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Sample records for ceratopogonidae

  1. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

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    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  2. Nematocera (Ceratopogonidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae and Culicidae) and control methods.

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    Braverman, Y

    1994-12-01

    The biology, veterinary importance and control of certain Nematocera are described and discussed. Culicoides spp. (family Ceratopogonidae) transmit the arboviruses of bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and Akabane. Some other arboviruses have been isolated from these species, while fowl pox has been transmitted experimentally by Culicoides. These insects are vectors of the parasitic protozoans Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Haemoproteus nettionis, and the parasitic nematodes Onchocerca gutturosa, O. gibsoni and O. cervicalis. They also cause recurrent summer hypersensitivity in horses, ponies, donkeys, cattle and sheep. Farm animals can die as a result of mass attack by Simulium spp., which are also vectors of Leucocytozoon simondi, L. smithi and the filariae O. gutturosa, O. linealis and O. ochengi. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) have been isolated from simuliids, and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey strain has been replicated in Simulium vittatum. Simuliids are well known as vectors of O. volvulus, the cause of human onchocercosis (river blindness). The family Psychodidae includes the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia (subfamily Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania spp. in humans, dogs and other mammals. Vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana strain has been regularly isolated from phlebotomine sandflies. Mass attack by mosquitoes can also prove fatal to farm animals. Mosquitoes are vectors of the viruses of Akabane, BEF, RVF, Japanese encephalitis, VEE, western equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis and west Nile meningoencephalitis, secondary vectors of AHS and suspected vectors of Israel turkey meningoencephalitis. The viruses of hog cholera, fowl pox and reticuloendotheliosis, the rickettsiae Eperythrozoon ovis and E. suis, and the bacterium Borrelia anserina are mechanically transmitted by mosquitoes. These insects also induce allergic dermatitis in horses. They

  3. The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

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    María M. Ronderos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. The pupa of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972, collected from a mat of floating fern (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae in Ilha da Marchantaria near Manaus, Brazil and the reared adult male are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. This is the first detailed pupal description for the genus Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.Pupa e adulto macho previamente desconhecidos de Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. A pupa de Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972 foi coletada em macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae na Ilha da Marchantaria próximo a Manaus, Brasil e o adulto macho criado foi descrito, fotografado e ilustrado pela primeira vez. Esta é a primeira descrição para a pupa do gênero Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.

  4. Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera que habitan en fi totelmata en el Parque Nacional Iguazú, provincia de Misiones, Argentina subtropical

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    Raúl E. Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A list of the most common phytotelmata and their Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae inhabitants from Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, Argentina, is presented, and biological and behavioral observations are also included. Species of Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, and Arecaceae, were identified as phytotelmata. Twenty six species of Culicidae and nine of Ceratopogonidae were identified. The highest species richness of culicids and ceratopogonids was recorded from the bamboo Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae and treeholes, respectively. Fourteen species of Culicidae and three of Ceratopogonidae inhabit bamboo, two and five treeholes, seven and three bromeliads, and nine and one, other less known phytotelmata, respectively.Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.

  5. Morphological description of the fourth instar larva: Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

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    Slama, Darine; Khedher, Asma; Bdira, Sassi; Khayech, Fethi; Delecolle, Jean-claude; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Emna, Chaker

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out of the region of Monastir in Central Tunisia, between July and August 2010. Larvae were collected using a floatation technique with magnesium sulfate in mud samples. The fourth instar larva of Culicoides cataneii Clastrier, 1957 and Culicoides sahariensis Callot, Kremer, Bailly-Choumara, 1970 are described, illustrated and drawn. Measurements of instars IV are also presented. This is the first record of Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Tunisia.

  6. The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

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    María M. Ronderos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. The pupa of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972, collected from a mat of floating fern (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae in Ilha da Marchantaria near Manaus, Brazil and the reared adult male are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. This is the first detailed pupal description for the genus Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.

  7. New records of Forcipomyia (Pterobosca) incubans (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) parasitizing wings of Odonata in Brazil

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    Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer; Vilela,Diogo Silva

    2013-01-01

    Forcipomyia (Pterobosca) incubans Macfie (1937) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is recorded here for the first time for Brazil. Females were collected in the Brazilian Neotropical Savanna parasitizing the wings of Erythrodiplax juliana Ris (1911), Erythrodiplax aff. anomala Brauer (1865) and Erythemis credula Hagen (1861), all Libellulidae dragonflies. A map of potential distribution of this species in the New World is also provided. The results suggest that its distribution may range from souther...

  8. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

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    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  9. Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina

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    Raúl E. CAMPOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.

  10. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator

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    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-10-01

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.

  11. Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera of the piedmont of the Yungas forests of Tucumán: ecology and distribution

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    José Manuel Direni Mancini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the Ceratopogonidae family, many genera transmit numerous diseases to humans and animals, while others are important pollinators of tropical crops. In the Yungas ecoregion of Argentina, previous systematic and ecological research on Ceratopogonidae focused on Culicoides, since they are the main transmitters of mansonelliasis in northwestern Argentina; however, few studies included the genera Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, Atrichopogon, Alluaudomyia, Echinohelea, and Bezzia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the presence and abundance of Ceratopogonidae in this region, their association with meteorological variables, and their variation in areas disturbed by human activity. Monthly collection of specimens was performed from July 2008 to July 2009 using CDC miniature light traps deployed for two consecutive days. A total of 360 specimens were collected, being the most abundant Dasyhelea genus (48.06% followed by Forcipomyia (26.94% and Atrichopogon (13.61%. Bivariate analyses showed significant differences in the abundance of the genera at different sampling sites and climatic conditions, with the summer season and El Corralito site showing the greatest abundance of specimens. Accumulated rainfall was the variable that related the most to the abundance of Culicoides (10.56%, while temperature was the most closely related variable to the abundance of Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, and Atrichopogon.

  12. Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera) of the piedmont of the Yungas forests of Tucumán: ecology and distribution.

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    Direni Mancini, José Manuel; Veggiani-Aybar, Cecilia Adriana; Fuenzalida, Ana Denise; Lizarralde de Grosso, Mercedes Sara; Quintana, María Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Within the Ceratopogonidae family, many genera transmit numerous diseases to humans and animals, while others are important pollinators of tropical crops. In the Yungas ecoregion of Argentina, previous systematic and ecological research on Ceratopogonidae focused on Culicoides, since they are the main transmitters of mansonelliasis in northwestern Argentina; however, few studies included the genera Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, Atrichopogon, Alluaudomyia, Echinohelea, and Bezzia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the presence and abundance of Ceratopogonidae in this region, their association with meteorological variables, and their variation in areas disturbed by human activity. Monthly collection of specimens was performed from July 2008 to July 2009 using CDC miniature light traps deployed for two consecutive days. A total of 360 specimens were collected, being the most abundant Dasyhelea genus (48.06%) followed by Forcipomyia (26.94%) and Atrichopogon (13.61%). Bivariate analyses showed significant differences in the abundance of the genera at different sampling sites and climatic conditions, with the summer season and El Corralito site showing the greatest abundance of specimens. Accumulated rainfall was the variable that related the most to the abundance of Culicoides (10.56%), while temperature was the most closely related variable to the abundance of Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, and Atrichopogon.

  13. Estado actual del conocimiento de la familia Ceratopogonidae en la Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera Current knowledge of the family Ceratopogonidae in Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera

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    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopogonidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematoceros que crían en hábitats acuáticos o semiacuáticos. Hasta los '80, el conocimiento de su taxonomía en la Patagonia se hallaba limitado a la contribución de los comienzos de los '30 de Ingram y Macfie, sobre la base de material capturado en 1926-27, en el área del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi y zonas vecinas de Chile. En los últimos 25 años, se pusieron en marcha diferentes proyectos, resultando la descripción o registro de numerosos taxones para la región. Si se contabilizan los datos publicados, 102 especies habitan en la Patagonia, de las cuales 86 (84,31% son endémicas para la región. Este alto porcentaje es evidente en los bosques de Nothofagus, con 71 especies endémicas de este bioma, nueve lo son de la estepa y seis presentan registros en bosque y estepa. Datos aún no publicados concuerdan con este esquema. Diecinueve géneros están representados en la Patagonia, diez de ellos con amplia distribución, tres de distribución transantártica y seis son endémicos para el área. Para la misma, se hallan publicadas las revisiones de Forcipomyia, Atrichopogon, Borkenthelea, Macrurohelea y Paradasyhelea; se han finalizado y aún no publicado aquellas de Dasyhelea y Palpomyia, está muy avanzada la de Stilobezzia y se prevé comenzar con las de Austrohelea, Austrosphaeromias, Physohelea y Bezzia. Se calcula que estos datos no divulgados contienen al menos 55 especies todavía no descriptas. Con respecto a los aspectos biogeográficos se pueden destacar estudios que tienden a establecer relaciones entre las áreas reconocidas en esquemas biogeográficos propuestos para la región andina.Ceratopogonidae includes small nematoceran Diptera which breed in aquatic and semiaquatic habitats. Until the 80´s its taxonomic knowledge in Patagonia was limited to the early 30´s contribution of Ingram and Macfie, from material collected in 1926-27 in the area of the Nahuel Huapi National

  14. [List of the type species of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera, Nematocera) deposited in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

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    Felippe-Bauer, M; Oliveira Sd, S

    2001-11-01

    A list of all type specimens of the Family Ceratopogonidae, present in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil is presented. This list includes the genera Bahiahelea, Culicoides, Dasyhelea, Downeshelea, Forcipomyia, Leptoconops, Mallochohelea, Monohelea, Neobezzia, Palpomyia and Sphaerohelea.

  15. Towards the PCR-based identification of Palaearctic Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): results from an international ring trial targeting fourspecies of the subgenus Avaritia.

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    Garros, C.; Balenghien, T.; Carpenter, S.; Delécolle, J.C.; Meiswinkel, R.; Pédarrieu, A.; Rakotoarivony, I.; Gardès, L.; Golding, N.; Barber, J.; Miranda, M.; Borràs Borràs, D.; Goffredo, M.; Monaco, F.; Pagès, N.; Sghaier, S.; Hammami, S.; Calvo, J.H.; Lucientes, J.; Geysen, D.; Deken, de G.; Sarto i Monteys, V.; Schwenkenbecher, J.; Kampen, H.; Hoffmann, B.; Lehman, K.; Werner, D.; Baldet, T.; Lancelot, R.; Cêtre-Sossah, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses. To understand the role of Culicoides in the transmission of these viruses, it is essential to correctly identify the species involved. Within the western Palae

  16. Lista dos exemplares tipos de Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera depositados na Coleção Entomológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil List of the type species of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera, Nematocera deposited in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    ML Felippe-Bauer

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A list of all type specimens of the Family Ceratopogonidae, present in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil is presented. This list includes the genera Bahiahelea, Culicoides, Dasyhelea, Downeshelea, Forcipomyia, Leptoconops, Mallochohelea, Monohelea, Neobezzia, Palpomyia and Sphaerohelea.

  17. Estado actual del conocimiento de la familia Ceratopogonidae en la Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera

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    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopogonidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematocerosque crían en hábitats acuáticos o semiacuáticos. Hasta los ‘80, el conocimiento de su taxonomía en la Patagonia se hallaba limitado a la contribución de los comienzos de los ‘30 de Ingram y Macfie, sobre la base de material capturado en 1926-27, en el área del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi y zonas vecinasde Chile. En los últimos 25 años, se pusieron en marcha diferentes proyectos, resultando la descripción o registro de numerosos taxones para la región. Si se contabilizan los datos publicados, 102 especies habitan en la Patagonia, de las cuales 86 (84,31% son endémicas para la región. Este alto porcentaje es evidente en los bosques de Nothofagus, con 71 especies endémicas de estebioma, nueve lo son de la estepa y seis presentan registros en bosque y estepa. Datos aún no publicados concuerdan con este esquema. Diecinueve géneros están representados en la Patagonia, diez de ellos con amplia distribución,tres de distribución transantártica y seis son endémicos para el área. Para la misma, se hallan publicadas las revisiones de Forcipomyia, Atrichopogon, Borkenthelea, Macrurohelea y Paradasyhelea; se han finalizado y aún no publicado aquellas de Dasyhelea y Palpomyia, está muy avanzada la de Stilobezzia y se prevé comenzar con las de Austrohelea, Austrosphaeromias, Physohelea y Bezzia. Se calcula que estos datos no divulgados contienen al menos 55 especies todavía no descriptas. Con respecto a los aspectos biogeográficos se pueden destacar estudios que tienden a establecer relaciones entre las áreas reconocidas en esquemas biogeográficos propuestos para la región andina.

  18. Actualización del catálogo de Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae de España

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    Lucientes, J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of studies on arthropods of genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae has increased considerably in Spain in recent decades. This is due to the role these insects play as vectors of arboviruses that cause disease in animals, but also in humans. This work undertakes an updated catalogue of the species of this genus in our country, through a critical review of the literature, clarifying chronological aspects of these publications carried out for over a century of research. This update shows a total of 81 species of Culicoides in Spain, among which are some to be considered as directly related to the transmission of diseases such as bluetongue and African horse sickness.El número de estudios acerca de los artrópodos del género Culicoides Latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae en España ha experimentado un elevado incremento en las últimas décadas. Principalmente ello es debido al papel que estos dípteros juegan como vectores de arbovirus causantes de enfermedades en los animales, aunque también en humanos. Este trabajo acomete una actualización del catálogo de las especies que conforman este género en nuestro país, mediante una revisión crítica de la literatura existente, clarificando aspectos cronológicos sobre estas publicaciones llevadas a cabo durante más de un siglo de investigación. Esta actualización muestra un total de 81 especies de Culicoides para España, entre las que se encuentran algunas a tener en cuenta por estar directamente relacionadas con la trasmisión de enfermedades como la Lengua Azul o la Peste Equina Africana.

  19. Urban forests as hubs for novel zoonosis: blood meal analysis, seasonal variation in Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vectors, and avian haemosporidians.

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    Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Havelka, Peter; Pineda, Eduardo; Segelbacher, Gernot; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-12-01

    Culicoides vectors can transmit a diverse array of parasites and are globally distributed. We studied feeding preferences and seasonal variation of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vectors in an urban forest of Germany to determine whether humans living nearby are readily exposed to vector-borne parasites from wild animals. We used a fragment of the mtDNA COI gene to identify hosts from blood meals. We amplified a fragment of the mtDNA cyt b to detect haemosporidian infections in Culicoides abdomens and thoraxes. We detected a total of 22 Culicoides species. Fifty-eight blood meals (84%) were from humans, 10 from birds, and one from livestock. We found Culicoides kibunensis (considered ornithophilic) with 29 human blood meals. Host generalist Culicoides festivipennis and Culicoides obsoletus had 14 human blood meals. Culicoides clastrieri and Culicoides semimaculatus fed on birds; previously humans were their only known host. Six thoraxes and three abdomens were infected with either Haemoproteus pallidulus or Haemoproteus parabelopolskyi. There were changes in Culicoides community structure across months. Culicoides pictipennis was the dominant species during spring, C. kibunensis and C. clastrieri were dominant during summer, and C. obsoletus was dominant by early autumn. All dominant species were generalists feeding on birds, livestock and humans. Our results indicate that humans can serve as a blood source for dominant Culicoides species instead of the normal wild animal hosts in urban areas.

  20. Les porcheries : réservoirs des Culicoides (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae, vecteurs des virus de la Maladie de la Langue bleue et de Schmallenberg ?

