shoot Extract of Tithonia diversifolia on the Growth of Seedlings of Monodora tenuifolia (Benth.), Dialium guineense (Willd.) and Hildegardia barteri (Mast.) Kosterm

    OpenAIRE

    SAMSON OLAJIDE OKE; Abisola Victoria AWOWOYIN; Shaid Remi OSENI; Emmanuel Lekan ADEDIWURA

    2011-01-01

    The allelopathic effects of fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray, an invasive species introduced into Africa from North and Central America, on the growth of seedlings of three woody species: Monodora tenuifolia, Dialium guineense and Hildegardia barteri were investigated. The fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia was applied to the established seedlings of the three woody species over a period of ten weeks. The fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tit...

  6. Modelagem da altura, volume e afilamento do fuste de Calycophyllum Spruceanum Benth. empregando regressão e redes neurais artificiais

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Breno Henrique Pedroso de

    2015-01-01

    As várzeas estuarinas são ecossistemas ripários que estão associados a rios de águas brancas, com grande aporte de água doce e sedimentos decorrentes do ciclo diário de enchentes e vazantes representados pelas marés. Nestes ecossistemas ainda são poucos os planos de manejo aprovados, principalmente em virtude da falta de regularização fundiária das áreas. Além disso, existe a necessidade de estudos e métodos que viabilizem o manejo adequado desse ecossistema de modo a promover seu sustento e ...

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. Using leaf explants: bactericidal effect of leaf extracts and counteracting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anamika; Bakshi, Souvika; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2012-04-01

    An optimized protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of patchouli using leaf disk explants is reported. In vitro antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of the plants revealed Agrobacterium sensitivity to the extracts. Fluorometric assay of bacterial cell viability indicated dose-dependent cytotoxic activity of callus extract against Agrobacterium cells. Addition of 0.1% Tween 20 and 2 g/l L-glutamine to Agrobacterium infection medium counteracted the bactericidal effect and significantly increased the T-DNA delivery to explants. A short preculture of explants for 2 days followed by infection with Agrobacterium in medium containing 150 μM of acetosyringone were found essential for efficient T-DNA delivery. Cocultivation for 3 days at 22 °C in conjunction with other optimized factors resulted in maximum T-DNA delivery. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf disk explants were found significantly related to physiological age of the explants, age and origin of the of the donor plant. Leaf explants from second node of the 3-month-old in vivo plants showed highest transformation efficiency (94.3%) revealed by transient GUS expression assay. Plants selected on medium containing 20 mg/l kanamycin showed stable GUS expression in leaves and stem. The elongated shoots readily developed roots on kanamycin-free rooting medium and on transfer to soil, plants were successfully established. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis in putative plants confirmed their transgenic nature. The established transformation method should provide new opportunities for the genetic improvement of patchouli for desirable trait.

  8. Caracterização Morfológica de Frutos, Sementes, Plântulas e Mudas de Emmotum nitens (Benth. Miers (ICACINACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Prado Alves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emmotum nitens é uma das espécies do bioma Cerrado com os maiores valores de índice de importância, porém pouco é conhecido sobre a sua reprodução. O objetivo deste trabalho foi ilustrar e caracterizar os aspectos morfométricos de frutos, diásporos, sementes, mudas e plântulas desta espécie. O estudo foi realizado no Laboratório de Biologia Vegetal e Viveiro da Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina - DF. Foi caracterizado no fruto, diásporo e semente: tamanho (comprimento, largura e espessura, aspectos morfológicos externos e internos, morfologia e tipo de germinação; Na plântula e muda: morfometria da parte aérea e radicular e aspectos morfológicos externos. Os frutos são do tipo drupóide, com mesocarpo lenhoso, semente com embrião axial, cotilédones foliáceos e germinação fanerocotiledonar. Plântulas com protófilos simples, alternos e sistema radicular axial. As mudas aos 180 dias atingiram uma média de 23,6 cm de altura e diâmetro do coleto de 2,36 mm.

  9. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podadera, Diego S.; Engel, Vera L.; Parrotta, John A.; Machado, Deivid L.; Sato, Luciane M.; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species ( Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings.

  10. Acides gras et insaponifiables d’extraits obtenus à partir des sommités fleuries et des rhizomes de Vetiveria nigritana (Benth. Stapf, Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Champagnat Pascal

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Vetiveria nigritana flowering tops and rhizomes were analyzed by mean of GC/MS for their fatty acids and unsaponifiable components. In flowering tops extract, the acid fraction is characterized by the presence of palmitic acid and other long chain fatty acids (until C34. Unsaponifiable contains a high percentage of sterols (43.89%, mainly b-sitosterol. In rhizomes extract, acid fraction is composed by a high amount of typical organic acids of the genus Vetiveria and by a low quantity of fatty acids. Unsaponifiable fraction is characterized by the presence of a great percentage of sesquiterpenic derivatives (54.8%, and of sterols in low amount (13.7%.

  11. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego S. Podadera; Vera L. Engel; John A. Parrotta; Deivid L. Machado; Luciane M. Sato; Giselda Durigan

    2015-01-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at...

  12. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Bérgamo de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20% was higher than between these (22.80%. No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability.

  13. Molecular identification and safety of Bacillus species involved in the fermentation of African oil beans (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) for production of Ugba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaotu, I; Anyogu, A; Njoku, O H; Odu, N N; Sutherland, J P; Ouoba, L I I

    2013-03-01

    Molecular identification of Bacillus spp. involved in the fermentation of African oil bean seeds for production of Ugba, as well as ability of the Bacillus spp. isolated to produce toxins, were investigated. Forty-nine bacteria were isolated from Ugba produced in different areas of South Eastern Nigeria and identified by phenotyping and sequencing of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes. Genotypic diversities at interspecies and intraspecies level of the isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). The ability of the bacteria to produce toxins was also investigated by detection of genes encoding production of haemolysin BL (HblA, HblC, HblD), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC), cytotoxin K (CytK) and emetic toxin (EM1) using PCR with specific primers. Moreover, a Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) was used to screen ability of the isolates to produce haemolysin in broth and during fermentation of African oil bean seeds. The isolates were characterized as motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming, catalase positive, Gram-positive bacteria. They were identified as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (42), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (3), Bacillus clausii (1), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Bacillus subtilis (1), and Bacillus safensis (1). B. cereus was the predominant Bacillus species and was present in all samples studied. Using ITS-PCR, interspecies diversity was observed among isolates, with six clusters representing each of the pre-cited species. Rep-PCR was more discriminatory (eight clusters) and allowed further differentiation at intraspecies level for the B. cereus and L. xylanilyticus isolates with two genotypes for each species. Genes encoding production of non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and cytotoxin K (CytK) genes were detected in all B. cereus isolates, while Hbl genes (HblA, HblC, HblD) were detected in only one isolate. The emetic-specific gene fragment was not detected in any of the isolates studied. None of the toxin genes screened was detected in isolates belonging to other Bacillus species. Using RPLA, haemolysin production was detected in one isolate of B. cereus, which showed positive amplicons for Hbl genes, both during cultivation in broth and during fermentation of oil bean seeds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa

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    André G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+ foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de proteína, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5 g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4 g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4 g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro.A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysaccharide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly bounded to the polysaccharide. GPC suggested the presence of polysaccharide-protein complex of molar mass ca 7.9 x 10(5 g/mol, and polysaccharides of molar masses of 8.3 x 10(4 g/mol and 2.2 x 10(4 g/mol. The whole gum has low viscosity and an activation energy of flow of 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol and 17,7 kJ/mol for solution at 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Comparison with other polysaccharides indicated that angico gum is a branched macromolecule, but in small amount than arabic gum and cashew nut tree gum.

  15. Caracterización y uso de la QOA (satureja boliviana (benth)) en tres localidades del norte de La Paz Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Cachuta Quispe, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    El trabajo, es una investigación basada en el rescate del conocimiento ecológico que tiene el habitante de la zona Andina del altiplano Norte y su distribución poblacional como planta. Se refiere a los usos tradicionales de la "Q'oa" del genero Satureja, relativamente abundante y bien desarrollado en el ecosistema de la zona. Se ha considerado esta planta por su singular importancia para revalorizar prácticas de manejo y técnicas, que son valiosas y útiles en el desarrollo de una nueva socied...

  16. Establecimiento y multiplicación in vitro de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth. variedad sin espinas, mediante ápices meristemáticos

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    Sigarroa Rieche Alina Katil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una técnica de micropropagación de plantas de mora (Rubus glaucus de la variedad sin espinas, a partir de ápices meristemáticos. En la fase de establecimiento se evaluó un protocolo de desinfección utilizando por 5 min solución de jabón detergente comercial y agua + alcohol 70% por 2 min + hipoclorito 3% con dos tiempos de exposición diferentes: T1 por 5 min y T2 por 10 min. Después de desinfectar las microestacas se extrajeron los ápices meristemáticos y se establecieron in vitro bajo un diseño completamente al azar para evaluar dos medios de cultivo: M1 y M2. A partir de las plántulas desarrolladas se efectuó la multiplicación en los medios de cultivo M1, M3 y M4. Ambos tratamientos de desinfección resultaron efectivos alcanzando 100% de desinfección de los explantes con cada uno de ellos. La siembra de ápices meristemáticos permitió el establecimiento de cultivos asépticos y un adecuado desarrollo de los explantes después de seis semanas de cultivo, con prendimiento de 83.4% para M1 y 66.6% para M2. El análisis de varianza (Anova y la prueba de rangos múltiples mostraron que la multiplicación fue mejor en el medio M1 con una mayor tasa de crecimiento y desarrollo del explante, al obtener coeficientes de multiplicación de 7.5 brotes/plántula y una altura promedio de 1.95 cm.

  17. Structural confirmation, single X-ray crystallographic behavior, molecular docking and other physico-chemical properties of gerberinol, a natural dimethyl dicoumarol from Gerbera lanuginosa Benth. (Compositae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Das, Saktipada; Kumar, Abhishek; Misra, Neeraj; Sharma, Sakshi; Gupta, Vivek K.

    2017-05-01

    The proposed structure of gerberinol (1), a naturally occurring dimethyl dicoumarol, has been conclusively established on the basis of its detailed spectral and single crystal X-ray analyses. The compound, C21H16O6, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with the following unit-cell parameters: a = 14.0884(14), b = 15.1746(15), c = 7.6392(8)Å, α = 90.00°, β = 98.949(4)°, γ = 90.00° and Z = 4. The crystal structure was solved by direct methods using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature and refined by full-matrix least-squares procedures to a final R-value of 11.43 for 2377 observed reflections. Exhaustive theoretical studies on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO, LUMO, MESP surfaces, and molecular docking of this plant-derived natural molecule have also been performed. The equilibrium geometry of the title compound has been obtained and analyzed using DFT-B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) method. Molecular docking study of the molecule for predicting its possible biological activities revealed that the compound might be a potent antimicrobial, neurodegenerative and anticancer agent as evidenced from its excellent FF (full fitness) score for 1FUJ and 1ZX1 enzymes.

  18. Formulation of microbes inoculum: AMF, PSB and Rhizobium isolated of ex-coal mining site for Acacia crassicarpa Cunn. Ex-benth seedlings

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    ENNY WIDYATI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoddier succeed land revegetation particularly caused by least adaptability of the seedlings planted on this site. To encourage their growth and survival rate it can be achieved by means do inoculation with the compatible functional microbes such as rhizobium, Psolubilizing bacteria (PSB and/or arbuscular-mycorrhiza fungy (AMF. This reserach is aimed to formulate the most compatible inoculant to support the growth of A. crassicarpa seedlings. Compatibility study is carried out in RCB design with 3 replications, each contain 5 seedlings. Height and biomass are accessed to measure the growth responses of the seedlings. The result showed that the best reponse is given by consortia that consist of the three kinds of these microbes. This increase the shoot biomass (137% compare to the control. The consortia also improved N 164%, P 335% and K 167% in the plant tissues. While pure AMF improved absorption of N plants 80%, P 383% and K 51% compare to the control. It is suggested that to prepare the A. crassicarpa seedlings is better inoculated by consortium of microbes or AMF as a sole inoculant.

  19. Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part I: Aspidosperma nitidum (Benth used as a remedy to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon

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    Julia Penna Coutinho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infusions of Aspidosperma nitidum (Apocynaceae wood bark are used to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon Region. Several species of this family are known to possess indole alkaloids and other classes of secondary metabolites, whereas terpenoids, an inositol and the indole alkaloids harmane-3 acid and braznitidumine have been described in A. nitidum . In the present study, extracts from the wood bark, leaves and branches of this species were prepared for assays against malaria parasites and cytotoxicity testing using human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cells. The wood bark extracts were active against Plasmodium falciparum and showed a low cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas the leaf and branch extracts and the pure alkaloid braznitidumine were inactive. A crude methanol extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation aimed at obtaining alkaloid-rich fractions, which were active at low concentrations against P. falciparum and in mice infected with and sensitive Plasmodium berghei parasites. Our data validate the antimalarial usefulness of A. nitidum wood bark, a remedy that can most likely help to control malaria. However, the molecules responsible for this antimalarial activity have not yet been identified. Considering their high selectivity index, the alkaloid-rich fractions from the plant bark might be useful in the development of new antimalarials.

  20. Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae as a Source of 1,8-Cineole and Their Bioactivities

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    Tomoe Nakashima

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus cinerea, known as silver dollar tree, has few descriptions in traditional medicine. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits, collected seasonally, were determined by GC/MS and disk diffusion/MIC, respectively. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound, particularly in fresh leaves—Spring (74.98%, dried leaves—Spring (85.32%, flowers—Winter (78.76% and fruits—Winter (80.97%. Other compounds were found in the aerial parts in all seasons: α-pinene (2.41% to 10.13%, limonene (1.46% to 4.43%, α-terpineol (1.73% to 11.72%, and α-terpinyl acetate (3.04% to 20.44%. The essential oils showed antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts, with the best results being found for the dried autumn and winter leaves oils (MIC < 0.39 mg/mL against Streptococcus pyogenes. For the other tested microorganisms the following MIC results were found: Staphylococcus aureus—Dried leaves oil from summer (0.78 mg/mL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oil from winter (1.56 mg/mL and Candida albicans—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oils from winter and spring (0.78 mg/mL.

  1. Empleo de la función Weibull para evaluar la emergencia de las plántulas de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth

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    Marlen Navarro

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer el vigor de las semillas de Albizia lebbeck mediante la evaluación de la emergencia de plántulas, a través de la función Weibull modificada, se realizó la siembra en tres condiciones ambientales y en diferentes tiempos de almacenamiento de la semilla. El diseño fue completamente aleatorizado, con arreglo factorial. Se realizó análisis de varianza para los parámetros M (emergencia acumulada máxima, k (tasa de emergencia y Z (retraso para el inicio de la emergencia de la función Weibull modificada. A partir de los seis meses de iniciado el almacenamiento (44,1 % se observó la pérdida brusca del porcentaje de M en el vivero (A y ligeras variaciones en la cabina (C, en comparación con A y B (sombreador. El ámbito de dispersión del parámetro k osciló entre 0,4-2,6; 0,29-1,9 y 0,5-1,4 % emergencia d-1 para las evaluaciones realizadas en A, B y C, respectivamente. Del análisis de Z se interpretó que el tiempo para el inicio de la emergencia, sin distinción del ambiente de siembra, estuvo enmarcado entre los 3,0 y 7,3 días posteriores a la siembra. En el vivero a pleno sol, en la evaluación a 6 mdia (meses de iniciado el almacenamiento, se obtuvieron los mejores resultados de los parámetros biológicos de la ecuación de Weibull, lo cual permitió un análisis global que indicó un grado de vigor alto en las semillas de A. lebbeck, en comparación con las restantes evaluaciones

  2. Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae) plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part I: Aspidosperma nitidum (Benth) used as a remedy to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Julia Penna; Aguiar, Anna Caroline Campos; dos Santos, Pierre Alexandre; Lima, Joaquim Corsino; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle Lima; Zani, Carlos Leomar; Alves, Tânia Maria Almeida; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Pereira, Maria de Meneses; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2013-12-01

    Infusions of Aspidosperma nitidum (Apocynaceae) wood bark are used to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon Region. Several species of this family are known to possess indole alkaloids and other classes of secondary metabolites, whereas terpenoids, an inositol and the indole alkaloids harmane-3 acid and braznitidumine have been described in A. nitidum . In the present study, extracts from the wood bark, leaves and branches of this species were prepared for assays against malaria parasites and cytotoxicity testing using human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cells. The wood bark extracts were active against Plasmodium falciparum and showed a low cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas the leaf and branch extracts and the pure alkaloid braznitidumine were inactive. A crude methanol extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation aimed at obtaining alkaloid-rich fractions, which were active at low concentrations against P. falciparum and in mice infected with and sensitive Plasmodium berghei parasites. Our data validate the antimalarial usefulness of A. nitidum wood bark, a remedy that can most likely help to control malaria. However, the molecules responsible for this antimalarial activity have not yet been identified. Considering their high selectivity index, the alkaloid-rich fractions from the plant bark might be useful in the development of new antimalarials.

