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Sample records for ceratitis capitata genetic

  1. Incompatible insect technique: incompatible males from a Ceratitis capitata genetic sexing strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolbachia are obligatory intracellular and maternally inherited bacteria that infect and spread through natural arthropod populations by inducing male-killing, feminization, parthenogenesis and, most commonly, unidirectional and bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Cytoplasmic incompatibility can be used to control natural populations of insect pests, in a way analogous to the sterile insect technique (SIT), namely through the incompatible insect technique (IIT). For the successful application of the ITT (based on a unidirectional CI approach) against a target species, it is essential that only males are released, as the release of females would lead to fertile matings between the released males and the released females and the establishment of a Wolbachia-carrying field population. In the present study, we describe a Wolbachia-infected line of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedermann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), that carries the selectable marker temperature sensitive lethal (tsl). We show that (1) transferred Wolbachia induce high levels of CI even after the temperature treatment required for the male-only production, and (2) the Wolbachia-infected genetic sexing C. capitata line can be used in cage population suppression experiments analogous to the SIT. We also discuss our results in a comparison between IIT and SIT, investigating whether irradiation and cytoplasmic factors can be combined toward the development of novel strategies for insect pest control. (author)

  2. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minette Karsten

    Full Text Available The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km, are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  3. The significance of genetic polymorphisms within and between founder populations of Ceratitis capitata (Wied. from Argentina.

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    Alicia Basso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata (DIPTERA: Tephritidae is a major agricultural pest in Argentina. One main cause for the success of non-contaminant control programs based on genetic strategies is compatibility between natural and laboratory germplasms. A comprehensive characterization of the fruit fly based on genetic studies and compatibility analysis was undertaken on two founder populations from the provinces of Buenos Aires and Mendoza, used in pioneering sterile male technique control programmes in our country. The locations are 1,000 km apart from each other. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the genetic composition of both populations based on cytological, physiological and morphological characterization. Compatibility studies were performed in order to determine the presence of isolation barriers. Results indicate that the Buenos Aires germplasm described previously is partially different from that of the Mendoza population. Both laboratory colonies are a reservoir of mutational and cytological polymorphisms. Some sexual chromosome variants such as the XL and the YL resulting from attachment of a B-chromosome to the X-chromosome or Y-chromosome behave as a lethal sex-linked factor. Our results also show incompatibility between both germplasms and pre-zygotic isolation barriers between them. Our evidence is consistent with the fact that polymorphisms are responsible for the lack of compatibility. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic control mechanism should be directly produced in the germplasm of the target population in order to favour mating conditions. This is an additional requirement for the biological as well as economic success of control programs based on genetic strategies such as the sterile insect technique. The analysis of representative samples also revealed natural auto-control mechanisms which could be used in modifying pest population dynamics.

  4. Cryopreservation of Embryos of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Rajamohan, Arun; Kyritsis, Georgios A.; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Haq, Ihsan ul; Targovska, Asya; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM) approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and environment-friendly manner. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSS), such as the Vienna 8 strain, has been played a major role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the cost of SIT programs. However, mass rearing, extensive inbreeding, possible bottleneck phenomena and hitch-hiking effects might pose major risks for deterioration and loss of important genetic characteristics of domesticated insect. In the present study, we present a modified procedure to cryopreserve the embryos of the medfly Vienna 8 GSS based on vitrification and used this strain as insect model to assess the impact of the cryopreservation process on the genetic structure of the cryopreserved insects. Forty-eight hours old embryos, incubated at 24°C, were found to be the most suitable developmental stage for cryopreservation treatment for high production of acceptable hatch rate (38%). Our data suggest the absence of any negative impact of the cryopreservation process on egg hatch rate, pupation rates, adult emergence rates and stability of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) character on two established cryopreserved lines (flies emerged from cryopreserved embryos), named V8-118 and V8-228. Taken together, our study provides an optimized procedure to cryopreserve the medfly Vienna 8 GSS and documents the absence of any negative impact on the genetic structure and quality of the strain. Benefits and sceneries for utilization of this technology to support operational SIT projects are discussed in this paper. PMID:27537351

  5. Cryopreservation of Embryos of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Rajamohan, Arun; Kyritsis, Georgios A; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Targovska, Asya; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Abd-Alla, Adly M M

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM) approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and environment-friendly manner. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSS), such as the Vienna 8 strain, has been played a major role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the cost of SIT programs. However, mass rearing, extensive inbreeding, possible bottleneck phenomena and hitch-hiking effects might pose major risks for deterioration and loss of important genetic characteristics of domesticated insect. In the present study, we present a modified procedure to cryopreserve the embryos of the medfly Vienna 8 GSS based on vitrification and used this strain as insect model to assess the impact of the cryopreservation process on the genetic structure of the cryopreserved insects. Forty-eight hours old embryos, incubated at 24°C, were found to be the most suitable developmental stage for cryopreservation treatment for high production of acceptable hatch rate (38%). Our data suggest the absence of any negative impact of the cryopreservation process on egg hatch rate, pupation rates, adult emergence rates and stability of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) character on two established cryopreserved lines (flies emerged from cryopreserved embryos), named V8-118 and V8-228. Taken together, our study provides an optimized procedure to cryopreserve the medfly Vienna 8 GSS and documents the absence of any negative impact on the genetic structure and quality of the strain. Benefits and sceneries for utilization of this technology to support operational SIT projects are discussed in this paper. PMID:27537351

  6. New genetic tools for improving SIT in Ceratitis capitata: embryonic lethality and sperm marking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetelig, Marc F.; Wimmer, Ernst A. [Georg-August-University, Gottingen (Germany). Johann-Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology. Gottingen Center for Molecular Biosciences; Scolari, Francesca; Gasperi, Giuliano [Universita di Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Handler, Ernst A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    Environment friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied effectively as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) for Ceratitis capitata since 1970s. Nevertheless improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of AW-IPM. Transgenic approaches should increase and widen the applicability of such programmes to different pest species. In this respect two major strategies are followed: First an approach to cause sterility was designed without interfering with spermatogenesis to maintain males and their sperm as competitive as possible. We followed a strategy, which is based on the expression of a lethal factor under the control of a promoter that is active at early blastoderm stages. The system employs the ectopic expression of a hyperactive pro apoptotic gene that causes embryo-specific lethality when driven by the tetracycline-controlled trans activator tTA under the regulation of a cellularization gene enhancer/promoter. The system has been tested successfully in Drosophila melanogaster (Horn and Wimmer 2003). We tried the direct transfer of the Drosophila system to Ceratitis capitata by injecting the respective constructs that carry Drosophila-derived promoters. Unfortunately, the cellularization specific promoters from Drosophila seem not functional in Ceratitis. Therefore, the corresponding enhancers/promoters from Ceratitis were isolated and subsequently the tTA was brought independently under the control of each enhancer/promoter region. These constructs were injected in Ceratitis for further evaluation. Second, we have engineered a medfly strain carrying a sperm marking system. This strain carries two fluorescent markers. One (turboGFP) marker is under the control of the spermatogenesis specific b2-tubulin promoter from Ceratitis and is therefore sperm specifically expressed. The second (DsRed) is under the control of the poly ubiquitin promoter of Drosophila. Released males from this strain could be

  7. Genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), as a tool in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers a period of five years of studies on the genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), and genetic sexing. Fourteen morphological mutants were isolated during that period, including gr, ru, ro Sr, Sp, ew, br, sb and six yet unstudied mutants. Additional data were accumulated on genetic recombination between the various marked loci in males and females, and genetic maps were constructed. Recombination in males were found to be rather common in the medfly and not associated with the presence of chromosomal aberrations or with a particular chromosome. It seemed, however, that the dominant mutants that have been studied had a higher frequency of recombination in males, which almost matched the recombination levels encountered in the females. Initial steps towards the construction of genetic sexing strains were conducted. Selection for resistance to certain chemicals (potassium sorbate, Avermectin and Cyromazine) was carried out with limited success. Lines with high immunity to the three chemicals were established, and the mode of inheritance to Cyromazine and potassium sorbate was studied. Indications were that Cyromazine resistance was recessive and governed by a single gene whereas potassium sorbate resistance seemed to be a quantitative trait. (author). 14 refs, 8 tabs

  8. Evaluation of a white female pupa genetic sexing strain of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), under selection procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During seven consecutive generations of mass rearing of a white female, brown male, genetic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), isolated at Seibersdorf (T:Y(wp+)30C, hereafter referred to as SWFP), only eggs produced during oviposition days 7-9 (adult age of 9-11 days, respectively) were seeded into the larval medium. Data on the quality of the various life stages were compared with similar data from the 'Sohag' normal colour strain collected throughout 1987. The Sohag strain was mass reared at the FAO/IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory from October 1983 until December 1987 when it was replaced by the SWFP strain. The mean amount of eggs collected daily per large colony cage of SWFP ranged between 40 mL and 62 mL in the successive generations, as compared to about 105 mL for for Sohag strain. Egg hatch in the SWFP successive generations varied between 71% and 76% as compared to about 85% for Sohag. Successful larval development in the artificial medium (percentage pupae from hatched eggs) fluctuated between 30% and 50%, while the average recovery in the Sohag strain was about 50%. Pupal size in the SWFP successive generations was always higher than in Sohag, i.e. 5.6 to 5.9 versus approx. 5.3 (size 5 on pupal day 4 corresponds to about 8.2 mg). Breakdown of the strain, as measured by the percentage of females emerging from brown pupae of the two highest larval collection days, was very low; increasing to only 1,2% by generation 7. Adult emergence and flight ability improved with the successive generations of SWFP from 64% to about 90% and from 50% to about 75%, respectively, while adult emergence and flight ability in the Sohag strain were around 93% and 90%, respectively. (author). 12 refs, 1 tab

  9. Development of sexing mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata through manipulation of radiation-induced conditional lethals and other genetic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African populations of Ceratitis capitata (Kenya and Reunion Isl.) and two Mediterranean ones (Sardinia and Procida Isl.) have been studied for genetic variability at 25 loci by electrophoresis. Parameters using gene frequencies indicate the presence of substantial geographic heterogeneity. The major part of this heterogeneity is attributable to genetic drift and is correlated with the dispersion of medfly from the source area of the species (Subsaharan Africa) to the periphery. Kenya has all the properties of a native population, as gene flow estimates, in terms of number of immigrant per generation, is significant between Kenya and the derived Mediterranean populations, supporting the hypothesis of a recent colonization. But part of the geographic heterogeneity is related to the presence of fixed alleles in Reunion population which appears particularly differentiated, although it maintains the genetic attributes of the ancestral population. Selection may have played an important role in the differentiation of this population. 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Genetic method for separation of males and females of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), based on pupal color dimorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) were irradiated with 60 Gy gamma radiation and subsequently the emergent males were crossed with females of recessive mutants on white pupa color (w p/w p). A strain with a translocation between autosomal chromosome number 5, carrier of w p+ dominant gene, and Y chromosome was isolated. By this way the T:Y (w p+) 70 strain with sexual dimorphism based on pupal color was obtained. Cytological examination of the males was carried out to confirm the translocation. The genetic stability was monitored under laboratory conditions during 21 generations. The rates of contaminant females emerged from brown pupae were 0,96 to 4,5% and for males from white pupae these rates were 0,26 to 0,66%. These values presented no definite increase tendency. The origin of contaminant genotypes and the potential for utilization of the sterile male techniques are discussed. (author)

  11. Host status of avocado ('Hass') to Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, J

    2009-08-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis rosa Karsch, and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are pests potentially associated with avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in South Africa. The aim of the study was to determine the host status of 'Hass' avocado to these tephritid pests over 4 yr. Unpunctured harvested avocado was exposed to fruit flies in the laboratory under no-choice conditions for 24 h. In field studies, each species was exposed for 48 h under no-choice conditions to avocado attached to the tree. Fruit was harvested immediately, 4, 8 and 18 d after exposure. In all the experiments, the fruit was incubated at 25 degrees C for 49 d after harvest. Hass avocado fruit was sourced from pack-houses throughout the avocado production areas and inspected for any internal pests. Similar inspections were done from 2005 to 2008 at arrival in Europe following standard export procedures. Analysis indicated that Hass avocado is a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and a poor but potential host for C. rosa and C. cosyra. No requirement for a risk mitigation treatment for C. capitata on South African Hass avocado was found. Fruit sampling data did not produce any infested fruit, suggesting that natural conditions and/or existing procedures functioning in a systems approach are likely to mitigate the quarantine risks of C. rosa and C. cosyra on Hass avocado in South Africa.

  12. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J. B.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8–1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8–1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8–1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8–1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  13. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polychronis Rempoulakis

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS that has a white pupae (wp and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C. The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2 strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  14. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taret, Gustavo; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were equally

  15. Chemical Stimulants and Genetic Sexing Boost the SIT: Evidence from Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera Dorsalis in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and chemical means have been developed to significantly improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against tephritid fruit flies in recent years. Beginning with the development of genetic sexing techniques some 25 years ago, all-male strains of several species of fruit flies h...

  16. Quality measurements of the gamma irradiated medfly ceratitis capitata wied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damage caused by the mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to Egyptian agriculture is increasing mainly because farmers are finding it harder to choose suitable means of control in view of the difficulties frequently associated with the use of insecticides, such as undesirable residues and biological disequilibrium. Recently, the sterile-insect technique has opened up new possibilities of this insect control in egypt. The use of sterile insects to eradicate or suppress populations of pests was conceived by knipling,(1955) and applied successfully for the first time in 1954 against the screw-worm fly, cochliomyia hominivorax (cocquerel) on the island of curacao (Baumhover et al., 1955) and then in 1958 and 1959 in the south-eastern united states of america (knipling, 1960)

  17. Behavioral effects of plant essential oils on Ceratitis capitata males – risk versus reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils have a number of roles in insect pest management. For male Ceratitis capitata, these roles include male-targeted attractants for traps and aromatherapy exposure for increased mating success. Essential oils that affect C. capitata behavior may be from either host or non-host pl...

  18. Export of commercial 'Hass' avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarantine restrictions due to the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), prevent Argentina from exporting avocados, Persea americana Miller, cv. Hass, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata, which cou...

  19. Opportunities to improve competitiveness in male sexual strain has genetic sex determination Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of TIS program depends essentially on the capacity of the sterile males to compete with fertile males to couple with wild females. This program becomes more and more efficient if one good mastery its various factors, mainly the performances of males of the origin of ceratite in genetic sexing within the production unit of sterile flies of the National Center of the Sciences and Nuclear Technologies. Researches turned to the improvement of the competitiveness of the sterile males by the addition of bacteria in the nourishing circles of breeding. By basing itself on the symbiotic relations between the present bacteria in the bowel of the ceratite, we adopted, in this present work, a method of breeding which could improve the quality of the males of genetic sexing GSS. This method consists in introducing certain beneficial bacteria in the ceratite (Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aerogenes) into the middle of breeding according to various combinations. The effect of these bacteria was analyzed by making various tests of quality control (weight, emergence, capacity in the flight, the longevity) and of reproduction (competitiveness, lasted mating, latent period). It turns out that the addition of Enterobacteriaceae in the middle of breeding outstandingly improved the percentage of emergence of the males of the GSS. Besides, these bacteria contributed to the improvement of the competitiveness of these males with regard to those of the other circles. Besides, the addition of Pseudomonas aerogenes in the middle of breeding gave the best latent period to the males GSS. We also noticed that the association of Enterobacteriaceae with Pseudomonas aerogenes has a positive effect on the capacity in the flight of the males of the GSS and their duration of mating.

  20. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Scolari, Francesca; Ludvik M Gomulski; Gabrieli, Paolo; Manni, Mosè; Savini, Grazia; Gasperi, Giuliano; Anna R Malacrida

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unra...

  1. Hermes-mediated germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, K; Stamenova, A; Pinkerton, A C; Franz, G; Robinson, A S; Gariou-Papalexiou, A; Zacharopoulou, A; O'Brochta, D A; Atkinson, P W

    2001-04-01

    We report the use of the Hermes transposable element for germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Hermes was able to genetically transform this insect at an estimated frequency between 0.6 and 1.1%, which is comparable to the transformation frequencies obtained for this species when using other transposable elements. Hermes integrates into the medfly genome by a cut-and-paste mechanism and the sequences integrated into the genome are delimited by the terminal nucleotides of the Hermes inverted terminal repeats. Integration resulted in the generation of 8 bp target site duplications, the sequences of which conformed to the target site duplications generated by hAT element transposition in insects. The Hermes element is one additional genetic tool that can be deployed in manipulating and characterizing the medfly genome. PMID:11422511

  2. The use of kaolin to control Ceratitis capitata in organic citrus groves.

    OpenAIRE

    LO VERDE, G; Caleca, V; LO VERDE, 
V

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera Tephritidae), is the key pest in some organically managed citrus orchards in Sicily. The effectiveness of processed kaolin (Surround WP) for control of C. capitata damage was tested in field trials carried out in 2003-2004 on two early ripening citrus species: satsuma (Citrus unshiu Markow.) and clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.). Although the number of males captured in trimedlure baited traps was high in both yea...

  3. Status of the control of mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (WIED.) using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note presents the importance of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in the world especially in the med east region including egypt. Evaluation of the control methods used and the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a successful and safe method for the fly eradication or control in many countries are considered. Moreover, the important requirements for a successful SIT programme and the trial for improvement of this technique are discussed including the improvement of the larval rearing media, male only release, trapping and attracting systems of the adult fly, and the current research on genetic sexing for elimination of females that cause great losses to after release

  4. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Gerald; Zacharopoulou Antigone; Caceres Carlos; Schetelig Marc F; Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dep...

  5. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications.

  6. Biology studies and improvement of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) mass trapping control technique

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrubia María, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (mosca de la fruita), està considerada a nivell mundial com una de les plagues més destructives de fruits degut a la seva elevada capacitat de causar danys en la producció, la seva distribució global i al seu ampli rang d‟hostes. S‟ha desenvolupat un model eficaç de control integrat de plagues (IPM), que ha estat acceptat a Europa com estratègia de protecció vegetal per a una agricultura sostenible. L‟objectiu del present treball va ser l‟...

  7. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  8. Isolation of strains of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal biological activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is to study the effect of toxins (δ-endotoxins) extracted from strains of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from the mud on the fly Sabkhat Dejoumi Ceratitis capitata, a pest of citrus and fruit trees. Among 51 isolated tested, 15 showed a very significant insecticidal activity, characterized by mortality rates exceeding 80 pour cent. These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of Bt revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by strains of Bt for large scale application.

  9. The Process of Intromission in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Eberhard

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The distiphallus of the male of Ceratitis capitata is folded back 180° onto the basiphallus during the early stages of intromission, and is then unfolded within the female. Repeated folding and unfolding may occur within the female. Two membranous sacs on the distiphallus are capable of rhythmic cycles of inflation and deflation. Inflations of the sac near the base of the distiphallus probably help propel the aedeagus deeper into the female, along with periodic stiffening of the basiphallus; inflation of the larger, distal sac may drive the genital rod (which does not transfer sperm into the ventral receptacle.

  10. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  11. Vitality Improvement of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied 1- Measured by using dehydrogenase Enzyme Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study searches for the improvement vitality of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Through the induction of a specific variance (mutation) in the genetic material. Several types of treatments that were thought to cause this mutation were used, as IGR's, temperature, formaldehyde, colchicine, alcohols, several types of larval rearing media and gamma-rays. Generally, the activities of the energy enzymes alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH) enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) enzyme, when used as a direct measure for the fly vitality, increased due to treatments of the egg stage by the previously mentioned treatments specially by the usage of rice hulls in the larval rearing medium alone or followed by irradiation of the pupal stage with 90 Gy

  12. Applying GIS software to monitor adult Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) behaviour in Terceira Island, Azores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The capabilities of Geographic Information System (GIS) in our days are well-known and it has numerous applications in many areas. Monitoring Ceratitis capitata adult dispersion is very important because this pest is spreading onto many cultures causing severe losses in orchards production. Knowing the spread capabilities of C. capitata it is important to evaluate the areas, which are more affected by this pest, its population dynamics and its seasonal presence. To monitor the C. capitata adult population, a network of Jackson and Tephri-traps was installed using a GPS in three fruit production areas of Terceira Island. The installation of this network was integrated in the INTERFRUTA project since January 2004 and the goal of it was to study the evolution C. capitata adult dispersion using GIS, under ESRI software, ArcView 3.2. To perform spatial analysis regarding the data from the network traps, the spatial analysis extension was used and applied the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method with a grid of 20m. A digital model of terrain was also used in order to cross-reference the information from the network traps and the topographic information. This software has demonstrated to be very useful to identify the problematic areas, as well as, to study the C. capitata dispersion behaviour. The results of spatial analysis in ArcView show some dispersion over the three zones, with a remarkable concentration of this pest between the 0 and 100 meters of altitude. With a three-dimensional analysis, it is possible to see that C. capitata adults have a preference for areas located in some topographic depressions, which apparently give them some climatic protection. This could be understood as a behaviour indicator for protection against the bad weather. This specific behaviour and the host type, as well as the ripening fruit evolution, could explain the adult population dynamics registered in the studied areas. (author)

  13. Development of a transgenic sexing system based on female-specific embryonic lethality in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is more efficient and cost-effective when only sterile males are released. A female-specific lethality system based on a female-specifically spliced intron was developed for transgenic sexing in Ceratitis capitata (Fu et al., 2007) possibly to overcome the fitness ...

  14. Influence of methoprene and protein on survival, maturation and sexual performance of male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), like many other polifagous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae), adopts a lek as mating system. The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires the release of sterile males able to survive on the field, to compete with wild males, and attrac...

  15. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  16. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries.

  17. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries. PMID:22928296

  18. Transcriptome analysis in Ceratitis capitata to unveil genes involved in ageing-maturation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. San Andrés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is widely used in integrated programmes against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae. Information on the age distribution of insects, and more particularly, the knowledge of wild female reproductive status (mature or not at the time of the sterile male release is one of the key factors for the success of the SIT. In recent years, sequencing analysis has become an important tool in molecular biology. In this work we present a genome-wide expression analysis based on SSH (substractive sequence hybridization and EST (expressed sequence tag sequencing and macroarray expression analysis to identify signature genes related to the ageing-maturing process in C. capitata, leading to the successful identification of new putative candidate genes of reproductive status in medfly that would serve as molecular markers for ageing. We have sorted out 94 unigenes from 873 single-pass ESTs, of which 57% have homology with known genes. Ageing-maturing process in C. capitata presents a marked expression pattern accompanied by the increase of transcription level of genes involved in reproduction (vitellogenins, chorion proteins and male-specific serum proteins. Other identified cDNAs (43% with a differential expression pattern would be also candidates but deserve further studies, as they belong to the unknown function class.

  19. Sterile Males of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as Disseminators of Beauveria Bassiana Conidia for IPM Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), males were evaluated as vectors to spread Beauveria bassiana (Bals) conidia to wild C. capitata populations under field conditions. The inoculated sterile males were released by air, using the chilled adult technique over 7000 ha of coffee growing in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Central America. The impact of releases was determined using dry traps baited with a food attractant. The effects of these releases on Apis mellifera, Linnaeus (honey bee), Hypothenemus hampei, Ferrari (coffee berry borer) and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (Oudeman) were also evaluated. Inoculated sterile males were able to transmit fungal spores to 44% of the wild C. capitata flies captured in traps, which likely were infected through intra- and intersexual interactions during leks, mating or mating attempts. There was no transmission of the fungal spores to non- target insect species such as coffee berry borer, honey bees or varroa. We conclude that sterile males of Mediterranean fruit fly inoculated with B. bassiana can act as effective vectors of conidia to wild populations, constituting a safe, environmentally friendly and selective alternative for suppressing the medfly under a Sterile Insect Technique-based IPM approach. (author)

  20. A new mechanised cultural practice to reduce Ceratitis capitata Wied. populations in area-wide IPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chueca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae, affects most of the fruit species grown in temperate and tropical climate regions, causing significant economic damage. One of the classical cultural strategies against this pest is to gather and bury the remaining fruit after harvest, but this is economically unfeasible today. Wood shredders already available in current Spanish groves can be used to grind or crush fruits laying on the soil as an alternative to this practice and to the use of pesticides in area-wide integrated pest management (IPM. With the purpose of evaluating this alternative, the initial step of this study was to perform laboratory tests to assess the efficacy of crushing and grinding as a method for controlling medflies. The results showed that grinding was 78% effective against larval stages, while crushing resulted in a 17% efficacy, leading us to choose the first alternative. As a second step, the operational parameters (type of cutting tool, shaft rotation speed and tractor speed of the wood shredders were adjusted to efficiently carry out this practice under field conditions. Finally, the effect of the mechanised grinding of fallen fruit on C. capitata populations was evaluated for two consecutive years in commercial citrus orchards. The results showed a significant 27-46% reduction in C. capitata populations the following spring, thus demonstrating that the newly proposed mechanised alternative can be included in the current area-wide IPM of the pest in Spain.

  1. Physiological mechanisms of dehydration tolerance contribute to the invasion potential of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) relative to its less widely distributed congeners

    OpenAIRE

    Weldon, Christopher W; Boardman, Leigh; Marlin, Danica; Terblanche, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly invasive species now with an almost cosmopolitan distribution. Two other damaging, polyphagous and closely-related species, the marula fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and the Natal fly, Ceratitis rosa Karsch, are not established outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, adult water balance traits and nutritional body composition were measured in all three species at different te...

  2. Insecticidal effects of essential oils extracted from aromatic plants on Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The excessive use of chemical pesticides to control agricultural pests is becoming alarming. The objective of this study is to search for biopesticides of plant origin that could be used to control one of the major pest of fruit production; the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.). A colony of the Lebanese wild strain of this insect was reared under laboratory condition to provide biological material. The insecticidal activity of the essential oils extracted from aromatic plants in Lebanon was assessed. The tested plants are: Foeniculum vulgare, Thymbra spicata, Artemisia herba alba, Origanum syriacum, Ruta chalepensis, Lavandula stoechas, Salvia fruticosa, Mentha microphylla, Juniperus oxycedrus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis, Laurus nobilis and Ocimum gratissimum. Results show that essential oils isolated from F. vulgare, T. spicata, A. herba alba, O. syriacum and R. chalepensis have promising insecticidal potential. (author)

  3. Diversity among Bacillus thuringiensis active against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures were developed to screen rapidly isolates of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis against adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and simultaneously characterize its active agents on the basis of their water solubility and heat stability. Fermentation products in solution, in suspension or dried were bioassayed. Heat stable, soluble exotoxins were the most frequently found active agents; some strains produced exotoxins that precipitated and their activity was found in the sediment fraction of fermentation beers. Insoluble heat labile agents were found that upon subsequent preparation were identified as active spores. The activity of spores from different isolates was different. One isolate produced endotoxin that, although inactive when bioassayed alone, had synergistic activity when combined with spores. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Isolation and identification of some Bacillus thuringiensis strains with insecticidal activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present work is to study the effect of toxins (delta-endotoxins), extracted from different strains of Bacillus thuringiensis on Ceratitis capitata, a devastating of citrus and fruit trees. Strains of B. thuringiensis were isolated from the mud of Sebket Sejoumi. Among 70 isolates tested, 15 showed a significant identicalness activity in which 5 isolates led to mortality rates ≥ 90 pour cent . These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of B. thuringiensis. Analysis of proteins profiles of different isolates of B. thuringiensis revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by B. thuringiensis strains for large scale application.

  5. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  6. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orono, Luis E.; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. van; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Martin, Cristina B.; Schliserman, Pablo; Ovruski, Sergio M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  7. Population suppression and sterility rates induced by variable sex ratio, sterile insect releases of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterile insect releases of a pupal color-based genetic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were made during the summer and fall of 1991 in coffee plantations in Kauai, HI. Four treatments compared with respect to trap recapture and sterility rates induced in native populations were: (1) genetic sexing strain (≍99% males = males only), (2) genetic sexing strain (males and females), (3) genetic sexing strain (high % ♀ ♀), and (4) standard strain (males and females). Each week either 2 liters (≍120,000) of irradiated pupae for the bisexual populations or 1 liter of irradiated pupae for the unisexual populations were dye-marked and ground released in buckets. Adult flies emerged and dispersed throughout individual (≍1 ha) coffee fields. Flies were trapped weekly in standard dry traps or in liquid protein traps. Coffee berry samples were collected weekly to determine egg sterility rates, and females trapped in liquid protein were dissected for presence of sperm and sperm type. A new technique was developed to type sperm as either sterile (irradiated) or wild in mated females. An estimate of sterile fly competitiveness based on relative degrees of egg hatch suppression indicated an overall three- to five-fold increase in competitiveness of the males-only strain compared with the standard bisexual strain. Significantly, however, this difference even widened to a qualitative degree by the end of the test

  8. Estudio de la actividad biocida de aceites procedentes de plantas aromáticas sobre Tetranychus urticae y Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Laborda, R.; Manzano, I.; Gamón, M.; Gavidia, Isabel; Pérez-Bermúdez, Pedro; Boluda Hernandez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Se ha estudiado la actividad biocida de aceites esenciales extraídos de plantas aromáticas como el romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) y la salvia (Salvia officinalis L.) sobre la araña roja (Tetranychus urticae Koch) y la mosca de la fruta (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann). El aceite esencial de salvia a la concentración del 1% se mostró capaz de atraer adultos de C. capitata. La mayor actividad frente a la araña roja se observó por parte del aceite esencial de salvia, provocando, con gran rapid...

  9. Population Fluctuation of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a Function of Altitude in Eastern Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, S; Montoya, P; Ruiz-Montoya, L; Villaseñor, A; Valle, A; Enkerlin, W; Liedo, P

    2016-08-01

    Population fluctuations of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were evaluated over a period of 12 mo in four altitudinal strata (400-750, 750-1,100, 1,100-1,450, and 1,450-1,800 meters above sea level, masl) in Eastern Guatemala. Within each altitudinal range, sampling plots were established in coffee plantations and adjacent areas, in which Jackson traps were set and baited with Trimedlure. Coffee berries and other host fruits were collected. Population density was lowest at the 400-750 masl stratum and highest at 1,450-1,800 masl. At every altitudinal range, the fluctuations of the pest were associated mainly with the availability of ripe coffee berries as a primary host. From 750-1,450 masl, the pest was also associated with the availability of sweet orange and mandarins in commercial and backyard orchards. The highest densities of the pest were recorded in the dry season. Citrus were the main alternate host where ripe coffee berries were not available. This knowledge on population dynamics of C. capitata will contribute to develop more effective area-wide pest management strategies including the use of sterile insects, natural enemies, and bait sprays. PMID:27247307

  10. Infestation of grape Vitis vinifera by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sub-medium Sao Francisco valley, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibe, Tuffi C.; Viana, Rodrigo E.; Damasceno, Itala Cruz; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil). Distrito Industrial do Sao Francisco; Nascimento, Antonio S., E-mail: antnasc@cnpmf.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Paranhos, Beatriz A.J.; Haji, Francisca Nemaura P., E-mail: bjodao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Carvalho, Raimundo S. [Agencia de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the infestation level in grapes, Vitis vinifera, by the medfly,Ceratitis capitata in the Sao Francisco River Valley. The adult population was monitored with Jackson trap baited with trimedlure. Samples of grapes for larval infestation assessment were taken along three months, with a total of 116 kg. The average FTD (flies/trap/day) for medfly males was 0.26. The number of pupae obtained from the fruit samples was 471; 287 adults emerged (60.4%), all Ceratitis capitata. The infestation level was 4.0 pupa/kg of fresh fruit. We conclude that grape is a medfly host in SFV, occasionally causing high damage to production. (author)

  11. Laboratory evaluation of the compatibility of a new attractant contaminant device ciontaining Metarhizium anisopliae with Ceratitis capitata sterile males

    OpenAIRE

    SAN ANDRÉS AURA, VICTORIA; Ayala Mingol, Ildefonso; Abad Payá, María Del Carmen; Primo Millo, Jaime; Casteñera, P.; Moya Sanz, Mª Del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the compatibility of using the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, to be dispensed in a new attractant contaminant device (ACD), jointly with sterilized Ceratitis capitata males, as an integrated approach to control this major pest. The exposure of sterile Vienna 8 (V8) strain and wild type (WT) males to the contaminating part (infective dish) of the ACD showed similar susceptibility levels to the fungal strain (LT50 value of 4.52 ...

  12. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    João Maria Gomes Alencar de Souza; Paulo Augusto Lima-Filho; Wagner Franco Molina; Lúcia Maria de Almeida; Milson Bezerra de Gouveia; Francisco Pepino de Macêdo; Raul Alberto Laumann; Beatriz Aguiar Jordão Paranhos

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonic...

  13. Producción masiva y simultánea de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae y parasitoides Dichasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Massive and simultaneous production of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae males and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia N. López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la línea de sexado genético «Cast191» las hembras de Ceratitis capitata son homocigotas para el gen slow , lo que reduce su velocidad de desarrollo; los machos son heterocigotas y muestran una velocidad de desarrollo normal. Esta característica permitió producir, con Cast191, machos estériles por un lado, y parasitoides criados sobre las larvas remanentes por el otro. Nuestro objetivo con este trabajo fue producir ambos insumos simultáneamente y a una escala mayor que hasta ahora. Además, bajo estas condiciones, y en un intento por aumentar la separación entre sexos, se aplicó a las larvas del primer estadío un pulso de 15º C, durante 1 ó 2 días, luego del cual se las mantuvo a 20º C ó 25º C, hasta que entraron al estado de pupa, luego se mantuvo todo el material a 25º C. La mejor separación de sexos, lograda con el tratamiento a 20º C sin pulso de frío, se usó para comparar la calidad del parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, criado sobre las larvas obtenidas tras la separación de los machos, con aquellos criados sobre la línea salvaje. Para ello, este tratamiento de separación fue aplicado en la cría de la mosca, y el material remanente de dieta con larvas fue expuesto al parasitoide. La tasa de parasitismo obtenida fue semejante a la hallada sobre la línea salvaje, y la tasa sexual de la F 1 del parasitoide presentó un sesgo hacia las hembras aún mayor. Se discute la factibilidad de utilizar la línea Cast191 de C. Capitata, para la producción a mayor escala de machos de mosca y para la cría masiva del parasitoide D. longicaudata.In the genetic sexing strain «Cast191», the females of Ceratitis capitata are homozygous for the mutation slow , slowing down their rate of development, and the males are heterozygous, having a normal rate of development. This feature made Cast191 capable of producing sterile males, on one hand, and parasitoids that are reared on the remaining larvae, on the other. The

  14. Avaliação da qualidade de frutos de café atacados por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae Evaluation of the quality of coffee fruit attacked by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    F.J. Cividanes

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram usadas plantas de Coffea arabica L., variedade Catuaí Vermelho, localizadas no Campus da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - USP, Piracicaba,SP, para avaliação dos danos que Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 pode causar aos frutos do cafeeiro. Os resultados mostraram que o ataque de C. capitula não causou queda prematura dos frutos, mas aumentou a queda de cerejas e foram encontradas, fortes evidências, com base na atividade da enzima polifenol oxidase e lixiviação de potássio, que cerejas atacadas podem produzir bebida de café de qualidade inferior.The present work was carried out using trees of Coffea arabica L. variety Red Catuaí grown at Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - Campus of the University of São Paulo, Piracicaba,SP. The objective was to estimate damages that Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 can cause to coffee fruits. The results showed that C.capitata did not cause premature fruit fall, but it increased berry fall. The activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase and potassium lixiviatiou give strong evidences that atacked coffee beans produce coffee beverage of inferior quality.

  15. Pupal development of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at different moisture values in four soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, F de M M; Marques, R N; Costa, M L Z; Walder, J M M; Silva, A P; Parra, J R P

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate adult emergence and duration of the pupal stage of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and emergence of the fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), under different moisture conditions in four soil types, using soil water matric potential. Pupal stage duration in C. capitata was influenced differently for males and females. In females, only soil type affected pupal stage duration, which was longer in a clay soil. In males, pupal stage duration was individually influenced by moisture and soil type, with a reduction in pupal stage duration in a heavy clay soil and in a sandy clay, with longer duration in the clay soil. As matric potential decreased, duration of the pupal stage of C. capitata males increased, regardless of soil type. C. capitata emergence was affected by moisture, regardless of soil type, and was higher in drier soils. The emergence of D. longicaudata adults was individually influenced by soil type and moisture factors, and the number of emerged D. longicaudata adults was three times higher in sandy loam and lower in a heavy clay soil. Always, the number of emerged adults was higher at higher moisture conditions. C. capitata and D. longicaudata pupal development was affected by moisture and soil type, which may facilitate pest sampling and allow release areas for the parasitoid to be defined under field conditions. PMID:22127183

  16. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Franz Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae. Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs.

  17. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author)

  18. Male courtship behavior in Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) that have received Aromatherapy with ginger root oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of previous studies that showed that exposing mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to ginger root oil ('aromatherapy') increases the likelihood of mating with wild females were confirmed. The increased male success could be due to female responses to changes in male behavior or male pheromones. There were no significant differences in the types of courtship movements executed by males with and without aromatherapy. The durations of movements also did not differ when mass-reared males were paired with mass-reared females; however, when they were paired with wild females, there were a few, small differences. Previous studies indicated that the effectiveness of the male long-distance attractant pheromone is not affected by aromatherapy, but these studies did not consider pheromones released at close range during courtship, which behavioral analyses suggest may be different. We propose the following possible explanation for the different effects of aromatherapy with different females. Selection on males under mass rearing may have altered their close-range pheromones in ways that can be remedied by aromatherapy; and only wild females respond because the pheromonal responsiveness of mass-reared females has also changed. We propose observations that could test these ideas. (author)

  19. Treatment post harvest of Citrus sinensis infested with Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albergaria, Nuno M.M. Soares de; Bortoli, Sergio A. de, E-mail: nmendes@terra.com.b, E-mail: bortoli@fcav.unesp.b [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Depto. de Fitossanidade; Doria, Hayda O.S., E-mail: hosd75@terra.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Biologia; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: varthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente

    2009-07-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eggs and larvae (first, second, third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. Fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: third instar larvae are more tolerant to irradiation treatments; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from all immature stages irradiated. (author)

  20. Development of an embryonic lethality system for transgenic SIT in the fruit pest, Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    pests. We have started to inject the respective constructs into the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. In addition to trying the already established constructs that carry Drosophila-derived promoters, we have started to obtain Ceratitis genes, which are specifically expressed at the blastoderm stage. By PCRbased cDNA substractions of different embryonic stages, we isolated genes that are specifically expressed during the cellularization process. The molecular and developmental analysis of these genes will be presented. (author)

  1. SENSIBILIDADE DE OVOS DE Ceratitis capitata (WIED., 1824 IRRADIADOS EM DIETA ARTIFICIAL E EM FRUTOS DE MANGA (Mangifera indica L.