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    Zimmer, JY.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pig farms: reservoirs of vectors of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses?. Bluetongue (BT is a vector-borne disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent outbreak in northern Europe, this viral disease has caused considerable economic losses. The biological vectors of the bluetongue virus are biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae. Several light trapping campaigns targeting these adult midges have been previously conducted in Belgium within cattle and sheep farms, but none have been performed inside pig farms. This study therefore aims to assess, using light traps, the levels of Culicoides populations that may have been present inside two Belgian pig farms during the fall and winter of 2008. The presence of (potential Culicoides vector species was demonstrated inside the pig buildings during the fall: 8 and 749 specimens belonging to 2 and 7 species were respectively trapped inside the pigsties, with the majority being Obsoletus complex females. The opening up of the buildings seemed to strongly influence their presence. Observation of the females' nutritional status suggests that these midges were likely to have fed or to have laid eggs inside the pig farms, despite the fact that pig's blood could not be identified in the abdomen of engorged females and that pig manure did not reveal the presence of larvae. Pigs could thus be involved in the maintenance of potential vector species populations of the BT virus, or of the new Schmallenberg virus.

  1. Assessment of vector/host contact: comparison of animal-baited traps and UV-light/suction trap for collecting Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, vectors of Orbiviruses

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    Delécolle Jean-Claude

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence and massive spread of bluetongue in Western Europe during 2006-2008 had disastrous consequences for sheep and cattle production and confirmed the ability of Palaearctic Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae to transmit the virus. Some aspects of Culicoides ecology, especially host-seeking and feeding behaviors, remain insufficiently described due to the difficulty of collecting them directly on a bait animal, the most reliable method to evaluate biting rates. Our aim was to compare typical animal-baited traps (drop trap and direct aspiration to both a new sticky cover trap and a UV-light/suction trap (the most commonly used method to collect Culicoides. Methods/results Collections were made from 1.45 hours before sunset to 1.45 hours after sunset in June/July 2009 at an experimental sheep farm (INRA, Nouzilly, Western France, with 3 replicates of a 4 sites × 4 traps randomized Latin square using one sheep per site. Collected Culicoides individuals were sorted morphologically to species, sex and physiological stages for females. Sibling species were identified using a molecular assay. A total of 534 Culicoides belonging to 17 species was collected. Abundance was maximal in the drop trap (232 females and 4 males from 10 species whereas the diversity was the highest in the UV-light/suction trap (136 females and 5 males from 15 species. Significant between-trap differences abundance and parity rates were observed. Conclusions Only the direct aspiration collected exclusively host-seeking females, despite a concern that human manipulation may influence estimation of the biting rate. The sticky cover trap assessed accurately the biting rate of abundant species even if it might act as an interception trap. The drop trap collected the highest abundance of Culicoides and may have caught individuals not attracted by sheep but by its structure. Finally, abundances obtained using the UV-light/suction trap did not estimate

  2. [The small halophilic zygopteric odonate, Mortonagrion hirosei, of central Japan, a predator utilizable against tiny stinging diptera of coastal salt marshes, especially Ceratopogonidae of the genera Culicoides and Oecacta, pests of sea shores in southwestern U.S.A. and Caribbean area].

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    Vasserot, J

    1986-01-01

    Among stinging diptera pullulating in coastal salt marshes Ceratopogonidae gnats (mainly of genus Culicoides and Oecacta) are especially troublesome, particularly in Southeastern U. S. A. and Caribbean area, escaping attacks of most predators by their tiny size. But the zygopteric odonate insect Mortonagrion hirosei is well fitted for hunting those minute diptera, by its tiny size and its behaviour, seeking shelter between halophilic plants (2 facts explaining that it was not discovered in central Japan before 1971...). Its larvae, living in brackish waters of coastal lagoons, can devour those of Ceratopogonidae and at least young stages of those of Mosquitoes whose some halophilic species are dangerous vectors of diseases. According to similarity of climates M. hirosei can certainly thrive in Southeastern U. S. A., and probably in Southern Europe. At lower latitudes problems for completion of annual cycle could perhaps arise from lack of hivernal cooling. It is necessary to make at the world scale methodical researches for other species of zygopteric odonates of similar ecology which could exist in other countries, both for avoiding harmful competition of introduced M. hirosei with native species still unknown and for fulfilling the same ecological function in areas of climate no suitable for this Japanese insect. Introduction of M. hirosei in new geographic areas would be very useful, too, for protection of this interesting species threatened by human activities in its natural biotopes, made of discontinuous and rather little areas.

  3. The Culicoides of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    abortion, premature birth, stillbirth, and congenital malformations in newborn calves and lambs. The virus was first isolated from Aedes and Culex mosquitoes...Omori 1975. Akabane disease: Epizootic abortion, premature birth, stillbirth, and congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly in cattle, sheep and...importance of Culicoides as a vector of viral agents stems mostly from their association with bluetongue of sheep and cattle and Oropouche virus disease of

  4. Culicoides Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Culicoides are vectors of viral diseases in do- mestic animals and humans. Isolation of half of the known Simbu group arboviruses has been made from...53 (male, femalej. Holotype: 0, Zika Forest, Uganda, C. Khamala, light trap, 17-V-66 (BMNH). Paratypes: 1 0, 1 6, Kakamega Forest, Kenya, C... vector potential than imicola and others. Precipitin tests of seven blood-engorged females gave one positive for sheep. They isolated bluetongue-l

  5. Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae as vectors of orbiviruses in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Sarvašová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rapid spread of Culicoides-borne pathogens such as bluetongue (BT and Schmallenberg viruses have been reported in Europe. In this study we examined the Culicoides populations in farms with wild and domestic ruminants in Eastern Slovakia with the aim to confirm the presence of biting midges serving as potential vectors of important pathogens. The main vector complexes were the Obsoletus complex (54%; n=4,209 and the Pulicaris complex (23%; n=1,796. To estimate the relative abundance of the cryptic species of the Obsoletus complex (Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides scoticus and Culicoides montanus, we performed the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR based on ITS-2 and ITS-1 segments, on 125 midges randomly sampled. The relative abundance of C. obsoletus ranged from 5.26% in the farm with wild ruminants to 85.71% in another farm with cattle and sheep. A total of 112 pools of parous and gravid females belonging to the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes were tested for virus detection by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for BT virus, as well as for the Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV, with negative results.

  6. First description of the male of Diaphanobezzia patagonica (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPINELLI Gustavo R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra el macho de Diaphanobezzia patagonica Spinelli & Grogan sobre la base de ejemplares capturados en asociación con hembras en la meseta de Somuncura, en la estepa de la Patagonia central. El macho aquí descripto es comparado con los machos de los congéneres D. pellucida Ingram & Macfie y D. spinellii Wirth & Grogan. Además, se registra a D. patagonica del Parque Nacional Laguna Blanca.

  7. Redescription of the pupa of Mallochohelea termophila (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Redescripción de la pupa de Mallochohelea termophila (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    María M. Ronderos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The pupal exuvia of Mallochohelea termophila (Spinelli is redescribed, photographed and illustrated mainly based on the type-series. Pupae of the type-series were collected with forceps from a thermal stream and were attached to rocks about 200 m from the spring head. Pupae from Uruguay were collected with a dipper in lotic and lentic environments. They were reared to adults in the laboratory. This is the first detailed pupal description of a species of Mallochohelea, and the first record of this species from Uruguay. Similarities and differences with the pupae of Neobezzia are provided.Se describe, fotografía e ilustra la exuvia pupal de Mallochohelea termophila (Spinelli, en especial sobre la base de la serie-tipo. Las pupas de la serie-tipo fueron recolectadas mediante pinzas en un arroyo termal, adheridas a rocas, aproximadamente a 200 m del manatial y las pupas de Uruguay mediante el uso de un cucharón tanto en ambientes lóticos como lénticos. Ellas fueron criadas hasta adultos en el laboratorio. Ésta es la primera descripción detallada de una pupa de una especie de Mallochohelea y el primer registro de la especie para Uruguay. Se destacan semejanzas y diferencias con las pupas de Neobezzia.

  8. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides' bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil: III - Epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta terceira contribuiçãos os Autores apresentam os aspectos Epídemiológicos da Dermatozoonose pela picada de Culicoides em Salvador. Salientam que embora a densidade de insetos outros de hábitos antropófilos seja elevada na cidade, as seguintes evidências os conduziram a responsabilizar os Culicoides: conincidência do aparecimento de casos de Dermatozoonose após um período de maior densidade de Culicoides; maior número de casos, desde que a densidade de Culicoides aumentou nos últimos anos; proveni~encia de maior número de casos dos bairros onde há maior infestação de Culicoides. A Dermatozoonose é acentuadamente mais freqüente no sexo feminino. Houve maior número de casos entre os negros, talvez devido a maior freqüencia de negros que procuram tratamento no Hospital das Clínicas. Não há predominância acentuada para determinado grupo etário. Num levantamento que fizeram sôbre a incomodidade do Culicoides observaram que 81% de 593 residências visitadas em diferentes bairros, são incomodadas, sendo o inverno a época de maior incômodo. As horas de maior incômodo, coincidem com a ocorrência horária máxima do Culicoides. Observaram que as medidas usadas pela população para combate ao inseto são inadequadas pois, em 56% das residências não se obtém qualquer resultado. Considerando que nesses último cinco anos a densidade de Culicoides aumentou inexplicàvelmente em Salvador, julgam que os seguintes fatôres participara para que êsse fenômeno ocorresse: a extinção do Serviço de Profilaxia da Febre Amarela em 1956, o qual, indiretamente, por meio de sua "polícia de fócos" combatendo o Aedes aegypti, controlava os Culicoides; o crescimento da cidade, aumentando o número de fossas, já que não existe um sistema de esgotos adequado; e a deficiência do Serviço de Limpeza Pública da Cidade, ocasionando o acúmulo de lixo nos quintais, terrenos baldios e mesmo em logradouros públicos. Essas condições permitiram a existência de uma extensa rêde de "focos potenciais" para a proliferação dos Culicoides que agora infestam a cidade.

  9. Morphological and molecular identification of species of the Obsoletus group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    segment of the maxillary palp and the number and location of hairs on the first abdominal tergit. Validation of the quick stereomicroscope identification method was achieved by morphometric measurements and a molecular marker. In all cases, both methods verified the quick morphological species...

  10. The range of attraction for light traps catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Background Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light...... traps. Methods Here we test a previously described mathematical model (Model I) and two novel models for the attraction of vectors to light traps (Model II and III). In Model I, Culicoides fly to the nearest trap from within a fixed range of attraction. In Model II Culicoides fly towards areas...... collections obtained from two novel experimental setups in the field where traps were placed in different configurations. Results Results showed that overlapping ranges of attraction of neighboring traps extended the shared range of attraction. Model I did not fit data from any of the experimental setups...

  11. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides' bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil: IV - A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available A observação de 211 pacientes com reação intensa à picada do Culicoides, que procuraram tratamento na Clínica dermatológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade da Bahia, durante os anos de 1959 e 1962, permitiu o estudo clínico dessa Dermatozoonose, cujos dados são aqui apresentados. A lesão parece ser de natureza alérgica e devido ao aspecto polimorfo pelo qual se apresenta, essa Dermatose pode lembrar o Prorigo, a Escabiose, as Lesões liquenoide; quando a manifestação é mais intensa torna-se uma verdadeira eczematização; quando há infecção secundária, lembra o impetigo folicular. O estudo histológico da lesão revelou ser ela a de uma inflamação crônica, com vascularites e preivascularites dermo-epidérmica, provàvelmente de natureza alérgica. Para que haja a formação da lesão, são necessários: a substância inoculada pelo inseto e o componente alérgico do indivíduo. Não se conhece a natureza da substância inoculada pelo inseto e as seguintes hipóteses são apresentadas para explicá-la: substâncias enzimáticas ou a histamina existentes nas glândulas salivares do Culicoides. Após a picada do Culicoisdes forma-se no local uma pequena área eritematosa que logo após se transforma em pápula; as pápulas podem desaparecer ou transformarem-se em vesículas; estas ao se romperem dilaceram a superfície cutânea, descamam-na ou pode advir uma infecção secundária e transformam-se em pústulas.

  12. Stilobezzia (Acanthohelea curvistyla (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, new association of sexes and redescription of male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla G. CAZORLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio del material tipo, y de ejemplares de Stilobezzia (Acanthohelea curvistyla y de Stilobezzia (A. megatheca, colectados recientemente, demostró una incorrecta asociación de sexos en ambas especies. El alotipo hembra de S. (A. megatheca pertenece a Stilobezzia (A. curvistyla. Se realiza la correcta asociación de sexos de S. (A. curvistyla, se redescribe el macho de esta especie, se expande su diagnosis y se amplía su distribución geográfica.

  13. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and ...

  14. Modelling the Abundances of Two Major Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Species in the Niayes Area of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Maryam; Fall, Moussa; Lancelot, Renaud; Diop, Aliou; Fall, Assane G; Dicko, Ahmadou; Seck, Momar Talla; Garros, Claire; Allène, Xavier; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Bakhoum, Mame Thierno; Bouyer, Jérémy; Guis, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    In Senegal, considerable mortality in the equine population and hence major economic losses were caused by the African horse sickness (AHS) epizootic in 2007. Culicoides oxystoma and Culicoides imicola, known or suspected of being vectors of bluetongue and AHS viruses are two predominant species in the vicinity of horses and are present all year-round in Niayes area, Senegal. The aim of this study was to better understand the environmental and climatic drivers of the dynamics of these two species. Culicoides collections were obtained using OVI (Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute) light traps at each of the 5 sites for three nights of consecutive collection per month over one year. Cross Correlation Map analysis was performed to determine the time-lags for which environmental variables and abundance data were the most correlated. C. oxystoma and C. imicola count data were highly variable and overdispersed. Despite modelling large Culicoides counts (over 220,000 Culicoides captured in 354 night-traps), using on-site climate measures, overdispersion persisted in Poisson, negative binomial, Poisson regression mixed-effect with random effect at the site of capture models. The only model able to take into account overdispersion was the Poisson regression mixed-effect model with nested random effects at the site and date of capture levels. According to this model, meteorological variables that contribute to explaining the dynamics of C. oxystoma and C. imicola abundances were: mean temperature and relative humidity of the capture day, mean humidity between 21 and 19 days prior a capture event, density of ruminants, percentage cover of water bodies within a 2 km radius and interaction between temperature and humidity for C. oxystoma; mean rainfall and NDVI of the capture day and percentage cover of water bodies for C. imicola. Other variables such as soil moisture, wind speed, degree days, land cover or landscape metrics could be tested to improve the models. Further work should also assess whether other trapping methods such as host-baited traps help reduce overdispersion.

  15. A new species of predaceous midge of the genus Monohelea Kieffer from Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe-Bauer, M L; Huerta, H; Bernal, S I

    2000-01-01

    A description and illustrations of Monohelea maya, new species, based on male and female characteristics are provided. The specimens were collected in the special biosphere Reserves of Ria Lagartos and Ria Celestun, Yucatan State, Mexico.

  16. A new species of predaceous midge of the genus Monohelea Kieffer from Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Felippe-Bauer

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A description and illustrations of Monohelea maya, new species, based on male and female characteristics are provided. The specimens were collected in the special biosphere Reserves of Ria Lagartos and Ria Celestun, Yucatan State, Mexico.

  17. Redescription of the last instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. RONDEROS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe e ilustra el último estadio larval y la pupa de Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth, utilizando microscopio de contraste de fase y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Los estados inmaduros se capturaron con la ayuda de embudos Berlesse a partir de hidrófitas flotantes, de los géneros Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella y Spirodella (Lemnaceae de las lagunas Chascomús y Los Talas, ambas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. La larva presenta las características típicas de larvas carnívoras, se compara con la de Bezzia nobilis (Winnertz y con una especie similar del género Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. La pupa se compara con la de Bezzia blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.