  3. Extensive consumption of Tabebuia aurea (Manso Benth. & Hook. (Bignoniaceae nectar by parrots in a tecoma savanna in the southern Pantanal (Brazil

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    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Neotropical parrots forage for various food items such as seeds, fruit pulp, flowers, young leaves, and even arthropods. While foraging, many species wander over large areas that include both open and closed habitats. In this study, I examined parrot foraging activity during a brief synchronous and massive flowering in August 1998 in a tecoma savanna (dominated by Tabebuia aurea in the southern Pantanal. Six parrot species, ranging from the small Brotogeris chiriri to the large Amazona aestiva, foraged for T. aurea nectar, but Nandayus nenday was by far the major nectar consumer, and the results of each of their visits, like those of the other species, was damage of a substantial proportion of the existing flower crop. Parrots foraged mostly during the afternoon, when nectar concentration tended to be higher. Nevertheless, compared to bird-pollinated flowers, which produce copious nectar, T. aurea had a smaller mean nectar volume per flower. Hence, presumably the amount of damage wreaked by these parrots resulted from their efforts to obtain part of their daily energy and water requirements. Thus, the synchronous and massive flowering occurring in such a brief period in the dry season may be related to, among other factors, the necessity of satiating predators such as parrots, which are still abundant in the Pantanal.

  4. Extensive consumption of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. (Bignoniaceae) nectar by parrots in a Tecoma savanna in the southern Pantanal (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netro, J

    2005-05-01

    Neotropical parrots forage for various food items such as seeds, fruit pulp, flowers, young leaves, and even arthropods. While foraging, many species wander over large areas that include both open and closed habitats. In this study, I examined parrot foraging activity during a brief synchronous and massive flowering in August 1998 in a tecoma savanna (dominated by Tabebuia aurea) in the southern Pantanal. Six parrot species, ranging from the small Brotogeris chiriri to the large Amazona aestiva, foraged for T. aurea nectar, but Nandayus nenday was by far the major nectar consumer, and the results of each of their visits, like those of the other species, was damage of a substantial proportion of the existing flower crop. Parrots foraged mostly during the afternoon, when nectar concentration tended to be higher. Nevertheless, compared to bird-pollinated flowers, which produce copious nectar, T. aurea had a smaller mean nectar volume per flower. Hence, presumably the amount of damage wreaked by these parrots resulted from their efforts to obtain part of their daily energy and water requirements. Thus, the synchronous and massive flowering occurring in such a brief period in the dry season may be related to, among other factors, the necessity of satiating predators such as parrots, which are still abundant in the Pantanal.

  5. Status of industrial pollution and their effect on seed germination and growth performance of albizia lebbek (benth.) and leucaena leucocephala (LAM) de wit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiuli, M.D.; Alam, S.; Mohiuddin, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Pollution status of the effluents from three different industries viz. tanneries, fisheries and textiles, grown in the vicinity of the Karnafully River, Chittagong, Bangladesh and their influence on soil, seed germination and plant growth have been studied. The effluents pollute the adjacent water bodies and soils. The effluents from the tanneries are much more polluted than that of effluents from textiles and fisheries. This is due to the accumulation more total solids (1779 mg/l) as compared to that of 539 mg/l and 466 mg/l in textiles and fisheries effluents respectively and thus Chloride (3962 mg/i), Sulfate (450 mg/l) and Nitrate (7.03 mg/l), eventually showed similar trend. In addition to that, some of the pollution related parameters were dominant in the effluents of both textiles ( Turbidity- 177.9 NTU, SS- 23.27 ml/l, D.O.- 3.0 mg/l, COD- 8480 mg/l, BOD- 1860 mg/l Phosphate- 9.38 mg/l) and fisheries (D.O. -2.5 mg/l) than that of the tanneries (Turbidity- 57.6 NTU, SS- 18. 9 ml/l, D.O.- 1.2 mg/l, COD- 7529 mg/i, BOD- 1653 mg/l , Phosphate- 7.28 mg/l). Irrespective of physical or chemical composition most of the effluents were simply unusable. From the analysis of soil it was detected that the pH of soil samples contaminated with effluents was almost similar (6.7, 6.6 and 6.3, respectively) to that of control (6.2), but the concentration of organic matter, N, P, K and S in soil samples contaminated with the industrial effluents of tanneries (OM-4.5%, N- 0.227%, P- 108.21 micro gram/gram and K - 0.22 m eq/100 g), Fisheries (OM-4.0%, N- 0.4%, P-74.71 micro gram/gram, and K- 0.23 meq/100 g) and Textile (OM- 3.4%, N- 0.167%, P- 120 micro g/gram and K- 0.5 meq/100 g) were significantly higher than that of control samples (OM- 2.0%, N-0.24%, P- 50 micro g/g and k-0.15 meq/100g). Adverse effect of contamination, height growth, collar diameter, total biomass and nodule production of Albizia lebbek were 67% , 18.62 cm, 4 cm, 10.2 gm and 59 in soil without any contamination than in soil contaminated with effluents of tanneries (57%, 11.91 cm, 2.97 cm, 7.5 gm and 25, respectively) textiles (53%, 13.99 cm, 3.2 cm, 6.5 gm and 28, respectively) and fisheries (60%, 13.35 cm, 3.66 cm, 5 gm and 31, respectively). The soils contaminated by the effluents of textiles and fisheries has positive influence on the seed germination and growth performance of leaucaena leucocephala. In this case, seed germination, height growth, collar diameter. Total biomass and nodule numbers were 97%. 24.33 cm, 2.8 mm, 8.8 gm and 67 respectively in soils contaminated with effluents of textiles and fisheries (96%, 23.42 cm, 23.42 cm, 2.6 mm, 9.13 gm and 62 respectively) as compared to that of control soils (95%, 19.3 cm, 2.0 mm, 8.23 gm and 54, respectively) and contaminated soils of tanneries effluents (95%, 19.7 cm, 1.7 mm, 6.8 gm and 39, respectively). These indicate that the response of different tree species to similar pollution prone area could be different. (author)

  6. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  7. Observações preliminares do "Angelim" (Andira nitida Mart. ex Benth para uso na arborização urbana

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    Sérgio Soares Martins

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar as qualidades estéticas e funcionais do Angelim (Andira nitida a fim de verificar as potencialidades e limitações dessa espécie para o uso na arborização urbana. Foram analisadas características como: altura da árvore, copa, floração, frutificação, altura do primeiro esgalhamento e sistema radicular. Também foram feitos plantios em sementeira a fim de obter informações como: percentagem de germinação, desenvolvimento da espécie, e característica da muda.The objective of this paper was to analize the functional and aesthetic qualities of "angelim" (Andira nitida to verify the potential of this species as am urban landscape plant. The analyzed characteristics were: height, crown form, flowering season, frutification, trunk height and root system. The percentage of germination and the seedling development and characteristics were also evaluate.

  8. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam

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    Mary B. Slabaugh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the Δ5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA Δ5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS, Δ5 desaturase (Δ5DS, lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT, and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT. Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG, and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM. The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop.

  9. Reassessment of the polar fraction of Stachys alopecuros (L. Benth. subsp. divulsa (Ten. Grande (Lamiaceae from the Monti Sibillini National Park and its potential pharmacologic uses.

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    Alessandro Venditti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is reported an in deep study of the glycosidic fraction of S. alopecuros subsp. divulsa which permitted to widen the knowledge on its iridoid pattern, being constituted also by ajugoside (1, reptoside (6 and 6-O-acetyl-ajugol (7, besides 8-O-acetylharpagide (2, harpagide (3, allobetonicoside (4, 4′-O-galactopyranosyl-teuhircoside (5 which had been already isolated from this species. The phenolic compounds isolated during the study resulted to be chlorogenic acid (8, β-arbutin (9, verbascoside (10 and stachysoside A (11 instead. Except for the reconfirmed verbascoside (10, the other phenolic compounds were recognized for the first time in the studied species. The complete NMR assignment of compound (1 by means of bidimensional techniques is reported and both the chemotaxonomic and pharmacologic relevance of the isolated compounds are discussed. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 144-153

  10. Germinação de sementes de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (sansão-do-campo sob diferentes condições de temperatura, luz e umidade. Seed germination of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. Under different conditions of temperature, light and moisture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Balistiero FIGLIOLIA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (Fabaceae éuma espécie arbórea característica da caatinga,nativa da região Nordeste brasileira. Neste trabalhoforam realizados dois experimentos. No primeiroexperimento foi estudado o efeito da coloração dassementes (verde e marrom e da temperatura para agerminação (25, 30 e 20-30 ºC. No segundoexperimento foi estudado o efeito do volume deágua destilada adicionado ao substrato (45, 60 e75 mL e da qualidade de luz (ausência de luz e luzdos espectros branco, vermelho e vermelho-extremo,na germinação das sementes de coloração verdesubmetidas a 30 ºC. Os testes de germinação foramconduzidos sob fotoperíodo de 8 h, utilizando 30 gde vermiculita como substrato, e tiveram a duraçãode 14 dias. Foram avaliados a porcentagem final eo índice de velocidade de germinação dassementes. Os resultados obtidos no primeiroexperimento mostraram que as sementes decoloração verde são de melhor qualidade fisiológicae que a temperatura de 30 ºC foi a mais adequadapara a germinação. Os resultados obtidos no segundoexperimento mostraram que: (a as sementes decoloração verde são fotoblásticas positivaspreferenciais; (b o teste de germinação pode serconduzido sob luz branca, em substrato umedecidocom 75 mL de água, e (c os resultados obtidospermitem supor que, em condições naturais, assementes sejam capazes de germinar tanto a plenosol (luz do espectro vermelho como sob luzfiltrada pela vegetação (espectro vermelho-extremo.Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (Fabaceae is animportant arboreal species native from the caatingavegetation of the northeastern of Brazil. In thiswork two experiments were carried out. In the firstexperiment, the effect of seed color (green andbrown and temperature for germination (25, 30,and 20-30 ºC was studied. In the second experiment,the effect of distilled water added to substrate(45, 60, and 75 mL and light quality (darkness andwhite, red, and far-red light on germination at30 ºC of green color seeds was studied. Germinationtests were performed for 14 days under an 8 hphotoperiod, using 30 g of vermiculite as substrate.Both final percentage and speed of germinationindex of seeds were evaluated. The results obtainedin the first experiment showed that seeds of greencolor have better physiological quality and that theconstant temperature of 30 ºC favoured the seedgermination. The results obtained in the secondexperiment showed that (a seeds of green color arepreferential positive photoblastic; (b germination testcan be performed under white light with substratemoistened with 75 mL of water and (c the resultsobtained in laboratory suggest that under naturalconditions seeds are able to germinate either inlight gap (red light or under canopy (far-red light.

  11. Efeito alelopático de Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth na germinação e no crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. e Raphanus sativus L. Allelopathic effect of Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth in the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.

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    Fernando Periotto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito alelopático de caules e folhas de Andira humilis na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de plântulas de rabanete e alface. Para os experimentos de germinação foram preparados extratos aquosos de caules e folhas de A. humilis nas concentrações de 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (p/v. Foram realizadas quatro réplicas de trinta sementes de alface ou de rabanete, distribuídas em placas de Petri forradas com papel-filtro umedecido com 5mL dos extratos, mantidas a 27 ºC e na ausência de luz. As contagens das sementes germinadas foram realizadas a cada 12h, calculando-se a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação. Extratos de caules e folhas reduziram significativamente a velocidade e a percentagem de germinação, em relação ao grupo controle. Os experimentos de crescimento foram realizados com quatro réplicas de oito sementes germinadas de alface ou de rabanete, a 27 ºC, na ausência de luz e em papel-filtro como substrato, sendo avaliadas as concentrações 0, 4 e 12% (p/v. Plântulas de alface e rabanete sofreram inibição significativa em seus comprimentos, pelos extratos de folhas. Extratos de caules a 4 e 12% (p/v não causaram inibição do crescimento em rabanete. A interferência dos extratos na germinação e no crescimento em alface e rabanete foi desassociada de qualquer efeito do potencial osmótico e do pH, indicando, portanto, atividade alelopática.The objective of this study was to evaluate allelopathic effects of stems and leaves of Andira humilis in the germination and growth of radish and lettuce. For the germination's experiments, aqueous extracts of stems and leaves of A. humilis in the concentrations of 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (w/v were done. Were employed four replicates of thirty seeds of lettuce and radish. The seeds were distributed in Petri dishes with filter paper moistened with 5mL of the extracts. The experiments were conducted at 27 ºC in light absence. The counting of germinated seeds was done each 12h, calculating the percentage and germination rate. The extracts at 8, 12 and 16% (w/v reduced lettuce and radish germination rate, extracts of stems at 100% reduced the percentage of germination. Four replicates of eight germinated seeds of lettuce or radish were employed in the growth experiments conducted at 27 ºC in the absence of light and having filter paper as substracts moistened with concentrations of 0, 4 e 12% (w/v.Lettuce and radish seedlings suffered significant inhibition in length, when using leaves extracts. Only 4 e 12% (w/v stems extracts didn't caused growth inhibition in radish. The interference of extracts in germination and growth of lettuce and radish was disassociated of any pH and osmotic potential, indicating allelopathic activity.

  12. Efeito do álcool e substrato na germinação de sementes de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia pelthophoroides Benth. colhidas no chão e retiradas da vagem Alcohol and substratum effects on the germination of sibipiruna seeds (Caesalpinia pelthophoroides Benth. collected on the soil surface and from harvest pods

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    Silvana P. Quintão Scalon

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a capacidade germinativa de sementes colhidas no chão e retiradas da vagem, ambas tratadas ou não com álcool absoluto em imersão por 5 minutos e semeadas em dois substrato terra ou areia O trabalho foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 3 repetições de 30 sementes. Foram avaliadas a porcentagem de germinação (%G e o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG das sementes durante 31 dias após a semeadura. As sementes de sibipiruna colhidas no chão, tratadas com álcool e semeadas em terra adubada apresentaram a maior porcentagem de germinação (60,5% e maior IVG (1,028.The germinative capability of sibipiruna seeds collected on the soil surface and from harvest pods, immersed or not in absolute alcohol for 5 minutes, and sowed in fertilised soil or sand, was evaluated. The work was accomplished in a totally randomized outline, with three repetitions of 30 seeds. The germination percentage (%G and the germination speed index (GSI of the seeds were evaluated during 31 days after the sowing. The sibipiruna seeds collected on the soil surface, treated with alcohol and sowed in fertilized soil presented a greater germination percentage (60,5% and also a greater GSI (1,028.

