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Sample records for ceratitis capitata diptera

  1. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Gerald; Zacharopoulou Antigone; Caceres Carlos; Schetelig Marc F; Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dep...

  2. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae). Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the fol...

  3. Influence of methoprene and protein on survival, maturation and sexual performance of male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), like many other polifagous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae), adopts a lek as mating system. The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires the release of sterile males able to survive on the field, to compete with wild males, and attrac...

  4. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  5. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries. PMID:22928296

  6. Export of commercial 'Hass' avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarantine restrictions due to the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), prevent Argentina from exporting avocados, Persea americana Miller, cv. Hass, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata, which cou...

  7. Physiological mechanisms of dehydration tolerance contribute to the invasion potential of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) relative to its less widely distributed congeners

    OpenAIRE

    Weldon, Christopher W; Boardman, Leigh; Marlin, Danica; Terblanche, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly invasive species now with an almost cosmopolitan distribution. Two other damaging, polyphagous and closely-related species, the marula fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and the Natal fly, Ceratitis rosa Karsch, are not established outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, adult water balance traits and nutritional body composition were measured in all three species at different te...

  8. Kinetic properties of the two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol: NAD+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.1) catalyses the reversible interconversion of a variety of alcohols and their corresponding aldehydes and ketones. Among insects, the ADH gene-enzyme system has been extensively studied in several species of Drosophila (Chambers 1988, Heinstra 1993, Ashburner 1998). The best characterised ADH from a non-drosophilid insect is that of the Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), based on data from molecular genetics (Malacrida et al. 1992, Gasperi et al. 1992, Brogna et al. 1999), biochemistry (Gasperi et al. 1994) and population genetics (Gasperi et al. 1992, Gomulski et al. 1998). The primary interest in studying this enzymatic function in the Medfly was that the ADH system has been proposed, on the model of Drosophila, as a useful tool for genetic sexing strategies addressed to the biological control of this pest (Robinson et al. 1988). Moreover, molecular characterisation of Adh in a species like C. capitata, that diverged from the Drosophilidae more than 100 million years ago (Beverley and Wilson 1984), is of interest for studying the evolution of this protein in higher diptera. The principal function of ADH in insect metabolism is to catabolise alcohols generated by microbial fermentation in larval and adult feeding sites; in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, the presence of an active ADH is responsible for two different phenotypic traits, namely alcohol tolerance and alcohol utilisation (Van Delden 1982, David 1988). The ecological niche of C. capitata is different from that of Drosophila species, the first breeding on ripening fruits, the latter breeding on rotten plant material. Consequently, the physiological role of ADH may have diversified in these dipteran species

  9. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae. Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs.

  10. Spring and early summer phenology and detection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most serious fruit pests world-wide, infesting more than 300 plant species (Liquido et al. 1991). Many studies on population dynamics of C. capitata have been conducted in the tropics (Vargas et al. 1983, Nishida et al. 1985, Eskafi and Kolbe 1990, Harris et al. 1993) and in the Mediterranean area (Rivnay 1951, Benfatto et al. 1989, Campos et al. 1989, Fimiani 1989, Cayol and Causse 1992, Michelakis 1992, Israely et al. 1997, Katsoyannos et al. 1998a). However, there are no detailed studies on the seasonal occurrence and population dynamics of the fly in the most temperate parts of its distribution. The population build up of the fly is mostly determined by host fruit abundance and availability, and by environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity. In northern Greece, which is within the northern limits of the fly's distribution, winter temperatures are unfavourable for C. capitata survival (Papadopoulos et al. 1996). In addition, there is a gap in host fruit availability from near December until the following May. However, C. capitata has developed a remarkable ability to survive in such climates (though suffering high mortality), predominantly as larvae within certain host fruits that become infested at the end of autumn and remain in the orchards until the following spring (Papadopoulos et al. 1996). The prolonged larval period, especially that of the 1st and the 2nd instars, due to low temperatures, enables the fly to survive long periods of unfavourable conditions (Papadopoulos et al. 1998). The few adults emerging in spring, may live as long as 3 months and can oviposit a high number of eggs in artificial oviposition substrates (Papadopoulos et al. 1996). The importance of some key factors - late spring and early summer maturing host fruits - for the re-establishment of the C. capitata population has been suggested (Cayol 1996, Israely et al

  11. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581

  12. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  13. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  14. Applying GIS software to monitor adult Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) behaviour in Terceira Island, Azores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The capabilities of Geographic Information System (GIS) in our days are well-known and it has numerous applications in many areas. Monitoring Ceratitis capitata adult dispersion is very important because this pest is spreading onto many cultures causing severe losses in orchards production. Knowing the spread capabilities of C. capitata it is important to evaluate the areas, which are more affected by this pest, its population dynamics and its seasonal presence. To monitor the C. capitata adult population, a network of Jackson and Tephri-traps was installed using a GPS in three fruit production areas of Terceira Island. The installation of this network was integrated in the INTERFRUTA project since January 2004 and the goal of it was to study the evolution C. capitata adult dispersion using GIS, under ESRI software, ArcView 3.2. To perform spatial analysis regarding the data from the network traps, the spatial analysis extension was used and applied the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method with a grid of 20m. A digital model of terrain was also used in order to cross-reference the information from the network traps and the topographic information. This software has demonstrated to be very useful to identify the problematic areas, as well as, to study the C. capitata dispersion behaviour. The results of spatial analysis in ArcView show some dispersion over the three zones, with a remarkable concentration of this pest between the 0 and 100 meters of altitude. With a three-dimensional analysis, it is possible to see that C. capitata adults have a preference for areas located in some topographic depressions, which apparently give them some climatic protection. This could be understood as a behaviour indicator for protection against the bad weather. This specific behaviour and the host type, as well as the ripening fruit evolution, could explain the adult population dynamics registered in the studied areas. (author)

  15. Standardization of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) female trapping for use in sterile insect programmes. Catamarca, Argentina, 1995-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the study was to assess Ceratitis capitata Wied. (medfly) female trapping with new traps and attractants in varying ecological conditions as part of a co-ordinated international programme. Trials were carried out between 1995 and 1997, using seven types of traps baited with the various combination of sexual and food attractants. Different methods for insects retention were also tested. For these trials, protocols established by the International Atomic Energy Agency were followed. The Jackson Trap with Trimedlure plugs proved to be the most efficient for capture of medfly males, while International Pheromone's McPhail Trap was the most efficient for the capture of females, when used with a combination of all three new attractants (FA-3) consisting of ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine plus the toxicant DDVP for insect retention. The new traps and attractants also captured flies belonging to genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). (author)

  16. Biology of Aphaereta sp. n (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae), a new larval parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Tânia Isabel Peres

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado - Biotecnologia em Controlo Biológico. As espécies que pertencem ao género Aphaereta estão distribuídas praticamente por todo o mundo, e vivem associadas a dípteros sinantrópicos e outros dípteros. Foi encontrado um total de 12 indivíduos, da população em estudo, em duas pupas de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), estes indivíduos são endo-parasitóides gregários larva-pupa. Foram estimados pela primeira vez os parâmetros biológicos de Aphaereta s...

  17. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.Influência de diferentes frutos tropicais em aspectos biológicos e comportamentais da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Estudos em Ceratitis capitata, uma praga agrícola, pode auxiliar

  18. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  19. Sterile Males of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as Disseminators of Beauveria Bassiana Conidia for IPM Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), males were evaluated as vectors to spread Beauveria bassiana (Bals) conidia to wild C. capitata populations under field conditions. The inoculated sterile males were released by air, using the chilled adult technique over 7000 ha of coffee growing in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Central America. The impact of releases was determined using dry traps baited with a food attractant. The effects of these releases on Apis mellifera, Linnaeus (honey bee), Hypothenemus hampei, Ferrari (coffee berry borer) and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (Oudeman) were also evaluated. Inoculated sterile males were able to transmit fungal spores to 44% of the wild C. capitata flies captured in traps, which likely were infected through intra- and intersexual interactions during leks, mating or mating attempts. There was no transmission of the fungal spores to non- target insect species such as coffee berry borer, honey bees or varroa. We conclude that sterile males of Mediterranean fruit fly inoculated with B. bassiana can act as effective vectors of conidia to wild populations, constituting a safe, environmentally friendly and selective alternative for suppressing the medfly under a Sterile Insect Technique-based IPM approach. (author)

  20. Sexual behavior of mutant strains of the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    R.D Briceño

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Males of the mutant strains (blind, vestigal-winged of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratits capitata (Wiedmann showed differences in behavior compared with control (mass-reared males. Mutant males made fewer mating attempts and achieved fewer matings than control males. Vestigal-winged females copulated less frequently with both mutants. Blind males climbed rather than jumped onto females and copulated in very low numbers compared with control and vestigal males. Blind females copulated normally with control, males and in very low numbers with both types of mutant malesMachos mutantes (ciegos, alas vestigiales de la mosca del mediterráneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann mostraron diferencias en conducta comparados con los machos testigo (cría masiva. Los machos mutantes, realizaron menos intentos por aparearse y lograron menos apareamientos que los machos testigo. Las hembras con alas vestigiales, copularon menos con ambas clases de mutantes. Los machos ciegos, subieron en lugar de saltar sobre las hembras y copularon en números muy bajos comparados con los machos testigo y con los de alas vestigiales. Las hembras ciegas, copularon de forma normal con los machos testigo y en números muy bajos con ambos tipos de machos mutantes

  1. Population Fluctuation of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a Function of Altitude in Eastern Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, S; Montoya, P; Ruiz-Montoya, L; Villaseñor, A; Valle, A; Enkerlin, W; Liedo, P

    2016-08-01

    Population fluctuations of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were evaluated over a period of 12 mo in four altitudinal strata (400-750, 750-1,100, 1,100-1,450, and 1,450-1,800 meters above sea level, masl) in Eastern Guatemala. Within each altitudinal range, sampling plots were established in coffee plantations and adjacent areas, in which Jackson traps were set and baited with Trimedlure. Coffee berries and other host fruits were collected. Population density was lowest at the 400-750 masl stratum and highest at 1,450-1,800 masl. At every altitudinal range, the fluctuations of the pest were associated mainly with the availability of ripe coffee berries as a primary host. From 750-1,450 masl, the pest was also associated with the availability of sweet orange and mandarins in commercial and backyard orchards. The highest densities of the pest were recorded in the dry season. Citrus were the main alternate host where ripe coffee berries were not available. This knowledge on population dynamics of C. capitata will contribute to develop more effective area-wide pest management strategies including the use of sterile insects, natural enemies, and bait sprays. PMID:27247307

  2. Evaluation of ionizing radiation in the control of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera-Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazilian fruit exportation is being jeopardized by quarantine exigencies from import countries after EDB use restriction. Mangoes, papayas and persimmons were treated in their export boxes by Cobalt ionizing radiation doses from 10 to 40 krad after being naturally or artificially infested with eggs and larvae of the Mediterranean Fruit fly Ceratitis capitata W. The results showed that: papayas must be treated mature green, a dose of 38.9 to 40.0 krad is able to control the natural infestation and the artificial infestation with eggs in papayas and persimmons but the same dose was not able to control the infestation with last instar larvae, all the larvae (except four that survived treatments) were unable to attain the adult stage; the only four that survived gave non viable adults, the most susceptible stages of C. capitata to radiation treatment were eggs and pupae. The most resistant were last instar larvae; data obtained from mangoes were not considered due to insect death on the checks. (author)

  3. Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

  4. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author)

  5. Male courtship behavior in Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) that have received Aromatherapy with ginger root oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of previous studies that showed that exposing mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to ginger root oil ('aromatherapy') increases the likelihood of mating with wild females were confirmed. The increased male success could be due to female responses to changes in male behavior or male pheromones. There were no significant differences in the types of courtship movements executed by males with and without aromatherapy. The durations of movements also did not differ when mass-reared males were paired with mass-reared females; however, when they were paired with wild females, there were a few, small differences. Previous studies indicated that the effectiveness of the male long-distance attractant pheromone is not affected by aromatherapy, but these studies did not consider pheromones released at close range during courtship, which behavioral analyses suggest may be different. We propose the following possible explanation for the different effects of aromatherapy with different females. Selection on males under mass rearing may have altered their close-range pheromones in ways that can be remedied by aromatherapy; and only wild females respond because the pheromonal responsiveness of mass-reared females has also changed. We propose observations that could test these ideas. (author)

  6. Development of a transgenic sexing system based on female-specific embryonic lethality in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is more efficient and cost-effective when only sterile males are released. A female-specific lethality system based on a female-specifically spliced intron was developed for transgenic sexing in Ceratitis capitata (Fu et al., 2007) possibly to overcome the fitness ...

  7. Avaliação da qualidade de frutos de café atacados por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae Evaluation of the quality of coffee fruit attacked by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Cividanes

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram usadas plantas de Coffea arabica L., variedade Catuaí Vermelho, localizadas no Campus da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - USP, Piracicaba,SP, para avaliação dos danos que Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 pode causar aos frutos do cafeeiro. Os resultados mostraram que o ataque de C. capitula não causou queda prematura dos frutos, mas aumentou a queda de cerejas e foram encontradas, fortes evidências, com base na atividade da enzima polifenol oxidase e lixiviação de potássio, que cerejas atacadas podem produzir bebida de café de qualidade inferior.The present work was carried out using trees of Coffea arabica L. variety Red Catuaí grown at Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - Campus of the University of São Paulo, Piracicaba,SP. The objective was to estimate damages that Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 can cause to coffee fruits. The results showed that C.capitata did not cause premature fruit fall, but it increased berry fall. The activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase and potassium lixiviatiou give strong evidences that atacked coffee beans produce coffee beverage of inferior quality.

  8. Pupal development of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at different moisture values in four soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, F de M M; Marques, R N; Costa, M L Z; Walder, J M M; Silva, A P; Parra, J R P

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate adult emergence and duration of the pupal stage of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and emergence of the fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), under different moisture conditions in four soil types, using soil water matric potential. Pupal stage duration in C. capitata was influenced differently for males and females. In females, only soil type affected pupal stage duration, which was longer in a clay soil. In males, pupal stage duration was individually influenced by moisture and soil type, with a reduction in pupal stage duration in a heavy clay soil and in a sandy clay, with longer duration in the clay soil. As matric potential decreased, duration of the pupal stage of C. capitata males increased, regardless of soil type. C. capitata emergence was affected by moisture, regardless of soil type, and was higher in drier soils. The emergence of D. longicaudata adults was individually influenced by soil type and moisture factors, and the number of emerged D. longicaudata adults was three times higher in sandy loam and lower in a heavy clay soil. Always, the number of emerged adults was higher at higher moisture conditions. C. capitata and D. longicaudata pupal development was affected by moisture and soil type, which may facilitate pest sampling and allow release areas for the parasitoid to be defined under field conditions. PMID:22127183

  9. Sexual behavior of mutant strains of the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    R.D Briceño

    2003-01-01

    Males of the mutant strains (blind, vestigal-winged) of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratits capitata (Wiedmann) showed differences in behavior compared with control (mass-reared) males. Mutant males made fewer mating attempts and achieved fewer matings than control males. Vestigal-winged females copulated less frequently with both mutants. Blind males climbed rather than jumped onto females and copulated in very low numbers compared with control and vestigal males. Blind females co...

  10. Influence of protein on feeding behavior of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae): comparison between immature males and females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to compare the influence of dietary protein on performance and feeding behavior of immature males and females of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The protein source was beer yeast at 6.5 and 1.5 g.100 ml-1. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of emergence, total life cycle, adult size, diet consumption, feeding preference and discrimination threshold for yeast. Immature adults showed similar protein requirements regardless of sex. Both males and females showed similar feeding behavior, preferring to feed on the diet with higher protein content. The discrimination threshold for levedure in both sexes was 0.4 g.100 ml-1. We concluded that immature males of C. capitata show similar protein requirements as the immature females. (author)

  11. Treatment post harvest of Citrus sinensis infested with Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eggs and larvae (first, second, third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. Fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: third instar larvae are more tolerant to irradiation treatments; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from all immature stages irradiated. (author)

  12. Treatment post harvest of Citrus sinensis infested with Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albergaria, Nuno M.M. Soares de; Bortoli, Sergio A. de, E-mail: nmendes@terra.com.b, E-mail: bortoli@fcav.unesp.b [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Depto. de Fitossanidade; Doria, Hayda O.S., E-mail: hosd75@terra.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Biologia; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: varthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente

    2009-07-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eggs and larvae (first, second, third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. Fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: third instar larvae are more tolerant to irradiation treatments; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from all immature stages irradiated. (author)

  13. Development of attractant systems for trapping female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of developing a system of attractants and trapping to optimize the capture of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) as well as other fruit flies, six experiments were carried out during the period 1994-1997, in a sterile-insect release zone in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Relating to the system of attractants, the evaluation focused on the comparison of food attractants (i.e. ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine) with standard attractants, such as Trimedlure and liquid hydrolyzed protein. For the trapping system, dry traps (Jackson trap, Open bottom dry trap, etc.) as well as wet traps (McPhail trap, Tephri trap, etc.) were tested alternately with the different kinds of attractants. The experiments were performed in agrosystems of coffee and groves of citrus and mango. Results consistently showed that a combination of ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine was the best for the capture of female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) when used in traps such as the OBDT and the plastic McPhail trap (IPMT), while for Anastrepha spp., the McPhail trap baited with liquid hydrolyzed protein still appears to be the best option, although the combination of ammonium acetate with putrescine was quite consistent in the trapping of A. obliqua and A. ludens in traps such as the IPMT. (author)

  14. Improving efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi by gamma irradiation versus the Mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of wild and irradiated biocontrol fungi, Beauvaria Bassiana (Blsamo) and Trichoderma Harzianum (Rafai) on the Mediterranean Fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) was investigated. Applying wild B. bassiana and T. harzianum using spores suspension at different concentrations (108, 106 and 104 colony-forming units), on the pupation medium (sand) or in drinking water, resulted in a significant reduction in adult emergence of pupae (1-2 day-old) and survival of produced adults. Meanwhile, the introduction of some isolates irradiated at 150 and 300 Gy significantly reduced adult emergence from pupae (1-2 day-old) and survival was greatly increased by isolates irradiated at 150 Gy of B. bassiana and at Gy in case of T. harzianum. Applying irradiated isolates as culture filtrate with the concentrations of 10, 50 and 100% to the pupation medium or in drinking water, resulted in a reduction of adult emergence and survival. The results revealed that bioagents B. bassiana and T. harzianum can be applied in the field to suppress the population of the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata and considered as entomopathogenic for controlling this pest

  15. Ionization with accelerated high energy electrons as quarantine treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceratitis capitata is a quarantine pest. Spanish citrus exports to countries such as the USA or Japan are subjected to a mandatory quarantine treatment consisting of exposure of fruits to a low temperatures. Some citrus (''Fino'' lemon, ''Fortune'' mandarin) are very sensitive to this kind of treatment and can not be treated this way. Therefore, alternative treatments are necessary. In this study, high energy electrons were investigated as an alternative quarantine treatment against C. capitata in citrus. Survival of the different instars (egg to old pupae) of C. capitata reared in an artificial medium was assessed when exposed to different doses between 0 and 1 kGy. Both pupariation and adult emergence were almost prevented at 0.25 kGy, and no viable adults were obtained at 0.50 kGy. When artificially infested fruits (in both ''Fino'' lemon and ''Fortune'' mandarin) were exposed to 1 kGy, 100% mortality was obtained. Finally, quality (texture, color index, maturity index, juice yield, ethanol and acetaldehyde contents, physiological alterations and organoleptic characteristics) of irradiated (1 kGy) and non irradiated fruit were compared. High energy electron irradiation resulted in unacceptable damage to ''Fortune'' mandarin, but quality of ''Fino'' lemon resulted unaltered even when evaluated one month after irradiation. Therefore high energy electrons could be a useful alternative to cold quarantine treatment for ''Fino'' lemons. (author)

  16. Dispersal aspects of 32 P-labelled Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispersion of artificially-reared and gamma-sterilized males of the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata was studied in a citrus orchard. About 10,000 adults were tagged through a 32 P artificial medium and released into two different place of the orchard, one place had ripe fruits and the other place without ripe fruits. Flies trapped were collected daily during the first 8 days and then three more surveys once a week. Radioactive flies were detected by liquid scintillator through Cerenkov effect. The data suggested that the number of male trapped was affected by the presence of ripe fruit and by period between release and trapping. The climate factors during the period of the experiment, did not affect the flight distance neither the trapping data. (author)

  17. Intensity of Attack Caused by Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera, Tephritidae on Mandarin along the Montenegrin Seacoast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Radonjić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Along the Montenegrin seacoast, all cultivated citrus species (mandarin, orange, lemon,grapefruit, fig, loquat and ziziphus were detected as host plants of the Ceratitis capitata Wiedem.Among those found, in economic sense, the most important host plant is mandarinUnšiu.Intensity of the attack were monitored on mandarin in 2003 and 2004 in localities Baošići,Lastva Grbaljska and Bar, and was determined as higher in 2003. The first symptoms ofattack were detected, depending on locality, from middle of September until beginning ofOctober, one to two months earlier then in 2004. The maximum number of larvae per fruitwere detected in October and November (average from 13.44±0.16 to 22.82±0.13. Timeof the first symptoms appearence on mandarin in September and October 2003 and in November2004, indicate on crucial importance of alternative host plants (figs and loquat forreproduction and increasing of C. capitata population, because later during a season its intensityof attack on mandarin, depend largely on their presence.