  18. Description of Larva and redescription of Pupa and Adult of Palpomyia guarani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    María M. Ronderos

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Palpomyia guarani Lane, 1946 is described and illustrated by using a phase-contrast and Scanning Electron Microscope, and pupa and adult redescribed by using a phase-contrast stereoscope. Immatures were collected breeding in a tree hole in Bella Vista, Paraguay. Larvae have character states typical of carnivorous larvae. The species is compared with its similar congener Palpomyia columbiana Kieffer, and this record constitutes the first one from Paraguay.Se describe e ilustra la larva de Palpomyia guarani Lane, 1946 utilizando Microscopio de Contraste de Fase y Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido. Se redescriben pupa y adulto usando Microscopio de Contraste de Fase. Los estados inmaduros fueron capturados en Bella Vista, Paraguay, en hueco de árbol, donde se desarrollan. La larva presenta características típicas de larvas carnívoras. La especie se cita por primera vez para Paraguay, y es comparada con su similar cogenérica Palpomyia columbiana Kieffer.

  19. Note faunistique sur les Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae du Gouvernorat de Monastir (Tunisie

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    Chaker E.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available À la suite de l’arrivée de la fièvre catarrhale ovine (FCO en Tunisie, les auteurs rapportent les résultats de la première enquête effectuée dans le Gouvernorat de Monastir. Ils signalent la présence de neuf espèces de Culicoides dont trois sont nouvelles pour le pays (C. paolae, C. imicola, C. newsteadi, ce qui porte à 22 le nombre d’espèces actuellement connues.

  20. Blood Feeding Behavior of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infected Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection of Culicoides sonorensis affects subsequent blood feeding behavior, midges injected with either virus-infected or virus-free cell lysates were allowed to blood feed for short (10 min) or long (60 min) periods of time on days 2, 3, and 4...

  1. Additional notes on biting midges from the subtropical forest of northeastern Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Mahia M; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Funes, Amparo; Ronderos, María M

    2015-03-30

    Adult males and pupae of Culicoides guarani Ronderos & Spinelli and Parabezzia brasiliensis Spinelli & Grogan are fully described and illustrated with a modern criterium from material recently collected in the vicinities of the city of Posadas in Misiones province, Argentina. Both species are compared with their most similar congeners. Besides, Bezzia blantoni Spinelli & Wirth and B. brevicornis (Kieffer) are firstly recorded from Misiones province.

  2. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Dipterea: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra; Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    the species of the collected biting midges (GenBank accessions JQ683259-JQ683374). The blood meals were first screened with a species-specific cytochrome b primer pair for cow and if negative with a universal cytochrome b primer pair followed by sequencing to identify mammal or avian blood meal hosts. RESULTS...... and diversity of blood meals taken from vertebrate hosts in wild-caught Culicoides biting midges near livestock farms. METHODS: Biting midges were collected at weekly intervals for 20 weeks from May to October 2009 using light traps at four collection sites on the island Sealand, Denmark. Blood-fed female...... biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode) was applied to identify...

  3. Metamorphic changes in abdominal spines of Forcipomyia nigra pupae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Aleksandra; Richert, Malwina; Kapusta, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    Pupae of Forcipomyia nigra biting midges bear double rows of dorsal and lateral spines. Their arrangement corresponds to the distribution of larval mechanosensory setae. They are serrated simple cuticular structures with tubercles but, in contrast to larval secretory mechanoreceptors, they are not innervated and do not exhibit any pores. The ultrastructure of abdominal spines varies among different pupal stages. They are produced by epidermal cells which fill the interior of the spine. In the youngest pupae epidermal cells are tightly packed and adhere to the cuticle. Then, the cells withdraw from the spinal cavity and the beginning of autophagy is observed. The last stage represents abdominal spines without any cellular material and then apoptosis probably proceeds in the withdrawn epidermal cells. Since the pupal spines occupied the same region of the segment as the larval setae, we consider that the same genes are responsible for their formation as for the formation of epidermal cells but that their mechanosensory and secretory function is no longer needed.

  4. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and alternative to chemical control and, therefore, can be inducted in integrated management programs.

  5. Spatial abundance and clustering of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on a local scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Background Biting midges, Culicoides, of the Obsoletus group and the Pulicaris group have been involved in recent outbreaks of bluetongue virus and the former was also involved in the Schmallenberg virus outbreak in northern Europe. Methods For the first time, here we investigate the local...... abundance pattern of these two species groups in the field by intensive sampling with a grid of light traps on 16 catch nights. Neighboring trap catches can be spatially dependent on each other, hence we developed a conditional autoregressive (CAR) model framework to test a number of spatial and non......, and cluster locations shifted between catch nights. No significant temporal autocorrelation was detected. CAR models for both species groups identified a significant positive impact of humidity and significant negative impacts of precipitation and wind turbulence. Temperature was also found to be significant...

  6. Forcipomyia (Pterobosca) paludis (Macfie, 1936) (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) on adult dragonflies (Odonata) in Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Anna, L; Utzeri, C; Sabatini, A; Coluzzi, M

    1995-04-01

    Ceratopogonid midges, referred to Forcipomyia paludis, were recorded from five dragonfly species in Sardinia, Italy. All ceratopogonids were females and almost all were in the last phase of the gonotrophic cycle (gravid females). Although a parasitic association cannot be excluded, no evidence was obtained of the midge biting activity, neither by direct observation nor indirectly, by detecting the expected lesions on the host cuticle. The attachment to dragonflies of F. paludis (perhaps an autogenous species) might fit well with the hypothesis of a phoretic association which would favour the long range dispersal of the gravid females.

  7. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassen Sandra B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host preference studies in haematophagous insects e.g. Culicoides biting midges are pivotal to assess transmission routes of vector-borne diseases and critical for the development of veterinary contingency plans to identify which species should be included due to their risk potential. Species of Culicoides have been found in almost all parts of the world and known to live in a variety of habitats. Several parasites and viruses are transmitted by Culicoides biting midges including Bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. The aim of the present study was to determine the identity and diversity of blood meals taken from vertebrate hosts in wild-caught Culicoides biting midges near livestock farms. Methods Biting midges were collected at weekly intervals for 20 weeks from May to October 2009 using light traps at four collection sites on the island Sealand, Denmark. Blood-fed female biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode was applied to identify the species of the collected biting midges (GenBank accessions JQ683259-JQ683374. The blood meals were first screened with a species-specific cytochrome b primer pair for cow and if negative with a universal cytochrome b primer pair followed by sequencing to identify mammal or avian blood meal hosts. Results Twenty-four species of biting midges were identified from the four study sites. A total of 111,356 Culicoides biting midges were collected, of which 2,164 were blood-fed. Specimens of twenty species were identified with blood in their abdomens. Blood meal sources were successfully identified by DNA sequencing from 242 (76% out of 320 Culicoides specimens. Eight species of mammals and seven species of birds were identified as blood meal hosts. The most common host species was the cow, which constituted 77% of the identified blood meals. The second most numerous host species was the common wood pigeon, which constituted 6% of the identified blood meals. Conclusions Our results suggest that some Culicoides species are opportunistic and readily feed on a variety of mammals and birds, while others seems to be strictly mammalophilic or ornithophilic. Based on their number, dispersal potential and blood feeding behaviour, we conclude that Culicoides biting midges are potential vectors for many pathogens not yet introduced to Denmark.

  8. New records of Dasyhelea Kieffer, 1911 from Sweden, with descriptions of two new species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Strandberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on intensive collecting from various sites in Sweden, the genus Dasyhelea Kieffer, 1911 was reviewed and the number of species now known from the country increased from five to twenty. Among the new species recorded there are two species described as new to science, D. dominiakae sp. nov. and D. gothlandica sp. nov., both in the subgenus Dicryptoscena Enderlein, 1936. The following subgenera are now documented from Sweden: Dasyhelea, Dicryptoscena, Pseudoculicoides Malloch, 1915, Prokempia Kieffer, 1913 and Sebessia Remm, 1979, the two latter subgenera being reported for the first time.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of the antennal sensilla in female Culicoides paraensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Microscopia eletrônica de varredura das sensilas antenais em fêmeas de Culicoides paraensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Felippe-Bauer

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied by sanning electron microscopy the number, types, structure and distribution of the antennal sensilla of the medical important ceratopogonid Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi. There are about 174 sense organs on the antenmal flagellum which are classified as sensilla chaetica; sharp-tipped and blunt-tipped (type I and II sensilla trichodea; sensilla basiconica; sensilla coeloconica; sensilla ampullacea and styloconic-type sensilla. The role of antennal sensory organs are discussed regarding the host preference of the biting midges.Estudos sobre o número, tipo, estrutura e distribuição das sensilas antenais do ceratopogonídeo de importância médica, Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi, são realizados com microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Encontram-se aproximadamente 174 órgãos sensoriais no flagelo, os quais são classificados em sensila caética; sensila trichoidea, de ápice afilado e de ápice curvo (tipoI e II; sensila basicônica; sensila ampulácea e sensila do tipo estilocônica. É discutido o papel dos órgãos sensoriais da antena na relação Culicoides/hospedeiro.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of the antennal sensilla in female Culicoides paraensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Microscopia eletrônica de varredura das sensilas antenais em fêmeas de Culicoides paraensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Felippe-Bauer; P. G. Bauer; F. C. Silva Filho

    1989-01-01

    We studied by sanning electron microscopy the number, types, structure and distribution of the antennal sensilla of the medical important ceratopogonid Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi). There are about 174 sense organs on the antenmal flagellum which are classified as sensilla chaetica; sharp-tipped and blunt-tipped (type I and II) sensilla trichodea; sensilla basiconica; sensilla coeloconica; sensilla ampullacea and styloconic-type sensilla. The role of antennal sensory organs are discussed reg...

  11. Redescription of the last instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Redescripción del último estadio larval y de la pupa de Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    Maria M. Ronderos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The fourth instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth is redescribed and illustrated by using phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Immatures were collected by placing floating hydrophytes of the genera Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella and Spirodella (Lemnaceae in Berlesse funnels. The hydrophytes were collected in the Chascomús and Los Talas ponds, both in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The larva show features typical of carnivorous larvae, and it is compared with that of B. nobilis (Winnertz and with a similar species of the genus Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. The pupa is compared with its similar congener B. blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.Se redescribe e ilustra el último estadio larval y la pupa de Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth, utilizando microscopio de contraste de fase y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Los estados inmaduros se capturaron con la ayuda de embudos Berlesse a partir de hidrófitas flotantes, de los géneros Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella y Spirodella (Lemnaceae de las lagunas Chascomús y Los Talas, ambas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. La larva presenta las características típicas de larvas carnívoras, se compara con la de Bezzia nobilis (Winnertz y con una especie similar del género Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. La pupa se compara con la de Bezzia blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.

  12. Fly proof net shed for livestock: A novel concept of physical barrier for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An age old and time tested technique of mosquito net requiring no energy, used by humans since prehistoric period was the inspiration behind this novel technique of fly proof net shed for livestock. With the aim to develop similar type of net shed for animals, which will protect them at night from biting of range of insects from Culicoides midges to mosquitoes, research was undertaken. Materials and Methods: Net shed with pitch roof (gable type was erected for use of livestock. The open inlet area was covered with 40 mesh size wire net. The roof at attic level was fitted with hurricane type of ventilator. Shed was used for animals at night hours only. vane anemometer was used for estimation of temperature and wind related parameters. Thermal humidity index (THI and air changes were calculated as per the standard formulas. Based on these parameters suitability of shed was judged. Results: It was observed that, due to netting of the shed population of Culicoides and other flies and incidences of their bites at night hours were considerably lowered. As a result, animals were found comfortable, and their body movements undertaken for wiping off these flies were significantly reduced from 196.50 to 22.16. All it accrued to increased milk yield to the tune of 18.97% in the net shed buffaloes as against control shed. Studies on suitability and comfort to animals were tested by estimating THI and air changes per hour in the net shed, which also revealed the estimates in comfortable regimen and ventilation, remained not much affected despite of netting. Other parameters studied for testing its more accuracy by taking other species of animals as kids, for them also, shed was found suitable through estimation of various physiological and behavioral parameters. Finally, the efficacy of shed was judged on the basis of cost effectiveness. Highly encouraging results on the above said parameters endorsed the effectiveness of the technique. Conclusion: A net shed with pitch roof (gable type fitted with hurricane type ventilator at its top serves the purpose of a physical barrier to minimize host-pest contact. Observations recorded in the experiment are sound enough to conclude and to recommend the use of net shed for livestock.

  13. Culicoides (Avaritia) gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) a possible vector species of the Obsoletus group new to the European fauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Dominiak, Patrycja

    2014-01-01

    Culicoides gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984, known previously only from Siberia, is a boreal species included into the Obsoletus group of Culicoides sg. Avaritia. Members of the subgenus can act as vectors of various diseases. In Europe they are involved in the transmission of the Schmallenberg virus...... and bluetongue virus. Culicoides gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984 is reported for the first time in Europe with new country records from Norway, Poland and Sweden. Culicoides gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984 has not been previously mentioned from Europe, even though there has been an extensive monitoring of Culicoides...

  14. The Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Is Capable of Developing Late Stage Infections of Leishmania enriettii.

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    Veronika Seblova

    Full Text Available Despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the Leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the L. enriettii complex in Australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus Culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date.Females from colonies of the midges Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and C. sonorensis Wirth & Jones and the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Nevia (Diptera: Psychodidae were experimentally infected with two different species of Leishmania, originating from Australia (Leishmania sp. AM-2004 and Brazil (Leishmania enriettii. In addition, the infectivity of L. enriettii infections generated in guinea pigs and golden hamsters for Lu. longipalpis and C. sonorensis was tested by xenodiagnosis. Development of L. enriettii in Lu. longipalpis was relatively poor compared to other Leishmania species in this permissive vector. Culicoides nubeculosus was not susceptible to infection by parasites from the L. enriettii complex. In contrast, C. sonorensis developed late stage infections with colonization of the thoracic midgut and the stomodeal valve. In hamsters, experimental infection with L. enriettii led only to mild symptoms, while in guinea pigs L. enriettii grew aggressively, producing large, ulcerated, tumour-like lesions. A high proportion of C. sonorensis (up to 80% feeding on the ears and nose of these guinea pigs became infected.We demonstrate that L. enriettii can develop late stage infections in the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis. This midge was found to be susceptible to L. enriettii to a similar degree as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum in South America. Our results support the hypothesis that some biting midges could be natural vectors of the L. enriettii complex because of their vector competence, although not Culicoides sonorensis itself, which is not sympatric, and midges should be assessed in the field while searching for vectors of related Leishmania species including L. martiniquensis and "L. siamensis".

  15. Two new species and new records of biting midges of the genus Culicoides from northwestern Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Gustavo Ricardo; Aybar, Cecilia Veggiani; Juri, María Julia Dantur; de Grosso, Mercedes Lizarralde; Marino, Pablo Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The following two new species of Culicoides from the Argentinean Yungas are described, illustrated and placed to subgenus or species group and compared with related congeners: Culicoides calchaqui Spinelli & Veggiani Aybar and Culicoides willinki Spinelli & Veggiani Aybar. Culicoides daedaloides Wirth & Blanton is recorded for the first time for Argentina and Culicoides pseudoheliconiae Felippe-Bauer is firstly mentioned from the northwestern region of the country. PMID:23903973

  16. Quantifying Dispersal of European Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Vectors between Farms Using a Novel Mark-Release-Recapture Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) as marking agent without anaesthesia. Using a plate scanner, this detection technique can be used to analyse thousands of individual Culicoides specimens per day at a reasonable cost. We marked and released an estimated 853 specimens of the Pulicaris group and 607...... specimens were recaptured. The two recaptured Obsoletus group specimens were caught at the release point on the night following release. Eight (29%) of the recaptured Pulicaris group specimens were caught at a pig farm 1,750 m upwind from the release point. Five of these were recaptured on the night...... following release and the three other were recaptured on the second night after release. This is the first time that movement of Culicoides vectors between farms in Europe has been directly quantified. The findings suggest an extensive and rapid exchange of disease vectors between farms. Rapid movement...