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    A RAGA

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as doses de radiação gama que impedissem a emergência de adultos de Ceratitis capitata, a partir de ovos irradiados em dieta artificial e em frutos de manga. Quinhentos ovos de 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de idade foram irradiados em cada dose. A infestação artificial de ovos ocorreu em mangas das cultivares Haden, Tommy Atkins ou Keitt. Um aumento da radioresistência de ovos foi observado durante o desenvolvimento embrionário, e para ovos de 48 horas em dieta artificial, foi estimado um Probit 9 de 24,67Gy. Não foi observada influência significativa dos frutos de manga na eficiência da irradiação dos ovos, quando comparada com os testes em dieta artificial.The objective of this study was to establish gamma radiation doses required to prevent emergence of Ceratitis capitata (Wied. adults, from irradiated eggs in artificial diet and mango fruits. Six-, twelve-, twenty-four- and fourty-eight-hour-old eggs were used. Artificial infestation by C. capitata was carried out in mangoes of `Haden', `Tommy Atkins' and `Keitt' cultivars. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed as a function of the embryonic development and a Probit 9 of 24.67Gy was estimated for 48-hour-old eggs in artificial diet. No significant influence of mango fruits was found on the efficacy of irradiation.

  2. Insecticidal Activity of Basil Oil, trans-Anethole, Estragole, and Linalool to Adults of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and B. cucurbitae (Cocquillett) are among the species of economic significance. Their management has primarily relied on the use of food baits, male attractants and their combinations with insecticides. Basil o...

  3. Additional tests on the efficacy of ginger root oil in enhacing the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe; termed GRO hereafter) increases the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This result suggests that pre-release exposure of sterile ...

  4. Development of attractant systems for trapping female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of developing a system of attractants and trapping to optimize the capture of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) as well as other fruit flies, six experiments were carried out during the period 1994-1997, in a sterile-insect release zone in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Relating to the system of attractants, the evaluation focused on the comparison of food attractants (i.e. ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine) with standard attractants, such as Trimedlure and liquid hydrolyzed protein. For the trapping system, dry traps (Jackson trap, Open bottom dry trap, etc.) as well as wet traps (McPhail trap, Tephri trap, etc.) were tested alternately with the different kinds of attractants. The experiments were performed in agrosystems of coffee and groves of citrus and mango. Results consistently showed that a combination of ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine was the best for the capture of female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) when used in traps such as the OBDT and the plastic McPhail trap (IPMT), while for Anastrepha spp., the McPhail trap baited with liquid hydrolyzed protein still appears to be the best option, although the combination of ammonium acetate with putrescine was quite consistent in the trapping of A. obliqua and A. ludens in traps such as the IPMT. (author)

  5. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.Influência de diferentes frutos tropicais em aspectos biológicos e comportamentais da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Estudos em Ceratitis capitata, uma praga agrícola, pode auxiliar

  6. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  7. Ammonium Acetate Enhances the Attractiveness of a Variety of Protein-Based Baits to Female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Smith, Trevor R; Fox, Abbie J; Vargas, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used by female fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally based control strategies such as food-based lures and insecticidal baits targeting pestiferous fruit fly species. In field cage studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioral response of laboratory-reared male and female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to seven commercially available protein baits and to beer waste, a relatively inexpensive and readily available substance. Each material was tested alone or in combination with either ammonium acetate or ammonium carbonate. For the majority of baits evaluated, the presence of ammonium acetate, but not ammonium carbonate, elicited a significantly greater level of response of female C. capitata compared with the protein baits alone. The addition of ammonium acetate to selected baits increased bait attractiveness to a level comparable with that elicited by the most widely used spinosad-based protein bait, GF-120. Our findings indicate that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait's effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression.

  8. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) and Improvement of The Sterile-Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population suppression success of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) using sterile insect technique (SIT) depends mainly upon: the release of male only, ability of sterilized males to compete with wild males in mating with wild females and discrimination of released male flies from the wild population. The effect of gamma irradiation doses on the male sterility was evaluated, to determine the level of induced sterility for achieving the balance between sterility and mating competitiveness. For optimal sterilizing dose, 8 different doses of gamma irradiation were tested. The results revealed that the doses 80, 90 and 100 Gy were the effective doses for SIT. In a field cage experiment, the mating ability, mating competitiveness and sexual compatibility were determined for the three effective sterilizing doses. The indices of sexual isolation (ISI) and the relative sterile index (RSI) indicated that mating efficiency of the dose 80 Gy was better than the doses 90 and 100 Gy. Obtained results also revealed that the competitiveness of 80 Gy irradiated males was higher than either 90 or 100 Gy irradiated males. Mutant strains, i.e. white eye white pupae strain (WeWp strain), male linked translocated strain (T strain), temperature sensitive lethal strain (tsl strain) and sergeant 2 strain (Sr2 strain) were reared and maintained for the construction of genetic sexing strain Vienna 8- Sr2 strain (GSS V8-Sr2). The results of biological characters of GSSs revealed that, the 3 sexing strains (T, Sr2 and V8 strains) which have Y- auto some translocation were less productive than the bisexual strain (BSS). Also, the development of tsl and GSS V 8-Sr2 strains was delayed compared with the BSS strain. The stability of GSS V8-Sr2 strain in the filter rearing was higher than in the mass rearing throughout 12 successive generations. The use of recombinant DNA to develop the two genetically modified strains GMSs (V8-2) and (V8-4) using insect transformation offers

  9. Biology of Aphaereta sp. n (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae), a new larval parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Tânia Isabel Peres

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado - Biotecnologia em Controlo Biológico. As espécies que pertencem ao género Aphaereta estão distribuídas praticamente por todo o mundo, e vivem associadas a dípteros sinantrópicos e outros dípteros. Foi encontrado um total de 12 indivíduos, da população em estudo, em duas pupas de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), estes indivíduos são endo-parasitóides gregários larva-pupa. Foram estimados pela primeira vez os parâmetros biológicos de Aphaereta s...

  10. Transcriptional profiles of mating-responsive genes from testes and male accessory glands of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

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    Francesca Scolari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male

  11. Management of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), in the Gharb area in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Gharb is one of the most fertile regions of Morocco. The annual rainfall is 500 mm and the temperature varies from 11deg C in January to 24 deg.. C in July-August. Fruit production in the Gharb area covers 16,544 ha and generates an annual production of 466,680 Tonnes. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly); Ceratitis capitata is a major pest of cultivated and wild fruit trees. It causes 11,000 Tonnes/year of losses in citrus production and prevents export to main markets. Early varieties, such as clementine and navel are subject to higher infestation than late varieties like maroc late. The monitoring using Maghreb-Med trap has confirmed those results. Management of medfly is solely based on chemical treatments. Currently, and in order to determine the need for treatment, growers use Maghreb Med traps baited with trimedlure and a toxicant. At 2 to 3 flies/trap/day, a mixture of a proteinous bait attractant and a pyrethrenoid insecticide is sprayed in every fourth row. However, in the period of high activity, growers may treat every row using pesticide only. The number of applications can reach 10 per cycle of production, which leads to an average cost of USD 220/ha. This generates an increase of production costs, elimination of non-target organisms, toxic effects on consumers and the environment, and finally denial of export certificate because of high chemical residues. The DPVCTRF; the Moroccan official organisation for plant protection; in collaboration with GTZ; the German technical co-operation organisation, developed a management programme based on spot treatment. It consists of the application of a mixture of proteinous baits and pesticide on a weekly basis, using only 16ml/ha, as a spot treatment applied to the lower foliage of the tree. The spraying is applied from early fruit maturation until three weeks after harvest. This method allowed to decrease the cost of controlling medfly to an average of USD 30 /ha, instead of USD 220/ha, using

  12. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, João Maria Gomes Alencar; de Lima-Filho, Paulo Augusto; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Almeida, Lúcia Maria; de Gouveia, Milson Bezerra; de Macêdo, Francisco Pepino; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild), based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings' shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:26075293

  13. Field Estimates of Attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Methyl Eugenol in Varying Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Siderhurst, Matthew; Jang, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation, and control of invasive pests. Here, we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to estimate the relationship between distance from a trap baited with trimedlure and methyl eugenol, respectively, and probability of capture for a receptive male insect. Experiments were conducted using a grid of traps with a central release point at two sites on Hawaii Island, a Macadamia orchard on the East side of the island and a lava field on the West side. We found that for B. dorsalis and methyl eugenol there is a 65% probability of capture at ∼36 m from a single trap, regardless of habitat. For C. capitata, we found a 65% probability of capture at a distance of ∼14 m from a single trap in the orchard and 7 m in the lava field. We also present results on the spatial and temporal pattern of recaptures. The attraction data are analyzed via a hyperbolic secant-based capture probability model.

  14. Intensity of Attack Caused by Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera, Tephritidae on Mandarin along the Montenegrin Seacoast

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    Sanja Radonjić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Along the Montenegrin seacoast, all cultivated citrus species (mandarin, orange, lemon,grapefruit, fig, loquat and ziziphus were detected as host plants of the Ceratitis capitata Wiedem.Among those found, in economic sense, the most important host plant is mandarinUnšiu.Intensity of the attack were monitored on mandarin in 2003 and 2004 in localities Baošići,Lastva Grbaljska and Bar, and was determined as higher in 2003. The first symptoms ofattack were detected, depending on locality, from middle of September until beginning ofOctober, one to two months earlier then in 2004. The maximum number of larvae per fruitwere detected in October and November (average from 13.44±0.16 to 22.82±0.13. Timeof the first symptoms appearence on mandarin in September and October 2003 and in November2004, indicate on crucial importance of alternative host plants (figs and loquat forreproduction and increasing of C. capitata population, because later during a season its intensityof attack on mandarin, depend largely on their presence.

  15. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maria Gomes Alencar de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann: (1 wild males, (2 irradiated with Co-60 (steriles, and (3 irradiated (steriles and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild, based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings’ shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata.

  16. Evaluación de colores para la oviposición de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Suárez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ceratitis capitata es una de las principales plagas de la fruticultura mundial y en Argentina es la Mosca de los Frutos de mayor abundancia y distribución. El desarrollo de una trampa artificial de oviposición, puede ser una herramienta útil de monitoreo para hembras grávidas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad atrayente para la oviposición de C. capitata sobre esferas de agar de color amarillo, rojo, verde, negro y sin color; en condiciones de laboratorio. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas, siendo las esferas rojas y negras las más atractivas sobre las verdes, amarillas y sin color. En laboratorio, la mayor atracción alcanzada por el rojo y negro sustentaría la hipótesis de que el fuerte contraste respecto al fondo incrementaría la atracción de los colores más oscuros.

  17. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolated from Moroccan Argan forests soil against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoulan, Abdessamad; Elmeziane, Abdellatif

    2014-03-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major tephritid pest in Morocco. This pest survives in Moroccan forests Argania spinosa and continually invades the nearest agricultural areas. Entomopathogenic fungi are an interesting tool for fruit fly control and hold a useful alternative to conventional insecticides. However, primary selection of effective pathogens should be taken in laboratory condition prior to applying them in the field. Here, we used third late instar larvae of C. capitata to investigate the effectiveness of 15 local Beauveria bassiana isolates. Results showed that all isolates were able to infect the larval stage, producing a large mortality rate in puparia ranging from 65 to 95 % and caused significant reduction in adult emergence. The fungal treatments revealed that the mycosis occurred also in adults escaping infection as pupariating larvae. The percentage of mycosed puparia was highest in strain TAM6.2 (95 %) followed by ERS4.16 (90 %), therefore they were the most virulent. Median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) was studied for five isolates at four concentrations ranging from 10⁵ to 10⁸ conidia ml⁻¹. The results showed that the slopes of regression lines for B. bassiana ERS4.16 (slope = 0.386) and TAM6.2 (slope = 0.41) were the most important and had the lowest LC₅₀ values (2.85 × 10³ and 3.16 × 10³ conidia ml⁻¹ respectively). This investigation suggests that the soil of Argan forests contains pathogenic B. bassiana isolates and highlights for the first time their potential as biological control toward C. capitata larval stage in Morocco. PMID:24122125

  18. Disinfestation of export oranges and tangerines (Citrus spp) against medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera; Tephritidae) by gamma irradiation (Co-60)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma bean 650 cobalt-60 source was utilized for irradiation (0; 10; 50; 100; 200; 300; 400; 500; 750 and 1000 Gy) of fresh ripe fruits artificially interested by immature stages of Ceratitis capitata to determine the sterilizing and lethal doses. The sensorial and chemical analyses did not show any significant differences between the control and irradiated samples. Differences on loss of weight of oranges show that 500 and 1000 Gy doses were responsible for increasing the loss of water content. (author)

  19. comparative studies on pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb as juvenile hormones applied separately or combined with gamma radiation for controlling the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (Wied)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative studies on pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb as juvenile hormones applied separately or combined with gamma radiation were carried out for controlling ceratitis capitata. Lc 50's of the two juvenile hormones, pyriproxfen and fenoxycarb, were determined against ceratitis capitata in treated diet by continuous contact of eggs and larvae using various concentrations. The Lc 50 were 32 and 140 ppm for pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb, respectively. The resulting pupae were gamma irradiated with 90 Gy. Larval and pupal durations were insignificantly affected, pupation and adult emergence were significantly affected while adult survival was insignificantly affected when applying the two JH's. Applying pyriproxyfen alone insignificantly increased egg hatch at the concentrations used (12.5 and 25 ppm) while when fenoxycarb was applied alone egg hatch was significantly decreased at the concentration used (100 ppm). Applying both juvenile hormones each combined with gamma radiation significantly reduced egg hatch. Male mating competitiveness was significantly increased when applying pyriproxyfen at the concentration 25 Ppm. Results indicated that pyriproxyfen was more effective than fenoxycarb against the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata.1 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Relación entre tiempo de desarrollo larvario y fecundidad de la hembra en Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae Relationship between time of larval development and fecundity in the female of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny C. Manso

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la relación entre tiempo de desarrollo larvario y fecundidad en la hembra de Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, comparando individuos de una cepa salvaje, con individuos de una cepa portadora de la mutación sw , la cual provoca atrasos en el desarrollo larvario. Se observaron caracteres de la morfología del ovario y su herencia entre los segregantes, para «tiempo de desarrollo» en la progenie del cruzamiento entre mutante y silvestre. El estudio mostró que las hembras sw (- que quedan muy retrasadas en su desarrollo, tienen menos ovariolas y una distribución de tamaños de óvulos menos homogénea que las que se desarrollan antes. Se encontró asimismo que entre las larvas de tipo salvaje, las más retrasadas también producen hembras con menor número de ovariolas y menos huevos totalmente desarrollados, que las que se desarrollan antes. Tanto en las hembras sw (- como en las sw(+ , los atrasos del desarrollo obran en desmedro de la postura de huevos de las hembras que se desarrollan más tarde, efecto que se manifiesta en el número menor de ovariolas y en las diferencias del ritmo de maduración del ovario. Bajo condiciones apropiadas de cría, las hembras mutantes para sw son capaces de alcanzar la misma fecundidad que las normales.We studied the relationship between the development time in the larva stage and the resulting female fecundity, in Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann wild-type individuals compared to mutant individuals showing slow development (sw. We observed the morphology of the ovaries in the progenies of the crossing between mutant and wild-type strains, comparing females segregating by «development time». This study showed that sw(- females developing later have got less ovarioles, and a more heterogeneous distribution of ovules, than females developing earlier. It was also found that the wild type females developing late also produce lower numbers both of ovarioles and fully developed ova, than those developing

  1. Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis).; Tratamento quarentenario para Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albergaria, Nuno Miguel Mendes Soares de

    2005-07-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

  2. Importance of adult protein ingestion on the mating success of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann males (Diptera: Tephritidae); Importancia da ingestao de proteina na fase adulta para o sucesso de acasalamento dos machos de Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Dias, Vanessa S.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S., E-mail: bio.alberto@gmail.co, E-mail: vanessasidias@hotmail.co, E-mail: ibravo@ufba.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Geral

    2010-04-15

    The importance of the protein ingestion during the adult stage on the mating success of males of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann was evaluated in experiments of laboratory and fi eld cage. In laboratory, the effects of protein ingestion during the fi rst four or 12 days of the male adult life was assessed by the following parameters: mating success (capacity of being chosen by the female) and the number of males that give out pheromonal signals. Some experiments of mating success had been carried through with males in different ratios. In these tests, the number of males which had ingested protein (an unique male) was remained constant and the number of males fed without protein was gradually increased from 1:1 to 1:5. In the fi eld cages, the mating success experiments were done using a 1:1 ratio. The results showed that the protein ingestion in the fi rst four days of life did not influence any of the analyzed parameters. When the period of ingestion of protein was extended to 12 days, protein-fed males fed produced more pheromonal signals and had a higher mating success when at a 1:1 ratio in laboratory and fi eld cage assays. In laboratory, females randomly chose males in any other tested ratio (1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5), indicating that the female may lose the perception to identify the male who ingested protein in the fi rst 12 days. (author)

  3. Detection of resistance to the organophosphate insecticide in wild populations of medfly Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the wild medfly resistance of the organophosphate insecticide is evaluated by the physiologic mechanism of resistance including the Acethylcholinesterase enzyme. Different representative populations of Ceratitis were collected from different regions of Tunisia. The analysis statistics (ACP) for DL50 and the treatment frequency showed a negative correlation between them. The gene ace was amplified at the level of the exons 4, 5, 6 et 7 by PCR. No mutation of the gene ace was identified with the collected individuals.

  4. Effect of gamma radiation against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae) in guava fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae are considered the most important insects pest risk carried by exported fruits worldwide. Because reports have show that guavas are important host of the pest, quarentine treatments must be developed if it's to exported to countries which impose quarentine restrictions on Mediterranean fruit fly infestable commodities. Ionizing radiation is one alternative method of quarentine treatment. This work was carried out to study the effect of different doses of gamma radiation against eggs and larvae of Ceratitis capitata in guavas of 'Pedro Sato' cultivar. Guavas artificially infested with eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation at the following doses: 0 (control), 50, 100 and 150 Gy for eggs and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy for first and third instar larvae, at the dose rate of 352 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic pots in a room at 25 +/- 1 deg C and 70 +/- 5% RH. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults in both treatments (eggs and larvae)

  5. Sterile insect release and the natural mating system of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to assess the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in a natural population on Maui, HI. Systematic censuses of the study site were conducted before and after the release of marked sterile flies (both sexes), and the abundance and distribution of fruit flies and leks, incidence of male calling and number, and location of matings were recorded during the two periods. In both replicates, the abundance, distribution, and calling activity of wild males were largely unaffected by the released flies. Most of the released males joined preexisting mating aggregations of wild males and within these leks displayed similar calling activity as the wild males. Approximately 200 matings were observed following the release in each replicate. Three separate analyses indicated that in both replicates release males accounted for fewer matings with wild females than expected by chance. Given that sterile males settled and called in natural lek sites, it appears that their relatively low mating success resulted from an inability to attract wild females to their territory or perform courtship acceptable to females, or both. The results are discussed in light of current sterile insect techniques

  6. Impact of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata on different peach cultivars: the possible role of peach volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabilio, Maria Rosaria; Fiorini, Dennis; Marcantoni, Enrico; Materazzi, Stefano; Delfini, Maurizio; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Musmeci, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    The relationship between susceptibility of different peach cultivars (cvs) to the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, and the volatile composition of ripe fruit of each cv has been investigated, since understanding the fruit-insect interaction mechanism is crucial for developing control strategies for such a pest. Volatile compounds were analyzed by SPME-GC-MS in three cvs highly susceptible to medfly attack (Fair Time, Flaminia, Sicilia Piatta), and in two less susceptible cvs (Percoca Romagnola 7 and Doctor Davis). Among the volatile compounds detected, 88 could be identified. The main differences found in the volatile composition of the cvs, concerned the relative abundance of esters. The least susceptible cvs, above all Percoca Romagnola 7, contained the higher amounts of hexenyl, hexyl, 3-methylbutyl, butyl and 2-methylpropyl esters; among these, some C6 derivatives detected, such as (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, are known to act as priming agents, enhancing plant defence response to insects. Instead, a lower relative content of methyl esters, such as methyl hexanoate and methyl octanoate, known to act as medfly pheromone and attractant respectively, was found in the least susceptible cvs.

  7. Relación entre tiempo de desarrollo larvario y fecundidad de la hembra en Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny C. MANSO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la relación entre tiempo de desarrollo larvario y fecundidad en la hembra de Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, comparando individuos de una cepa salvaje, con individuos de una cepa portadora de la mutación sw, la cual provoca atrasos en el desarrollo larvario. Se observaron caracteres de la morfología del ovario y su herencia entre los segregantes, para «tiempo de desarrollo» en la progenie del cruzamiento entre mutante y silvestre. El estudio mostró que las hembras sw(- que quedan muy retrasadas en su desarrollo, tienen menos ovariolas y una distribución de tamaños de óvulos menos homogénea que las que se desarrollan antes. Se encontró asimismo que entre las larvas de tipo salvaje, las más retrasadas también producen hembras con menor número de ovariolas y menos huevos totalmente desarrollados, que las que se desarrollan antes. Tanto en las hembras sw(- como en las sw(+, los atrasos del desarrollo obran en desmedro de la postura de huevos de las hembras que se desarrollan más tarde, efecto que se manifiesta en el número menor de ovariolas y en las diferencias del ritmo de maduración del ovario. Bajo condiciones apropiadas de cría, las hembras mutantes para sw son capaces de alcanzar la misma fecundidad que las normales.

  8. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM) FOR THE BIOAGENTS ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND PENICILLIUM OXALICUM AGAINST THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an alternative to chemical control or as a part of integrated pest management (IPM program), there is a resurgence of interest in using microbial agents for pest population suppression before the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann). The insect-fungus interaction between the fungal isolates, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium oxalicum, when applied as a spore suspension against the adults of Medfly in the laboratory showed visual fungal development after 7 days from inoculation. Examination of the infected parts of the dead fly with light microscopy showed a markedly damage as evidenced by the occurrence of the attached conidia and features of pathogen penetration. Using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the abundant sporulation of both fungal isolates was investigated over all parts of the dead fly and their associated sensillae. The recognized shape of the fungal conidial spores and their arrangement on the hyphae of both bio agents was investigated. This ultra structural study may be helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of both fungal bio agents on the functions of all infected parts of the insect and their associated sensillae (the main communication system between insects, their internal and external environment) and their main role in the courtship, male mating ability, the selection of fruit host plants necessary for the adults food and also the selection of a suitable oviposition site

  9. Studies on mass rearing and effect of sterilizing doses of gamma radiation on the adult emergence and male competitiveness on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on mass rearing of mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) revealed that the size and weight of pupae influence the adult emergence, flight ability index and egg production. Egg laying spans over a period of 18 days. A great majority was laid during 3rd to 7th day. The ideal dose of gamma irradiation for sterilization of males was found to be 9 Krad applied to mature pupae. Sexual competitiveness of irradiated males was highest when the ratios of sterile male to untreated males and female was either 1:2:1 or 1:3:1. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Use of sterile insect technique in Brazil by the sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824); Esterilizacao de Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) para aplicacao da tecnica do inseto esteril no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeese, G.O.; Kitomer, T.J.; Gayaradus, L.B.; Etrigan, M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jamuga@cena.usp.br; Jansen, C.W.J.H.; Houlahar, H.L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique is a method of pest control allowed in Integrated Pest Management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradative population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from {sup 60}Co or {sup 137}Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain has been used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Bio factory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a {sup 60}Co irradiator, with 17.2 x 1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All averages of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses did not affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy can be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  11. Biological and Biochemical Effects of Vitamin C on The Normal and Irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Vitamin C on the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) was studied with two concentrations (1000 and 2000 mg/ 1 kgm larval medium) and exposed the produced pupae with the sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (90 Gy) on some biological aspects (female fecundity male sterility, adult survival for 15 days and male computability. Also, some biochemical parameters for both sexes (total proteins, lipids and carbohydrates content) were studied. The changes in the activity of the digestive enzymes (protease, lipase and amylase) for males and females, sexual hormones (testosterone and progesterone) and the superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) were considered. The data obtained revealed that vitamin C had no effects on each of the biological and biochemical parameters, but when applying the sterilized dose (90 Gy) on the produced pupae, significant decreases in female fecundity, male sterility, total proteins and carbohydrates content were observed, while, significant increases were estimated in the total lipids for both sexes. The activity of the three tested digestive enzymes (Protease, Lipase and Amylase) were significantly decreased in both medfly sexes. Sexual Hormones (Testosterone and Progesterone) were slightly decreased when compared with the control group. SOD enzyme was significantly decreased in both sexes. The combined effect of vitamin C and the sterilizing gamma dose (90 Gy) revealed improvements in the expected adverse effects of gamma radiation in all studied parameters. The competitiveness values of the irradiated males were increased by increasing the vitamin C concentration combined with gamma irradiation. Generally, the combined treatment of vitamin C and gamma irradiation could be successfully used to reduce the adverse effects of gamma irradiation and subsequently can be used in the integrated pest management to help in the success of the sterile insect technique against the medfly

  12. To Catch a Fly: Landing and Capture of Ceratitis capitata in a Jackson Trap with and without an Insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukis, Nicholas C

    2016-01-01

    Attractant-based traps are a cornerstone of detection, delimitation and eradication programs for pests such as tephritid fruit flies. The ideal trap and lure combination has high attraction (it brings insects to the trap from a distance) and high capture efficiency (it has a high probability of capturing the insect once it arrives at the trap). We examined the effect of an insecticide (DDVP) in combination with a pheromone lure (trimedlure) on capture of Ceratitis capitata using 1) digital images of surfaces of a Jackson trap analyzed via computer vision, and 2) counts of the number of flies caught in the trap and in the area under the trap. Our results indicate no significant difference in trap capture without or with insecticide (means ± SD = 324 ±135 and 356 ±108, respectively). However, significantly more dead flies were found around the trap with insecticide (92 ±53 with insecticide compared with 35 ±22 without), suggesting a possible decrease in trap efficiency due to mortality before insects enter the trap. Indeed, the average number of flies detected on all surfaces of the traps with insecticide was lower than that for lure-only (4.15±0.39 vs 8.30±1.18), and both were higher than control (no lure: 0.76 ±0.08). We found that the majority of fly sightings, 71% of the total, occurred on the inside panels of the lure-only traps, suggesting that increased efficiency of the Jackson trap may be obtained by adding a contact insecticide to those surfaces.

  13. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii. PMID:26582906

  14. Study of effect of radiation on the parameters of quality of sterile males of Ceratitis Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and their improvement aroma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this present work, we are interested in studying the various stages in the production of sterile males, the effect of different doses of irradiation on longevity, compatibility and competitiveness of these males. And the effect of exposure of adults and pupae of Ceratitis to different doses of essential oil of ginger on their compatibility and competitiveness. (Author)

  15. Vitality Improvement of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied 2- Measured by using ME and At Pase Enzyme Activities and Total Protein Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation aims at producing sterile adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Having the best possible vitality through the use of irradiation and /or a mutagenic substances to be used in a sterile insect technique program. Several types of mutagenic that were thought to cause mutations were used as IGR's, temperature, formaldehyde, colchicine, alcohols, serve ral types of larval rearing media and gamma-rays. In a common pathway, malic enzyme (ME) activity, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity and the total protein contents are studied as direct parameters for measuring vitality of the insect. It was found that there is an increment at levels of these parameters due to the treatment of egg stage by the previously mentioned treatments specially the usage of the rice hulls as a bulking component in the larval rearing media alone or followed by irradiation of the pupal stage with 90 Gy

  16. Microscopical studies on the effects of gamma radiation and/or pyriproxyfen (IGR) on the testis and ovary of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larval artificial diet of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (wied.) was treated with the Lc50 of the juvenile hormone, pyriproxyfen. The produced full grown pupae were gamma irradiated at doses of 50, 70, 90 and 110 Gy. The produced four days-old adults were dissected for removing the testis or the ovary for microscopical investigations. The study revealed that pyriproxyfen and/or irradiation affected insignificantly the volume of the male testis and significantly the ovary of the female, injured the process of spermatogenesis and caused gross damage to the female ovary. The damage was increased with increasing the gamma dose level. Deformations were observed including shrinkage of testis and ovary contents, vacuolations and disturbances in the process of sperm and oocyte maturation

  17. Use of steril insect technique to control the medfly Ceratitis capitata wiedmann (Diptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autocide struggle against fruit fly consists in making a raising in mass of the stump to genetic sexing of the fruit fly, to radiate males with gamma rays and then to set free them in orchards of citrus fruits. This technique permitted a reduction of the rate of stings of 50% in relation to the witness although its production of pupae in 2004, either enough feeble, not passing the 9 millions of pupae per week. But, it remains even efficient in relation to the chemical struggle (respectively 12% and 7%). One preliminary survey of the profitability of autocide struggle and the chemical struggle (rate of profitability to 181.020) is more profitable than autocide struggle (rate of profitability to 43.450) for the first year to release. This relativity weak profitability for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is the consequence of a bad interview of citrus fruits and unconsciousness of farmer of the importance of built in struggle technique . However, autocide struggle permits to preserve the quality of fruit, to reduce the toxics residues and to preserve parasitoides. therefore, there is increase of selling prices of the product. (author). 12 refs

  18. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  19. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willink, Eduardo; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Salvatore, Analia; Gramajo, M. Cecilia; Acenolaza, Mariana; Avila, Rosana; Favre, Paola, E-mail: ewillink@eeaoc.org.a [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  20. The role of protein in the sexual behaviour of males of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae: mating success, copula duration and number of copulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sordi Joachim-Bravo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the influence of protein ingestion during the early adult phase on the sexual behavior of males of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. The following parameters were evaluated: mating success (ability to be chosen by females, number of copulations, and copula duration. Experiments were carried out using a fifteen-year old laboratory lineage with the occasional introduction of wild flies. Two groups of adult males fed a high-protein diet during their larval phase were given either a high-protein diet (based on Brewer's yeast, concentration = 6.5 g/100 ml or a no-protein diet. Both groups of males were exposed to females fed either a high-protein diet or a no-protein diet and were subsequently evaluated for the parameters listed above. All experiments were conducted at 25ºC, 70% R.H. and with a photoperiod of L12:D12. The number of copulations was the only parameter affected by adult diet. Males fed a high-protein diet and exposed to females fed a no-protein diet had a greater number of copulations compared with males fed a no-protein diet.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide is produced by E. coli challenged haemocytes and regulates phagocytosis, in the medfly Ceratitis capitata. The active role of superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbi, Marina; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Lampropoulou, Maria; Marmaras, Vassilis J; Tsakas, Sotiris

    2011-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) participates as a second messenger in cell signaling. In this paper, the role of H(2)O(2) was investigated, in Escherichia coli phagocytosis by the haemocytes of the medfly Ceratitis capitata. Block of H(2)O(2) synthesis by specific enzymic inhibitors, namely N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) for NADPH oxidase and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) for SOD, resulted in the increase of E. coli phagocytosis. Immunoblot analysis, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, revealed the constitutive expression of SOD, in the medfly haemocytes. Phagocytosis increased by small interfering RNA (siRNA) for SOD, revealing the active involvement of SOD and H(2)O(2). Immunoblot analysis showed an increase of the ERK1/2 phosphorylation, in the presence of the above H(2)O(2) synthesis enzymic inhibitors. In addition, confocal microscopy showed no co-localization of SOD with β integrin subunit. It appears that SOD participates in the regulation of bacterial phagocytosis, due to involvement of the produced H(2)O(2) in the differential phosphorylation of MAP kinases.

  2. A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

  3. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF FIVE ADULT DIETS ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NORMAL AND GAMMA IRRADIATED ADULT MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the sterile insect technique for controlling the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), experiments were carried out to test the effect of four new adult protein sources on the insect vitality. Different yeasts consisting of almost the same nutritive components but differ in the quantity of protein were mixed with sugar as carbohydrate sources (2:3) and compared to the standard adult diet (enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3). Adults reared on each diet were evaluated biologically for their response to gamma radiation (90 Gy). The weight and size of the produced pupae from parents fed on the tested diets, percent of adult emergence, sex ratio, adults survival, egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) for the following generations were taken as monitors for the insect vitality. The results showed that adult male and female survival for 5, 10 and 15 days from emergence, percent egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) showed no sharp differences between three tested diets D3(Af), D4(YE300) and D5(YE00) as compared to the standard diet D1(YH, enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3) for parents and F1 progeny. However, when the second tested diet D2(Ay150) was used, the results showed a significant decreases in most of the tested biological aspects, especially in the male mating competitiveness value (C.V.), which is considered the most important monitor for male insect vitality

  4. Tratamento hidrotérmico na mortalidade de larvas de Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae em tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco = Effect of hydrothermal treatment on the mortality of fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Weidmann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae larvae in tangerine fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Batista Lopes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar a eficiência do tratamento hidrotérmico no controle de larvas de C. capitata em frutos de tangerina para fins quarentenários. Tangerinas da variedade ‘Dancy’ infestadas por larvas de Ceratitis capitata foram submetidas aostratamentos hidrotérmicos de 46±1°C e 50±1°C, em diferentes tempos de exposição. Para a temperatura de 46±1°C foram utilizados nove períodos de exposição: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 min. Na temperatura de 50±1°C, utilizaram-se sete tempos de exposição: 0, 5,10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 min., sendo o tempo (0 infestado e sem tratamento para as duas temperaturas. Cada tratamento foi composto de cinco repetições com dois frutos. Frutos maduros e semi-maduros infestados foram imersos em água quente, visando quantificar ototal de larvas vivas e mortas, sendo que, um grupo de frutos foi mantido sem imersão como controle. Os índices quarentenários, na temperatura de 46±1°C foram atingidos aos 32,0 e 35,3 min. para frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. Na temperatura de50±1°C, os índices quarentenários foram atingidos aos 20,8 e 21,7 minutos para os frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. A mortalidade das larvas de C. capitata foi crescente com o aumento da temperatura e o tempo de exposição.This research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of hydrothermaltreatment in the control of C. capitata larvae in tangerine fruit for quarantine safety. Tangerines fruits infested by larvae of Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata were submitted to hydrothermal treatment at 46±1°C and 50±1°C for different exposure times. The fruits were selected in two maturity stages (ripe and semi-ripe and immersed in hot water. For temperature at 46±1°C, nine exposure times were used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes. The same procedure was used for temperature at 50±1°C, where the exposure times were: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. Infested

  5. Hidrogenionic potential (pH of the attractant, trap density and control threshold for Ceratitis capitata (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE on Hamlin oranges in São Paulo central region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Branco Paiva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of initial pH values of 4.5, 6.5 and 8.5 of the attractant (protein bait Milhocina® and borax (sodium borate in the field, on the capture of fruit flies in McPhail traps, using 1, 2, 4 and 8 traps per hectare, in order to estimate control thresholds in a Hamlin orange grove in the central region of the state of São Paulo. The most abundant fruit fly species was Ceratitis capitata, comprising almost 99% of the fruit flies captured, of which 80% were females. The largest captures of C. capitata were found in traps baited with Milhocina® and borax at pH 8.5. Captures per trap for the four densities were similar, indicating that the population can be estimated with one trap per hectare in areas with high populations. It was found positive relationships between captures of C. capitata and the number of Hamlin oranges damaged, 2 and 3 weeks after capture. It was obtained equations that correlate captures and damage levels which can be used to estimate control thresholds. The average loss caused in Hamlin orange fruits by C. capitata was 2.5 tons per hectare or 7.5% of production.

  6. Mitochondrial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Can Distinguish Sterile, Released Flies from Wild Flies in Various Regions of the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parubrub, Arlene; Reyes, Ruel; Smallridge, Catherine J; Woods, Bill; Haymer, David

    2015-02-01

    In areas infested with pest species such as the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), many programs rely heavily on the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a form of biological control. However, when SIT treatments are used both for control of established infestations and for occasional outbreaks, for several reasons, programs are often unable to adequately quantify the success of this approach. Chief among these are difficulties associated with reliably and rapidly determining the strain of origin of males recaptured during and after the SIT program. In this study, we describe the use of a DNA-based marker that can be used to rapidly and reliably distinguish males originating from the two sterile strains that are most widely used in SIT rearing facilities from males originating from wild strains of various regions of the world. This method uses polymerase chain reaction amplification of material from individual specimens to directly analyze DNA sequence variants found within a portion of the mitochondrial ND4 subunit 4 (ND4) gene to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are diagnostic of different strains. Specifically, the SNPs described here reliably distinguish individual flies originating from the Vienna 7 and Vienna 8 strains used for sterile release from wild flies infesting various areas including Western Australia, Guatemala, and Hawaii. The availability of such markers for determination of the strain of origin of specimens, either from whole specimens or body parts (including their sperm), has great potential to improve the ability to monitor and quantify the success of any sterile release program. PMID:26470134

  7. Efficacy Of Some Fungal Isolates And Their Applications For Controlling The Immature Stages Of The Medfly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) Before And During Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) needs a suitable and effective cheap method alternative to chemical pesticides for suppressing or controlling the population density of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wi ed.). The effectiveness of five different fungal isolates: Trichoderma longibranchiatum, T. harzianum, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger and Penicillium oxalicum was evaluated against the immature stages of med fly. Filtrate and three spore suspension concentrations (104, 106 and 108 spores/ml) of each fungal isolate were applied to both 3rd larval instar and pupae at two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Percentage pupation, pupal mortality, adult emergence and sex ratio were studied. The percentage of pupation of 3rd larval instar was not affected. However, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the percentage of pupal mortality as well as in adult emergence from pupae 2 and 8 days-old at all fungal treatments. Pupae (2 days-old) were more susceptible than pupae (8 days-old) to all fungal treatments. The microbial biomass of both A. terreus and P. oxalicum was selected to apply with different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 w/w) on the pupae at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Best results were recorded with biomass at 20% concentration of both fungal isolates. Percentage of mortality was significantly higher (P<0.05) than 50% at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old) for both fungi. A significant decrease (P<0.05) was obtained in adult females emergence resulted in a reduction in the number of eggs deposited and subsequently the punctures on fruits. Chitinase enzyme (important for degradation of chitin which is a component of insect cuticle) and cellulase enzyme (used for improving soil fertility) were determined. The microbial biomass by A. terreus was appeared to be safe to human and animals and can be used for combating immature stages of medfly.