  18. Producción masiva y simultánea de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae y parasitoides Dichasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Massive and simultaneous production of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae males and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia N. López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la línea de sexado genético «Cast191» las hembras de Ceratitis capitata son homocigotas para el gen slow , lo que reduce su velocidad de desarrollo; los machos son heterocigotas y muestran una velocidad de desarrollo normal. Esta característica permitió producir, con Cast191, machos estériles por un lado, y parasitoides criados sobre las larvas remanentes por el otro. Nuestro objetivo con este trabajo fue producir ambos insumos simultáneamente y a una escala mayor que hasta ahora. Además, bajo estas condiciones, y en un intento por aumentar la separación entre sexos, se aplicó a las larvas del primer estadío un pulso de 15º C, durante 1 ó 2 días, luego del cual se las mantuvo a 20º C ó 25º C, hasta que entraron al estado de pupa, luego se mantuvo todo el material a 25º C. La mejor separación de sexos, lograda con el tratamiento a 20º C sin pulso de frío, se usó para comparar la calidad del parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, criado sobre las larvas obtenidas tras la separación de los machos, con aquellos criados sobre la línea salvaje. Para ello, este tratamiento de separación fue aplicado en la cría de la mosca, y el material remanente de dieta con larvas fue expuesto al parasitoide. La tasa de parasitismo obtenida fue semejante a la hallada sobre la línea salvaje, y la tasa sexual de la F 1 del parasitoide presentó un sesgo hacia las hembras aún mayor. Se discute la factibilidad de utilizar la línea Cast191 de C. Capitata, para la producción a mayor escala de machos de mosca y para la cría masiva del parasitoide D. longicaudata.In the genetic sexing strain «Cast191», the females of Ceratitis capitata are homozygous for the mutation slow , slowing down their rate of development, and the males are heterozygous, having a normal rate of development. This feature made Cast191 capable of producing sterile males, on one hand, and parasitoids that are reared on the remaining larvae, on the other. The

  19. Relación entre tiempo de desarrollo larvario y fecundidad de la hembra en Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae Relationship between time of larval development and fecundity in the female of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny C. Manso

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la relación entre tiempo de desarrollo larvario y fecundidad en la hembra de Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, comparando individuos de una cepa salvaje, con individuos de una cepa portadora de la mutación sw , la cual provoca atrasos en el desarrollo larvario. Se observaron caracteres de la morfología del ovario y su herencia entre los segregantes, para «tiempo de desarrollo» en la progenie del cruzamiento entre mutante y silvestre. El estudio mostró que las hembras sw (- que quedan muy retrasadas en su desarrollo, tienen menos ovariolas y una distribución de tamaños de óvulos menos homogénea que las que se desarrollan antes. Se encontró asimismo que entre las larvas de tipo salvaje, las más retrasadas también producen hembras con menor número de ovariolas y menos huevos totalmente desarrollados, que las que se desarrollan antes. Tanto en las hembras sw (- como en las sw(+ , los atrasos del desarrollo obran en desmedro de la postura de huevos de las hembras que se desarrollan más tarde, efecto que se manifiesta en el número menor de ovariolas y en las diferencias del ritmo de maduración del ovario. Bajo condiciones apropiadas de cría, las hembras mutantes para sw son capaces de alcanzar la misma fecundidad que las normales.We studied the relationship between the development time in the larva stage and the resulting female fecundity, in Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann wild-type individuals compared to mutant individuals showing slow development (sw. We observed the morphology of the ovaries in the progenies of the crossing between mutant and wild-type strains, comparing females segregating by «development time». This study showed that sw(- females developing later have got less ovarioles, and a more heterogeneous distribution of ovules, than females developing earlier. It was also found that the wild type females developing late also produce lower numbers both of ovarioles and fully developed ova, than those developing

  20. Importance of adult protein ingestion on the mating success of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann males (Diptera: Tephritidae); Importancia da ingestao de proteina na fase adulta para o sucesso de acasalamento dos machos de Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Dias, Vanessa S.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S., E-mail: bio.alberto@gmail.co, E-mail: vanessasidias@hotmail.co, E-mail: ibravo@ufba.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Geral

    2010-04-15

    The importance of the protein ingestion during the adult stage on the mating success of males of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann was evaluated in experiments of laboratory and fi eld cage. In laboratory, the effects of protein ingestion during the fi rst four or 12 days of the male adult life was assessed by the following parameters: mating success (capacity of being chosen by the female) and the number of males that give out pheromonal signals. Some experiments of mating success had been carried through with males in different ratios. In these tests, the number of males which had ingested protein (an unique male) was remained constant and the number of males fed without protein was gradually increased from 1:1 to 1:5. In the fi eld cages, the mating success experiments were done using a 1:1 ratio. The results showed that the protein ingestion in the fi rst four days of life did not influence any of the analyzed parameters. When the period of ingestion of protein was extended to 12 days, protein-fed males fed produced more pheromonal signals and had a higher mating success when at a 1:1 ratio in laboratory and fi eld cage assays. In laboratory, females randomly chose males in any other tested ratio (1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5), indicating that the female may lose the perception to identify the male who ingested protein in the fi rst 12 days. (author)

  1. Some aspects of the behavior at different ages of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera-Tephritidae) irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was carried out in the laboratory of the Entomology Section of the Nuclear Energy for Agriculture Center (CENA) in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, to determine the effects different gamma radiation doses on the reproductive potential of males and the flight behavior of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). For all the treatments with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gamma beam-650 was used, with activity of approximately 13,410 x 10B Bq. (4,967 Ci.), and the dose rate of 2.000 Gy per hour. The doses used were 80 Gy, 100 Gy and 120 Gy. The three doses employed affected more the longevity of males than the females and the number of spermatozoid found lower in the irradiated insects compared with the control, with no significant differences between doses. The insects irradiated with 80 Gy showed activity similar to the control population until four days after emergence: afterwards they were more active than the unirradiated. The gamma irradiation diminished the take-off ability of the insects. (author). 59 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  2. Effect of gamma radiation against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae) in guava fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae are considered the most important insects pest risk carried by exported fruits worldwide. Because reports have show that guavas are important host of the pest, quarentine treatments must be developed if it's to exported to countries which impose quarentine restrictions on Mediterranean fruit fly infestable commodities. Ionizing radiation is one alternative method of quarentine treatment. This work was carried out to study the effect of different doses of gamma radiation against eggs and larvae of Ceratitis capitata in guavas of 'Pedro Sato' cultivar. Guavas artificially infested with eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation at the following doses: 0 (control), 50, 100 and 150 Gy for eggs and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy for first and third instar larvae, at the dose rate of 352 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic pots in a room at 25 +/- 1 deg C and 70 +/- 5% RH. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults in both treatments (eggs and larvae)

  3. Sterile insect release and the natural mating system of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to assess the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in a natural population on Maui, HI. Systematic censuses of the study site were conducted before and after the release of marked sterile flies (both sexes), and the abundance and distribution of fruit flies and leks, incidence of male calling and number, and location of matings were recorded during the two periods. In both replicates, the abundance, distribution, and calling activity of wild males were largely unaffected by the released flies. Most of the released males joined preexisting mating aggregations of wild males and within these leks displayed similar calling activity as the wild males. Approximately 200 matings were observed following the release in each replicate. Three separate analyses indicated that in both replicates release males accounted for fewer matings with wild females than expected by chance. Given that sterile males settled and called in natural lek sites, it appears that their relatively low mating success resulted from an inability to attract wild females to their territory or perform courtship acceptable to females, or both. The results are discussed in light of current sterile insect techniques

  4. Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olfactory, aggregatory, and feeding responses of normal (untreated) laboratory stocks of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and of Caribbean fruit fly (caribfly), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion. Females of both species consumed greater quantities of protein hydrolysate solutions, entered protein hydrolysate-baited olfactory traps, and aggregated on agar plates containing protein hydrolysate in greater numbers than males of the same age and condition. However, male medflies consumed more sucrose than did females of the same age and condition. In the medfly, irradiation resulted in reduced olfactory response, reduced total food intake by flies of both sexes, and a significant reduction in aggregation on and intake of protein hydrolysate by females and of sugar consumption by males. In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method

  5. Population suppression and sterility rates induced by variable sex ratio, sterile insect releases of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterile insect releases of a pupal color-based genetic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were made during the summer and fall of 1991 in coffee plantations in Kauai, HI. Four treatments compared with respect to trap recapture and sterility rates induced in native populations were: (1) genetic sexing strain (≍99% males = males only), (2) genetic sexing strain (males and females), (3) genetic sexing strain (high % ♀ ♀), and (4) standard strain (males and females). Each week either 2 liters (≍120,000) of irradiated pupae for the bisexual populations or 1 liter of irradiated pupae for the unisexual populations were dye-marked and ground released in buckets. Adult flies emerged and dispersed throughout individual (≍1 ha) coffee fields. Flies were trapped weekly in standard dry traps or in liquid protein traps. Coffee berry samples were collected weekly to determine egg sterility rates, and females trapped in liquid protein were dissected for presence of sperm and sperm type. A new technique was developed to type sperm as either sterile (irradiated) or wild in mated females. An estimate of sterile fly competitiveness based on relative degrees of egg hatch suppression indicated an overall three- to five-fold increase in competitiveness of the males-only strain compared with the standard bisexual strain. Significantly, however, this difference even widened to a qualitative degree by the end of the test

  6. The use of kaolin to control Ceratitis capitata in organic citrus groves.

    OpenAIRE

    LO VERDE, G; Caleca, V; LO VERDE, 
V

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera Tephritidae), is the key pest in some organically managed citrus orchards in Sicily. The effectiveness of processed kaolin (Surround WP) for control of C. capitata damage was tested in field trials carried out in 2003-2004 on two early ripening citrus species: satsuma (Citrus unshiu Markow.) and clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.). Although the number of males captured in trimedlure baited traps was high in both yea...

  7. Dispersion of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera: Tephritidae in Mandarin Orchards on Montenegrin Seacoast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Radonjić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Widem. has been an established pest onthe Montenegrin seacoast for more than ten years, although with variable abundance indifferent years and localities.From an economic aspect, its most important host in Montenegro is the mandarinunshiu (Citrus unshiu Marc., particularly its cultivar Owari. Dispersion of C. capitata in citrusorchards (prevailingly mandarin was monitored on Baošići, Lastva Grbaljska and Bar localitiesduring 2003 and 2004.The results of this study showed that, during both years, peripheral-row trees (primarily thefirst row in citrus orchards were more exposed to attacks by C. capitata than middle and lastrows. In 2003, the average number of larvae in mandarin fruits in first rows varied from 11.4±0.59to 40.1±0.67, from 7.04±0.47 to 28.8±0.48 and from 2.9±0.07 to 17.3±0.54 on the localities ofBaošići, Lastva Grbaljska and Bar, respectively. On the same localities, it ranged from 7.4±0.34 to16.9±0.4, from 0.0 to 18.7±0.32 and from 0.0 to 9.93±0.56 in middle rows, and from 3.0±0.28 to16.8±0.77, from 0.0 to 20.9±0.38 and from 0.0 to 13.1±0.39 in last rows. Data collected at Baošići,Lastva Grbaljska and Bar in 2003 also suggest that the average number of larvae per mandarinfruit in first rows was 1.78-2.08 times higher than in middle rows, and 1.25-1.77 times higher thanin last rows. In 2004, the average number of larvae in mandarin fruits in first rows varied from7.3±0.27 to 8.3±0.45, from 7.2±0.23 to 17.6±0.59 and from 3.8±0.1 to 8.8±0.25 on the localitiesof Baošići, Lastva Grbaljska and Bar, respectively. On these localities, it ranged from 1.7 ±0.17 to3.3±0.19, from 1.1±0.12 to 3.5±0.8 and from 0.0 to 0.8±0.14 in middle rows, and from 1.7±0.17 to3.6±0.32, from 0.0 to 4.0±0.26 and from 0.0 to 0.2±0.06 in last rows. Data collected in 2004also showed that the average number of larvae in mandarin fruits in first rows on the samelocalities was 3

  8. Use of gamma radiation against Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) (Diptera, Tephritidae) for disinfestation of mangoes for exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma radiation doses to attend quarantine requirements of importing countries, by disinfecting mango fruits from Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) is studied. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed during the embryonic development. Doses up to 40 Gy for C. capitata and up to 100 Gy for A. Fraterculus and A. Obliqua did not affect pupation of 4-,5-,6- and 7-day-old larvae, irradiated 'in vitro'. Larvae of C. capitata were more resistant than A. Obliqua and A. Fraterculus. Larvae of A. Obliqua were more resistant than A. Fraterculus. The dose of 125.5 Gy fulfilled the criteria for efficacy, which prevented emergence of the adults of three fruit fly species studied. (author)

  9. Mitochondrial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Can Distinguish Sterile, Released Flies from Wild Flies in Various Regions of the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parubrub, Arlene; Reyes, Ruel; Smallridge, Catherine J; Woods, Bill; Haymer, David

    2015-02-01

    In areas infested with pest species such as the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), many programs rely heavily on the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a form of biological control. However, when SIT treatments are used both for control of established infestations and for occasional outbreaks, for several reasons, programs are often unable to adequately quantify the success of this approach. Chief among these are difficulties associated with reliably and rapidly determining the strain of origin of males recaptured during and after the SIT program. In this study, we describe the use of a DNA-based marker that can be used to rapidly and reliably distinguish males originating from the two sterile strains that are most widely used in SIT rearing facilities from males originating from wild strains of various regions of the world. This method uses polymerase chain reaction amplification of material from individual specimens to directly analyze DNA sequence variants found within a portion of the mitochondrial ND4 subunit 4 (ND4) gene to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are diagnostic of different strains. Specifically, the SNPs described here reliably distinguish individual flies originating from the Vienna 7 and Vienna 8 strains used for sterile release from wild flies infesting various areas including Western Australia, Guatemala, and Hawaii. The availability of such markers for determination of the strain of origin of specimens, either from whole specimens or body parts (including their sperm), has great potential to improve the ability to monitor and quantify the success of any sterile release program. PMID:26470134

  10. Disinfestation of export oranges and tangerines (Citrus spp) against medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera; Tephritidae) by gamma irradiation (Co-60)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma bean 650 cobalt-60 source was utilized for irradiation (0; 10; 50; 100; 200; 300; 400; 500; 750 and 1000 Gy) of fresh ripe fruits artificially interested by immature stages of Ceratitis capitata to determine the sterilizing and lethal doses. The sensorial and chemical analyses did not show any significant differences between the control and irradiated samples. Differences on loss of weight of oranges show that 500 and 1000 Gy doses were responsible for increasing the loss of water content. (author)

  11. Machos Virgens e Acasalados de Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae Apresentam o mesmo Sucesso de Cópula e a mesma Capacidade de Inibição de Recópula das Fêmeas?

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    Luiza Santana

    2014-08-01

    Virgin and Mated Males of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae Have the Same Mating Success and the Same Ability to Inhibit Female Remating? Abstract. Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann is a polyphagous species that damages fruits and affects their production and consumption. One of the techniques to manage this pest is the Sterile Insect Technique, which consists in releasing sterile males in nature to compete with wild males for mating. The success of this technique is associated with the ability of sterile male in being selected by the female and in preventing female remating with other males. This paper aims to evaluate the influence of male reproductive status in mating success and in female remating inhibition. Tests for evaluating the latency to mate and copula duration were performed to evaluate latency to mate and copula duration based on different male status. In remating inhibition tests, females mated with virgin and mated males, were exposed to other males one day after the first mating so the rate of remating could be evaluated. The results showed that males of different reproductive status had no differences in mating success and in female remating inhibition. The latency to mate and copula duration were similar for both male status as well. Our results suggest that, assuming that the sterile males have the same basic biology of no sterile males, in SIT, after released in nature, mated males can have the same success in mating and female remating inhibition as virgin males.