  17. A new species of predaceous midge in the Patagonian genus Austrosphaeromias with a redescription of A. chilensis (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

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    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of predaceous midge, Austrosphaeromias setosa sp. nov., is described and illustrated from adult males and females collected in the Patagonian-Andean region of Argentina and Chile. Based on examination of the type species of Austrosphaeromias Spinelli, 1997 and recently collected specimens from near the type-locality, the female and previously unknown male of Austrosphaeromias chilensis (Ingram & Macfie, 1931 are also described and illustrated. Descriptions are accompanied by color photographs and illustrations of key features of females and males of both species. We also provide a key to adult females and males of the four species of Austrosphaeromias.

  18. Molecular differentiation of the Old World Culicoides imicola species complex (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), inferred using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, F; Meiswinkel, R; Gomulski, L M; Guglielmino, C R; Mellor, P S; Malacrida, A R; Gasperi, G

    2001-07-01

    Samples of seven of the 10 morphological species of midges of the Culicoides imicola complex were considered. The importance of this species complex is connected to its vectorial capacity for African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and bluetongue virus (BTV). Consequently, the risk of transmission may vary dramatically, depending upon the particular cryptic species present in a given area. The species complex is confined to the Old World and our samples were collected in Southern Africa, Madagascar and the Ivory Coast. Genomic DNA of 350 randomly sampled individual midges from 19 populations was amplified using four 20-mer primers by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. One hundred and ninety-six interpretable polymorphic bands were obtained. Species-specific RAPD profiles were defined and for five species diagnostic RAPD fragments were identified. A high degree of polymorphism was detected in the species complex, most of which was observed within populations (from 64 to 76%). Principal coordinate analysis (PCO) and cluster analysis provided an estimate of the degree of variation between and within populations and species. There was substantial concordance between the taxonomies derived from morphological and molecular data. The amount and the different distributions of genetic (RAPD) variation among the taxa can be associated to their life histories, i.e. the abundance and distribution of the larval breeding sites and their seasonality.

  19. Prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock in Marathwada region of Maharashtra State

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    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study is a part of a research project on integrated pest management of livestock pests with reference to Culicoides spp. Study of prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences are the important benchmarks essential for chalking out the strategies of integrated pest management of Culicoides, thus the study was aimed. Materials and Methods: Light trap collections of Culicoides midges and other tiny flies from animal shed from seventeen centers representing entire Maharashtra state were conducted. Similarly, year round collections from host sheds were envisaged to work out host preferences and population dynamics of Culicoides spp. locally prevalent. Multiple regression analysis was employed to define the environmental predictors responsible for ups and downs during different seasons occurring in the geographic region of the present study. Results: Study revealed the prevalence of Culicoides spp., Phlebotomus spp. and Simulium spp. Simultaneous study undertaken by the aid of hand net, collections of fly species from Marathwada region of Maharashtra state yielded additionally, Tabanus spp., Pangonia spp., mosquitoes and other cyclorrhaphan flies. Some of the species are vectors of livestock diseases hence map of the distribution of these pest species is for to reckon risk areas. Population dynamics study on Culicoides spp. in Marathwada region indicated that, (a Culicoides population were persistent throughout the year; (b Two peaks of population, one in the monsoon (August-September and another minor peak occurred during post monsoon/beginning of winter (November of the year. Drastic reduction in the population occurred during the month of May, which is the hottest month in the year. Culicoides collections from the sheds of different host species indicated the preferences for feeding in the ascending order of preference as cattle, sheep, buffaloes and then goats. Conclusion: Prevalence of Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides peregrinus and Culicoides actoni was occurred in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra along with other haematophagus flies. Seasonal population dynamic studies depicted two peaks in the Culicoides population, and peak population observed during the monsoon season. Study on the parameters is essential for the preparation of prediction models and forecasting.

  20. Description of Culicoides pseudoheliconiae sp.n. from Peruvian Amazon and revalidation of Culicoides contubernalis Ortiz & Leon (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    Maria Luiza Felippe-Bauer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Culicoides hylas species group, Culicoides pseudoheliconiae Felippe-Bauer is described and illustrated based on female specimens from Peruvian Amazon, and Culicoides contubernalis Ortiz & Leon from Ecuador is resurrected and redescribed as a valid species. A systematic key, table with numerical characters of females of species of the Culicoides hylas group are given.

  1. Primera cita de Culicoides paradoxalis Ramilo & Delécolle, 2013 (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae en España

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    Sánchez Murillo, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ceratopogonid Culicoides paradoxalis Ramilo & Delécolle, 2013 is recorded for the first time in Spain based on reliable morphological evidence according to the previous descriptions of other authors. A total of 438 females (349 nulliparous and 89 parous and a single male were collected with CDC miniature light traps at three different livestock-associated locations in Extremadura Autonomous Community (Spain in 2014. Most specimens were captured between June and August, suggesting a univoltine pattern for this species extended over summer and early autumn. Although the number of collections of C. paradoxalis is low in comparison with the dominant species, the occurrence of this species in monitoring surveillance programs should deserve specific attention in order to estimate the accurate ratio of potential vectors unmistakably. Interesting information about the period of flight and illustrated morphological features are presented for C. paradoxalis in the current paper.Se cita por primera vez en España el ceratopogónido Culicoides paradoxalis Ramilo & Delécolle, 2013, basándose en evidencias morfológicas de acuerdo a las descripciones previas de otros autores. Un total de 438 hembras (349 nulíparas y 89 paras y un macho se recolectaron con minitrampas de luz CDC en tres localidades ganaderas en la Comunidad Autónoma de Extremadura (España en 2014. La mayor parte de los especímenes fueron capturados entre junio y agosto, mostrando un único período de vuelo que se extendió durante todo el verano y principios del otoño. Aunque el número de capturas de C. paradoxalis es reducido en comparación con los Culicoides dominantes, la aparición de esta nueva especie merece especial atención en los programas de vigilancia entomológica con el fin de estimar inequívocamente la proporción exacta de vectores potenciales. Se presenta en este artículo información de interés sobre el período de vuelo así como fotografías de las características morfológicas de C. paradoxalis.

  2. BLOOD-SUCKING MIDGES FROM THE GENUS Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) ACT AS FILED VECTORS OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DISEASES (review)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue and Shmallenberg diseases, the arboviral infections of ruminants, caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV) of Orbivirus genus (Reoviridae) and so-called Shmallenberg virus (SBV) preliminarily attributed as a member of Orthobunyavirus genus (Bunyaviridae), respectively, are mainly transmitted by blood-sucking midges from Culicoides genus. They are widely distributed, with a total of over 80 species documented in Russia (V.M. Glukhova, 1989), including the Far North territories. Of them, a t...

  3. PCR identification of culicoid biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae of the Obsoletus complex including putative vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses

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    Lehmann Kathrin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biting midges of the Obsoletus species complex of the ceratopogonid genus Culicoides were assumed to be the major vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV in northern and central Europe during the 2006 outbreak of bluetongue disease (BT. Most recently, field specimens of the same group of species have also been shown to be infected with the newly emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV in Europe. A reliable identification of the cryptic species of this group is fundamental for both understanding the epidemiology of the diseases and for targeted vector control. In the absence of classical morphological characters unambiguously identifying the species, DNA sequence-based tests have been established for the distinction of selected species in some parts of Europe. Since specificity and sensitivity of these tests have been shown to be in need of improvement, an alternative PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI gene was developed for the identification of the three Obsoletus complex species endemic to Germany (C. obsoletus, C. scoticus, C. chiopterus plus the isomorphic species C. dewulfi. Methods Biting midges of the genus Culicoides caught by UV light traps all over Germany were morphologically pre-identified to species or complex level. The COI region was amplified from their extracted DNA and sequenced. Final species assignment was done by sequence comparison to GenBank entries and to morphologically identified males. Species-specific consensus sequences were aligned and polymorphisms were utilized to design species-specific primers to PCR-identify specimens when combined with a universal primer. Results The newly developed multiplex PCR assay was successfully tested on genetically defined Obsoletus complex material as well as on morphologically pre-identified field material. The intended major advantage of the assay as compared to other PCR approaches, namely the production of only one single characteristic band for each species, could be realized with high specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion To elucidate the biological characteristics of potential vectors of disease agents, such as ecology, behaviour and vector competence, and the role of these haematophagous arthropods in the epidemiology of the diseases, simple, cost-effective and, most importantly, reliable identification techniques are necessary. The PCR assay presented will help to identify culicoid vector species and therefore add to bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease research including vector control and monitoring.

  4. Comparative descriptions of the pupae of five species of the Culicoides imicola complex (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae from South Africa

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    Hilda Nevill

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The viruses causing the economically important livestock diseases of African horse sickness (AHS and bluetongue (BT are transmitted by biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera, Cerato po gonidae. In the Old World the most important vectors of these diseases are Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, Culicoides brevitarsis Kieffer, 1917 and Culicoides bolitinos Meiswinkel, 1989. All three of these vectors belong to the Imicola complex of the subgenus Avaritia Fox, 1955. This species complex now comprises 12 sibling species; ten occur in sub-Saharan Africa and are difficult to identify (based mostly on subtle variations in the wing patterns and so additional methods of reliable identification are needed. The pupal exuviae of the five commonest sibling species (C. imicola, C. bolitinos, Culicoides loxodontis Meiswinkel, 1992, Culicoides tuttifrutti Meiswinkel, Cornet & Dyce, 2003 and Culicoides sp. # 107 harvested from a variety of large herbivore dung types and from decaying fruits, are described and illustrated in detail. It is shown that they can be differentiated clearly on a number of morphological characters and, furthermore, are separable into two distinct groups based (principally on the shape of the respiratory organ. A key for identifying and differentiating these five pupae is provided. Also, the pupa of the Oriental-Australasian C. brevitarsis was compared with its allopatric sister taxon, C. bolitinos. Because they share a common larval habitat (cattle and buffalo dung and are almost inseparable in the adult phenotype, the question of their possible synonymy is raised. However, their respective pupae could not be differentiated on gross morphology and so it is argued that this unresolved problem requires a molecular solution.

  5. Culicoides latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in brazilian amazon. V: efficiency of traps and baits and vertical stratification in the forest reserve adolpho ducke

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    Rosana S. Veras

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly catches were carried out during five days/month in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (Manaus, Amazonas, from February 1990 to January 1991 in order to assess the sandfly fauna of that region, evaluate the atractivity of these insects with regard to different kinds of traps and baits and to know vertical stratification of these insects. The traps and baits used in catches were: Disney traps with baits: Didelphis sp., Gallus sp. and Mesocricetus sp.; CDC light traps at three vertical levels (1m, 5m and 10m; Suspended trap (5m and Malaise trap (1m and catches on bases of tree-trunks. The most efficient type was the CDC. Malaise and Suspended did not collect specimens of Culicoides Latreille, 1809. The Disney traps with baits only attracted specimens of C. fusipalpis Wirth & Blanton, 1973. In vertical stratification, the CDC trap placed at 1m caught 898 specimens of nine species; at 5m 895 specimens were collected which belonged to 13 species; and at 10m 224 specimens of 14 species were collected. Two thousand and forty-six specimens of Culicoides were captured, being about 5,66% males and 94,34% females, which belonged to 17 different species; the most frequent were C. fusipalpis (43,05%, followed by C. pseudodiabolicus Fox, 1946 (32,79%, C. hylas Macfie, 1940 (12,31% and C. foxi Ortiz, 1950 (3,71%. The other 13 species totalized 8,15%.

  6. Delineation of Culicoides species by morphology and barcode exemplified by three new species of the subgenus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    on three potentially new species. Methods Biting midges were collected at various sites in Denmark and Sweden. Culicoides specimens were described by variation of a fragment of their cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene sequence and wing, palp and antennal characters. Results It is shown that three...

  7. Molecular differentiation of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the subgenus Culicoides Latreille in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, S. B.; Nielsen, S. Achim; Skovgård, H.;

    2012-01-01

    complexes are hard to distinguish. We evaluated the use of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) barcode region in the identification of species within the subgenus Culicoides. COI barcode sequence divergence within species was ... impunctatus, and Culicoides grisescens. Additionally, this study confirms the existence of Culicoides halophilus as a valid taxon and presents the first Culicoides deltus barcode sequences. Three additional groups of specimens were identified: Culicoides dk1 with a COI barcode diverging by 14.3% to 17.2% from...... other subgenus Culicoides species and Culicoides Kalix and Culicoides dk3, which diverged by 5.9% from each other and showed 12.5% to 17.6% divergence in COI barcode to subgenus Culicoides specimens....

  8. A key, based on wing patterns of biting midges (genus Culicoides Latreille - Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in the Iberian Peninsula, for use in epidemiological studies

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    Rawlings, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of vectors of disease are often required speedily in epidemiological studies but with a precision which excludes as many other species as possible. Identification keys usually require the examination of many different parts of the suspected vector to pinpoint the species. This consumes considerable time and resources, so epidemiologists tend to ignore them. Asimplified approach to identification is proposed, using the characteristics of a single part of the body (the wings of biting midges of the genus Culicoides. The level of differentiation was epidemiologically valuable. The monoclave could not differentiate all the species from each other but more than one third (20/58 of identifications were for single species, and a further 12/58 identifications gave only two possibilities, making 55.2% of identifications to an accuracy of at most one of two species. The diagnosis of vector species was reached in a maximum of six decision points. The only notable exception to valuable differentiation was the four species in the Culicoides obsoletus group which had almost identical female wing patterns. The ready availability of simple keys, which can be used by anyone without formal training in taxonomy, for all the species of a group in a region should encourage greater standardisation of identifications in all studies, including those not primarily aimed at systematics. These monoclaves can also serve as the primary tools to build computerised image-recognition systems for genera, families and orders of insects.Con frequencia en los estudios epidemiológicos hace falta conocer con rapidez, pero también con precisión, la identidad de los vectores. Por lo general los procedimientos de identificación y las claves exigen el examen de un elevado número de partes diferentes del vector sospechoso. Este enfoque consume mucho tiempo y recursos por lo que tiende a ser evitado por los epidemiólogos. Se propone un sistema simplificado para la identificación, el cual utiliza las caracteristicas de sólo una parte del cuerpo (las alas de los ceratopogónidos del género Culicoides. El nivel de diferenciación es bueno (55.2% de las 58 especies presentes y abarca casi todas las especies implicadas en la transmisión de virus y otros agentes patógenos de animales en la Península Ibérica. El diagnóstico de una especie precisa un máximo de seis criterios. La única excepción importante la constituyen las cuatro especies del grupo Culicoides obsoletus, las hembras de las cuales muestran un diseño alar casi idéntico. La utilización de claves sencillas debería proporcionar una mejor estandarización de la identificación en todos los estudios, incluso los realizados por no sistemáticos. Estas claves pueden servir como el instrumento más importante para desarrollar sistemas informáticos de reconocimiento de géneros, familias y especies de insectos por medio de imágenes.

  9. Description of the last instar larva and new contributions to the knowledge of the pupa of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya (Diptera, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogonidae

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    FLORENTINA DÍAZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fourth instar larva of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya is described for the first time and a complete description of the pupa is provided, through use of phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Studied specimens were collected in a pond connected to a small wetland "mallin" on the Patagonian steppe, Chubut province, Argentina.

  10. Description and comparison of the pupae of a further two Culicoides (Avaritia species from the dung of large herbivores in South Africa (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    Hilda Nevill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 Nevill, Venter, Meiswinkel & Nevill demonstrated that the pupae of five Culicoides species belonging to the Imicola complex of the subgenus Avaritia could readily be differentiated from one another using various morphological characters. Three of the described species, Culicoides bolitinos Meiswinkel 1989; Culicoides loxodontis Meiswinkel 1992 and Culicoides sp. # 107 (= C. kwagga, Meiswinkel, unpublished thesis 1995, were reared from the dung of large herbivores, which included buffaloes, elephants, white and black rhinoceroses and zebras. However, during that study a further two Avaritia species, neither of which belonged to the Imicola complex, were reared from dung and these are the subject of the present study. For the past 20 years the adults of these two new closely related species have been known as Culicoides sp. # 54 pale form (p.f. Meiswinkel and Culicoides sp. # 54 dark form (d.f. Meiswinkel. The taxonomic description and formal naming of the adults of these two species has yet to be done. The present description and comparison of their pupae show that they are two clearly distinct species; that there is no group of morphological characters that can be used to differentiate these two species from the previously described five species of the Imicola complex; and finally that there was no difference between the pupae of C. sp. # 54 d.f. nor C. sp. # 54 p.f. reared from the dung of different host animals.