  13. Variação sazonal na alelopatia de extratos aquosos de Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento de Lactuca sativa L. Seasonal variation in the allelopathy of aqueous extracts from Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. on the germination and development of Lactuca sativa L.

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    L.L. Pelegrini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos de Coleus barbatus sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório, em diferentes concentrações de extratos obtidos de folhas de falso-boldo (0; 7,5; 15; 22,5; 30%, coletadas nas quatro estações do ano, obtidos por trituração, maceração, infusão e decocção. As sementes de alface foram distribuídas sobre placas de petri umidecidas com 10 mL de solução. Os resultados mostraram que os extratos de folhas afetaram a germinabilidade de sementes de alface apenas na concentração de 30% do extrato preparado por decocção de folhas coletadas no inverno. O índice de velocidade de germinação apresentou redução significativa nos extratos triturados preparados no outono e inverno; na maceração de folhas coletadas no verão e outono e no extrato de decocção preparado no inverno. Os extratos estimularam o crescimento da parte aérea das plântulas de alface, ao passo que, o comprimento das raízes foi afetado pelos extratos, ora inibindo, ora estimulando o crescimento das mesmas. Os extratos de folhas de falso-boldo coletadas nas quatro estações do ano apresentaram efeito alelopático sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento da alface, sendo que estes variaram em função da sazonalidade da coleta, da forma de obtenção dos extratos e das concentrações testadas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of extracts from Coleus barbatus on germination and seedling growth of lettuce. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory using different concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30% of aqueous extracts from "falso-boldo" leaves harvested in all four seasons; extracts were obtained by grinding, maceration, infusion and decoction. Seeds were distributed on Petri dishes moistened with 10 mL solution. Results showed that the leaf extracts affected the germination of lettuce seeds only at the concentration of 30% extract prepared by decoction of leaves harvested in the winter. Germination speed index showed significant reduction for ground extracts prepared in the fall and winter, as well as for macerated leaves harvested in the summer and fall and for extracts prepared through decoction in the winter. The extracts stimulated the growth of shoots of lettuce seedlings, whereas root length was affected by the extracts, which either stimulated or inhibited its growth. Extracts of "falso-boldo" leaves harvested in all four seasons had allelopathic effect on germination and development of lettuce, and the latter varied depending on the harvest season, the form of preparing the extracts and the tested concentrations.

  14. Efecto de la escarificación húmeda y seca en la capacidad germinativa de las semillas de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth Effect of moist and dry scarification on the germination capacity of seeds from Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth

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    Marlen Navarro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de favorecer la germinación en semillas de A. lebbeck almacenadas en condiciones ambientales, se evaluaron diferentes métodos presiembra mediante un diseño completamente aleatorizado con arreglo factorial 4 x 13 y 3 x 13 para la escarificación húmeda y la seca, respectivamente. En la escarificación húmeda se halló interacción significativa entre los factores estudiados (PWith the objective of favoring germination in A. lebbeck seeds stored under ambient conditions, different pre-planting methods were evaluated by means of a completely randomized design with 4 x 13 and 3 x 13 factorial arrangement for moist and dry scarification, respectively. In moist scarification significant interaction was found among the studied factors (P<0,001. No statistical differences were observed between the acid and the hot water, in the seeds evaluated at 1, 3, 6 and 7 mos; while the same evaluations were statistically different from the control and in all cases the values were lower than the latter. All the soaking and control evaluations were not significant among themselves, while they differed from the hot water and the acid. In the dry scarification the germination capacity showed significant interaction (P<0,001. The highest values were reported in 1, 2 and 3 mos in seeds with one cut; these percentages did not differ among themselves but they did differ from the others. When comparing the cut with the puncture, a statistically different behavior was observed; in all the evaluations the lowest values were those of the puncture. It is necessary to emphasize the efficacy of the seed coat cut and the soaking for 24 hours in water at ambient temperature as dry and moist scarification treatments, respectively, in spite of the acceptable results shown by the control.

  15. Germinação, vigor e sanidade de sementes de fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. obtidas de frutos coletados no solo e na planta Germination, vigor and sanity of "fava d'anta" (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds obtained from fruits collected both in the soil and in the plant

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    A.V. Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes obtidas a partir de frutos maduros coletados no solo e nas plantas de fava d'anta, espécie medicinal nativa do Cerrado, ameaçada de extinção, cujos frutos são ricos em rutina. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 10 repetições. Cada repetição foi constituída de uma caixa gerbox contendo 15 sementes cada. A qualidade fisiológica foi determinada por meio de testes de germinação e vigor, avaliando-se a porcentagem de germinação, o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a massa seca das raízes primárias. A qualidade sanitária foi determinada pela identificação dos microorganismos patogênicos associados às sementes, bem como pela porcentagem de ocorrência destes em cada parcela. Os fungos identificados nas sementes pertencem aos gêneros Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletrotrichum, Helminthosporium, Nigrospora, Penicillum, Phoma e Phomopsis. Sementes oriundas de frutos coletados no solo foram mais contaminadas por agentes patogênicos e apresentaram germinação (56,67%, vigor e sanidade inferiores às sementes obtidas de frutos coletados na planta.The aim of this work was to evaluate the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds obtained from mature fruits collected in the soil and in "fava d'anta" plants. Dimorphandra mollis constitutes an endangered medicinal species native to cerrado and presents fruits rich in rutin. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 10 replicates. Each replicate consisted of a gerbox containing 15 seeds each. Physiological quality was assessed through germination and vigor tests by evaluating germination percentage, germination velocity index (GVI, and primary root dry matter. Sanitary quality was evaluated by identifying pathogenic microorganisms associated with the seeds, as well as their occurrence percentage in each plot. The identified fungi belonged to the genera Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Helminthosporium, Nigrospora, Penicillium, Phoma and Phomopsis. Seeds from fruits collected in the soil were more contaminated by pathogenic agents and presented lower germination (56.67%, vigor and health than seeds from fruits collected in the plant.

  16. Proprietes insecticides de l'huile essentielle d' Aeollanthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proprietes insecticides de l'huile essentielle d' Aeollanthus Pubescens benth. Sur les chenilles de deux lepidopteres: Selepa docilsi butler ( noctuidae,/i>) et scrobipalpa ergassima mayr. ( geleduidae ).

  17. Softening effect of Ikpiru and Yanyanku, two traditional additives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ikpiru and Yanyanku are two additives used for the traditional alkaline fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa. Benth) to produce food condiments in Benin. In this study, African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa. Benth) were fermented with or without Ikpiru and Yanyanku to assess the factors explaining the ...

  18. Antifungal potential of leaf extracts of leguminous trees against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to search environmental friendly alternatives from natural resources, methanolic extracts of three leguminous tree species namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii ...

  19. Hidrocondicionamento de Parkia pendula [Benth ex Walp]: sementes com dormência física de árvore da Amazônia Hydropriming of Parkia pendula [Penth. ex Walp.]: seeds with physical dormancy from Amazon tree

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    Gina Janet Vargas Pinedo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O visgueiro é uma árvore neotropical de importâncias econômica e ecológica. Este estudo objetivou determinar o tempo de embebição e o teor de água de sementes de Parkia pendula necessários para ativar o metabolismo e aumentar o desempenho pelo condicionamento. Sementes armazenadas (2 anos e não armazenadas (7 dias foram comparadas. Após o desponte as sementes foram submersas em água a 15 ºC, por períodos de 4 a 28 h, para atingir o grau de embebição desejado (20, 40, 60, 80 e 90%. Em seguida, foram diretamente semeadas em areia lavada no viveiro (4 x 25 sementes/tratamento ou dessecadas durante sete dias (24±2 °C e 68±3% UR antes da semeadura. Sementes não armazenadas e sem condicionamento (controle apresentaram 59±8,9% de emergência, valor inferior ao daquelas armazenadas e sem condicionamento (76±11,3%. Períodos de submersão superiores a 13 h reduziram o desempenho da germinação em relação às sementes não condicionadas. Porém, após 4 h (26-31% de teor de água das sementes ambas as sementes não armazenadas e armazenadas aumentaram o desempenho, sendo, ainda, maior quando houve dessecamento após a submersão. Portanto, os efeitos positivos do condicionamento ocorreram na fase I da curva de embebição. O hidrocondicionamento de 4 h a 15 ºC mostrou ser uma opção econômica e de fácil aplicação em sementes de P. pendula: aumentou a velocidade do desenvolvimento das plântulas, a porcentagem de germinação das sementes não armazenadas em níveis similares aos das armazenadas e a sincronização da germinação em sementes armazenadas.Visgueiro is a neo-tropical tree species with economic and ecologic importance. This work aimed to determine the imbibition time and moisture content of P. pendula seeds necessary to activate metabolism and improve their performance by priming. Stored seeds (2 years and unstored seeds (7 days were compared. After clipping, the seeds were kept in water at 15 ºC for periods of 4 to 28 hours to reach the desired imbibition degrees (20, 40, 60, 80 and 90%. Seeds were then sown immediately in washed sand in the nursery (4 x 25 seeds / treatment or dried for 7 days (24±2°C and 68±3% R.H.. Unstored and unprimed (control seeds showed 59±8.9% germination, which was less than that of stored unprimed seeds (76±11.3 %. Submersion periods exceeding 13 hours reduced germination relative to unprimed seeds. After 4 hours of submersion (seed moisture 26-31%, both unstored and stored seeds increased their performance. Even higher improvement was verified when drying followed submersion. Thus, the positive effects of priming occurred in phase I of the imbibition curve. Hydropriming of 4 hours at 15 ºC was found to be a simple and inexpensive method for P. pendula seeds since it increased seedling development velocity, brought the germination percentage of unstored seeds to a level similar to that of stored seeds and increased germination synchronization of stored seeds.

  20. Efeito do tamanho de tubetes na qualidade de mudas de Jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang., Ipê-amarelo (Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart. ex DC. Sandl. e Guarucaia (Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan

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    Alexandre de Vicente Ferraz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A crescente demanda por projetos de restauração florestal, devido aos desmatamentos e à exploração ilegal de madeira, tem exigido pesquisas sobre a produção e a qualidade de mudas florestais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de diferentes tamanhos de tubetes na qualidade de mudas de essências nativas de diferentes grupos ecológico-sucessionais. Os tratamentos consistiram da combinação de três espécies: Hymenaea courbaril (jatobá, Tabebuia chrysotricha (ipê-amarelo e Parapiptadenia rigida (guarucaia; com três tamanhos de tubetes para a semeadura: 50 cm³; 110 cm³ e 300 cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos aleatórios, com quatro repetições. A qualidade das mudas foi avaliada através dos atributos: altura, diâmetro do colo; área foliar; massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular e índice de qualidade de Dickson. O aumento do volume do tubete gerou ganhos expressivos em altura nas mudas de guarucaia (até 92% e ganhos menores nas mudas de jatobá (até 14%, o que foi atribuído a maior taxa de crescimento da primeira espécie, característica de início de sucessão ecológica. As mudas de ipê-amarelo apresentaram ganhos consideráveis em biomassa do sistema radicular (51 a 229% com o aumento do tamanho do tubete. Nas três espécies, o tubete de 300 cm³ proporcionou mudas com altura e diâmetro do colo superiores aos daquelas produzidas nos demais tubetes, possibilitando reduzir o tempo de produção das mudas em até 70 dias.

  1. Evaluación de la influencia de la cadena de frio en la productividad y competitividad de la cadena de suministro de la mora de castilla (rubus glaucus benth.)- estudio de caso departamento del Huila

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    Polanía Orozco, Sebastián de Jesús

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación inicia con una descripción del contexto de la cadena de suministro de la Mora de Castilla y la Cadena de Frio Aplicada a los alimentos; los principales elementos que dirigen el comportamiento y la interacción de dichas cadenas, realizando un especial énfasis en los factores críticos en el desarrollo de la competitividad y productividad del sector. Luego se desarrollan los principales elementos para la estructuración en el departamento del Huila, determ...

  2. Efeito analgésico e anti-inflamatório do extrato aquoso das folhas de trevo-roxo (Scutellaria agrestis A. St.-Hil. ex Benth. - Lamiaceae em roedores

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    A.B. Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria agrestis é utilizada por comunidades ribeirinhas do Amazonas principalmente para o tratamento de otites por via tópica utilizando-se o extrato bruto obtido por maceração. O presente trabalho visou investigar preliminarmente o perfil fitoquímico, a segurança toxicológica e as ações analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiedematogência do extrato aquoso das folhas de S. agrestis. Foram coletados 80 indivíduos da espécie no horto medicinal da Universidade Nilton Lins, Manaus, Brasil. O perfil fitoquímico foi obtido por meio de prospecção da droga vegetal para heterosídeos cianogênicos, terpenos, compostos fenólicos e alcaloides. A toxicologia foi avaliada pelo teste de toxicidade aguda. As atividades analgésicas/ anti-inflamatórias foram analisadas por meio dos testes de formalina em camundongos e a atividade antiedematogência, pelo teste de edema de pata em ratos. Os metabólitos detectados foram fenóis (taninos hidrolisáveis, cumarinas e várias classes de flavonoides e terpenos (esteroides livres, saponinas. Não foi possível estabelecer DL50, haja visto que o extrato não provocou a morte de nenhum animal durante o teste de toxicidade aguda, provavelmente devido à ausência de heterosídeos cianogênicos na sua composição. Apesar de não provocar morte, considerou-se que o extrato apresenta uma discreta toxicidade, uma vez que foi observada a ocorrência de espasmos na primeira hora de observação dos animais. O extrato apresentou ainda efeito analgésico e anti-inflamatório significativo nas doses de 30, 100 e 300 mg/kg pelo teste da formalina, sendo o resultado na maior dose equivalente ao obtido com a droga padrão (fentanil. No entanto, não observamos efeito antiedematogênico nas doses testadas durante as 5 horas de registro do edema de pata. Os resultados obtidos nesta pesquisa conferem base científica preliminar quanto à segurança e ao efeito analgésico e antiinflamatório da droga vegetal, o que indica que tal espécie é promissora e expressamente recomendada para maiores estudos farmacológicos in vitro e in vivo.

  3. Plantas medicinais utilizadas em 9 comunidades rurais de Itacoatiara e aspectos anat?micos e histoqu?micos de duas esp?cies (Pogostemon cablin Benth e Tripogandra glandulosa (Seub.) Rohw)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Deolinda Lucianne Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    As plantas medicinais s?o aquelas que, de fato, podem causar algum efeito no organismo humano e seu uso contribui para sistematiza??o do conhecimento e valoriza??o do saber local. O objetivo desse estudo foi registrar a diversidade de plantas de uso medicinal, indica??es terap?uticas e formas de uso em 9 comunidades rurais de Itacoatiara, AM; apresentar novos registros de uso medicinal de Cyperus luzulae (L.) Rottb. ex Retz e Tripogandra glandulosa (Seub.) Rohw e estudar anatomicamente e hist...

  4. Acorenone B: AChE and BChE Inhibitor as a Major Compound of the Essential Oil Distilled from the Ecuadorian Species Niphogeton dissecta (Benth. J.F. Macbr

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    James Calva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition, physical proprieties, biological activity, and enantiomeric analysis of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Niphogeton dissecta (culantrillo del cerro from Ecuador, obtained by steam distillation. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the essential oil was realized by gas chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS and GC-FID. Acorenone B was identified by GC-MS and NMR experiments. The enantiomeric distribution of some constituents has been assessed by enantio-GC through the use of a chiral cyclodextrin-based capillary column. We identified 41 components that accounted for 96.46% of the total analyzed, the major components were acorenone B (41.01% and (E-β-ocimene (29.64%. The enantiomeric ratio of (+/(−-β-pinene was 86.9:13.1, while the one of (+/(−-sabinene was 80.9:19.1. The essential oil showed a weak inhibitory activity, expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC 10 mg/mL and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 5 mg/mL. Furthermore, it inhibited butyrylcholinesterase with an IC50 value of 11.5 μg/mL. Pure acorenone B showed inhibitory activity against both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, with IC50 values of 40.8 μg/mL and 10.9 μg/mL, respectively.