  12. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J. B.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8–1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8–1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8–1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8–1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  13. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polychronis Rempoulakis

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS that has a white pupae (wp and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C. The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2 strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  14. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taret, Gustavo; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were equally

  15. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes and aqueous plant extracts aiming at the control of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: TephritidaeCompatibilidade de nematóides entomopatogênicos e extratos vegetais aquosos visando o controle da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Cristhiane Rohde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae has been controlled mainly by the chemical method, which is responsible for environmental and public health impacts. It has often been ineffective due to development of resistant insect populations. Thus, it has necessary to research new effective and less impacting control forms. In this sense, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes and plant extracts has been effective for controlling this pest. However, studies are needed to assess the compatibility between these methods, aiming at their use in integrated management programs for this pest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae ALL and Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 with aqueous extracts prepared from dried plant of cinnamon leaf, twig and fruit (Melia azedarach, rue leaf (Ruta graveolens, ginger (Zingiber officinale and garlic (Allium sativum for the control of C. capitata. The bioassay was carried out in completely randomized design with four replicates per treatment. Each replication consisted of a glass tube containing 1 mL of plant extract 40% w/v and 1 mL suspension of entomopathogenic nematodes with 1800 JI/mL for S. carpocapsae ALL and 600 JI/mL for Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4. The viability and infectivity of this nematode were evaluated on C. capitata larvae after 48 and 120 hours. It was found that all extracts reduced the viability and infectivity of both nematodes and they were incompatible after 120 hours of exposure. The nematode Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 was more sensitive than the S. carpocapsae ALL as it showed, in the first 48 hours, a reduction in the viability and infectivity of more than 80 and 75%, respectively, when exposed to all the extracts except the ginger.A mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae tem sido controlada, principalmente, pelo método químico, que é o responsável por impactos ambientais e na saúde pública e, muitas

  16. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii. PMID:26582906

  17. Infectivity of Four Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Relation to Environmental Factors and Their Effects on the Biochemistry of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaurub, E H; Soliman, N A; Hashem, A G; Abdel-Rahman, A M

    2015-12-01

    Late third instars of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), migrate from the host fruit into the soil and leaf litter beneath host trees, where they may become a target for entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, temperature, soil type (texture), and soil moisture level on infectivity of the four tested EPNs Heterorhabditis bacteriophora AS1, H. bacteriophora HP88, Steinernema carpocapsae ALL, and Steinernema riobrave ML29 to late third instars of C. capitata were evaluated. Biochemical alterations induced by the most virulent nematodes were quantified. The nematode infectivity decreased with increase in exposure time to UV light, whereas it increased with increase in temperature. Infectivity increased in sandy soil, whereas it decreased in silt and clay soils. Soils with high moisture levels decreased infectivity. Based on the 50% lethal concentration (LC50), H. bacteriophora AS1 and S. carpocapsae ALL were the most virulent heterorhabditid and steinernematid nematodes, respectively, with the highest virulence for H. bacteriophora AS1. The nematodes caused significant decline in total protein and cholesterol content of larvae and caused reduced activity of transaminases and phosphatases. In contrast, they significantly enhanced total glucose content. It can be concluded that the most optimum environmental conditions of the tested nematodes to elicit their infectivity against late third instars of C. capitata were sandy soil with 10% moisture level, ambient temperature of 25°C, and no exposure to UV. The EPNs tested can affect late third instars of C. capitata by targeting different biochemical molecules in different metabolic pathways. The interaction between them and the host larvae appears to be primarily nutritional. PMID:26391517

  18. The INTERFRUTA project and the study of medfly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) distribution in the fruit orchards of Terceira Island, Azores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The INTERFUTA project, which has the goal of enlarging the fruit production, is a project of interregional cooperation between three regions and several institutions, that is financed by the EC program INTERRREG-III-B. In the field, four fruit trees are being studied (orange, apple, peach and banana) in three different sites of Terceira Island fruit production (Angra do Heroismo, Porto Judeu/Sao Sebastiao e Biscoitos). In this project we look it an integrated way at the fruit ecosystem as a whole. Therefore, we analyse all the climactic and all the most important production parameters. We also want to know the fungi and viruses that cause problems in fruit trees, but above all the composition and the dynamics of all the insects present. Special attention is given to the distribution and the life cycle of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its impact in terms of fruit infestation in the different orchards studied. This estimate of the medfly population was done in the three fruit production areas by monitoring the medfly males and females using traps. For the males a sexual pheromone (trimedlure) in Jackson traps was used, and for the females a food-based synthetic lure with a three-component attractant (trimethylamine, ammonium acetate and putrescine) in Tephritraps was used. The estimate of the medfly fruit damage was done using two methods: First, marking the fruits in the trees to determinate the number of fruits damaged, and second, collecting of damaged ruit near the maturation period in the orchards and around the traps and bringing them to the laboratory to determine the number of larvae per kilogram of fruit and the number of larvae registered in each kind of fruit. All this investigation has the goal of contributing to a better knowledge of the medfly population levels, the study of its evolution and appearance to measure the impact of this pest that, in a severe way, limits the fruit production in some of the

  19. Genetic method for separation of males and females of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), based on pupal color dimorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) were irradiated with 60 Gy gamma radiation and subsequently the emergent males were crossed with females of recessive mutants on white pupa color (w p/w p). A strain with a translocation between autosomal chromosome number 5, carrier of w p+ dominant gene, and Y chromosome was isolated. By this way the T:Y (w p+) 70 strain with sexual dimorphism based on pupal color was obtained. Cytological examination of the males was carried out to confirm the translocation. The genetic stability was monitored under laboratory conditions during 21 generations. The rates of contaminant females emerged from brown pupae were 0,96 to 4,5% and for males from white pupae these rates were 0,26 to 0,66%. These values presented no definite increase tendency. The origin of contaminant genotypes and the potential for utilization of the sterile male techniques are discussed. (author)

  20. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willink, Eduardo; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Salvatore, Analia; Gramajo, M. Cecilia; Acenolaza, Mariana; Avila, Rosana; Favre, Paola, E-mail: ewillink@eeaoc.org.a [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  1. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  2. Development of traps and killing agents to improve the mass trapping technique against Ceratitis capitata Wied and Bactrocera oleae Gmel. (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the framework of a Joint FAO/IAEA Division Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) a number of countries have carried out experiments specially in the application of the various trapping methodologies to survey fruit flies of economic importance. Spain collaborated through an 'Agreement Contract' between 2000- 2005. Spain is world's number one citrus exporter to the European Community and other countries such as USA, Korea, and Japan. Nowadays 'Mass Trapping' is an important activity to control medfly (Ceratitis capitata, Wied) in citrus areas. Thousands of traps have been hung in citrus plantations and in isolated trees (figs), all managed and coordinated by the agricultural authorities. One of the highest costs of this technique is the manpower required to bait and place the traps. Under the standard research protocol of the CRP we have developed a trap in order to facilitate the manipulation of the attractants and hanging the traps on the trees. 'Easy Trap' is the name of the new trap. It is composed of a transparent and a yellow part. When assembled a rectangular box is formed. It has two invaginated opposite holes on the upper part. An adaPTable hanger allows traps to be easily and quickly hang on the fruit trees. Mass trapping experiments were conducted for control of medfly as well as for olive fly (Bactrocera oleae). This paper presents the results of the experiments carried out in Spain during the last year (2004) with this trap. The Easy trap baited with Ammonium Acetate and Trimethylamine using Deltamethrine as killing agent was the best trap against C. capitata in a mango orchard. The same trap baited with NuLure 9% + borax 3% solution was the best trap when it was tested in an olive grove against B. oleae. (author)

  3. Introducción y producción en laboratorio de Diachasmimorpha tryon i y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para el control biológico de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae en la Argentina Introduction and laboratory production of Diachasmimorpha tryoni and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae for the biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae in Argentina

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    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de reanudar la utilización de enemigos naturales contra la especie exótica Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, fueron introducidos a la Argentina en 1999 los agentes de control biológico Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, dos endoparasitoides de larvas de tefrítidos. Por este motivo, en este trabajo se describen los procedimientos de cría en laboratorio del huésped y de ambas especies de parasitoides y, se presentan y discuten los resultados de un año de producción de D. tryoni y D. longicaudata a mediana escala (enero-diciembre/2000. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de los datos obtenidos sobre la producción de descendientes, proporción sexual, porcentaje de parasitismo y viabilidad de puparios por jaula de cría durante 15 generaciones entre ambas especies de parasitoides exóticos, utilizando como huésped larvas de C. capitata del tercer estadio de siete días de edad. Además, se discuten las posibilidades para implementar el control biológico aumentativo contra C. capitata y Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann en el país.The biocontrol agents Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, two endoparasitoids of fruit fly larvae, were introduced to Argentina in 1999 with the purpose of renewing the employment of natural enemies against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann. For this reason, the general procedure and maintenance of the host and parasitoids rearing in the laboratory are described, and the results of one year insectary production (January-December/2000 of both D. tryoni and D. longicaudata are discussed. Data are presented of the progeny production, offpring sex ratio, host parasitism percentage, and pupal viability per parasitoid rearing cage during 15 generations of D. longicaudata and D. tryoni reared using late third instar larvae of C. capitata. New perspectives are discussed on the establishment of a biological control program for C

  4. Use of gamma irradiation and inert gases in the sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera-Tephritidae) with the objective of using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Dip. Tephritidae) using gamma irradiation (γ) was studied under laboratory conditions at Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Living conditions for Med fly are optimum in this country and its biological cycle is completed in less than 30 days. There is a large number of varying host fruits for larvae development, which makes this pest very harmful, especially to citrus crops. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a type of physical control of pests, which does not cause any harm to other insects. Pupae with different ages were initially submitted to 0, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 Gy doses. Sterility was determined from fertility of eggs resulting from crosses of irradiated male x normal female and normal male x irradiated female. Later, pupae with 72 + - 12 hrs before emergence were submitted to 70 and 90 Gy doses with carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen fluxes. The sterilizing dose for the males was 90 Gy. Activity, of irradiated with and without gas lux and normal male, was evaluated with an activity-meter, and the dose least harmful to their behaviour was found to be 90 Gy with nitrogen flux. (Author)

  5. The role of protein in the sexual behaviour of males of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae: mating success, copula duration and number of copulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sordi Joachim-Bravo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the influence of protein ingestion during the early adult phase on the sexual behavior of males of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. The following parameters were evaluated: mating success (ability to be chosen by females, number of copulations, and copula duration. Experiments were carried out using a fifteen-year old laboratory lineage with the occasional introduction of wild flies. Two groups of adult males fed a high-protein diet during their larval phase were given either a high-protein diet (based on Brewer's yeast, concentration = 6.5 g/100 ml or a no-protein diet. Both groups of males were exposed to females fed either a high-protein diet or a no-protein diet and were subsequently evaluated for the parameters listed above. All experiments were conducted at 25ºC, 70% R.H. and with a photoperiod of L12:D12. The number of copulations was the only parameter affected by adult diet. Males fed a high-protein diet and exposed to females fed a no-protein diet had a greater number of copulations compared with males fed a no-protein diet.

  6. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Scolari, Francesca; Ludvik M Gomulski; Gabrieli, Paolo; Manni, Mosè; Savini, Grazia; Gasperi, Giuliano; Anna R Malacrida

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unra...

  7. Biological and morphological aspects of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on irradiated larva of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was evaluate some biological and morphological aspects of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata on irradiated and not irradiated larva of bisexual and tsl strains of Ceratitis capitata. The experiments were developed at the Laboratorio de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia (LIARE) of CENA/USP. For gamma radiation treatment it was used a Cobalt-60 source, model Gamma beam-650. Larva of bisexual strain were irradiated with 65 Gy and the tsl strain with 45 Gy. Experiments were carried out at room temperature of 25 ± 2 deg C, 75 ± 5 % RH and 14 hours of photo phase. After irradiation, the bisexual strain larva were exposed to adults of D. longicaudata for parasitization and parameters of percentage adult emergency and rate of male and female of D. longicaudata were observed. For tsl strain, were used larva from the first and the fourth collection only, and the following parameters were observed: percentage of adult emergency, rate of male and female, and the average unitary volume and weight of pupae at the 8th and 16 days after the parasitism date. Other parameters evaluated for tsl strain related to the parasitoid morphology such as, the length of the body, antenna, tibia and ovipositor. As result, both of the first and second experiments, the rate of parasitism was satisfactory, as well as showed larger incidence of females than males in parasitized larva, discarding the possibility that gamma radiation interfere in the sexual rate. No significant differences were observed on pupae volume. Some differences on pupae weight were observed at 8th and 16th day after the parasitism date, which should be associated to pre-emerging flies (8th day) and empty pupa (16th day). None significant difference was observed on morphological parameters, so one can conclude that gamma radiation treatment did not interfere in these quality parameters of the parasitoid. (author)

  8. Comportamento Reprodutivo de Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae: Efeito do Tamanho dos Machos Sobre o Seu Sucesso de Cópula.

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    Alberto Silva Neto

    2012-11-01

    Abstract. This work evaluated the influence of size on the copula success in Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann. To assure the production of different adult sizes (big and small, two groups of larvae had been fed with different protein concentrations. Subsequently, adult males of both groups had been compared in terms of copula success and amount of males who showed the first step of courtship (emission of sexual pheromone. The copula success in laboratory was evaluated with males in some ratios, which the number of big males with five days of life (an unique male in relation to a gradual increase of small males with same age kept constant. The tested ratios had been 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, and 1:10. In the experiments of copula success in the 1:1 ratio and the ones of pheromone emission, they had been tested small male of different ages (five, nine or 13 days, whereas the age of the big males kept constant (five days. Experiments of copula success in the 1:1 ratio had been also carried through in field cage. It was prove that the big males had taken advantage in all the parameters analyzed in laboratory, emitting pheromone and having a bigger copula success, exactly when the age of the small males was varied. The size effect was so significant, that in the ratio of 1 big male for 10 small males, the females had still chosen the big males. In field cage, the results had been similar to the ones of laboratory.

  9. Tratamento hidrotérmico na mortalidade de larvas de Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae em tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco = Effect of hydrothermal treatment on the mortality of fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Weidmann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae larvae in tangerine fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco

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    Edson Batista Lopes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar a eficiência do tratamento hidrotérmico no controle de larvas de C. capitata em frutos de tangerina para fins quarentenários. Tangerinas da variedade ‘Dancy’ infestadas por larvas de Ceratitis capitata foram submetidas aostratamentos hidrotérmicos de 46±1°C e 50±1°C, em diferentes tempos de exposição. Para a temperatura de 46±1°C foram utilizados nove períodos de exposição: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 min. Na temperatura de 50±1°C, utilizaram-se sete tempos de exposição: 0, 5,10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 min., sendo o tempo (0 infestado e sem tratamento para as duas temperaturas. Cada tratamento foi composto de cinco repetições com dois frutos. Frutos maduros e semi-maduros infestados foram imersos em água quente, visando quantificar ototal de larvas vivas e mortas, sendo que, um grupo de frutos foi mantido sem imersão como controle. Os índices quarentenários, na temperatura de 46±1°C foram atingidos aos 32,0 e 35,3 min. para frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. Na temperatura de50±1°C, os índices quarentenários foram atingidos aos 20,8 e 21,7 minutos para os frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. A mortalidade das larvas de C. capitata foi crescente com o aumento da temperatura e o tempo de exposição.This research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of hydrothermaltreatment in the control of C. capitata larvae in tangerine fruit for quarantine safety. Tangerines fruits infested by larvae of Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata were submitted to hydrothermal treatment at 46±1°C and 50±1°C for different exposure times. The fruits were selected in two maturity stages (ripe and semi-ripe and immersed in hot water. For temperature at 46±1°C, nine exposure times were used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes. The same procedure was used for temperature at 50±1°C, where the exposure times were: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. Infested

  10. Determination of the median lethal concentration (LC50 of mycoinsecticides for the control of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae Determinación de la concentración letal media (CL50 de micoinsecticidas para el control de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    FLÁVIA QUEIROZ DE OLIVEIRA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50 of the commercial products Boveril WP® (Beauveria bassiana and Metarril WP® (Metarhizium anisopliae on the larvae and pupae of the fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Insects used in this study came from a laboratory colony. The evaluated product concentrations were 10.00, 15.00, 20.00 and 25.00 g/L of water, which correspond, respectively, to 5.00x10(9, 7.50x10(9, 10.00x10(9 and 12.50x10(9 viable conidia/L of water for the two products, and in the control only water was applied. Third instar larvae and pupae of C. capitata were used in this study. Results showed an overall mortality of larvae with all conidial concentrations of M. anisopliae. The LC50 values for larvae were 2.99 and 2.97 g/L for Boveril® and Metarril®, respectively, while for pupae they were 3.12 and 4.74 g/L for Boveril® and Metarril®, respectively. The high pathogenicity demonstrated by lower conidial concentrations of the tested products may mean greater efficiency from both economic and environmental points of view.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la concentración letal media (CL50 de los productos comerciales Boveril WP® (Beauveria bassiana y Metarril WP® (Metarhizium anisopliae para el control de larvas y pupas de la mosca mediterránea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata. Los insectos utilizados en el experimento provinieron de una cría de laboratorio. Las concentraciones de los productos evaluados fueron: 10,00; 15,00; 20,00 y 25,00 g/L de agua, lo que corresponde, respectivamente, a 5,00x10(9; 7,50x10(9; 10,00x10(9; 12,50x10(9 conidias viables/L de agua para los dos productos; en el control sólo se aplicó agua. Se usaron larvas de tercer estadio y pupas de C. capitata. Se registró la mortalidad general de las larvas de tercer instar en todas las concentraciones de conidios de M. anisopliae. Los valores de CL50 para las larvas fueron 2,99 y 2,97 g/L para Boveril® y Metarril

  11. Biological Control of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina: Releases of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Fruit-Producing Semi-Arid Areas of San Juan

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Suarez; Fernando Murua; Natalia Lara; Jorge Escobar; Gustavo Taret; José Luis Rubio; Guido Van Nieuwenhove; Laura Bezdjian; Pablo Schliserman; Sergio Marcelo Ovruski

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is one of the major pests of fruit crops in Argentina and it is a phytosanitary barrier to the export of fresh fruits. In the Province of San Juan, located in the central-eastern region of Argentina known as Cuyo, control strategies against Medfly in fruit-producing irrigated-valleys have been implemented by the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (ProCEM) jointly with the provincial gov...

  12. Biological and morphological aspects of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on irradiated larva of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae);Aspectos biologicos e morfologicos de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) criado em larvas irradiadas de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Giuliana Etore do

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was evaluate some biological and morphological aspects of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata on irradiated and not irradiated larva of bisexual and tsl strains of Ceratitis capitata. The experiments were developed at the Laboratorio de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia (LIARE) of CENA/USP. For gamma radiation treatment it was used a Cobalt-60 source, model Gamma beam-650. Larva of bisexual strain were irradiated with 65 Gy and the tsl strain with 45 Gy. Experiments were carried out at room temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, 75 +- 5 % RH and 14 hours of photo phase. After irradiation, the bisexual strain larva were exposed to adults of D. longicaudata for parasitization and parameters of percentage adult emergency and rate of male and female of D. longicaudata were observed. For tsl strain, were used larva from the first and the fourth collection only, and the following parameters were observed: percentage of adult emergency, rate of male and female, and the average unitary volume and weight of pupae at the 8{sup th} and 16 days after the parasitism date. Other parameters evaluated for tsl strain related to the parasitoid morphology such as, the length of the body, antenna, tibia and ovipositor. As result, both of the first and second experiments, the rate of parasitism was satisfactory, as well as showed larger incidence of females than males in parasitized larva, discarding the possibility that gamma radiation interfere in the sexual rate. No significant differences were observed on pupae volume. Some differences on pupae weight were observed at 8th and 16th day after the parasitism date, which should be associated to pre-emerging flies (8th day) and empty pupa (16th day). None significant difference was observed on morphological parameters, so one can conclude that gamma radiation treatment did not interfere in these quality parameters of the parasitoid. (author)

  13. Transcriptome analysis in Ceratitis capitata to unveil genes involved in ageing-maturation process

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    V. San Andrés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is widely used in integrated programmes against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae. Information on the age distribution of insects, and more particularly, the knowledge of wild female reproductive status (mature or not at the time of the sterile male release is one of the key factors for the success of the SIT. In recent years, sequencing analysis has become an important tool in molecular biology. In this work we present a genome-wide expression analysis based on SSH (substractive sequence hybridization and EST (expressed sequence tag sequencing and macroarray expression analysis to identify signature genes related to the ageing-maturing process in C. capitata, leading to the successful identification of new putative candidate genes of reproductive status in medfly that would serve as molecular markers for ageing. We have sorted out 94 unigenes from 873 single-pass ESTs, of which 57% have homology with known genes. Ageing-maturing process in C. capitata presents a marked expression pattern accompanied by the increase of transcription level of genes involved in reproduction (vitellogenins, chorion proteins and male-specific serum proteins. Other identified cDNAs (43% with a differential expression pattern would be also candidates but deserve further studies, as they belong to the unknown function class.