  11. Biting midges of the subfamily Forcipomyiinae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Middle East, with keys and descriptions of new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin-Kownacka, Alicja; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Szwedo, Jacek

    2016-10-05

    Middle East biting midges of the genera Atrichopogon Kieffer and Forcipomyia Meigen, subfamily Forcipomyiinae Lenz, covering 41 species are reviewed. Two new species are described and illustrated: Forcipomyia (F.) siverekensis Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. and Forcipomyia (Microhelea) borkenti Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. The list includes 16 species of Atrichopogon and 25 of Forcipomyia. Nine species previously described by Vimmer and Kieffer from the Middle East are treated as nomina dubia and not included in the list.        Keys to identification of Atrichopogon and Forcipomyia species of the Middle East are also provided.

  12. Is the morphology of Culicoides intersexes parasitized by mermithid nematodes a parasite adaptation? A morphometric approach to Culicoides circumscriptus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Ramoneda, Josep; Pagès, Nonito; Pujol, Nuria; Talavera, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    Mermithidae is a family of endoparasitic nematodes known to cause intersexuality in arthropods. Intersexes of the genus Culicoides parasitized by mermithids have been the object of several studies aiming to describe their particular morphology. Culicoides intersexes are specimens with male genitalia and feminized sexually dimorphic structures, i.e. antennae, mouthparts and wings. To date, these specimens have only been described qualitatively and a quantitative approach supported by statistical analysis is lacking. Here we conduct morphometric analyses of sexually dimorphic structures in a sample of Culicoides circumscriptus that includes 34 intersexes with the aim of describing precisely the intersexual morphology. The morphology of antennae and the mouthparts was studied by multivariate statistical analysis of linear measures, and wing form by implementing geometric morphometrics techniques. While intersex wings proved to have a similar size to male wings, their shape was intermediate between males and females. However, when allometric shape variation was removed, the wing shape of intersexes was almost identical to that of females. The intersex antennae were morphometrically of the female type, especially when size variation was considered. In contrast, the measured mouthparts (the labrum and the third palpal segment) were halfway between males and females, even when body size was considered. Overall, the antennae and the wings showed a higher degree of feminization than the mouthparts. These findings indicate that the degree of feminization depends both on the morphological structure and on body size. Moreover, we propose that the feminization of the wings and antennae has an adaptive meaning for the parasite, which would favor female-like traits in order to access more easily its breeding sites, where the parasite has plenty of new hosts to infect. Female-like antennae would be beneficial to detect these sites, while having female-like wings would favor the host's capacity of dispersal to these sites.

  13. Screening of oomycete fungi for their potential role in reducing the biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) larval populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Kirsty; Kurtböke, D Ipek

    2011-05-01

    Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region.

  14. Screening of Oomycete Fungi for Their Potential Role in Reducing the Biting Midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Larval Populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ipek Kurtböke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region.

  15. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Culicoides brevitarsis Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), the principal vector of bluetongue virus in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, A H; McCorkell, B

    2014-06-01

    Four isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae were tested for their potential to control the biting midge Culicoides brevitarsis, the principal vector of bluetongue virus in Australia. Adult C. brevitarsis died three to eight days after walking on paper substrate treated with 0.7 g/m(2) conidia of any of the isolates, indicating that M. anisopliae has potential as a surface treatment or topical application control strategy. Incorporation of the fungus into freshly excreted cattle dung at rates of between 0.25 and 1 g conidia/kg reduced the emergence of adult midges by up to 98.5% compared to untreated dung indicating that M. anisopliae has the potential to control C. brevitarsis larvae in cattle dung. Three of the isolates produced similar mortality rates on adult and immature C. brevitarsis while the fourth isolate produced lower, but still significant, mortality rates on adult and immature stages.

  16. A simple trapping method to estimate abundances of blood-sucking flying insects in avian nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomás, G.; Merino, S.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Moreno, J.; Morales, J.; Lobato, E.

    2008-01-01

    [KEYWORDS: birds; biting midges; blackflies; blood parasite-insect vector-vertebrate host relationships; Ceratopogonidae; Culicoides; distance to water sources; insecticide treatment; sampling methods; Simuliidae

  17. Two new species and a new record of biting midges from Emei Mountain, China (Ceratopogonidae, Diptera)%峨嵋山发现蠓类二新种及一新纪录(双翅目:蠓科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓成玉; 廖忠友; 张有植; 莫东平; 虞以新

    2011-01-01

    The present paper deals with two new species and a new record of biting midges from Mt. Emei, Emei County,Sichuan Province, China. All specimens were collected with net trap during Sept. 15-29 , 2010 from Mt. Emei ( 29. 5°N,103. 3°E ), Sichuan Province, and are deposited in the Collection of Medical Entomology of Beijing Institution of Microbiology and Epidemiology ( 20 Dongdajie Ave. , Fengtai Dis. , Beijing 100071 , China ).1 Atrichopogon emeiensis Deng, Liao et Yu, sp. nov. ♂ ( Fig. 1 )Compound eyes bare, wing length 2. 07 mm, width 0. 55 mm. Scutellum with 6 long bristles, hind tibia with 9 terminal bristles.This new species is quite specific in very short antenna segment 15 , differing distinctly from that of other species of the genus. The new species is closely allied to Atrichopogon schizonyx Giles et Wirth, 1982 and Atrichopogon setosilateralis Borkent et Picado, 2004 , but eyes are pubescent in the allied species, distinctly differing from the new species.Type: holotype ♂ .2 Stilobezzia lijiangi Yu, Zhang et Mo, sp. nov. ♂♀ ( Fig. 2 )Compound eyes bare, wing unmarked, surface without macrotrichia; length ♂ 1. 09 mm, ♀ 1. 15 mm;width ♂ 0. 32 mm ♀ 0. 45 mm, Scutellum with 4 long bristles, hind tibia with 5 terminal bristles.The male of new species is somewhat related to Stilobezzia blaesopira Yu et Deng, 2005. and St. unifaciatus Tokunaga, 1963 , especially in the aedeagus, but distinctly different from the related species in the wing surface without macrotrichia and mid leg TR >3. Types: holotype ♂ , paratype ♀ .3 Stilobezzia robusta Das Gupta et Wirth, 1968 ( Fig. 3 ) New record in China. Material exanmined : 1 ♂ .Distribution : Malaysia ; China.%2010年9月中下旬在四川省峨眉县峨眉山(29.5°N,103.3°E)西南麓进行了挥网采集,获得蠓类2亚科10属11种,其中有2个新种:峨眉裸蠓(Atrichopogon emeiensis Deng,Liao et Yu sp.nov.)和李江柱蠓(Stilobezzia lijiangi Yu,Zhang et Mo,sp.nov.);以及1种我国新纪录:柔软柱蠓(Stilobezzia robusta Das Gupta et Wirth).同时发现趋光蠛蠓(La.phototropia Yu et Liu)雄虫和泸定毛蠓(Dasyhelea ludingensis)的雌虫在黄昏时分参与雄性摇蚊的群舞团.本文描述新种模式标本都收藏于军事医学科学院微生物流行病研究所医学昆虫标本馆.

  18. Three new Scandinavian species of Culicoides (Culicoides): “C.boyi sp. nov., C.selandicus sp. nov. and C.kalix sp. nov. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael; Pape, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the context of a major monitoring program of Culicoides in Denmark and Sweden due to the appearance of bluetongue disease in 2007-2008, a large number of specimens were collected by light traps and sorted morphologically, with COI barcodes generated for selected specimens. NEW INFO...

  19. Understanding and exploiting olfaction for the surveillance and control of Culicoides biting midges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are found worldwide with the exception of only a few countries including New Zealand, Patagonia, the Hawaiian Isles and Antarctica. They are a nuisance pest to human beings, but transmit a number of diseases that mainly affect livestock. Like many haema...

  20. Phenotypic differentiation and phylogenetic signal of wing shape in western European biting midges, Culicoides spp., of the subgenus Avaritia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Muñoz, F.; Talavera, S.; Carpenter, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade biting midges of the subgenus Avaritia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have been popular subjects of applied entomological studies in Europe owing to their implication as biological vectors in outbreaks of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. This study uses a combination of cytoch...

  1. Evaluation of Propane Combustion Traps for the Collection of Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Southern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Ceratopogonidae) biting midges (Cilek and Hallmon 2005, Cilek et al. 2003) in the U.S.; some Lutzomyia have been collaterally collected. To our...Ashbel 1951). Average daily temperature is 20° C from the end of September to Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public

  2. Environmental Baseline Studies of St. Marys River Near Neebish Island, Michigan, Prior to Proposed Extension of Navigation Season, 1981. Great Lakes- St. Lawrence Seaway, Navigation Season Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Polycentropus sp. 7 32 Hydroptila sp. 0 14 Trianodes sp. 7 32 COLEOPTERA Haliplus sp. 7 0 ODONATA Enallagma sp. 0 32 LEPIDOPTERA Nymphula sp. 21 0...21 ODONATA Enallagma sp. 0 112 LEPIDOPTERA Paraponyx sp. 0 7 DIPTERA Ceratopogonidae 56 0 Chironomidae Ablabesmyia sp. 0 630 tlinotanypus sp. 0 43...TrichocorIxa sp. 56 0 Sigara sp. 7 77 ODONATA Enallagma sp. 0 121 LEPIDOPTERA Paraponyx sp. 0 7 Nymphula sp. 0 7 Continued 223 Table A8. Continued STATION

  3. Community Structure in the Amber Forest: Study of the Arthropod Syninclusia in the Rovno Amber(Late Eocene of Ukraine)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evgeny E.PERKOVSKY; Alexandr P.RASNITSYN; Anatoly P.VLASKIN; Sergej P.RASNITSYN

    2010-01-01

    Arthropodan syninclusions in the Late Eocene Rovno amber were examined using x2 to reveal correlation of the component groups(some taxa of Diptera,ants,aphids,and mites)supposedly indicative of the biocoenotic relationships in the ancient amber forest.Three tightly correlated groups were identified,representing a putative aerial plankton guild(Chironomidae+Ceratopogonidae)and two tree-trunk guilds,one of which(Dolichopodidae+Germaraphis)is possibly connected to more open or/and more hygrophilous habitats than the other(Sciara zone Diptera+"Acarus"rhombeus).The ants were not linked with any of the above components.

  4. Insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura, Patagonia, Argentina. Inventario preliminar Aquatic insects from Somuncura plateau, Patagonia, Argentina. Preliminary inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Muzón

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Se brinda un inventario preliminar de los insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura y su área de influencia (Patagonia, Argentina realizado sobre la base de colecciones y registros previos de especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (familias Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae y Psychodidae y Coleoptera. Se han relevado diversos tipos de ambientes en 14 localidades. El número de especies registrado asciende a 78, agrupadas en 51 géneros y 26 familias, de las cuales 33 se citan por primera vez del área. De los taxa registrados 83% de los géneros corresponden a grupos de amplia distribución (neotropicales, americanos o cosmopolitas, mientras que 41% de las especies presentan una distribución patagónica o andina.ABSTRACT. A preliminary inventory of the aquatic insects from the Somuncura plateau and its area of influence (Patagonia, Argentina is presented. It was done on the basis of the study of collections and previous records of species belonging to the orders Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (families Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae, and Psychodidae and Coleoptera. Different kinds of environments were surveyed in 14 localities. Seventy eigth species grouped in 51 genera and 26 families were registered, and 33 species are new records for the area. Eighty three % of the registered genera are widely distributed (neotropical, american or cosmopolitan, while 41 % of the species exhibit patagonic or andean distribution.

  5. MACROZOOBENTHIC COMMUNITIES STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTIC OF CERTAIN TRIBUTARIES OF THE SIRET RIVER FROM HARGHITA, MARAMUREŞ AND VRANCEA MOUNTAINS AND MOLDOVEI PLATEAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Andreea GHIBUŞI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 qualitative macrozoobentonic samples were collected in 2011 from many Siret river tributaries coming from the Harghita Mountains (5 stations, Maramureş Mountains (14 stations, Moldavian Plateau (4 stations and Vrancea Mountains (12 stations. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed the existence of the following 15 groups of benthic invertebrates: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, Diptera (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Limoniidae, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Coleoptera, Acarina, Odonata, Hirudinea, Isopoda, Heteroptera, Turbellariata and Collembola. Groups that have the highest frequencies were mayflies and dipterans (each with a frequency of 97.1%, followed by caddisflies (80%, amphipods (68.6%, oligochaetes (57.1% and stoneflies (54.3%. Presence of sensitive groups to water quality degradation (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera with high frequency shows good quality water at most stations investigated.

  6. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  7. Behavioral and catastrophic drift of invertebrates in two streams in northeastern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.; Peterson, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Invertebrate drift samples were collected in August 1977 from two streams in the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming. The streams are Clear Creek, a mountain stream, and the Little Powder River, a plains stream. Two major patterns of drift were recognized. Clear Creek was sampled during a period of normal seasonal conditions. High drift rates occurred during the night indicating a behavioral drift pattern that is related to the benthic invertebrate density and carrying capacity of the stream substrates. The mayfly genes Baetis, a common drift organism, dominated the peak periods of drift in Clear Creek. The Little Powder River has a high discharge during the study period. Midge larvae of the families Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae, ususally not common in drift, dominated the drift community. The dominance of midge larvae, the presence of several other organisms not common in drift, and the high discharge during the study period caused a catastrophic drift pattern. (USGS)

  8. Culicoides biting midges at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labuschagne

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae are responsible for the transmission of a large number of pathogens to livestock and wild animals. In this study the presence of the genus, using light traps based at four different sites within the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, was investigated during 2002-2004. In total, 37 species were recorded, including large numbers of Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, which is responsible for the transmission of economically important arboviruses in South Africa, Europe, Middle and Far East. These results are discussed with reference to the wider Culicoides fauna in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa, their vector competence as well as biosecurity at the National Zoological Gardens.

  9. Trichomycetes living in the guts of aquatic insects of Misiones and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Lastra, Claudia C; Scorsetti, Ana C; Marti, Gerardo A; Coscarón, Sixto

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen species of Trichomycetes living in the guts of aquatic insects are reported from two provinces of Argentina, Misiones and Tierra del Fuego. Twelve of the species belong to the Harpellales and two are Amoebidiales. Five harpellid species are reported from Misiones in the extreme northeast of the country (Genistellospora homothallica, Harpella tica, Smittium culisetae, Smittium sp., Stachylina sp.) and seven are from Tierra del Fuego, the southern tip of South America (H. meridianalis, Glotzia sp., S. culicis, S. cellaspora, S. imitatum, Stachylina minima, Penella simulii). Insect hosts all were immature stages of Culicidae, Simuliidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae (Insecta: Diptera), and Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. The lower diversity of Trichomycetes found at Misiones, which has a subtropical climate and rainforest vegetation, was due possibly to the warmer temperatures of the water (15-24 C), compared to the colder streams of Tierra del Fuego (9-15 C), with forests and steppes as typical vegetation.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of the Culicomorpha inferred from 18S and 5.8S ribosomal DNA sequences. (Diptera:Nematocera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B R; Crabtree, M B; Savage, H M

    1997-05-01

    We investigated the evolutionary origins of the mosquito family Culicidae by examination of 18S and 5.8S ribosomal gene sequence divergence. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that within the infraorder Culicomorpha, taxa in the families Corethrellidae, Chaoboridae and Culicidae formed a monophyletic group; there was support for a sister relationship between this lineage and a representative of the Chironomidae. A chaoborid midge was the closest relative of the mosquitoes. Taxa from four genera of mosquitoes formed a monophyletic group; lack of a spacer in the 5.8S gene was unique to members of the Culicidae. A member of the genus Anopheles formed the most basal lineage among the mosquitoes analysed. Phylogenetic relationships were unresolved for representatives in the families Dixidae, Simuliidae and Ceratopogonidae.