  5. Composição química e atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus cinerea F. Mull. ex Benth., Myrtaceae, extraído em diferentes intervalos de tempo

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    J. Franco

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus cinerea é uma espécie aromática da família Myrtaceae, sendo utilizada como ornamental e que apresenta rendimento em óleo essencial considerável. O objetivo deste trabalho foi à avaliação da composição química e da atividade antimicrobiana deste óleo, e das frações coletadas em diferentes intervalos de tempo. A metodologia empregada para a extração do óleo essencial foi a hidrodestilação com arraste de vapor d'água, em aparelho de Clevenger. A análise da composição química foi procedida por CG/EM e para a determinação da atividade antimicrobiana foi utilizado o método de difusão em ágar frente aos microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6.538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8.739, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12.228 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9.027 e Candida albicans ATCC 10.231. O rendimento do óleo essencial foi de 6,07 % (v/m, do qual grande parte foi extraída na primeira hora de hidrodestilação. Também foi observada maior concentração de 1,8-cineol nas frações coletadas em quinze minutos e uma hora. Os principais componentes identificados no óleo essencial de E. cinerea por CG/EM foram: 1,8-cineol, a-pineno, limoneno e a-terpineol. A avaliação de atividade antimicrobiana pelo método de difusão em disco indicou qualitativamente o potencial antimicrobiano do óleo essencial da espécie em questão frente a bactérias Gram-positivas, bactérias Gram-negativas e levedura.

  6. In Vitro Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl. Schiede ex Standl., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Cirsium mexicanum DC., Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche, and Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. Used in Traditional Medicine in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Knauth

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven out of eight methanolic extracts from five plants native to Mexico were inactive against ten bacterial strains of clinical interest. The fruit extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibited the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4375 μg/ml, Escherichia coli (MIC = 1094 μg/ml, and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 137 μg/ml. The fruit extract of C. ambrosioides was with CC50 = 45 μg/ml most cytotoxic against the cell-line Caco-2, followed by the leaf extract from Pithecellobium dulce (CC50 = 126 μg/ml; interestingly, leaves of C. ambrosioides (CC50 = 563 μg/ml and bark of P. dulce (CC50 = 347 μg/ml extracts were much less cytotoxic. We describe for the first time the cytotoxic effect from extracts of the aerial parts and the flowers of Cirsium mexicanum (CC50 = 323 μg/ml and CC50 = 250 μg/ml, resp.. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated for both extracts high tannin and saponin and low flavonoid content, while terpenoids were found in the flowers. For the first time we report a cytotoxicological study on an extract of Eryngium carlinae (CC50 = 356 μg/ml and likewise the bark extract from Amphipterygium adstringens (CC50 = 342 μg/ml. In conclusion the fruit extract of C. ambrosioides is a potential candidate for further biological studies.

  7. Caracterización fisicoquímica de los aceites crudos de algunas semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sonoran desert has a great variety of nutritional native plants, mainly from the leguminous family. Although in ancient times their products were used as food by native Americans, there is little information about their potential as a food source. For this reason, oils from the following seeds were studied: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro and Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Oils were extracted from the seeds with hexane, and contents ranged from 8.5 to 23.5 %. The physicochemical studies showed mostly unsaturated oils, as demonstrated by the iodine index, (101-147 units. Indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acids were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids were separated and quantified by gas chromatography. Linoleic and oleic acids were found to predominate. All extracted crude oils were of good quality, comparable to those from soybean, com, sunflower and carthamus.

    El desierto de Sonora cuenta con una gran variedad de plantas silvestres principalmente de la familia leguminosae de las cuales se tiene poca información acerca de su potencial como fuente nutricional. Por lo que se estudiaron los aceites de las semillas: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro y Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Los aceites de cada semilla se extrajeron con hexano, obteniéndose de 8.5 a 23.5 %. Estos mostraron un alto grado de insaturación reflejado en los índices de lodo, de 101 a 147. Los índices de acidez, peróxidos y ácidos grasos libres fueron bajos y dentro de los valores aceptables. Al cuantificar los ácidos grasos por

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huile essentielle d'Aeollanthus Pubescens benth. Sur les chenilles de deux lepidopteres: Selepa docilsi butler (noctuidae,/i>) et scrobipalpa ergassima mayr. (geleduidae). Abstract. ISSN: 1027-1988. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  9. Soil characteristics under legume and non-legume tree canopies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, 100% and 150% the distance from tree trunk to canopy edge of leguminous sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.) and espinheiro (Machaerium aculeatum Raddi) and non-legume cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) and jaqueira ...

  10. Comparative study of leaf and stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested against clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Enterococcus faecalis, and corresponding collection strains E. coli CIP 105 182, Salmonella enterica CIP 105 150, ...

  11. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  12. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, @iDerris scandens@@ (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg, A.

    Methanol extract of terrestrial plant, @iDerris scandens@@ Benth, was found to inhibit growth of four diatoms and 7 bacterial species of fouling community. The concentrations required to bring about 100% inhibition of growth of the diatoms ranged...

  13. INvENTAIRE FLORISTIqUE ET EFFET DE LA DENSITÉ DE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KyllingaerectaSchum. var. flabelliformis (Cyperaceae). +. +. +. 92. Kyllingapumila Michaux (Cyperaceae). +. +. +. 93. Lantana camara L. (verbenaceae). +. -. -. 94. Leptoderrisfasciculata(Benth.) Dunn. (Fabaceae). -. +. -. 95. Lindernia diffusa (L.) Wettst. (Scrophulariaceae). +. -. -. 96. Ludwigiaabyssinica A. Rich. (Onagraceae).

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... Buchnera capitata Benth. Scrophulariaceae. Forb. +. Not Assessed. Bulbophyllum bequaertii De Wild. Orchidaceae. Epiphyte. +. Not Assessed. Bulbophyllum congolanum Schltr. Orchidaceae. Epiphyte. +. Not Assessed. Bulbostylis sp. Kunth. Cyperaceae. Sedge. +. Burkea africana Hook. Caesalpinioideae.

  15. Survey of ethno-veterinary medicinal plants in Melkabello District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gonorrhea, Cough, liver disease,. Amarantaceae. Achayrentesaspera. Darguu. Abdominal discomfort,. Febrile disease. Spundaceae. Alophaylusabsini. Biiflee. GIT parasite, Abdominal disorder. Scrophulariaceae. VerbascumsinaiticumBenth. Risaarrisoowri. Febrile causal disease, heart disease, Renal disease. Liliaceae.

  16. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak; Garg, A.

    Methanol extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens Benth, was found to inhibit growth of four diatoms and 7 bacterial species of fouling community. The concentrations required to bring about 100% inhibition of growth of the diatoms ranged...

  17. Pemanfaatan Pupuk Hayati Mikoriza Untuk Meningkatkan Toleransi Kekeringan Pada Tanaman Nilam

    OpenAIRE

    MAWARDI, MAWARDI; DJAZULI, MUHAMAD

    2006-01-01

    Use of mycorhiza bio-fertilizer in increasing droughttolerance of patchouli plant (Pogostemon cablin Benth)Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth) is a primary essential oil inIndonesia. More than 90 percent patchouli oil of the world is produced byIndonesia. Productivity and quality of patchouli oil are strongly affected bygenetic and environmental factors. One of abiotic environment which hasstrongly effected growth and productivity of patchouli is drought stress.The information on the toleranc...

  18. Variation of Ursolic Acid Content in Eight Ocimum Species from Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. Goretti V.; Vieira, Icaro G. P.; Mendes, Francisca N. P.; Albuquerque, Irineu L.; Santos, Rogério N. Dos; Silva, Fábio O.; Morais, Selene M.

    2008-01-01

    Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA) content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocim...

  19. MARCADORES POLÍNICOS EN MIELES DEL NOROESTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio melisopalinológico de 49 muestras de miel provenientes del noroeste de la provincia de Córdoba. Prosopis spp., Larrea divaricata , Schinopsis spp., Condalia microphylla , Sarcomphalus mistol , Cercidium praecox , Geoffroea decorticans , Capparis atamisquea , Aloysia gratissima , Mimosa spp. y Schinus spp. fueron los tipos polínicos de mayor importancia y frecuencia de aparición, todos representantes de la flora nativa. Cuatro grupos de mieles se diferenciaron por análisis discriminante: Traslasierra, Perisalina, Chaco Árido y Chaco Serrano; algunas especies permitieron diferenciarlos entre sí: Schinus areira , Maytenus vitis-idaea , Cantinoa mutabilis y Schinopsis spp., respectivamente. Los tipos polínicos con mayor índice de importancia de especie y frecuencia se proponen como marcadores útiles para la Denominación de Origen.

  20. Directives for Mangrove Forest and Coastal Forest Rehabilitation in Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Area in the Provinces of Manggroe Aceh Darussalam and Sumatera Utara (Nias Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Kusmara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Peristiwa gempa bumi dan tsunami yang melanda Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD dan Pulau Nias Sumatera Utara pada bulan Desember 2004 telah mengakibatkan rusaknya sebagian besar hutan mangrove dan hutan pantai di kedua wilayah tersebut. Berhubung kedua tipe hutan tersebut sangat penting untuk menopang kelangsungan hidup penduduk pantai, maka penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan arahan rehabilitasi hutan mangrove dan pantai yang rusak akibat tsunami di NAD dan Pulau Nias. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa wilayah pantai yang tanahnya berupa tanah mineral yang bukan lumpur dengan salinitas yang tinggi (di atas 10 0/00 seyogyanya ditanami oleh jenis mangrove eklusif (Rhizophora stylosa, R. apiculata, Sonneratia alba, Ceriops tagal dan Aegeciros floridum dan mangrove asosiat (Osbornea octodonta dan Scyphiphora sp., tanah bukan lumpur dengan salinitas rendah oleh berbagai jenis pohon hutan pantai (Casuarina equisetifolia, dan lain-lain, tanah lumpur bersalinitas tinggi oleh Avicenia spp. dan R. Mucronata; dan tanah gambut seyogyanya ditanami oleh Bruguiera gymnorrizha. Adapun lebar  jalur hijau vegetasi yang disarankan adalah minimal 225 m untuk wilayah NAD dan 211 m untuk wilayah pulau Nias. Untuk merealisasikan kegiatan rehabilitasi vegetasi pantai yang bersifat multitahun di NAD dan Nias maka kegiatan rehabilitasi tersebut harus ditempatkan dalam rangka pembangunan daerah Kata kunci: hutan mangrove, hutan pantai, jalur hijau, mangrove asosiat, mangrove eksklusif

  1. Variation of Ursolic Acid Content in Eight Ocimum Species from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene M. Morais

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocimum species, UA was detected in different yields, with O. tenuiflorum showing the highest content (2.02%. This yield is very significant when compared with other sources of UA.

  2. [Seed morphology and anatomy of the seed coat in five species of Calliandra (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) from Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leython, Sirli; Jáuregui, Damelis

    2008-09-01

    Calliandra is an exclusively Neotropoical genus with 135 described species. There are 30 species in Venezuela. We studied seed morphology and the seed coat anatomy of five species: Calliandra riparia Pittier, Calliandra glomerulata Karsten var. glomerulata, Calliandra magdalenae (DC.) Bentk var. magdalenae, Calliandra surinamensis Benth and Calliandra falcata Benth., to establish simililarities and differences amongst taxa for taxonomic characterization. Of the evaluated characters, 10 quantitative characters and 3 qualitative characters were selected as the most informative for the separation of species. Seed morphological characters of taxonomic value are form and size. Thickness of the light line, number of layers and space between the osteosclereids constitute distinctive characters.

  3. Variation of ursolic acid content in eight Ocimum species from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M Goretti V; Vieira, Icaro G P; Mendes, Francisca N P; Albuquerque, Irineu L; dos Santos, Rogério N; Silva, Fábio O; Morais, Selene M

    2008-10-14

    Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA) content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocimum species, UA was detected in different yields, with O. tenuiflorum showing the highest content (2.02%). This yield is very significant when compared with other sources of UA.

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations into the vegetative propagation pattern of stem cuttings of three physiological ages of Gongronema latifolia Benth ... propagation during the dry season when each (physiological age) gave more than seventy per cent (70%) rooted cuttings is ... medicinal purposes, its availability is on the decline and in some ...

  5. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex Benth. (Syn. C.dentata (Willd.) Roemer) – Black Currant. Grape Lime of the family Rutaceae is a small aromatic evergreen tree. Leaves are odd-pinnate with elliptic-ovate and oblique leaflets. Inflorescence is a raceme and flowers are greenish-white, and. 4-merous. Fruit is an ovoid small ...

  6. Chemical control of blossom blight disease of sarpagandha caused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Sarpagandha (Rauvolfia serpentina Benth) is grown in different parts of India and its adjoining countries for its root which is the chief source of ... There are many reports on the chemical control of the diseases caused by the pathogen, .... infection of weed seedlings by H. sativum. J. Agric. Res. 5: 195-217.

  7. Études de quelques plantes thérapeutiques utilisées dans le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s\\'agit de Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, Ageratum conyzoides L., Vernonia colorata (Willd.) Drake, Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. & Thonn.) Müll. Arg., Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. et Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. Investigations on medicinal plants in the markets of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) allowed the inventory ...

  8. Nigeria Agricultural Journal - Vol 33 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inflation and changes in output and consumer prices of food in Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Benth in Upland Rice: Influence of Upland Rice Varieties and Rates of Nitrogen Fertilizer · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awodoyin, Ro. Vol 5, No 1 (2004) - Articles Population structure of Vitelaria paradoxa Gaertn. F. and Parkia biglobosa(Jacq.) Benth.in the Agroforestry Parklands of Nigerian humid Savanna Abstract PDF · Vol 18 (2011) - Articles Floral Diversity in the Wetlands of Apete River, Eleyele Lake and Oba Dam in Ibadan, Nigeria: ...

  10. The relationship between strigolactones and Striga hermonthica infection in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cereal production in Africa is under increasing constraint due to the obligate, out-crossing, hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth, a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. Striga parasitizes roots of cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, maize and upland rice. It

  11. Cultural control measures to diminish sorghum yield loss and parasite success under Striga hermonthica infestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Katile, S.

    2005-01-01

    Prospects of reducing Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. parasitism by means of cultural control measures were assessed. In a pot experiment, deep planting, the use of transplants and shallow soil-tillage, strongly delayed and reduced Striga infection of a sensitive and a tolerant sorghum cultivar.

  12. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education: Admission to PhD Programme in Science Education - 2018 · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. pp 244-244 Information and Announcements. Physics Training and Talent Search · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. pp 245-245 Flowering Trees. Gymnosporia montana Benth.

  13. Volume and aboveground biomass models for dry Miombo woodland in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwakalukwa, Ezekiel Edward; Meilby, Henrik; Treue, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    and biomass of three important species, Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. (n=40), Combretum molle G. Don (n=41), and Dalbergia arbutifolia Baker (n=37) separately, and for broader samples of trees (28 species, n=72), shrubs (16 species, n=31), and trees and shrubs combined (44 species, n=104). Applied...

  14. Res June 2013 Cover Tp.cdr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex Benth. (Syn. C.dentata (Willd.) Roemer) — Black Currant. Grape Lime of the family Rutaceae is a small aromatic evergreen tree. Leaves are odd-pinnate with elliptic-ovate and oblique leaflets. Inflorescence is a raceme and flowers are greenish-white, and. 4-merous. Fruit is an ovoid ...