  8. Use of gamma radiation to sterilize Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), tsl VIENNA 8 strain, for application of sterile insect technique in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile insect technique is a method of pest control allowed in integrated pest management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradual population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from 60Co or 137Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain shall be used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a 60Co irradiator, with 17.2 .1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All means of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses didn't affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy could be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  9. Use of gamma radiation to sterilize Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), tsl VIENNA 8 strain, for application of sterile insect technique in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de A.; Costa, Maria de L.Z.; Paesman, Leandro; Walder, Julio M.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: piaui@cena.usp.br; jmwalder@cena.usp.br; Mascarin, Gabriel M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ)]. E-mail: gmmascar@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The Sterile insect technique is a method of pest control allowed in integrated pest management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradual population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from {sup 60}Co or {sup 137}Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain shall be used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a {sup 60}Co irradiator, with 17.2 .1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All means of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses didn't affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy could be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  10. Scanning electron microscopy (Sem) of wings and mouth parts of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wield.), as influenced by the sterilizing dose of the gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the fact that, any undesirable effects of gamma irradiation with the sterilizing dose (90 Gy) on wings and mouth parts of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.), and their associated sensilla will lead indirectly to failure of irradiated males to disperse strongly, to seek out appropriate niches or to behave synchrony with wild males or to success in the courtship with females and/or to mate. Moreover, the fly may fail to suck the plant juice. Using the scanning electron microscopy, this study was investigated. The changes which occurred to the wings and mouth parts of the med fly may be due to the sterilizing dose. One pair of wings was found to have similar typical structures in both sexes differing non-significantly in their measurements. Three different types of located sensilla were observed on each wing namely; trichoid (type sharp and blunt tipped), chaetica (type 1, 2 and 3) and basiconica (type non-socket, socket and papillae). The distribution and measurements of these sensilla were described in the text. The study of the mouth parts of both sexes recorded that there was similar pattern except significant increase between the length of the proboscis of male and female. Four different types of located sensilla were found on the mouth parts of the med fly and their measurements were given in the text. Namely trichoid (type sharp), squameformia (type 1 and socket), chaetica (type 1) and basiconica (type non-socket) were observed. The distal region of the labium was very smooth and did not bear any kind of sensilla. Pupal irradiation with the sterilizing dose resulted in different malformations in both irradiated male and female adult wings and mouth parts and their associated sensilla. Some malformations were observed in the intraveins of the irradiated male wing and in the pseudo tracheae of irradiated female labella

  11. ROLE OF SILYMARIN AS ANTIOXIDANT ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NORMAL AND IRRADIATED PUPAE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to investigate the biological effects of silymarin as an antioxidant on the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, at different concentrations (40, 60, 80, 100 mg/0.5 kg larval medium). Also, larval and pupal duration, percent adult emergence, sex ratio, weight and size of pupae, as compared to the control group, were studied.The results indicated that larval and pupal durations were reduced at 60 mg silymarin/0.5 kg larval media as compared to the control.The concentrations 40, 60 and 80 mg silymarin/0.5 kg larval media were selected and the produced pupae from these different larval media were irradiated with the sterilizing gamma dose (90 Gy) and the sub-sterilizing gamma dose (70 Gy) to study their effects on female fecundity, male fertility, survival, competitiveness values and also their effects on the mating ability and ability of males to inseminate females.The data obtained revealed that silymarin administration and/or gamma irradiation caused significant decrease in female egg production at all concentrations examined as compared to the control group. Male fertility was not affected when silymarin was applied alone but significant decrease was observed when pupae were treated with radiation alone or with silymarin at all concentrations and both gamma doses. Survival was not affected for both sexes with silymarin and/or gamma irradiation.Moreover, data obtained revealed significant effect in male competitiveness values at 40 and 80 mg silymarin concentrations and the gamma sterilizing dose (90 Gy). However, mating ability and ability to inseminate females were not affected with silymarin and/or gamma irradiation as compared to the control

  12. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

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    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  13. Development of a genetic sexing mechanism in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata for isolation of males in the egg or neonatal larval stage. Coordinated programme on development of sexing mechanisms in fruit flies through manipulation of radiation induced conditional lethals and other genetic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of biochemical markers has allowed a sufficiently detailed evaluation of the genetic variability of the medfly; it has also fostered significant progress in the field of formal genetics. Chromosomal examinations have provided clues for interpreting genetical aspects of sex determination and of occasional recombination of linked factors in heterozygous males. The results obtained are considered a reliable basis for rewarding progress both in basic research and in applied programs

  14. Machos Virgens e Acasalados de Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae Apresentam o mesmo Sucesso de Cópula e a mesma Capacidade de Inibição de Recópula das Fêmeas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Santana

    2014-08-01

    Virgin and Mated Males of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae Have the Same Mating Success and the Same Ability to Inhibit Female Remating? Abstract. Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann is a polyphagous species that damages fruits and affects their production and consumption. One of the techniques to manage this pest is the Sterile Insect Technique, which consists in releasing sterile males in nature to compete with wild males for mating. The success of this technique is associated with the ability of sterile male in being selected by the female and in preventing female remating with other males. This paper aims to evaluate the influence of male reproductive status in mating success and in female remating inhibition. Tests for evaluating the latency to mate and copula duration were performed to evaluate latency to mate and copula duration based on different male status. In remating inhibition tests, females mated with virgin and mated males, were exposed to other males one day after the first mating so the rate of remating could be evaluated. The results showed that males of different reproductive status had no differences in mating success and in female remating inhibition. The latency to mate and copula duration were similar for both male status as well. Our results suggest that, assuming that the sterile males have the same basic biology of no sterile males, in SIT, after released in nature, mated males can have the same success in mating and female remating inhibition as virgin males.

  15. Some Chemical Elements in Gamma Irradiated Adults of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) Fed on Different Diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elemental composition of four yeast diets differ in protein composition and mixed with sugar as a carbohydrate source were compared with a standard yeast diet used for the mass rearing of med fly C. capitata. The cost availability and the effects on the quality of reared flies were the main measures for these comparisons. Moreover, the elemental composition of reared flies on the tested diets either irradiated to gamma radiation or normal beside full grown pupae (F1) were detected and compared with those reared on standard diet . Data obtained revealed that ten elements (K, N, Na, P, Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn and Cu) were detected and classified according to their quantities .However those quantities varied according to the type of used yeast ,insect stage , insect sex and irradiated dose. The major group (K, N, Na and P), moderate group (Ca, Fe and Mg) and minor group (Zn, Mn and Cu) remained unchanged although their quantities were changed inside each group. In addition, a significant increase in K, N, Na, P and Ca when diet No.4 (D4) was used to feed flies. These findings may enhance the opportunity of sterile insect technique (SIT). However Fe and Zn ions were decreased with changing the standard yeast and this is may contradict SIT. Also when normal females fed on all tested yeasts, the concentrations of the ten elements increased as compared to those fed on standard diet. These results may increase the efficiency of sterilized reared insects to compete with the native insects in the field

  16. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.

  17. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes and aqueous plant extracts aiming at the control of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: TephritidaeCompatibilidade de nematóides entomopatogênicos e extratos vegetais aquosos visando o controle da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Rohde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae has been controlled mainly by the chemical method, which is responsible for environmental and public health impacts. It has often been ineffective due to development of resistant insect populations. Thus, it has necessary to research new effective and less impacting control forms. In this sense, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes and plant extracts has been effective for controlling this pest. However, studies are needed to assess the compatibility between these methods, aiming at their use in integrated management programs for this pest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae ALL and Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 with aqueous extracts prepared from dried plant of cinnamon leaf, twig and fruit (Melia azedarach, rue leaf (Ruta graveolens, ginger (Zingiber officinale and garlic (Allium sativum for the control of C. capitata. The bioassay was carried out in completely randomized design with four replicates per treatment. Each replication consisted of a glass tube containing 1 mL of plant extract 40% w/v and 1 mL suspension of entomopathogenic nematodes with 1800 JI/mL for S. carpocapsae ALL and 600 JI/mL for Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4. The viability and infectivity of this nematode were evaluated on C. capitata larvae after 48 and 120 hours. It was found that all extracts reduced the viability and infectivity of both nematodes and they were incompatible after 120 hours of exposure. The nematode Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 was more sensitive than the S. carpocapsae ALL as it showed, in the first 48 hours, a reduction in the viability and infectivity of more than 80 and 75%, respectively, when exposed to all the extracts except the ginger.A mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae tem sido controlada, principalmente, pelo método químico, que é o responsável por impactos ambientais e na saúde pública e, muitas

  18. Alternative Sources Of Protein And Bulking Agent For Mass Rearing Of The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.), For The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), larvae by testing alternative sources of protein and bulking agent. Two larval diet groups for laboratory rearing of the medfly were conducted in addition to the control diet. The first group kept the sources of bulking agent constant (wheat bran) while the kind and the ratio of sources of protein were changed (brewer's yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar). In the second group, the fiber (used for filling the pillows) and a paste of cardboard eggs box trays were used instead of wheat bran as bulking agent against the yeast and soybean as protein sources. To investigate the effect of the new sources of bulking agent and the kind or the ratio of the protein sources on the development and viability of the medfly, larval duration, pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability were checked. The larval duration, pupal weight, adult recovery and flight ability were unaffected when soybean or a mixture from yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar as protein sources for larval diet were used. The larvae reared on diets based on schemed milk or agar as sources of protein did not complete their life cycle. The percent of pupal recovery of larvae reread on diets of soybean or a mixture of protein sources were not affected except when larvae were reared on diets based on a mixture of soybean and schemed milk or schemed milk and agar. Larval duration was extended by one to two days more than the control when the fiber or a mixture of it with bran or paste of cardboard of eggs box was used as bulking agent. A paste of cardboard eggs box as bulking agent led to the extension of the larval duration by more than four days than in control. Pupal recovery was significantly decreased at all diets of the second group except the diet containing a mixture of 4 % fiber and 10 % bran as bulking agent

  19. Biological and morphological aspects of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on irradiated larva of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae);Aspectos biologicos e morfologicos de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) criado em larvas irradiadas de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Giuliana Etore do

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was evaluate some biological and morphological aspects of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata on irradiated and not irradiated larva of bisexual and tsl strains of Ceratitis capitata. The experiments were developed at the Laboratorio de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia (LIARE) of CENA/USP. For gamma radiation treatment it was used a Cobalt-60 source, model Gamma beam-650. Larva of bisexual strain were irradiated with 65 Gy and the tsl strain with 45 Gy. Experiments were carried out at room temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, 75 +- 5 % RH and 14 hours of photo phase. After irradiation, the bisexual strain larva were exposed to adults of D. longicaudata for parasitization and parameters of percentage adult emergency and rate of male and female of D. longicaudata were observed. For tsl strain, were used larva from the first and the fourth collection only, and the following parameters were observed: percentage of adult emergency, rate of male and female, and the average unitary volume and weight of pupae at the 8{sup th} and 16 days after the parasitism date. Other parameters evaluated for tsl strain related to the parasitoid morphology such as, the length of the body, antenna, tibia and ovipositor. As result, both of the first and second experiments, the rate of parasitism was satisfactory, as well as showed larger incidence of females than males in parasitized larva, discarding the possibility that gamma radiation interfere in the sexual rate. No significant differences were observed on pupae volume. Some differences on pupae weight were observed at 8th and 16th day after the parasitism date, which should be associated to pre-emerging flies (8th day) and empty pupa (16th day). None significant difference was observed on morphological parameters, so one can conclude that gamma radiation treatment did not interfere in these quality parameters of the parasitoid. (author)

  20. A genomic perspective to assessing quality of mass-reared SIT flies used in Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eradication in California

    OpenAIRE

    Calla, Bernarda; Hall, Brian; Hou, Shaobin; Geib, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutants of the tephritid C. capitata are used extensively in control programs involving sterile insect technique in California. These flies are artificially reared and treated with ionizing radiation to render males sterile for further release en masse into the field to compete with wild males and disrupt establishment of invasive populations. Recent research suggests establishment of C. capitata in California, despite the fact that over 250 milli...

  1. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  2. Using genetic diversity information to establish core collections of Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Oliveira Santos-Garcia; Guilherme Toledo-Silva; Rodrigo Possidonio Sassaki; Thais Helena Ferreira; Rosângela Maria Simeão Resende; Lucimara Chiari; Cláudio Takao Karia; Marcelo Ayres Carvalho; Fábio Gelape Faleiro; Maria Imaculada Zucchi; Anete Pereira Souza

    2012-01-01

    Stylosanthes species are important forage legumes in tropical and subtropical areas. S. macrocephala and S. capitata germplasm collections that consist of 134 and 192 accessions, respectively, are maintained at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Cerrados (Embrapa-Cerrados). Polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity and population structure with the aim to assemble a core collection. The mean values of H O and H E for S. macrocephala were 0.08 and 0....

  3. Estrategias para la utilización de la bacteria entomopatógena Bacillus Thuringiensis (Berliner) en el control de Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedermann)

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Quist, José Cristian

    2010-01-01

    una serie de eventos que conducen a la muerte final del insecto. Limitaciones o alteraciones en cada una de estas etapas pueden explicar que una δ-endotoxina particular osea o no propiedades insecticidas sobre una determinada especie de insecto. En este sentido, como reacción a la aparente insensibilidad que muestra C. capitata hacia los cristales de δ-endotoxinas, se ha abordado el tratamiento in vitro de dichos cristales emulando algunos pasos del citado mecanismo de acción así como la e...

  4. Standardization of medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), trapping for use in sterile insect technique programmes: Investigations on the efficiency of various medfly trapping systems in the Western part of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen combinations formed from various traps and lures were tested within the years 1987-1991. As for the traps, the International Pheromones McPhail Trap (IPMT), the Jackson trap with white or yellow insert, the International Pheromones Sticky Trap (IPST), the Glass McPhail trap and Naldel, Maghrebmed and Hawaiian dry traps, and as for the lure, Nu-lure, Borax, Ammonium phosphate, Trimedlure, and as for the killing agent, DDVP and Naled were used. The field plot design was a randomized block design, and five and six blocks of 5 and 6 traps each were conducted. All traps were hung in medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), host trees with 15-20 m distance between each two traps. Each experiment consisted of three independent test that were run for two weeks and trap data were collected twice a week. The same Trimedlure, Naled and DDVP dispensers were used for one replicate only. Solutions were renewed at every check. Fruit infestation level was estimated for each test. The assessment was based on the numbers of adults captured. Among the treatments tested, the IPMT baited with Nu-lure (9%), Borax (3%) and Trimedlure plug seemed as the most attractive treatment during the first 4-year experiments (1987-1990) followed by the IPMT baited with Nu-lure and Borax same volume as above. Glass McPhail traps baited with Nu-lure and Borax had equal attractivity to IPMT with Nu-lure and Borax. The IPMT baited with Ammonium phosphate and the IPST baited with Trimedlure were eliminated after the first experimental year. Among the other combinations, the Maghrebmed and Hawaiian traps baited with Trimedlure and DDVP seemed as the most attractive dry traps. (author). 6 refs, 15 tabs

  5. Determination of the dose of gamma radiation sterilization for assessment of biological parameters of male Ceratitis capitada (Diptera: Tephritidae), tsl - Vienna 8 strain; Determinacao da dose de radiacao gama esterilizante pela avaliacao dos parametros biologicos de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), linhagem tsl - Vienna 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Aline Cristina Pereira da

    2011-07-01

    The Vienna-8, tsl (temperature sensitive lethal) strain of Ceratitis capitata, by presenting mutations that facilitate the mass rearing and release only of sterile males in the field, has been used in (Sterile Insect Technique) programmes. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that provides the highest level of sterility for Vienna-8, tsl males assessing their biological parameters that indicate the quality of sterile males to be released. Brown pupae (males) of the tsl strain were obtained from the mass rearing of the Food Irradiation and Radio entomology laboratory of CENA/USP, and they were irradiated (with gamma radiation - {sup 60}Co) 24 hours before the emergence at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 Gy. The determination of the sterilizing dose was based on fertility of sexually mature females of the bisexual strain and not irradiated, mated with males of different treatments. Eggs were collected daily during 6 days, were counted and it was possible to estimate fecundity, and assess the hatching rate. The emergence and flight ability were determined by following the protocol of quality control manual for FAO/IAEA/USDA (2003). To assess the longevity under nutritional stress, the insects were kept a period of 48 h after emergence in the absence of water and food, and after this period, mortality was recorded. The size of the testes (left and right) was obtained by dissecting irradiated and non-irradiated males at the eighth day of life, and measure the testes in an ocular micrometer, considering the maximum length and width of each sample. To determine the sperm number was necessary to dissect the males and break their testicles. No difference was observed in emergence rate, flight ability and longevity of irradiated and non-irradiated males, nor in the fecundity of females mated with males of different treatments. The sterilizing dose that resulted in lower fertility of females was 120 Gy, with 1.5% hatching. Considering the parameters

  6. Inter-specific coral chimerism: genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry M Work

    Full Text Available Montipora white syndrome (MWS results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR, while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata. Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  7. Genetic sexing of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1980s, it was recognized by the FAO and the IAEA that a genetic sexing method for the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) would greatly improve the efficacy of the medfly sterile insect technique (SIT) and reduce its costs. These Proceedings summarize the research and development findings of the Agency's co-operators in the co-ordinated research programme to develop a genetic sexing method for the medfly. Great progress has been made in many aspects of medfly genetics. including the development of a number of genetic sexing strains. Contents: Genetics, Cytogenetics and Population Genetics. Genetic Sexing of Ceratitis Capitata by Morphological, Biochemical and other means. Recommendations. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Proton conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Cerate perovskites of the general formula AM{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where A = Sr or Ba and where M = Gd, Nd, Y, Yb or other rare earth dopant, are known to conduct a protonic current. Such materials may be useful as the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures, as an electrochemical hydrogen separation membrane, or as a hydrogen sensor. Conduction mechanisms in these materials were evaluated using dc cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry, allowing currents and activation energies for proton, electron, and oxygen ion contributions to the total current to be determined. For SrYb{sub 0.05}Ce{sub 0.95}O{sub 3-{delta}}, one of the best and most environmentally stable compositions, proton conduction followed two different mechanisms: a low temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 0.42{+-}0.04 eV, and a high temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 1.38{+-}0.13 eV. It is believed that the low temperature process is dominated by grain boundary conduction while bulk conduction is responsible for the high temperature process. The activation energy for oxygen ion conduction (0.97{+-}0.10 eV) agrees well with other oxygen conductors, while that for electronic conduction, 0.90{+-}0.09 eV, is affected by a temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Evaluated by direct measurement of mass flux through a dense ceramic with an applied dc field, oxygen ions were determined to be the majority charge carrier except at the lowest temperatures, followed by electrons and then protons.

  9. Proton-conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Coffey, G.W.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Single-cell solid oxide fuel cells were constructed using strontium cerate as the electrolyte and their performance tested. Like certain zirconates, hafnates, and tantalates, the cerate perovskites are among a class of solid electrolytes that conduct protons at elevated temperatures. Depending on the temperature and chemical environment, these ceramics also support electronic and oxygen ion currents. A maximum power output of {approx}100 mW per cm{sup 2} electrolyte surface area was obtained at 900{degrees}C using 4% hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. A series of rare earth/ceria/zirconia were prepared and their electrical properties characterized. Rare earth dopants included ytterbia, yttria, terbia, and europia. Ionic conductivities were highest for rare earth/ceria and rare earth zirconia compositions; a minimum in ionic conductivity for all series were found for equimolar mixtures of ceria and zirconia. Cerium oxysulfide is of interest in fossil energy applications because of its high chemical stability and refractory nature. An alternative synthesis route to preparing cerium oxysulfide powders has been developed using combustion techniques.

  10. Genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altogether 27 morphological mutations on the five autosomes of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), have been isolated and studied in the author's laboratory during 22 years of research on the genetics of this species. Of the 27 loci, 18 were located on chromosomes 4 and 5. No mutant loci were identified on the sex chromosome in the laboratory. Linkage relations, map distances and linear arrangements on the respective chromosomes were established for most of the 27 mutant traits. The wp and dp traits were utilized in the construction of genetic sexing lines in laboratories involved in studies of the sterile insect technique. The occurrence and consequences of male recombination are discussed. (author)

  11. Effects of acoustic waves on pupas of Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Efeitos das ondas acusticas em pupas de Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Adilson Camilo de

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this research has been to investigate the hypothesis that acoustic waves would provoke a measurable effect on a population of fruit flies, a treatment denominated sonication. Ionizing radiation, the causative agent for the treatment designated by irradiation has been used as a reference, as long as its effects on living beings and particularly on insects are widely known. This research also enquiries into the possible effects of acoustic waves and gamma rays. The experiments of sonication were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology of the Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo. The experiments of radiation were carried out in the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes - IPEN, located within the campus of the University of Sao Paulo. It has been employed a Gamma cell source model 220 with average activity of 757.069 {+-} 293.484 curies (Ci) and an average doses rate of 3.106 {+-} 0.245 kilo grays per hour (kGy/h). Levels applied to the sonication treatment, in hertz and kilo Hertz were: 0 Hz (control) ; 5.0 Hz; 10.0 Hz; 20.0 Hz; 40.0 Hz; 60.0 Hz; 80.0 Hz; 1.0 k Hz; 2.0 k Hz; 10.0 k Hz; 15.0 k Hz e 20.0 k Hz. Irradiation doses applied in Grays were: 5.0 Gy; 7.5 Gy; 10.0 Gy; 12.5 Gy; 15 Gy; 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy and 200 Gy. It has been used an acoustic tube made of glass - 40.6 cm in length and 9.1 cm in diameter - and sinusoidal waves originated from three acoustic sources, with response in decibels, which sound intensity varied from 93.60 {+-} 1.51 dB to 123.96 {+-} 0.23 dB. Final results have pointed to evidences that would justify the rejection of null hypothesis H{sub 0}, to which the average of the treatments due to acoustic waves do not differ significantly from each other.(author)

  12. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication

  13. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication.

  14. Effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly by genetic sexing male only sterile insect technique releases during 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For two successive years, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was effectively controlled by a combination of bait spraying onto boards suspended on host trees in May, followed by weekly releases of about one million gamma sterilized genetic sexing males till the end of the year. The treated area, Kibbutz Gvulot in southern Israel, included about 500 ha of citrus, mango and backyard fruit trees. In both years, the female/male ratio declined to extremely low levels in November-December, suggesting that the wild population had been driven to near extinction. This was apparent from fruit infestation as well, which was kept to levels below 0.1% in both years as compared with similar or even higher levels in the control area, which was treated by air bait spraying about weekly from September till the end of the year. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Effects of male sterility on female remating in the mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Chapman, Tracey

    2004-01-01

    Mating-induced reductions in female receptivity are common in insects. These responses are of interest because of their utility in insect pest control. In addition, the control of receptivity is likely to be the subject of sexual conflict over remating frequency. We investigated the specific effect of male sterility on female receptivity in an important pest species, the Mediterranean fruitfly (medfly), in which sterile males are often used for population suppression. Sterile males performed ...

  16. Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in...

  17. Effects of acoustic waves on pupas of Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research has been to investigate the hypothesis that acoustic waves would provoke a measurable effect on a population of fruit flies, a treatment denominated sonication. Ionizing radiation, the causative agent for the treatment designated by irradiation has been used as a reference, as long as its effects on living beings and particularly on insects are widely known. This research also enquiries into the possible effects of acoustic waves and gamma rays. The experiments of sonication were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology of the Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo. The experiments of radiation were carried out in the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes - IPEN, located within the campus of the University of Sao Paulo. It has been employed a Gamma cell source model 220 with average activity of 757.069 ± 293.484 curies (Ci) and an average doses rate of 3.106 ± 0.245 kilo grays per hour (kGy/h). Levels applied to the sonication treatment, in hertz and kilo Hertz were: 0 Hz (control) ; 5.0 Hz; 10.0 Hz; 20.0 Hz; 40.0 Hz; 60.0 Hz; 80.0 Hz; 1.0 k Hz; 2.0 k Hz; 10.0 k Hz; 15.0 k Hz e 20.0 k Hz. Irradiation doses applied in Grays were: 5.0 Gy; 7.5 Gy; 10.0 Gy; 12.5 Gy; 15 Gy; 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy and 200 Gy. It has been used an acoustic tube made of glass - 40.6 cm in length and 9.1 cm in diameter - and sinusoidal waves originated from three acoustic sources, with response in decibels, which sound intensity varied from 93.60 ± 1.51 dB to 123.96 ± 0.23 dB. Final results have pointed to evidences that would justify the rejection of null hypothesis H0, to which the average of the treatments due to acoustic waves do not differ significantly from each other.(author)

  18. Dosimetry practice for irradiation of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme the sterility of mass-reared insects, in our case Mediterranean fruit flies, is of primary importance. Mediterranean fruit fly pupae are irradiated in an AECL-CP-JS-7400 irradiator. Originally the capacity was 31,300 Ci, but because of the natural decay of cobalt, the actual source strength is 14,836 Ci. Thus, the dose with which the pupae are irradiated is 14.5 +- 1 krad (145 +- 10 Gy). A great risk in the daily release of sterile flies is that some batches of fertile flies may also be released. To ensure that this does not occur, continuous dosimetric check-ups have to routinely be carried out. Fricke dosimetry is ideal for this purpose because it has a range of response to doses of 4 to 40 krad (40 to 400 Gy) and because it is an economic and simple dosimetric system. (author)

  19. Sexual courtship of steriles males of Ceratitis Capitata (WIED) in SIT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the SIT programme, the success of sterile males to compete with the fertile males is an important parameter for assuring efficiency. In this study, two methods are tested to improve the sterile male quality: the first is the exposure of sterile males to different concentrations of Ginger Root Oil (GRO) (0, 20, 50 and 80 μl), the second is the exposure of males to different irradiation doses (80, 90, 100, 110, 120 and 145 Gy). The comparison of these methods depends to study of quality parameters (emergence, flight ability, survival) and courtship behaviour of sterile males (sperm production, mating competitiveness, sperm transfer). The 80μl concentration of GRO improves the mating competitiveness of males to compare with the Control (respectively: 68% and 46%). The 80 Gy irradiation dose assure the same result then the Control. (Author)

  20. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyniszewska, Anna M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species. PMID:25375649

  1. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Szyniszewska

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species.

  2. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2009-31 January 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Aparicio, Gallego J; Atangana, Alain R; Beaulieu, Jean; Bruford, M W; Cain, Forrest; Campos, T; Cariani, A; Carvalho, M A; Chen, Nan; Chen, P P; Clamens, A-L; Clark, Ann M; Coeur D'Acier, A; Connolly, Paul; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Coughlan, James P; Cross, Thomas S; David, Bruno; DE Bruyn, Colin; DE Meyer, M; DE Ridder, Chantal; Delatte, H; Dettori, M T; Downer, S J; Dubreuil, Christine; Evans, K J; Fan, Bin; Ferrara, G; Gagné, André; Gaillard, Maria; Gigliarelli, L; Giovinazzi, J; Gomez, D R; Grünwald, N J; Hansson, Bengt; Huotari, T; Jank, L; Jousselin, E; Jungmann, L; Kaczmarek, M E; Khasa, Damase P; Kneebone, Jeff; Korpelainen, H; Kostamo, K; Lanfaloni, L; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Lucentini, L; Maes, G E; Mahaffee, W F; Meng, Zining; Micali, S; Milano, I; Mok, H F; Morin, L; Neill, T M; Newton, Craig H; Gigi Ostrow, D; Palomba, A; Panara, F; Puletti, M E; Quarta, R; Quilici, S; Ramos, A K B; Rigaud, Thierry; Risterucci, A M; Salomon, Matthew P; Sánchez-Guillén, Rosa A; Sarver, Shane K; Sequeira, A S; Sforça, D A; Simiand, C; Smith, Brian; Sousa, A C B; Souza, A P; Stepien, C C; Stuckert, A J; Sulikowski, James; Tayeh, A; Tinti, F; Tsang, Paul C W; VAN Houdt, J K J; Vendramin, E; Verde, I; Virgilio, M; Wang, Huan L; Wang, L E; Wattier, Rémi A; Wellenreuther, Maren; Xie, Cong X; Zane, L; Zhang, Xiu J; Zhang, Yong; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Zucchi, M I

    2010-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 220 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Allanblackia floribunda, Amblyraja radiata, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Brachycaudus helichrysi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Dissodactylus primitivus, Elodea canadensis, Ephydatia fluviatilis, Galapaganus howdenae howdenae, Hoplostethus atlanticus, Ischnura elegans, Larimichthys polyactis, Opheodrys vernalis, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Phragmidium violaceum, Pistacia vera, and Thunnus thynnus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Allanblackia gabonensis, Allanblackia stanerana, Neoceratitis cyanescens, Dacus ciliatus, Dacus demmerezi, Bactrocera zonata, Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, Ceratits catoirii, Dacus punctatifrons, Ephydatia mülleri, Spongilla lacustris, Geodia cydonium, Axinella sp., Ischnura graellsii, Ischnura ramburii, Ischnura pumilio, Pistacia integerrima and Pistacia terebinthus. PMID:21565062

  3. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. The reasons why the SIT can only be effective when the induced sterility in the released males is in the form of dominant lethal mutations, and not some form of sperm inactivation, are discussed, together with the relationship of dominant lethal mutations to dose, sex, developmental stage and the particular species. The combination of genetic sterility with that induced by radiation is also discussed in relation to the use of genetic sexing strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the SIT. A case is made to lower the radiation dose used in such programmes so as to produce a more competitive sterile insect. Increased competitiveness can also be achieved by using different radiation environments. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility exemplified by a successful field trial with tsetse flies Glossina spp. in the 1940s. Genetic transformation will make some impact on the SIT, especially regarding the introduction of markers for released flies, and the construction of genetic sexing strains. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the SIT. (author)

  4. Genetic sexing strains in Mediterranean fruit fly, an example for other species amenable to large-scale rearing for the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through genetic and molecular manipulations, strains can be developed that are more suitable for the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this chapter the development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs) is given as an example. GSSs increase the effectiveness of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the SIT by enabling the large-scale release of only sterile males. For species that transmit disease, the removal of females is mandatory. For the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing systems have been developed; they are stable enough to be used in operational programmes for extended periods of time. Until recently, the only way to generate such strains was through Mendelian genetics. In this chapter, the basic principle of translocation-based sexing strains is described, and Mediterranean fruit fly strains are used as examples to indicate the problems encountered in such strains. Furthermore, the strategies used to solve these problems are described. The advantages of following molecular strategies in the future development of sexing strains are outlined, especially for species where little basic knowledge of genetics exists. (author)

  5. Genetic elimination of field-cage populations of Mediterranean fruit flies

    OpenAIRE

    Leftwich, P. T.; Koukidou, M.; Rempoulakis, P.; Gong, H.-F.; Zacharopoulou, A.; Fu, G.; Chapman, T; Economopoulos, A.; Vontas, J.; Alphey, L

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) is a pest of over 300 fruits, vegetables and nuts. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a control measure used to reduce the reproductive potential of populations through the mass release of sterilized male insects that mate with wild females. However, SIT flies can display poor field performance, due to the effects of mass-rearing and of the irradiation process used for sterilization. The development of female-lethal RIDL (r...

  6. Sterile insect technique: new technology to control fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, in the Lower Basin of the Sao Francisco Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SIT is the creation, on a large scale, the insect-pest to be controlled and weekly release of these insects sterilized in the field.The sterile insects copulate with the wild, but do not generate descendants. The basic premises for the use of SIT in insect control are: the reproduction is through sexual intercourse, the female copulate preferably only once there is ease of creation of the plague in industrial scale in artificial diet. The efficiency of the SIT may be greater when only the males are released in the field because they increase the probability of copulating with wild females only, with reductions in the cost of production and release. In the case of fruit-flies, sterile females continue doing puncture in the fruits, which decreases the quality for export. To be able to release only males in the field, in 1980s, was developed a mutant strain, whose females emerge from pupae white, thus being able to discard the white ones, keeping the pupae Brown for the release of sterile males. Ten years after, to save on the industrial scale production system, was obtained a mutant whose females possess lethal temperature sensitivity of 34 deg C, still in the embryo stage. Then the eggs are placed on artificial diet, and when they arrive at the pupa stage, they are all brown and males. Forty-eight to 24 hours before the emergence of adults, the pupae are painted with fluorescent powder paint, bagged and irradiated with gamma radiation of 95Gy of Co-60 or X-ray. As soon as the males emerge, are marked with fluorescent ink and when they reach 3 to 5 days old, are released into the field. Thus, when monitoring is done in Jackson traps in the field, it is possible to distinguish wild male sterile under black light or epifluorescence microscope with males, because the sterile are fluorescent. On application of the SIT to Moscamed, sterile males are released in the field must display good dispersibility, good survival and good sexual performance. The efficiency and effectiveness of the use of the SIT depend on the success of the sterile males in competition with wild males for copulating of females. According to FAO / IAEA / USDA (2003 ), so that the SIT is technically feasible in controlling Moscamed, it must occur in field conditions, at least 20 % of matings between sterile males and wild females tsl. One of the ways to increase the efficiency of SIT is releasing a nine to one hundred times the population of sterile males compared to the wild population in this field, it increases the likelihood of wild females are copulated by sterile males. Understanding the behaviors and strategies used by the wild and sterile males approach the females for copulating has great relevance to the SIT programs, since determining the acceptance and response of wild females. The strategy in copulating fruit-flies consists of: a) clustering of males at the bottom of foliage of host or non-host plants; b) issuance of the sex pheromone; c) call through the beating of the wings; d) arrival of the female, which is the male face to face; e) both touch with antennas; f) males jump about the females and initiate copulating, and the female may or may not accept the male g) end copulation

  7. The sterile-male technique for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied., in the Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain problems caused by the use of insecticides in the management of agricultural pests, such as environmental pollution, insecticide resistance and disturbance of biological balance, has led to the development of selective pest control methods. A prominent place among these for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly has been attained by the species specific sterile-insect technique (SIT). This study reviews the status of field programmes in countries of the Mediterranean basin, and of related mass rearing, irradiation and field release methodology. The SIT has been successfully tested in Spain, Italy, Israel and Cyprus. In all these cases, however, tests were conducted in small semi-isolated areas where at best a high degree of suppression but not eradication of the fly could be obtained since immigration of gravid females was always possible. The SIT programme in Cyprus and data on medfly ecology in the island is here reviewed in more detail. A proposal is make for the eradication of medfly from Cyprus by the use of an integration of methods, namely bait spraying, cultural practices and sterile-insect releases. (author)

  8. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Cladera, Jorge L.; Vilardi, Juan C.; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F.; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in differen...

  9. Genetic elimination of field-cage populations of Mediterranean fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, Philip T; Koukidou, Martha; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Gong, Hong-Fei; Zacharopoulou, Antigoni; Fu, Guoliang; Chapman, Tracey; Economopoulos, Aris; Vontas, John; Alphey, Luke

    2014-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) is a pest of over 300 fruits, vegetables and nuts. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a control measure used to reduce the reproductive potential of populations through the mass release of sterilized male insects that mate with wild females. However, SIT flies can display poor field performance, due to the effects of mass-rearing and of the irradiation process used for sterilization. The development of female-lethal RIDL (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal) strains for medfly can overcome many of the problems of SIT associated with irradiation. Here, we present life-history characterizations for two medfly RIDL strains, OX3864A and OX3647Q. Our results show (i) full functionality of RIDL, (ii) equivalency of RIDL and wild-type strains for life-history characteristics, and (iii) a high level of sexual competitiveness against both wild-type and wild-derived males. We also present the first proof-of-principle experiment on the use of RIDL to eliminate medfly populations. Weekly releases of OX3864A males into stable populations of wild-type medfly caused a successive decline in numbers, leading to eradication. The results show that genetic control can provide an effective alternative to SIT for the control of pest insects. PMID:25122230

  10. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O. T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, S. DOĞANCA, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  11. Genetic engineering technology for the improvement of the sterile insect technique. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of the joint FAO/IAEA programme on the research and development of insect pest control methodology, emphasis has been placed on the basic and applied aspects of implementing the sterile insect technique (SIT). Special emphasis has always been directed at the assembly of technological progress into workable systems that can be implemented in developing countries. The general intention is to solve problems associated with insect pests that have an adverse impact on production of food and fibre. For several insect species SIT has proven to be a powerful method for control. This includes the New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorox), the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) and one tsetse fly species (Glossina austeni). Improvements of the SIT are possible, especially through the use of molecular techniques. The final report of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on ''Genetic Engineering Technology for the Improvement of the Sterile Insect Technique'' highlights the progress made towards the development of transformation systems for non-drosophilid insects and the research aimed at the identification and engineering of potential target genes or traits

  12. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli, E-mail: bjordao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); McInnis, Donald [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/PBARC), Honolulu, HI (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Uramoto, Keiko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilmara [Valexport, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  13. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  14. Anticancer properties of Thymbra capitata and Helichrysum italicum essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Poças

    2014-06-01

    It has long been recognised that some EOs have antimicrobial, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, insecticidal activities. However, studies into their anti-tumoral activities are scarce. This study, indicates that Thymbra capitata and Helichrysum italicum EOs exhibited antitumor activity against RKO and MCF7 cells, deserving further research into both the mechanism of the observed anti-tumour activity and potential cancer therapeutic applications.