  11. Insects as vectors: systematics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-04-01

    Among the many complex relationships between insects and microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, some have resulted in the establishment of biological systems within which the insects act as a biological vector for infectious agents. It is therefore advisable to understand the identity and biology of these vectors in depth, in order to define procedures for epidemiological surveillance and anti-vector control. The following are successively reviewed in this article: Anoplura (lice), Siphonaptera (fleas), Heteroptera (bugs: Cimicidae, Triatoma, Belostomatidae), Psychodidae (sandflies), Simuliidae (black flies), Ceratopogonidae (biting midges), Culicidae (mosquitoes), Tabanidae (horseflies) and Muscidae (tsetse flies, stable flies and pupipara). The authors provide a rapid overview of the morphology, systematics, development cycle and bio-ecology of each of these groups of vectors. Finally, their medical and veterinary importance is briefly reviewed.

  12. Insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura, Patagonia, Argentina. Inventario preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier MUZÓN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se brinda un inventario preliminar de los insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura y su área de influencia (Patagonia, Argentina realizado sobre la base de colecciones y registros previos de especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (familias Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae y Psychodidae y Coleoptera. Se han relevado diversos tipos de ambientes en 14 localidades. El número de especies registrado asciende a 78, agrupadas en 51 géneros y 26 familias, de las cuales 33 se citan por primera vez del área. De los taxa registrados 83% de los géneros corresponden a grupos de amplia distribución (neotropicales, americanos o cosmopolitas, mientras que 41% de las especies presentan una distribución patagónica o andina.

  13. Effects of cutting disturbance in Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey. Soják on the benthic macroinvertebrates - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.6383 Effects of cutting disturbance in Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey. Soják on the benthic macroinvertebrates - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.6383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Luiza Würdig

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lagoons are considered protected areas because these systems play a key ecological role. However, the extraction of macrophyte Schoenoplectus californicus is held for manufacture of handcrafts, being an alternative income for riverbank communities. This study evaluated the impact of S. californicus experimental cutting on benthic macroinvertebrates trough a field experiment. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 1, 12, 26 and 60 days after the macrophyte cutting in demarked plots (1 m², as well at control plots. The families number was not statistically different (ANOVA, p > 0.05, but the total density of invertebrates, and the density of Ceratopogonidae were significant (ANOVA, p S. californicus, in this area, as the intensity of the cut held, did not affect considerably the aquatic macroinvertebrates. The results suggest that the small-scale extractivism in these regions carries little effect because the fauna of adjacent areas probably can quickly colonize the disturbed areas.Lagoons are considered protected areas because these systems play a key ecological role. However, the extraction of macrophyte Schoenoplectus californicus is held for manufacture of handcrafts, being an alternative income for riverbank communities. This study evaluated the impact of S. californicus experimental cutting on benthic macroinvertebrates trough a field experiment. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 1, 12, 26 and 60 days after the macrophyte cutting in demarked plots (1 m², as well at control plots. The families number was not statistically different (ANOVA, p > 0.05, but the total density of invertebrates, and the density of Ceratopogonidae were significant (ANOVA, p S. californicus, in this area, as the intensity of the cut held, did not affect considerably the aquatic macroinvertebrates. The results suggest that the small-scale extractivism in these regions carries little effect because the fauna of adjacent areas probably can quickly colonize the disturbed

  14. Effects of cutting disturbance in Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey. Soják on the benthic macroinvertebrates = Efeito do distúrbio de corte em Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey. Soják sobre a fauna de macroinvertebrados bentônicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Cesar Lima Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagoons are considered protected areas because these systems play a key ecological role. However, the extraction of macrophyte Schoenoplectus californicus is held for manufacture of handcrafts, being an alternative income for riverbank communities. This studyevaluated the impact of S. californicus experimental cutting on benthic macroinvertebrates trough a field experiment. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 1, 12, 26 and 60 days after themacrophyte cutting in demarked plots (1 m², as well at control plots. The families number was not statistically different (ANOVA, p > 0.05, but the total density of invertebrates, and the density of Ceratopogonidae were significant (ANOVA, p No Brasil, as margens de lagoas são consideradas áreas protegidas por desempenharem importante papel ecológico. No entanto, a extração da macrófita Schoenoplectus californicus é realizada para a fabricação de artesanato, sendo alternativa de renda para as comunidades ribeirrinhas. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto do corte de S. californicus sobre os macroinvertebrados bentônicos por meio de um experimento de campo. Os macroinvertebrados foram amostrados um dia, 12, 26 e 60 dias após o corte em macrófitas em parcelas demarcadas (1 m², bem como nas parcelas-controle. As famílias de macroinvertebrados mais abundantes não apresentaram diferenças significativas (ANOVA, p < 0,05, mas a densidade total de invertebrados e a densidade de Ceratopogonidae foram significativas (ANOVA, p < 0,05 para a interação entre a data de amostragem e tratamento. A Análise de Componentes Principais identificou que a profundidade no local do experimento foi a variável que influenciou a variabilidade entre as amostras coletadas no experimento. Concluiu-seque o corte de S. californicus, nessa área, como a intensidade do corte realizado, não afeta drasticamente a composição de macroinvertebrados aquáticos. Os resultados sugerem que o extrativismo em pequenas

  15. Structure and function of the cibarial armature in Simuliidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, G D

    1994-07-01

    Cibarial armature morphology in adult female blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described using scanning electron microscopy. Three distinct types of armature are recognized, comprising those with teeth, e.g. Simulium ochraceum, S. ornatum, S. veracruzanum and S. vorax, those with spicules, e.g. Austrosimulium bancrofti, S. damnosum, S. exiguum, S. metallicum and S. neavei; and those lacking these projections, e.g. Prosimulium rufipes and S. lineatum. Whereas the armature is poorly developed in vectors of human onchocerciasis such as S. damnosum, S. exiguum, S. metallicum and S. neavei, the well-developed armature in S. ochraceum, S. veracruzanum and S. vorax does not prevent these species becoming infected with Onchocerca spp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae). Hence the armature is not primarily a mechanism to counteract microfilaria superinfection. Since cibarial armatures are more developed in the haematophagous females than in the males of certain Families of flies, e.g. Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae, Phlebotominae and Simuliidae in the sub-order Nematocera, evidently the armature has evolved in response to the blood-feeding habit. As the suction of imbibed blood by the cibarial pump may require a valve mechanism to prevent back-flow, it is suggested that the armature is primarily for this purpose. Secondarily, the cibarial armature presents a damaging barrier against ingested microfilariae.

  16. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with macrophyte habitats in a tropical man-made lake (Lake Taabo, Côte d’Ivoire

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    Kouamé M. K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study was done on Lake Taabo with the main objective of characterising macroinvertebrate communities associated with the microhabitats created mainly by Eichhornia crassipes and other littoral native macrophytes. We sampled organisms in patches of those aquatic macrophytes. Also, some abiotic variables (temperature, transparency, turbidity, pH, TDS, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, NH$_{4}^{+}$+4, NO$_{3}^{-}$−3, NO$_{2}^{-}$−2, PO$_{4}^{3-}$3−4 and SiO$_{2}^{-}$−2 were measured. Overall, forty-three taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Ten of them were exclusively associated with water hyacinth while five were only associated with littoral macrophytes. Macroinvertebrate taxa with some of the highest family richness were Gastropoda, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, Odonata and Diptera. The taxon with highest density in both microhabitats was Chironomidae. Although higher values of taxonomic richness (Rs, the Shannon index (H′ and evenness (J were obtained with the water hyacinth habitat, significant differences between the two microhabitats were not observed. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that samples of E. crassipes collected in the dry season were characterised by Gastropoda and Odonata, as well as higher values of transparency and ammonia-nitrogen. Baetidae, Hydrophilidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Coenagrionidae, Naucoridae and Ostracoda were most abundant in both E. crassipes and littoral macrophyte habitats during the rainy season. This season was characterised by higher levels of nitrates and conductivity.

  17. Macroinvertebrates associated with bryophyta in a first-order Atlantic Forest stream

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    Beatriz F. J. V. Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the composition and structure of the benthic community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream, located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. During three months of the dry season of 2007 and three months of the rainy season of 2008, samples of bryophytes attached to stones were collected randomly, along a 100 m stream reach. The structure of the community was analyzed through the mean density of individuals, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness, family richness, dominance index, and the percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (% EPT. Chironomidae larvae were dominant in the two periods of study, followed by Ceratopogonidae in the rainy season, and Naididae in the dry season. The orders EPT contributed 14 families. The results showed that bryophytes constitute suitable habitat which is able to shelter an abundant and diversified benthic fauna in a small extension of the stream. This habitat provides refuge during spates, and thus minimizes downstream transport of the macroinvertebrate fauna.

  18. Culicoides monitoring in Belgium in 2011: analysis of spatiotemporal abundance, species diversity and Schmallenberg virus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Regge, N; DE Deken, R; Fassotte, C; Losson, B; Deblauwe, I; Madder, M; Vantieghem, P; Tomme, M; Smeets, F; Cay, A B

    2015-09-01

    In 2011, Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 locations covering four regions of Belgium with Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OVI) traps and at two locations with Rothamsted suction traps (RSTs). Quantification of the collections and morphological identification showed important variations in abundance and species diversity between individual collection sites, even for sites located in the same region. However, consistently higher numbers of Culicoides midges were collected at some sites compared with others. When species abundance and diversity were analysed at regional level, between-site variation disappeared. Overall, species belonging to the subgenus Avaritia together with Culicoides pulicaris (subgenus Culicoides) were the most abundant, accounting for 80% and 96% of all midges collected with RSTs and OVI traps, respectively. Culicoides were present during most of the year, with Culicoides obsoletus complex midges found from 9 February until 27 December. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction screening for Schmallenberg virus in the heads of collected midges resulted in the first detection of the virus in August 2011 and identified C. obsoletus complex, Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi midges as putative vector species. At Libramont in the south of Belgium, no positive pools were identified.

  19. A new tool for the molecular identification of Culicoides species of the Obsoletus group: the glass slide microarray approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, I; de Witte, J C; de Deken, G; de Deken, R; Madder, M; van Erk, S; Hoza, F A; Lathouwers, D; Geysen, D

    2012-03-01

    Culicoides species of the Obsoletus group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are potential vectors of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV 8), which was introduced into central Western Europe in 2006. Correct morphological species identification of Obsoletus group females is especially difficult and molecular identification is the method of choice. In this study we present a new molecular tool based on probe hybridization using a DNA microarray format to identify Culicoides species of the Obsoletus group. The internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene sequences of 55 Culicoides belonging to 13 different species were determined and used, together with 19 Culicoides ITS1 sequences sourced from GenBank, to design species-specific probes for the microarray test. This test was evaluated using the amplified ITS1 sequences of another 85 Culicoides specimens, belonging to 11 species. The microarray test successfully identified all samples (100%) of the Obsoletus group, identifying each specimen to species level within the group. This test has several advantages over existing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular tools, including possible capability for parallel analysis of many species, high sensitivity and specificity, and low background signal noise. Hand-spotting of the microarray slide and the use of detection chemistry make this alternative technique affordable and feasible for any diagnostic laboratory with PCR facilities.

  20. Abundance of macrozoobenthos in relation to bottom soil textural types and water depth In aquaculture ponds

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    N. Nupur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bottom soil textural classes and different water depths on abundance of macrozoobenthos in aquaculture ponds. Three treatments, i.e., ponds bottom with sandy loam (T1, with loam (TS2 and with clay loam (T3 were considered in this experiment. Samples were collected from three different depths (60.96 cm, 106.68 cm and 152.40 cm with three replications. The ranges of water quality parameters were suitable for the growth of macrozoobenthos during the experimental period. Similarly, chemical properties of soil were also within suitable ranges and every parameter showed comparatively higher ranges in T2. Eight genera were recorded belonging to major groups of Chironomidae, Oligochaeta, Mollusca and Ceratoponogonidae. The highest population densities of Oligochaeta (1200±4.25 per m2, Chironomidae (1422±4.88 per m2, Ceratopogonidae (399±1.56 per m2 and Mollusca (977±2.24 per m2 were found in T2. The population densities of macrozoobenthos showed fortnightly variations in all the treatments. Among the three depths, significantly highest densities of macrozoobenthos were recorded in 106.68 cm in every treatment. The mean abundance of macrozoobenthos was significantly highest in T2. The present study indicates that loamy soil pond bottom along with water depth 106.68 cm is suitable for the growth and production of macrozoobenthos in aquaculture ponds.

  1. Spatial uniformity in depth optima of midges: evidence from sedimentary archives of shallow Alpine and boreal lakes

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    Tomi P. Luoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, water depth optima, i.e. habitat preferences within a depth gradient, were estimated for mutual midge (Diptera: Nematocera; Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae taxa in surface sediment intralake data sets from eastern Finland and Austrian Alps and in a regional data set across Finland. The aim was to investigate how the optima and tolerances differ in these data sets and to discuss whether the possible causal factor for deviance is related to local adaptation, taxa representativeness, or some other factor. A total of 20 mutual taxa were found from the data sets and the estimated optima and tolerances were highly similar, with the exception of three taxa, which had deviating optima in the Austrian lake. The reason for these differences was most likely that the optima were poorly estimated in the Austrian lake due to low abundances and number of occurrences of these taxa. No evidence for intraspecific niche separation or local habitat adaptation was found between the Austrian and Finnish sites, although, interspecific variation in habitats was evident. Therefore, water depth optima estimated from representative number of specimens may be applicable for various ecological, limnological, and paleolimnological purposes. However, when the optima are applied outside the data set’s coverage, the results should be interpreted with caution. In addition, the given optima are not applicable in sites deeper than the sites in the data sets.

  2. An insight into the sialome of blood-feeding Nematocera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José M C; Mans, Ben J; Arcà, Bruno

    2010-11-01

    Within the Diptera and outside the suborder Brachycera, the blood-feeding habit occurred at least twice, producing the present day sand flies, and the Culicomorpha, including the mosquitoes (Culicidae), black flies (Simulidae), biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) and frog feeding flies (Corethrellidae). Alternatives to this scenario are also discussed. Successful blood-feeding requires adaptations to antagonize the vertebrate's mechanisms of blood clotting, platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, pain and itching, which are triggered by tissue destruction and immune reactions to insect products. Saliva of these insects provides a complex pharmacological armamentarium to block these vertebrate reactions. With the advent of transcriptomics, the sialomes (from the Greek word sialo = saliva) of at least two species of each of these families have been studied (except for the frog feeders), allowing an insight into the diverse pathways leading to today's salivary composition within the Culicomorpha, having the sand flies as an outgroup. This review catalogs 1288 salivary proteins in 10 generic classes comprising over 150 different protein families, most of which we have no functional knowledge. These proteins and many sequence comparisons are displayed in a hyperlinked spreadsheet that hopefully will stimulate and facilitate the task of functional characterization of these proteins, and their possible use as novel pharmacological agents and epidemiological markers of insect vector exposure.