  14. A new mechanised cultural practice to reduce Ceratitis capitata Wied. populations in area-wide IPM

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    P. Chueca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae, affects most of the fruit species grown in temperate and tropical climate regions, causing significant economic damage. One of the classical cultural strategies against this pest is to gather and bury the remaining fruit after harvest, but this is economically unfeasible today. Wood shredders already available in current Spanish groves can be used to grind or crush fruits laying on the soil as an alternative to this practice and to the use of pesticides in area-wide integrated pest management (IPM. With the purpose of evaluating this alternative, the initial step of this study was to perform laboratory tests to assess the efficacy of crushing and grinding as a method for controlling medflies. The results showed that grinding was 78% effective against larval stages, while crushing resulted in a 17% efficacy, leading us to choose the first alternative. As a second step, the operational parameters (type of cutting tool, shaft rotation speed and tractor speed of the wood shredders were adjusted to efficiently carry out this practice under field conditions. Finally, the effect of the mechanised grinding of fallen fruit on C. capitata populations was evaluated for two consecutive years in commercial citrus orchards. The results showed a significant 27-46% reduction in C. capitata populations the following spring, thus demonstrating that the newly proposed mechanised alternative can be included in the current area-wide IPM of the pest in Spain.

  15. Hidrogenionic potential (pH of the attractant, trap density and control threshold for Ceratitis capitata (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE on Hamlin oranges in São Paulo central region, Brazil

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    Paulo Eduardo Branco Paiva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of initial pH values of 4.5, 6.5 and 8.5 of the attractant (protein bait Milhocina® and borax (sodium borate in the field, on the capture of fruit flies in McPhail traps, using 1, 2, 4 and 8 traps per hectare, in order to estimate control thresholds in a Hamlin orange grove in the central region of the state of São Paulo. The most abundant fruit fly species was Ceratitis capitata, comprising almost 99% of the fruit flies captured, of which 80% were females. The largest captures of C. capitata were found in traps baited with Milhocina® and borax at pH 8.5. Captures per trap for the four densities were similar, indicating that the population can be estimated with one trap per hectare in areas with high populations. It was found positive relationships between captures of C. capitata and the number of Hamlin oranges damaged, 2 and 3 weeks after capture. It was obtained equations that correlate captures and damage levels which can be used to estimate control thresholds. The average loss caused in Hamlin orange fruits by C. capitata was 2.5 tons per hectare or 7.5% of production.

  16. Quality measurements of the gamma irradiated medfly ceratitis capitata wied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damage caused by the mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to Egyptian agriculture is increasing mainly because farmers are finding it harder to choose suitable means of control in view of the difficulties frequently associated with the use of insecticides, such as undesirable residues and biological disequilibrium. Recently, the sterile-insect technique has opened up new possibilities of this insect control in egypt. The use of sterile insects to eradicate or suppress populations of pests was conceived by knipling,(1955) and applied successfully for the first time in 1954 against the screw-worm fly, cochliomyia hominivorax (cocquerel) on the island of curacao (Baumhover et al., 1955) and then in 1958 and 1959 in the south-eastern united states of america (knipling, 1960)

  17. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

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    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  18. Incompatible insect technique: incompatible males from a Ceratitis capitata genetic sexing strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolbachia are obligatory intracellular and maternally inherited bacteria that infect and spread through natural arthropod populations by inducing male-killing, feminization, parthenogenesis and, most commonly, unidirectional and bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Cytoplasmic incompatibility can be used to control natural populations of insect pests, in a way analogous to the sterile insect technique (SIT), namely through the incompatible insect technique (IIT). For the successful application of the ITT (based on a unidirectional CI approach) against a target species, it is essential that only males are released, as the release of females would lead to fertile matings between the released males and the released females and the establishment of a Wolbachia-carrying field population. In the present study, we describe a Wolbachia-infected line of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedermann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), that carries the selectable marker temperature sensitive lethal (tsl). We show that (1) transferred Wolbachia induce high levels of CI even after the temperature treatment required for the male-only production, and (2) the Wolbachia-infected genetic sexing C. capitata line can be used in cage population suppression experiments analogous to the SIT. We also discuss our results in a comparison between IIT and SIT, investigating whether irradiation and cytoplasmic factors can be combined toward the development of novel strategies for insect pest control. (author)

  19. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E.; Santander, Ricardo D.; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G.; López, María M.; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  20. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E; Santander, Ricardo D; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G; López, María M; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  1. New sexing strains: Transforming Ceratitis capitata females into males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Ceratitis capitata female sex determination is established early during development and maintained by the key gene Cctransformer. The encoded protein seems to be able to promote female-specific pre-mRNA splicing of Cctra itself and of the downstream Ccdsx gene, hence encoding a female-specific isoform. In males, because of the Y-linked male determining signal, Cctra mRNAs encode truncated peptides most probably not functional and the Ccdsx gene produces a male-specific isoform. We developed C. capitata transgenic strains to verify two hypotheses: 1) a transgene mediated in vivo RNAi against Cctra should lead to complete masculinisation of XX individuals, as previously observed by embryonal RNAi: 2) a transgene encoded CcDSYM protein should promote partial masculinisation of XX individuals, by competing with the endeogenous CcDSXF. A PiggyBac vector was prepared containing a Cctra transgene bearing two inverted repeats, under the transcriptional control of an hsp70 promoter. A Minos vector was prepared containing a cDNA encoding the CcDSXM isoform, fused with an hsp70 promoter. Many different C. capitata transgenic lines were obtained that are presently under molecular and phenotypic analyses. Southern blots analysis confirmed the integration of the two vectors in the genome of the medfly transgenic lines. Further functional and phenotypic results will be presented, in the light of our final goal to develop transgenic C. capitata strains able to conditionally give male-only progeny. The mass-production, sterilisation and release of male-only insects can lead to the species-specific local suppression or eradication of a pest population. Two decades of the use of this Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) demonstrated that it is a safe technique to control infestations caused by some pest species, such as the medfly. The next challenges will be to demonstrate that SIT using sexing transgenic strains would be an essentially safe and an alternative efficient

  2. Chromosome polymorphism in a population of ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A morphological chromosomal polymorphism along with the observation of B chromosomes in a natural population of Ceratitis capitata is reported. A variability affecting the centromere size of chromosome 3 is described. The observed B chromosome is minute, heterochromatic and telocentric. The B chromosome was found in the male and female germ cells and it exhibited, in the males, intra-individual numerical variation with OB and IB cells, which suggested a mitotic instability. It was also found, in both sexes, in somatic cells (cerebral ganglia tissue). Only males transmitted the B chromosomes to the progeny. The high rate of transmission suggested a differential utilization of the sperm carrying the B chromosomes or a preferential segregation into secondary spermatocytes. Previously reported linkage relationship between a pupal esterase gene (Est-1) and a pupa colour mutant (nig) has been extended to a line carrying a Y-chromosome (Y,B) shorter than the one previously studied (Y,A). Furthermore, an elaborate crossing scheme has been devised in order to estimate the recombination distances between these two genes and a third one affecting pupal length (lp-1). It is concluded that all three genes are in the same linkage group but Est-1 is far from the other two. In turn, nig and lp-1 are separated by 14.9 map units. It is confirmed that genetic recombination does not regularly occur at high frequency in the male and this frequency is not increased by the varying length of the Y-chromosome. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. Determination of the dose of gamma radiation sterilization for assessment of biological parameters of male Ceratitis capitada (Diptera: Tephritidae), tsl - Vienna 8 strain; Determinacao da dose de radiacao gama esterilizante pela avaliacao dos parametros biologicos de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), linhagem tsl - Vienna 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Aline Cristina Pereira da

    2011-07-01

    The Vienna-8, tsl (temperature sensitive lethal) strain of Ceratitis capitata, by presenting mutations that facilitate the mass rearing and release only of sterile males in the field, has been used in (Sterile Insect Technique) programmes. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that provides the highest level of sterility for Vienna-8, tsl males assessing their biological parameters that indicate the quality of sterile males to be released. Brown pupae (males) of the tsl strain were obtained from the mass rearing of the Food Irradiation and Radio entomology laboratory of CENA/USP, and they were irradiated (with gamma radiation - {sup 60}Co) 24 hours before the emergence at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 Gy. The determination of the sterilizing dose was based on fertility of sexually mature females of the bisexual strain and not irradiated, mated with males of different treatments. Eggs were collected daily during 6 days, were counted and it was possible to estimate fecundity, and assess the hatching rate. The emergence and flight ability were determined by following the protocol of quality control manual for FAO/IAEA/USDA (2003). To assess the longevity under nutritional stress, the insects were kept a period of 48 h after emergence in the absence of water and food, and after this period, mortality was recorded. The size of the testes (left and right) was obtained by dissecting irradiated and non-irradiated males at the eighth day of life, and measure the testes in an ocular micrometer, considering the maximum length and width of each sample. To determine the sperm number was necessary to dissect the males and break their testicles. No difference was observed in emergence rate, flight ability and longevity of irradiated and non-irradiated males, nor in the fecundity of females mated with males of different treatments. The sterilizing dose that resulted in lower fertility of females was 120 Gy, with 1.5% hatching. Considering the parameters

  4. The significance of genetic polymorphisms within and between founder populations of Ceratitis capitata (Wied. from Argentina.

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    Alicia Basso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata (DIPTERA: Tephritidae is a major agricultural pest in Argentina. One main cause for the success of non-contaminant control programs based on genetic strategies is compatibility between natural and laboratory germplasms. A comprehensive characterization of the fruit fly based on genetic studies and compatibility analysis was undertaken on two founder populations from the provinces of Buenos Aires and Mendoza, used in pioneering sterile male technique control programmes in our country. The locations are 1,000 km apart from each other. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the genetic composition of both populations based on cytological, physiological and morphological characterization. Compatibility studies were performed in order to determine the presence of isolation barriers. Results indicate that the Buenos Aires germplasm described previously is partially different from that of the Mendoza population. Both laboratory colonies are a reservoir of mutational and cytological polymorphisms. Some sexual chromosome variants such as the XL and the YL resulting from attachment of a B-chromosome to the X-chromosome or Y-chromosome behave as a lethal sex-linked factor. Our results also show incompatibility between both germplasms and pre-zygotic isolation barriers between them. Our evidence is consistent with the fact that polymorphisms are responsible for the lack of compatibility. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic control mechanism should be directly produced in the germplasm of the target population in order to favour mating conditions. This is an additional requirement for the biological as well as economic success of control programs based on genetic strategies such as the sterile insect technique. The analysis of representative samples also revealed natural auto-control mechanisms which could be used in modifying pest population dynamics.

  5. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Early Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Marco; Arunkumar, Kallare P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Sanges, Remo; Petrella, Valeria; Tomar, Archana; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Weiwei; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, belongs to the Tephritidae family, which includes a large number of other damaging pest species. The Medfly has been the first non-drosophilid fly species which has been genetically transformed paving the way for designing genetic-based pest control strategies. Furthermore, it is an experimentally tractable model, in which transient and transgene-mediated RNAi have been successfully used. We applied Illumina sequencing to total RNA preparations of 8–10 hours old embryos of C. capitata, This developmental window corresponds to the blastoderm cellularization stage. In summary, we assembled 42,614 transcripts which cluster in 26,319 unique transcripts of which 11,045 correspond to protein coding genes; we identified several hundreds of long ncRNAs; we found an enrichment of transcripts encoding RNA binding proteins among the highly expressed transcripts, such as CcTRA-2, known to be necessary to establish and, most likely, to maintain female sex of C. capitata. Our study is the first de novo assembly performed for Ceratitis capitata based on Illumina NGS technology during embryogenesis and it adds novel data to the previously published C. capitata EST databases. We expect that it will be useful for a variety of applications such as gene cloning and phylogenetic analyses, as well as to advance genetic research and biotechnological applications in the Medfly and other related Tephritidae. PMID:25474564

  6. Analysis of the Ceratitis capitata y chromosome using in situ hybridization to mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Ceratitis capitata the Y chromosome is responsible for sex-determination. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for cytogenetic analysis of mitotic chromosomes. FISH with the wild-type strain EgyptII and two repetitive DNA probes enabled us to differentiate between the short and the long arm of the Y chromosome and gives a much better resolution than C-banding of mitotic chromosomes. We identified the Y-chromosomal breakpoints in Y-autosome translocations using FISH. Even more complex rearrangements i.e. deletions and insertions in some translocation strains were detected by this method. A strategy for mapping the primary sex determination factor in Ceratitis capitata by FISH is presented. (author)

  7. Medfly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) female attractant studies and development of trapping systems for sterility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In four years of research, we evaluated different traps (McPhail, Tephri, Closed-bottom dry trap, Open-bottom dry trap, and Frutect), lures (FA-2 and FA-3 synthetic lures composed of ammonium acetate + putrescine, and ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine, respectively), and insect retention methods (water, sticky inserts, insecticides) to develop a selective trapping system for female Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Wiedemann) sterility assessment. The trapping systems were compared with protein-baited McPhail traps, which are the standard method for C. capitata female capture, during eight to fifteen week trials in coffee and orthanique orange plantations at two different localities in Honduras. Trimedlure-baited Jackson traps were also used as the standard indicator of the C. capitata populations. The Closed-bottom trap baited with the two-component synthetic lure captured eight to twelve times fewer C. capitata than the Jackson trap. The McPhail trap and the modified Open-bottom trap, both baited with the two-component synthetic lure, captured 1.6 to 3.5 times more C. capitata females than the protein-baited McPhail trap. The addition of trimethylamine to the two-component synthetic lure resulted in 9.8 to 15.8 times increases in C. capitata female capture over the protein-baited McPhail trap. The presence of water in McPhail or Tephri traps did not affect the capture of C. capitata females. Throughout the study, all female-targeted trapping systems captured the same proportion of females. (author)

  8. Biology studies and improvement of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) mass trapping control technique

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrubia María, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (mosca de la fruita), està considerada a nivell mundial com una de les plagues més destructives de fruits degut a la seva elevada capacitat de causar danys en la producció, la seva distribució global i al seu ampli rang d‟hostes. S‟ha desenvolupat un model eficaç de control integrat de plagues (IPM), que ha estat acceptat a Europa com estratègia de protecció vegetal per a una agricultura sostenible. L‟objectiu del present treball va ser l‟...

  9. Isolation of strains of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal biological activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is to study the effect of toxins (δ-endotoxins) extracted from strains of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from the mud on the fly Sabkhat Dejoumi Ceratitis capitata, a pest of citrus and fruit trees. Among 51 isolated tested, 15 showed a very significant insecticidal activity, characterized by mortality rates exceeding 80 pour cent. These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of Bt revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by strains of Bt for large scale application.

  10. Influence of Melatonin on The Ultrastructure of Posterior Midgut of Male Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.) Irradiated With Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic architecture and organization of the posterior midgut epithelial cells in male med flies, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephtitidae), have been inspected after being subjected to sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (90 Gy). Their midgut cells damages were monitored by means of electron microscope. The treated cells were swollen and have slight vacuolation and increase of vesicles. The ground cytoplasm contained large vacuoles of myelinoid bodies, slight irregularity of few RER, lipid droplets and multi vesicular bodies. Some mitochondria were polymorlyphic owing to swelling of membrane or fusion together to form various shapes. Midgut epithelial cells of insects pre-treated with melatonin prior to gamma irradiation showed approximately normal structures, and preservation could be observed. The combined treatment by irradiation and melatonin could be successfully used to reduce the adverse effects of irradiation and subsequently can be used in the integrated pest management to help in the success of the sterile insect technique against the insects as well as to minimize complications of irradiation on sensitive non-target organs. This has many applications during radiotherapy for patients with cancer

  11. Combined biological effects of gamma radiation and Dimethoate insecticide on the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata Wiedemann

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mediterranean fruit fly, (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera : Tehritidae), is one of the most important agricultural pests. It is considered (Hagen et al, 1981) to have originated from tropical Africa, from where it spread to north and south africa, invaded spain and subsequently spread into the european mediterranean countries and the middle east. It appeared in hawaii, costa rica, south america, spread north through central america and finally into southern mexico. There are (kourti et al, 1990), 235 fruit trees, nut trees and vegetables recorded as medfly hosts . Of the 253 hosts, 40 are considered heavily or generally infested. The importance of controlling this injurious pest needs no emphasis. Different methods of control had been applied against this pest, all of them are directed towards the protection of fruits from infestation. Although man used chemical compounds which played and are still playing an important role in this struggle against insects, the extensive and continued use of broad - toxicity spectrum and long lived pesticides created a number of problems, among which environmental pollution represents one of the grave concerns. Moreover, the appearance of resistance in several species of insects to the action of these chemical is another problem

  12. New genetic tools for improving SIT in Ceratitis capitata: embryonic lethality and sperm marking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied effectively as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) for Ceratitis capitata since 1970s. Nevertheless improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of AW-IPM. Transgenic approaches should increase and widen the applicability of such programmes to different pest species. In this respect two major strategies are followed: First an approach to cause sterility was designed without interfering with spermatogenesis to maintain males and their sperm as competitive as possible. We followed a strategy, which is based on the expression of a lethal factor under the control of a promoter that is active at early blastoderm stages. The system employs the ectopic expression of a hyperactive pro apoptotic gene that causes embryo-specific lethality when driven by the tetracycline-controlled trans activator tTA under the regulation of a cellularization gene enhancer/promoter. The system has been tested successfully in Drosophila melanogaster (Horn and Wimmer 2003). We tried the direct transfer of the Drosophila system to Ceratitis capitata by injecting the respective constructs that carry Drosophila-derived promoters. Unfortunately, the cellularization specific promoters from Drosophila seem not functional in Ceratitis. Therefore, the corresponding enhancers/promoters from Ceratitis were isolated and subsequently the tTA was brought independently under the control of each enhancer/promoter region. These constructs were injected in Ceratitis for further evaluation. Second, we have engineered a medfly strain carrying a sperm marking system. This strain carries two fluorescent markers. One (turboGFP) marker is under the control of the spermatogenesis specific b2-tubulin promoter from Ceratitis and is therefore sperm specifically expressed. The second (DsRed) is under the control of the poly ubiquitin promoter of Drosophila. Released males from this strain could be