  15. Feasibility of eradicating Ceratitis spp. fruit flies from the Western Cape of South Africa by the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit production (deciduous fruit, table and wine grapes, and citrus) is a major export-based industry in the Western Cape, with more than 200,000 ha under cultivation. The gross value of these fruits (excluding wine) exceeds US$400 million per annum. Deciduous fruit and table grapes make up the major portion of the industry, with approximately 110,000 ha under production. The Western Cape is host to two species of fruit flies, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the Natal fruit fly, C. rosa Karsch. One or both of these species attack at least 19 species of fruits in this area. Both species have very similar life cycles and habits, and can cause enormous crop losses especially to fruits, but also to some vegetables. Both commercial and resource-limited farmers are affected by fruit flies. Control of fruit flies is currently based on ground applications of insecticides, either as full-cover foliar sprays or low-volume bait sprays. Control costs and crop losses for deciduous fruit and table grapes alone are estimated at US$4 million annually. South Africa is the only southern hemisphere deciduous fruit-exporting country that is not fruit fly-free or is not currently engaged in a project to eradicate fruit flies. Unless similar steps are taken, this situation is likely to threaten the competitiveness of the Western Cape's industry. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture of the United Nations recently approved funding for the INFRUITEC Centre of the ARC-Fruit, Vine and Wine Research Institute in Stellenbosch to undertake a study to determine the feasibility of eradicating fruit flies from the Western Cape by the sterile insect technique (SIT). Most fruits in the Western Cape are produced in valley systems, and many valleys are isolated from one another to a greater or lesser extent. The Western Cape is itself well isolated from other areas with fruit fly hosts: by the ocean on the eastern, southern and

  16. Determination of the dose of gamma radiation sterilization for assessment of biological parameters of male Ceratitis capitada (Diptera: Tephritidae), tsl - Vienna 8 strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vienna-8, tsl (temperature sensitive lethal) strain of Ceratitis capitata, by presenting mutations that facilitate the mass rearing and release only of sterile males in the field, has been used in (Sterile Insect Technique) programmes. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that provides the highest level of sterility for Vienna-8, tsl males assessing their biological parameters that indicate the quality of sterile males to be released. Brown pupae (males) of the tsl strain were obtained from the mass rearing of the Food Irradiation and Radio entomology laboratory of CENA/USP, and they were irradiated (with gamma radiation - 60Co) 24 hours before the emergence at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 Gy. The determination of the sterilizing dose was based on fertility of sexually mature females of the bisexual strain and not irradiated, mated with males of different treatments. Eggs were collected daily during 6 days, were counted and it was possible to estimate fecundity, and assess the hatching rate. The emergence and flight ability were determined by following the protocol of quality control manual for FAO/IAEA/USDA (2003). To assess the longevity under nutritional stress, the insects were kept a period of 48 h after emergence in the absence of water and food, and after this period, mortality was recorded. The size of the testes (left and right) was obtained by dissecting irradiated and non-irradiated males at the eighth day of life, and measure the testes in an ocular micrometer, considering the maximum length and width of each sample. To determine the sperm number was necessary to dissect the males and break their testicles. No difference was observed in emergence rate, flight ability and longevity of irradiated and non-irradiated males, nor in the fecundity of females mated with males of different treatments. The sterilizing dose that resulted in lower fertility of females was 120 Gy, with 1.5% hatching. Considering the parameters of

  17. Enthalpy of formation of (In, Gd)-doped barium cerate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matskevich, N.I., E-mail: nata.matskevich@yandex.ru [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, D-76334 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wolf, Th. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, D-76334 Karlsruhe (Germany); Adelmann, P.; Semerikova, A.N.; Anyfrieva, O.I. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-10

    Highlights: • BaCe{sub 0.7}Gd{sub 0.2}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.85} was prepared by solid-state reaction. • The standard formation enthalpy was determined. • The stabilization energy (Δ{sub st}H°) was calculated. • Δ{sub st}H° of BaCe{sub 0.7}Gd{sub 0.2}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.85} is higher than BaCe{sub 0.7}Nd{sub 0.2}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.85} and BaCeO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Solution enthalpies of barium cerate doped by gadolinium and indium and a mixture of BaCl{sub 2} + 0.7CeCl{sub 3} + 2GdCl{sub 3} + 0.1InCl{sub 3} have been measured in 1 mol dm{sup −3} HCl with 0.1 mol dm{sup −3} KI. For the first time the standard molar formation enthalpy of BaCe{sub 0.7}Gd{sub 0.2}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.85} has been determined by solution calorimetry as follows: Δ{sub f}H° (298.15 K) = −1615.84 ± 9.01 kJ mol{sup −1}. The stabilization energy for above-mentioned compound has been calculated as well. It has been shown that barium cerate doped gadolinium and indium has higher stabilization energy than BaCe{sub 0.7}Nd{sub 0.2}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.85} and BaCeO{sub 3}. The reaction enthalpy with CO{sub 2} interaction has been calculated for BaCe{sub 0.7}Gd{sub 0.2}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.85}.

  18. Hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Emejulu Adamma; Nwadike Constance Nnedimma

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata (A. capitata) leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Methods:Cholesterol diet was administered to Wistar rats at a dose of 40 mg per 0.2 mL 3 times daily for 14 days while the control received distilled water. These animals were treated with extract of A. capitata at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Lipid profiles were observed and compared. Results:Administration of A. capitata caused significant decrease in cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol when compared with the control (P<0.05) which was dose dependent. Also, it was observed that high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was significantly increased when compared with the control. Conclusions:This observation suggests that the leaf extract of A. capitata could probably serve as a potential natural product for treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  19. Pilot experiment to control Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using mass trapping technique in a custard apple (Annona cherimolia Mill.) orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, as a result of assays coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (and participated by Spain), it was decided that ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine be included in low release polyetilene bag dispensers (Biolure, Consep, Co) as the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) females were greatly attracted by them. These synthetic substances are placed in traps at the frequency of one and a half months to two months. If Tephry traps are used, one DDVP wafer (containing Vapona or a similar substance) is enough to kill the flies that enter them. These attractants make it unnecessary to replenish the liquids in the Mcphail traps and remain effective throughout the entire fruit season. The Caja Rural de Granada (a bank of farmers) encourages all techniques that increase crop profits for farmers. It is even more desirable if such crop profitability can be achieved without the application of insecticides which may result in the likely presence of toxic residues. In the light of the results achieved by the attractants with regard to female Medflies, the Caja Rural de Granada, together with the National Institute of Agricultural Research Counselling (Agricultural Department), performed an experiment on mass trapping to confirm whether it is possible to protect a fruit plantation with the application of this biotechnical method. Due to the great risk of this initial experiment, the farmers were free to use insecticides as often as they deemed necessary so that no damages due to any plague could be blamed on the experiment

  20. Evaluation of certain trapping systems for capturing the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in Assiut, Egypt during 1987-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven types of traps were used for evaluating the efficiency of 16 different trapping systems in catching males and females of medflies in citrus orchards during 1987 to 1991 in Assiut, Egypt. For the non-liquid trapping systems, the Jackson trap (JT) with white sticky insert baited with trimedlure was used as the standard trap, whereas that for the liquid systems was the International Pheromones McPhail trap (IPMT) baited with 300 ml of aqueous solution of nulure + borax. The results obtained under the dry climatic conditions of Assiut showed that, among the non-liquid trapping systems, the Hawaiian dry trap baited with trimedlure plug (TMLP) + DDVP dispenser in the same plastic basket (stuck at the center of trap ceiling) was the best system for catching males of medfly. It was followed by the Nadel dry trap baited with TMLP + Naled plug in the same basket stuck on the ceiling, and the Maghrebmed dry trap baited with TMLP + DDVP dispenser in the same basket hung at the level of trap holes. 11 refs, 5 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Effect of symbiotic bacteria added to the larval environment on the quality of the sterile male Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program of fight against Ceratite being based on the TIS becomes increasingly efficient when one controls these various factors well mainly the performances of the produced sterile males. While basing itself on the symbiotic relation between the bacteria present in the intestine of Ceratite and the latter, we have in this present adopted work at a method of breeding which could improve qualities of the male. This method consists in introducing certain beneficial bacteria in Ceratite (Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Klebsiella) into the medium of breeding following various combinations. The effect of these bacteria was analyzed by carrying out various tests of quality control to release the parameters of quality (Productivity, Poids, Emergence and Aptitude for the flight) and the parameters of the sexual behavior (Latency time, Duration of coupling and competitiveness). (author)

  2. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...

  3. Comparative analysis of sorption-desorption parameters of oxygen in barium and strontium cerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    it is suggested the equation for description of experimental dependences of oxygen index from partial pressure of oxygen for doped strontium cerate. It is shown, that oxygen index came off on saturation with the growth of partial pressure and does mot exceed value x/2, e.g. in these condition it is impossible to introduce extra-stoichiometric oxygen

  4. Mass rearing of the Medfly temperature sensitive lethal genetic sexing strain in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field tests have demonstrated the increased efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.), when only male Medflies are released (Robinson et al. 1986, Nitzan et al. 1993, McInnis et al. 1994, Rendon 1996). Genetic sexing strains (GSS) of Medflies, containing temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) and white pupae colour (wp) mutations (Franz et al. 1994) developed by FAO/IAEA, allow the separation of male flies from female flies. GSS technology has reached a stage where it is being used in large-scale operational programmes, such as the Moscamed Program in Guatemala. GSS based on the wp/tsl have the advantages of: 1) not requiring sophisticated equipment for sex separation, 2) a high accuracy of separation (> 99.5% males) is possible and, 3) separation is achieved during egg development, which excludes the unnecessary rearing of females (Franz et al. 1996). It was shown by Franz et al. (1994) that tsl GSS are genetically stable for many generations under small-scale rearing conditions. However, under the large-scale rearing of operational programmes such as Moscamed (Hentze and Mata 1987), a gradual loss of the sex separation mechanism through recombination remains a problem, as has been demonstrated in Guatemala during 1994-1996. This in no way precludes the use of GSS technology, but it does mean that a management system must be used to control this gradual loss of stability; a strategy for colony management which maintains a stable and high level of accuracy of male-only production. The El Pino facility, which mass produces sterile flies for the Guatemala Medflies SIT Program, has introduced a filter rearing system (FRS) (Fisher and Caceres 1999), and has demonstrated in a Medfly tsl GSS known as VIENNA 4/Tol-94, that genetic stability can be maintained. We report the operation of the FRS and its impact upon genetic stability and male-only production. The concept of the FRS has the potential to improve the

  5. Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

  6. Implementation of integrated pest management of Ceratitis malgassa in citrus groves in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Three species of Ceratitinae have been recorded in Madagascar but most of the economic damage is done by the endemic species Ceratitis malgassa that is considered as the main pest of many fruits (cultivated and wild). During the 1960s, some research on different control methods of Ceratitis malgassa has been undertaken, such as the introduction of natural enemies (4 Opius species from Mauritius and Dirrhinus giffardi). The utilisation of the Sterile Insect Technique has also been considered, but the lack of financial means has prevented such studies. Since 1998 the Ministry of Agriculture through the Plant Protection Service in collaboration with fruit producers and NGO's is carrying out activities to implement the system of integrated pest management in different citrus groves: - Trapping system: test of different traps, monitoring using traps; - Developing the sanitation methods; - Determination of Ceratitis malgassa response to attractants such as trimedlure, torula yeast, tri- lure and protein hydrolysat in view of the application of bait spraying and the male annihilation technique; - Biological control using natural enemies is not yet applied because results of the latest research is not yet available. Many producers who want to export their fruits are interested in the SIT. (author)

  7. Caracterização química da amêndoa de coquinho-azedo (Butia capitata var capitata Chemical characterization of nut of Butia capitata var capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Faria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A palmeira Butia capitata var capitata produz o coquinho-azedo, fruto de odor agradável e penetrante, cuja polpa é aproveitada para a produção de um suco saboroso na região norte de Minas Gerais. As sementes apresentam uma amêndoa cuja exploração ainda é bastante limitada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição da amêndoa do coquinho-azedo, visando a avaliar suas possibilidades de uso. Na amêndoa, a composição química (umidade, proteínas, lipídios, cinzas e fibras foi determinada por métodos gravimétricos. Os teores dos principais minerais foram avaliados por espectrofotometria de emissão atômica com fonte de plasma indutivo, e a composição dos ácidos graxos presentes na gordura da semente foi determinada por cromatografia a gás. A amêndoa do coquinho-azedo apresentou 9,9 % de umidade e 57,8 % de lipídios totais, 25,8 % de fibra detergente neutro, 17,6 % de fibra detergente ácido e 1,6 % de cinzas em base seca. A gordura extraída da amêndoa de coquinho-azedo apresentou elevados teores de ácido láurico (42,1 %, que foi seguido pelo ácido oléico (16,9 %. Predominaram os ácidos graxos saturados (78,9 %, principalmente os de cadeia média (C6-C12.The Butia capitata palm tree produce a very aromatic fruit named "coquinho-azedo", which freeze pulp is frequently used to produce agreeable juice in north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. "Coquinho-azedo" kernel contains a nut that is not frequently explored. The purpose of the present study was the chemical characterization of "coquinho-azedo" nut to evaluate the possibilities of its use. The moisture, lipids, ash and fiber contents were determined by gravimetric methods. The mineral profile was characterized by inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer and the fatty acids profile was characterized by gas chromatography. The coquinho-azedo nut presented 9,9 % of moisture, 57,8 % of total lipid, 25,8 % of neutral detergent fiber, 17,6 % of acid detergent fiber

  8. Sedimentation and the reproductive biology of the Hawaiian reef-building coral Montipora capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Hédouin, Laetitia; Waller, Rhian G; Smith, Derek; Truong, William; Gates, Ruth D

    2014-02-01

    Environmental conditions can influence the physiology of marine organisms and have important implications for their reproductive performance and capacity to supply new recruits. This study examined the seasonal reproductive patterns of the coral Montipora capitata in habitats exposed to different sedimentation regimes. Although M. capitata is a main reef-building coral in the Hawaiian Archipelago, little is known about the gametogenic cycle and reproductive ecology of this important species. Our results indicate that gamete production in M. capitata is a resilient process; no differences in gamete development or fecundity were observed among sites with very different sedimentation regimes. The gametogenic cycle of M. capitata lasts between 10 and 11 months, with spawning occurring over 3-5 months during warmer months (May-September). Oocytes were found throughout the year, but spermatocysts were only found April-August. The largest increases in oocyte size occurred during February to May, the months when solar radiation increased rapidly. The largest variation in oocyte sizes was found during July and August; during this period individual colonies contained mature oocytes for immediate spawning and new oocytes being formed for spawning the next year. The capacity of M. capitata to reproduce in areas with high sedimentation is an interesting finding highlighting the potential of the species for acclimatization, adaptation, or both. Despite this optimistic finding, the management of terrestrial runoff and the restoration of habitat quality for corals remains a top priority to ensure the renewal and maintenance of coral populations. PMID:24648203

  9. Sterile insect technique: new technology to control fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, in the Lower Basin of the Sao Francisco Valley; Tecnica do inseto esteril: nova tecnologia para combater a mosca-das-frutas, Ceratitis capitata, no Submedio do Vale do Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordao; Barbosa, Flavia Rabelo [Embrapa Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio Souza do [Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Viana, Rodrigo; Malavasi, Aldo [Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Sampaio, Raimundo [Agencia Estadual de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The SIT is the creation, on a large scale, the insect-pest to be controlled and weekly release of these insects sterilized in the field.The sterile insects copulate with the wild, but do not generate descendants. The basic premises for the use of SIT in insect control are: the reproduction is through sexual intercourse, the female copulate preferably only once there is ease of creation of the plague in industrial scale in artificial diet. The efficiency of the SIT may be greater when only the males are released in the field because they increase the probability of copulating with wild females only, with reductions in the cost of production and release. In the case of fruit-flies, sterile females continue doing puncture in the fruits, which decreases the quality for export. To be able to release only males in the field, in 1980s, was developed a mutant strain, whose females emerge from pupae white, thus being able to discard the white ones, keeping the pupae Brown for the release of sterile males. Ten years after, to save on the industrial scale production system, was obtained a mutant whose females possess lethal temperature sensitivity of 34 deg C, still in the embryo stage. Then the eggs are placed on artificial diet, and when they arrive at the pupa stage, they are all brown and males. Forty-eight to 24 hours before the emergence of adults, the pupae are painted with fluorescent powder paint, bagged and irradiated with gamma radiation of 95Gy of Co-60 or X-ray. As soon as the males emerge, are marked with fluorescent ink and when they reach 3 to 5 days old, are released into the field. Thus, when monitoring is done in Jackson traps in the field, it is possible to distinguish wild male sterile under black light or epifluorescence microscope with males, because the sterile are fluorescent. On application of the SIT to Moscamed, sterile males are released in the field must display good dispersibility, good survival and good sexual performance. The efficiency and effectiveness of the use of the SIT depend on the success of the sterile males in competition with wild males for copulating of females. According to FAO / IAEA / USDA (2003 ), so that the SIT is technically feasible in controlling Moscamed, it must occur in field conditions, at least 20 % of matings between sterile males and wild females tsl. One of the ways to increase the efficiency of SIT is releasing a nine to one hundred times the population of sterile males compared to the wild population in this field, it increases the likelihood of wild females are copulated by sterile males. Understanding the behaviors and strategies used by the wild and sterile males approach the females for copulating has great relevance to the SIT programs, since determining the acceptance and response of wild females. The strategy in copulating fruit-flies consists of: a) clustering of males at the bottom of foliage of host or non-host plants; b) issuance of the sex pheromone; c) call through the beating of the wings; d) arrival of the female, which is the male face to face; e) both touch with antennas; f) males jump about the females and initiate copulating, and the female may or may not accept the male g) end copulation.

  10. Stability of Fried Olive and Sunflower Oils Enriched with Thymbra capitata Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Rohaim, A.; Figueiredo, A. C.; Pedro, L. G.; Barroso, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of olive and sunflower oils for domestic uses after frying cow steak or only heating were evaluated in the presence or absence of the carvacrol-rich essential oil of Thymbra capitata. The treatments consisted of sunflower and olive oils either enriched with 200 mg/l of T. capitata oil or without it, heating at 180°C for 20 min, or frying 100 g cow steak at the same temperature and for the same period of time. In all assays, acid, peroxide, and p-anisidine values were followed ov...

  11. Methods to Break Seed Dormancy of Rhynchosia capitata, a Summer Annual Weed Métodos para Romper la Dormancia de Rhynchosia capitata, una Maleza Anual de Verano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Haider Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dormancy of weed seeds is a significant feature contributing to their survival rate since it helps the weeds to avoid herbicides and other weeding practices along with unfavorable environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of different dormancy breaking treatments on the germination of Rhynchosia capitata, a common summer annual weed, which is emerging as a weed threat in Pakistan. Seeds were soaked in thiourea, KNO3, HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4, and they were also mechanically scarified (sandpaper. Results indicated that R. capitata seeds show signs of physical dormancy that is mainly due to the impermeability of their coat. Mechanical scarification and acid scarification (soaking of seeds in H2SO4 for 60 and 80 min and in HCl for 12 and 15 h were very efficient in breaking dormancy and promoting germination. Seed soaking in HNO3 for 1 to 5 d showed little effect whereas various concentrations of thiourea and KNO3 were ineffective in breaking R. capitata seed dormancy.La dormancia seminal de las malezas es un rasgo significativo contribuyente a su tasa de supervivencia, puesto que ayuda a las malezas a evitar herbicidas y otras prácticas de desmalezado junto con condiciones ambientales desfavorables. Investigamos los efectos de diferentes tratamientos para romper dormancia sobre la germinación de Rhynchosia capitata, una maleza anual estival común en Paquistán. Las semillas se sumergieron en tiourea, KNO3, HCl, HNO3 y H2SO4 y además fueron escarificadas mecánicamente (papel lija. Los resultados indicaron que las semillas de R. capitata muestran signos de dormancia física principalmente debido a impermeabilidad de su cubierta. Escarificación mecánica y ácida (inmersión de semillas en H2SO4 por 60 y 80 min y en HCl por 12 y 15 h fueron muy eficientes para romper dormancia y promover germinación. Las semillas sumergidas en HNO3 por 1 a 5 días mostraron poco efecto, mientras diversas concentraciones de tiourea y KNO3 fueron

  12. Phytochemical and biological studies of Butia capitata Becc. leaves cultivated in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa Mohamed Ammar

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: B. capitata leaf extracts were shown to possess variable antioxidant effect, the most promising was methanol extract. Both polar and non polar extracts were proved to have anti-inflammatory activity, the non polar extract was superior in this respect. The bioactivity of the extracts was ascribed to the presence of flavonoids, sterols and α-tocopherol.

  13. Phytochemical and biological studies of Butia capitata Becc. leaves cultivated in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagwa Mohamed Ammar; Mohammed Said Hefnawy; Sahar Youssef Al-Okbi; Doha Abdou Mohamed; Nabil Khamis El-Sayed; Amira Ahmed El-Anssary; Tom Mabry

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Butia capitata (B. capitata) leaf extracts along with phytochemical analysis of the proposed bioactive constituents.Methods:organic solvents and screened for their anti-inflammatory activities in tested animals and in-vitro antioxidant effect. An extensive phytochemical investigation of the bioactive extracts through paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), high pressure liquid chromatography and spectral analysis. GC-Mass, ultraviolet, hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, electron ionization-mass spectrometry, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation and heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation were carried out.Results:Results showed that different extracts possess promising antioxidant effect and Different successive extracts of B. capitata Becc. leaves were prepared with selective significant anti-inflammatory activity with variable degrees. The results of the phytochemical investigation of the bioactive extracts revealed the presence of volatile substances, lipoidal matter, α-tocopherol, free sugars, polysaccharides and flavonoidal compounds.Conclusions: B. capitata leaf extracts were shown to possess variable antioxidant effect, the most promising was methanol extract. Both polar and non polar extracts were proved to have anti-inflammatory activity, the non polar extract was superior in this respect. The bioactivity of the extracts was ascribed to the presence of flavonoids, sterols and α-tocopherol.

  14. Invasive infection due to Saprochaete capitata in a young patient with hematological malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parahym, Ana Maria Rabelo de Carvalho; Rolim, Pedro José; da Silva, Carolina Maria; Domingos, Igor de Farias; Gonçalves, Sarah Santos; Leite, Edinalva Pereira; de Morais, Vera Lúcia Lins; Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; de Lima, Reginaldo Gonçalves; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of invasive infection due to Saprochaete capitata in a patient with hematological malignancies after chemotherapy treatment and empiric antifungal therapy with caspofungin. Although severely immunocompromised the patient survived been treated with amphotericin B lipid complex associated with voriconazole. PMID:26273269

  15. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai xia Gu; Shu Xing Shen; Yan Hua Wang; Jian Jun Zhao; Shu Xin Xuan; Xue Ping Chen; Xiao Feng Li; Shuang Xia Luo; Yu Jing Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  16. Thymbra capitata essential oil prevents cell death induced by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortigón-Vinagre, María P; Blanco, José; Ruiz, Trinidad; Henao, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    An interdisciplinary experimental investigation on the antioxidant activity of Thymbra capitata essential oil was made. This plant is a Mediterranean culinary herb, whose essential oil antioxidant power has recently been demonstrated in vitro as one of the highest in nature. We tested if this in vitro antioxidant capacity was reproducible on biological systems using as model system primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. The composition and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the T. capitata essential oil were also assessed. Cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species level were measured in cells treated with pathophysiologic doses of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (capitata essential oil, and the ability of small doses (capitata essential oil. PMID:25203731

  17. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Figueiredo, A. C.; M.M. Costa; Martins, D; Barroso, J.G.; Pedro, L. G.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 degreesC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants) were used and subjected to t...

  18. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils isolated from Thymbra capitata L. (Cav.) andOriganum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Leonor; Miguel, Graça; Gomes, Sónia; Costa, Ludmila; Venâncio, Florencia; Teixeira, Adriano; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2005-10-19

    Antilisterial activities of Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare essential oils were tested against 41 strains of Listeria monocytogenes. The oil of T. capitata was mainly constituted by one component, carvacrol (79%), whereas for O. vulgare three components constituted 70% of the oil, namely, thymol (33%), gamma-terpinene (26%), and p-cymene (11%). T. capitata essential oil had a significantly higher antilisterial activity in comparison to O. vulgare oil and chloramphenicol. No significant differences in L. monocytogenes susceptibilities to the essential oils tested were registered. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. capitata essential oil and of carvacrol were quite similar, ranging between 0.05 and 0.2 microL/mL. Antioxidant activity was also tested, the essential oil of T. capitata showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than that of O. vulgare. Use of T. capitata and O. vulgare essential oils can constitute a powerful tool in the control of L. monocytogenes in food and other industries. PMID:16218659

  19. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  20. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) populations to Mamestra brassicae (L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Lema Márquez, Margarita; Vilar, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops are severely damaged by different insect pests. Larvae of lepidopterous pests feed on foliage, creating large holes in leaves. Cabbage plants can tolerate some feeding damage before head formation. However, as larvae grow, they move to the center of the plant, boring into the cabbage head and resulting in head deformation, which reduce product marketability (Shelton et al., 1982). Feeding damage also increases the plants’ susceptibility to dise...

  1. Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Ekspor Kubis (Brassica O. Capitata) dari Kabupaten Karo

    OpenAIRE

    Sinuhaji, Nomi Br

    2012-01-01

    NOMI BR. SINUHAJI, 2012. The Analysis of Some Variables which Influence the export of Cabbages (Brassica O. Capitata) in Karo District (Supervised by Dr. Ir. Tavi Supriana, MS and Ir. Luhut Sihombing, MP). The demand of exporting cabbages to Malaysia and Singapore tends to increase, while the market segments of exporting cabbages from Karo District at the present time are new competitors, such as the People’s Republic of China, Thailand, and Vietnam. The aim of the research was to analyze ...

  2. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ...

  3. Enhanced sintering and conductivity study of cobalt or nickel doped solid solution of barium cerate and zirconate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricote, Sandrine; Bonanos, Nikolaos

    2010-01-01

    atmospheres and compared to the undoped compounds. The ionic and p-type conductivities have been determined, as well as the activation energy in wet reducing atmospheres, in which protonic conduction is dominant. A decrease of the ionic conductivity is noticeable for the cobalt or nickel doped barium...... zirconate (x = 0), while not for cobalt or nickel solid solution of barium cerate and zirconate (x = 0.2)....

  4. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L. Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro, L.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants were used and subjected to the same conditions. The best yield oil was obtained from the whole aerial part of T. capitata collected during the flowering phase. The major component of the oils was carvacrol. Relative high amounts of p-cymene, γ-terpinene and β-caryophyllene were also found. BHT revealed to be the best antioxidant when the olive oil was used. On sunflower oil, the antioxidant ability of BHT was not so evident, being the carvacrol-rich essential oils of T. capitata or carvacrol more important antioxidants.Se analizaron, mediante GC y GC/MS, los componentes volátiles de aceites aislados de las distintas partes de la Thymbra capitata, recogida en diferentes etapas de desarrollo. Se evaluó la actividad antioxidante de estos aceites de la T. capitata, midiendo el índice de peróxidos, en aceites de oliva y girasol, almacenados a 60 ºC. Estos índices de peróxidos se compararon con los obtenidos cuando no se agregó ningún antioxidante (control y cuando se utilizó BHT o carvacrol, en las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento. El mayor rendimiento en aceite se obtuvo de la parte aérea de T. capitata recogida durante la etapa de floración. El componente mayoritario de los aceites fue el carvacrol. También se encontraron, cantidades relativamente elevadas, de p-cimeno, γ-terpineno y β-cariofileno. El mejor antioxidante para el aceite de oliva resultó ser el BHT. En el aceite del girasol, la actividad antioxidante del BHT no fue tan evidente, mientras que el

  5. Electrochemical Properties of Barium Cerate Doped with Zinc for Methanol Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium cerate and its zinc doped series, BaCe/sub 1-x/Zn/sub x/O/sub 3/ with 0.02 <= x <= 0.16, were synthesized using ammonia as a co-precipitant. The influence of zinc on phase and morphology was characterized using XRD and SEM, respectively. XRD revealed orthorhombic crystallinity for x= 0 to 14 mol% but distorted hexagonal phase for x = 16 mol%. SEM images revealed homogeneity of synthesized powders. The synthesized materials were then tested for their function as electrocatalyst for model analyte, methanol. Methanol electro-oxidation in acidic media was studied by modifying platinum electrode with BaCeO/sub 3/ materials using cyclic voltammetry. Kinetic (k/sub s,h/, D/sub o/) and thermodynamic parameters (E/sub a/, delta G, delta H, delta S) were estimated for methanol electroxidation. The deduced value of diffusion coefficient of order of 10/sup -10/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ indicated faster kinetics of methanol oxidation using BaCeO/sub 3/ than zinc doped sample in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ medium. The increasing temperature and methanol concentration enhanced the peak currents which pointed to the suitability of these materials as electrocatalysts. The stability and catalytic activity of these materials at various temperatures also aided to their potentiality in PEMFC application. (author)

  6. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  7. Field trials of solid triple lure (trimedlure, methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, and DDVP) dispensers for detection and male annihilation of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP insecticide were evaluated in traps as potential detection and male annihilation devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure a...

  8. Development of female medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) attractant system for trapping and sterility assessment: investigations of the efficiency of various medfly female trapping combinations in the western part of Turkey in support of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen combinations, formed from eight traps including some of their versions and seven lures and attractants, were tested between the years of 1994-1997. The traps tested were: Jackson trap (JT); International Pheromone's McPhail traps (IPMT); Yellow and white bottomed, Closed-bottom dry trap (CBDT); Open-bottom dry trap (OBDT); Agrisense dry trap; Tephri trap; and Frutect trap. The lures included: ammonium acetate (AA) plus putrescine (P), the FA-2 lure; AA+P+ trimethylamine (TMA), the FA-3 lure; NuLure and borax (NU+B); a special liquid lure; and Trimedlure (TML). For killing agents, either toxicant squares of DDVP or the surfactant Triton were used. Each experiment per year generally consisted of two independent tests that lasted eight weeks. The field plot design was linear or mostly randomized block design. Fruit infestation level was estimated for each test. Mating status of the captured females was also studied. The assessment was based on the number of adult captured. Singe the yearly experiments were not based on the same treatments, some combinations were eliminated or modified after testing. In 1994, the CBDT baited with FA-2 was tested against JT, TML and seemed almost as attractive as JT with the percentage of 61% - 62% females. A modified trap, the OBDT was tested in 1995 along with IPMT, NU+B and Agrisense drytrap, FA-2 and they showed the weakest capture efficiencies. In 1996 when the OBDT and IPMT were tested with FA-2 and FA-3 lures, the traps with FA-3 showed better performance than the same traps with FA-2 (4.07 vs 1.96 and 10.32 vs 3.04 flies/trap/day (F/T/D) respectively). The Tephri trap, which was first tested with NU+B, had best capture efficiency results when used with DDVP plug. The Frutect trap with its own liquid lure gave the weakest result followed by OBDT, FA-2. In 1997, the Tephri, FA-3,wet, in both tests, seemed to be the most attractive treatment with 14.14 and 3.96 F/T/D followed by Tephri, FA-3,dry with 12.37 and 2.63 F/T/D, IPMT, FA-3,dry with 10.71 and 2.63 F/T/D, and IPMT-FA-3,wet with 8.97 and 2.51 F/T/D, OBDT-FA-3, which was contractors choice, seemed to be the weakest treatment with 1.51 and 0.95 F/T/D. However, it had the highest percentage of female capture percentage (94%-97%). The wet versions of both the Tephri trap and IPMT captured higher percentages of females (92%-94%) and (91%-93%), respectively, than their dry versions (77%-83%) and (76%-79%), respectively. The mating status of the captured females seemed to be a little inconsistent in 1995 and 1996, whereas, the percentage of unmated females were higher than mated ones in all treatments in 1997. (author)

  9. Wild Thymbra capitata from Western Rif (Morocco): essential oil composition, chemical homogeneity and yield variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhy, Khadija; Benlhabib, Ouafae; Al Faiz, Chaouki; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Felix

    2013-08-01

    Essential oils (EO, 15 collective samples and 47 individual samples) of Thymbra capitata collected from Moroccan Western Rif were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) in combination with retention indices (RI), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-SM) and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Twenty components were identified. Carvacrol (68.2%-85.9%) was by far the major component of all the samples, while the content of thymol (0.1-0.3%) was very low. Other components present in appreciable amounts were gamma-terpinene (up to 8.9%), p-cymene (up to 7.1%), linalool (up to 4.4%) and (E)-beta-caryophyllene (up to 4.1%). In contrast, the yield of EO varied drastically from sample to sample (0.5-3.7%). No correlation could be established between yield of EO and altitude, pH, chemical composition and granularity of the soil. Cultivation under controlled conditions is suggested to improve the quantitative characteristics of carvacrol-rich Moroccan T. capitata.

  10. Metallothionein induction and antioxidative responses in the estuarine polychaeta Capitella capitata (Capitellidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suriya J; S Bharathiraja; V Sekar; R Rajasekaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant response induced by copper (Cu) exposure inCapitella capitata. The capacity of Cu bioaccumulation was also evaluated through the metal quantification. Methods: Worms were exposed to different concentrations of Cu 50, 100, and 200 μg/L for 7, 14 and 21 days respectively. In all the assays, control groups were run in parallel, employing only saline water (10%). The concentrations of Cu in the digested acidic solutions of worms were determined by using the inductively coupled plasma-Optical emission spectrophotometry. The total protein content and other anti oxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were recorded for the experiment period. Results: Bioaccumulation of Cu metals in polychaetes was increased parallel to exposure time. A peak concentration (197.30±12.32 μg/g) of metallothioneins (MTs) was registered at 14th day of 100 μg/L group compared to control group (37.29 μg/g). Catalase activities (CAT) in Cu treated-worms were increased significantly (P<0.05) after 7 and 14 days of exposure. The concentration of Cu had significant (P<0.05) influences on the activity of SOD. The same physiological activity was recorded in GST evaluation. Conclusions: These results of biochemical variables in C. capitata suggest us a useful model species for monitoring of environmental disturbance by heavy metal pollution. Antioxidant defenses were confirmed as sensitive biomarkers for metal stress in polychaete worms.

  11. Wild Thymbra capitata from Western Rif (Morocco): essential oil composition, chemical homogeneity and yield variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhy, Khadija; Benlhabib, Ouafae; Al Faiz, Chaouki; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Felix

    2013-08-01

    Essential oils (EO, 15 collective samples and 47 individual samples) of Thymbra capitata collected from Moroccan Western Rif were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) in combination with retention indices (RI), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-SM) and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Twenty components were identified. Carvacrol (68.2%-85.9%) was by far the major component of all the samples, while the content of thymol (0.1-0.3%) was very low. Other components present in appreciable amounts were gamma-terpinene (up to 8.9%), p-cymene (up to 7.1%), linalool (up to 4.4%) and (E)-beta-caryophyllene (up to 4.1%). In contrast, the yield of EO varied drastically from sample to sample (0.5-3.7%). No correlation could be established between yield of EO and altitude, pH, chemical composition and granularity of the soil. Cultivation under controlled conditions is suggested to improve the quantitative characteristics of carvacrol-rich Moroccan T. capitata. PMID:24079192

  12. Bleached Porites compressa and Montipora capitata corals catabolize δ13C-enriched lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, Andréa G.; Rodrigues, Lisa J.

    2011-09-01

    Corals rely on stored energy reserves (i.e., lipids, carbohydrates, and protein) to survive bleaching events. To better understand the physiological implications of coral bleaching on lipid catabolism and/or synthesis, we measured the δ13C of coral total lipids (δ13CTL) in experimentally bleached (treatment) and non-bleached (control) Porites compressa and Montipora capitata corals immediately after bleaching and after 1.5 and 4 months of recovery on the reef. Overall δ13CTL values in treatment corals were significantly lower than in control corals because of a 1.9 and 3.4‰ decrease in δ13CTL immediately after bleaching in P. compressa and M. capitata, respectively. The decrease in δ13CTL coincided with decreases in total lipid concentration, indicating that corals catabolized δ13C-enriched lipids. Since storage lipids are primarily depleted during bleaching, we hypothesize that they are isotopically enriched relative to other lipid classes. This work further helps clarify our understanding of changes to coral metabolism and biogeochemistry when bleached and helps elucidate how lipid classes may influence recovery from bleaching and ultimately coral survival.

  13. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  14. Agronomical and chemical characterisation of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. biotypes from Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Leto, Claudio; Cicero, Nicola; Tropea, Alessia; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Licata, Mario; La Bella, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the agronomical and chemical characterisation of 13 Sicilian biotypes of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav., grown under the same agricultural and environmental condition, are reported. The main morpho-productive parameters and quali-quantitative profile of essential oils (EOs) were determined. The EOs were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis statistical methods were used to group biotypes according to the EOs chemical composition. The EO yield ranged between 4.6 and 8.1 (v/w). A total of 38 EO compounds have been identified. The compounds mostly represented were α-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, borneol, carvacrol and β-caryophyllene. In all biotypes, the carvacrol (67.4-79.5%) was the main compound, confirming that T. capitata is a carvacrol chemotype. The results showed that all Sicilian Thymbra biotypes have a good adaptation to the climatic conditions of the test environment. PMID:25600887

  15. Exploitation of the Medfly Gut Microbiota for the Enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique: Use of Enterobacter sp. in Larval Diet-Based Probiotic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Georgios A Kyritsis; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.; Carlos Cáceres; Kostas Bourtzis

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is a pest of worldwide substantial economic importance, as well as a Tephritidae model for sterile insect technique (SIT) applications. The latter is partially due to the development and utilization of genetic sexing strains (GSS) for this species, such as the Vienna 8 strain, which is currently used in mass rearing facilities worldwide. Improving the performance of such a strain both in mass rearing facilities and in the field could s...

  16. A filter rearing system for mass reared genetic sexing strains of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), is arguably the world's most widespread pest of fresh fruit production. With mounting controversy over using chemicals against insect pests, the sterile insect technique (SIT) has become increasingly more important as a successful technology in controlling or eradicating many insect pests. However, the wider adoption of SIT for Medflies has been hindered by damage to fruit from sterile female stings (Hendrichs et al. 1995). Moreover, the release of sterile females in SIT for Medflies is not efficacious (Hendrichs et al. 1995), a point validated in the field in Hawaii (McInnis et al. 1994) and Guatemala (Rendon, personal communication). Hendrichs et al. (1995) list many other advantages for releasing only male Medflies including improved economy, increased safety and improved field monitoring. Genetic systems for the separation of sexes have been developed for Medflies (Franz and Kerremans 1994, Willhoeft et al. 1996) and they allow for large-scale releases of only males. Genetic sexing strains (GSS), as they are known, are based upon selectable characters linked to the male sex by using a Y-autosome translocation (Franz et al. 1996). There are two types of GSS used in mass rearing. First, strains based upon a recessive mutation (wp) change the pupal colour from brown to white. In these strains, females emerge from white pupae and males from brown pupae. A machine is used to sort the pupae based upon colour. First described by Robinson and Van Heemert (1982), the most recent strain, SEIB 6-96 based upon the T(Y;5) 2-22 translocation, is relatively stable in small scale rearing (Franz et al. 1994). Second are the temperature sensitive lethal strains (wp/tsl) which carry a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation in addition to wp. In tsl strains, female embryos are killed by exposing eggs to a 3 C temperature during development (Franz et al. 1996). Male embryos are not temperature sensitive and

  17. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro, L.; Barroso, J.G.; Martins, D; M.M. Costa; Figueiredo, A. C.; Miguel, M. G.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants) were used and subjecte...

  18. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  19. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  20. Origanum vulgare and Thymbra capitata Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Perez, Enrique; Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oregano (Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare) essential oils (EOs), cultivated and extracted in the South-East of Spain, were analysed by GC/MS to determine their composition. (E)-β-Caryophyllene (0.5-4.9%), thymol (0.2-5.8%), p-cymene (3.8-8.2%), γ-terpinene (2.1-10.7%) and carvacrol (58.7-77.4%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, where (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene, (+)-a- pinene and (+)-β-pinene were determined as the main enantiomers. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods, accounting for activity against free radicals and reducing power. Important inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase (LOX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer and insecticidal activities, mainly due to carvacrol. These properties support the potential use of oregano EOs as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:26996035

  1. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of Globimetula oreophila (Oliv van Tiegh and Phragmanthera capitata (Spreng Balle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O O Ogbole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants will continue to be relevant in the production of lead compounds that can be utilized for its antibacterial activity directly or through chemical modification (s. Aims: The present study is conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity vis-ΰ-vis phytochemical constituents of Globimetula oreophila and Phragmanthera capitata. Materials and Methods: Cup plate agar diffusion assay was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the extracts of both plants against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by plotting the diameters of zones of inhibition against the logarithm of concentrations and the straight line graph so generated extrapolated to the value equivalent to the diameter of the cork-borer. The antilog of the corresponding value of concentration was taken as the MIC value. Statistical Analysis: All the values of the results of cup plate diffusion assay were expressed as means of two replicates ± standard deviation. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones and flavonoid in both plants. Antibacterial screening of both plants showed that both of them were active against all clinical bacterial isolates tested with P. capitata having a higher activity than G. oreophila on most of the isolates. The ability of both plants to inhibit the growth of S. typhi is a major breakthrough in the control of incidence of typhoid fever notwithstanding the reports of resistance to existing antibiotics. Conclusion: It therefore follows that the importance of both plants in the management and control of infections with which all the bacterial isolates used for this study were associated cannot be underestimated.