  3. Vector competence of Culicoides for arboviruses: three major periods of research, their influence on current studies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, S; Veronesi, E; Mullens, B; Venter, G

    2015-04-01

    The spectacular and unprecedented outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) that have occurred in Europe since 1998 have led to increased interest in those factors that determine competence of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for arboviruses. In this review the authors critically examine three major periods of research into the biological transmission by Culicoides of two economically important arboviruses ofthefamily Reoviridae: African horse sicknessvirus (AHSV) and BTV. First they examine early studies, largely conducted in southern Africa, that played a key role in initially implicating Culicoides as agents of AHSV and BTV transmission. Then they examine advances in understanding made following the establishment of colonies of the BTV vector species Culicoides sonorensis, which have largely shaped our current understanding of BTV and AHSV transmission. They then consider attempts in recent years to implicate vectors of BTV in the European Union during what has become the most economically damaging series of outbreaks in recorded history. In some cases the origin of these outbreaks was uncertain and unexpected, particularly in northern Europe, where BTV had not previously occurred. Limitations imposed on studies of vector competence by the biology of Culicoides are then discussed, along with advances in the technologies now available and the logistics of working upon agents requiring biosecure containment outside their endemic range. Finally, the authors suggest areas that have either been poorly addressed to date or entirely ignored and ways in which studies could be conducted to provide standardised data for comparison worldwide.

  4. In situ effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on community structure of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris; Milošević, Djuradj; Piperac, Milica Stojković; Savić, Ana

    2016-06-01

    For the first time in the current literature, the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the community structure of macroinvertebrates has been investigated in situ. Macroinvertebrates were exposed for 100 days to an environmentally relevant concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles, 25 mg kg(-1) in sediment. Czekanowski's index was 0.61, meaning 39% of the macroinvertebrate community structure was affected by the TiO2 treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) visualized the qualitative and quantitative variability of macroinvertebrates at the community level among all samples. A distance-based permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed the significant effect of TiO2 on the macroinvertebrate community structure. The indicator value analysis showed that the relative frequency and abundance of Planorbarius corneus and Radix labiata were significantly lower in the TiO2 treatment than in the control. Meanwhile, Ceratopogonidae, showed a significantly higher relative frequency and abundance in the TiO2 treatment than in the control.

  5. The effect of high frequency sound on Culicoides numbers collected with suction light traps

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    Gert J. Venter

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, are involved in the transmission of various pathogens that cause important diseases of livestock worldwide. The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of these insects on livestock could play an important role as part of an integrated control programme against diseases transmitted by these midges. The objective of this study was to determine whether high frequency sound has any repellent effect on Culicoides midges. The number of midges collected with 220 V Onderstepoort white light traps fitted with electronic mosquito repellents (EMRs, emitting 5-20 KHz multi-frequency sound waves, was compared with that of two untreated traps. Treatments were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although fewer midges were collected in the two traps fitted with EMRs, the average number collected over eight consecutive nights was not significantly different. The EMRs also had no influence on any of the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer or the species composition of the Culicoides population as determined with light traps. The results indicate that high frequency sound has no repellent effect on Culicoides midges. There is therefore no evidence to support their promotion or use in the protection of animals against pathogens transmitted by Culicoides midges.

  6. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Morey, Liesl

    2014-08-08

    The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) should form part of an integrated control programme to combat African horse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the present study the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combination of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The number of midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white light tubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, was compared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial the four traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although more midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaited traps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either the species composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The higher mean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that this mosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions.

  7. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae should form part of an integrated control programme to combat Africanhorse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the presentstudy the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combinationof citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The numberof midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white lighttubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, wascompared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial thefour traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Althoughmore midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaitedtraps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either thespecies composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The highermean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that thismosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions.

  8. Detection of Low-Level Cardinium and Wolbachia Infections in Culicoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Peter T; Weeks, Andrew R; Walker, Peter J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts have been identified as potentially useful biological control agents for a range of invertebrate vectors of disease. Previous studies of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species using conventional PCR assays have provided evidence of Wolbachia (1/33) and Cardinium (8/33) infections. Here, we screened 20 species of Culicoides for Wolbachia and Cardinium, utilizing a combination of conventional PCR and more sensitive quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Low levels of Cardinium DNA were detected in females of all but one of the Culicoides species screened, and low levels of Wolbachia were detected in females of 9 of the 20 Culicoides species. Sequence analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene and gyrB sequences identified "Candidatus Cardinium hertigii" from group C, which has previously been identified in Culicoides from Japan, Israel, and the United Kingdom. Wolbachia strains detected in this study showed 98 to 99% sequence identity to Wolbachia previously detected from Culicoides based on the 16S rRNA gene, whereas a strain with a novel wsp sequence was identified in Culicoides narrabeenensis. Cardinium isolates grouped to geographical regions independent of the host Culicoides species, suggesting possible geographical barriers to Cardinium movement. Screening also identified Asaia bacteria in Culicoides. These findings point to a diversity of low-level endosymbiont infections in Culicoides, providing candidates for further characterization and highlighting the widespread occurrence of these endosymbionts in this insect group.

  9. Estimating Culicoides sonorensis biting midge abundance using digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, C J; Mayo, C E; Mullens, B A; Maclachlan, N J

    2014-12-01

    ImageJ is an open-source software tool used for a variety of scientific objectives including cell counting, shape analysis and image correction. This technology has previously been used to estimate mosquito abundance in surveillance efforts. However, the utility of this application for estimating abundance or parity in the surveillance of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) has not yet been tested. Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth and Jones), a biting midge often measuring 2.0-2.5 mm in length, is an economically important vector of ruminant arboviruses in California. Current surveillance methods use visual sorting for the characteristics of midges and are very time-intensive for large studies. This project tested the utility of ImageJ as a tool to assist in gross trap enumeration as well as in parity analysis of C. sonorensis in comparison with traditional visual methods of enumeration using a dissecting microscope. Results confirmed that automated counting of midges is a reliable means of approximating midge numbers under certain conditions. Further evaluation confirmed accurate and time-efficient parity analysis in comparison with hand sorting. The ImageJ software shows promise as a tool that can assist and expedite C. sonorensis surveillance. Further, these methods may be useful in other insect surveillance activities.

  10. Environmental drivers of Culicoides phenology: how important is species-specific variation when determining disease policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Kate R; Barber, James; Stubbins, Francesca; Labuschagne, Karien; Carpenter, Simon; Butler, Adam; Denison, Eric; Sanders, Christopher; Mellor, Philip S; Wilson, Anthony; Nelson, Noel; Gubbins, Simon; Purse, Bethan V

    2014-01-01

    Since 2006, arboviruses transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have caused significant disruption to ruminant production in northern Europe. The most serious incursions involved strains of bluetongue virus (BTV), which cause bluetongue (BT) disease. To control spread of BTV, movement of susceptible livestock is restricted with economic and animal welfare impacts. The timing of BTV transmission in temperate regions is partly determined by the seasonal presence of adult Culicoides females. Legislative measures therefore allow for the relaxation of ruminant movement restrictions during winter, when nightly light-suction trap catches of Culicoides fall below a threshold (the 'seasonally vector free period': SVFP). We analysed five years of time-series surveillance data from light-suction trapping in the UK to investigate whether significant inter-specific and yearly variation in adult phenology exists, and whether the SVFP is predictable from environmental factors. Because female vector Culicoides are not easily morphologically separated, inter-specific comparisons in phenology were drawn from male populations. We demonstrate significant inter-specific differences in Culicoides adult phenology with the season of Culicoides scoticus approximately eight weeks shorter than Culicoides obsoletus. Species-specific differences in the length of the SVFP were related to host density and local variation in landscape habitat. When the Avaritia Culicoides females were modelled as a group (as utilised in the SFVP), we were unable to detect links between environmental drivers and phenological metrics. We conclude that the current treatment of Avaritia Culicoides as a single group inhibits understanding of environmentally-driven spatial variation in species phenology and hinders the development of models for predicting the SVFP from environmental factors. Culicoides surveillance methods should be adapted to focus on concentrated assessments of species

  11. Environmental drivers of Culicoides phenology: how important is species-specific variation when determining disease policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate R Searle

    Full Text Available Since 2006, arboviruses transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae have caused significant disruption to ruminant production in northern Europe. The most serious incursions involved strains of bluetongue virus (BTV, which cause bluetongue (BT disease. To control spread of BTV, movement of susceptible livestock is restricted with economic and animal welfare impacts. The timing of BTV transmission in temperate regions is partly determined by the seasonal presence of adult Culicoides females. Legislative measures therefore allow for the relaxation of ruminant movement restrictions during winter, when nightly light-suction trap catches of Culicoides fall below a threshold (the 'seasonally vector free period': SVFP. We analysed five years of time-series surveillance data from light-suction trapping in the UK to investigate whether significant inter-specific and yearly variation in adult phenology exists, and whether the SVFP is predictable from environmental factors. Because female vector Culicoides are not easily morphologically separated, inter-specific comparisons in phenology were drawn from male populations. We demonstrate significant inter-specific differences in Culicoides adult phenology with the season of Culicoides scoticus approximately eight weeks shorter than Culicoides obsoletus. Species-specific differences in the length of the SVFP were related to host density and local variation in landscape habitat. When the Avaritia Culicoides females were modelled as a group (as utilised in the SFVP, we were unable to detect links between environmental drivers and phenological metrics. We conclude that the current treatment of Avaritia Culicoides as a single group inhibits understanding of environmentally-driven spatial variation in species phenology and hinders the development of models for predicting the SVFP from environmental factors. Culicoides surveillance methods should be adapted to focus on concentrated assessments

  12. Sphagnum mosses as a microhabitat for invertebrates in acidified lakes and the colour adaptation and substrate preference in Leucorrhinia dubia (Odonata, Anisoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrikson, B.-I. (Dept. of Zoology, Sect. of Animal Ecology, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    The increase of peat mosses, Sphagnum spp., in acidified lakes leads to a changed microhabitat structure for benthic invertebrates. The importance of this change was investigated for some benthic invertebrates. Comparisons between quantitative samples of Sphagnum and debris within the acidified Lake Stora Haestevatten, in the Lake Gaardsjoen catchment of SW Sweden, showed significantly higher abundances of Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Odonata, Trichoptera, Cladocera and Argyroneta aquatica (Araneae) in Sphagnum. For chironomidae and Cladocera the differences were tenfold. Special reference was made to the libellulid Leucorrhinia dubia which is common in acid lakes. In a laboratory test, late instar larvae of L. dubia were shown to change colour to correspond to the brown and green colour of Sphagnum. This result was completed with a field test where larvae of L. dubia were significantly more common in Sphagnum of the same colour as the larvae. The ability to change colour may have an adaptive value when coexisting with visual predators. Small larvae were more prevalent in Sphagnum and they also showed a preference for this substrate in the laboratory test. Laboratory tests showed mediumsized larvae preferred Sphagnum. Larvae of L. dubia were more successful as predators on Asellus aquaticus in Sphagnum substrate than in debris in the laboratory test. Laboratory predation tests with notonecta glauca, Corixa dentipes, Acilius sulcatus, Hyphydrus ovatus and L. dubia showed that they could all feed on larvae of L. dubia. The complex habitat structure of Sphagnum is probably the reason for the high abundance of invertebrates since it may serve as both shelter against predation and as foraging sites. it is probably important as a key habitat for young instars of, for example, L. dubia. In lakes with large Sphagnum mats, L. dubia can coexist with fish. The expansion of Sphagnum due to acidification will probably benefit many acid-tolerant invertebrate species. (au)

  13. A six-year study of insect emergence from temporary flooded wetlands in central Sweden, with and without Bti-based mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Vinnersten, T Z; Lundström, J O; Schäfer, M L; Petersson, E; Landin, J

    2010-12-01

    In temporary wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains, recurrent but irregular floods induce massive hatching of the flood-water mosquito Aedes sticticus, which causes enormous nuisance. Flood-water mosquito control using the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) was commenced in parts of the floodplains during 2002, and here we report the first six years of full-season monitoring of general insect emergence from temporary wetlands with and without treatment. Emergence traps, which were emptied weekly, were used from May to September each year. A total of 137,153 insects of 13 taxonomic orders were collected. Diptera was highly dominating and especially the sub-order Nematocera with 18 families was a very prominent taxon. Bti-treatment effects were analysed by taxonomic order, by sub-order in Diptera and Hemiptera, and by family for Nematocera and Coleoptera for the whole study period. We found no significant negative effects of Bti treatments on the production of insects by taxonomic order, with the exception of Coleoptera in the long term. However, no significant negative effects were found for the Coleoptera families, neither in the short term nor in the long term. There was no significant negative treatment effect on Nematocera production, neither when analyzed for the whole sub-order nor when analyzed by family. However, abundance of Ceratopogonidae was significantly higher in experimental than in reference wetlands. We conclude that Bti-treatment effects on insect production may be minute in comparison to other environmental factors structuring the insect fauna of the temporary wetlands studied.

  14. Testing of UK Populations of Culex pipiens L. for Schmallenberg Virus Vector Competence and Their Colonization.

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    Robyn Manley

    Full Text Available Schmallenberg virus (SBV, an arboviral pathogen of ruminants, emerged in northern Europe during 2011 and has subsequently spread across a vast geographic area. While Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae have been identified as a biological transmission agent of SBV, the role of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae as potential vectors has not been defined beyond small-scale field collections in affected areas. Culex pipiens L. are one of the most widespread mosquitoes in northern Europe; they are present on farms across the region and have previously been implicated as vectors of several other arboviruses. We assessed the ability of three colony lines of Cx. pipiens, originating from geographically diverse field populations, to become fully infected by SBV using semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR (sqPCR.Two colony lines of Cx. pipiens were created in the UK ('Brookwood' and 'Caldbeck' from field collections of larvae and pupae and characterised using genetic markers. A third strain of Cx. pipiens from CVI Wageningen, The Netherlands, was also screened during experiments. Intrathoracic inoculation of the Brookwood line resulted in infections after 14 days that were characterised by high levels of RNA throughout individuals, but which demonstrated indirect evidence of salivary gland barriers. Feeding of 322 individuals across the three colony lines on a membrane based infection system resulted in no evidence of full dissemination of SBV, although infections did occur in a small proportion of Cx. pipiens from each line.This study established two novel lines of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes of UK origin in the laboratory and subsequently tested their competence for SBV. Schmallenberg virus replication and dissemination was restricted, demonstrating that Cx. pipiens is unlikely to be an epidemiologically important vector of the virus in northern Europe.