  15. Morphology and chromosome numbers of Gongronema latifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytological studies on the root-tips of four clones of Gongronema latifolia Benth. were conducted to identify cross-compatible clones for possible improvement through hybridisation. The results showed that the diploid chromosomes number in G. latifolia was 2n = 16. Clones, IMS-20-NJIABA, AKS-33-EKPENE EDIENE, ...

  16. In vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total flavonoids from Elsholtzia densa Benth. Ren Qiu-Rong, Li Jiao, Wang Ya-Nan, Gou Xun, Xin Wen-Yuan, Ma Dan-Wei, Xiong Xiu-Hong, Zhou Yu-Jun ...

  17. In vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total flavonoids from Elsholtzia densa Benth of Sichuan Province, China. Methods: The total flavonoids of Elsholtzia densa Bent were extracted utilizing the ultrasonic extraction method, and purified by D101 macroporous adsorption resin ...

  18. The essential oil of patchouli, Pogostemon cablin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van Teris A.; Joulain, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The leaves of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Lamiaceae) are the source of patchouli essential oil, which is - with an annual production of about 1300 tonnes - an important and unique commodity in the fragrance industry. All the literature pertaining to patchouli was critically reviewed with

  19. Study of the Volatile Constituents in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and a Substitute by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Chemometric Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Fang Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A combined approach of subwindow factor analysis and spectral correlative chromatography was used to analyze the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth, one of its substitutes. After extraction by a water distillation method, the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. Sixty five of 82 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae were identified and quantified, accounting for about 88.79% of the total content. Then, spectral correlative chromatography was used to extract correlative constituents in Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. Fifty one correlative components were recognized in essential oil of Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. The result proves the combined approach is powerful in the analysis of complex herbal samples. The developed method can be used to compare the sameness and differences of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and its substitutes and it can also be used for quality control of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae.

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    La culture des tissues est devenue une méthode de routine pour la propagation des plants dans des laboratoires de hautes technologies. ..... mass propagation of Rauwoflora seperpentina benth. Ex Kurz. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 6: 957-961. Haq, I and Dahot, M.U. 2007. Micropropagation efficiency in banana ...

  1. Fred-Jaiyesimi, AA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred-Jaiyesimi, AA. Vol 12 (2008) - Articles Hypoglycaemic And Alpha-Amylase Inhibitory Activities Of Fermented Seeds Of Parkia Biglobosa (Jacq) Benth Abstract. ISSN: 1118-6267. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogboghodo, IA. Vol 30 (1999) - Articles The effects of application of fertilizer on the growth, nodulation and nutrient uptake of Albizia Lebbeck(Linn) Benth - A short note. Abstract. ISSN: 0300-368X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  3. African Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 11, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological patterns of human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus co-infection in ibadan, nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Pharmacological evaluation of oral hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects of fresh leaves ethanol extract of morinda lucida benth. in normal and alloxan- ...

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... Panamericana de Salud Publica, 2002, 11(4):223-227. [10] Indubala J., Ng L. T. Herbs: The green pharmacy of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Vinpress. Sdn. Bhd., 2000. [11] Wiart C. Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. In F. K. Wong (Ed.), Medicinal plants of. Southeast Asia. Selangor: Prentice Hall, 2002, pp. 264- ...

  5. 2018-03-20T03:37:14Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/95953 2018-03-20T03:37:14Z tjpr:ART Essential Oil Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Clinopodium gracile (Benth) Matsum (Labiatae) Aerial Parts against the Aedes albopictus Mosquito Chen, XB Liu, XC Zhou, L Liu, ZL Clinopodium ...

  6. Rauwolfia serpentina : Protocol optimization for in vitro propagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth. ex. Kurz. (Apocynaceae) a woody perennial shrub, possess alkaloids namely reserpine, ressinamine and yohmbine, and used to cure various neurological ailments. The present investigation is an effort to establish Rauwolfia for micro-propagation and sub-culturing. The shoots and leaves ...

  7. Res April 2014 Cover Tp.cdr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ochrocarpus longifolius (Wt.) Benth. & Hook. [Syn: Mammea suriga (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Kost.] of the family Clusiaceae, is a medium-sized evergreen tree found in the forests of Western. Ghats and along the coast of south-west India, often cultivated. Bark brown and scaly. Leaves opposite, whorled at the ...

  8. MORPHOLOGY AND CHROMOSOME NUMBERS OF Gongronema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Cytological studies on the root-tips of four clones of Gongronema latifolia Benth. were conducted to identify cross-compatible clones for possible improvement through hybridisation. The results showed that the diploid chromosomes number in G. latifolia was 2n = 16. Clones, IMS-20-NJIABA, AKS-33-EKPENE EDIENE, ANS-.

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 3601 - 3650 of 11090 ... Vol 12, No 16 (2013), Effect of environment and cultivar on the expression of banana streak disease symptoms in Kenya, Abstract PDF .... Vol 9, No 52 (2010), Effect of fertilizer treatment on the antimicrobial activity of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium> (Benth) ...

  10. Growth form and seasonal variation in leaf gas exchange of Colophospermum mopane savanna trees in northwest Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, E.M.; Mantlana, K.B.; Pammenter, N.W.; Weber, P.; Huntsman-Mapila, P.; Lloyd, J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated differences in physiological and morphological traits between the tall and short forms of mopane (Colophospermum mopane (Kirk ex Benth.) Kirk ex J. Leonard) trees growing near Maun, Botswana on a Kalahari sandveld overlying an impermeable calcrete duricrust. We sought to determine if

  11. Response of cowpea genotypes to Alectra vogelii parasitism in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea is popular in Eastern Kenya where it is attractive to farmers because of its high economic value and the belief that it does not require many external inputs. Farmers are however discouraged to grow the crop in this region due to massive attack by a parasitic weed Alectra vogelii (Benth). Yield losses due to A. vogelii ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abere, TA. Vol 9, No 2 (2012) - Articles In Vitro Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract of Kigelia Africana Lam. Benth (Bignoniaceae) formulated as shampoo. Abstract · Vol 10, No 1 (2013) - Articles Effects of oil exploration on the anatomy and antimicrobial activity of the leaves of Annona muricata l. (Annonaceae) Abstract.

  13. Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiew, R.; Rafidah, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Daphniphyllum occur in Peninsular Malaysia: D. glaucescens Blume var. lancifolium (Hook.f.) T.C.Huang, D. laurinum (Benth.) Baill. and D. scortechinii Hook.f. Daphniphyllum glaucescens var. glaucescens and var. blumeanum (Baill. ex Müll.Arg.) J.J.Sm. do not occur in Peninsular

  14. phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of solanum macranthum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR J.O. OLAYEMI

    Key words: Solanum macranthum, Solanaceae, antimicrobial activity, phytochemical screening. INTRODUCTION. Solanum species (family: Solanaceae) comprises of. 1,700 species which are commonly found in the temperate and tropical regions of the world. Solanum macranthum Dunal (Syn. Solanum wrightii Benth) or.

  15. Effect of elicitation on picrotin and picrotoxinin production from in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royel ex. Benth. is an important medicinal plant of Himalayan region and a good source of iridoid glycosides. Picrotin and picrotoxinin are compounds produced by P. kurrooa which are widely used in treatment of hepatic diseases. Elicitation is one of the best effective methods which enhance secondary ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adegoke, FF. Vol 7, No 2 (2009) - Articles Effect of NPK fertilizer on the seedlings of Dialium guineense (Wild) and proximate analysis of the fruit. Abstract · Vol 11, No 1 (2013) - Articles Effects of Sowing Media and Sowing Depth on Germination and Growth of Lecaniodiscus cupaniodes (Planch. Ex Benth). Abstract · Vol 12 ...

  17. The density process of the minimal entropy Martingale measure in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a stochastic volatility market the Radon-Nikodym density of the minimal entropy martingale measure can be expressed in terms of the solution of a semilinear partial differential equation (PDE). This fact has been explored and illustrated for the time-homogeneous case in a recent paper by Benth and Karlsen [3]. However ...

  18. Micrandra inundata (Euphorbiaceae), a new species with unusual wood anatomy from black-water river banks in southern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Berry; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2004-01-01

    Micrandra inundata is a distinctive new species adapted to seasonally flooded black-water river banks in southern Venezuela. Trees rarely exceed 10 m in height but have thick basal trunks composed of very lightweight wood. It has the smallest leaves and fruits of any known Micrandra species and appears to be most closely related to M. minor Benth. The botanical...

  19. Etat des connaissances sur la flore et la phytosociologie de deux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quatre nouveaux signalements pour la flore togolaise ont été faits dans les Asclepiadaceae (Raphionacme keayi Bullock.), les Asteraceae (Adelostigma senegalensis Benth.), les Orchidaceae (Platycoryne paludosa (Lind.) Rolfe et les Schizaeaceae (Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br.). L'analyse factorielle de ...

  20. The anti-viral effect of Acacia mellifera, Melia azedarach and Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extracts from the stem barks of Prunus africana(Hook.f.) Kalkm, Acacia mellifera (Vahl.) Benth. and Melia azedarach L. were evaluated for in vivo antiviral activity in Balb/C mice following a cutaneous wild type strain 7401H herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. A significant therapeutic effect was observed ...

  1. Gastro-protective effect of Crossopteryx febrifuga in Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparations of Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel.) Benth. (Rubiaceae) are widely used in Northern Nigeria in the therapeutic management of trypanosomiasis, malaria and painful inflammatory disorders. Previous studies have shown that the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga possesses significant ...

  2. Growth models for six Eucalyptus species in Angola | Delgado ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study developed growth models for Eucalyptus saligna Sm., E. camaldulensis Dehnh., E. macarthurii H.Deane & Maiden, E. resinifera Sm., E. siderophloia Benth. and E. grandis Hill ex. Maiden, for the central highlands of Angola, and used these models to simulate the development of stand characteristics.

  3. Pulcherrimasaponin, from the leaves of Calliandra pulcherrima, as adjuvant for immunization in the murine model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bernadete Pereira da; Soares, Juliana Baptista Rocha Correa; Souza, Edilma Paraguai de; Palatnik, Marcos; Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz Palatnik de; Parente, José Paz

    2005-01-11

    A novel triterpenoidal saponin, called pulcherrimasaponin (CP05), isolated from the leaves of Calliandra pulcherrima Benth. shows remarkable similarities to the previously described potent adjuvant, QS21 saponin (Quillaja saponaria Molina). On the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, its structure was established as [3beta,16alpha,28[2E,6S[2E,6S(2E,6S)

  4. (annonaceae) leaves-a potential antimalarial drug

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylopia species are widely available in West Africa. Xylopia parviflora (Benth) plant is used in folk medicine in the management of a number of ailments, one of these is the use of the leaves in the treatment of malaria fever for which a number of patients have reported its beneficial effects. This study was designed to ...

  5. Effect of fertilizer treatment on the antimicrobial activity of the leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-12-21

    Dec 21, 2010 ... The effect of fertilizer treatment on the antimicrobial activity of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum (L) and G. latifolium were applied with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg/ha treatment levels in.

  6. Effects of Sowing Media and Sowing Depth on Germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the effect of sowing media and sowing depth on the germination and growth of Lecanodiscus cupanoides (Planch.Ex Benth). The germination of L. cupanoides seed was significantly affected by sowing depth and sowing medium at p=0.05. The result of various sowing media and sowing depth showed ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 550 of 11090 ... Benth (Scrophulariaceae), Abstract PDF. M Kiendrebeogo, M-G Dijoux-Franca, CE Lamien, A Meda, D Wouessidjewe. Vol 14, No 20 (2015), Acute toxicity and behavioral changes of Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii Kutum Kamensky, 1991) and Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus Jakowlew, 1870) ...

  8. Current approaches to Alectra vogelii control in cowpea | Ngwako ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alectra vogelii (L.) Benth is a parasitic weed in the family Scrophulariaceae that causes substantial damage by attaching onto the cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.) plant and tapping nutrients from it. Cowpea is one of the most important food legumes and is widely adapted to semi-arid environments in Africa. The crop is ...

  9. Response of cowpea genotypes to Alectra vogelii parasitism in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jakakah

    2013-11-20

    Nov 20, 2013 ... diseases and lack of seeds during planting times. This has decreased in the yield potential of 1500 to 239 kg/ha. (Kimiti et al., 2009). A parasitic weed Alectra vogelii. (Benth) an obligate root-parasitic flowering plant of the family Scrophulariaceae is one of the major concerns in lowering cowpea yields.

  10. Azide-based mutagenesis suppresses Striga hermonthica seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... The genus Striga in the family Scrophulariaceae is composed of some 50 species, all of which are holoparasites of tropical cereals or legumes. Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth and S. asiatica (L.) Kuntze are the species which cause the most economically significant damage to cereals (Butler, 1995). S.

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbehounou, G. Vol 4, No 2 (2003) - Articles Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (hochst.) Benth. (scrophulariaceae) : new pest on lowland rice in bénin. results of a survey and immediate control possibilities. Abstract. ISSN: 1659-5009. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  12. Annales des Sciences Agronomiques - Vol 4, No 2 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (hochst.) Benth. (scrophulariaceae) : new pest on lowland rice in bénin. results of a survey and immediate control possibilities · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. G Gbehounou. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/asab.v4i2.43372 ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Koffi, Allall E. Vol 114 (2017) - Articles Isolement par partition bio guidé du principe actif myostimulant de l'extrait aqueux de Mareya micrantha (Benth) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-5902. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  14. Journal of Applied Biosciences - Vol 114 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolement par partition bio guidé du principe actif myostimulant de l'extrait aqueux de Mareya micrantha (Benth) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Mamadou Dosso, Doudjo Soro, Allall E. Koffi, Flavien Traore, Jean D. N' ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Study on the Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf Essential Oil of Apium leptophylum (Pers.) Benth. Growing in Ethiopia ... Vol 28, No 1 (2010) - Articles Antidiabetic Activity of the Leaf Extracts of Pentas schimperiana Subsp. schimperiana (A. Rich) Vatke on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

  16. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the ethnomedicinal claims regarding the use of Acacia jacquemontii Benth. (Fabaceae) in fever, pain and inflammation. Methods: The methanol root bark extract (AJRBM) of the plant was used in the studies. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out according to established ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asinwa, IO. Vol 12, No 2 (2012) - Articles Evaluation of the contributions of vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn and parkia biglobosa (jacq.) Benth to rural livelihood in Oyo state, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1595-7470. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  18. Effect of Fermentation Methods on the Nutrient Profile and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of fermentation method on the nutrient profile and organoleptic characteristics of African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth). Materials and Methods: Dry and mature African oil bean seeds were cleaned, boiled, dehulled, cooked, sliced/pulverized and fermented to ugba ...

  19. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences - Vol 9, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemic activity of extracts of the aerial parts of Satureja punctata Benth. Briq in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Workneh Tsegaye, Kelbessa Urga, Kaleab Asres ...

  20. Effect of Growth Regulators and Culture Conditions on Direct Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth, from the family, Apocynaceae, is an important medicinal plant due to the alkaloid content of its root. The purpose of this study was to obtain roots directly from leaf explant using growth regulators. Methods: The leaf explant was inoculated on MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium ...

  1. Antimicrobial Activities Of Methanolic Extracts Of Trema guineensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts obtained from the leaves, stem-bark and roots of two ethnomedicinal plants: Morinda lucida Benth and Trema guineensis Schumm and Thorn were screened for antimicrobial activities against eleven test organisms (five bacteria and six fungi) namely: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas ...

  2. Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rosdiana Natzir, Rosdiana Natzir

    2017-01-01

    Judul: Effects of ethanolic extract of Miana (Coleus scutellariodes [L] Benth) leaf on IgM profile in Balb/c mice with systemic of vulvovaginalcandidiasis Jumlah Penulis: 7 Orang Jurnal: Der Pharmacia Lettre ISSN: 0975-5071 Vol. 9,No. 14, Tahun 2017 Penerbit: Scholars Research Library Alamat Web: http://scholarresearchlibrary.com/archive.html

  3. The correct name for Archidendron clypearia (Jack) Nielsen var. casai (Blanco) Nielsen (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Recently Gangopadhyay & Chakrabarty (1993, 1994) proposed the combination Archidendron clypearia (Jack) Nielsen var. montanum (Benth.) Gang. & T. Chakrab. When I compared this to some papers Nielsen wrote (1984 (et al.); 1992) it would seem that this new combination would be identical with A.