  2. Experimental and DFT studies on the antioxidant activity of a C-glycoside from Rhynchosia capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.; Kumaresan, R.; Deepha, V.; Sivakumar, Raman

    2013-02-01

    Rhynchosia capitata (=Glycine capitata) Heyne ex roth, was found to possess polyphenolics including flavonoids, which acts as potential antioxidant. The study of ethanolic extract of roots and leaves reveals that the leaves possess high polyphenolics including flavonoids than roots. This was also confirmed by DPPH radical scavenging activity. Leaf powder of the plant was extracted with different solvents by soxhlet apparatus in the order of increasing polarity. The DPPH scavenging activity of methanol fraction was found to be high compared to the crude extract and other fractions. Nitric oxide scavenging activity was dominant in chloroform fraction compared to methanol fraction. Presence of flavonoids especially vitexin, a C-glycoside in methanol and chloroform fractions were confirmed by high pressure thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. The structural and molecular characteristics of naturally occurring flavonoid, vitexin was investigated in gas phase using density functional theory (DFT) approach with B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. Analysis of bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) reveals that the OH site that requires minimum energy for dissociation is 4'-OH from B-ring. To explore the radical scavenging activity of vitexin, the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index properties were computed and interpreted. The nonvalidity of Koopman's theorem has been verified by the computation of Eo and Ev energy magnitudes. Interestingly, from BDE calculations it was observed that BDE for 4'-OH, 5-OH and 7-OH are comparatively low for vitexin than its aglycone apigenin and this may be due to the presence of C-8 glucoside in vitexin. To substantiate this, plot of frontier molecular orbital and spin density distribution analysis for neutral and the corresponding radical species for the compound vitexin have been presented.

  3. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TREATMENTS FOR OVERCOMING DORMANCY IN Butia capitata (MARTIUS) BECCARI SEEDS TRATAMENTOS FÍSICOS E QUÍMICOS PARA SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE Butia capitata (MARTIUS) BECCARI

    OpenAIRE

    Delacyr da Silva Brandão Júnior; Hélida Mara Magalhães; César Fernandes Aquino; Paulo Sérgio Nascimento Lopes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pre-germination treatments for overcoming dormancy in Butia capitata seeds. The experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks design, in a 3x3 factorial scheme (mechanical treatments x immersion substances), with 20 seeds per plot and four replications. For mechanical treatments, seeds with endocarp (pyrene), seeds without endocarp, and scarified pyrenes were used, whereas, for the immersion substances, gibberellic acid, water, and the contr...

  4. Germination ecology of Rhynchosia capitata: an emerging summer weed in Asia Ecologia da germinação de Rhynchosia capitata: planta daninha emergente durante o verão na Ásia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. Ali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhynchosia capitata is becoming an increasing problem in summer crops, such as cotton, soybean, pearl millet and mungbean in many Asian countries. Laboratory and greenhouse studies have been conducted to determine the effects of several environmental factors on seed germination patterns and seedling emergence of R. capitata. We investigated whether the diverse ecological factors such as temperature, light, salinity, moisture stress, pH, and soil depth affected germination and seedling emergence of R. capitata. Germination increased as temperature increased from 25ºC and significantly reduced at 45ºC. Presence or absence of light did not influence germination. Germination of R. capitata was sensitive to increased salt and moisture stress, as well as to seed burial depth. Only 48% of seeds germinated at 150 mM salt concentration compared to 100% in control (distilled water. Similarly, 15% of seeds germinated at an osmotic potential of ‑0.8 MPa compared to 88% at ‑0.2 MPa. The optimum pH for seed germination of R. capitata was 7 (98% germination, but the seeds also germinated at lower level of pH 5 (85% and at higher level of pH 10 (75%. In seed burial trial, maximum seedling emergence of 93% occurred at 2 cm depth, and seedling did not emerge from a depth of 12 cm. The high germination ability of R. capitata under a wide range of ecological factors suggests that this species is likely to be the one to cause more problems in a near future, if not managed appropriately.A Rhynchosia capitata vem se tornando um problema crescente para culturas de verão como algodão, soja, milheto e feijão-mungo em muitos países asiáticos. Foram feitos estudos de laboratório e estufa para determinar os efeitos de vários fatores ambientais sobre os padrões de germinação das sementes e emergência das plântulas de R. capitata. Diversos fatores ecológicos, tais como, temperatura, luz, salinidade, estresse hídrico, pH e profundidade do solo foram

  5. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Graça Miguel; Custódia Gago; Maria Dulce Antunes; Cristina Megías; Isabel Cortés-Giraldo; Javier Vioque; A. Sofia Lima; A. Cristina Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 Maria Graça Miguel et al. The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS·+ and peroxyl free radicals...

  6. Respuesta de ecotipos de Stylosanthes capitata a dosis de cobre en solución nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizarro Esteban A.

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available La solución nutritiva de Arnon y Hoagland se modificó a 1/10 para simular las condiciones de acidez y fertilidad del suelo de las sabanas bien drenadas isohipertérmicas de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia. Se usaron seis concentraciones de cobre (0,0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 Y 0.8 ppm. la solución nutritiva se renovó cada 15 días y se aplicaron nitrógeno (14 ppm/semana e hierro (1 ppm, 3/semana. La cantidad de materia seca producida por los ecotipos y el cultivar Capica en los tratamientos de 0.2, 0.4 Y0.8 ppm Cu, fue relativamente te nula. La producción de materia seca de la parte aérea, raíz y total de la planta fue diferente en los ecotipos de S capitata. Así mismo hubo diferencias significativas en la concentración, absorción y translocación del cobre por lo ecotipos y el cultivar Capica. El requerimiento diferencial de cobre, manifestado en la producción de materia seca en la parte aérea en el nivel 0.05 ppr por los ecotipos CIAT 1693 y 1728 por el cultivar Capica (CIAT 102801, se define como el resultado de las relaciones evolutivas de cada ecotipo con el nivel de cobre disponible en la solución del suelo.In the greenhouse ecotypes of Stylosanthes capitata were cultivated to observe their behavior under different copper concentrations. A nutrient solution based on Arnon and Hoagland's (1/10 was used to simulate the acidity and the fertility of well drained savannas of the Eastern Planes of Colombia. Six concentrations of copper were used (O, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 ppm with rewal of the nutrient solution every 15 days, and applications of nitrogen (14 ppm/week and iron (1 ppm, three times/week. The dry matter quantity produced by the ecotypes and the Capica cultivar under treatments of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 ppm Cu, relatively nill. A differential behavior of Stylosanthes capitata ecotypes responses to applied copper was observed in relation to dry matter production in aerial, part, root and total plant. So, there were significant

  7. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases. PMID:27171821

  8. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  9. Steroidogenetic and Spermatogenetic Activities of Aqueous Extract of Phragmanthera capitata in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapah Pièrre Takem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate steroidogenetic and spermatogenetic activities of aqueous extract of Phragmanthera capitata (AEPC in male Wistar rats. Healthy adult male Wistar rats of proven fertility weighing 150-200 g were randomized into three groups with body weights measured weekly. Group I (control received 10 ml/kg saline, Groups II and III (tests received 150 and 300 mg/kg AEPC respectively per oral per day for 60 days. Mating test was assessed from day 55 with cohabitation with coeval females for 5 days with the resulting sired litters counted and pup weights measured. The males were sacrificed; testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostrate were excised and weighed. Epididymal sperm motility (EPM, epididymal sperm reserve (ESR, daily sperm production (DSP, blood testosterone and cholesterol concentrations were measured. Mean weekly body weight as well as weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate revealed no significant change as compared to control. Similarly, no significant changes in EPM, ESR and DSP in test groups were observed. However, cholesterol and testosterone levels were significantly (P <0.05 increased while mating test showed a corresponding significant (P <0.05 increase in pup weight of 28.85±0.76 for 300 mg/kg AEPC as compared to 20.53±0.52 for control. Therefore, AEPC enhances steroidogenetic and spermatogenetic activities in male Wistar rats.

  10. Formation and structural organization of the egg-sperm bundle of the scleractinian coral Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gamiño, J. L.; Weatherby, T. M.; Waller, R. G.; Gates, R. D.

    2011-06-01

    The majority of scleractinian corals are hermaphrodites that broadcast spawn their gametes separately or packaged as egg-sperm bundles during spawning events that are timed to the lunar cycle. The egg-sperm bundle is an efficient way of transporting gametes to the ocean surface where fertilization takes place, while minimizing sperm dilution and maximizing the opportunity for gamete encounters during a spawning event. To date, there are few studies that focus on the formation and structure of egg-sperm bundle. This study explores formation, ultrastructure, and longevity of the egg-sperm bundle in Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral in Hawai`i. Our results show that the egg-sperm bundle is formed by a mucus layer secreted by the oocytes. The sperm package is located at the center of each bundle, possibly reflecting the development of male and female gametes in different mesenteries. Once the egg-sperm bundle has reached the ocean surface, it breaks open within 10-35 min, depending on the environmental conditions (i.e., wind, water turbulence). Although the bundle has an ephemeral life span, the formation of an egg-sperm bundle is a fundamental part of the reproductive process that could be strongly influenced by climate change and deterioration of water quality (due to anthropogenic effects) and thus requires further investigation.

  11. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  12. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymbra capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, L R; Pinto, E; Gonçalves, M J; Pina-Vaz, C; Cavaleiro, C; Rodrigues, A G; Palmeira, A; Tavares, C; Costa-de-Oliveira, S; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J

    2004-06-01

    The composition and the antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymbra capitata on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains were studied. Twenty-two samples of the essential oils from the aerial parts of the plant were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. All samples are of the carvacrol type, with a high content of carvacrol (60.0 - 65.8 %) and its biogenetic precursors, gamma-terpinene (8.2 - 9.5 %) and p-cymene (6.0 - 7.5 %). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity against Candida (7 clinical isolates and 3 ATCC type strains), Aspergillus (5 clinical isolates, 2 CECT and 2 ATCC type strains) and 5 dermatophyte clinical strains. To clarify its mechanism of action on Candida strains, the inhibition of germ tube and a flow cytometry assay with propidium iodide (PI) were used. The oil exhibited antifungal activity for all the tested strains, particularly for dermatophytes, with MIC values ranging from 0.08 to 0.32 microL/mL. Regarding Candida, concentrations lower than the MIC values prevented germ tube formation. After a short incubation time the cells incorporated quickly PI, meaning that the fungicidal effect is mainly due to direct lesion of the membrane. PMID:15229809

  13. Variation of volatiles in Tunisian populations of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imen Ben El Hadj; Guetat, Arbi; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Volatiles from 14 wild Tunisian populations of Thymbra capitata (=Thymus capitatus Hoffmanns. et Link=Coridothymus capitatus Rchb.f.), sampled in five ecological areas (sub-humid, upper semi-arid, mean semi-arid, lower semi-arid, and upper arid areas) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. Thirty-nine constituents representing 94.2 to 99.5% of the total oil were identified. Carvacrol (38; 51.1-75.9%), p-cymene (13; 3.7-15%), γ-terpinene (12; 1.4-11.9%), and trans-β-caryophyllene (22; 2.9-4.6%) are the major compounds. A significant variation among populations and population's bioclimatic stage for the majority of compounds was shown. The chemical population structure, estimated using a principal-component analysis (PCA) and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis performed on all populations and compounds and based on Euclidean distances among populations, was high. Both methods allowed separation of the populations into distinct groups defined rather by minor than by major compounds. The spatial compound distribution is linked to ecological factors, indicating that local selective environmental factors influence chemical-composition diversity. Conservation strategies should involve all populations because of their low size and their high level of destruction. Populations exhibiting particular compounds other than the major ones should first be protected. In situ conservation of populations should be accomplished appropriately according to bioclimate. PMID:22782875

  14. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  15. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  16. The nitrogen and nitrate economy of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var capitata L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Martin R; Seginer, Ido; Burns, Amanda; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J; Burns, Ian G; White, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Quantifying and simulating the relationships between crop growth, total-nitrogen (total-N) and nitrate-N (NO3--N) concentration can improve crop nutritional husbandry. In this study, the relationship between shoot relative growth rate (RGR) and shoot total-N, organic-N and NO3--N concentration of hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata L. cv. Kennedy) was described and simulated. Plants were grown hydroponically for up to 74 d. Nitrogen was supplied throughout (control; T1), or removed at 35 d (T2) and 54 d (T3), respectively, after sowing. The organic-N and NO3--N concentration declined in the shoots of control plants with growth, until commercial maturity approached when organic-N and NO3--N concentration increased. There were sub-linear relationships between both total-N and organic-N concentration, and shoot RGR, in the N-limited treatments, i.e. shoot RGR approached an asymptote at high shoot N concentration. The proportional effects of total-N and organic-N concentration on shoot RGR were independent of plant age. A dynamic simulation model ('Nicolet'), derived previously under different conditions, was used to simulate the growth, dry matter content, organic-N, and NO3--N concentration of lettuce grown under the extreme N-stress conditions experienced by the plants. In view of the largely successful fitting of the model to experimental data, the model was used to interpret the results. Suggestions for model improvement are made. PMID:12885858

  17. Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Russell, Robin; Aeby, Greta S.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue loss diseases or white syndromes (WS) are some of the most important coral diseases because they result in significant colony mortality and morbidity, threatening dominant Acroporidae in the Caribbean and Pacific. The causes of WS remain elusive in part because few have examined affected corals at the cellular level. We studied the cellular changes associated with WS over time in a dominant Hawaiian coral, Montipora capitata, and showed that: (i) WS has rapidly progressing (acute) phases mainly associated with ciliates or slowly progressing (chronic) phases mainly associated with helminths or chimeric parasites; (ii) these phases interchanged and waxed and waned; (iii) WS could be a systemic disease associated with chimeric parasitism or a localized disease associated with helminths or ciliates; (iv) corals responded to ciliates mainly with necrosis and to helminths or chimeric parasites with wound repair; (v) mixed infections were uncommon; and (vi) other than cyanobacteria, prokaryotes associated with cell death were not seen. Recognizing potential agents associated with disease at the cellular level and the host response to those agents offers a logical deductive rationale to further explore the role of such agents in the pathogenesis of WS in M. capitata and helps explain manifestation of gross lesions. This approach has broad applicability to the study of the pathogenesis of coral diseases in the field and under experimental settings.

  18. Effect of the volatile constituents isolated from Thymus albicans, Th. mastichina, Th. carnosus and Thymbra capitata in sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria G; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Costa, Monya M; Martins, Denise; Duarte, João; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2003-12-01

    The composition of essential oils isolated from Thymus albicans and Thymbra capitata collected in Algarve (Portugal), Th. mastichina collected in Algarve and Estremadura (Portugal) and Th. carnosus also collected in Algarve, during the flowering phase, was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant capacity of the oils as well as some of their main components was determined by periodic evaluation of the peroxide values in sunflower oils stored at 60 degrees C. These peroxide values were compared to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control (without adding antioxidants) under the same experimental conditions. The oils of Th. albicans and Th. mastichina, collected in Algarve, were dominated by 1,8-cineole (68% and 45%, respectively), whereas linalool (52%) was the main component from the oils isolated from Th. mastichina collected in Estremadura. Carvacrol (68%) was the major component present in the oils of Thymbra capitata while borneol (18%), terpinen-4-ol (11%) and camphene (9%) were the major ones in the essential oil of Th. carnosus. The essential oils as well as some of their main components showed higher antioxidant capacity than that of the synthetic antioxidant BHT. At the end of the experiment (57 days), BHT showed a percentage of inhibition of 20%, while that of the essential oils ranged from 46% for Th. carnosus, to 59% for Th. mastichina collected in Estremadura. PMID:14727767

  19. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  20. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graça Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS•+ and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells.

  1. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Gago, Custódia; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Vioque, Javier; Lima, A Sofia; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS(•+) and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells. PMID:26229547

  2. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Gago, Custódia; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Vioque, Javier; Lima, A. Sofia; Figueiredo, A. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS•+ and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells. PMID:26229547

  3. Studies on the Effect of E-Selen as Antioxidant in Ameliorating the Physiological Status of Gamma-Irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Fly,Ceratits capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biologically based control methods, such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), which relies on the sterilization by irradiation of large numbers of insects, is gaining an increasing role in the control of medfly in Mediterranean areas. However, the exposure of cells to ionizing radiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are associated with radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Because of the serious damaging potential of ROS, cells depend on the elaboration of the antioxidant defense system (AODS), both enzymatic and non enzymatic oxidant defense mechanisms. Enzymes of antioxidative defense system – peroxidase, esterasase and alcohol dehydrogenase are known to play an important main role in endogenous cell protection from oxidative damage.The antioxidant Eselenis an exogenous antioxidant containing both selenium and vitamin E. It was added to the larval artificial diets of the Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata in various concentrations. The produced full grown pupae were exposed to gamma rays at dose rate of 90Gy (sterilizing dose) and are used during this experiment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of gamma-irradiation on C. capitata endogenous antioxidant activity (peroxidase, esterase and alcohol dehydrogenase and to examine whether the presence of eselen has the influence on activity of antioxidant and in reducing consequently the oxidative stress and tissue injury induced by gamma radiation in thefruit fly, C. capitata (Wied.). The results indicated that antioxidant pretreatments to the larval rearing dietand irradiation of the produced full grown pupae may have some beneficial effects against irradiation-induced injury to success the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for controlling the Med fly, C. capitata .

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11429-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 Ceratitis capitata... 40 2e-04 4 ( DJ001102 ) Prediction method of carcinogenicity of chemicals. 46 0.001 ...2 ( DD492826 ) Prediction method of carcinogenicity of chemicals. 46 0.001 2 ( AA

  5. Avaliação de populações de Butia capitata de Santa Vitória do Palmar Performance of populations of Butia capitata of Santa Vitória do Palmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisane Schwartz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Butia pertence à família Arecaceae e possui cinco espécies com ocorrência no Rio Grande do Sul. A espécie Butia capitata está recebendo atenção especial, não só pelo seu uso no consumo in natura como também em formas processadas. No entanto, mesmo sendo uma espécie que tem sua utilização registrada desde os tempos pré-históricos, vem sendo explorada apenas de modo extrativista, como a maioria das espécies de frutíferas nativas. Além disso, a espécie está seriamente comprometida em médio prazo pela ausência de regeneração natural e com risco muito alto de extinção num futuro próximo. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os frutos, a partir de parâmetros químicos e físicos, e também observar os dados produtivos das plantas de três populações de butiazeiros do município de Santa Vitória do Palmar-RS. Os dados foram obtidos em experimentos conduzidos na safra de 2005/2006 e na safra de 2006/2007, em três propriedades localizadas em Santa Vitória do Palmar. Os resultados permitiram verificar que as propriedades e ou variações genéticas entre as populações de Butia capitata avaliadas propiciaram variabilidade para duração do ciclo, coloração da epiderme dos frutos, volume de suco produzido, relação entre sólidos solúveis totais e acidez titulável, características biométricas de fruto e produtividade anual. Uma das populações, denominada Celina, apresentou maior produtividade e rendimento industrial. As populações Celina e São José apresentaram as melhores características biométricas de fruto. A população Aguiar apresentou a melhor relação entre sólidos solúveis totais e acidez titulável.The genus Butia belongs to the Arecaceae family and shows five species occurring in Rio Grande de Sul. The specie Butia capitata requires special attention, not just for its use as fresh consumption but also as processed product. However, even having its use recorded since

  6. Molecular cloning and primary sequence analysis of a gene encoding a putative shitinase gene in Brassica oleracea var.capitata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGUOQING; YONGYANBAI; 等

    1996-01-01

    Chitinase,which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the β-1,4-acetyl-D-glucosamine linkages of the fungal cell wall polymer chitin,is involved in inducible plants defense system.By construction of cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata) genomic library and screening the library with pRCH8,a probe of rice chitinase gene fragment,a chitinase genomic sequence was isolated.The complete uncleotide sequence of the putative cabbage chitinase gene (cabch29) was determined,with its longest open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 413 aa.This polypeptide consists of a 21 aa N-terminal signal peptide,two chitin-binding domains different from those of other classes of plant chitinases,and a catalytic domain.Homology analysis illustrated that this cabch29 gene has 58.8% identity at the nucleotide level with the pRCH8 ORF probe and has 50% identity at the amino acid level tiwh the catalytic domains of chitinase from bean,maize and sugar beet.Meanwhile,several kinds of cis-elements,such as TATA box,CAAT box,GATA motif,ASF-1 binding site,wound-response elements and AATAAA,have also been discovered in the flanking region of cabch29 gene.

  7. Optimal salinity and temperature intervals of Limapontia capitata (Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa) determined by growth and heart rate measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K.

    1977-12-01

    Growth rate of Limapontia capitata was determined at various temperatures and salinities. An optimal temperature of about 15/sup 0/C was found on the basis of growth rate, percentage of nongrowing animals during the experiments, spawning, and heart rate measurements. Q/sub 10/ of heart rates shows a high value in the temperature interval immediately preceding maximum heart rate. This indicates a marked increase in respiration without a corresponding increase in growth. Heat coma sets in at 38-40/sup 0/C, and cold coma is estimated to set in around 0/sup 0/C. In late summer and early autumn, when the experimental animals were collected, the estimated mean water temperature in the sampling area is about 15/sup 0/C. Based on the same factors as above (no heart rate measurements), an optimal salinity of about 30/sup 0///sub 00/ was determined. This is far from the mean of the sampling area (about 15%), and spawning is as abundant (or more so) at 20 and 15%, so some kind of adaption to salinity--although not with respect to growth--seems to exist. Death of osmotic stress only occurred at room temperature (20-23/sup 0/C) and a concurrent salinity of 5%.

  8. From parent to gamete: vertical transmission of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae ITS2 sequence assemblages in the reef building coral Montipora capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Padilla-Gamiño

    Full Text Available Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered. Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Many corals produce aposymbiotic larvae that are infected by Symbiodinium from the environment (horizontal transmission, which allows for the acquisition of new endosymbionts (different from their parents each generation. In the remaining species, Symbiodinium are transmitted directly from parent to offspring via eggs (vertical transmission, a mechanism that perpetuates the relationship between some or all of the Symbiodinium diversity found in the parent through multiple generations. Here we examine vertical transmission in the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by comparing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages in parent colonies and the eggs they produce. Parental effects on sequence assemblages in eggs are explored in the context of the coral genotype, colony morphology, and the environment of parent colonies. Our results indicate that ITS2 sequence assemblages in eggs are generally similar to their parents, and patterns in parental assemblages are different, and reflect environmental conditions, but not colony morphology or coral genotype. We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring.

  9. Anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils: effects of Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, and Lippia graveolens on trophozoites growth, viability, adherence, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marisa; Dinis, Augusto M; Salgueiro, Ligia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Custódio, José B A; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2010-04-01

    The present work evaluates the anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils obtained from Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and Lippia graveolens aromatic plants. The effects were evaluated on parasite growth, cell viability adherence, and morphology. The tested essential oils inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia. T. capitata essential oil is the most active followed by O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris, and L. graveolens oils. The tested essential oils at IC50 (71-257) microg/ml inhibited parasite adherence (p capitata, O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and L. graveolens essential oils have antigiardial activity in vitro and seem to have potential for the treatment of the parasitic disease caused by the protozoan G. lamblia. PMID:20217133

  10. An apparent "vital effect" of calcification rate on the Sr/Ca temperature proxy in the reef coral Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Kuulei; Andersson, Andreas; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the strontium to calcium ratio in coral skeletons reveals information on seawater temperatures during skeletal deposition, but studies have shown additional variables may affect the ratio. Here we measured Sr/Ca in the reef coral, Montipora capitata, grown in six mesocosms continuously supplied with seawater from the adjacent reef flat. Three mesocosms were ambient controls, and three had seawater chemistry simulating "ocean acidification" (OA). We found that Sr/Ca was not affected by the OA treatment, and neither was coral calcification for these small colonies (larger colonies did show an OA effect). The lack of OA effects allowed us to test the hypothesis that coral growth rate can affect Sr/Ca using the natural range in calcification rates of the corals grown at the same temperature. We found that Sr/Ca was inversely related to calcification rate (Sr/Ca = 9.39 - 0.00404 mmol/mol * mg day-1 cm-2, R2 = 0.32). Using a previously published calibration curve for this species, a 22 mg day-1 colony-1 increase in calcification rate introduced a 1°C warmer temperature estimate, with the 27 corals reporting "temperatures" ranging from 24.9 to 28.9, with mean 26.6 ± 0.9°C SD. Our results lend support to hypotheses invoking kinetic processes and growth rate to explain vital effects on Sr/Ca. However, uncertainty in the slope of the regression of Sr/Ca on calcification and a low R-squared value lead us to conclude that Sr/Ca could still be a useful proxy in this species given sufficient replication or by including growth rate in the calibration.

  11. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Thymus capitata Essential Oil with Its Preservative Effect against Listeria monocytogenes Inoculated in Minced Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariman El Abed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and the preservative effect of Thymus capitata essential oil against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat were evaluated. The essential oil extracted was chemically analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen components were identified, of which carvacrol represented (88.89% of the oil. The antioxidant activity was assessed in vitro by using both the DPPH and the ABTS assays. The findings showed that the essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity, which was comparable to the reference standards (BHT and ascorbic acid with IC50 values of 44.16 and 0.463 μg/mL determined by the free-radical scavenging DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Furthermore, the essential oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity using disc agar diffusion and microdilution methods. The results demonstrated that the zone of inhibition varied from moderate to strong (15–80 mm and the minimum inhibition concentration values ranged from 0.32 to 20 mg/mL. In addition, essential oil evaluated in vivo against Listeria monocytogenes showed clear and strong inhibitory effect. The application of 0.25 or 1% (v/w essential oil of T. capitata to minced beef significantly reduced the L. monocytogenes population when compared to those of control samples (P-value  <0.01.

  12. Significant performance enhancement of yttrium-doped barium cerate proton conductor as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells through a Pd ingress-egress approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Ran, Ran; Li, Sidian; Jiao, Yong; Tade, Moses O.; Shao, Zongping

    2014-07-01

    Proton-conducting perovskite oxides are excellent electrolyte materials for SOFCs that may improve power density at reduced temperatures and increase fuel efficiency, thus encouraging the widespread implementation of this attractive technology. The main challenges in the application of these oxides in SOFCs are difficult sintering and insufficient conductivity in real cells. In this study, we propose a novel method to significantly enhance the performance of a yttrium-doped barium cerate proton conductor as an electrolyte for SOFCs through a Pd ingress-egress approach to the development of BaCe0.8Y0.1Pd0.1O3-δ (BCYP10). The capability of the Pd egress from the BCYP10 perovskite lattice is demonstrated by H2-TPR, XRD, EDX mapping of STEM and XPS. Significant improvement in the sinterability is observed after the introduction of Pd due to the increased ionic conductivity and the sintering aid effect of egressed Pd. The formation of a B-site cation defect structure after Pd egress and the consequent modification of perovskite grain boundaries with Pd nanoparticles leads to a proton conductivity of BCYP10 that is approximately 3 times higher than that of BCY under a reducing atmosphere. A single cell with a thin film BCYP10 electrolyte reaches a peak power density as high as 645 mA cm-2 at 700 °C.

  13. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TREATMENTS FOR OVERCOMING DORMANCY IN Butia capitata (MARTIUS BECCARI SEEDS TRATAMENTOS FÍSICOS E QUÍMICOS PARA SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE Butia capitata (MARTIUS BECCARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delacyr da Silva Brandão Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pre-germination treatments for overcoming dormancy in Butia capitata seeds. The experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks design, in a 3x3 factorial scheme (mechanical treatments x immersion substances, with 20 seeds per plot and four replications. For mechanical treatments, seeds with endocarp (pyrene, seeds without endocarp, and scarified pyrenes were used, whereas, for the immersion substances, gibberellic acid, water, and the control (without immersion were used. The emergence of seedlings began within 51 days, in pyrenes scarified and treated with gibberellic acid. The difference between the first and last count was 190 days. There was no interaction effect for the characteristics assessed, except for the mechanical treatments. It was possible to conclude that the scarified pyrenes showed a higher performance for most  characteristics assessed: emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length, and root fresh and dry mass.

    KEY-WORDS: Arecaceae; pyrene; scarification; gibberellins.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-germinativos, na superação de dormência em sementes de coquinho-azedo. O experimento foi montado em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x3 (tratamentos mecânicos x substâncias de imersão, com 20 sementes por parcela e quatro repetições. Nos tratamentos mecânicos, utilizaram-se sementes com endocarpo (pirênio, sementes sem endocarpo e pirênios escarificados, enquanto, nos tratamentos de substância de imersão, foram utilizados ácido giberélico, água e a testemunha (sem imersão. A emergência das plântulas iniciou-se aos 51 dias, em pirênios escarificados e tratados com ácido giberélico. A diferença entre a primeira e a última contagem foi de 190 dias. Para as características avaliadas, não houve efeito da interação, somente dos tratamentos mecânicos. Concluiu-se que os pirênios escarificados

  14. Anatomic Characteristics Associated with Head Splitting in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Pang

    Full Text Available Cabbage belonging to Brassicaceae family is one of the most important vegetables cultivated worldwide. The economically important part of cabbage crop is head, formed by leaves which may be of splitting and non-splitting types. Cabbage varieties showing head splitting causes huge loss to the farmers and therefore finding the molecular and structural basis of splitting types would be helpful to breeders. To determine which anatomical characteristics were related to head-splitting in cabbage, we analyzed two contrasting cabbage lines and their offspring using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The inbred line "747" is an early head-splitting type, while the inbred line "748" is a head-splitting-resistant type. The petiole cells of "747" seems to be larger than those of "748" at maturity; however, there was no significant difference in petiole cell size at both pre-heading and maturity stages. The lower epidermis cells of "747" were larger than those of "748" at the pre-heading and maturity stages. "747" had thinner epidermis cell wall than "748" at maturity stage, however, there was no difference of the epidermis cell wall thickness in the two lines at the pre-heading stage. The head-splitting plants in the F1 and F2 population inherited the larger cell size and thinner cell walls of epidermis cells in the petiole. In the petiole cell walls of "747" and the F1 and F2 plants that formed splitting heads, the cellulose microfibrils were loose and had separated from each other. These findings verified that anomalous cellulose microfibrils, larger cell size and thinner-walled epidermis cells are important genetic factors that make cabbage heads prone to splitting.

  15. 结球甘蓝减数分裂中染色体异常行为分析%Analysis on Chromosome Abnormal Behavior in Meiosis of Brassica oleraces var. Capitata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵治亮

    2009-01-01

    对300多个纯合二倍体结球甘蓝花粉母细胞减数分裂各时期的染色体进行观察,发现自然条件下纯合二倍体甘蓝花粉母细胞在减数分裂的双线期、终变期以及中期Ⅰ出现了高频率的1~3个四价体和中期Ⅰ有高频率的1~3对染色体提早分离和滞后分离2种异常现象,探讨了甘蓝结实率不高与染色体异常行为之间的关系.%The chromosomes from more than 300 pollen mother cells of homozygous diploid of Brassica oleraces var. Capitata L were observed in every period of meiosis. It was found that altofrequent 1-3 quadrivalent appeared in diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase I of meiosis of pollen mother cells of B. oleraces var. Capitata under natural conditions, and 2 kinds of abnormal phenomenas such as altofrequent 1-3 pairs of chromosomes separated early or late in metaphase I of meiosis. The relationship between low seed setting rate of B. oleraces var. Capitata and chromosome abnormal behavior was explored.

  16. Annual Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a progress report of the Research Institute ITAL, which is a partner in the Association EURATOM-ITAL. Summaries are presented of research and other activities of the various groups. Following a statement of the field of activity or the general problem tackled, a review of the results is given, as well as some information about prospects for the future. The main topics are: molecular genetic methods for plant breeding, biotechnical production of valuable compounds by means of (plant) cell cultures, and soil biology with emphasis on the rhizosphere. Results are also reported for the radioactive contamination of the environment, the synergistic interaction between radiation and other mutagenic agents, a new (genetic) approach in malaria control, genetic sexing in the Mediterranean fruitfly (Ceratitis capitata), coordination of mutation breeding, predominantly in vegetatively propagated crops, and food irradiation. (Auth.)

  17. Research Institute ITAL. Association EURATOM ITAL. Annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Research Institute ITAL is one of the institutes of the Division for Agricultural Research of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. For certain aspects of its programme it is also a partner in the Association EURATOM-ITAL with the Commission of the European Community. This annual report deals with: molecular genetic methods for plant breeding; biotechnical production of valuable compounds by means of (plant) cell cultures and microorganisms; soil biology including the rhizosphere; radioactive contamination of the environment and its public health risks; the synergistic interaction between radiation and other mutagenic agents; a new approach in malaria control by means of radiation genetic research on insects; genetic sexing in the Mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata; food irradiation (activities within the contract of the Dutch Government with the IAEA in Vienna and the FAO in Rome on food irradiation technology for developing countries). (Auth.)

  18. [Genetics and genetic counseling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzi, Claudia; Liut, Francesca; Dallera, Nadia; Mazza, Cinzia; Magistroni, Riccardo; Savoldi, Gianfranco; Scolari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent genetic disease, characterized by progressive development of bilateral renal cysts. Two causative genes have been identified: PKD1 and PKD2. ADPKD phenotype is highly variable. Typically, ADPKD is an adult onset disease. However, occasionally, ADPKD manifests as very early onset disease. The phenotypic variability of ADPKD can be explained at three genetic levels: genic, allelic and gene modifier effects. Recent advances in molecular screening for PKD gene mutations and the introduction of the new next generation sequencing (NGS)- based genotyping approach have generated considerable improvement regarding the knowledge of genetic basis of ADPKD. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the genetics of ADPKD, focusing on new insights in genotype-phenotype correlation and exploring novel clinical approach to genetic testing. Evaluation of these new genetic information requires a multidisciplinary approach involving a nephrologist and a clinical geneticist. PMID:27067213

  19. 甘蓝LFY基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of LFYZQ from Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤青林; 王志敏; 任雪松; 宋明; 王小佳

    2011-01-01

    DNA and RNA were extracted from bolting stem apex of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L.var. capitata L. ) cultivar ZQ and LFYzQ gene fragments were cloned by RT-PCR respectively with 2 pairs of primers. LFYzQ of DNA and cDNA sequence fragments assembly were respectively 2 560 bp and 1 239 bp. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence by BLAST on line indicated that homology of LFYzQ was up to 91% between Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. and Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L., up to 87 % between it and Arabidopsis thaliana, up to 86 % between it and Brassicajuncea Coss., and up to 87 % between it and Raphanus sativus L. Analysis of gene structure by DNAstar indicated that LFYzQ including 3 extrons ( 452, 394, 393 bp )which totally coded 412 amino acids and 2 introns ( 514, 807 bp )which were unanimous with nucleotide splicing rules of GT-AG. Analysis of amino acids among LFYzQ and other 12 kinds of Brassicaceae LFY on line were divided into 2 classes: class Ⅰ with 3 plants ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Brassica oleracea var. capitata L., Jonopsidium acaule ) and class Ⅱ with other 10 plants. Molecular relativity quality of LFYzQ was 46 kD. LFYzQ was an unstable and hydrophobic protein with 4 kinds of active sites: N-myristoylation site, protein kinase C phosphorylation site, Casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation site and Amidation site.%以甘蓝ZQ启动抽薹的茎尖为材料,分别提取DNA和RNA,以两对引物扩增并序列拼接得到甘蓝LFYZQ基因DNA序列和cDNA完整编码区,长度分别为2 560、1 239 bp,与花椰菜、拟南芥、芥菜和萝卜同源性分别达到91%、87%、86%、87%.该基因含有3个外显子(452、394、393 bp)和2个内含子(514、807 bp),共编码412个氨基酸,内含子剪接位点均符合经典GT-AG法则.将LFYZQ与网上公布的12种十字花科植物LFY氨基酸序列按分子进化分成两类:甘蓝LFYZQ与花椰菜以及Jonopsidium属植物Jonopsidium acaule这3个分为一类;其余10种植物分

  20. New Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > The New Genetics The New Genetics Living Laboratories Classroom Poster Order a Free Copy ... Piece to a Century-Old Evolutionary Puzzle Computing Genetics Model Organisms RNA Interference The New Genetics is ...

  1. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  2. 构建结球甘蓝K IN基因在叶绿体基因组定点表达的载体%Construction of Chloroplast Site-specific Integration Expression Vector Harboring KIN Gene of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶鹏; 黄小云; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣; 雷娟利; 钟新民

    2015-01-01

    获得叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体是开展结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化研究的第一步。本研究克隆了CMS结球甘蓝的抗冻蛋白K IN基因,发现该基因定位于结球甘蓝的2号染色体上。通过构建中间载体pKA和pAI,将K IN基因的编码区构建到了CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体pIKAA中。该载体以TrnA 和TrnI基因片段作为同源整合片段,能整合到CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组中。此外,该载体是双顺反子形式的,即在转录的单条mRNA上,同时包含了K IN和aadA 基因编码区。将pIKAA转化到大肠杆菌中,结果显示转化有该载体的大肠杆菌能够在含有氨苄青霉素(AMP)和壮观霉素(SPEC)的固体LB平板中生长。研究结果可为后期CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化体系的建立奠定基础。%To construct chloroplast site-specific integration expression vector is the first step for carrying on genetic transformation of cabbage chloroplast genome (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). In this study, antifree-ze protein KIN gene was cloned from cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.), and was located in 2 chromosome in B. oleracea genome. By constructing the intermediate vector pKA and pAI, coding region of KIN gene was inserted into the site-specific integration expression vector (pIKAA) of CMS cabbage chloroplast. Due to the fragments of TrnA and TrnI used as homologous integration fragments, the pIKAA could target to chloroplast genomes of CMS cabbage. In addition, the pIKAA vector was bicistronic. The single transcribed mRNA from the pIKAA vector contained simultaneously coding regions of KIN and aadA gene. The vector was transformed into E. coli that can grow in LB containing ampicillin and spectinomycin. The study might lay essential basis in establishment of genetic transformation system of chloroplast genome of CMS cabbage.

  3. Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic counseling provides information and support to people who have, or may be at risk for, genetic disorders. A ... meets with you to discuss genetic risks. The counseling may be for yourself or a family member. ...