  15. The Influence of Host Plant Extrafloral Nectaries on Multitrophic Interactions: An Experimental Investigation.

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    Koptur, Suzanne; Jones, Ian M; Peña, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted with outplantings of the native perennial shrub Senna mexicana var. chapmanii in a semi-natural area adjacent to native pine rockland habitat in southern Florida. The presence of ants and the availability of extrafloral nectar were manipulated in a stratified random design. Insect communities were monitored and recorded over a period of six months with a view to addressing three main questions. Do ants provide biotic defense against key herbivores on S. chapmanii? Is the presence of ants on S. chapmanii mediated by EFN? Finally, are there ecological costs associated with the presence of ants on S. chapmanii, such as a reduction in alternative predator or parasitoid numbers? Herbivores on S. chapmanii included immature stages of three pierid butterflies, and adult weevils. Eight species of ants were associated with the plants, and other predators included spiders, ladybugs, wasps, and hemipterans. Parasitic, haemolymph-sucking midges (Ceratopogonidae) and parasitoid flies were also associated with the caterpillar herbivores, and possibly the extrafloral nectaries of the plants. The presence of ants did not appear to influence oviposition by butterflies, as numbers of lepidopterans of all developmental stages did not differ among treatments. Significantly more late instar caterpillars, however, were observed on plants with ants excluded, indicating that ants remove small caterpillars from plants. Substantially more alternative predators (spiders, ladybugs, and wasps) were observed on plants with ants excluded. Rates of parasitization did not differ among the treatments, but there were substantially fewer caterpillars succumbing to virus among those collected from control plants. We provide a rare look at facultative ant-plant mutualisms in the context of the many other interactions with which they overlap. We conclude that ants provide some biotic defense against herbivores on S. chapmanii, and plants benefit overall from the presence

  16. The Influence of Host Plant Extrafloral Nectaries on Multitrophic Interactions: An Experimental Investigation.

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    Suzanne Koptur

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted with outplantings of the native perennial shrub Senna mexicana var. chapmanii in a semi-natural area adjacent to native pine rockland habitat in southern Florida. The presence of ants and the availability of extrafloral nectar were manipulated in a stratified random design. Insect communities were monitored and recorded over a period of six months with a view to addressing three main questions. Do ants provide biotic defense against key herbivores on S. chapmanii? Is the presence of ants on S. chapmanii mediated by EFN? Finally, are there ecological costs associated with the presence of ants on S. chapmanii, such as a reduction in alternative predator or parasitoid numbers? Herbivores on S. chapmanii included immature stages of three pierid butterflies, and adult weevils. Eight species of ants were associated with the plants, and other predators included spiders, ladybugs, wasps, and hemipterans. Parasitic, haemolymph-sucking midges (Ceratopogonidae and parasitoid flies were also associated with the caterpillar herbivores, and possibly the extrafloral nectaries of the plants. The presence of ants did not appear to influence oviposition by butterflies, as numbers of lepidopterans of all developmental stages did not differ among treatments. Significantly more late instar caterpillars, however, were observed on plants with ants excluded, indicating that ants remove small caterpillars from plants. Substantially more alternative predators (spiders, ladybugs, and wasps were observed on plants with ants excluded. Rates of parasitization did not differ among the treatments, but there were substantially fewer caterpillars succumbing to virus among those collected from control plants. We provide a rare look at facultative ant-plant mutualisms in the context of the many other interactions with which they overlap. We conclude that ants provide some biotic defense against herbivores on S. chapmanii, and plants benefit overall

  17. Sugar-feeding behaviour and longevity of European Culicoides biting midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, C; Mathis, A; Vorburger, C

    2015-03-01

    Most haematophagous insect vectors can also use sugar as an energy source; thus their sugar-feeding behaviour influences their longevity and blood-feeding rate and hence their vectorial capacity. Scant information is available on the sugar-feeding behaviour of Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), which are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. The longevity of laboratory-reared Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) under fluctuating temperatures (16 and 28 °C) and with access to water or water and blood was on average 6.4 days and 8.9 days, respectively, which was around one third of the lifespan of siblings with access to sugar or sugar and blood (22.2 days and 27.1 days, respectively). Access to honeydew significantly increased the midge's longevity, whereas the provision of extrafloral nectaries had no impact. Females with access to sugar produced a significantly higher number of eggs (65.5 ± 5.2) than their starved sisters (45.4 ± 8.4). More than 80% of field-caught female Culicoides from the two most abundant European groups, Obsoletus (n = 2243) and Pulicaris (n = 805), were fructose-positive. Fructose-positivity was high in all physiological stages and no seasonal variability was noted. The high rate of natural sugar feeding of Culicoides offers opportunities for the development of novel control strategies using toxic sugar baits and for the monitoring of vector-borne diseases using sugar-treated FTA (nucleic acid preservation) cards in the field.

  18. Benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of water quality in an Atlantic forest fragment

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    Augusto Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate benthic macroinvertebrate communities as bioindicators of water quality in five streams located in the "Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural" (RPPN Mata Samuel de Paula and its surroundings, in the municipality of Nova Lima near the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. This region has been strongly modified by human activities including mining and urbanization. Samples were collected in the field every three months between August 2004 and November 2005, totaling six samplings in the rainy and dry seasons. This assessment identified one area ecologically altered while the other sampling sites were found to be minimally disturbed systems, with well-preserved ecological conditions. However, according to the Biological Monitoring Work Party (BMWP and the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT indices, all sampling sites had excellent water quality. A total of 14,952 organisms was collected, belonging to 155 taxa (148 Insecta, two Annelida, one Bivalvia, one Decapoda, one Planariidae, one Hydracarina, and one Entognatha. The most abundant benthic groups were Chironomidae (47.9%, Simuliidae (12.3%, Bivalvia (7.5%, Decapoda (6.1%, Oligochaeta (5.2%, Polycentropodidae (3.7%, Hydropsychidae (2.5%, Calamoceratidae (1.8%, Ceratopogonidae (1.7%, and Libellulidae (1.2%. The assessment of the benthic functional feeding groups showed that 34% of the macroinvertebrates were collector-gatherers, 29% predators, 24% collector-filterers, 8% shredders, and 5% scrapers. The RPPN Mata Samuel de Paula comprises diversified freshwater habitats that are of great importance for the conservation of many benthic taxa that are intolerant to organic pollution.

  19. Entomopathogenic fungus as a biological control for an important vector of livestock disease: the Culicoides biting midge.

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    Minshad Ali Ansari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent outbreak of bluetongue virus in northern Europe has led to an urgent need to identify control measures for the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae biting midges that transmit it. Following successful use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larval stages of biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen, we investigated the efficacy of this strain and other fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium longisporum as biocontrol agents against adult C. nubeculosus in laboratory and greenhouse studies. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Exposure of midges to 'dry' conidia of all fungal isolates caused significant reductions in survival compared to untreated controls. Metarhizium anisopliae strain V275 was the most virulent, causing a significantly decrease in midge survival compared to all other fungal strains tested. The LT(50 value for strain V275 was 1.42 days compared to 2.21-3.22 days for the other isolates. The virulence of this strain was then further evaluated by exposing C. nubeculosus to varying doses (10(8-10(11 conidia m(-2 using different substrates (horse manure, damp peat, leaf litter as a resting site. All exposed adults were found to be infected with the strain V275 four days after exposure. A further study exposed C. nubeculosus adults to 'dry' conidia and 'wet' conidia (conidia suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80 of strain V275 applied to damp peat and leaf litter in cages within a greenhouse. 'Dry' conidia were more effective than 'wet' conidia, causing 100% mortality after 5 days. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to demonstrate that entomopathogenic fungi are potential biocontrol agents against adult Culicoides, through the application of 'dry' conidia on surfaces (e.g., manure, leaf litter, livestock where the midges tend to rest. Subsequent conidial transmission between males and females may cause an increased level of fungi-induced mortality in midges thus

  20. Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa

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    Gert J. Venter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, outbreaks of African horse sickness (AHS occur in summer; no cases are reported in winter, from July to September. The AHS virus (AHSV is transmitted almost exclusively by Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, of which Culicoides imicola is considered to be the most important vector. The over-wintering mechanism of AHSV is unknown. In this study, more than 500 000 Culicoides midges belonging to at least 26 species were collected in 88 light traps at weekly intervals between July 2010 and September 2011 near horses in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa. The dominant species was C. imicola. Despite relatively low temperatures and frost, at least 17 species, including C. imicola, were collected throughout winter (June–August. Although the mean number of midges per night fell from > 50 000 (March to < 100 (July and August, no midge-free periods were found. This study, using virus isolation on cell cultures and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, confirmed low infection prevalence in field midges and that the detection of virus correlated to high numbers. Although no virus was detected during this winter period, continuous adult activity indicated that transmission can potentially occur. The absence of AHSV in the midges during winter can be ascribed to the relatively low numbers collected coupled to low infection prevalence, low virus replication rates and low virus titres in the potentially infected midges. Cases of AHS in susceptible animals are likely to start as soon as Culicoides populations reach a critical level.

  1. Temporal and altitudinal variations in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in an Andean river basin of Argentina

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    Erica E. Scheibler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental variables and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were spatially and seasonally examined over two consecutive years (2000-2002 along a glacier and snowmelt river in the central-west of Argentina where lies the highest peak in America, Mount Aconcagua (6956 m elevation. The goal was to assess seasonal and altitudinal variability in benthic community structure and to define whether physical-chemical variables affect distribution of aquatic insects. The Mendoza river basin was characterised by high variability in flow and transparency, high conductivity, hard calcium sulphate water, neutral and alkaline pH, and dominant substrate composed of small blocks, cobbles, pebbles, and sand-silt. Richness of invertebrates was low, with the lowest taxonomic richness being recorded at the mouth. The dominant group with highest taxonomic richness was Diptera, although caddisflies, mayflies, beetles, and stoneflies were present. Seasonal and spatial variations in biotic and abiotic variables were detected. Maximal densities and taxonomic richness were recorded in autumn and winter. From Modified Morisita’s Cluster analysis it was found that the system is divided into two groupings of sites related to each other by faunal composition. INDVAL revealed species turnover along the altitudinal gradient of some taxa: Andesiops, Massartellopsis, Edwarsina, Chelifera, and Ceratopogonidae had preference for the headwaters (2835-2425 m elevation, Smicridea murina and Baetodes for the lower section (1413-1085 m elevation, and Austrelmis for the middle and lower sections. The middle section (1846-1727 m elevation was a transition area where taxa from the headwaters and the lower section coexisted. Generalised Linear Models evidenced that altitude was the major factor determining macroinvertebrate assemblages along the large arid Mendoza River and that the physical-chemical variables that most influenced variation in community structure were: transparency

  2. Trypanosomes and haemosporidia in the buzzard (Buteo buteo) and sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus): factors affecting the prevalence of parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Milena; Weidinger, Karel; Peške, Lubomír; Volf, Petr; Votýpka, Jan; Voříšek, Petr

    2015-02-01

    The prevalences of heteroxenous parasites are influenced by the interplay of three main actors: hosts, vectors, and the parasites themselves. We studied blood protists in the nesting populations of raptors in two different areas of the Czech Republic. Altogether, 788 nestlings and 258 adult Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus) and 321 nestlings and 86 adult common buzzards (Buteo buteo) were screened for parasites by the microscopic examination of blood smears and by cultivation. We examined the role of shared vectors and parasite phylogenetic relationships on the occurrence of parasites. In different years and hosts, trypanosome prevalence ranged between 1.9 and 87.2 %, that of Leucocytozoon between 1.9 and 100 %, and Haemoproteus between 0 and 72.7 %. Coinfections with Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma, phylogenetically distant parasites but both transmitted by blackflies (Simuliidae), were more frequent than coinfections with Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus, phylogenetically closely related parasites transmitted by different vectors (blackflies and biting midges (Ceratopogonidae), respectively). For example, 16.6 % buzzard nestlings were coinfected with Trypanosoma and Leucocytozoon, while only 4.8 % with Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus and 0.3 % with Trypanosoma and Haemoproteus. Nestlings in the same nest tended to have the same infection status. Furthermore, prevalence increased with the age of nestlings and with Julian date, while brood size had only a weak negative/positive effect on prevalence at the individual/brood level. Prevalences in a particular avian host species also varied between study sites and years. All these factors should thus be considered while comparing prevalences from different studies, the impact of vectors being the most important. We conclude that phylogenetically unrelated parasites that share the same vectors tend to have similar distributions within the host populations of two different raptor species.

  3. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain

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    Martínez-de la Puente Josué

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD, Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Methods Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST. Results The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST showed that both

  4. 饶河口岸吸血蚊蠓本底调查%Baseline investigation on bloodsucking mosquitoes and midges at Raohe port in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永久; 于巍; 张阳; 刘国平

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查黑龙江省饶河口岸吸血蚊、蠓的种类分布和种群组成.方法 采用人帐诱、诱虫灯诱和网捕法采集吸血蚊、蠓,收集相关文献.结果 2008-2009年在饶河口岸采获吸血蚊、蠓90214只,计6属63种,其中蚊类4属28种;蠓类2属35种,哈尔巴岭库蠓为饶河口岸首次记录的蠓种;优势蚊种为刺扰伊蚊(84.94%);吸血蠓的主要种类是兴安库蠓(37.19%)、不显库蠓(20.03%)和刺螫库蠓(20.04%).不同生境、场所的主要蚊、蠓种类组成有所不同.结论 为黑龙江省饶河口岸吸血蚊、蠓本底、虫媒病和防制研究提供了科学依据.%Objective To investigate the species distribution and population composition of bloodsucking mosquitoes and midges at Raohe port in Heilongjiang province. Methods Bed curtains, light traps and insect nets were used to collect mosquitoes and bloodsucking midges. Results From 2008 to 2009, 90 214 mosquitoes and bloodsucking midges were captured in the region, which belonged to 63 species of 6 genera, 2 families, including 28 species, 4 genera of Culicoidae and 35 species, 2 genera of Ceratopogonidae. Culicoides haerbalingeruis were recorded for the first time at Raohe port. The predominant species of mosquitoes was Aedes vaxans (84.94%). The predominant species of bloodsucking midges were Culicoides sinanoennis (37.19%), C. Obsoletus (20.03%) and C. Punctatus (20.04%). The population composition of mosquitoes and bloodsucking midges varied in different habitats. Conclusion This investigation provided baseline data on bloodsucking mosquitoes and midges for formulation of the prevention and control strategies.

  5. Arboviruses pathogenic for domestic and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Zdenek; Rudolf, Ivo; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to provide an updated and concise systematic review on taxonomy, history, arthropod vectors, vertebrate hosts, animal disease, and geographic distribution of all arboviruses known to date to cause disease in homeotherm (endotherm) vertebrates, except those affecting exclusively man. Fifty arboviruses pathogenic for animals have been documented worldwide, belonging to seven families: Togaviridae (mosquito-borne Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalilitis viruses; Sindbis, Middelburg, Getah, and Semliki Forest viruses), Flaviviridae (mosquito-borne yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu, Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Tembusu and Wesselsbron viruses; tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Tyuleniy viruses), Bunyaviridae (tick-borne Nairobi sheep disease, Soldado, and Bhanja viruses; mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever, La Crosse, Snowshoe hare, and Cache Valley viruses; biting midges-borne Main Drain, Akabane, Aino, Shuni, and Schmallenberg viruses), Reoviridae (biting midges-borne African horse sickness, Kasba, bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer, Ibaraki, equine encephalosis, Peruvian horse sickness, and Yunnan viruses), Rhabdoviridae (sandfly/mosquito-borne bovine ephemeral fever, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, vesicular stomatitis-Alagoas, and Coccal viruses), Orthomyxoviridae (tick-borne Thogoto virus), and Asfarviridae (tick-borne African swine fever virus). They are transmitted to animals by five groups of hematophagous arthropods of the subphyllum Chelicerata (order Acarina, families Ixodidae and Argasidae-ticks) or members of the class Insecta: mosquitoes (family Culicidae); biting midges (family Ceratopogonidae); sandflies (subfamily Phlebotominae); and cimicid bugs (family Cimicidae). Arboviral diseases in endotherm animals may therefore be classified as: tick

  6. Health and sanitary status in 1970 of Tubu nomads dwelling in Northeastern Niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Franois Magnaval; Christian Oosterbosch; Michel Mandl; MABN group

    2014-01-01

    -fluke eggs were found. The stool samples were mixed with a preservative MIF solution and then stored to be examined later in Toulouse. Three subjects (2%) passedE. histolytica/E. dispar cysts in stools, 16 (10.6%) were parasitized with Giardia sp. and 4 (2.65%) were parasitized with Hymelepis nana. Two specimens of scorpions captured in the camp were subsequently identified as belonging to the harmful genus Androctonus or Leiurus. An investigation into the freshwater fauna was conducted in the marshy ponds surrounding the ghost city of Djado, and no intermediate snail hosts for schistosomiasis haematobium were found. Numerous nymphs of Ceratopogonidae, which are possible vectors for arboviruses of veterinarian importance, were collected, as were larvae and nymphs from two anopheline species, Anopheles hispaniola and An. multicolor, which are not efficient vectors for malaria. Conclusions: Infection-related blindness and trachoma, along with acute pulmonary infections and probably tuberculosis were the major health burden in this tribe. The harsh dry and hot climate may explain the low prevalence of soil-transmitted protozoan diseases or helminthiases.