  4. Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Université de Lomé - Vol 9 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... de l'huile essentielle d'Aeollanthus Pubescens benth. Sur les chenilles de deux lepidopteres: Selepa docilsi butler (noctuidae,/i>) et scrobipalpa ergassima mayr. (geleduidae). EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K Koba, WP Poutouli, C Raynaud, P Yaka, K Sanda.

  5. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  6. Habitat use by desert bighorn sheep in sonora, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarango, L. A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of habitat components by desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis was examined to explain sexual segregation of sheep in Sierra el Viejo, Sonora, Mexico. We evaluated 265 plots used by bighorns and 278 random plots from April 1997 to December 1998. Groups of segregated males and females preferred the elephant tree (Bursera microphylla-salvia (Salvia mellifera-limber bush (Jatropha cuneata association (ESL and avoided the foothill palo verde (Cercidium microphyllum-desert ironwood (Olneya tesota association (FDD. Segregated females selected the ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens-desert agave (Agave spp.yhop bush (Dodonoea viscosa (OAH vegetation association, formed larger groups, were closer to escape terrain, and occupied more rugged areas during autumn and spring than males. Segregated females selected areas that provided more opportunities to evade predation than did males.

    [fr]
    Nous avons étudié les différents composants de l'utilisation de l'habitat par le mouflon américain (Ovis canadensis afin d'expliquer sa ségrégation sexuelle dans la Sierra el Viejo, à Sonora, Mexique. D'avril 1997 à Décembre 1998, on a évalué 265 parcelles utilisées par les mouflons et 278 parcelles au hasard. Différents groupes séparés de mâles et femelles préféraient l'association (ESL formée par l'arbre Bursera microphylla, la sauge (Salvia mellifera et l'arbuste Jatropa cuneata et ils évitaient l'association (FDD composée du Cercidium microphyllum et /'Olneya tesota. Les groupes de femelles sélectionaient l'association végétale (OAH de Fouquieria splendens. Agave spp. et l'arbuste Dodonoea viscosa; et par rapport aux mâles, elles formaient de plus grands groupes, étaient plus proches de la zone de fuite et elles occupaient des terrains plus accidentés en automne et au printemps. Les groupes de femelles, plus que les

  7. Wood Volume Production and Use of 10 Woody Species in Semiarid Zones of Northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Foroughbakhch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A research strategy was established to analyze the structure of timber trees in terms of forest productivity (volume and wood density of 10 species. The native species Acacia farnesiana, Acacia schaffneri, Bumelia celastrina, Cercidium macrun, Condalia hookeri, Ebenopsis ebano, Helietta parvifolia, and Prosopis laevigata and the exotic species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Leucaena leucocephala were chosen due to their ecological and economic importance to the rural villages of northeastern Mexico. Measurements of different growth parameters and volume of trees were evaluated. The introduced species E. camaldulensis and L. leucocephala showed the best performance in wood volume production per tree and per hectare when compared to the native species. Likewise, among the native species, E. ebano, P. laevigata, C. hookeri, and A. farnesiana tended to show better characteristics in terms of wood volume production in comparison to H. parvifolia, A. schaffneri, C. macrum, and B. celastrina. Results showed a high diversity on the properties studied. The high biomass produced by most of the species considered in this study revealed their great energetic potential when used as wood and firewood or vegetal charcoal.

  8. Forecasting climate change impacts to plant community composition in the Sonoran Desert region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Belnap, Jayne; Hubbard, J. Andrew; Swann, Don E.; Rutman, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Hotter and drier conditions projected for the southwestern United States can have a large impact on the abundance and composition of long-lived desert plant species. We used long-term vegetation monitoring results from 39 large plots across four protected sites in the Sonoran Desert region to determine how plant species have responded to past climate variability. This cross-site analysis identified the plant species and functional types susceptible to climate change, the magnitude of their responses, and potential climate thresholds. In the relatively mesic mesquite savanna communities, perennial grasses declined with a decrease in annual precipitation, cacti increased, and there was a reversal of the Prosopis velutina expansion experienced in the 20th century in response to increasing mean annual temperature (MAT). In the more xeric Arizona Upland communities, the dominant leguminous tree, Cercidium microphyllum, declined on hillslopes, and the shrub Fouquieria splendens decreased, especially on south- and west-facing slopes in response to increasing MAT. In the most xeric shrublands, the codominant species Larrea tridentata and its hemiparasite Krameria grayi decreased with a decrease in cool season precipitation and increased aridity, respectively. This regional-scale assessment of plant species response to recent climate variability is critical for forecasting future shifts in plant community composition, structure, and productivity.

  9. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-01-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use on hot/arid lands in field trials in the Califronia Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42/sup 0/C (108/sup 0/F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium fluoridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean ovendry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosopis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (ovendry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 ovendry T ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba (0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse.

  10. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), Leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-09-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use of hot/arid lands in field trials in the California Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42 degrees C (108 degrees F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium floridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean oven-dry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosospis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (oven-dry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 oven-dry T ha-1 yr-1 for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba(0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. 30 references

  11. Seasonal variation of macro and trace mineral contents in 14 browse species that grow in northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R G.; Haenlein, G F.W.; Núñez-González, M A.

    2001-02-01

    Leaves and twigs from shrub species consumed by range goats: Acacia berlandieri, Acacia farnesiana, Acacia greggii, Acacia rigidula, Celtis pallida, Cercidium macrum, Condalia obovata, Cordia boissieri, Desmanthus virgathus, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucophyllum texanum, Opuntia lindehimieri, Porlieria angustifolia, Prosopis glandulosa, and Ziziphus obtusifolia were evaluated for comparative seasonal contents of Ca, P, Mg K, Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe. Plants were collected in summer (September 12, 1992), fall (November 20, 1992), winter (February 20, 1993) and spring (May 22, 1993) in Marín, County, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. During spring and summer mineral concentrations were higher in general. Only Ca, Mg, K, and Fe were in substantial amounts in all seasons to meet adult goat requirements. With the exception of spring, shrubs had extremely low P concentrations. Manganese, Cu and Zn in most plants had low marginal levels to meet adult goat requirements. Moreover, potential intake of P, Mn, Cu and Zn in shrub species by goats weighing 50kg BW consuming 2.0kg per day DM was low. However, plants such as D. virgathus, L. texanum, P. glandulosa, L. leucocephala and C. macrum can be considered prominent components in diets of range goats because of their high mineral concentrations. It appears that ration formulations for range goats in northeastern Mexico should include P, Mn, Cu and Zn in all seasons of the year.

  12. Plectraterpene, a new ursane-type triterpene ester and other steroids from the aerial parts of Plectranthus montanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musarat Amina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new ursane-type triterpene ester, plectraterpene [3β-(decanoyloxy-19-hydroxy-urs-12-ene] and four known steroidal compounds have been isolated from the aerial parts of Plectranthus montanus Benth. (syn. Plectranthus cylindraceus Hochst. ex Benth., Lamiaceae. The known compounds were stigmasterol, sitosteryl ferulate, cholest-5-en-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Compounds plectraterpene, sitosteryl ferulate and stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside are reported for the first time from this plant whereas compound cholest-5-en-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside first time from the genus. The structures of these compounds were determined through spectral analysis, including extensive 2D NMR data as well as chemical methods and comparison with literature.

  13. Plectranthus (Labiatae and allied genera in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available A revision is presented of the 40 species of Plectranthus, 1 species of Rabdosia and 3 species of Solenostemon which are indigenous, semi-naturalized or widely cultivated in Southern Africa. Descriptions, illustrations, keys and distribution data are provided. The following new names are published:  P. mutabilis Codd,  P. psammophilus Codd,  P. rubropunctatus Codd,  P. unguentarius Codd,  P. ornatus Codd (nom. nov. for Coleus comosus Hochst. ex Guerke, P. zatarhendi (Forsk. E. A. Bruce var.  tomentosus (Benth. Codd, —var.  woodii  (Guerke Codd,  P. madagascariensis (Pers. Benth. var.  aliciae  Codd,  Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Codd and  S. shirensis (Guerke Codd.

  14. New contributions to the knowledge of the alien flora in Baix Llobregat county (Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Álvarez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide new records of 17 exotic plants in the Baix Llobregat region observed between the years 2011 and 2014. Two species are the first records for Europe: Acacia rostellifera Benth. and Trichloris crinita (Lag. Parodi; two are new plants for the Iberian Peninsula: Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt. Columbus and Nassella tenuissima (Trin. Barkworth; three are recorded by their first time in Catalonia: Atriplex semibaccata R. Br., Oenothera speciosa Nutt. and Verbena incompta P. W. Michael; five correspond to first records in Baix Llobregat: Parkinsonia aculeata L., Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth., Physalis peruviana L., Salpichroa origanifolia (Lam. Baill. and Verbena brasiliensis Vell. The remaining species are very rare in the studied area: Abutilon grandifolium (Willd. Sweet, Asperugo procumbens L., Eclipta prostrata (L. L. and Oenothera indecora Cambess.

  15. Vegetation structure and small-scale pattern in Miombo Woodland, Marondera, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Campbell

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim ol this paper is to describe woodland structure and small-scale patterning of woody plants at a miombo site, and to relate these to past disturbance and soil properties. Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. and Julbemardia globiflora (Benth. Troupin were the most frequent woody plants at the five hectare site, with size-class distributions which were markedly skewed towards the smaller size classes. The vegetation structure at the site and the increase in basal area over the past thirty years point to considerable disturbance prior to the present protected status. Six woodland subtypes were identified, grouped into two structural types: open and closed woodland. The distribution of woodland subtypes related closely to certain soil properties. It was hypothesized that the distribution of open and closed woodland is stable and a positive feedback mechanism by which this occurs is postulated.

  16. A Shipload of Women's Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Norheim, Marit Benthe

    over the past decades where flight, migration and encounters between different cultures have been a condition of life for many. Visual artist Marit Benthe Norheim’s project, Lifeboats, is the framework for this book, which consists of three sailing sculptures that symbolize different stages in women......’s lives: Longing – the young about to set out in life; Life – the pregnant in mid-life; Memories – the ageing. It is the third boat and its 19 fi gureheads that this book is linked to. The narratives of the figureheads hold the common message – in spite of their differences – to remember the past...... and to use those experiences to promote openness and tolerance. This book is based on a collaboration between Professor Ann-Dorte Christensen, Aalborg University, and visual artist, Marit Benthe Norheim. Journalist, Marianne Knudsen, has contributed to the research and the interviews. The book is published...

  17. THE ASIATIC SPECIES OF LINDENBERGIA Lehm. (Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. PRIJANTO*

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available Lindenbergia is represented in Asia by 7 species. Based on the hairiness oftheir ovaries L. muraria (Roxb. Briihl (= L. urticifolia Lehm. and L. indica(L. Vatke (= L. polyantha Benth. are reinstated as distinct species. I followBentham in including Lindenbergia in the tribe Gratioleae.Objection to the use of the aestivation of corolla as the only positivecharacter for distinguishing subfamilies of the Scrophulariaceae is put forward;it is shown that several genera (Lindenbergia, Isoplexis, Lagotis, Erinus, Frey-linia,, Phygelius and Mimulus considered to belong to one subfamily actuallyhave the aestivation character of the other subfamily.The occurrence of resupinatton of the flower in Dopatrium juncewm (Roxb.Buch.-Ham. ex Benth. is recorded for the first time.

  18. Standardisation of homoeopathic drug: Plectranthus fruticosus

    OpenAIRE

    P Padma Rao; P Subramanian; P Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plectranthus fruticosus (Benth.) Wight ex Hook. f, syn. P. deccanicus Brinq. is an under shrub belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Leaves and young stems of this plant are used as medicine in Homoeopathy. Objective: To carry out pharmacognostic and physico - chemical studies to use authentic and correct species as standard raw materials to ensure purity, quality and its usefulness. Materials and Methods: The leaves and young aerial parts of Plectranthus fruticosus were fixe...

  19. Story-time : physicalising sound object for sonic narrative.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed This thesis describes a compositional process that is homogeneous to LaMothe???s four modes of organising experience: corporeal-contiguous, taxonomic-object, symbolic-subjective and narrativecommunal. It begins with the composer's subjective experience of hearing, rooted in the relationship of a particular human body to its physical neighbourhood (LaMothe's corporeal-contiguous modes). The human body is used as a benchmark for measuring and apprehending the world (Benth...

  20. PATHORCHUR (COLEUS AROMATICUS): A REVIEW OF THE MEDICINAL EVIDENCE FOR ITS PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Om Prakash Rout; Rabinarayan Acharya; Sagar Kumar Mishra; Rashmibala Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Coleus aromaticus Benth., (Fam. Lamiaceae), syn. Coleus amboinicus Lour. Spreng or Plectranthus ambonicus Lour, is commonly known as Indian/ country borage and ‘Pathorchur’ in Hindi and Bengali. It is recorded in the Indian system of medicine as one of the sources of Pashanabheda. It is large succulent aromatic perennial herb, shrubby below, hispidly villous or tomentose. It is found throughout India, Ceylon and Moluccas. The leaves of the plant are bitter, acrid and were being widely used tr...

  1. 2084-IJBCS-Article -Fernique Konan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Effet antibactérien de l'extrait aqueux de l'écorce de Terminalia glaucescens. Planch ex Benth (Combretaceae) sur la croissance in vitro des ... plantes et 60 à 70% des médicaments antibactériens et anticancéreux sont des substances .... La lecture a été faite par la mesure du diamètre de la zone d'inhibition autour de.

  2. Tipos polínicos encontrados em amostras de méis de Apis mellifera em Picos, Estado do Piauí Pollinic types found in honey samples of Apis mellifera from Picos, State of Piaui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni da Silva Sodré

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar os tipos polínicos de méis produzidos por Apis mellifera L., 1758, no município de Picos, Estado do Piauí, foram realizadas análises polínicas de 35 amostras de méis coletadas entre novembro e dezembro de 2001 no Laboratório de Apicultura do Departamento de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agrícola da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo. A identificação dos tipos polínicos foi realizada por meio de descrições obtidas em literatura especializada. Os resultados demonstraram que foram encontrados 36 tipos polínicos, distribuídos em 18 famílias botânicas, sendo consideradas como pólen dominante Piptadenia sp. (Mimosaceae, Mimosa caesalpiniiaefolia Benth. (Mimosaceae, M. verrucosa Benth. (Mimosaceae e Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae.This research deals with the pollinic types of honeys produced by Apis mellifera L., 1758 in the municipality of Picos, State of Piaui were determined in the Laboratory of Apiculture, Department of Entomology, Phytopathology and Agricultural Zoology, College of Agriculture ‘Luiz de Queiroz', University of São Paulo, in Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, pollinic analysis of 36 honey samples collected in November and December of 2001. The identification of e pthollinic made by types was specialized literature. The results showed that 36 types of pollen were found, distributed in 18 botanical families, and the following plant species were considered as dominant Piptadenia sp. (Mimosaceae, Mimosa caesalpiniiaefolia Benth. (Mimosaceae, M. verrucosa Benth. (Mimosaceae and Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae.

  3. New combinations and resurrected names in Microcharis and Indigastrum (Fabaceae—Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Schrire

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of cladistic studies in the tribe Indigofereae in Africa and Madagascar (Schrire 1991 evidence was accumulated to justify resurrecting the genera Microcharis Benth. and  Indigastrum Jaub. & Spach, which were previously considered part of Indigofera L. All described species in each genus are listed alphabetically. Forty-seven new combinations, six changes ain rank and four resurrected names are published.