  4. El modelo V.S.P. en lechuga Batavia Lactuca sativa var. Capitata L. y respuesta de dos variedades a las aplicaciones de compuestos orgánicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruzón C. Serapio F.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available

    An investigation was realized in the region of Pavitas, municipality of La Cumbre, Santa Fe farm, 1480 meters above sea level in a soil of Pavas Association (Aeric Tropaquept to prove the plastic cup-sustrate-plant model in the production of Batavia lecttuce Lactuca sativa var. capitata, and the effects of the organic matter filter cake press, cattle manure, poultry manure and earthworm soil, incorporated in the soil. Twenty two (22 treatments and fours repetitions were applied with each of the two varieties (Great lakes 118 and Pacific, the treatments corresponded to 5, 10, 15 t/ha of the organic matter which were applied to the soil fifteen days before transplantations occured. The results showed an excellent plant vigour and quality after the transplantation. It was also observed a good plant poblation and uniformity. The sustrate filter cake press mixed with botton fly ash presented better results in the field than the other treatments, having the highest crop yield and the best quality. The Great Lakes 118 with this treatment doubled the production of the treatment with soil. With the organic sustrates, the poultry manure 5 t/ha projected better results. The work showed the good behavior of the varity Great Lakes 118 compared to the Pacific. This treatments also improved the chemical caracteristics of the soil, especially increased the organic matter, potassium, phosporus, manganesum and zinc.

    En el Corregimiento Pavitas, municipio de La Cumbre, en la Finca Santafé, a 1.480 msnm en un suelo de la Asociación Pavas (Aeric Tropaquept se probó el modelo vaso-sustrato-planta (VSP, en la producción de plántulas de lechuga Batavia L. sativa var. capitata y el efecto en la producción de los compuestos orgánicos, cachaza, lombricompuesto, gallinaza y bovinaza, incorporados al suelo. Los 22 tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones, repartidos en dos variedades (Great Lake 118 y Pacific correspondieron a dosis (5, 10, 15 t/ha de las

  5. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0–55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R2 = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R2 = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R2 = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481–scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64–scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782–Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353–Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits.

  6. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0-55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R (2) = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R (2) = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R (2) = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481-scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64-scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782-Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353-Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits. PMID:27458471

  7. Influence of composted tobacco waste and farmyard manure applications on the yield and nutrient composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Delibacak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic wastes in agriculture, forestry and land reclamation has been increasingly identified as an important issue for soil fertility, soil conservation and residue disposal. Using organic wastes in agriculture helps not only to dispose these materials economi¬cally, but also reduces negative effects on the envi¬ronment. In the present study, composted tobacco waste (CTW combined with farmyard manure (FM at different ratios was applied to Typic Xerofluvent soil, and the influence of these amendments on the yield and nutrient composition of butter head letttuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 18 parcels in a randomized-block design with three replications at the Agriculture Faculty’s Research Farm of Ege University in Menemen plain, in the Western Anatolia Region of Turkey (38°58′35.51″-38°58′36.03″N; 27°03′84.56″-27°03′89.81″E. Organic materials were applied to the soil after composting. The treatments were (1 control, (2 12.5 t ha-1 FM + 37.5 t ha-1 CTW, (3 25 t ha-1 FM + 25 t ha-1 CTW, (4 50 t ha-1 FM, (5 50 t ha-1 CTW, and (6 37.5 t ha-1 FM + 12.5 t ha-1 CTW. The maximum yield was obtained during the 1st vegetation period (62,7 t ha-1 in the 100 % CTW application. On account of the 2nd vegetation period’s coinciding with winter and the coldness of the months December, January and February, there happened a slowdown in the lettuce yield. The highest total yield of lettuce in both vegetation periods (102.7 t ha-1 was determined in 100% CTW application parcels. The lower lettuce yields were determined in the control parcels. CTW and FM applications raised N, P, K Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Zn and Mn contents of the lettuce. According to the results obtained, it can be said that CTW can be used in agricultural fields just like FM.

  8. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  9. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.

  10. Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go for genetic counseling, such as: A family history of a genetic condition To learn about genetic screening for diseases that are more common in certain ethnic groups (e.g., sickle cell disease in African Americans and Tay-Sachs disease in Ashkenazi Jews) To discuss abnormal results ...

  11. Genetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  12. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Genetic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Health Conditions Explore the signs ...

  14. Rhythmicity of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) attraction to cuelure: Insights from an interruptable lure and computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe and validate an Agent-Based Simulation (ABS) of invasive insects and use it to investigate the time to extirpation of Ceratitis capitata using data from seven outbreaks that occurred in California from 2008-2010. Results are compared with the length of intervention and quarantine imposed...

  15. Mexican medfly programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This film tells the story of the fight against and final extinction of the Mediterranean fruit-fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Mexico. By producing billions of high quality sterile flies in the Medfly reproduction and sterilization laboratory in the province of Chiapas and releasing them over infested areas, the Moscamed Programme succeeded in eradicating this pest from Mexico in 1982

  16. 76 FR 30036 - Importation of Fresh Pitaya Fruit From Central America Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Mexfly (Anastrepha ludens), Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly (Ceratitis capitata), the gray pineapple... host for either Medfly or Mexfly are either unverified references in old literature or based on cage... country following any post- harvest processing. The biometric sample would be visually inspected for...

  17. The Sterile Insect Technique and the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): Assessing the Utility of Aromatherapy in a Hawaiian Coffee Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating abilit...

  18. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, Parasitoid Longevity in Presence of the Host, and Host Status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin),...

  19. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  20. Genetic barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, Heinz -Ulrich G

    2015-08-04

    Herein are described multicolor FISH probe sets termed "genetic barcodes" targeting several cancer or disease-related loci to assess gene rearrangements and copy number changes in tumor cells. Two, three or more different fluorophores are used to detect the genetic barcode sections thus permitting unique labeling and multilocus analysis in individual cell nuclei. Gene specific barcodes can be generated and combined to provide both numerical and structural genetic information for these and other pertinent disease associated genes.

  1. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  2. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  3. Genetic Breakthrough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new calf breeding technique shows promise for treating malignant tumors Chinese scientists have successfully bred a genetically altered cow capable of producing cancer-curing proteins for human beings.

  4. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Online Health Resources For Health Professionals Competency & Curricular Resources Genetics 101 Genomic Medicine and Health Care ... Role of the NHGRI in the Federal Legislative Process Genome Statute and Legislation Database Human Subjects Research ...

  5. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Online Health Resources For Health Professionals Competency & Curricular Resources Genetics 101 Genomic Medicine and Health Care ... of DNA. Think of it as a shuffling process, called recombination. The single chromosome in a reproductive ...

  6. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 21 (Down syndrome) . Other trisomies include trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) . Monosomy is ... which there is an extra chromosome. Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome): A genetic disorder that causes serious heart ...

  7. Ciona Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Veeman, Michael T.; Chiba, Shota; Smith, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Ascidians, such as Ciona, are invertebrate chordates with simple embryonic body plans and small, relatively non-redundant genomes. Ciona genetics is in its infancy compared to many other model systems, but it provides a powerful method for studying this important vertebrate outgroup. Here we give basic methods for genetic analysis of Ciona, including protocols for controlled crosses both by natural spawning and by the surgical isolation of gametes; the identification and propagation of mutant...

  8. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  9. What is Genetic Counseling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1983) For information on genetic counselors and genetic counseling training programs, please download this helpful brochure from the Association of Genetic Counseling Program Directors: Who are Genetic Counselors? Practicing genetic ...

  10. Melanoma genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence of herita......Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence...... in a combined total of approximately 50% of familial melanoma cases, the underlying genetic basis is unexplained for the remainder of high-density melanoma families. Aside from the possibility of extremely rare mutations in a few additional high penetrance genes yet to be discovered, this suggests a likely...... polygenic component to susceptibility, and a unique level of personal melanoma risk influenced by multiple low-risk alleles and genetic modifiers. In addition to conferring a risk of cutaneous melanoma, some 'melanoma' predisposition genes have been linked to other cancers, with cancer clustering observed...

  11. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1948-1953 a large scale field survey was conducted to investigate the possible genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on over 70,000 pregnancy terminations in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indices of possible genetic effect including sex ratio, birth weight, frequency of malformation, stillbirth, neonatal death, deaths within 9 months and anthropometric measurements at 9 months of age for these children were investigated in relation to their parent's exposure status to the A-bomb. There were no detectable genetic effects in this sample, except for a slight change in sex ratio which was in the direction to be expected if exposure had induced sex-linked lethal mutations. However, continued study of the sex ratio, based upon birth certificates in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for 1954-1962, did not confirm the earlier trend. Mortality in these children of A-bomb survivors is being followed using a cohort of 54,000 subjects. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the children has been demonstrated up to 1972 (age 17 on the average). On the basis of the regression data, the minimal genetic doubling dose of this type of radiation for mutations resulting in death is estimated at 46 rem for the father and 125 rem for the mother. (auth.)

  12. Genetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, M.; Alonso-Blanco, C.; Stam, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mendelian analysis of genetic variation, available as induced mutants or as natural variation, requires a number of steps that are described in this chapter. These include the determination of the number of genes involved in the observed trait's variation, the determination of dominance relation

  13. THERMAL TREATMENT WITH HOT AIR IN THE CONTROL OF FRUIT FLY IN SAPOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vilian de Moraes Lima Marinus

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main postharvest problems of the sapota (Achras sapota L. is caused by the fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, affecting its quality and commercialization. With this experiment, the objective was to evaluate the effect of hot air as thermal treatment in the control of immature phases of Ceratitis capitata and the fruit quality. The research was carried out at Entomology Laboratory – Centro de Ciências Agrárias, UFPB, Areia-PB. It was made the damaging of fruits with eggs inoculation of Ceratitis capitata and after three days the fruits were treated in hot air at temperatures of 46±1°C and 50±1°C, during 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. Hot air was injected in the chamber using an equipment of the Skill mark. It was used a randomized design, in factorial scheme of 2x5+1 (two temperatures, five times of exhibition and one control, with four replications. The treatment with hot air was efficient to control the immature phases of C. capitata during 75 and 90 minutes of exposure and didn't affect the physical and chemical qualities of the sapota fruits.

  14. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, ...

  15. Genetically engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plants or animals) inserted into their genetic codes. Genetic engineering can be done with plants, animals, or bacteria ... have been genetically engineering plants since the 1990s. Genetic engineering allows scientists to speed this process up by ...

  16. Genetic Testing (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Genetic Testing KidsHealth > For Parents > Genetic Testing Print A A ... blood, skin, bone, or other tissue is needed. Genetic Testing During Pregnancy For genetic testing before birth, pregnant ...

  17. Genetic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, P J

    1998-04-01

    Systems for testing genetic toxicology are components of carcinogenic and genetic risk assessment. Present routine genotoxicity-testing is based on at least 20 years of development during which many different test systems have been introduced and used. Today, it is clear that no single test is capable of detecting all genotoxic agents. Therefore, the usual approach is to perform a standard battery of in-vitro and in-vivo tests for genotoxicity. Work-groups of the European Union (EU), the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and, very recently, the work-group of the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) have defined such standard battery tests. These and some currently used supplementary or confirmatory tests are briefly discussed here. Additional test systems for the assessment of genotoxic and carcinogenic hazard and risk are seriously needed. These tests must be more relevant to man than are current assays and less demanding in respect of cost, time and number of animals. Another aspect for reassessment derives from the actual situation in the pharmaceutical industry. Companies have to prepare for the world economy of the 21st century. Therefore, pharmaceutical research is speeding up tremendously by use of tools such as genomics, combinatorial chemistry, high throughput screening and proteomics. Toxicology and genotoxicology need to re-evaluate their changing environment and must find ways to respond to these needs. In conclusion, genetic toxicology needs to answer questions coming from two major directions: hazard and risk identification and high throughput testing. PMID:9625484

  18. Applying the New Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, James

    1976-01-01

    New developments in the prediction and treatment of genetic diseases are presented. Genetic counseling and the role of the counselor, and rights of individuals to reproduce versus societal impact of genetic disorders, are discussed. (RW)

  19. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... percent, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  20. Genetic Testing for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your area, please visit www.nsgc.org . Genetic Testing Genetic testing can help determine the cause of FALS ... couples planning on having children to pursue prenatal testing. Genetic testing does not: Currently change medical treatment. Diagnose ...

  1. ANÁLISE FAUNÍSTICA DE ESPÉCIES DE MOSCA-DAS-FRUTAS (DIP., TEPHRITIDAE EM MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. CANAL

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis locais de quatro municípios (Janaúba, Jaíba, Nova Porteirinha e Itacarambí do norte do Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletados 29.454 espécimes de mosca-das-frutas, pertencentes a Ceratitis capitata e a 20 espécies de Anastrepha. O levantamento foi feito entre janeiro de 94 e dezembro de 96, utilizando armadilhas plásticas tipo McPhail. Ceratitis capitata foi a espécie predominante em áreas urbanas. As espécies de Anastrepha predominaram em áreas rurais. A. obliqua, A. zenildae e Anastrepha n. sp.3 foram as espécies predominantes do gênero, entretanto, essa predominância variou de local para local em função da disponibilidade de hospedeiros. As comunidades apresentaram índices de diversidade baixos e quocientes de similaridade entre 73 e 100%.A total of 29,454 specimens of fruit fly were trapped in six sites of four counties (Janaúba, Jaíba, Nova Porteirinha and Itacarambí of the north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The specimens were collected using McPhail plastic traps from January 1994 to December 1996. The trapped fruit flies belonged to Ceratitis capitata and to 20 species of Anastrepha. Ceratitis capitata was the predominant species in the urban areas and Anastrepha species were predominant in the field areas. A. obliqua, A. zenildae and Anastrepha n. sp.3 were the predominant species of the genera, whereas the predominant species differed among localities, according to host availability. The diversity indexes were low and the coefficient of similarity varied from 73 to 100%.

  2. Riding the Trojan horse: combating pest insects with their own symbionts

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2011-01-01

    Summary Insects form an extremely large group of animals and bear a consequently large variety of associated microbes. This microbiota includes very specific and obligate symbionts that provide essential functions to the host, and facultative partners that are not necessarily required for survival. The Tephritidae is a large family that includes many fruit pests such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (the medfly, Ceratitis capitata) and the Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae). Community and functional ...

  3. Adding guarana powder to medfly diets: an alternative for improving the Sterile Insect Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jamile Câmara de Aquino; Cassius Fabian Costa Souza; Jânio Rodrigo de Jesus Santos; Iara Sordi Joachim-Bravo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ceratitis capitata (medfly) is a globally important horticultural pest that can be controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT), but the success of SIT depends on the sexual performance of mass-reared males when released into the field. We added “guarana” (Paullinia cupana) powder (derived from an Amazonian fruit that is considered to be a stimulant with aphrodisiac effects, capable of improving human physical stamina) to the diets of adult male medflies to determine whether i...

  4. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly Dietas baseadas em proteína de soja para moscas do Mediterrâneo

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho; Carlos Caceres; Amirul Islam; Vivat Wornoayporn; Walter Enkerlin

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagase, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagase in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very impor...

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16208-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 67428 ) FLD1_68_H08.g1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 38 0.76 2 ( CN753675 ) ID0AAA10DD04RM1 ApMS Acy...2 ( FG075806 ) UI-FF-IF0-abm-h-15-0-UI.r1 Ceratitis capitata emb... 34 0.77 2 ( CO159864 ) FLD1_16_B09.g1_A029 Root flood

  6. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of Fipronil and Imidacloprid on Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Adan del Rio, Angeles; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Bengochea Budia, Paloma; Budia Marigil, Maria Flor; Estal Padillo, Pedro Del; Medina Velez, Maria Pilar; Aguado Cortijo, Pedro Luis

    2011-01-01

    Psyttalia concolor (Szèpligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid of several species of tephritid (Diptera) larvae, such as Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Here, we report on the effects of imidacloprid and fipronil on P. concolor females, when different routes of exposure were evaluated: residual contact (cover and bait sprays) and via treatment of host species. Moreover, the persistence of the bait formulated compound also was studied. Fo...

  7. تأثير أشعة جاما على حركة وانجذاب ذبابة فاكهة البحر الأبيض المتوسط إلى الضوء والألوان والرائحة

    OpenAIRE

    Abdu, R. M.; Wakid, A. M.; El-Kholy, Eman M. S.

    1988-01-01

    Full grown pupae of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata were irradiated at three gamma dosages (50, 70 and 90 gray). The different effects on the motility and attraction to light colours and odour of the produced adults were studied. All the doses applied did not affect the visual sence organs responsible for light discrimination in both sexes. There was no significant effect of gamma radiation at all doses used on the percentage attraction of irradiated males or females to the or...

  8. 两类甘蓝雄性不育系种子产量构成因素分析%Analysis of Seed Yield Components between Two Cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var.capitata L.) Male Sterile Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆彪; 方智远; 张扬勇; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 庄木; 陈琛

    2011-01-01

    The differences of seed yield and component factors among dominant genie male sterile line DGMS02-12, cytoplasmic male sterile line CMSR302-12 and inbred line of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L. ) 02-12 were studied. The results showed that the differences of seed yield per plant and plot yield between DGMS02-12 and CMSR302-12 were significant. The whole plant valid siliqua and seeds per siliqua were the main factors for the differences of seed yield between these two male sterile lines of cabbage. The seed yield at the 1st branch account for more than 80% of per plant seed yield, and there were significantly positive correlations and high path coefficient between seed yield and seeds per siliqua and the valid siliqua at the 1st branch.%以结球甘蓝自交系02-12及其回交转育多代育成的显性核基因雄性不育系(DGMS)和细胞质雄性不育系(CMS)为试材,对其制种产量及种子产量构成因素进行分析.结果表明:显性核基因雄性不育系材料DGMS02-12与细胞质雄性不育系材料CMSR302-12在单株产量和小区产量方面存在显著差异,并且全株有效荚数和每荚种子粒数是两种类型甘蓝雄性不育系间制种产量存在差异的主要构成因素.其中,一级分枝种子产量占单株产量的80%以上,一级分枝有效荚数、每荚种子粒数与制种产量有显著的相关性和较高的通径系数.

  9. Genetic engineering, medicine and medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G

    1984-01-01

    The impact of DNA technology in the near future will be on the manufacture of biologic agents and reagents that will lead to improved therapy and diagnosis. The use of DNA technology for prenatal and preclinical diagnosis in genetic diseases is likely to affect management of genetic diseases considerably. New and old questions regarding selective abortion and the psychosocial impact of early diagnosis of late appearing diseases and of genetic susceptibilities are being raised. Somatic therapy with isolated genes to treat disease has not been achieved. True germinal genetic engineering is far off for humans but may find applications in animal agriculture.

  10. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two key areas, genetic sexing in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, and mass rearing of the tsetse, Glossina pallidipes, 1998 has been a year of consolidation. For medfly, programme managers now view the use of genetic sexing strains - (GSS) as an integral part of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) for control and/or eradication of this pest. Since its introduction only 4 years ago, this technology is having an increasing impact on the implementation of medfly SIT. For tsetse, a rearing system has been designed and tested which will form the basic rearing module for the mass rearing facility to be built in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The system is cheap, easy to maintain and can be locally constructed. The facility in Addis Ababa will produce sterile G. pallidipes males for the SIT component of a large tsetse eradication programme in the Southern Rift valley. The Unit will continue to play a unique role in the further development of these technology transfer programmes. The Unit continues to maintain many strains of tsetse and medfly which are used to supply numerous institutions and individuals with biological material for research work. In addition, medfly GSS are provided to operational SIT programmes as required. This support provided to Member States, especially in the area of tsetse research, appears to be of increasing importance as the number of requests rise each year. All of this material is provided free of charge

  11. Sex determination: insights from the silkworm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Masataka G. Suzuki

    2010-09-01

    The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade seems to control sex determination in all Drosophila species and is partially conserved in another dipteran species, Ceratitis capitata: Cctra/Cctra-2 > Ccdsx and Ccfru. However, in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, femaleness is determined by the presence of a dominant feminizing factor on the W chromosome. Moreover, no sex-specific regulatory Sxl homolog has been isolated from B. mori. Also, no tra homolog has yet been found in the Bombyx genome. Despite such differences, dsx homolog of B. mori (Bmdsx) is implicated in the sex determination. Bmdsx produces alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms that encode sex specific transcription factors as observed in dsx. While the female-specific splicing of dsx is activated by splicing activators, Tra and Tra2, the female splicing of Bmdsx represents the default mode. Instead, a splicing inhibitor, BmPSI is involved in the regulation of male-specific splicing of Bmdsx. Since BmPSI does not exhibit any sequence relationship to known SR proteins, such as Tra and Tra2, the regulatory mechanism of sex-specific alternative splicing of Bmdsx is distinct from that of dsx.

  12. Basic genetics for dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, advances in the field of molecular genetics have enriched us in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases, their identification, and appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the last 20 years, genetic basis of more than 350 monogenic skin diseases have been elucidated and is counting. The widespread use of molecular genetics as a tool in diagnosis is not practiced routinely due to genetic heterogenicity, limited access and low sensitivity. In this review, we have presented the very basics of genetics so as to enable dermatologists to have working understanding of medical genetics.

  13. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T;

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  14. Genetic Brain Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  15. Genetic Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newly Diagnosed Patients There are over 6,000 genetic disorders that can be passed down through the ... mission to help prevent, manage and treat inherited genetic diseases. View our latest News Brief here . You ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  17. Genetics by the Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Genetics by the Numbers By Chelsea Toledo and Kirstie ... June 11, 2012 Scholars have been studying modern genetics since the mid-19th century, but even today ...

  18. Genetics and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find us on YouTube Follow us on Instagram Genetics and the Brain by Carl Sherman September 10, ... effects that may be responsible. How Much Is Genetic? [x] , [xi] , [xii] , [xiii] A basic question in ...

  19. Frontotemporal Dementia: Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calendar of Events Fundraising Events Conferences Press Releases Genetics of FTD After receiving a diagnosis of FTD ... that recent advances in science have brought the genetics of FTD into much better focus. In 2012, ...

  20. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) Disease InfoSearch: Phenylketonuria Genetic Science Learning Center, University of Utah Genetics Education Materials for School Success (GEMSS) MalaCards: phenylketonuria March of Dimes Montreal Children's Hospital My46 Trait Profile New England Consortium of Metabolic ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: adermatoglyphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions adermatoglyphia adermatoglyphia Enable Javascript to ...

  3. Biology of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Two Species of Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, M Z; Loeck, A E; Nörnberg, S D; Bernardi, D; Nava, D E

    2016-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan, 1932) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an egg-larval parasitoid used in control programs of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In Brazil, C. capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) are considered the main tephritid pests of exotic and indigenous fruits. The objective of this study was to study the biology of F. arisanus in C. capitata and A. fraterculus Eggs of the two fruit fly species were used to determine the parasitism rate, number of offspring, emergence rate, sex ratio, adult weight and longevity of male and female F. arisanus These biological parameters were used to develop a fertility life table. We observed higher parasitism and emergence rates of adults, a shorter duration of the egg-adult period and a sex ratio biased to females when F. arisanus was reared in eggs of C. capitata than in those of A. fraterculus However, adults of F. arisanus from eggs of A. fraterculus were heavier and had greater longevity than those obtained from C. capitata eggs. The fertility life table showed better biological and reproductive performance for F. arisanus reared in eggs of C. capitata, although eggs of A. fraterculus also provided positive values for population increase. PMID:27638954

  4. Effect of Magnetic Field on Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. Seed Germination and Studies on Its Mechanism%磁场对结球甘蓝种子萌发的影响及机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔路路; 于海霞; 李景富; 姜景彬; 许向阳

    2014-01-01

    以结球甘蓝种子为试材,采用正交试验和均匀试验方法,研究了磁场强度、作用时间及处理前种子浸泡时间对各发芽指标的影响以及各影响因素的主次顺序,并对磁场参数中磁场强度和作用时间进行大范围筛选,更进一步从可溶性蛋白含量、丙二醛含量、抗氧化酶活性等方面探讨磁场处理提高种子活力的作用机理。结果表明:适宜的磁场处理可以促进种子萌发,提高种子活力,以20℃蒸馏水浸泡8 h 后1000~3500 GS 磁场处理1~6 min 为宜,但长时间、大强度磁场处理反而抑制种子萌发;磁场强度为种子萌发的主要影响因子,作用时间和浸泡时间的主次顺序因发芽指标的不同而不同;与对照相比,磁场处理的种子萌发期间可溶性蛋白含量降低或升高的速率、MDA 含量下降的幅度和速率、3种抗氧化酶活性上升的速率均加快,从而提高种子活力。%Taking Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. seed as experimental material,the effect of magnetic field intensity,and magnetic acting time and seed soaking time before treatment on seed germination index and primary and secondary relations between all factors were studied by orthogonal test and uniform test method.Then the large scale screening of magnetic field intensity and magnetic acting time were carried out to further investigate the mechanism of using magnetic field treatment to improve seed vigor from the view points of soluble protein content,malondialdehyde content,and antioxidant enzyme activity.The results indicated that suitable magnetic field treatment could promote seed germination and improve seed vigor.Magnetic field intensity was the main factor affecting seed germination.The primary and secondary order of action time and soaking time were varied with different germination indexes. Seed germination was inhibited by too high magnetic field intensity for a long time. Soaking seed in 20

  5. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmanov Alexander A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  6. Basic genetics for dermatologists

    OpenAIRE

    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran; De, Dipankar

    2013-01-01

    During the past few decades, advances in the field of molecular genetics have enriched us in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases, their identification, and appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the last 20 years, genetic basis of more than 350 monogenic skin diseases have been elucidated and is counting. The widespread use of molecular genetics as a tool in diagnosis is not practiced routinely due to genetic heterogenicity, limited access and low sensitivity. In this review, we hav...

  7. Report: Human cancer genetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Marilyn; ALBERTSON Donna

    2006-01-01

    The short report will be focused on the genetic basis and possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis, common types of cancer, the importance of genetic diagnosis of cancer, and the methodology of cancer genetic diagnosis. They will also review presymptomatic testing of hereditary cancers, and the application of expression profiling to identify patients likely to benefit from particular therapeutic approaches.

  8. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...

  9. Statistics for Learning Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Abigail Sheena

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge and skills that biology students may need to help them understand statistics/mathematics as it applies to genetics. The data are based on analyses of current representative genetics texts, practicing genetics professors' perspectives, and more directly, students' perceptions of, and performance in,…

  10. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  11. Feline genetics: clinical applications and genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2010-11-01

    DNA testing for domestic cat diseases and appearance traits is a rapidly growing asset for veterinary medicine. Approximately 33 genes contain 50 mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. A variety of commercial laboratories can now perform cat genetic diagnostics, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. DNA is easily obtained from a cat via a buccal swab with a standard cotton bud or cytological brush, allowing DNA samples to be easily sent to any laboratory in the world. The DNA test results identify carriers of the traits, predict the incidence of traits from breeding programs, and influence medical prognoses and treatments. An overall goal of identifying these genetic mutations is the correction of the defect via gene therapies and designer drug therapies. Thus, genetic testing is an effective preventative medicine and a potential ultimate cure. However, genetic diagnostic tests may still be novel for many veterinary practitioners and their application in the clinical setting needs to have the same scrutiny as any other diagnostic procedure. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, potential sources of error for genetic testing, and the pros and cons of DNA results in veterinary medicine. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's internal genome. PMID:21147473

  12. Feline genetics: clinical applications and genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2010-11-01

    DNA testing for domestic cat diseases and appearance traits is a rapidly growing asset for veterinary medicine. Approximately 33 genes contain 50 mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. A variety of commercial laboratories can now perform cat genetic diagnostics, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. DNA is easily obtained from a cat via a buccal swab with a standard cotton bud or cytological brush, allowing DNA samples to be easily sent to any laboratory in the world. The DNA test results identify carriers of the traits, predict the incidence of traits from breeding programs, and influence medical prognoses and treatments. An overall goal of identifying these genetic mutations is the correction of the defect via gene therapies and designer drug therapies. Thus, genetic testing is an effective preventative medicine and a potential ultimate cure. However, genetic diagnostic tests may still be novel for many veterinary practitioners and their application in the clinical setting needs to have the same scrutiny as any other diagnostic procedure. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, potential sources of error for genetic testing, and the pros and cons of DNA results in veterinary medicine. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's internal genome.

  13. Primer on genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Susan Estabrooks

    2011-04-01

    Once limited to rare mendelian disorders, genetic counseling is playing an ever-increasing role in the multidisciplinary approach to predicting, diagnosing, and managing neurologic disease. However, genetic counseling services may not be optimized because of lack of availability and lack of knowledge regarding when it is appropriate to refer, what occurs in genetic counseling, and how genetic counseling can affect care. These issues are addressed in this article, along with corresponding clinical scenarios. Websites to find genetic counseling services and resources are also provided.

  14. All about Genetics (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy All About Genetics KidsHealth > For Parents > All About Genetics Print A ... way they pick up special laboratory dyes. continue Genetic Problems Errors in the genetic code or "gene ...

  15. How Is Genetic Testing Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing How is genetic testing done? How is genetic testing done? Once a person decides to proceed with ... is called informed consent . For more information about genetic testing procedures: The Genetic Science Learning Center at the ...

  16. Molecular genetics made simple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Sh. Kassem

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients.

  17. BPA genetic monitoring - BPA Genetic Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Initiated in 1989, this study monitors genetic changes associated with hatchery propagation in multiple Snake River sub-basins for Chinook salmon and steelhead. We...

  18. Genetic selection and conservation of genetic diversity*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, H D

    2012-08-01

    For 100s of years, livestock producers have employed various types of selection to alter livestock populations. Current selection strategies are little different, except our technologies for selection have become more powerful. Genetic resources at the breed level have been in and out of favour over time. These resources are the raw materials used to manipulate populations, and therefore, they are critical to the past and future success of the livestock sector. With increasing ability to rapidly change genetic composition of livestock populations, the conservation of these genetic resources becomes more critical. Globally, awareness of the need to steward genetic resources has increased. A growing number of countries have embarked on large scale conservation efforts by using in situ, ex situ (gene banking), or both approaches. Gene banking efforts have substantially increased and data suggest that gene banks are successfully capturing genetic diversity for research or industry use. It is also noteworthy that both industry and the research community are utilizing gene bank holdings. As pressures grow to meet consumer demands and potential changes in production systems, the linkage between selection goals and genetic conservation will increase as a mechanism to facilitate continued livestock sector development. PMID:22827378

  19. The FAO/IAEA interactive spreadsheet for design and operation of insect mass rearing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.e.caceres@aphis.usda.co [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Seibersdorf (Austria). Agency' s Labs. Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture; Rendon, Pedro [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS/CPHST), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Animal and Plant Health Inspection. Center for Plant Health Science and Technology

    2006-07-01

    An electronic spreadsheet is described which helps users to design, equip and operate facilities for the mass rearing of insects for use in insect pest control programmes integrating the sterile insect technique. The spreadsheet was designed based on experience accumulated in the mass rearing of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), using genetic sexing strains based on a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation. The spreadsheet takes into account the biological, production, and quality control parameters of the species to be mass reared, as well as the diets and equipment required. All this information is incorporated into the spreadsheet for user-friendly calculation of the main components involved in facility design and operation. Outputs of the spreadsheet include size of the different rearing areas, rearing equipment, volumes of diet ingredients, other consumables, as well as personnel requirements. By adding cost factors to these components, the spreadsheet can estimate the costs of facility construction, equipment, and operation. All the output parameters can be easily generated by simply entering the target number of sterile insects required per week. For other insect species, the biological and production characteristics need to be defined and inputted accordingly to obtain outputs relevant to these species. This spreadsheet, available under http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/ipc/index.html, is a powerful tool for project and facility managers as it can be used to estimate facility cost, production cost, and production projections under different rearing efficiency scenarios. (author)

  20. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. II. Assessment of the optimal temperature and the substrate for male-only production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study has been conducted to assess the effect and interaction of various storage substrates and conditions on eggs of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Tests were carried out with the genetic sexing strain VIENNA 8/D53, a strain that carries a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that allows the selective killing of female zygotes. This study identifies strategies to enhance the storage and transport conditions through assessment of effect on egg, pupal and adult survival in order to facilitate the establishment of satellite mass rearing facilities for the production of male medflies. Eggs were immersed in two different substrates and stored at different temperatures and for different time periods. Findings from this study suggest that egg storage periods, and to some extent, the storage substrates have significant effects on pupal and adult survival. For 72-h storage periods, the eggs preserved in agar solution at 10 deg. C produced the most pupae. There was an inverse relationship between the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the substrate during storage and the quality and survival of the stored/transported eggs. Apparently low levels of dissolved oxygen reduce metabolic rates, allowing the storage period to be prolonged. (author)

  1. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. 1. Effect of temperature, embryo age , and storage time on survival and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operational use of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing strains in Sterile Insect Technique applications can be maximized by developing methods for effective shipment of eggs. This would enable a central production facility to maintain the relevant mother stocks and large colonies to supply eggs to satellite centers that would mass produce only males for irradiation and release. In order to achieve this, the survival of medfly embryos of different ages was assessed after storage at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 deg. C in water for different periods of time. Survival was affected by all 3 variables, i.e., embryo age, water temperature, and length of storage. Storage of embryos at any temperature for 120 h resulted in almost no survival. Controlling the age of the embryo at the time of the temperature treatment is crucial for the success of this procedure. Embryos collected between 0 to 12 h after oviposition and pre-incubated at 25 deg. C for 12 h provide a suitable 72 h window for shipment when maintained between 10 to 15 deg. C. Under these conditions, no significant reductions in survival during all the developmental stages were observed. (author)

  2. Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author)

  3. Exploitation of the Medfly Gut Microbiota for the Enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique: Use of Enterobacter sp. in Larval Diet-Based Probiotic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.; Cáceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is a pest of worldwide substantial economic importance, as well as a Tephritidae model for sterile insect technique (SIT) applications. The latter is partially due to the development and utilization of genetic sexing strains (GSS) for this species, such as the Vienna 8 strain, which is currently used in mass rearing facilities worldwide. Improving the performance of such a strain both in mass rearing facilities and in the field could significantly enhance the efficacy of SIT and reduce operational costs. Recent studies have suggested that the manipulation of gut symbionts can have a significant positive effect on the overall fitness of insect strains. We used culture-based approaches to isolate and characterize gut-associated bacterial species of the Vienna 8 strain under mass rearing conditions. We also exploited one of the isolated bacterial species, Enterobacter sp., as dietary supplement (probiotic) to the larval diet, and we assessed its effects on fitness parameters under the standard operating procedures used in SIT operational programs. Probiotic application of Enterobacter sp. resulted in improvement of both pupal and adult productivity, as well as reduced rearing duration, particularly for males, without affecting pupal weight, sex ratio, male mating competitiveness, flight ability and longevity under starvation. PMID:26325068

  4. Exploitation of the Medfly Gut Microbiota for the Enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique: Use of Enterobacter sp. in Larval Diet-Based Probiotic Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios A Augustinos

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is a pest of worldwide substantial economic importance, as well as a Tephritidae model for sterile insect technique (SIT applications. The latter is partially due to the development and utilization of genetic sexing strains (GSS for this species, such as the Vienna 8 strain, which is currently used in mass rearing facilities worldwide. Improving the performance of such a strain both in mass rearing facilities and in the field could significantly enhance the efficacy of SIT and reduce operational costs. Recent studies have suggested that the manipulation of gut symbionts can have a significant positive effect on the overall fitness of insect strains. We used culture-based approaches to isolate and characterize gut-associated bacterial species of the Vienna 8 strain under mass rearing conditions. We also exploited one of the isolated bacterial species, Enterobacter sp., as dietary supplement (probiotic to the larval diet, and we assessed its effects on fitness parameters under the standard operating procedures used in SIT operational programs. Probiotic application of Enterobacter sp. resulted in improvement of both pupal and adult productivity, as well as reduced rearing duration, particularly for males, without affecting pupal weight, sex ratio, male mating competitiveness, flight ability and longevity under starvation.

  5. Dispersal propensity, but not flight performance, explains variation in dispersal ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Vernon M; Mitchell, Katherine A; Terblanche, John S

    2016-08-17

    Enhanced dispersal ability may lead to accelerated range expansion and increased rates of population establishment, thereby affecting population genetic structure and evolutionary potential. Morphological, behavioural and physiological traits that characterize dispersive individuals from residents are poorly understood for many invertebrate systems, especially in non-polymorphic pterygote species. Here we examined phenotypic differences between dispersal-prone and philopatric individuals from repeated mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiments using an invasive agricultural pest, Ceratitis capitata Comprehensive morphometric assessment and subsequent minimal adequate modelling using an information theoretic approach identified thorax mass : body mass ratio as a key predictor of disperser flies under semi-natural conditions. Performance differences in flight ability were then examined under controlled laboratory conditions to assess whether greater thorax mass : body mass ratio was associated with enhanced flight ability. The larger thorax : body mass ratio was associated with measurable differences in mean flight duration, most predominantly in males, and also by their willingness to disperse, scored as the number and duration of voluntary flights. No other measures of whole-animal flight performance (e.g. mean and peak vertical force, total or maximum flight duration) differed. Variation in voluntary behaviour may result in significant alterations of movement behaviour and realized dispersal in nature. This phenomenon may help explain intraspecific variation in the dispersal ability of insects.

  6. Exploitation of the Medfly Gut Microbiota for the Enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique: Use of Enterobacter sp. in Larval Diet-Based Probiotic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Kyritsis, Georgios A; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Abd-Alla, Adly M M; Cáceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is a pest of worldwide substantial economic importance, as well as a Tephritidae model for sterile insect technique (SIT) applications. The latter is partially due to the development and utilization of genetic sexing strains (GSS) for this species, such as the Vienna 8 strain, which is currently used in mass rearing facilities worldwide. Improving the performance of such a strain both in mass rearing facilities and in the field could significantly enhance the efficacy of SIT and reduce operational costs. Recent studies have suggested that the manipulation of gut symbionts can have a significant positive effect on the overall fitness of insect strains. We used culture-based approaches to isolate and characterize gut-associated bacterial species of the Vienna 8 strain under mass rearing conditions. We also exploited one of the isolated bacterial species, Enterobacter sp., as dietary supplement (probiotic) to the larval diet, and we assessed its effects on fitness parameters under the standard operating procedures used in SIT operational programs. Probiotic application of Enterobacter sp. resulted in improvement of both pupal and adult productivity, as well as reduced rearing duration, particularly for males, without affecting pupal weight, sex ratio, male mating competitiveness, flight ability and longevity under starvation. PMID:26325068

  7. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  8. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  9. Imaging genetics of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an explosive growth of interest in the application of imaging genetics to understand neurogenetic mechanisms of schizophrenia. Imaging genetics applies structural and functional neuroimaging to study subjects carrying genetic risk variants that relate to a psychiatric disorder. We review selected aspects of this literature, starting with a widely studied candidate gene - the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT)- discussing other candidate genes in the dopaminergic s...