  13. New genetic tools for improving SIT in Ceratitis capitata: embryonic lethality and sperm marking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetelig, Marc F.; Wimmer, Ernst A. [Georg-August-University, Gottingen (Germany). Johann-Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology. Gottingen Center for Molecular Biosciences; Scolari, Francesca; Gasperi, Giuliano [Universita di Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Handler, Ernst A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    Environment friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied effectively as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) for Ceratitis capitata since 1970s. Nevertheless improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of AW-IPM. Transgenic approaches should increase and widen the applicability of such programmes to different pest species. In this respect two major strategies are followed: First an approach to cause sterility was designed without interfering with spermatogenesis to maintain males and their sperm as competitive as possible. We followed a strategy, which is based on the expression of a lethal factor under the control of a promoter that is active at early blastoderm stages. The system employs the ectopic expression of a hyperactive pro apoptotic gene that causes embryo-specific lethality when driven by the tetracycline-controlled trans activator tTA under the regulation of a cellularization gene enhancer/promoter. The system has been tested successfully in Drosophila melanogaster (Horn and Wimmer 2003). We tried the direct transfer of the Drosophila system to Ceratitis capitata by injecting the respective constructs that carry Drosophila-derived promoters. Unfortunately, the cellularization specific promoters from Drosophila seem not functional in Ceratitis. Therefore, the corresponding enhancers/promoters from Ceratitis were isolated and subsequently the tTA was brought independently under the control of each enhancer/promoter region. These constructs were injected in Ceratitis for further evaluation. Second, we have engineered a medfly strain carrying a sperm marking system. This strain carries two fluorescent markers. One (turboGFP) marker is under the control of the spermatogenesis specific b2-tubulin promoter from Ceratitis and is therefore sperm specifically expressed. The second (DsRed) is under the control of the poly ubiquitin promoter of Drosophila. Released males from this strain could be

  14. Hermes-mediated germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, K; Stamenova, A; Pinkerton, A C; Franz, G; Robinson, A S; Gariou-Papalexiou, A; Zacharopoulou, A; O'Brochta, D A; Atkinson, P W

    2001-04-01

    We report the use of the Hermes transposable element for germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Hermes was able to genetically transform this insect at an estimated frequency between 0.6 and 1.1%, which is comparable to the transformation frequencies obtained for this species when using other transposable elements. Hermes integrates into the medfly genome by a cut-and-paste mechanism and the sequences integrated into the genome are delimited by the terminal nucleotides of the Hermes inverted terminal repeats. Integration resulted in the generation of 8 bp target site duplications, the sequences of which conformed to the target site duplications generated by hAT element transposition in insects. The Hermes element is one additional genetic tool that can be deployed in manipulating and characterizing the medfly genome. PMID:11422511

  15. Diversity among Bacillus thuringiensis active against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures were developed to screen rapidly isolates of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis against adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and simultaneously characterize its active agents on the basis of their water solubility and heat stability. Fermentation products in solution, in suspension or dried were bioassayed. Heat stable, soluble exotoxins were the most frequently found active agents; some strains produced exotoxins that precipitated and their activity was found in the sediment fraction of fermentation beers. Insoluble heat labile agents were found that upon subsequent preparation were identified as active spores. The activity of spores from different isolates was different. One isolate produced endotoxin that, although inactive when bioassayed alone, had synergistic activity when combined with spores. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Isolation and identification of some Bacillus thuringiensis strains with insecticidal activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present work is to study the effect of toxins (delta-endotoxins), extracted from different strains of Bacillus thuringiensis on Ceratitis capitata, a devastating of citrus and fruit trees. Strains of B. thuringiensis were isolated from the mud of Sebket Sejoumi. Among 70 isolates tested, 15 showed a significant identicalness activity in which 5 isolates led to mortality rates ≥ 90 pour cent . These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of B. thuringiensis. Analysis of proteins profiles of different isolates of B. thuringiensis revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by B. thuringiensis strains for large scale application.

  17. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  18. Some chemical elements in gamma irradiated adults of the mediterranean fruit fly , Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical analysis of the elemental compositions of both males and females of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), was conducted on adult flies irradiated in the full grown pupae with 50, 70, 90 and 110 Gray at different ages (newly emerged, 7 and 15 days old). The data revealed the presence of ten elements, three of which are major (Na, K and N), four are moderate (P, Ca, Fe and Mg) and three are minors (Zn, Mn and Cu). Their quantities, however, varied according to adult sex, age and radiation dose. In all cases, the major elements remained major, the moderate elements remained moderate and the minor elements remained minor although the elements of each group differed in their arrangement according to changes in their quantities

  19. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orono, Luis E.; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. van; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Martin, Cristina B.; Schliserman, Pablo; Ovruski, Sergio M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  20. Insecticidal effects of essential oils extracted from aromatic plants on Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The excessive use of chemical pesticides to control agricultural pests is becoming alarming. The objective of this study is to search for biopesticides of plant origin that could be used to control one of the major pest of fruit production; the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.). A colony of the Lebanese wild strain of this insect was reared under laboratory condition to provide biological material. The insecticidal activity of the essential oils extracted from aromatic plants in Lebanon was assessed. The tested plants are: Foeniculum vulgare, Thymbra spicata, Artemisia herba alba, Origanum syriacum, Ruta chalepensis, Lavandula stoechas, Salvia fruticosa, Mentha microphylla, Juniperus oxycedrus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis, Laurus nobilis and Ocimum gratissimum. Results show that essential oils isolated from F. vulgare, T. spicata, A. herba alba, O. syriacum and R. chalepensis have promising insecticidal potential. (author)

  1. INFLUENCE OF LARVAL REARING DIET ACIDITY ON THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY YIELD OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY CERATITIS CAPITATA (Wied.) (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) FOR ITS CONTROL BY STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of larval rearing diet acidity on the developmental stages of the medfly C. capitata (Wied.) were studied at the laboratory scale. Diets were formulated at five different initial pH ranging from 4.59 to 2.09 together with the control group currently used in our laboratory (5.26). These effects were evaluated on larval period, percent pupal recovery, pupal weight, percent adult emergence, percent male production and adult flight ability. The results showed that the shortest larval development occurred at pH 3.48 and 3.75, the highest pupal recovery at pH 3.75, the best pupal weight at pH 2.09, 3.48, 3.75 and 4.59, the highest percent adult emergence at pH 3.75, the highest percentage male production at pH 3.48, and the best percentage of fliers at pH 4.59. The obtained data referred to the optimizing physiochemical factors such as pH can improve the overall yield of mass reared medfly in the laboratory to be irradiated by gamma radiation and released in the field for controlling the insect

  2. Estudio de la actividad biocida de aceites procedentes de plantas aromáticas sobre Tetranychus urticae y Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Laborda, R.; Manzano, I.; Gamón, M.; Gavidia, Isabel; Pérez-Bermúdez, Pedro; Boluda Hernandez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Se ha estudiado la actividad biocida de aceites esenciales extraídos de plantas aromáticas como el romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) y la salvia (Salvia officinalis L.) sobre la araña roja (Tetranychus urticae Koch) y la mosca de la fruta (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann). El aceite esencial de salvia a la concentración del 1% se mostró capaz de atraer adultos de C. capitata. La mayor actividad frente a la araña roja se observó por parte del aceite esencial de salvia, provocando, con gran rapid...

  3. Evaluación de modernos plaguicidas en el complejo Ceratis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) y Psyttalia concolor Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ould-Abdallahi, Elhadj Abdalldhi

    2004-01-01

    Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Mosca mediterránea de la Fruta) es una de las principales plagas de los cultivos frutales. Está presente en la mayor parte de las regiones subtropicales del mundo. Su rango de huéspedes abarca a más de 250 especies. Los daños son producidos en primer lugar por la oviposición de la hembra en los frutos, y posteriormente, por el desarrollo larvario en su interior. Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) es un endoparasitoide de moscas de ...

  4. Perspectives on fruit fly expansion: A lesson from a global invader, Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Fruit flies are present worldwide, although the major pests such as species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis, each have a limited natural distribution. Mankind has played an important part in altering the natural distribution of some of the more polyphagous species, as well as certain oligophagous species. However, a question arises why only a few species have become or are becoming major pests. The major problem in approaching this question is the insufficient knowledge of invasive potential of different species in relation to their biological traits. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, was the first fruit fly species that entered the scientific scene as a potential invader, given its extensive and relatively quick invasion potentials. Genetic analyses of its invasive processes, along with the knowledge of its life history and historical records, allowed us to interpret the biogeography of this species. In southeastern Africa, its home range, this species displays a vast reservoir of genetic variability, which provides a high potential for plasticity, increasing the likelihood of spreading, survival and genetic differentiation. Establishing a fine-scale map of the genetic variability in the species range, we highlighted a variety of evolutionary processes operating over different time scales: from the primary expansion in the Mediterranean area, to the more recent one in the Americas. In addition, secondary colonisation events as well as the origin of different outbreaks have been assessed. Knowledge and methods learnt from the medfly represent a model to approach and investigate the invasion processes of other fruit fly pests. Examples are different species within the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha, which represent potential threats to different geographic areas worldwide. (author)

  5. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique. PMID:23342117

  6. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minette Karsten

    Full Text Available The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km, are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of the compatibility of a new attractant contaminant device ciontaining Metarhizium anisopliae with Ceratitis capitata sterile males

    OpenAIRE

    SAN ANDRÉS AURA, VICTORIA; Ayala Mingol, Ildefonso; Abad Payá, María Del Carmen; Primo Millo, Jaime; Casteñera, P.; Moya Sanz, Mª Del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the compatibility of using the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, to be dispensed in a new attractant contaminant device (ACD), jointly with sterilized Ceratitis capitata males, as an integrated approach to control this major pest. The exposure of sterile Vienna 8 (V8) strain and wild type (WT) males to the contaminating part (infective dish) of the ACD showed similar susceptibility levels to the fungal strain (LT50 value of 4.52 ...

  8. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    João Maria Gomes Alencar de Souza; Paulo Augusto Lima-Filho; Wagner Franco Molina; Lúcia Maria de Almeida; Milson Bezerra de Gouveia; Francisco Pepino de Macêdo; Raul Alberto Laumann; Beatriz Aguiar Jordão Paranhos

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonic...

  9. Effect of successive irradiated generations on the biological activities of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (Wled)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulated effects of irradiated materials in the mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), ceratitis capitata (Wied) offsprings resulted from successively irradiated generations of eggs, pupae or adults were evaluated . Results showed that successive irradiation affected only the biological parameters that concern with the genetic cells i.e. sterility and fecundity. On the other hand, parameters concern the somatic cells i.e. Survival, sex-ration and mating activity were not significantly affected

  10. Sex and the single embryo: early deveopment in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharopoulou Antigone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In embryos the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MTZ integrates post-transcriptional regulation of maternal transcripts with transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying this event are being clarified in Drosophila melanogaster, little is know about the embryogenic processes in other insect species. The recent publication of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from embryos of the global pest species Ceratitis capitata (medfly has enabled the investigation of embryogenesis in this species and has allowed a comparison of the embryogenic processes in these two related dipteran species, C. capitata and D. melanogaster, that shared a common ancestor 80-100 mya. Results Using a novel PCR-based sexing method, which takes advantage of a putative LTR retrotransposon MITE insertion on the medfly Y chromosome, the transcriptomes of individual early male and female embryos were analysed using RT-PCR. This study is focused on two crucial aspects of the onset of embryonic development: sex determination and cellular blastoderm formation. Together with the three known medfly genes (Cctransformer, Cctransformer2 and Ccdoublesex, the expression patterns of other medfly genes that are similar to the D. melanogaster sex-determination genes (sisterlessA, groucho, deadpan, Sex-lethal, female lethal d, sans fille and intersex and four cellular blastoderm formation genes (Rho1, spaghetti squash, slow-as-molasses and serendipity-α were analyzed, allowing us to sketch a preliminary outline of the embryonic process in the medfly. Furthermore, a putative homologue of the Zelda gene has been considered, which in D. melanogaster encodes a DNA-binding factor responsible for the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Conclusions Our novel sexing method facilitates the study of i when the MTZ transition occurs in males and females of C. capitata, ii when and how the maternal information of "female-development" is

  11. biological effects of gamma irradiation under partial vacuum on the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different biological effects of gamma irradiation (90 Gy) applied under partial vacuum (3 x 10-4 in Hg) to pupae of medfly, Ceratitis Capitata one or two days before adult eclosion were studied. Male sterility was higher when irradiation was applied to pupae in normal air pressure than that under partial vacuum. Female fecundity under partial vacuum was insignificantly higher than that in normal air pressure, but it was significantly higher in both treatment when compared with controls. Female fecundity was also significantly higher when pupae were treated one day before emergence than that when they were treated two days before emergence. Males treated under partial vacuum were significantly more competitive than those treated in normal air whether pupae were irradiated one day or 2 days before emergence was decreased by gamma irradiation when pupae were irradiated one or two days before eclosion, while when irradiation was conducted under partial vacuum, adult emergence was increased. Survival of males treated as pupae under partial vacuum was higher than that when pupae were irradiated in normal air. Females treated 2 days before emergence under partial vacuum lived longer than those irradiated in an atmosphere of normal air.3 figs, 1 tab

  12. Status of molecular genetic studies in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, in relation to genetic sexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the current status of the molecular genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, with particular emphasis on the development of genetic sexing systems is presented. Rapid developments in the work on the molecular genetics of Drosophila melanogaster are beginning to play a prominent role in the expansion of genetic sexing to include molecular approaches. For example, the increasing availability of cloned genes from Drosophila has permitted the homologous sequences from the medfly genome to be identified. If homologous genes are identified, they can be rapidly mapped on the polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization. Germ line transformation is now routine in Drosophila and many attempts have been made to transform the medfly using the same system, to date without success. A P-element excision assay in Anastrepha suspensa has indicated that in this species also, P-element transformation is unlikely to be successful. Target genes to be potentially used in transformation fall into two classes, sex killing and sex transformation, and progress in and possibilities for both are discussed. Recent data on sex regulation in Drosophila offer new approaches for sex killing systems. Finally, since the genome of the medfly is sparsely mapped, it is suggested that a search should be made for restriction fragment length polymorphisms. These could be rapidly assigned to chromosome position using in situ hybridization and mapped using conventional genetic analysis. (author). 58 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Status of the control of mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (WIED.) using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note presents the importance of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in the world especially in the med east region including egypt. Evaluation of the control methods used and the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a successful and safe method for the fly eradication or control in many countries are considered. Moreover, the important requirements for a successful SIT programme and the trial for improvement of this technique are discussed including the improvement of the larval rearing media, male only release, trapping and attracting systems of the adult fly, and the current research on genetic sexing for elimination of females that cause great losses to after release

  14. SENSIBILIDADE DE OVOS DE Ceratitis capitata (WIED., 1824) IRRADIADOS EM DIETA ARTIFICIAL E EM FRUTOS DE MANGA (Mangifera indica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Raga, A.; YASUOKA S.T; E.O AMORIM; SATO M.E; SUPLICY FILHO N; FARIA J.T. de

    1996-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as doses de radiação gama que impedissem a emergência de adultos de Ceratitis capitata, a partir de ovos irradiados em dieta artificial e em frutos de manga. Quinhentos ovos de 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de idade foram irradiados em cada dose. A infestação artificial de ovos ocorreu em mangas das cultivares Haden, Tommy Atkins ou Keitt. Um aumento da radioresistência de ovos foi observado durante o desenvolvimento embrionário, e para ovos de 48 horas em diet...

  15. Development of an embryonic lethality system for transgenic SIT in the fruit pest, Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    pests. We have started to inject the respective constructs into the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. In addition to trying the already established constructs that carry Drosophila-derived promoters, we have started to obtain Ceratitis genes, which are specifically expressed at the blastoderm stage. By PCRbased cDNA substractions of different embryonic stages, we isolated genes that are specifically expressed during the cellularization process. The molecular and developmental analysis of these genes will be presented. (author)

  16. SENSIBILIDADE DE OVOS DE Ceratitis capitata (WIED., 1824 IRRADIADOS EM DIETA ARTIFICIAL E EM FRUTOS DE MANGA (Mangifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A RAGA

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as doses de radiação gama que impedissem a emergência de adultos de Ceratitis capitata, a partir de ovos irradiados em dieta artificial e em frutos de manga. Quinhentos ovos de 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de idade foram irradiados em cada dose. A infestação artificial de ovos ocorreu em mangas das cultivares Haden, Tommy Atkins ou Keitt. Um aumento da radioresistência de ovos foi observado durante o desenvolvimento embrionário, e para ovos de 48 horas em dieta artificial, foi estimado um Probit 9 de 24,67Gy. Não foi observada influência significativa dos frutos de manga na eficiência da irradiação dos ovos, quando comparada com os testes em dieta artificial.The objective of this study was to establish gamma radiation doses required to prevent emergence of Ceratitis capitata (Wied. adults, from irradiated eggs in artificial diet and mango fruits. Six-, twelve-, twenty-four- and fourty-eight-hour-old eggs were used. Artificial infestation by C. capitata was carried out in mangoes of `Haden', `Tommy Atkins' and `Keitt' cultivars. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed as a function of the embryonic development and a Probit 9 of 24.67Gy was estimated for 48-hour-old eggs in artificial diet. No significant influence of mango fruits was found on the efficacy of irradiation.

  17. Identification of pheromone components and their binding affinity to the odorant binding protein CcapOBP83a-2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siciliano, P.; He, X. L.; Woodcock, C.; Pickett, J. A.; Field, L. M.; Birkett, M. A.; Kalinová, Blanka; Gomulski, L. M.; Scolari, F.; Gasperi, G.; Malacrida, A. R.; Zhou, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 48, May (2014), s. 51-62. ISSN 0965-1748 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : medfly * Ceratitis capitata * olfaction * odorant binding protein * pheromone binding protein * pheromone * binding studies * protein expression * electroantennography * GC-EAG * fluorescence displacement Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.450, year: 2014

  18. Identifying the Impact of E-Selen on the Sterile Medfly Ceratitis capitata at the Genomic Level Using DNA Profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antioxidant E-Selen is an exogenous antioxidant containing both selenium and vitamin E. It was added to the larval artificial diets of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata in various concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.5 mg) prior to irradiation in order to obtain fully competent males. The produced full grown pupae were exposed to gamma rays at a dose rate of 90 Gy. Biological assessment of two E-Selen concentrations 0.3 and 0.5 mg were found to ameliorate the fitness of the sterile insects as well as to increase significantly most of their amino acids content. The study of the PCR patterns of normal and irradiated C. capitata undertaken or not different doses of E-Selen prior to irradiation and contained in the larval diets induced some modifications to the DNA profiles. The appearance of some new bands and disappearance of others were frequently encountered during this investigation. The appearance of bands was attributed to a repair mechanism that occurs in the irradiated DNA. However, the similarity in the DNA patterns of the homogenate pupal of C. capitata was due to the irradiation-induced damage may be in genome regions other than the regions of study

  19. Gamma Radiation and Temperature effects on the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggs of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) with different ages (2, 24, 48 h.old) were incubated at two different temperatures (15 degree for 24 h. and 50 degree for 10 minutes), then they were seeded on the larval media. The produced pupae were irradiated with gamma radiation (70 Gy as a sub sterilizing dose). Some biological aspects were studied concerning the effect of temperature on eggs and irradiation of the produced pupae. Results obtained showed that the percent pupation in the control group was significantly decreased with increasing the egg age in comparing 2 and 48 h.old eggs. However, in case of 24 h.old eggs, there was no effect at both temperatures applied. Incubation of 2 and 48 h.old eggs at either temperatures significantly affected the percent pupation when compared to the control group except with 48 h.old egg and 50 degree. At the two temperatures applied, the incubation periods significantly decreased the percent emergence for 2 h.old at both temperatures and 48 h.old eggs at 15 degree only. Incubated eggs at 50 degree and 48 h.old didn't affect neither percent pupation nor percent emerged sex. On the other hand, egg hatch ability was significantly reduced at 24 h.old egg and 50 degree for 10 minutes also at 2 h.old egg and 50 degree for 10 min. either by applying temperature alone or combined with irradiation, respectively. Egg incubation at 15 degree and 50 degree for 24 and 48 h.old eggs, respectively insignificantly reduced hatch ability of eggs of the produced adults. Combination of temperature (50 degree for 10 minutes applied to 2 h.old eggs) and gamma radiation gave the best reduction in egg hatch ability of the produced adults. Male competitiveness was better when 24 h.old eggs were incubated at 15 degree for 24 hours rather than incubated at 50 degree for 10 minutes. Neither the temperature nor the exposure time to which eggs of different eggs were subjected to heat affected adult survival