  4. Jasminum cuneatum Jongkind (Oleaceae), a new species from Guinee, Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Jongkind, C.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The new species Jasminum cuneatum Jongkind (Oleaceae) from western Africa is described here. It differs from]. paucinervium Benth., a species that occurs in the same area and that is the most easily confused, by its cuneate and not rounded or cordate leaf base and the absence of pit domatia. It differs from J. kwangense Liben from Central Africa by the more papery leaves without abundant glandular dots and pit domatia on their lower surface.

  5. Valor nutricional y degradabilidad ruminal del zacate buffel y nueve zacates nativos del NE de México

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Lozano, Roque Gonzalo; Enríquez Martell, Alfredo; Lozano González, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    El zacate buffel común (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) y los zacates nativos de la flora del noreste de México: aristida (Aristida spp), navajita (Bouteloua gracilis Thurb), cadillo (Cenchrus incertus M.A. Curtis), verdillo de fleco (Chloris ciliata Swartz), punta blanca (Digitaria californica (Benth) Henr), zacate mezquite (Hilaria belangeri (Steud) Nash), rizado (Panicum hallii Varsey), pajita tempranera (Setaria macrostachya H.B.K.) y tridento esbelto (Tridens muticus (To...

  6. Calorific Value and Chemical Composition of Five Semi-Arid Mexican Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maginot Ngangyo-Heya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current global energy crisis has generated growing interest in looking for alternatives to traditional fossil fuels, presenting lignocellulosic materials as a promising resource for sustainable energy production. In this paper, the calorific values and chemical composition of the trunks, branches, twigs and leaves of five timber species of the semi-arid land of Mexico (Helietta parvifolia (Gray Benth., Ebenopsis ebano (Berl. Barneby, Acacia berlandieri (Benth., Havardia pallens (Benth. Britton & Rose and Acacia wrightii (Benth. were determined according to international standards. The results highlighted the calorific value ranges of 17.56 to 18.61 MJ kg−1 in trunks, 17.15 to 18.45 MJ kg−1 in branches, 17.29 to 17.92 MJ kg−1 in twigs, and 17.35to 19.36 MJ kg−1 in leaves. The pH presented an acidic trend (3.95–5.64. The content of mineral elements varied in trunks (1.09%–2.29%, branches (0.86%–2.75%, twigs (4.26%–6.76% and leaves (5.77%–11.79%, showing the higher proportion in Ca (57.03%–95.53%, followed by K (0.95%–19.21% and Mg (0.88%–13.47%. The highest amount of extractives was obtained in the methanolic solvent (3.96%–17.03%. The lignin recorded values of 28.78%–35.84% for trunks, 17.14%–31.39% for branches and 20.61%–29.92% for twigs. Lignin showed a moderately strong correlation (r = 0.66 with calorific value, but the best mathematical model was registered with the calorific value depending on the pH and lignin (R2 = 58.86%.

  7. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun State of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Osinkolu, G.A.; Pelemo, D.A.; Obiajunwa, E.I.; Oladele, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was employed for the determination of elemental compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (T. danielli) {Marantaceae} (Benn.) Benth [miraculous berry] in Osun State of Nigeria. The objective is to show the usefulness of T. danielli and especially the beneficial effects of the mineral concentrations from the leaves and fruits of T. danielli. The results show the detection of seventeen elements at different concentrations, and their beneficial effects to humans were discussed

  8. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun State of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Osinkolu, G.A.; Pelemo, D.A.; Obiajunwa, E.I. [Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Oladele, A.T. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife (Nigeria)

    2014-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was employed for the determination of elemental compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (T. danielli) {Marantaceae} (Benn.) Benth [miraculous berry] in Osun State of Nigeria. The objective is to show the usefulness of T. danielli and especially the beneficial effects of the mineral concentrations from the leaves and fruits of T. danielli. The results show the detection of seventeen elements at different concentrations, and their beneficial effects to humans were discussed.

  9. HPLC-DAD finger printing, antioxidant, cholinesterase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of a novel plant Olax nana

    OpenAIRE

    Ovais, Muhammad; Ayaz, Muhammad; Khalil, Ali Talha; Shah, Sayed Afzal; Jan, Muhammad Saeed; Raza, Abida; Shahid, Muhammad; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2018-01-01

    Background The medicinal importance of a novel plant Olax nana Wall. ex Benth. (family: Olacaceae) was revealed for the first time via HPLC-DAD finger printing, qualitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, cholinesterase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory assays. Methods The crude methanolic extract of O. nana (ON-Cr) was subjected to qualitative phytochemical analysis and HPLC-DAD finger printing. The antioxidant potential of ON-Cr was assessed via 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-az...

  10. AFLP/SSR mapping of resistance genes to Alectra vogelii in cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La plante parasite Alectra vogelii (Benth) provoque une réduction significative du rendement de niébé en Afrique. Pour repérer et cartographier le gène de résistance à A. vogelii, une population F2 issue d'un croisement impliquant le cultivar résistant IT81D-994 et le cultivar sensible TVX3236 a été criblée. La technique ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Action antibactérienne de l'extrait éthanolique 70% de Clerodendrum splendens (G. Don) (Verbenacae) sur des souches bactériennes isolées de selles chez des enfants diarrhéiques. Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 3 (2014) - Articles Effet antibactérien de l'extrait aqueux de l'écorce de Terminalia glaucescens Planch ex Benth ...

  12. Effects of increasing temperature and, CO2 on quality of litter, shredders, and microorganisms in Amazonian aquatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Renato Tavares; Rezende, Renan de Souza; Gonçalves Júnior, José Francisco; Lopes, Aline; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Cavalcante, Heloide de Lima; Hamada, Neusa

    2017-01-01

    Climate change may affect the chemical composition of riparian leaf litter and, aquatic organisms and, consequently, leaf breakdown. We evaluated the effects of different scenarios combining increased temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) on leaf detritus of Hevea spruceana (Benth) Müll. and decomposers (insect shredders and microorganisms). We hypothesized that simulated climate change (warming and elevated CO2) would: i) decrease leaf-litter quality, ii) decrease survival and leaf breakdown ...

  13. Compostos de plantas com atividade inseticida a coleópteros-praga de produtos armazenados

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Márcio Dionizio; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio de Almeida; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Júlio Cláudio

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed...

  14. Variación estacional de minerales en las hojas de ocho especies arbustivas

    OpenAIRE

    Moya Rodríguez, José G.; Ramírez Lozano, Roque G.; Foroughbakhch P, Rahim; Háuad Marroquín, Leticia; González Rodríguez, Humberto

    2002-01-01

    Las hojas de ocho especies arbustivas nativas, -Acacia wrightii Benth, Bumelia celastrina H.B.K., Castela texana T.&G. Rose, Forestiera angustifolia Torr., Karwinskia humboldtiana (R.&S.) Zucc., Larrea tridentata DC., Schaefferia cuneifolia Gray., y Zanthoxylum fagara (L) Sarg.-, las cuales son consumidas por cabras en pastoreo, fueron evaluadas para estimar y comparar estacionalmente el contenido de Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Cu, Mn, Fe y Zn. Las plantas fueron colectadas e...

  15. Use of morphometric data for the evaluation of the essential oil content of wild growing Thymus L. plants

    OpenAIRE

    Koureas, Dimitrios; Kokkini, Stella

    2012-01-01

    The plants of the genus Thymus L. hold a significant position in the global medicinal and aromatic plants market, largely due to their Essential Oils (EOs). International, European and Greek specifications for quality screening of plants commercially distributed as “thyme” include, amongst other, the minimum value of EO content (mL 100g-1 dry weight). In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the EO content of wild growing Th. sibthorpii Benth. plants through morphometry. The ...

  16. Critical Taxonomic Appraisal of Some Taxa of Pedicularis from Indian Himalayas Belonging to Section Siphonanthae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Garg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The existing confusion on the taxonomic status of five taxa of Pedicularis viz. P. punctata Decne, P. siphonantha D. Don, P. hookeriana Wall. ex Benth., P. megalantha D. Don and P. hoffmeisteri Kl. ex Kl. & Garcke is resolved on the basis of critical morphological study. These taxa belong to section Siphonanthae, subgenus Longirostres. Pennell’s view of segregating these taxa into distinct species is defended and upheld.

  17. NMR study of the preparation of 6 {alpha}, 7 {beta}-dihydroxyvouacapan-17 beta-oic acid mannich base derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Flavio Jose Leite dos; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. Quimica]. E-mail: dorila@zeus.qui.ufmg.br; Ferreira-Alves, Dalton L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Farmacologia

    2007-07-01

    This work presents four new Mannich base compounds obtained by the Mannich reaction of a {delta}-keto-lactone derivative of 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-dihydroxyvouacapan- 17{beta}-oic acid, a furano diterpene isolated from the hexane extract of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth fruits, which shows anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The use of 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, DEPT-135, HMBC, HMQC) spectroscopy made it possible to characterize the new compounds. (author)

  18. C__Users_HP Pro 2000_Desktop_KONE CH.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP Pro 2000

    Sur le site expérimental, 16 types d'adventices ont été inventoriées (Tableau 1). Le périmètre a été composé à plus de 87 %, de Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae). Les 13 % restants ont été dominés par les espèces suivantes : Portulaca quadrifida L. (Portulacaceae), Centrosema pubescens Benth.

  19. Agrodiversite, gestion paysanne et importance de Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dioscorea praehensilis Benth. constitue une importante igname dans certains pays de l'Afrique de l'ouest et du centre car elle y contribue à la sécurité alimentaire et à la réduction de la pauvreté. Au Togo, bien que cette espèce soit cultivée à des fins de consommation par certaines populations locales depuis longtemps, ...

  20. Estrutura fitossociológica do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Densa na mata sul de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Felix Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe physiognomy and structure of a Dense Ombrophyllous Forest fragment located in Catende, Pernambuco. All trees with DAP (breast height diameter ≥ 4.77 cm were measured in 40 10 x 25 m plots, systematically installed in five transects. A total of 1049 individuals were observed, distributed in 91 species, 64 genera and 37 botanical families. Mimosaceae and Lauraceae were the families with higher species number, while Anacardiaceae and Moraceae had the highest individuals numbers. Shannon index (H´ was 3.83 nats/ind. Total basal area, height and diameter (average and maximum were 23.59 m²/ha, 13.57 m (± 7.13, 45 m, 13.20 cm (± 10.60 and 127.32 cm, respectively. The species with higher importance values were Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Dialium guianense (Aubl. Sandwith, Helicostylis tomentosa (Poepp. & Endl. Rusby, Thyrsodium spruceanum Benth., Plathymenia foliolosa Benth., Brosimum discolor Schott, Parkia pendula (Willd. Benth. ex Walp., Schefflera morototoni (Aubl. Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin, Eschweilera ovata (Cambess. Miers and Cecropia palmata Willd. Diametric distribution had an inverted-J-like curve, predicted for a forest unequal in ages in a secondary succession stage.

  1. Associação micorízica em espécies arbóreas, atividade microbiana e fertilidade do solo em áreas degradadas de cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Helena Scabora

    2011-01-01

    growth, where 50 mL of preserved cerrado soil was applied as inoculum of microorganisms. Seedlings of 11 tree species were planted: Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg ('angico-preto', Acacia polyphylla D.C. ('monjoleiro', Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville ('barbatimão', Dimorphandra mollis Benth ('faveiro', Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne ('jatobá-de-cerrado', Dipteryx alata Vog. ('baru', Machaerium acutifolium Vogel ('jacarandá- do-campo', Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi ('aroeirapimenteira', Magonia pubescens St. Hil. ('tingui', Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. ('dedaleira' and Tabebuia aurea (Manso Benth. & Hook ('ipê-amarelo'. Twelve months later, root samples were colleted at the depth of 0-0.10 m and used for evaluations. The subsoil, as compared to pasture soil, was poor in organic matter and presented less microbial activity. The highest mycorrhizal colonization was seen in the species Acacia polyphylla D.C. (monjoleiro, Magonia pubescens St. Hil. (tingui, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (jatobá-de-cerrado and Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (aroeira-pimenteira. These species could be indicated in revegetation projects in 'cerrado' degraded areas. Plants from both areas showed seedlings form high mycorrhizal colonization and low numbers of spores.

  2. Anatomia do lenho de cinco espécies comercializadas como 'Sucupira'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Felício Soares

    Full Text Available A análise comparativa da anatomia do lenho das espécies Bowdichia nitida Spruce ex Benth, Diplotropis brasiliensis (Tul. Benth., Diplotropis martiusii Benth., Diplotropis purpurea (Rich. Amshoff e Diplotropis racemosa (Hoehne Amshoff é descrita no presente trabalho, visando a determinar as principais características anatômicas necessárias à distinção dessas espécies. Qualitativamente, as características anatômicas mais importantes para a diferenciação do lenho dessas espécies foram: camadas de crescimento, estratificação dos raios, arranjo dos vasos e fileira marginal dos raios. Quantitativamente, a análise estatística mostrou que os parâmetros anatômicos mais importantes no agrupamento das espécies foram: diâmetro dos elementos de vasos, largura dos raios em micrometros, comprimento, espessura da parede e largura das fibras. Verificou-se que a anatomia do lenho pode ser utilizada como importante subsídio na identificação das espécies estudadas.

  3. Desenvolvimento dos frutos nas espécies selvagens de amendoim (Arachis spp. Fruit development in wild species of peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida H. T. Mendes Conagin

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies selvagens de amendoim apresentam frutos completamente diferentes dos frutos do amendoim cultivado (Arachis hypogaea L.. Nesta espécie os frutos têm duas a cinco sementes justapostas dentro de uma única loja; externamente são observadas constrições na casca do fruto as quais em alguns casos se acentuam não chegando, entretanto, a produzir unia separação entre as sementes. Nas espécies selvagens os frutos apresentam duas sementes apenas, completamente separadas uma da outra por uma constrição muito profunda ou mesmo por um istmo de comprimento variável. Para êsses frutos foi adotada a denominação de "frutos catenados" e o estudo de seu desenvolvimento foi feito nas espécies Arachis monticola Krapovickas et Rigoni e A. villosa Benth. var. correntina Burk. O ovário, unilocular, tem normalmente dois óvulos. A futura separação das duas sementes se origina num tecido intercalar que se forma em ovários ainda jovens e que separa em duas a cavidade inicial única. Êste tecido tem a estrutura de um "peg" e, como êle, desidrata-se durante o processo de amadurecimento do fruto, tomando-se sêco e quebradiço; por essa razão, ao colhêr os frutos, a maioria dêles se apresenta unisseminado. Em 50% dos casos os óvulos se desenvolvem igualmente, conduzindo à formação de frutos com duas sementes. Quando os dois óvulos não se desenvolvem ao mesmo tempo, é mais freqüente o colapso do óvulo apical, cujo crescimento é paralisado cm diversos estados de desenvolvimento; isto conduz à formação de frutos com apenas uma semente ou com uma semente abortada. Além dessas duas, as seguintes espécies apresentam frutos catenados: Arachis Diogoi Hoehne f. typica Hoehne, A. glabrata Benth., A. pusilla Benth., A. marginata Gardn. (segundo Burkart, A. prostrata Benth. (segundo Burkart, e mais três espécies ainda não identificadas, mas que constam da coleção da Seção de Citologia como V. 44, V. 82 e V. 85. A V. 44 deve

  4. Hummingbirds and the plants they visit in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve, Mexico Colibríes y las plantas que visitan en la Reseva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Ortiz-Pulido