  10. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics....

  11. Welcome to Neurology: Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Pulst, Stefan M.

    2015-01-01

    The powers of human genetics and genetic technologies have transformed the complexities of neurology and neuroscience at the basic, translational, and now also the clinical level. We have left an era of black and white views of causative genetic variation and are entering a period of more than 50 shades of grey, fascinated with DNA variants that increase or decrease risk, epigenetic modification, and an unexpectedly large number of variants of unknown or potentially pathogenic significance. L...

  12. Genetic epidemiology of diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Permutt, M. Alan; Wasson, Jonathon; Cox, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Conventional genetic analysis focuses on the genes that account for specific phenotypes, while traditional epidemiology is more concerned with the environmental causes and risk factors related to traits. Genetic epidemiology is an alliance of the 2 fields that focuses on both genetics, including allelic variants in different populations, and environment, in order to explain exactly how genes convey effects in different environmental contexts and to arrive at a more complete comprehension of t...

  13. Phylogeography and genetic variation of Triatoma dimidiata, the main Chagas disease vector in Central America, and its position within the genus Triatoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Bargues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among Chagas disease triatomine vectors, the largest genus, Triatoma, includes species of high public health interest. Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador, presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats, and non-domiciliated populations acting as reinfestation sources. DNA sequence analyses, phylogenetic reconstruction methods, and genetic variation approaches are combined to investigate the haplotype profiling, genetic polymorphism, phylogeography, and evolutionary trends of T. dimidiata and its closest relatives within Triatoma. This is the largest interpopulational analysis performed on a triatomine species so far. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Triatomines from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil were used. Triatoma dimidiata populations follow different evolutionary divergences in which geographical isolation appears to have had an important influence. A southern Mexican-northern Guatemalan ancestral form gave rise to two main clades. One clade remained confined to the Yucatan peninsula and northern parts of Chiapas State, Guatemala, and Honduras, with extant descendants deserving specific status. Within the second clade, extant subspecies diversity was shaped by adaptive radiation derived from Guatemalan ancestral populations. Central American populations correspond to subspecies T. d. dimidiata. A southern spread into Panama and Colombia gave the T. d. capitata forms, and a northwestern spread rising from Guatemala into Mexico gave the T. d. maculipennis forms. Triatoma hegneri appears as a subspecific insular form. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison with very numerous Triatoma species allows us to reach highly supported conclusions not only about T. dimidiata, but also on different, important Triatoma species groupings and their evolution. The very large intraspecific genetic

  14. Genetics, society, and decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowles, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides a conceptual understanding of the biology of genes and also gives current events and controversies in the field. Basic transmission genetics, molecular genetics, and population genetics are covered, with additional discussions relating to such topics as agriculture, aging, forensic science, genetic counseling, gene splicing, and recombinant DNA. Low level radiation and its effects, drugs and heredity, IQ, heredity and racial variation, and creationism versus evolution are also described. ''Billboard'' style diagrams visually explain important concepts. Boldfaced key terms are defined within the text and in a comprehensive glossary. Selected readings, discussion questions and problems, and excellent chapter summaries further aid study.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: trimethylaminuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Trimethylaminuria Genetic Testing Registry: Trimethylaminuria Monell Chemical Senses Center: TMAU & Body Malodors National Human Genome Research Institute: Diagnosis and Treatment of Trimethylaminuria ...

  16. Genetic Programming and Genetic Algorithms for Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M. HEWAHI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a mechanism to discover the compound proposition solutions for a given truth table without knowing the compound propositions that lead to the truth table results. The approach is based on two proposed algorithms, the first is called Producing Formula (PF algorithm which is based on the genetic programming idea, to find out the compound proposition solutions for the given truth table. The second algorithm is called the Solutions Optimization (SO algorithm which is based on genetic algorithms idea, to find a list of the optimum compound propositions that can solve the truth table. The obtained list will depend on the solutions obtained from the PF algorithm. Various types of genetic operators have been introduced to obtain the solutions either within the PF algorithm or SO algorithm.

  17. Genetics in the courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Heather; Drell, Dan

    2000-12-01

    Various: (1)TriState 2000 Genetics in the Courts (2) Growing impact of the new genetics on the courts (3)Human testing (4) Legal analysis - in re G.C. (5) Legal analysis - GM ''peanots'', and (6) Legal analysis for State vs Miller

  18. [Human genetics and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zergollern, L

    1990-01-01

    Many new problems and dilemmas have occurred in the practice of medical geneticists with the development of human genetics and its subdisciplines--molecular genetics, ethic genetics and juridical genetics. Devoid of the possibility to get adequate education, genetic informer or better to say, counsellor, although a scientist and a professional who has already formed his ethic attitudes, often finds himself in a dilemma when he has to decide whether a procedure made possible by progress of science is ethical or not. Thus, due to different attitudes, same decision is ethical for some, while for the others it is not. Ethic committees are groups of moral and good people trying to find an objective approach to certain genetic and ethic problems. There are more and more ethically unanswered questions in modern human genetics, and particularly in medical genetics. Medical geneticist-ethicist still encounters numerous problems in his work. These are, for example, experiments with human gametes and embryos, possibilities of hybridization of human gametes with animal gametes, in vitro fertilization, detection of heterozygotes and homozygotes for monogene diseases. early detection of chromosomopathies, substitute mothers, homo and hetero insemination, transplantation of fetal and cadeveric organs, uncontrolled consumption of alcohol and drugs, environmental pollution, etc. It is almost impossible to create a single attitude which shall be shared by all those engaged in human health protection. Therefore, it is best to have a neutral eugenetic attitude which allows free ethical choice of each individual, in any case, for the well-being of man. PMID:2366624

  19. Genetic effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are reviewed from studies on the genetic effects of x radiation in mice and the extrapolation of the findings for estimating genetic hazards in man is discussed. Data are included on the frequency of mutation induction following acute or chronic irradiation of male or female mice at various doses and dose rates

  20. Ethical issues in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, T A

    1999-03-01

    The first section of the Notes on Moral Theology reviews ethical issues in genetics through the lenses of privacy-confidentiality; risk-benefit analysis in relation to prenatal diagnosis and gene therapy; and freedom-determinism/human dignity in the context of cloning. The author provides an overview of developments in genetics and highlights thematic issues common to these developments.

  1. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  2. Cryptic Genetic Variation in Evolutionary Developmental Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise B. Paaby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary developmental genetics has traditionally been conducted by two groups: Molecular evolutionists who emphasize divergence between species or higher taxa, and quantitative geneticists who study variation within species. Neither approach really comes to grips with the complexities of evolutionary transitions, particularly in light of the realization from genome-wide association studies that most complex traits fit an infinitesimal architecture, being influenced by thousands of loci. This paper discusses robustness, plasticity and lability, phenomena that we argue potentiate major evolutionary changes and provide a bridge between the conceptual treatments of macro- and micro-evolution. We offer cryptic genetic variation and conditional neutrality as mechanisms by which standing genetic variation can lead to developmental system drift and, sheltered within canalized processes, may facilitate developmental transitions and the evolution of novelty. Synthesis of the two dominant perspectives will require recognition that adaptation, divergence, drift and stability all depend on similar underlying quantitative genetic processes—processes that cannot be fully observed in continuously varying visible traits.

  3. Genetics of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Teufel; Frank Staib; Stephan Kanzler; Arndt Weinmann; Henning Schulze-Bergkamen; Peter R Galle

    2007-01-01

    The completely assembled human genome has made it possible for modern medicine to step into an era rich in genetic information and high-throughput genomic analysis. These novel and readily available genetic resources and analytical tools may be the key to unravel the molecular basis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, since an efficient treatment for this disease is lacking, further understanding of the genetic background of HCC will be crucial in order to develop new therapies aimed at selected targets. We report on the current status and recent developments in HCC genetics. Special emphasis is given to the genetics and regulation of major signalling pathways involved in HCC such as p53, Wntsignalling, TGFβ, Ras, and Rb pathways. Furthermore, we describe the influence of chromosomal aberrations as well as of DNA methylation. Finally, we report on the rapidly developing field of genomic expression profiling in HCC, mainly by microarray analysis.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions congenital hypothyroidism congenital hypothyroidism Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Genetic Testing Registry: Congenital hypothyroidism Genetic Testing Registry: Hypothyroidism, ... Encyclopedia: Congenital Hypothyroidism These resources ...

  5. Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the genetic terms used on this page Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment Overview How can learning ... gov] Top of page How can knowing about genetics help treat disease? Every year, more than two ...

  6. Conservation genetics of Iberian raptors

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez–Cruz, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I provide an overview of conservation genetics and describe the management actions in the wild that can benefit from conservation genetic studies. I describe the genetic factors of risk for the survival of wild species, the consequences of loss of genetic diversity, inbreeding and outbreeding depression, and the use of genetic tools to delimitate units of conservation. Then I introduce the most common applications of conservation genetics in the management of wild populations. I...

  7. On Derivations Of Genetic Algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A genetic algebra is a (possibly non-associative) algebra used to model inheritance in genetics. In application of genetics this algebra often has a basis corresponding to genetically different gametes, and the structure constant of the algebra encode the probabilities of producing offspring of various types. In this paper, we find the connection between the genetic algebras and evolution algebras. Moreover, we prove the existence of nontrivial derivations of genetic algebras in dimension two

  8. Welcome to Neurology: Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulst, Stefan M

    2015-06-01

    The powers of human genetics and genetic technologies have transformed the complexities of neurology and neuroscience at the basic, translational, and now also the clinical level. We have left an era of black and white views of causative genetic variation and are entering a period of more than 50 shades of grey, fascinated with DNA variants that increase or decrease risk, epigenetic modification, and an unexpectedly large number of variants of unknown or potentially pathogenic significance. Loss-of-function alleles and even complete human gene knockouts for certain genes appear to be compatible with a normal phenotype. PMID:27066541

  9. Genetically Engineered Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruanbao (Inventor); Gibbons, William (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The disclosed embodiments provide cyanobacteria spp. that have been genetically engineered to have increased production of carbon-based products of interest. These genetically engineered hosts efficiently convert carbon dioxide and light into carbon-based products of interest such as long chained hydrocarbons. Several constructs containing polynucleotides encoding enzymes active in the metabolic pathways of cyanobacteria are disclosed. In many instances, the cyanobacteria strains have been further genetically modified to optimize production of the carbon-based products of interest. The optimization includes both up-regulation and down-regulation of particular genes.

  10. Statistics for Learning Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Abigail Sheena

    This study investigated the knowledge and skills that biology students may need to help them understand statistics/mathematics as it applies to genetics. The data are based on analyses of current representative genetics texts, practicing genetics professors' perspectives, and more directly, students' perceptions of, and performance in, doing statistically-based genetics problems. This issue is at the emerging edge of modern college-level genetics instruction, and this study attempts to identify key theoretical components for creating a specialized biological statistics curriculum. The goal of this curriculum will be to prepare biology students with the skills for assimilating quantitatively-based genetic processes, increasingly at the forefront of modern genetics. To fulfill this, two college level classes at two universities were surveyed. One university was located in the northeastern US and the other in the West Indies. There was a sample size of 42 students and a supplementary interview was administered to a select 9 students. Interviews were also administered to professors in the field in order to gain insight into the teaching of statistics in genetics. Key findings indicated that students had very little to no background in statistics (55%). Although students did perform well on exams with 60% of the population receiving an A or B grade, 77% of them did not offer good explanations on a probability question associated with the normal distribution provided in the survey. The scope and presentation of the applicable statistics/mathematics in some of the most used textbooks in genetics teaching, as well as genetics syllabi used by instructors do not help the issue. It was found that the text books, often times, either did not give effective explanations for students, or completely left out certain topics. The omission of certain statistical/mathematical oriented topics was seen to be also true with the genetics syllabi reviewed for this study. Nonetheless

  11. Genetics of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Apurva; Srivastava, Neena; Mittal, Balraj

    2016-10-01

    Numerous classical genetic studies have proved that genes are contributory factors for obesity. Genes are directly responsible for obesity associated disorders such as Bardet-Biedl and Prader-Willi syndromes. However, both genes as well as environment are associated with obesity in the general population. Genetic epidemiological approaches, particularly genome-wide association studies, have unraveled many genes which play important roles in human obesity. Elucidation of their biological functions can be very useful for understanding pathobiology of obesity. In the near future, further exploration of obesity genetics may help to develop useful diagnostic and predictive tests for obesity treatment. PMID:27605733

  12. Genetic epidemiology, genetic maps and positional cloning.

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Newton E.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic epidemiology developed in the middle of the last century, focused on inherited causes of disease but with methods and results applicable to other traits and even forensics. Early success with linkage led to the localization of genes contributing to disease, and ultimately to the Human Genome Project. The discovery of millions of DNA markers has encouraged more efficient positional cloning by linkage disequilibrium (LD), using LD maps and haplotypes in ways that are rapidly evolving. T...

  13. Genetics of adrenal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opocher, G; Schiavi, F; Cicala, M V; Patalano, A; Mariniello, B; Boaretto, F; Zovato, S; Pignataro, V; Macino, B; Negro, I; Mantero, F

    2009-06-01

    The impact of genetics and genomics on clinical medicine is becoming more and more important. Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field. Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia. The identification of mutations in one of the several pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma susceptibility genes may indicate a specific clinical management drive. Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease. There are only a few examples of hereditary transmission of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the analysis of low penetrance genes by genome wide association study may enable us to discover new genetic mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical-derived tumors. PMID:19471236

  14. Genetics Home Reference: piebaldism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a feature of other conditions, such as Waardenburg syndrome ; these conditions have other genetic causes and additional ... 140S. Review. Citation on PubMed Spritz RA. Piebaldism, Waardenburg syndrome, and related disorders of melanocyte development. Semin Cutan ...

  15. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  16. Genetics for the ophthalmologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan A Sadagopan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The eye has played a major role in human genomics including gene therapy. It is the fourth most common organ system after integument (skin, hair and nails, nervous system, and musculoskeletal system to be involved in genetic disorders. The eye is involved in single gene disorders and those caused by multifactorial etiology. Retinoblastoma was the first human cancer gene to be cloned. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy was the first mitochondrial disorder described. X-Linked red-green color deficiency was the first X-linked disorder described. The eye, unlike any other body organ, allows directly visualization of genetic phenomena such as skewed X-inactivation in the fundus of a female carrier of ocular albinism. Basic concepts of genetics and their application to clinical ophthalmological practice are important not only in making a precise diagnosis and appropriate referral, but also in management and genetic counseling.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions preeclampsia preeclampsia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy in which affected ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: achromatopsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis & Management These resources address the diagnosis or management of achromatopsia: GeneReview: Achromatopsia Genetic Testing Registry: Achromatopsia MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Color Vision Test These resources from MedlinePlus offer information about ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: choroideremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis & Management These resources address the diagnosis or management of choroideremia: GeneReview: Choroideremia Genetic Testing Registry: Choroideremia MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Vision - night blindness MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Visual field These resources ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions retinoblastoma retinoblastoma Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Retinoblastoma is a rare type of eye cancer that ...

  1. Genetics of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A A Listen En Español Genetics of Diabetes You've probably wondered how you developed diabetes. ... to develop diabetes than others. What Leads to Diabetes? Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions schizophrenia schizophrenia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Schizophrenia is a mental health disorder classified as a ...

  3. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjorn; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether women conceiving after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and their children have greater risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with children conceived spontaneously or after IVF with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN...

  4. Genetic Sample Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected primarily from the U.S. east coast. The collection includes samples from field programs,...

  5. Genetic Sample Inventory - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico from 2010-2015. The collection includes samples from...

  6. The genetics of deliria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Adamis; B.C. van Munster; A.J.D. Macdonald

    2009-01-01

    Delirium not induced by alcohol or other psychoactive substance and alcohol withdrawal delirium (or delirium tremens) are both cerebral syndromes with similar presentations and are associated with various adverse outcomes. Recently, interest in identifying genetic predisposing factors that influence

  7. Genetics Home Reference: galactosialidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases ISMRD: The International Advocate for Glycoprotein Storage Diseases ... Maaswinkel-Mooy P, Smit V, van der Hoeven M, Bakker J, Campos Y, d'Azzo A. New mutations in two Dutch patients with early infantile galactosialidosis. Mol Genet Metab. ...

  8. [Genetics of neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gess, B; Schirmacher, A; Young, P

    2013-02-01

    Hereditary neuropathies belong to the most common neurogenetic disorders. They appear mostly as sensory and motor neuropathies but there are also pure sensory, pure motor as well as sensory and autonomic hereditary neuropathies. In clinical practice, knowledge of hereditary neuropathies is important in order to recognize them among polyneuropathies and achieve a successful genetic diagnosis. The molecular genetics of hereditary neuropathies are very heterogeneous with currently more than 40 known disease-causing genes. The 4 most common genes account for almost 90% of the genetically diagnosed hereditary neuropathies. In this review article we provide an overview of the currently known genes and propose a rational genetic work-up protocol of the most common genes.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: cystinuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for This Page Claes DJ, Jackson E. Cystinuria: mechanisms and management. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012 Nov;27(11): ... with a qualified healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Contact Us Selection Criteria for Links ...

  10. Genetics Blood Card Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection of blood for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect DNA sample using a whole blood blot card

  11. Genetics Home Reference: sialidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? ... Morrone A. Type II sialidosis: review of the clinical spectrum and identification of a new splicing defect with chitotriosidase assessment in two patients. J ...

  12. Genetics of SCID

    OpenAIRE

    Cossu Fausto

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Human SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency) is a prenatal disorder of T lymphocyte development, that depends on the expression of numerous genes. The knowledge of the genetic basis of SCID is essential for diagnosis (e.g., clinical phenotype, lymphocyte profile) and treatment (e.g., use and type of pre-hematopoietic stem cell transplant conditioning). Over the last years novel genetic defects causing SCID have been discovered, and the molecular and immunological mechanisms of SCID ...

  13. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  14. Genetics of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Asthma runs in families, and children of asthmatic parents are at increased risk of asthma. Prediction of disease risk is pivotal for the clinician when counselling atopic families. However, this is not always an easy task bearing in mind the vast and ever-increasing knowledge about asthma genetics...... of methods and advances in asthma genetics in an attempt to help the clinician keep track of the most important knowledge in the field....

  15. Applications of Genetic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Toma, Laura

    1996-01-01

    In this report a study of genetic programming (GP) has been performed with respect to a number of applications such as Symbolic function regression, Solving Symbolic Differential Equations, Image encoding, the ant problem etc.......In this report a study of genetic programming (GP) has been performed with respect to a number of applications such as Symbolic function regression, Solving Symbolic Differential Equations, Image encoding, the ant problem etc....

  16. Genetics and developmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on research activities in the fields of mutagenesis in Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli; radioinduced chromosomal aberrations in mammalian germ cells; effects of uv radiation on xeroderma pigmentosum skin cells; mutations in Chinese hamster ovary cells; radioinduced hemoglobin variants in the mouse; analysis of mutants in yeast; Drosophila genetics; biochemical genetics of Neurospora; DNA polymerase activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes; uv-induced damage in Bacillus subtilis; and others

  17. Primer on molecular genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This report is taken from the April 1992 draft of the DOE Human Genome 1991--1992 Program Report, which is expected to be published in May 1992. The primer is intended to be an introduction to basic principles of molecular genetics pertaining to the genome project. The material contained herein is not final and may be incomplete. Techniques of genetic mapping and DNA sequencing are described.

  18. Contemporary Genetics for Gender Researchers: Not Your Grandma's Genetics Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Rachel H.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past century, much of genetics was deterministic, and feminist researchers framed justified criticisms of genetics research. However, over the past two decades, genetics research has evolved remarkably and has moved far from earlier deterministic approaches. Our article provides a brief primer on modern genetics, emphasizing contemporary…

  19. Sex determination in Medfly: A molecular approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of developing new strategies of control to limit the damages inflicted on fruit crops by Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Medfly), a biotechnological approach is undertaken whereby female viability would be impaired or male viability would be improved following the introduction of specific genes into the genome of C. capitata. Only males will then be mass produced and released in the infested areas after sterilisation (Louis et al. 1987). Such conditional lethal or 'advantageous' genes could be expressed in transgenic flies either female-specifically or male-specifically by using cis regulative sequences obtained from previously isolated endogenous Ceratitis genes (Saccone et al. 1996, 1998). By using molecular strategies based on a subtractive technique, we have recently isolated male-specifically expressed genes in the Medfly. Furthermore, we present the current status of the research on the Ceratitis dsx gene, showing sex-specific alternative splicing as in Drosophila, and on the tra-inaZ strategy to induce in Drosophila flies female-specific conditional lethality

  20. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.

  1. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence. PMID:22830450

  2. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author)

  3. Genetic aspects of female reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.; Diedrich, K.; Franks, S.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Jacobs, P. A.; Karges, B.; Kennedy, S.; Marozzi, A.; Regan, L.; Baird, D. T.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diczfalusy, E.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Liebaers, I.; Ragni, G.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual reproduction provides the means for preserving genetic identity and in turn, genetic variability may affect the ability to reproduce. This review aims to summarize current research on genetic diagnosis and genetic causes of reproductive disorders.METHODS: Searches were done by sub

  4. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more information about genetic testing? What is genetic testing? Genetic testing uses laboratory methods to look at your ... What are the benefits and drawbacks of genetic testing? Benefits: Genetic testing may be beneficial whether the test identifies ...

  5. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Counseling What are genetic professionals and what do they ... genetics nurses. Top of page What is genetic counseling and evaluation? Genetic professionals work as members of ...

  6. The Genetics of Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Berrettini, Wade

    2004-01-01

    The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa traditionally have been viewed as sociocultural in origin. However, recent behavioral genetic findings suggest substantial genetic influence on these disorders. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infancy, but initial results are promising. This article reviews findings from family, twin, and molecular genetic studies that support substantial genetic influences on disordered eating and highlights additional areas fo...

  7. Genetical background of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  8. Genetics of Vesicoureteral Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, F; Ilari, M; Noviello, C; Santoro, L; Rätsch, I M; Martino, A; Cobellis, G

    2016-02-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the retrograde passage of urine from the bladder to the upper urinary tract. It is the most common congenital urological anomaly affecting 1-2% of children and 30-40% of patients with urinary tract infections. VUR is a major risk factor for pyelonephritic scarring and chronic renal failure in children. It is the result of a shortened intravesical ureter with an enlarged or malpositioned ureteric orifice. An ectopic embryonal ureteric budding development is implicated in the pathogenesis of VUR, which is a complex genetic developmental disorder. Many genes are involved in the ureteric budding formation and subsequently in the urinary tract and kidney development. Previous studies demonstrate an heterogeneous genetic pattern of VUR. In fact no single major locus or gene for primary VUR has been identified. It is likely that different forms of VUR with different genetic determinantes are present. Moreover genetic studies of syndromes with associated VUR have revealed several possible candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis of VUR and related urinary tract malformations. Mutations in genes essential for urinary tract morphogenesis are linked to numerous congenital syndromes, and in most of those VUR is a feature. The Authors provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the VUR. The different genes and signaling pathways controlling the embryonal urinary tract development are analyzed. A better understanding of VUR genetic bases could improve the management of this condition in children. PMID:27013925

  9. Intelligence, race, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They further argue that race is a social construction with no scientific definition. Thus, studies of the relationship between race and other constructs may serve social ends but cannot serve scientific ends. No gene has yet been conclusively linked to intelligence, so attempts to provide a compelling genetic link of race to intelligence are not feasible at this time. The authors also show that heritability, a behavior-genetic concept, is inadequate in regard to providing such a link. PMID:15641921

  10. Darwin's contributions to genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-S; Zhou, X-M; Zhi, M-X; Li, X-J; Wang, Q-L

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's contributions to evolutionary biology are well known, but his contributions to genetics are much less known. His main contribution was the collection of a tremendous amount of genetic data, and an attempt to provide a theoretical framework for its interpretation. Darwin clearly described almost all genetic phenomena of fundamental importance, such as prepotency (Mendelian inheritance), bud variation (mutation), heterosis, reversion (atavism), graft hybridization (Michurinian inheritance), sex-limited inheritance, the direct action of the male element on the female (xenia and telegony), the effect of use and disuse, the inheritance of acquired characters (Lamarckian inheritance), and many other observations pertaining to variation, heredity and development. To explain all these observations, Darwin formulated a developmental theory of heredity - Pangenesis - which not only greatly influenced many subsequent theories, but also is supported by recent evidence. PMID:19638672

  11. Genetic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the induction of germ cell mutations in mammals international and national committees developed concepts for quantifying radiation-induced genetic risk in humans. Genetic effects dominated the thinking o the UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation) Report in 1958, the BEAR (Biological Effects of Atomic Radiations) Report form the National Academy of Sciences, the National Research Council in 1956, and the British counterpart, the Medical Research Council , in 1956. an interesting personal account of the development of the work of the BEIR (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations) and UNSCEAR Committee was published recently by Russell. The quality of risk estimation depends on the data base and on the concepts used. The current status of both aspects for quantifying genetic risk is reviewed in this paper

  12. Genetics and caries: prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rezende Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries remains the most prevalent non-contagious infectious disease in humans. It is clear that the current approaches to decrease the prevalence of caries in human populations, including water fluoridation and school-based programs, are not enough to protect everyone. The scientific community has suggested the need for innovative work in a number of areas in cariology, encompassing disease etiology, epidemiology, definition, prevention, and treatment. We have pioneered the work on genetic studies to identify genes and genetic markers of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value. This paper summarizes a presentation that elaborated on these initial findings.

  13. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jacob Hedemand

    , including genetic tools that allow metabolic engineering. The cyanobacterial phylum represents a diverse group of aerobic photosynthetic bacteria that are widespread in nature. Cyanobacteria shaped our atmosphere by oxygen evolution through the splitting of water using energy from sunlight. The sole carbon...... and characterized for growth phenotype and glycogen content. While no difference in growth rate or glycogen content was detected between the phosphorylase double mutant and wild type strain, we found that both glycogen phophyrylases must be genetically inactivated to eliminate glycogen phosphorylase activity...

  14. Cartesian genetic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Julian F

    2011-01-01

    Cartesian Genetic Programming (CGP) is a highly effective and increasingly popular form of genetic programming. It represents programs in the form of directed graphs, and a particular characteristic is that it has a highly redundant genotype - phenotype mapping, in that genes can be noncoding. It has spawned a number of new forms, each improving on the efficiency, among them modular, or embedded, CGP, and self-modifying CGP. It has been applied to many problems in both computer science and applied sciences. This book contains chapters written by the leading figures in the development and appli

  15. Genetics of opiate addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Butelman, Eduardo R; Yuferov, Vadim; Randesi, Matthew; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-11-01

    Addiction to MOP-r agonists such as heroin (and also addiction to prescription opioids) has reemerged as an epidemic in the twenty first century, causing massive morbidity. Understanding the genetics contributing to susceptibility to this disease is crucial for the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and also for discovery of genetic markers which would indicate relative protection or vulnerability from addiction, and relative responsiveness to pharmacotherapy. This information could thus eventually inform clinical practice. In this review, we focus primarily on association studies of heroin and opiate addiction, and further describe the studies which have been replicated in this field, and are thus more likely to be useful for translational efforts.

  16. Genetically engineered yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising an active fermentation pathway producing 3-HP expresses an exogenous gene expressing the aminotransferase YhxA from Bacillus cereus AH1272 catalysing a transamination reaction between beta-alanine and pyruvate to produce malonate semialde......A genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising an active fermentation pathway producing 3-HP expresses an exogenous gene expressing the aminotransferase YhxA from Bacillus cereus AH1272 catalysing a transamination reaction between beta-alanine and pyruvate to produce malonate...

  17. The genetics of the epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achkar, Christelle M; Olson, Heather E; Poduri, Annapurna; Pearl, Phillip L

    2015-07-01

    While genetic causes of epilepsy have been hypothesized from the time of Hippocrates, the advent of new genetic technologies has played a tremendous role in elucidating a growing number of specific genetic causes for the epilepsies. This progress has contributed vastly to our recognition of the epilepsies as a diverse group of disorders, the genetic mechanisms of which are heterogeneous. Genotype-phenotype correlation, however, is not always clear. Nonetheless, the developments in genetic diagnosis raise the promise of a future of personalized medicine. Multiple genetic tests are now available, but there is no one test for all possible genetic mutations, and the balance between cost and benefit must be weighed. A genetic diagnosis, however, can provide valuable information regarding comorbidities, prognosis, and even treatment, as well as allow for genetic counseling. In this review, we will discuss the genetic mechanisms of the epilepsies as well as the specifics of particular genetic epilepsy syndromes. We will include an overview of the available genetic testing methods, the application of clinical knowledge into the selection of genetic testing, genotype-phenotype correlations of epileptic disorders, and therapeutic advances as well as a discussion of the importance of genetic counseling.

  18. The genetics of the epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achkar, Christelle M; Olson, Heather E; Poduri, Annapurna; Pearl, Phillip L

    2015-07-01

    While genetic causes of epilepsy have been hypothesized from the time of Hippocrates, the advent of new genetic technologies has played a tremendous role in elucidating a growing number of specific genetic causes for the epilepsies. This progress has contributed vastly to our recognition of the epilepsies as a diverse group of disorders, the genetic mechanisms of which are heterogeneous. Genotype-phenotype correlation, however, is not always clear. Nonetheless, the developments in genetic diagnosis raise the promise of a future of personalized medicine. Multiple genetic tests are now available, but there is no one test for all possible genetic mutations, and the balance between cost and benefit must be weighed. A genetic diagnosis, however, can provide valuable information regarding comorbidities, prognosis, and even treatment, as well as allow for genetic counseling. In this review, we will discuss the genetic mechanisms of the epilepsies as well as the specifics of particular genetic epilepsy syndromes. We will include an overview of the available genetic testing methods, the application of clinical knowledge into the selection of genetic testing, genotype-phenotype correlations of epileptic disorders, and therapeutic advances as well as a discussion of the importance of genetic counseling. PMID:26008807

  19. Improved genetic operator for genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林峰; 杨启文

    2002-01-01

    The mutation operator has been seldom improved because ressearchers hardly suspect its ability to prevent genetic algorithm(GA) from converging prematurely.Due to its importance to GA,the authors of this paper study influence on the diversity of genes in the same locus,and point out that traditional mutation,to some extent,can result in premature convergence of genes(PCG) in the same locus.The above drawback of the traditional mutation operator causes the loss of critical alleles.Inspired by digital technique,we introduce two kinds of boolean operation into GA to develop a novel mutation operator and discuss its contribution of preventing the loss of critical alleles.The experimental results of function optimizatioin show that the improved mutation operator can effectively prevent premature convegence,and can provide a wide selection range of control parameters for GA.

  20. Improved genetic operator for genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林峰; 杨启文

    2002-01-01

    The mutation operator has been seldom improved because researchers ha rdly suspect its ability to prevent genetic algorithm (GA) from converging prema turely. Due to its i mportance to GA, the authors of this paper study its influence on the diversity of genes in the same locus, and point out that traditional mutation, to some ext ent, can result in premature convergence of genes (PCG) in the same locus. The a bove drawback of the traditional mutation operator causes the loss of critical a lleles. Inspired by digital technique, we introduce two kinds of boolean operati on into GA to develop a novel mutation operator and discuss its contribution to preventing the loss of critical alleles. The experimental results of function op timization show that the improved mutation operator can effectively prevent prem ature convergence, and can provide a wide selection range of control parameters for GA.

  1. Genetic algorithms based on genetic grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofestaedt, Ralf; Mueller, Hermann

    1992-08-01

    The cell represents the basic unit of life. It can be interpreted as a chemical machine which can solve special problems. The present knowledge we have of molecular biology allows the characterization of the metabolism as a processing method. This method is an evolutionary product which has been developed over millions of years. First we will present the analyzed features of the metabolism. Then we will go on to compare this processing method with methods which are discussed in computer science. The comparison shows that there is no method in the field of computer science which uses all the metabolic features. This is the reason why we formalize the metabolic processing method. In this paper we choose to use a grammatical formalism. A genetic grammar is the basis of the metabolic system which represents the metabolic processing method. The basic unit of this system (logic unit) will be shown. This allows the discussion of the complexity of realizing the metabolic system in hardware.

  2. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  3. Genetics of celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricano-Ponce, Isis; Wijmenga, Cisca; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier

    2015-01-01

    New insights into the underlying molecular pathophysiology of celiac disease (CeD) over the last few years have been guided by major advances in the fields of genetics and genomics. The development and use of the Immunochip genotyping platform paved the way for the discovery of 39 non-HLA loci assoc

  4. Genetic Determinants of Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. López León (Sandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the studies in this genetic epidemiological thesis was to investigate candidate genes that play a role in the etiology of depression and to obtain new insights about biological pathways that may be involved in this disorder. The introduction of the thesis presents a review of

  5. Genetics Home Reference: vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exp Dermatol. 2009 Jul;18(7):583-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2008.00826.x. ... Med Surg. 2009 Jun;28(2):86-92. doi: 10.1016/j.sder.2009.04.008. Review. ... Genet. 2012 May 6;44(6):676-80. doi: 10.1038/ng.2272. Citation on PubMed or ...

  6. General cardinality genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler; Bhattacharyya; Vose

    1997-01-01

    A complete generalization of the Vose genetic algorithm model from the binary to higher cardinality case is provided. Boolean AND and EXCLUSIVE-OR operators are replaced by multiplication and addition over rings of integers. Walsh matrices are generalized with finite Fourier transforms for higher cardinality usage. Comparison of results to the binary case are provided. PMID:10021767

  7. Paper Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacClintic, Scott D.; Nelson, Genevieve M.

    Bacterial transformation is a commonly used technique in genetic engineering that involves transferring a gene of interest into a bacterial host so that the bacteria can be used to produce large quantities of the gene product. Although several kits are available for performing bacterial transformation in the classroom, students do not always…

  8. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. PMID:27131325

  9. Genetics Home Reference: globozoospermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DPY19L2 causes infertility in man by blocking sperm head elongation and acrosome formation. Am J Hum Genet. 2011 Mar 11;88(3):351-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.02.007. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Koscinski I, Elinati E, Fossard ...

  10. Pitfalls in genetic testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djémié, Tania; Weckhuysen, Sarah; von Spiczak, Sarah;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sanger sequencing, still the standard technique for genetic testing in most diagnostic laboratories and until recently widely used in research, is gradually being complemented by next-generation sequencing (NGS). No single mutation detection technique is however perfect in identifying...

  11. Safe genetically engineered plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

  12. Genetics of Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallipatna, Ashwin; Marino, Meghan; Singh, Arun D

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a malignant retinal tumor that affects young children. Mutations in the RB1 gene cause retinoblastoma. Mutations in both RB1 alleles within the precursor retinal cell are essential, with one mutation that may be germline or somatic and the second one that is always somatic. Identification of the RB1 germline status of a patient allows differentiation between sporadic and heritable retinoblastoma variants. Application of this knowledge is crucial for assessing short-term (risk of additional tumors in the same eye and other eye) and long-term (risk of nonocular malignant tumors) prognosis and offering cost-effective surveillance strategies. Genetic testing and genetic counseling are therefore essential components of care for all children diagnosed with retinoblastoma. The American Joint Committee on Cancer has acknowledged the importance of detecting this heritable trait and has introduced the letter "H" to denote a heritable trait of all cancers, starting with retinoblastoma (in publication). In this article, we discuss the clinically relevant aspects of genetic testing and genetic counseling for a child with retinoblastoma. PMID:27488068

  13. GENETIC ASPECTS OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas LAKOSKI

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first paper on the syndrome of autism, Kanner described it as innate and inborn. He drew attention to the abnormalities in infancy without evidence of prior normal development and the intellectual, non emotional qualities shown by many of the parents and grandparents. Subsequently, the supposed lack of parental warmth led many clinicians to abandon the notions of constitutional deficit in the child and instead to postulate a psychogenic origin etiology was likely, genetic factors probably did not play a major role. Attention was draw to the low rate of autism in siblings, the lack of chromosome anomalies, and the similarities with syndromes associated with known brain trauma. Although the rate of autism in siblings was indeed low, it was much higher than in the general population rate providing a strong pointer to the genetic factors. The recognition that this was so, associated with the parallel finding of apparently high familiar loading for language delay, stimulated the first, systematic, twin study of autism, which suggested a strong genetic component. Subsequent research has produced findings in the same direction, although many questions remain unanswered. In this paper the evidence that has accumulated on genetic influences on autism is summarized and the remained dilemmas on this field are discussed.

  14. Demonstration: Genetic Jewelry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Thomas; Roderick, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    In order for students to understand genetics and evolution, they must first understand the structure of the DNA molecule. The function of DNA proceeds from its unique structure, a structure beautifully adapted for information storage, transcription, translation into amino acid sequences, replication, and time travel. The activity described in this…

  15. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  16. Molecular genetics of ependymoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yao; Stephen C.Mack; Michael D.Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer death in children,with ependymoma being the third most common and posing a significant clinical burden.Its mechanism of pathogenesis,reliable prognostic indicators,and effective treatments other than surgical resection have all remained elusive.Until recently,cytogenetic techniques,and lack of cell lines and animal models.Ependymoma heterogeneity,which manifests as variations in tumor location,patient age,histological grade,and clinical behavior,together with the observation of a balanced genomic profile in up to 50% of cases,presents additional challenges in understanding the development and progression of this disease.Despite these difficulties,we have made significant headway in the past decade in identifying the genetic alterations and pathways involved in ependymoma tumorigenesis through collaborative efforts and the application of microarray-based genetic (copy number) and transcriptome profiling platforms.Genetic characterization of ependymoma unraveled distinct mRNA-defined subclasses and led to the identification of radial glial cells as its cell type of origin.This review summarizes our current knowledge in the molecular genetics of ependymoma and proposesfuture research directions necessary to further advance this field.

  17. Genetics of osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H. Ralston (Stuart); A.G. Uitterlinden (André)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOsteoporosis is a common disease with a strong genetic component characterized by reduced bone mass, defects in the microarchitecture of bone tissue, and an increased risk of fragility fractures. Twin and family studies have shown high heritability of bone mineral density (BMD) and other

  18. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  19. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroambientali e Zootecniche, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06121 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  20. Genetic mechanisms of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". The complexities of parenting behavior in humans have been studied for decades. Only recently did we begin to probe the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying these complexities. Much of the research in this field continues to be informed by animal studies, where genetic manipulations and invasive tools allow to peek into and directly observe the brain during the expression of maternal behavior. In humans, studies of adult twins who are parents can suggest dimensions of parenting that might be more amenable to a genetic influence. Candidate gene studies can test specific genes in association with parental behavior based on prior knowledge of those genes' function. Gene-by-environment interactions of a specific kind indicating differential susceptibility to the environment might explain why some parents are more resilient and others are more vulnerable to stressful life events. Epigenetic studies can provide the bridge often necessary to explain why some individuals behave differently from others despite common genetic influences. There is a much-needed expansion in parenting research to include not only mothers as the focus-as has been the case almost exclusively to date-but also fathers, grandparents, and other caregivers.