  20. Effects of two IGRs and gamma radiation on some biological aspects of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggs of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (24 h. old) were dipped in solutions of 5 or 160 ppm of dimilin for 24 hours, the produced pupae were irradiated with 70 or 90 Gy gamma radiation. This dipping led to a decrease in the fertility and an increase in mating competitiveness of the produced males. However, when the LC50 of either dimilin or IKI was mixed with the larval medium on which eggs were planted, and the produced pupae were irradiated (70 or 90 Gy) neither adult emergence adult survival was affected. However, egg hatch ability was affected by radiation and insignificantly affected by using either chemical applied separately, and significantly decreased when applying radiation and either chemical in combination together. Male mating competitiveness was not significantly when radiation and either chemical was applied together. 5 tabs

  1. Vitality Improvement of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied 1- Measured by using dehydrogenase Enzyme Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study searches for the improvement vitality of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Through the induction of a specific variance (mutation) in the genetic material. Several types of treatments that were thought to cause this mutation were used, as IGR's, temperature, formaldehyde, colchicine, alcohols, several types of larval rearing media and gamma-rays. Generally, the activities of the energy enzymes alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH) enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) enzyme, when used as a direct measure for the fly vitality, increased due to treatments of the egg stage by the previously mentioned treatments specially by the usage of rice hulls in the larval rearing medium alone or followed by irradiation of the pupal stage with 90 Gy

  2. Testosterone as a Bio marker for Rapid Detection of Male Sterility of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid biochemical method for the determination of the sterility in males of the fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.) was established utilizing testosterone as a bio marker. Pupae (2 days before emergence) were irradiated at 90 Gy using a 60Co-gamma-cell, unit. Testosterone level, measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA), in addition to sterility in irradiated male flies were compared to their corresponding values of the untreated control group. The data obtained revealed a highly significant decrease in the testosterone level associated with a highly significant decrease in sterility. The decrease in the hormone level was recognized during the different time intervals (24-120 hours after adult emergence). This bio marker (Testosterone) could be adopted as a rapid monitor for measurements of medfly male sterility before release in the field in a sterile insect technique (SIT) program

  3. sterility and mating competitiveness of male ceratitis capitata as affected by gamma radiation and di methane insecticide. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the effects of pupal gamma-irradiation (50, 70, 90 Gy), or adult treatment with dimethoate insecticide (0.93 ppm) on the male sterility and mating competitiveness of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) were studied. Results indicated that treatment of the adult medfly with dimethoate had no clear effect on male fertility whether this male mated with treated or normal females. However, gamma irradiation drastically decreased hatch ability of eggs laid by normal or treated (dimethoate) females, when mated with irradiated males all gamma doses. This reduction in egg hatch ability increased increased with increasing gamma dose. Irradiated females did not lay eggs at any of the gamma doses used. At all mating combinations, the male mating competitiveness was decreased especially when irradiated males were confined with treated males for mating with normal or treated females. Results are indicated and discussed in the text. 4 figs

  4. Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica) by Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) through the use of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfect peaches, Prunus persica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27 0 C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults. (author). 14 refs, 1 tab

  5. Management of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), in the Gharb area in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Gharb is one of the most fertile regions of Morocco. The annual rainfall is 500 mm and the temperature varies from 11deg C in January to 24 deg.. C in July-August. Fruit production in the Gharb area covers 16,544 ha and generates an annual production of 466,680 Tonnes. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly); Ceratitis capitata is a major pest of cultivated and wild fruit trees. It causes 11,000 Tonnes/year of losses in citrus production and prevents export to main markets. Early varieties, such as clementine and navel are subject to higher infestation than late varieties like maroc late. The monitoring using Maghreb-Med trap has confirmed those results. Management of medfly is solely based on chemical treatments. Currently, and in order to determine the need for treatment, growers use Maghreb Med traps baited with trimedlure and a toxicant. At 2 to 3 flies/trap/day, a mixture of a proteinous bait attractant and a pyrethrenoid insecticide is sprayed in every fourth row. However, in the period of high activity, growers may treat every row using pesticide only. The number of applications can reach 10 per cycle of production, which leads to an average cost of USD 220/ha. This generates an increase of production costs, elimination of non-target organisms, toxic effects on consumers and the environment, and finally denial of export certificate because of high chemical residues. The DPVCTRF; the Moroccan official organisation for plant protection; in collaboration with GTZ; the German technical co-operation organisation, developed a management programme based on spot treatment. It consists of the application of a mixture of proteinous baits and pesticide on a weekly basis, using only 16ml/ha, as a spot treatment applied to the lower foliage of the tree. The spraying is applied from early fruit maturation until three weeks after harvest. This method allowed to decrease the cost of controlling medfly to an average of USD 30 /ha, instead of USD 220/ha, using

  6. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, João Maria Gomes Alencar; de Lima-Filho, Paulo Augusto; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Almeida, Lúcia Maria; de Gouveia, Milson Bezerra; de Macêdo, Francisco Pepino; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild), based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings' shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:26075293

  7. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maria Gomes Alencar de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann: (1 wild males, (2 irradiated with Co-60 (steriles, and (3 irradiated (steriles and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild, based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings’ shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata.

  8. comparative studies on pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb as juvenile hormones applied separately or combined with gamma radiation for controlling the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (Wied)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative studies on pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb as juvenile hormones applied separately or combined with gamma radiation were carried out for controlling ceratitis capitata. Lc 50's of the two juvenile hormones, pyriproxfen and fenoxycarb, were determined against ceratitis capitata in treated diet by continuous contact of eggs and larvae using various concentrations. The Lc 50 were 32 and 140 ppm for pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb, respectively. The resulting pupae were gamma irradiated with 90 Gy. Larval and pupal durations were insignificantly affected, pupation and adult emergence were significantly affected while adult survival was insignificantly affected when applying the two JH's. Applying pyriproxyfen alone insignificantly increased egg hatch at the concentrations used (12.5 and 25 ppm) while when fenoxycarb was applied alone egg hatch was significantly decreased at the concentration used (100 ppm). Applying both juvenile hormones each combined with gamma radiation significantly reduced egg hatch. Male mating competitiveness was significantly increased when applying pyriproxyfen at the concentration 25 Ppm. Results indicated that pyriproxyfen was more effective than fenoxycarb against the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata.1 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Detection of resistance to the organophosphate insecticide in wild populations of medfly Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the wild medfly resistance of the organophosphate insecticide is evaluated by the physiologic mechanism of resistance including the Acethylcholinesterase enzyme. Different representative populations of Ceratitis were collected from different regions of Tunisia. The analysis statistics (ACP) for DL50 and the treatment frequency showed a negative correlation between them. The gene ace was amplified at the level of the exons 4, 5, 6 et 7 by PCR. No mutation of the gene ace was identified with the collected individuals.

  10. Genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), as a tool in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers a period of five years of studies on the genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), and genetic sexing. Fourteen morphological mutants were isolated during that period, including gr, ru, ro Sr, Sp, ew, br, sb and six yet unstudied mutants. Additional data were accumulated on genetic recombination between the various marked loci in males and females, and genetic maps were constructed. Recombination in males were found to be rather common in the medfly and not associated with the presence of chromosomal aberrations or with a particular chromosome. It seemed, however, that the dominant mutants that have been studied had a higher frequency of recombination in males, which almost matched the recombination levels encountered in the females. Initial steps towards the construction of genetic sexing strains were conducted. Selection for resistance to certain chemicals (potassium sorbate, Avermectin and Cyromazine) was carried out with limited success. Lines with high immunity to the three chemicals were established, and the mode of inheritance to Cyromazine and potassium sorbate was studied. Indications were that Cyromazine resistance was recessive and governed by a single gene whereas potassium sorbate resistance seemed to be a quantitative trait. (author). 14 refs, 8 tabs

  11. Rice hulls a new bulking component for larval rearing of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata wied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice hulls as a new bulking component for the larval rearing of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata wied. Was tested in the laboratory; and 4 formulas of rice hulls and wheat bran were evaluated biologically and financially. When rice hulls and wheat bran were mixed in the ratio of 3:1, all biological aspects and response to gamma radiation (90 Gy) of the produced adults were normal except for male fertility that decreased by about 13% of that of the bran medium (control); while male mating competitiveness was increased. When rice hulls were used without bran, only adult emergece and female fecundity were decreased by about 2% and 20%, respectively as compared to control medium (totally wheat bran); while larval duration increased by one day. The fourth formula consisting of wheat bran and rice hulls in the ratio of 1:1 showed the least favourite bulking component. Calculations showed that one million pupal production costed $26.6,22.2, 20.2 and 21.4 for the bulking ratios (hulls : bran) 0.1, 1:1, 3:1 and 1:0,respectively

  12. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM) FOR THE BIOAGENTS ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND PENICILLIUM OXALICUM AGAINST THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an alternative to chemical control or as a part of integrated pest management (IPM program), there is a resurgence of interest in using microbial agents for pest population suppression before the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann). The insect-fungus interaction between the fungal isolates, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium oxalicum, when applied as a spore suspension against the adults of Medfly in the laboratory showed visual fungal development after 7 days from inoculation. Examination of the infected parts of the dead fly with light microscopy showed a markedly damage as evidenced by the occurrence of the attached conidia and features of pathogen penetration. Using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the abundant sporulation of both fungal isolates was investigated over all parts of the dead fly and their associated sensillae. The recognized shape of the fungal conidial spores and their arrangement on the hyphae of both bio agents was investigated. This ultra structural study may be helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of both fungal bio agents on the functions of all infected parts of the insect and their associated sensillae (the main communication system between insects, their internal and external environment) and their main role in the courtship, male mating ability, the selection of fruit host plants necessary for the adults food and also the selection of a suitable oviposition site

  13. Alternative Sources Of Protein And Bulking Agent For Mass Rearing Of The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.), For The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), larvae by testing alternative sources of protein and bulking agent. Two larval diet groups for laboratory rearing of the medfly were conducted in addition to the control diet. The first group kept the sources of bulking agent constant (wheat bran) while the kind and the ratio of sources of protein were changed (brewer's yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar). In the second group, the fiber (used for filling the pillows) and a paste of cardboard eggs box trays were used instead of wheat bran as bulking agent against the yeast and soybean as protein sources. To investigate the effect of the new sources of bulking agent and the kind or the ratio of the protein sources on the development and viability of the medfly, larval duration, pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability were checked. The larval duration, pupal weight, adult recovery and flight ability were unaffected when soybean or a mixture from yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar as protein sources for larval diet were used. The larvae reared on diets based on schemed milk or agar as sources of protein did not complete their life cycle. The percent of pupal recovery of larvae reread on diets of soybean or a mixture of protein sources were not affected except when larvae were reared on diets based on a mixture of soybean and schemed milk or schemed milk and agar. Larval duration was extended by one to two days more than the control when the fiber or a mixture of it with bran or paste of cardboard of eggs box was used as bulking agent. A paste of cardboard eggs box as bulking agent led to the extension of the larval duration by more than four days than in control. Pupal recovery was significantly decreased at all diets of the second group except the diet containing a mixture of 4 % fiber and 10 % bran as bulking agent

  14. Efectos de la citarabina, el ftorafur y la radiación gamma sobre la fecundidad, fertilidad y longevidad de Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Díptera: Trypetidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, R.; Muñiz, M

    1992-01-01

    Se han realizado experimentos para estudiar los efectos de los antimetabolitos citarabina y ftorafur y de la radiación gamma sobre la fecundidad, fertilidad y longevidad de Ceratitis capitata Wied. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que la acción conjunta de estos agentes produce un posible efecto sinérgico sobre la reducción de la fertilidad de este insecto y no altera la longevidad de los machos y las hembras. En este trabajo se considera importante estudiar la competitivi...

  15. Studies on mass rearing and effect of sterilizing doses of gamma radiation on the adult emergence and male competitiveness on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on mass rearing of mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) revealed that the size and weight of pupae influence the adult emergence, flight ability index and egg production. Egg laying spans over a period of 18 days. A great majority was laid during 3rd to 7th day. The ideal dose of gamma irradiation for sterilization of males was found to be 9 Krad applied to mature pupae. Sexual competitiveness of irradiated males was highest when the ratios of sterile male to untreated males and female was either 1:2:1 or 1:3:1. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Use of sterile insect technique in Brazil by the sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824); Esterilizacao de Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) para aplicacao da tecnica do inseto esteril no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeese, G.O.; Kitomer, T.J.; Gayaradus, L.B.; Etrigan, M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jamuga@cena.usp.br; Jansen, C.W.J.H.; Houlahar, H.L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique is a method of pest control allowed in Integrated Pest Management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradative population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from {sup 60}Co or {sup 137}Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain has been used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Bio factory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a {sup 60}Co irradiator, with 17.2 x 1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All averages of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses did not affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy can be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  17. Biological and Biochemical Effects of Vitamin C on The Normal and Irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Vitamin C on the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) was studied with two concentrations (1000 and 2000 mg/ 1 kgm larval medium) and exposed the produced pupae with the sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (90 Gy) on some biological aspects (female fecundity male sterility, adult survival for 15 days and male computability. Also, some biochemical parameters for both sexes (total proteins, lipids and carbohydrates content) were studied. The changes in the activity of the digestive enzymes (protease, lipase and amylase) for males and females, sexual hormones (testosterone and progesterone) and the superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) were considered. The data obtained revealed that vitamin C had no effects on each of the biological and biochemical parameters, but when applying the sterilized dose (90 Gy) on the produced pupae, significant decreases in female fecundity, male sterility, total proteins and carbohydrates content were observed, while, significant increases were estimated in the total lipids for both sexes. The activity of the three tested digestive enzymes (Protease, Lipase and Amylase) were significantly decreased in both medfly sexes. Sexual Hormones (Testosterone and Progesterone) were slightly decreased when compared with the control group. SOD enzyme was significantly decreased in both sexes. The combined effect of vitamin C and the sterilizing gamma dose (90 Gy) revealed improvements in the expected adverse effects of gamma radiation in all studied parameters. The competitiveness values of the irradiated males were increased by increasing the vitamin C concentration combined with gamma irradiation. Generally, the combined treatment of vitamin C and gamma irradiation could be successfully used to reduce the adverse effects of gamma irradiation and subsequently can be used in the integrated pest management to help in the success of the sterile insect technique against the medfly

  18. Evaluation of a white female pupa genetic sexing strain of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), under selection procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During seven consecutive generations of mass rearing of a white female, brown male, genetic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), isolated at Seibersdorf (T:Y(wp+)30C, hereafter referred to as SWFP), only eggs produced during oviposition days 7-9 (adult age of 9-11 days, respectively) were seeded into the larval medium. Data on the quality of the various life stages were compared with similar data from the 'Sohag' normal colour strain collected throughout 1987. The Sohag strain was mass reared at the FAO/IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory from October 1983 until December 1987 when it was replaced by the SWFP strain. The mean amount of eggs collected daily per large colony cage of SWFP ranged between 40 mL and 62 mL in the successive generations, as compared to about 105 mL for for Sohag strain. Egg hatch in the SWFP successive generations varied between 71% and 76% as compared to about 85% for Sohag. Successful larval development in the artificial medium (percentage pupae from hatched eggs) fluctuated between 30% and 50%, while the average recovery in the Sohag strain was about 50%. Pupal size in the SWFP successive generations was always higher than in Sohag, i.e. 5.6 to 5.9 versus approx. 5.3 (size 5 on pupal day 4 corresponds to about 8.2 mg). Breakdown of the strain, as measured by the percentage of females emerging from brown pupae of the two highest larval collection days, was very low; increasing to only 1,2% by generation 7. Adult emergence and flight ability improved with the successive generations of SWFP from 64% to about 90% and from 50% to about 75%, respectively, while adult emergence and flight ability in the Sohag strain were around 93% and 90%, respectively. (author). 12 refs, 1 tab

  19. Studies On The Radio-Protective Role Of Melatonin On The Testes Fine Structure Of MEDFLIES Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.) Sterile Males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with evaluating the radio-protective effects of melatonin on the testes fine structure of med flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), to avoid oxidative stress and tissue injury induced by gamma radiation. It was found that the testes of non-irradiated adult male Mediterranean fruit fly (4 days-old), Ceratitis capitata (Wield), consists of a single sac like follicle containing all the development zone of male sexual cells. In the testes wall, there is a peritoneal sheath of large cells, its cytoplasm full with pigment grains of different sizes and shapes located on a continuous layer of muscles and followed by a follicular epithelium supported with thick basement membrane. Certain aspects of spermatogenesis in the studied insect are described in this study using the electron microscope. The spermatogenesis was occurred within the cysts, which contain approximately 100-246 germ cells per cyst. Inside each cyst, all the spermatids were more or less at the same stage of maturation. The head of sperm was formed of a layer of acrosome and the nucleus. The flagellum of sperms has the typical axoneme formed by a 9+9+2 microtubule arrangement, two mitochondrial derivatives containing crystalline cone and two accessory bodies developed during sperm formation. The pattern of spermatogenesis in the treated C. capitata was altered when using the sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (90 Gy). These effects include alteration of axonemal membrane, abnormalities in chromatin of the nucleus, and clear degeneration of some sperms. By adding the melatonin, some of spermatids possessed very large nuclei of various shape with different distribution of the chromatin and two well-developed mitochondria derivatives, so, the sperms which success in complete its growth became less in numbers and more active.