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relative abundance, plant species visited, and plant communities used by hummingbird species inhabiting the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve, a semiarid area in South-central Mexico. We recorded 14 hummingbird species and 35 plant species distributed in 4 plant communities during our study. We found 86 different hummingbird-plant interactions. Amazilia violiceps and Cynanthus latirostris were the most common hummingbirds, while C. latirostris, A. violiceps, and Cynanthus sordidus were the hummingbirds that visited more plant species. Hummingbirds were distributed differentially between plant communities inside the reserve, with 12 species being present in the arboreal plant community of the lowlands, 11 both in cactus forest and perennial spine shrub plants, and 6 in perennial unarmed shrub plants. Cercidium praecox (Fabaceae was the plant species with the highest number of visiting hummingbird species (10 species. Cactus forest and perennial spine shrub plants were the plant communities with largest number of possible interactions (57 and 51, respectively. The mean connectance value of the interaction matrix was similar between plant communities (near to 22%, but lower than those reported previously in other places. In the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve the hummingbird-plant interaction system will be preserved if the hummingbirds C. latirostris, A. violiceps, C. sordidus, and L. clemenciae, and the plants C. praecox, I. arborescens, E. chiotilla, and N. glauca, are protected.Describimos la abundancia relativa, especies de plantas visitadas y tipos de vegetación utilizados por los colibríes de la Reserva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, México. Durante nuestro de estudio registramos 14 especies de colibríes y 35 especies de plantas utilizadas por ellos dentro de cuatro tipos de vegetación, representando 86 diferentes interacciones colibrí-planta. Amazilia violiceps y Cynanthus latirostris fueron los

  5. Comparative leaf anatomy in argentine Galactia species Anatomía comparada de hoja en especies argentinas de Galactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Tourn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of anatomical characters of the leaves of argentine species of Genera Galactia was carried out in order to evaluate their potential value in Taxonomy. In Argentine 14 species and some varieties from Sections Odonia and Collaearia can be found. Section Odonia: G. benthamiana Mich., G. dubia DC., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart, G. glaucophylla Harms, G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban, G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi D. C. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. pretiosa, G. texana (Scheele A. Gray and G. boavista (Vell. Burkart from Section Collaearia. The characterization of sections is mainly based on reproductive characters, vegetative ones (exomorphological aspects are scarcely considered. The present paper provides a description of anatomical characters of leaves in argentine species of Galactia. Some of them, may have diagnostic value in taxonomic treatment. Special emphasis is placed on the systematic significance of the midvein structure. The aim of the present study, covering 10 species (named in bold, is a to add more data of leaf anatomy characters, thus b to evaluate the systematic relevance and/ or ecological significance.Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la anatomía foliar de especies argentinas del género Galactia (Fabaceae, a fin de evaluar su potencial en taxonomía. En la Argentina se reconocen 14 especies (con algunas variedades, 13 de la sección Odonia -G. benthamiana Mich., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart , G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban y G. texana (Scheele A. Gray, G. dubia DC., G. glaucophylla Harms, G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi DC. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. Pretiosa- y G. boavista (Vell. Burkart de la sección Collaearia (Burkart, 1971. Los estudios se realizaron en

  6. Notes on Plectranthus (Lamiaceae from southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. van Jaarsveld

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Four new Plectranthus taxa from South Africa are described: P. malvinus Van Jaarsv. & TJ.Edwards, P. saccatus subsp. pondoensis Van Jaarsv. & S.Milstein,  P. purpuratus subsp. tongaensis Van Jaarsv. & TJ.Edwards and  P. purpuratus subsp. montanus Van Jaarsv. & TJ.Edwards.  P. aliciae (Codd Van Jaarsv. & TJ.Edwards and  P. lucidus (Benth. Van Jaarsv. & TJ.Edwards are given new status, and P. pentheri (Giirke Van Jaarsv. & TJ.Edwards is transferred to this genus from Coleus and recognized as a species.

  7. Identification of the chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei and Ocimum basilicum by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatope, Majekodunmi O; Marwah, Ruchi G; Al Hadhrami, Nabil M; Onifade, Anthony K; Williams, John R

    2008-11-01

    The chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. growing wild in Oman have been established by (13)C-NMR analyses of the vegetative and floral oils of the plants. The chemotypes, estragole for O. forskolei and linalool for O. basilicum, suggested by (13)C-NMR fingerprinting were also confirmed by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The oil of O. forskolei demonstrated better activities against bacteria and dermatophytes. The significance of the presence of estragole and linalool in the volatile oils of plants whose fragrances are traditionally inhaled, added to food, or rubbed on the skin are discussed.

  8. Phenology of native species with landscaping potential / Fenologia de espécies nativas com potencial paisagístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Maria Natal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phenology of ten species that occur in the “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. They are: Borreria suaveolens G. Mey. ; Hilariana Crotalaria Benth. ; Cuphea calophylla Cham. & Schltdl.; Desmodium adscendens (Sw DC.; Desmodium incanum DC.; Hypericum connatum Lam. ; Peltodon rugosus Tolmachev; Salvia lachnostachys Benth. ; Been macrodon DC.; Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. The monitoring, by qualitative character, realized each fifteen days, had beginning in the month of January of 2007. It had been evaluated reproductive and vegetative characteristics. The meteorological variables that had been related with the phenology were: air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and photoperiod. The results show that 80% of the species present ending of the period of budding between April and May. Cuphea calophylla was the only species that presented budding during all the observed time. The bighest dispersal of seeds occurred in May and June. Temperature, photoperiod and precipitation had been the variables that had shown better relationship with phenophases of the plants, especially the temperature. O presente estudo visou determinar a fenologia de 10 espécies oriundas do ecossistema de Campos no estado do Paraná. São elas: Borreria suaveolens G. Mey.; Crotalaria hilariana Benth.; Cuphea calophylla Cham. & Schltdl.; Desmodium adscendens (Sw DC.; Desmodium incanum DC.; Hypericum connatum Lam.; Peltodon rugosus Tolmachev; Salvia lachnostachys Benth.; Sida macrodon DC.; Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn.. O monitoramento de caráter qualitativo, realizado quinzenalmente, teve início no mês de janeiro de 2007. Foram avaliadas características reprodutivas e vegetativas. As variáveis meteorológicas relacionadas com a fenologia foram: temperatura do ar, umidade relativa, precipitação e fotoperíodo. Os resultados mostram que 80% das espécies apresentam término do período de floração entre os meses

  9. ECUACIONES PARA ESTIMAR EL PODER CALORÍFICO DE LA MADERA DE CUATRO ESPECIES DE ÁRBOLES

    OpenAIRE

    Dimas Agostinho-Da Silva; Braulio Otomar-Caron; Carlos R. Sanquetta; Alexandre Behling; Denise Scmidt; Rogério Bamberg; Elder Eloy; Ana Paula Dalla-Corte

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue ajustar ecuaciones de regresión que expresen el poder calorífico superior (PCS) de la madera de cuatro especies forestales: Acacia mearnsii De Willd., Eu - calyptus grandis Hill, Mimosa scabrella Benth. y Ateleia glazioviana Baill. El procedimiento de selección de variables hacia atrás se utilizó para generar ecuaciones de PCS en función de los contenidos de material volátil (CMV), ceniza (CC), carbono fijo (CCF) y materia orgánica (CMO). Las muestras se recole...

  10. Morfoanatomia foliar de microorquídeas de Ornithocephalus Hook. e Psygmorchis Dodson & Dressler

    OpenAIRE

    Della Colleta,Rayza Carla Lopes; Silva,Ivone Vieira da

    2008-01-01

    Analisou-se a morfoanatomia foliar de Ornithocephalus bicornis Lindl. ex Benth., Ornithocephalus myrticola Lindl., Psygmorchis pusilla (L.) e Psygmorchis glossomystax (Rchb. f.), a fim de identificar caracteres de valor taxonômico e significado ecológico. Folhas expandidas foram coletadas na região de Alta Floresta, MT. As amostras foram incluídas em metacrilato, cortadas em micrótomo de mesa e corados com azul de toluidina. As lâminas foram montadas em resina sintética ou gelatina glicerinad...

  11. 2487-IJBCS-Article-Mkalao Mouti Marceline

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Il n'y a pas une grande variation de la teneur en lipides entre les fruits secs et frais. L'analyse des vitamines et minéraux pour 100 g de matières sèches montrent que les fruits de Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. sont aussi les plus riches en vitamine C (208,71 mg±0,19) et en zinc. (47,65 mg±0,16). Les fruits de Tamarindus ...

  12. Caracterização química e atividade biológica de óleos essenciais de plantas do Cerrado contra fungos xilófagos

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Fernando César Magalhães de

    2014-01-01

    Os componentes voláteis de seis plantas do Cerrado foram investigados. Os óleos essenciais foram extraídos pelo método de hidrodestilação, por duas horas, e o rendimento dos óleos foi: 0,14% (Psidium myrsinites Mart. ex DC.), 0,75% (Hyptis sp.), 0% (Hyptis saxatilis A.St.-Hil. ex Benth.), 0,33% (Psidium laruotteanum Cambess.), 0,46% (Lippia lacunosa Mart. & Schauer) e 2,92% (Lippia origanoides Kunth). Os principais componentes dos óleos são: óxido de cariofileno (26,1%), epóxido de humuleno I...

  13. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Apis mellifera L., coletadas na Bahia Pollen spectrum of samples of Apis mellifera L., honey collected in Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AUGUSTA CAROLINA DE CAMARGO CARMELLO MORETI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico encontrado em amostras de mel provenientes de seis municípios do Estado da Bahia foi analisado com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento da flora visitada por Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: ApidaeA identificação dos tipos polínicos foi feita por meio de literatura especializada e de informações de campo. Foram encontrados 43 tipos de pólen, sendo consideradas como dominantes as espécies Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae, Mimosa verrucosa Benth. (Mimosaceae, M. scabrella Benth. (Mimosaceae e Bauhinia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae. Os tipos acessórios foram Alternanthera ficoidea R.Br. (Amaranthaceae, tipo Compositae (Asteraceae e Cecropia sp. (Moraceae. Destacou-se a participação de Mimosa sp. (Mimosaceae e de outras espécies silvestres na composição dos méis nos municípios considerados, registrando-se ainda a espécie Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae como uma das principais fontes de alimento das abelhas dessa região.Pollen spectrum found in honey samples from six localities of Bahia State, Brazil, was analyzed with the objective to contribute for the knowledge of the plants used by Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae. The identification of the pollen types was made by specialized literature and by field information. Two hundred pollen grains were studied in order to determine the percentage and the occurrence of each type. Forty three pollen types were identified, being considered as the predominant types Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae, Mimosa verrucosa Benth. (Mimosaceae, M. scabrella Benth. (Mimosaceae and Bauhinia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae. The accessory pollen types were Alternanthera ficoidea R.Br. (Amaranthaceae, Compositae type (Asteraceae and Cecropia sp. (Moraceae. It is intense the participation of Mimosa sp. (Mimosaceae and other wild species in the honey composition of the six localities considered. Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae is one of the dominant sources of bee food in some regions of Bahia State.

  14. Wood-polymer composites obtained by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, Javier; Lopez, Alcides; Rodriguez, Juan; Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Lima; Acevedo, Moises; Santiago, Julio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2006-01-01

    It has been prepared composites materials by means of monomer penetration in pores of wood samples and later curing by means of gamma irradiation. The studied species were Hura crepitans L. (catahua), Aniba puchury-minor (C. Martinez) (mohena amarilla), and Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) (capirona). These new materials exhibit smaller water absorption and better mechanical properties in comparison with native wood. The test tubes of catahua treated with the styrene-polyester mixture absorb only up to 10% humidity compared to the native species whereas its hardness is increased in a 100%. (author)

  15. 5th Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Benth, Fred Espen; Guasoni, Paolo; Manolarakis, Konstantinos; Muhle-Karbe, Johannes; Nee, Colm; Protter, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The current volume presents four chapters touching on some of the most important and modern areas of research in Mathematical Finance: asset price bubbles (by Philip Protter); energy markets (by Fred Espen Benth); investment under transaction costs (by Paolo Guasoni and Johannes Muhle-Karbe); and numerical methods for solving stochastic equations (by Dan Crisan, K. Manolarakis and C. Nee).The Paris-Princeton Lecture Notes on Mathematical Finance, of which this is the fifth volume, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from renowned specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference source for research in the field.

  16. COLORIMETRY AND SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF THREE AMAZON WOODS SUBMITTED TO NATURAL WEATHERING

    OpenAIRE

    Kerber, Patrick Rogério; Stangerlin, Diego Martins; Pariz, Elisangela; de Melo, Rafael Rodolfo; de Souza, Adilson Pacheco; Calegari, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    COLORIMETRIA E RUGOSIDADE SUPERFICIAL DE TRÊS MADEIRAS AMAZÔNICAS SUBMETIDAS AO INTEMPERISMO NATURAL This study aimed to evaluate the color and surface roughness of the wood of three  Amazonian species  submitted to natural weathering. For this purpose, samples of Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel) J. F. Macbr., Erisma uncinatum Warm and Parkia pendula (Willd.) Benth. ex Walp., with dimensions of 1 x 2 x 30 cm (thickness, width and length, respectively), were exposed to natural weathering without cont...

  17. USO DE RESÍDUOS DA AGROINDÚSTRIA DE BANANAS NA COMPOSIÇÃO DE SUBSTRATOS PARA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE PAU PEREIRA

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Mábele de Cássia; Costa, Samara Maria Lopes; Pasin, Liliana Auxiliadora Avelar

    2015-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a utilização do resíduo orgânico da agroindústria processadora de bananas na composição de substratos em comparação com outros substratos para produção de mudas de Platycyamus regnellii Benth. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se seis substratos dispostos em blocos casualizados, constando de: solo, areia e compostagem da casca de banana (S1); solo, areia e compostagem de cascas de vegetais diversos sem adição de banana (S2); solo...

  18. A Soxhlet Extract of Gongronema latifolium Retains Moderate Blood Glucose Lowering Effect and Produces Structural Recovery in the Pancreas of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hindi, Bassel; Yusoff, Nor A; Atangwho, Item J; Ahmad, Mariam; Asmawi, Mohd Z; Yam, Mun F

    2016-04-25

    Gongronema latifolium Benth. (GL) possesses considerable glucose lowering effects able to be utilized on a large-scale. This paper investigates the effects of a Soxhlet extract on hyperglycemia, Langerhans islets and glucose uptake by abdominal muscles. Ethanol and a Soxhlet apparatus were used to obtain GL ethanolic Soxhlet extract (GLES). It was then administered to randomly-segregated male Sprague-Dawley , normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats, using oral gavage to evaluate blood glucose levels (BGLs), serum lipid profile, insulin levels and the pancreas post-treatment. GLES significantly ( p Soxhlet extraction of Gongronema latifolium probably leads to the destruction of active heat-liable compounds.

  19. Centrolobium tomentosum: macro-and microscopic diagnosis of the leaf and stem

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna Erbano; Márcia R. Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Centrolobium tomentosum Guillemin ex Benth., Fabaceae, known as "araribá-rosa", is a large tree that is widespread throughout Brazil. The bark of its stem is used in folk medicine as an astringent and the leaves are employed as a poultice for wounds and bruises. The aim of this study was to contribute to the pharmacognostic quality control of this medicinal species through a macro- and microscopic diagnosis of its leaves and stems. Mature leaves and young stems were collected at Embrapa (Colo...

  20. PurificaÃÃo e caracterizaÃÃo fÃsico-quÃmica e biolÃgica de uma lectina de sementes de Centrolobium tomentosum guill. ex bench

    OpenAIRE

    Alysson Chaves Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Sementes de Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth., pertencente à famÃlia Fabaceae, SubfamÃlia Papilionoideae, Tribo Dalbergieae, possuem uma lectina ligante à manose/glicose que aglutina eritrÃcitos de coelho nativos ou tratados com enzimas proteolÃticas. A lectina foi purificada por cromatografia de afinidade em Sepharose-manose, sendo posteriormente nomeada CTL. SDS-PAGE demonstrou que CTL possui um perfil eletroforÃtico composto por uma banda majoritÃria de massa molecular aparente de a...