  1. Pregnancy, cardiomyopathies, and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tintelen, J. Peter; Pieper, Petronella G.; Van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.

    2014-01-01

    Although familial forms of cardiomyopathy such as hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy have been recognized for decades, it is only recently that much of the genetic basis of these inherited cardiomyopathies has been elucidated. This has provided important insights into the pathophysiological mech

  2. Genetics and Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good progress is being made on genetics and genomics of sugar beet, however it is in process and the tools are now being generated and some results are being analyzed. The GABI BeetSeq project released a first draft of the sugar beet genome of KWS2320, a dihaploid (see http://bvseq.molgen.mpg.de/Gen...

  3. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests.

  4. Cloning and Expression of an Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterile (OguCMS)-related MYB Transcription Factor in Brassica oleracea var.capitata%甘蓝胞质雄性不育(OguCMS)相关的MYB转录因子BoMYB1的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 康宗利; 刘海霞; 康俊根

    2012-01-01

    Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (OguCMS) is the most widely used male sterile type in cabbage breeding. MYB transcription factors play a key role in regulation of plant defense response and multiple development processes. In present experiment, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor which down regulated 10.3 times in cabbage (Brasska okracea var. capitata) OguCMS lines was cloned by SMART RACE strategy.The full-length cDNA of B0MYB1 was 1 141 bp, which contained a 196 bp long 5' untranslated region, a 246 bp long 3' untranslated region and a 699 bp long open reading frame (GenBank accession number: JN703995). It was localized in the nucleus by subcellular localization prediction. It was an anther preferentially expressed gene in cabbage, which reached its expression peak in the late development. It was induced by the regulation of plant hormones salicylic acid(SA) and jasmonate methyl (JA-ME), and consequently regulated the expression of anther development genes. The experimental results suggests that B0MYB1 may be one of the important genes which involved in OguCMS anther development.%萝卜胞质雄性不育(OguCMS)是目前甘蓝中应用较广的雄性不育类型,MYB转录因子具有调控植物防御应答反应和多个发育过程的作用.本实验以在甘蓝(Brassica oleracea var.capitata)OguCMS花药中下调10.3倍的EST序列为信息探针,结合电子克隆及RACE技术,得到一个与甘蓝OguCMS雄性不育相关的MYB转录因子全长cDNA,命名为BoMYB1(GenBank登录号:JN703995).经亚细胞定位预测,该基因定位于细胞核,全长1 141 bp,包含一个长度为196 bp的5’非翻译区、246 bp的3’非翻译区和一个699 bp的开放阅读框.该基因在花药中具表达优势,并在花药发育晚期出现表达高峰,受植物激素水杨酸(SA)和茉莉酸甲酯(JA-ME)的调控,诱导花药发育基因的表达.实验结果提示,BoMY B1可能是参与OguCMS花药发育的重要基因之一.

  5. Genetic support groups in the delivery of comprehensive genetic services.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, R. B.; Weiss, J O

    1989-01-01

    This research sought information about the services provided by genetic support groups, their members' experiences in obtaining genetic and related services, and members' recommendations for improving services. Results from a survey of 43 directors of genetic support groups showed that these organizations not only provide their members with a wide range of informational and supportive services but also address the need for education of both the public and health professionals about genetic di...

  6. [Genetics and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, V B

    1993-07-01

    In order to draw attention to the need for public health action in genetics in Latin America, the author begins by giving a brief review of congenital anomalies, including hereditary diseases and chromosomal anomalies. He notes that these defects affect at least 5% of live births in the different regions of the world, regardless of the development status or ethnic make-up of their populations. In the Region of the Americas, birth defects rank somewhere between second and fifth place among causes of death in children under 1 year of age, and account for 2% to 27% of infant mortality. It is logical to expect that these disorders will take on more relative importance as the general indicators of child health improve, as has been the case in industrialized countries. The fact that pathologies of genetic origin affect a wide range of organs and systems, are chronic, and require expensive therapy and rehabilitation means that they demand services that countries must be prepared to provide. The author proposes three general objectives for health activities regarding genetics: to minimize clinical manifestations in individuals who are born with congenital anomalies by means of adequate care at all service levels; to improve the quality of life for those individuals and their families by helping them to become involved in the normal life of their communities; and to ensure that people at high risk of conceiving children with genetic diseases receive counseling and support services so that they can exercise their right to informed reproduction. Finally, he recommends eight strategies for setting up genetic health programs with the resources available in each country. PMID:8373531

  7. Genetic professionals' views on genetic counsellors: a French survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Christophe; Taris, Nicolas; Moldovan, Ramona; Sobol, Hagay; Voelckel, Marie-Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    The genetic counselling profession was established in France in 2004. Eight years later, 122 genetic counsellors have graduated from the unique educational French program which awards the Professional Master Degree of Human Pathology, entitled "Master of Genetic Counselling and Predictive Medicine". As part of a global evaluation of this new profession by health genetic professionals, we undertook a national survey investigating various aspects such as employment, work responsibilities and integration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the views of genetic professionals on the genetic counsellors' role. Of 422 French professionals invited to take part in this study, 126 participated. The survey underlines that this profession is significantly recognized by physicians practicing within genetics departments. French genetic counsellors are allowed to manage consultations independently, without the necessary presence of a qualified medical geneticist but under his or her responsibility. Genetic counsellors participate in a wide range of consultations. They provide both information for relevant and for genetic testing and sometimes disclose the genetic test result to patient. Eventually, the role of genetic counsellors appears to be directly dependent from the relationship of trust between the two health professions.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Waardenburg syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Waardenburg syndrome Waardenburg syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Waardenburg syndrome is a group of genetic conditions that can ...

  9. Evolutionary Genetics: Reuse, Recycle, Converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charles J J; Matute, Daniel R

    2016-09-26

    Our understanding of how genetic changes underlie the evolution of traits is growing fast. Two new studies now show that changes in the same genetic loci can drive the evolution of the same trait in multiple Drosophila species. PMID:27676299

  10. American Society of Human Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Awards August 9, 2016 Media Advisory: American Society of Human Genetics 2016 Annual Meeting July 26, ... McKusick Leadership Award June 30, 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated 9650 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: ocular albinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions ocular albinism ocular albinism Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Ocular albinism is a genetic condition that primarily affects ...

  12. [Genetic information and future medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Akihiro

    2012-11-01

    Rapid technological advances in genetic analysis have revealed the genetic background of various diseases. Elucidation of the genes responsible for a disease enables better clinical management of the disease and helps to develop targeted drugs. Also, early diagnosis and management of at-risk family members can be made by identification of a genetic disease in the proband. On the other hand, genetic issues often cause psychological distress to the family. To perform genetic testing appropriately and to protect patients and family members from any harm, guidelines for genetic testing were released from the alliance of Japanese genetics-related academic societies in 2003. As genetic testing is becoming incorporated into clinical practice more broadly, the guideline was revised and released by the Japanese Society of Medical Sciences in 2011. All medical professionals in Japan are expected to follow this guideline.

  13. Synthetic biology and genetic causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, Gry; Parkkinen, Veli-Pekka

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology research is often described in terms of programming cells through the introduction of synthetic genes. Genetic material is seemingly attributed with a high level of causal responsibility. We discuss genetic causation in synthetic biology and distinguish three gene concepts differing in their assumptions of genetic control. We argue that synthetic biology generally employs a difference-making approach to establishing genetic causes, and that this approach does not commit to a specific notion of genetic program or genetic control. Still, we suggest that a strong program concept of genetic material can be used as a successful heuristic in certain areas of synthetic biology. Its application requires control of causal context, and may stand in need of a modular decomposition of the target system. We relate different modularity concepts to the discussion of genetic causation and point to possible advantages of and important limitations to seeking modularity in synthetic biology systems. PMID:23591049

  14. NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dictionary of more than 150 genetics-related terms written for healthcare professionals, developed to support the comprehensive, evidence-based, peer-reviewed PDQ cancer genetics information summaries.

  15. Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

    1973-01-01

    Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Sandhoff disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) Health Topic: Degenerative Nerve Diseases Health Topic: Tay-Sachs Disease Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 ... UK) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association Genetic Testing Registry (1 ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: pachyonychia congenita

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with genetically confirmed pachyonychia congenita. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012 Oct;67(4):680-6. doi: 10. ... molecular genetic features of pachyonychia congenita. J Invest Dermatol. 2011 May;131(5):1015-7. doi: 10. ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome Enable ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: cryptogenic cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions cryptogenic cirrhosis cryptogenic cirrhosis Enable ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Cushing disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Cushing disease Cushing disease Enable ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Partington syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Partington syndrome Partington syndrome Enable ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: dystonia 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions dystonia 6 dystonia 6 Enable ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Friedreich ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Friedreich ataxia Friedreich ataxia Enable ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: MEGDEL syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions MEGDEL syndrome MEGDEL syndrome Enable ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Leigh syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Leigh syndrome Leigh syndrome Enable ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: androgenetic alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions androgenetic alopecia androgenetic alopecia Enable ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome Enable ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Canavan disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Canavan disease Canavan disease Enable ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: adiposis dolorosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions adiposis dolorosa adiposis dolorosa Enable ...

  11. Genetic tagging : Contemporary molecular ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palsboll, PJ

    1999-01-01

    Population generic analyses have been highly successful in deciphering inter- and intraspecific evolutionary relationships, levels of gene flow, genetic divergence and effective population sizes. Parameters estimated by traditional population genetic analyses are evolutionary averages and thus not n

  12. Genetic Algorithms and Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldi, Gilson A.; Portugal, Renato; Thess, Ricardo N.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, researchers have applied genetic algorithms (GAs) to address some problems in quantum computation. Also, there has been some works in the designing of genetic algorithms based on quantum theoretical concepts and techniques. The so called Quantum Evolutionary Programming has two major sub-areas: Quantum Inspired Genetic Algorithms (QIGAs) and Quantum Genetic Algorithms (QGAs). The former adopts qubit chromosomes as representations and employs quantum gates for the search of the best ...

  13. Foundations of genetic algorithms 1991

    CERN Document Server

    FOGA

    1991-01-01

    Foundations of Genetic Algorithms 1991 (FOGA 1) discusses the theoretical foundations of genetic algorithms (GA) and classifier systems.This book compiles research papers on selection and convergence, coding and representation, problem hardness, deception, classifier system design, variation and recombination, parallelization, and population divergence. Other topics include the non-uniform Walsh-schema transform; spurious correlations and premature convergence in genetic algorithms; and variable default hierarchy separation in a classifier system. The grammar-based genetic algorithm; condition

  14. UNDERSTANDING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    Željko Kaluđerović; Jovana Potpara

    2012-01-01

    During the last sixteen years biotechnology, genetic engineering, transgenic organisms or genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been raising numerous controversies. In the scientific sphere, genetic engineering and GMOs represent a special challenge for geneticists, breeders and physicians, in philosophy it is a topic of interest for bioethicists and agricultural ethicists, environmentalists are interested in the interconnectictions between new technology and environment protection, for ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Kabuki syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hum Genet. 2012 Apr;57(4):223-7. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2012.28. Epub 2012 Mar ... Hum Genet. 2009 May;54(5):304-9. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2009.30. Epub 2009 Apr ... Genet. 2012 Jan 13;90(1):119-24. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.11.021. Epub ...

  16. Genetic analysis of environmental variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, W.G.; Mulder, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental variation (VE) in a quantitative trait – variation in phenotype that cannot be explained by genetic variation or identifiable genetic differences – can be regarded as being under some degree of genetic control. Such variation may be either between repeated expressions of the same trait

  17. Familial pancreatic cancer: genetic advances

    OpenAIRE

    Rustgi, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    This review by Rustgi elaborates on the known genetic syndromes that underlie familial pancreatic cancer. It aims to delineate the subtypes of syndromic hereditary pancreatic cancer in which germline genetic mutations have been identified and nonsyndromic familial pancreatic cancer in which genetic information is emerging.

  18. Moral Fantasy in Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, C. Keith

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the main ethical issues generated by the new genetics and suggests ways to think about them. Concerns include "playing God," violation of the natural order of the universe, and abuse of genetic technology. Critical distinctions for making difficult decisions about genetic engineering issues are noted. (DH)

  19. Population genetics without intraspecific data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorne, Jeffrey L; Choi, Sang Chul; Yu, Jiaye;

    2007-01-01

    populations, and parameters of interspecific models should have population genetic interpretations. We show, with two examples, how population genetic interpretations can be assigned to evolutionary models. The first example considers the impact of RNA secondary structure on sequence change, and the second...... genetic interpretation. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug...

  20. Stem cells and genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we have discussed a role of stem cells in the treatment of genetic diseases including cochlear and retinal regeneration. The most perceptive use of stem cells at the genetic diseases is cellular repair of tissues affected by a genetic mutation when stem cells without such mutation are transplanted to restore normal tissue function.

  1. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  2. Preparation of Nd-doped barium cerate through different routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, F.L.; Toft Sørensen, O.; Meng, G.Y.;

    1997-01-01

    BaCe0.9Nd0.1O3-delta was prepared through different routes: oxalate coprecipitation (OF), carbonate-oxide mixed by ball-milling (COB) and carbonate-oxide mixed by mortar/pestle (COM). The reaction process studied by DTA-TG and XRD showed that calcination of the precursor powders at T greater than...... density and open porosity indicated that the calcination temperature had a major influence on the sintering process for all the three routes. The calcined powders from OP and COB had small particle size, large surface area and good sinterability, while those from COM had large particle size, small surface...

  3. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  4. Genetics of athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Elaine A; Huson, Heather J; Ostrander, Gary K

    2009-01-01

    Performance enhancing polymorphisms (PEPs) are examples of natural genetic variation that affect the outcome of athletic challenges. Elite athletes, and what separates them from the average competitor, have been the subjects of discussion and debate for decades. While training, diet, and mental fitness are all clearly important contributors to achieving athletic success, the fact that individuals reaching the pinnacle of their chosen sports often share both physical and physiological attributes suggests a role for genetics. That multiple members of a family often participate in highly competitive events, such as the Olympics, further supports this argument. In this review, we discuss what is known regarding the genes and gene families, including the mitochondrial genome, that are believed to play a role in human athletic performance. Where possible, we describe the physiological impact of the critical gene variants and consider predictions about other potentially important genes. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings on the future for competitive athletics. PMID:19630564

  5. Genetic engineering in biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedate, C.A.; Morales, J.C.; Lopez, E.H.

    1981-09-01

    The objective of this book is to encourage the use of genetic engineering for economic development. The report covers: (1) Precedents of genetic engineering; (2) a brief description of the technology, including the transfer of DNA in bacteria (vectors, E. coli and B. subtilis hosts, stages, and technical problems), practical examples of techniques used and their products (interferon; growth hormone; insulin; treatment of blood cells, Talasemia, and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome; and more nutritious soya), transfer to higher organisms, and cellular fusion; (3) biological risks and precautions; (4) possible applications (production of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, alcohol, chemicals, enzymes, peptides, viral antigens, monoclonal antibodies, genes, proteins, and insecticides; metal extraction; nitrogen fixation; biodegradation; and new varieties of plants and animals; and (5) international activities.

  6. [Genetics and disease resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Gerald

    2008-07-01

    Genetic components of disease resistance have been described in most of important diseases in human as well as in laboratory and livestock animals. However the basic mechanisms have been established in a few examples only. The reasons herefore are the mostly polygenic inheritance of disease resistance traits, the missing of suitable animal models and the dominance of environmental effects like infection pressure, immune status, and stressors, limiting the view on responsible gene variants. Ethical and practical aspects may further hinder research on disease resistance in certain species. Livestock animals play a crucial role in disease resistance research, because of distinct genetic diversity within and between breeds, because of an often distinct metabolic congruency with humans, and aiming towards the improvement of hygiene and economy of production and animal welfare. The following sections will review disease resistance in livestock animals and their practical implications, completed by examples of our own research activities.

  7. Genetics of psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rielly, Darren D; Rahman, Proton

    2014-10-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) represents a group of inflammatory rheumatic diseases that cluster within families and possess overlapping clinical features. The pathogenesis of SpA encompasses a complex array of genetic, immunological and environmental factors. In this article, we will briefly review the genetics of PsA, and then focus on the genes that may be potentially linked either directly or indirectly to the immunopathology of the Th-17 pathway. The most consistent and dominant genetic effect of PsV and PsA is located on chromosome 6p21.3 within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, which accounts for approximately one-third of the genetic contribution of PsV and PsA. To date, 36 genes have reached genome-wide significance, accounting for approximately 22% of psoriasis (PsV) heritability. Prominent genes identified via GWAS include HLA-Cw6, IL12B, IL23R, IL23A, TNIP1, TNFAIP3, LCE3B-LCE3C, TRAF3IP2, NFkBIA, FBXL19, TYK2, IFIH1, REL, and ERAP1. Genes identified in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) has largely echoed those in PsV and include HLA-B/C, HLA-B, IL-12B, IL-23R, TNIP1, TRAF3IP2, FBXL19, and REL. The lack of identified genetic susceptibility loci is largely attributed to the much smaller number of PsA patients and the greater clinical heterogeneity of PsA. Searching for different types of genetic variants such as small CNVs and/or insertions/deletions has also led to the identification of several genes with a function relative to PsV in particular including DEFB4, LCE3C_LCE3B, and IL-22 gene (exon 1). The candidate genes identified in PsV/PsA have highlighted pathways of critical importance to psoriatic disease including distinct signaling pathways comprised of barrier integrity, innate immune response and adaptive immune response, mediated primarily by Th-17 and Th-1 signalling. While GWAS studies have yielded great insights into the genes that contribute to the pathogenesis of PsV and PsA, replication in large cohorts, fine-mapping and resequencing

  8. "Genetically Engineered" Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Salazar-Lazaro, Carlos H.; Stoica, Adrian; Cwik, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The quantum mechanical functionality of nanoelectronic devices such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), quantum well infrared-photodetectors (QWIPs), quantum well lasers, and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) is enabled by material variations on an atomic scale. The design and optimization of such devices requires a fundamental understanding of electron transport in such dimensions. The Nanoelectronic Modeling Tool (NEMO) is a general-purpose quantum device design and analysis tool based on a fundamental non-equilibrium electron transport theory. NEW was combined with a parallelized genetic algorithm package (PGAPACK) to evolve structural and material parameters to match a desired set of experimental data. A numerical experiment that evolves structural variations such as layer widths and doping concentrations is performed to analyze an experimental current voltage characteristic. The genetic algorithm is found to drive the NEMO simulation parameters close to the experimentally prescribed layer thicknesses and doping profiles. With such a quantitative agreement between theory and experiment design synthesis can be performed.

  9. Genetics of Tobacco Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maserejian Nancy

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The worldwide prevalence of tobacco use is widespread, resulting in nearly 4.5 million deaths every year. Nicotine is addictive and has psychopharmacological effects that maintain the use of tobacco products. Several studies have documented a strong hereditary component to tobacco use. The present article reviews results from twin and adoption studies and proceeds to present association studies of specific genes that may be involved in tobacco use. Cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta polypeptide 2, serotonin receptor and transporter genes, dopamine receptor and transporter genes, and the cytochrome P450A6 gene are reviewed. Linkage studies help to identify regions of the genome that may be worth further investigation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the limitations of genetic research and the future of genetic epidemiology in this domain.

  10. The expanded genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Denis A; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2015-10-01

    All biological information, since the last common ancestor of all life on Earth, has been encoded by a genetic alphabet consisting of only four nucleotides that form two base pairs. Long-standing efforts to develop two synthetic nucleotides that form a third, unnatural base pair (UBP) have recently yielded three promising candidates, one based on alternative hydrogen bonding, and two based on hydrophobic and packing forces. All three of these UBPs are replicated and transcribed with remarkable efficiency and fidelity, and the latter two thus demonstrate that hydrogen bonding is not unique in its ability to underlie the storage and retrieval of genetic information. This Review highlights these recent developments as well as the applications enabled by the UBPs, including the expansion of the evolution process to include new functionality and the creation of semi-synthetic life that stores increased information. PMID:26304162

  11. Chemical genetics and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sumitra; Zhang, Liyun; Mumm, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration involves interactions between multiple signaling pathways acting in a spatially and temporally complex manner. As signaling pathways are highly conserved, understanding how regeneration is controlled in animal models exhibiting robust regenerative capacities should aid efforts to stimulate repair in humans. One way to discover molecular regulators of regeneration is to alter gene/protein function and quantify effect(s) on the regenerative process: dedifferentiation/reprograming, stem/progenitor proliferation, migration/remodeling, progenitor cell differentiation and resolution. A powerful approach for applying this strategy to regenerative biology is chemical genetics, the use of small-molecule modulators of specific targets or signaling pathways. Here, we review advances that have been made using chemical genetics for hypothesis-focused and discovery-driven studies aimed at furthering understanding of how regeneration is controlled.

  12. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  13. Genetically Modified Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Claro Llaguno

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO) in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO) defined as "any living...

  14. Genetics of congenital hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Park, S.; Chatterjee, V

    2005-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common neonatal metabolic disorder and results in severe neurodevelopmental impairment and infertility if untreated. Congenital hypothyroidism is usually sporadic but up to 2% of thyroid dysgenesis is familial, and congenital hypothyroidism caused by organification defects is often recessively inherited. The candidate genes associated with this genetically heterogeneous disorder form two main groups: those causing thyroid gland dysgenesis and those causin...

  15. Genetics of complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Arno G

    2006-02-01

    Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.

  16. Pig ham genetic traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dall'Olio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowing meat product origin is an important factor to assure consumer safety. A definitive method to solve this question is to identify, through molecular genetics analysis, a sample collected from the alive animal and a sample collected on the processed product. The only way to assure the origin of meat and meat products is by the proved identity of both genotypes for each different analyzed loci. Identity test was utilized to achieve individual traceability of meat for cattle......

  17. Genetically Modified Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claro Llaguno

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO defined as "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology". This includes seeds, live fish, and other organisms intentionally obtained for release to the environment. It would seem that the common understanding about GMOs as referring to farm-to-table products is perforce expanded to embrace genetically modified farm animals and aquatic resources. Being a trade agreement, the Montreal accord primarily deals with the safety issues related to the transboundary movement of LMOs around the globe. The OECD conference on the other hand, called for an international body "to address all sides of the GM debate" in response to the public outcry, particularly in Western Europe, regarding the risks the new products pose to human health and the environment. Some points of contention, which remain unresolved, include issues such as whether countries should be allowed to develop their own GM food based on their needs, and whether a global moratorium on GMOs and mandatory labeling should be enforced worldwide.

  18. Algebras in genetics

    CERN Document Server

    Wörz-Busekros, Angelika

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to give a rather complete presentation of the mathematical theory of algebras in genetics and to discuss in detail many applications to concrete genetic situations. Historically, the subject has its origin in several papers of Etherington in 1939- 1941. Fundamental contributions have been given by Schafer, Gonshor, Holgate, Reiers¢l, Heuch, and Abraham. At the moment there exist about forty papers in this field, one survey article by Monique Bertrand from 1966 based on four papers of Etherington, a paper by Schafer and Gonshor's first paper. Furthermore Ballonoff in the third section of his book "Genetics and Social Structure" has included four papers by Etherington and Reiers¢l's paper. Apparently a complete review, in par­ ticular one comprising more recent results was lacking, and it was difficult for students to enter this field of research. I started to write these notes in spring 1978. A first german version was finished at the end of that year. Further revision and tran...

  19. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes

  20. Genetics of osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urano, Tomohiko [Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Inoue, Satoshi, E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Department of Anti-Aging Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan)

    2014-09-19

    Highlights: • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with osteoporosis were identified. • SNPs mapped close to or within VDR and ESR1 are associated with bone mineral density. • WNT signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in regulating bone mineral density. • Genetic studies will be useful for identification of new therapeutic targets. - Abstract: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, which increases susceptibility to fractures. BMD is a complex quantitative trait with normal distribution and seems to be genetically controlled (in 50–90% of the cases), according to studies on twins and families. Over the last 20 years, candidate gene approach and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with low BMD, osteoporosis, and osteoporotic fractures. These SNPs have been mapped close to or within genes including those encoding nuclear receptors and WNT-β-catenin signaling proteins. Understanding the genetics of osteoporosis will help identify novel candidates for diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

  1. [Genetic cancer syndromes and reproductive choice: dialogue between parents and politicians on preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niermeijer, M.F.; Die-Smulders, C.E.M. de; Page-Christiaens, G.C.; Wert, G.M.W.R. de

    2008-01-01

    Genetic cancer syndromes have identical clinical severity, limited therapeutic options, reduced life expectancy, and risks of genetic transmission, as do other genetic or congenital diseases for which prenatal genetic diagnosis or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is allowed in the Netherlands

  2. Clinical Genetic Testing in Gastroenterology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Russell P; Chung, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances in genetics have led to an increased understanding of the genetic determinants of human disease, including many gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Coupled with a proliferation of genetic testing services, this has resulted in a clinical landscape where commercially available genetic tests for GI disorders are now widely available. In this review, we discuss the current status of clinical genetic testing for GI illnesses, review the available testing options, and briefly discuss indications for and practical aspects of such testing. Our goal is to familiarize the practicing gastroenterologist with this rapidly changing and important aspect of clinical care. PMID:27124700

  3. Genetic Algorithms and Local Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Darrell

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this presentation is a tutorial level introduction to the principles of genetic search and models of simple genetic algorithms. The second half covers the combination of genetic algorithms with local search methods to produce hybrid genetic algorithms. Hybrid algorithms can be modeled within the existing theoretical framework developed for simple genetic algorithms. An application of a hybrid to geometric model matching is given. The hybrid algorithm yields results that improve on the current state-of-the-art for this problem.

  4. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System...... twin pairs, which indicates genetic effects. Biometric modeling suggested that genetic factors account for 23% to 30% of the liability to prolonged gestation. The difference in concordance rate between monozygotic and dizygotic male twin pairs was small, and the best fitting model indicated no genetic...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  5. The synthesis paradigm in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R

    2014-02-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics--and other fields of biology--are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous "-omics" data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time.

  6. Control of medfly by SIT in the Nereva river valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjelis, Mario, E-mail: mario.bjelis@zzb.h [Institut for Plant Protection in Agriculture and Foresty of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, Zvonimirova (Croatia); Ljubetic, Visnja [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Watter Managment of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb (Croatia); Novosel, Nevenka [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    A feasibility study of medfly suppression by means of sterile males released program in the Neretva Vallley, Croatia, is presented. The increase of medfly infestation is considered, as almost all cultures of the region represent host plants for the insect. Environmental friendly methods such well developed SIT technique associated with other organic methods are mentioned as an option of no disruption of the present natural balance. Area study and strategy planning is briefly presented. Population dynamics of Ceratitis capitata in the different parts of the delta Neretva valley, during period 2002 - 2004 Year is reported. Medfly capture on selected locations with different host availability in Neretva river is studied. (MAC)

  7. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  8. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270, CEP 60511-110 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: braga@cnpat.embrapa.br; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: C.Caceres@iaea.org; Enkerlin, Walter [Insect Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: W.Enkerlin@iaea.org

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human RNase κ, an ortholog of Cc RNase

    OpenAIRE

    Economopoulou, Marie-angela I.; Fragoulis, Emmanouel G.; Sideris, Diamantis C.

    2007-01-01

    A novel protein family, designated hereafter as RNase κ (kappa) family, has been recently introduced with the characterization of the specific Cc RNase, isolated from the insect Ceratitis capitata. The human ortholog of this family consists of 98 amino acids and shares > 98% identity with its mammalian counterparts. This RNase is encoded by a single-copy gene found to be expressed in a wide spectrum of normal and cancer tissues. The cDNA of the human ribonuclease has been isolated and subclon...

  10. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakri, A., E-mail: bakri@ucam.ac.m [University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco). Fac. of Science Semlalia. Insect Biological Control Unit; Dueben, B.D.; Proveaux, A.T.; Heath, R.R., E-mail: rheath@saa.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/REE-ARS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  11. Development of female medfly attractants to support the sterile insect technique: experiments conducted in Madeira, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the availability of genetic sexing strains of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), it is possible to release only sterile males in SIT programs. The availability of a new female medfly attractant can reduce labor costs because program progress can be monitored by trapping females instead of the usual male trapping with its labor intensive identification of sterile and wild males. Three Madeira studies evaluated new female attractants; ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine. One study was carried out in the same area during two different periods of 1996 (8 June to 27 July and 12 October to 30 November). A second study was conducted between 24 May to 05 July, 1997, in two different areas at the same altitude. One area had a wild fly population (sex ratio 1: 1) and the other was in an area where sterile males were released (sex ratio > 9: 1). The third study, conducted from 18 October to 29 November, 1997, compared wild fly captures at low elevations (80 m) with those at high elevations (700 m). The first study showed that the inclusion of the attractant trimethylamine significantly increased the wild female medfly. The percentage of medfly females in the traps with the two and the three attractants (FA-2 and FA-3) was more than 70%. In the second and third studies, the dry traps were more effective than wet traps in capturing wild medfly females. In areas with only wild females, the percentage of females captured was more than 62%. In areas where sterile males were released, the percentage of females captured was between 12% and 19%. In conclusion, the new attractants captured high percentages of females and, when combined with medfly genetic sexing strains, can reduce program costs significantly. (author)

  12. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility as a novel and environment-friendly tool for insect pest population control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Wolbachia is a group of intracellular maternally inherited bacteria of arthropods, which have recently attracted attention for their potential as new biocontrol agents. Wolbachia are able to invade and maintain themselves in an enormous range of invertebrate species, including insects, mites, spiders, crustaceans and nematodes. Recent PCR surveys suggest that perhaps over 20% of the arthropod species may be Wolbachia-infected, rendering this bacterium the most ubiquitous intracellular symbiont as yet described. Wolbachia can manipulate host reproduction by using several strategies one of which is Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI). Wolbachia-induced CI can be used in several ways: a) to directly suppress natural arthropod populations of economic and health importance, b) as a tool to spread genetically modified strains into wild arthropod populations and c) as an expression vector, once a genetic transformation system for this bacterium is developed. One of our research aims was to introduce Wolbachia into pest and vector species of economic and hygienic relevance and, through the expression of Wolbachia-induced CI, to suppress or modify natural populations. The first goal has been achieved for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and our next target species is the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. In parallel, our major goal was the identification and characterisation of Wolbachia and host genes, which are involved in the induction of CI through an integrated genomics, proteomics and post-genomics approach. Identification of these genes will be a major breakthrough towards the goal of using them for applied purposes. Such candidate genes have been identified. (author)

  13. The smart aerial release machine, a universal system for applying the sterile insect technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Leal Mubarqui

    Full Text Available Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survival and competitiveness of sterile males. Currently available means of aerially releasing chilled fruit flies are however insufficiently precise to ensure homogeneous distribution at low release rates and no device is available for tsetse.Here we present the smart aerial release machine, a new design by the Mubarqui Company, based on the use of vibrating conveyors. The machine is controlled through Bluetooth by a tablet with Android Operating System including a completely automatic guidance and navigation system (MaxNav software. The tablet is also connected to an online relational database facilitating the preparation of flight schedules and automatic storage of flight reports. The new machine was compared with a conveyor release machine in Mexico using two fruit flies species (Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata and we obtained better dispersal homogeneity (% of positive traps, p<0.001 for both species and better recapture rates for Anastrepha ludens (p<0.001, especially at low release densities (<1500 per ha. We also demonstrated that the machine can replace paper boxes for aerial release of tsetse in Senegal.This technology limits damages to insects and allows a large range of release rates from 10 flies/km2 for tsetse flies up to 600,000 flies/km2 for fruit flies. The potential of this machine to release other species like mosquitoes is discussed. Plans and operating of the machine are provided to allow its use worldwide.

  14. Integration of molecular genetic technology with quantitative genetic technology for maximizing the speed of genetic improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack; C.M.; DEKKERS

    2005-01-01

    To date,most genetic progress for quantita-tive traits in livestock has been made by selec-tion on phenotype or on estimates of breedingvalues(BBV)derived from phenotype,withoutknowledge of the number of genes that affect thetrait or the effects of each gene.In this quantita-tive genetic approach to genetic improvement,the genetic architecture of traits of interest hasessentially been treated as a‘black box’.De-spite this,the substantial rates of genetic im-provement that have been and continue to be a-chie...

  15. Genetic architecture of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ulrike; Bien, Stephanie; Zubair, Niha

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disease that develops as a consequence of both genetic and environmental risk factors. A small proportion (3-5%) of cases arise from hereditary syndromes predisposing to early onset CRC as a result of mutations in over a dozen well defined genes. In contrast, CRC is predominantly a late onset 'sporadic' disease, developing in individuals with no obvious hereditary syndrome. In recent years, genome wide association studies have discovered that over 40 genetic regions are associated with weak effects on sporadic CRC, and it has been estimated that increasingly large genome wide scans will identify many additional novel genetic regions. Subsequent experimental validations have identified the causally related variant(s) in a limited number of these genetic regions. Further biological insight could be obtained through ethnically diverse study populations, larger genetic sequencing studies and development of higher throughput functional experiments. Along with inherited variation, integration of the tumour genome may shed light on the carcinogenic processes in CRC. In addition to summarising the genetic architecture of CRC, this review discusses genetic factors that modify environmental predictors of CRC, as well as examples of how genetic insight has improved clinical surveillance, prevention and treatment strategies. In summary, substantial progress has been made in uncovering the genetic architecture of CRC, and continued research efforts are expected to identify additional genetic risk factors that further our biological understanding of this disease. Subsequently these new insights will lead to improved treatment and prevention of colorectal cancer. PMID:26187503

  16. Coalgebraic structure of genetic inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianjun; Li, Bai-Lian

    2004-09-01

    Although in the broadly defined genetic algebra, multiplication suggests a forward direction of from parents to progeny, when looking from the reverse direction, it also suggests to us a new algebraic structure-coalge- braic structure, which we call genetic coalgebras. It is not the dual coalgebraic structure and can be used in the construction of phylogenetic trees. Math- ematically, to construct phylogenetic trees means we need to solve equations x([n]) = a, or x([n]) = b. It is generally impossible to solve these equations inalgebras. However, we can solve them in coalgebras in the sense of tracing back for their ancestors. A thorough exploration of coalgebraic structure in genetics is apparently necessary. Here, we develop a theoretical framework of the coalgebraic structure of genetics. From biological viewpoint, we defined various fundamental concepts and examined their elementary properties that contain genetic significance. Mathematically, by genetic coalgebra, we mean any coalgebra that occurs in genetics. They are generally noncoassociative and without counit; and in the case of non-sex-linked inheritance, they are cocommutative. Each coalgebra with genetic realization has a baric property. We have also discussed the methods to construct new genetic coalgebras, including cocommutative duplication, the tensor product, linear combinations and the skew linear map, which allow us to describe complex genetic traits. We also put forward certain theorems that state the relationship between gametic coalgebra and gametic algebra. By Brower's theorem in topology, we prove the existence of equilibrium state for the in-evolution operator. PMID:20369970

  17. The primary headaches: genetics, epigenetics and a behavioural genetic model

    OpenAIRE

    Montagna, Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    The primary headaches, migraine with (MA) and without aura (MO) and cluster headache, all carry a substantial genetic liability. Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), an autosomal dominant mendelian disorder classified as a subtype of MA, is due to mutations in genes encoding neural channel subunits. MA/MO are considered multifactorial genetic disorders, and FHM has been proposed as a model for migraine aetiology. However, a review of the genetic studies suggests that the FHM genes are not invo...

  18. [Genetics of congenital deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundes, Víctor; Pardo, Rosa Andrea; Castillo Taucher, Silvia

    2012-10-20

    Congenital deafness is defined as the hearing loss which is present at birth and, consequently, before speech development. It is the most prevalent sensor neural disorder in developed countries, and its incidence is estimated between 1-3 children per 1,000 newborns, of which more than 50% are attributable to genetics causes. Deafness can be classified as syndromic or non-syndromic. In the first case, it is associated with outer ear malformations and/or systemic findings. More than 400 syndromes accompanied of deafness have been described, which represent about 30% of cases of congenital hearing loss. The remaining percentage corresponds to non-syndromic cases: 75-85% are autosomal recessive, 15-24% are autosomal dominant, and 1-2% are X-linked. The evaluation of a child with deafness requires a multidisciplinary collaboration among specialists, who must coordinate themselves and give information to the affected family. The aims of establishing a diagnosis are to predict other manifestations that may suggest some syndrome and to anticipate their management, as well as to perform genetic counseling to parents and affected individuals.

  19. Genetics of SCID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cossu Fausto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency is a prenatal disorder of T lymphocyte development, that depends on the expression of numerous genes. The knowledge of the genetic basis of SCID is essential for diagnosis (e.g., clinical phenotype, lymphocyte profile and treatment (e.g., use and type of pre-hematopoietic stem cell transplant conditioning. Over the last years novel genetic defects causing SCID have been discovered, and the molecular and immunological mechanisms of SCID have been better characterized. Distinct forms of SCID show both common and peculiar (e.g., absence or presence of nonimmunological features aspects, and they are currently classified into six groups according to prevalent pathophysiological mechanisms: impaired cytokine-mediated signaling; pre-T cell receptor defects; increased lymphocyte apoptosis; defects in thymus embryogenesis; impaired calcium flux; other mechanisms. This review is the updated, extended and largely modified translation of the article "Cossu F: Le basi genetiche delle SCID", originally published in Italian language in the journal "Prospettive in Pediatria" 2009, 156:228-238.

  20. Genetically engineered plasmonic nanoarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestiere, Carlo; Pasquale, Alyssa J; Capretti, Antonio; Miano, Giovanni; Tamburrino, Antonello; Lee, Sylvanus Y; Reinhard, Björn M; Dal Negro, Luca

    2012-04-11

    In the present Letter, we demonstrate how the design of metallic nanoparticle arrays with large electric field enhancement can be performed using the basic paradigm of engineering, namely the optimization of a well-defined objective function. Such optimization is carried out by coupling a genetic algorithm with the analytical multiparticle Mie theory. General design criteria for best enhancement of electric fields are obtained, unveiling the fundamental interplay between the near-field plasmonic and radiative photonic coupling. Our optimization approach is experimentally validated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements, which demonstrate how genetically optimized arrays, fabricated using electron beam lithography, lead to order of ten improvement of Raman enhancement over nanoparticle dimer antennas, and order of one hundred improvement over optimal nanoparticle gratings. A rigorous design of nanoparticle arrays with optimal field enhancement is essential to the engineering of numerous nanoscale optical devices such as plasmon-enhanced biosensors, photodetectors, light sources and more efficient nonlinear optical elements for on chip integration. PMID:22381056