  20. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) and Improvement of The Sterile-Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population suppression success of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) using sterile insect technique (SIT) depends mainly upon: the release of male only, ability of sterilized males to compete with wild males in mating with wild females and discrimination of released male flies from the wild population. The effect of gamma irradiation doses on the male sterility was evaluated, to determine the level of induced sterility for achieving the balance between sterility and mating competitiveness. For optimal sterilizing dose, 8 different doses of gamma irradiation were tested. The results revealed that the doses 80, 90 and 100 Gy were the effective doses for SIT. In a field cage experiment, the mating ability, mating competitiveness and sexual compatibility were determined for the three effective sterilizing doses. The indices of sexual isolation (ISI) and the relative sterile index (RSI) indicated that mating efficiency of the dose 80 Gy was better than the doses 90 and 100 Gy. Obtained results also revealed that the competitiveness of 80 Gy irradiated males was higher than either 90 or 100 Gy irradiated males. Mutant strains, i.e. white eye white pupae strain (WeWp strain), male linked translocated strain (T strain), temperature sensitive lethal strain (tsl strain) and sergeant 2 strain (Sr2 strain) were reared and maintained for the construction of genetic sexing strain Vienna 8- Sr2 strain (GSS V8-Sr2). The results of biological characters of GSSs revealed that, the 3 sexing strains (T, Sr2 and V8 strains) which have Y- auto some translocation were less productive than the bisexual strain (BSS). Also, the development of tsl and GSS V 8-Sr2 strains was delayed compared with the BSS strain. The stability of GSS V8-Sr2 strain in the filter rearing was higher than in the mass rearing throughout 12 successive generations. The use of recombinant DNA to develop the two genetically modified strains GMSs (V8-2) and (V8-4) using insect transformation offers

  1. Effects of acoustic waves on pupas of Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Efeitos das ondas acusticas em pupas de Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Adilson Camilo de

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this research has been to investigate the hypothesis that acoustic waves would provoke a measurable effect on a population of fruit flies, a treatment denominated sonication. Ionizing radiation, the causative agent for the treatment designated by irradiation has been used as a reference, as long as its effects on living beings and particularly on insects are widely known. This research also enquiries into the possible effects of acoustic waves and gamma rays. The experiments of sonication were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology of the Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo. The experiments of radiation were carried out in the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes - IPEN, located within the campus of the University of Sao Paulo. It has been employed a Gamma cell source model 220 with average activity of 757.069 {+-} 293.484 curies (Ci) and an average doses rate of 3.106 {+-} 0.245 kilo grays per hour (kGy/h). Levels applied to the sonication treatment, in hertz and kilo Hertz were: 0 Hz (control) ; 5.0 Hz; 10.0 Hz; 20.0 Hz; 40.0 Hz; 60.0 Hz; 80.0 Hz; 1.0 k Hz; 2.0 k Hz; 10.0 k Hz; 15.0 k Hz e 20.0 k Hz. Irradiation doses applied in Grays were: 5.0 Gy; 7.5 Gy; 10.0 Gy; 12.5 Gy; 15 Gy; 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy and 200 Gy. It has been used an acoustic tube made of glass - 40.6 cm in length and 9.1 cm in diameter - and sinusoidal waves originated from three acoustic sources, with response in decibels, which sound intensity varied from 93.60 {+-} 1.51 dB to 123.96 {+-} 0.23 dB. Final results have pointed to evidences that would justify the rejection of null hypothesis H{sub 0}, to which the average of the treatments due to acoustic waves do not differ significantly from each other.(author)

  2. Study of effect of radiation on the parameters of quality of sterile males of Ceratitis Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and their improvement aroma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this present work, we are interested in studying the various stages in the production of sterile males, the effect of different doses of irradiation on longevity, compatibility and competitiveness of these males. And the effect of exposure of adults and pupae of Ceratitis to different doses of essential oil of ginger on their compatibility and competitiveness. (Author)

  3. Microscopical studies on the effects of gamma radiation and/or pyriproxyfen (IGR) on the testis and ovary of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larval artificial diet of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (wied.) was treated with the Lc50 of the juvenile hormone, pyriproxyfen. The produced full grown pupae were gamma irradiated at doses of 50, 70, 90 and 110 Gy. The produced four days-old adults were dissected for removing the testis or the ovary for microscopical investigations. The study revealed that pyriproxyfen and/or irradiation affected insignificantly the volume of the male testis and significantly the ovary of the female, injured the process of spermatogenesis and caused gross damage to the female ovary. The damage was increased with increasing the gamma dose level. Deformations were observed including shrinkage of testis and ovary contents, vacuolations and disturbances in the process of sperm and oocyte maturation

  4. Vitality Improvement of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied 2- Measured by using ME and At Pase Enzyme Activities and Total Protein Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation aims at producing sterile adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Having the best possible vitality through the use of irradiation and /or a mutagenic substances to be used in a sterile insect technique program. Several types of mutagenic that were thought to cause mutations were used as IGR's, temperature, formaldehyde, colchicine, alcohols, serve ral types of larval rearing media and gamma-rays. In a common pathway, malic enzyme (ME) activity, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity and the total protein contents are studied as direct parameters for measuring vitality of the insect. It was found that there is an increment at levels of these parameters due to the treatment of egg stage by the previously mentioned treatments specially the usage of the rice hulls as a bulking component in the larval rearing media alone or followed by irradiation of the pupal stage with 90 Gy

  5. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and two plant extracts, Nicandra physaloide and Dodonaea viscosa, on the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis Capitata Wiedemann

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum ether extract of the plant Nicandra Physaloide L. and the alcoholic plant extract of Dodonaea viscosa L. were subjected to the biological evaluation to assess their toxic effects on the reproductive abilities and survival survival of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata Wied., exposed to the treated diet in the larval stage. The produced full grown pupae (1-2 day old) were gamma irradiated (90 Gy). Neither percent pupation, adult emergence nor survival were affected by treating larvae with any of the two plant extracts alone at the tested concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 3,5 and 7 ppm).Applying each of the two plant extracts recorded insignificant effect on egg hatch. however, irradiating pupae produced from larvae subjected to the extracts significantly affected the male fertility and mating competitiveness

  6. Development of sexing mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata through manipulation of radiation-induced conditional lethals and other genetic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African populations of Ceratitis capitata (Kenya and Reunion Isl.) and two Mediterranean ones (Sardinia and Procida Isl.) have been studied for genetic variability at 25 loci by electrophoresis. Parameters using gene frequencies indicate the presence of substantial geographic heterogeneity. The major part of this heterogeneity is attributable to genetic drift and is correlated with the dispersion of medfly from the source area of the species (Subsaharan Africa) to the periphery. Kenya has all the properties of a native population, as gene flow estimates, in terms of number of immigrant per generation, is significant between Kenya and the derived Mediterranean populations, supporting the hypothesis of a recent colonization. But part of the geographic heterogeneity is related to the presence of fixed alleles in Reunion population which appears particularly differentiated, although it maintains the genetic attributes of the ancestral population. Selection may have played an important role in the differentiation of this population. 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Comparative Electrophoretic Study of Protein Profiles of Normal and Sterile Medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Treated with Various Concentrations of E-Selen Antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dietary effects of E-Selen on the protein profiles of normal and irradiated medfly (Ceratitis capitata Wied .), were investigated in total body homogenates of the pupae. The insects were reared from first-instar larvae on artificial diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.5 mg of E-Selen. The appearance and disappearance of some high molecular weight protein fractions among the different samples tested due to the difference of antioxidant doses were detected. All bands of molecular weights ranging between 51.5 and 9.9 KDa were commonly found among all samples while the variations were detected only in the bands of higher molecular weights. Disappearance of some protein bands indicated may be due to non-production, utilization or the degradation of proteins to maintain amino acids concentrations in the body, while the appearance of new bands might indicate the synthesis of new proteins by the insect

  8. An integrative approach to unravel the Ceratitis FAR (Diptera, Tephritidae) cryptic species complex: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Meyer, M.; Delatte, H.; Ekesi, S.; Jordaens, K.; Kalinová, Blanka; Manrakhan, A.; Mwatawala, M.; Steck, G.; Van Cann, J.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, R.; Virgilio, M.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 405-427. ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : taxonomy * Ceratitis rosa * Ceratitis fasciventris * Ceratitis anonae * Africa * fruit fly Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2014 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/ articles .php?id=6059

  9. Use of steril insect technique to control the medfly Ceratitis capitata wiedmann (Diptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autocide struggle against fruit fly consists in making a raising in mass of the stump to genetic sexing of the fruit fly, to radiate males with gamma rays and then to set free them in orchards of citrus fruits. This technique permitted a reduction of the rate of stings of 50% in relation to the witness although its production of pupae in 2004, either enough feeble, not passing the 9 millions of pupae per week. But, it remains even efficient in relation to the chemical struggle (respectively 12% and 7%). One preliminary survey of the profitability of autocide struggle and the chemical struggle (rate of profitability to 181.020) is more profitable than autocide struggle (rate of profitability to 43.450) for the first year to release. This relativity weak profitability for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is the consequence of a bad interview of citrus fruits and unconsciousness of farmer of the importance of built in struggle technique . However, autocide struggle permits to preserve the quality of fruit, to reduce the toxics residues and to preserve parasitoides. therefore, there is increase of selling prices of the product. (author). 12 refs

  10. Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in...

  11. Effects of acoustic waves on pupas of Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research has been to investigate the hypothesis that acoustic waves would provoke a measurable effect on a population of fruit flies, a treatment denominated sonication. Ionizing radiation, the causative agent for the treatment designated by irradiation has been used as a reference, as long as its effects on living beings and particularly on insects are widely known. This research also enquiries into the possible effects of acoustic waves and gamma rays. The experiments of sonication were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology of the Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo. The experiments of radiation were carried out in the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes - IPEN, located within the campus of the University of Sao Paulo. It has been employed a Gamma cell source model 220 with average activity of 757.069 ± 293.484 curies (Ci) and an average doses rate of 3.106 ± 0.245 kilo grays per hour (kGy/h). Levels applied to the sonication treatment, in hertz and kilo Hertz were: 0 Hz (control) ; 5.0 Hz; 10.0 Hz; 20.0 Hz; 40.0 Hz; 60.0 Hz; 80.0 Hz; 1.0 k Hz; 2.0 k Hz; 10.0 k Hz; 15.0 k Hz e 20.0 k Hz. Irradiation doses applied in Grays were: 5.0 Gy; 7.5 Gy; 10.0 Gy; 12.5 Gy; 15 Gy; 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy and 200 Gy. It has been used an acoustic tube made of glass - 40.6 cm in length and 9.1 cm in diameter - and sinusoidal waves originated from three acoustic sources, with response in decibels, which sound intensity varied from 93.60 ± 1.51 dB to 123.96 ± 0.23 dB. Final results have pointed to evidences that would justify the rejection of null hypothesis H0, to which the average of the treatments due to acoustic waves do not differ significantly from each other.(author)

  12. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyniszewska, Anna M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species. PMID:25375649

  13. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Szyniszewska

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species.

  14. Autocidal fight against the Mediterranean fruit fly: Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our study which aims at the control of the TIS consisted in following the stages of breeding of the fly and carrying out lachers sterile insects. We noticed during the massive breeding, a monitoring of the physicochemical parameters (pH, Porosite) and climatic conditions of the mediums and the rooms of breeding (temperature, Humidity) allows a significant productivity in quantity. However, a good productivity inevitably does not imply a good quality, this was illustrated by the tests of quality control of the most productive transfers (weight and number of pupes/2ml, aptitude for thr flight, recombination). The very start of the lachers what increases the effectiveness of the technique of the sterile insect (TIS). A good control of the breeding makes it possible to have a massive production to be able to make homogenous lachers.

  15. Lufenuron in solid baits as chemosterilant traps against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lufenuron is a chitin synthesis inhibitor, which prevents the hatching of eggs laid by medflies following ingestion of the compound. Lufenuron was added to protein baits in order to induce ingestion by medflies and has been tested since 1998 in several field trials in various formulations. The protein bait has been continuously improved during the last 4 years, and a solid bait, which has an efficacy of up to one year, has been employed in a new trap. This solid protein bait was both attractive and phagostimulant to medflies over a short distance. In order to attract the medfly from longer distances we placed male (trimedlure) and female (amine compounds) dispensers in the same trap. For this purpose we have developed new male and female dispensers using mesoporous materials. Trimedlure dispensers remain active in the field during 9 months while female ones work for 4 months. In this way, sterilising traps with attractants remain one year in the field and only have to be replaced once in a year, i.e 1 month before the first medfly generation. Several chemosterilant trap densities have been tested and 24 traps per ha were selected as the optimal. The field trials have been running since six years, and the area covered has been increased to cover 3,800 ha during the last three years. All trials were made in large and isolated areas in order to avoid medfly intrusion. As with the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) we can observe a reduction of efficacy when untreated areas are close to a lufenuron-treated area. The efficacy of this treatment was compared to malathion-bait aerial treatments. The medfly population was measured by means of Tephri-Traps and IPM traps with trimedlure. In all cases, lufenuron was more efficient in reducing medfly population than malathion aerial treatments. Moreover, while malathion treatments reduced medfly populations to the same level year after year, control with the lufenuron treatments was incremental year after year. In the first year of lufenuron treatments, population reduction was nearly equal to the malathion treatments, but this reduction continued year after year. In the third year we obtained a reduction of 50% of medfly population in the worst case, and an average reduction of 60% in comparison to the malathion treatments. These results offer us a possibility to replace aerial treatments of malathion with this new technique, with many environmental, ecological and economic advantages. On the other hand, this technique could be applied with other techniques such as mass-trapping, application of insecticides or the SIT. In this way the application of lufenuron and SIT could be complementary because lufenuron sterilises males and females of medfly and this could supplement the effect of released sterilised males. Moreover, lufenuron effect is independent of medfly population levels and this can help SIT in high medfly population areas where an effective ratio of sterile to wild males cannot be achieved. (author)

  16. A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

  17. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF FIVE ADULT DIETS ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NORMAL AND GAMMA IRRADIATED ADULT MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the sterile insect technique for controlling the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), experiments were carried out to test the effect of four new adult protein sources on the insect vitality. Different yeasts consisting of almost the same nutritive components but differ in the quantity of protein were mixed with sugar as carbohydrate sources (2:3) and compared to the standard adult diet (enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3). Adults reared on each diet were evaluated biologically for their response to gamma radiation (90 Gy). The weight and size of the produced pupae from parents fed on the tested diets, percent of adult emergence, sex ratio, adults survival, egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) for the following generations were taken as monitors for the insect vitality. The results showed that adult male and female survival for 5, 10 and 15 days from emergence, percent egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) showed no sharp differences between three tested diets D3(Af), D4(YE300) and D5(YE00) as compared to the standard diet D1(YH, enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3) for parents and F1 progeny. However, when the second tested diet D2(Ay150) was used, the results showed a significant decreases in most of the tested biological aspects, especially in the male mating competitiveness value (C.V.), which is considered the most important monitor for male insect vitality

  18. CONSTRUCTION AND REARING OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA, GENETIC SEXING STRAINS, VIENNA-8 WITH MALES CARRYING THE MARKER SERGEANT-2 (VIENNA-8/Sr2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial on the construction, maintenance and adaptation of the genetic sexing strain Vienna-8/Sr2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), has been done in the fruit fly laboratories of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) in the cooperation with the laboratories of International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. This trial was successful and this strain was maintained in the medfly laboratories of the EAEA for more than 10 generations up till now. Vienna-8/ Sr2 is very stable strain and carries the dominant mutation called sergeant-2 (Sr2) and could be used as a visible marker for the sterile male flies released in the field for controlling the Mediterranean fruit fly. This visible marker simplifies the discrimination between released sterile males and wild males caught in field monitoring traps. Males of this strain have three white stripes on the abdomen while wild males have only two stripes. The use of this genetic marker, as a replacement of the external dye marker, clearly has an immediate positive impact on the efficiency of Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs (by using gamma radiation)

  19. Effects of conditioning with variations of temperatures on the susceptibility of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on sterility and male mating competitiveness of the medfly C. capitata (Wied.) under hypo and hyperthermia in order to minimize the deleterious effects of radiation on insects. Low, moderate and high temperature (5, 25 and 32 degree C) were applied to pupal and adult stages of C. capitata at different ages before and/or after irradiation with the doses (70, 90 and 110 Gy) of gamma radiation. Sterility of pupae or adults exposed to low temperature (5 degree C) before or after irradiation was increased compared with their controls. The rate of increase was more clear in pupae exposed after irradiation and in adults exposed before irradiation. When pupae or adults were treated with high temperature (32 degree C) for 24 h before or after irradiation, adult sterility was increased with increasing the radiation dose. The competitiveness values were greatly higher when pupae or adults were exposed to low temperature (5 degree C) than those exposed to moderate or high temperature before irradiation.

  20. Use of gamma radiation to sterilize Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), tsl VIENNA 8 strain, for application of sterile insect technique in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de A.; Costa, Maria de L.Z.; Paesman, Leandro; Walder, Julio M.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: piaui@cena.usp.br; jmwalder@cena.usp.br; Mascarin, Gabriel M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ)]. E-mail: gmmascar@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The Sterile insect technique is a method of pest control allowed in integrated pest management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradual population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from {sup 60}Co or {sup 137}Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain shall be used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a {sup 60}Co irradiator, with 17.2 .1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All means of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses didn't affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy could be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  1. Efficacy Of Some Fungal Isolates And Their Applications For Controlling The Immature Stages Of The Medfly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) Before And During Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) needs a suitable and effective cheap method alternative to chemical pesticides for suppressing or controlling the population density of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wi ed.). The effectiveness of five different fungal isolates: Trichoderma longibranchiatum, T. harzianum, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger and Penicillium oxalicum was evaluated against the immature stages of med fly. Filtrate and three spore suspension concentrations (104, 106 and 108 spores/ml) of each fungal isolate were applied to both 3rd larval instar and pupae at two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Percentage pupation, pupal mortality, adult emergence and sex ratio were studied. The percentage of pupation of 3rd larval instar was not affected. However, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the percentage of pupal mortality as well as in adult emergence from pupae 2 and 8 days-old at all fungal treatments. Pupae (2 days-old) were more susceptible than pupae (8 days-old) to all fungal treatments. The microbial biomass of both A. terreus and P. oxalicum was selected to apply with different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 w/w) on the pupae at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Best results were recorded with biomass at 20% concentration of both fungal isolates. Percentage of mortality was significantly higher (P<0.05) than 50% at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old) for both fungi. A significant decrease (P<0.05) was obtained in adult females emergence resulted in a reduction in the number of eggs deposited and subsequently the punctures on fruits. Chitinase enzyme (important for degradation of chitin which is a component of insect cuticle) and cellulase enzyme (used for improving soil fertility) were determined. The microbial biomass by A. terreus was appeared to be safe to human and animals and can be used for combating immature stages of medfly.

  2. Use of gamma radiation to sterilize Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), tsl VIENNA 8 strain, for application of sterile insect technique in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile insect technique is a method of pest control allowed in integrated pest management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradual population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from 60Co or 137Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain shall be used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a 60Co irradiator, with 17.2 .1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All means of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses didn't affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy could be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  3. ROLE OF SILYMARIN AS ANTIOXIDANT ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NORMAL AND IRRADIATED PUPAE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to investigate the biological effects of silymarin as an antioxidant on the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, at different concentrations (40, 60, 80, 100 mg/0.5 kg larval medium). Also, larval and pupal duration, percent adult emergence, sex ratio, weight and size of pupae, as compared to the control group, were studied.The results indicated that larval and pupal durations were reduced at 60 mg silymarin/0.5 kg larval media as compared to the control.The concentrations 40, 60 and 80 mg silymarin/0.5 kg larval media were selected and the produced pupae from these different larval media were irradiated with the sterilizing gamma dose (90 Gy) and the sub-sterilizing gamma dose (70 Gy) to study their effects on female fecundity, male fertility, survival, competitiveness values and also their effects on the mating ability and ability of males to inseminate females.The data obtained revealed that silymarin administration and/or gamma irradiation caused significant decrease in female egg production at all concentrations examined as compared to the control group. Male fertility was not affected when silymarin was applied alone but significant decrease was observed when pupae were treated with radiation alone or with silymarin at all concentrations and both gamma doses. Survival was not affected for both sexes with silymarin and/or gamma irradiation.Moreover, data obtained revealed significant effect in male competitiveness values at 40 and 80 mg silymarin concentrations and the gamma sterilizing dose (90 Gy). However, mating ability and ability to inseminate females were not affected with silymarin and/or gamma irradiation as compared to the control

  4. Some Biological studies on the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) After Egg Exposure to Acetone, Diethyl Ether, Ethyl Alcohol and Pupal Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some biological studies of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were carried out to help in controlling this pest. Three laboratory experiments were done to study the effect of acetone, diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol separately or combined with gamma radiation through egg treatment or larval diet treatment. The gamma dose (90 Gy) was applied only on the produced pupae after egg or larval diet treatment. Concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 100% of each chemical were applied for treating eggs to evaluate egg hatch, pupation, adult emergence and sex ratio. larval diet treatment was done by adding 20 ml of each chemical concentration to 500 gm of larval diet.Treating eggs with ethyl alcohol separately increased pupation significantly at all concentration used while adult emergence was insignificantly increased with the lowest concentration only (25%). Treating larval diet with ethyl alcohol alone increased pupation insignificantly and adult emergence was insignificantly decreased at different concentrations. Moreover, treating eggs or larval diet with diethyl ether alone significantly increased sex ratio at 50% and 2% concentration, respectively,while differed insignificantly by applying different chemicals either on eggs or on larval diet. Treating eggs with the three chemicals before gamma irradiation of the produced pupae fluctuated egg hatch insignificantly compared to gamma irradiation alone. By applying diethyl ether on eggs or acetone in the larval diet decreased egg hatch insignificantly. Competitiveness values were insignificantly increased by applying ethyl alcohol on eggs, acetone or ethyl alcohol on eggs, acetone or ethyl alcohol in larval diet before gamma irradiation of the produced pupae. Survivals of the produced adults, treated as eggs or in the larval diet with different chemicals and irradiated as pupae, fluctuated insignificantly

  5. Scanning electron microscopy (Sem) of wings and mouth parts of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wield.), as influenced by the sterilizing dose of the gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the fact that, any undesirable effects of gamma irradiation with the sterilizing dose (90 Gy) on wings and mouth parts of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.), and their associated sensilla will lead indirectly to failure of irradiated males to disperse strongly, to seek out appropriate niches or to behave synchrony with wild males or to success in the courtship with females and/or to mate. Moreover, the fly may fail to suck the plant juice. Using the scanning electron microscopy, this study was investigated. The changes which occurred to the wings and mouth parts of the med fly may be due to the sterilizing dose. One pair of wings was found to have similar typical structures in both sexes differing non-significantly in their measurements. Three different types of located sensilla were observed on each wing namely; trichoid (type sharp and blunt tipped), chaetica (type 1, 2 and 3) and basiconica (type non-socket, socket and papillae). The distribution and measurements of these sensilla were described in the text. The study of the mouth parts of both sexes recorded that there was similar pattern except significant increase between the length of the proboscis of male and female. Four different types of located sensilla were found on the mouth parts of the med fly and their measurements were given in the text. Namely trichoid (type sharp), squameformia (type 1 and socket), chaetica (type 1) and basiconica (type non-socket) were observed. The distal region of the labium was very smooth and did not bear any kind of sensilla. Pupal irradiation with the sterilizing dose resulted in different malformations in both irradiated male and female adult wings and mouth parts and their associated sensilla. Some malformations were observed in the intraveins of the irradiated male wing and in the pseudo tracheae of irradiated female labella

  6. Some Chemical Elements in Gamma Irradiated Adults of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) Fed on Different Diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elemental composition of four yeast diets differ in protein composition and mixed with sugar as a carbohydrate source were compared with a standard yeast diet used for the mass rearing of med fly C. capitata. The cost availability and the effects on the quality of reared flies were the main measures for these comparisons. Moreover, the elemental composition of reared flies on the tested diets either irradiated to gamma radiation or normal beside full grown pupae (F1) were detected and compared with those reared on standard diet . Data obtained revealed that ten elements (K, N, Na, P, Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn and Cu) were detected and classified according to their quantities .However those quantities varied according to the type of used yeast ,insect stage , insect sex and irradiated dose. The major group (K, N, Na and P), moderate group (Ca, Fe and Mg) and minor group (Zn, Mn and Cu) remained unchanged although their quantities were changed inside each group. In addition, a significant increase in K, N, Na, P and Ca when diet No.4 (D4) was used to feed flies. These findings may enhance the opportunity of sterile insect technique (SIT). However Fe and Zn ions were decreased with changing the standard yeast and this is may contradict SIT. Also when normal females fed on all tested yeasts, the concentrations of the ten elements increased as compared to those fed on standard diet. These results may increase the efficiency of sterilized reared insects to compete with the native insects in the field

  7. Two-year data on the field evaluation of attractants for Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae in three localities in southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During the years 2003 and 2004, our organisations joined the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project on 'Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly SIT management programmes'. Objective of the work was the evaluation of fruit fly attractants on two species of economic importance in Italy: Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae, following the experimental protocol agreed at previous Research Coordination Meetings. In the 2003 season we selected two locations of southern Italy, one for each tephritid target species: C. capitata experiments have been performed in Eastern Sicily, in one of the most typical areas for citrus orchards; the work on B. oleae has been conducted in the vicinity of Foggia, Apulia, in the Italian southeastern plains, one of the largest and most productive areas for olives. Late summer and early autumn of 2003 were very hot and dry in Italy. For this reason both fly species, after a first detection during June, disappeared in July and August, returning in September with extremely low infestation rates. Nevertheless, experiments gave clear information on insects' preference for the proposed baits. Among the 5 different baits used in Sicily, treatments using the 3 Biolure components (Putrescine, Ammonium Acetate, Trimethylamine) elicited better results than the NuLure control. All baits showed marked selectivity for females. First captures among the 6 different baits utilised for the control of olive fruit fly in Apulia, were recorded during the first week of September; best scores were detected on the traps baited with NuLure, showing a capture sex ratio of 1:1; and, in a side experiment, on traps baited with the female pheromone, showing 100% male captures. For both insects, the relatively low numbers of captures can be correlated with the low infestation rate: this data was confirmed by the high yield in qualitative and quantitative terms. The tests with the medfly have been repeated in 2004 in an organic

  8. A genomic perspective to assessing quality of mass-reared SIT flies used in Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eradication in California

    OpenAIRE

    Calla, Bernarda; Hall, Brian; Hou, Shaobin; Geib, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutants of the tephritid C. capitata are used extensively in control programs involving sterile insect technique in California. These flies are artificially reared and treated with ionizing radiation to render males sterile for further release en masse into the field to compete with wild males and disrupt establishment of invasive populations. Recent research suggests establishment of C. capitata in California, despite the fact that over 250 milli...

  9. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  10. Field study of population dynamics of Ceratitis Capitata (wied.) (Diptera, Tephritidae) on citrus in Lebanon: annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A good knowledge of medfly population dynamics is necessary to control it. Population dynamics are being studied by means of the Jackson trap with trimedlure attractant (male, sex-pheromone). Weekly sampling of wild medfly populations was started in June at Aabde and in August at Sour and Jbeil. Trap surveys of medfly density will be carried for at least one year before sterile males releases are started against a long-established infestation. Since populations can vary with season and in different parts of an infested area. Knowledge of this variation is needede to determine when releases should start, because they should begin, just after or during a population decline. Field evaluation will include, ecological data on medfly population distribution number, host preference, and medfly overwintering. Surveys of medfly adults and larvae, host species, and phenology, temperature and medfly history, all will be used to guide the control program, specifically the sterile fly releases. 3 tabs. 17 annex

  11. Opportunities to improve competitiveness in male sexual strain has genetic sex determination Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of TIS program depends essentially on the capacity of the sterile males to compete with fertile males to couple with wild females. This program becomes more and more efficient if one good mastery its various factors, mainly the performances of males of the origin of ceratite in genetic sexing within the production unit of sterile flies of the National Center of the Sciences and Nuclear Technologies. Researches turned to the improvement of the competitiveness of the sterile males by the addition of bacteria in the nourishing circles of breeding. By basing itself on the symbiotic relations between the present bacteria in the bowel of the ceratite, we adopted, in this present work, a method of breeding which could improve the quality of the males of genetic sexing GSS. This method consists in introducing certain beneficial bacteria in the ceratite (Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aerogenes) into the middle of breeding according to various combinations. The effect of these bacteria was analyzed by making various tests of quality control (weight, emergence, capacity in the flight, the longevity) and of reproduction (competitiveness, lasted mating, latent period). It turns out that the addition of Enterobacteriaceae in the middle of breeding outstandingly improved the percentage of emergence of the males of the GSS. Besides, these bacteria contributed to the improvement of the competitiveness of these males with regard to those of the other circles. Besides, the addition of Pseudomonas aerogenes in the middle of breeding gave the best latent period to the males GSS. We also noticed that the association of Enterobacteriaceae with Pseudomonas aerogenes has a positive effect on the capacity in the flight of the males of the GSS and their duration of mating.

  12. The use of commercial yeast as a protein source in the adult diet of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.) for its control using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the using eight different artificial adult diets of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) on egg and larval production was studied. Adults fed on complete homogenate diet consisting of 75% raw sugar 25% yeast hydrolysate, showed a slightly insignificant decrease in the number of eggs and larvae produced/ female/ day. In absence of yeast hydrolysate, adults offered either only pure or raw sugar, showed a drastically significant decrease in both the number of eggs laid and larvae produced by one female/day. On the other hand, when the protein source was offered as a mixture of yeast hydrolysate and commercial yeast in the ratio 1:1 and offered pure or raw sugar as a carbohydrate source, the egg and larval production were almost not affected. Moreover, when the protein source was offered as totally commercial yeast and using pure or raw sugar as a carbohydrate source at the ratio 1:3, egg and larval production were highly significantly reduced. The results showed that, the 3 diets producing the highest number of eggs and larval/female/day were that consisting of raw sugar and yeast hydrolysate at the ratio 3:1 as well as those consisting of raw sugar and yeast hydrolysate and commercial yeast at the ratio 6:1:1. these 3 diets showed almost no effect on neither pupal or adult production nor sex ratio compared to control diet

  13. Estrategias para la utilización de la bacteria entomopatógena Bacillus Thuringiensis (Berliner) en el control de Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedermann)

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Quist, José Cristian

    2010-01-01

    una serie de eventos que conducen a la muerte final del insecto. Limitaciones o alteraciones en cada una de estas etapas pueden explicar que una δ-endotoxina particular osea o no propiedades insecticidas sobre una determinada especie de insecto. En este sentido, como reacción a la aparente insensibilidad que muestra C. capitata hacia los cristales de δ-endotoxinas, se ha abordado el tratamiento in vitro de dichos cristales emulando algunos pasos del citado mecanismo de acción así como la e...

  14. Resolution of three cryptic agricultural pests (Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa, Diptera: Tephritidae) using cuticular hydrocarbon profiling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Virgilio, M.; Tomčala, Aleš; Břízová, Radka; Ekesi, S.; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka; do Nascimento, R. R.; De Meyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 5 (2014), s. 631-638. ISSN 0007-4853 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cryptic species complex * genus Ceratitis * cuticular hydrocarbons * polymorphic microsatellite loci * chemotaxonomy Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.910, year: 2014

  15. Standardization of medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), trapping for use in sterile insect technique programmes: Investigations on the efficiency of various medfly trapping systems in the Western part of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen combinations formed from various traps and lures were tested within the years 1987-1991. As for the traps, the International Pheromones McPhail Trap (IPMT), the Jackson trap with white or yellow insert, the International Pheromones Sticky Trap (IPST), the Glass McPhail trap and Naldel, Maghrebmed and Hawaiian dry traps, and as for the lure, Nu-lure, Borax, Ammonium phosphate, Trimedlure, and as for the killing agent, DDVP and Naled were used. The field plot design was a randomized block design, and five and six blocks of 5 and 6 traps each were conducted. All traps were hung in medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), host trees with 15-20 m distance between each two traps. Each experiment consisted of three independent test that were run for two weeks and trap data were collected twice a week. The same Trimedlure, Naled and DDVP dispensers were used for one replicate only. Solutions were renewed at every check. Fruit infestation level was estimated for each test. The assessment was based on the numbers of adults captured. Among the treatments tested, the IPMT baited with Nu-lure (9%), Borax (3%) and Trimedlure plug seemed as the most attractive treatment during the first 4-year experiments (1987-1990) followed by the IPMT baited with Nu-lure and Borax same volume as above. Glass McPhail traps baited with Nu-lure and Borax had equal attractivity to IPMT with Nu-lure and Borax. The IPMT baited with Ammonium phosphate and the IPST baited with Trimedlure were eliminated after the first experimental year. Among the other combinations, the Maghrebmed and Hawaiian traps baited with Trimedlure and DDVP seemed as the most attractive dry traps. (author). 6 refs, 15 tabs

  16. Determination of the dose of gamma radiation sterilization for assessment of biological parameters of male Ceratitis capitada (Diptera: Tephritidae), tsl - Vienna 8 strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vienna-8, tsl (temperature sensitive lethal) strain of Ceratitis capitata, by presenting mutations that facilitate the mass rearing and release only of sterile males in the field, has been used in (Sterile Insect Technique) programmes. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that provides the highest level of sterility for Vienna-8, tsl males assessing their biological parameters that indicate the quality of sterile males to be released. Brown pupae (males) of the tsl strain were obtained from the mass rearing of the Food Irradiation and Radio entomology laboratory of CENA/USP, and they were irradiated (with gamma radiation - 60Co) 24 hours before the emergence at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 Gy. The determination of the sterilizing dose was based on fertility of sexually mature females of the bisexual strain and not irradiated, mated with males of different treatments. Eggs were collected daily during 6 days, were counted and it was possible to estimate fecundity, and assess the hatching rate. The emergence and flight ability were determined by following the protocol of quality control manual for FAO/IAEA/USDA (2003). To assess the longevity under nutritional stress, the insects were kept a period of 48 h after emergence in the absence of water and food, and after this period, mortality was recorded. The size of the testes (left and right) was obtained by dissecting irradiated and non-irradiated males at the eighth day of life, and measure the testes in an ocular micrometer, considering the maximum length and width of each sample. To determine the sperm number was necessary to dissect the males and break their testicles. No difference was observed in emergence rate, flight ability and longevity of irradiated and non-irradiated males, nor in the fecundity of females mated with males of different treatments. The sterilizing dose that resulted in lower fertility of females was 120 Gy, with 1.5% hatching. Considering the parameters of

  17. Effect of Mospilan (Acetamiprid) and gamma radiation on some biological and biochemical aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mospilan was applied at different concentrations in an attempt to assess its effect on C. capitata in combination with gamma radiation. Studies were carried on some biological and biochemical aspects. Larval diet, drinking water, experimental cages and pupation medium (sand) were treated with mospilan at different concentrations. Experimental cages were treated with mospilan in two ways, as a spray and/or as a powder. Pupae treated as larvae in the larval diet were irradiated with gamma radiation at 8-9 days of age with two doses (50 and 90 Gy). Biochemical studies were done in order to evaluate GOT, GPT and AchE (glutamic oxalo acetic transaminaze, glutamic pyrofic transaminaze and acetyl choline esterase). Biological studies revealed that a drastic decrease occurred with increasing concentration of mospilan to be zero at the highest concentration (32 ppm). Adult mortality reached 100% in the two genders with the concentrations of 500 and 1000 ppm in treating drinking water and in spraying the experimental cages, respectively. Mortality of adults in treating experimental cages with mospilan, as a powder, was also 100% for all doses applied (from 0.1 to 0.5 mg) with each of the two genders. Treating of pupation medium revealed that the increase in the concentration drastically decreased adult emergence, especially at the highest concentrations (600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 ppm). The biochemical data revealed that pupae were generally less affected than adult males and females. Irradiation, especially with 50 Gy, inhibited GOT and GPT more than AchE. Mospilan treatment enhanced GOT and GPT activity but caused a decrease in that of AchE. The combination of mospilan and irradiation caused a further decreasing effect on AchE, but on the contrary GPT was more activated. (author)

  18. Hongos patógenos asociados a “moscas de la fruta” (Diptera: Tephritidae) en el sector austral de Las Yungas del noroeste argentino

    OpenAIRE

    Albornoz Medina, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    La presencia en Argentina de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (especie nativa) y Ceratitis capitata (especie exótica) limitan la exportación de frutas y hortalizas al estado fresco, ya que estas plagas son de importancia cuarentenaria. A nivel mundial existe una tendencia a disminuir el empleo de plaguicidas de sintesis contra “moscas de la fruta”, debido fundamentalmente a los efectos nocivos de estos sobre el ambiente y la salud humana, sumado a la necesidad de la conservación ...

  19. Pilot experiment to control Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using mass trapping technique in a custard apple (Annona cherimolia Mill.) orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, as a result of assays coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (and participated by Spain), it was decided that ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine be included in low release polyetilene bag dispensers (Biolure, Consep, Co) as the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) females were greatly attracted by them. These synthetic substances are placed in traps at the frequency of one and a half months to two months. If Tephry traps are used, one DDVP wafer (containing Vapona or a similar substance) is enough to kill the flies that enter them. These attractants make it unnecessary to replenish the liquids in the Mcphail traps and remain effective throughout the entire fruit season. The Caja Rural de Granada (a bank of farmers) encourages all techniques that increase crop profits for farmers. It is even more desirable if such crop profitability can be achieved without the application of insecticides which may result in the likely presence of toxic residues. In the light of the results achieved by the attractants with regard to female Medflies, the Caja Rural de Granada, together with the National Institute of Agricultural Research Counselling (Agricultural Department), performed an experiment on mass trapping to confirm whether it is possible to protect a fruit plantation with the application of this biotechnical method. Due to the great risk of this initial experiment, the farmers were free to use insecticides as often as they deemed necessary so that no damages due to any plague could be blamed on the experiment

  20. Labelling of the mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), with stable manganese and neutron activation, for behaviour studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view to label adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly for behaviour studies (etiology) experiments were carried out using larvae feeded with enriched stable manganese on concentrations of 0; 0.0001; 0.0005; 0.0010; 0.0050 and 0.0100 grams of MnCl2 per gram of diet. Also a comparison was done between larvae reared on natural fruits (Coffea arabica, Eriobotaya japonica, Syzugium jambos, Eugenia uvalha, Prunus persica and Psidium guajava) and on artificial diet. The low concentration of manganese (0.0001 grams of MnCl2 per gram of larval diet) acted only as a micronutrient. Concentrations of 0.0005 and 0.0010 grams of MnCl2 per gram of diet didn't affect larvae or adults, increasing the longevity of the females. Concentrations of 0.0050 and 0.0100 grams of MnCl2 per gram of larval diet completely inhibited the development of the insects. The flies activated by a flux of 2.67.10 sup(11) n/cm sup(2)/s during 60 second and counted by a germanium detector during 120 seconds showed that males and females remained well labeled until the 13 sup(th) day of adult life, if their larvae were feed on diet containing 0.0005 and 0.0010g of MnCl2 per gram of diet. However, after 25 days only the males emerged from larvae reared on diet containing 0.0005 g of MnCl2 per gram of diet remained labeled. The females excreted the most of manganese, probably through their laying eggs. The quantity of accumulated manganese detected on the adults after neutron activation and reared on different fruits was very similar, for any kind of fruit. (author)

  1. Improved attractants for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae(Gmelin): Two years data evaluating the responses of wild fly populations in 3 Southern Italy locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were conducted during 2003 and 2004 on wild Mediterranean fruit flies (medfly), Ceratitis capiata (Wiedemann) and on olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in three locations in southern Italy. The tests with medfly were carried out in a citrus orchard in Sicily during 2003, from the end of September until the end of November, and in a peach orchard in Basilicata during the summer of 2004; while tests on olive fruit fly have been carried out both years in the same location in Apulia, starting in late August and finishing at the end of November. Among the 5 different baits used for the control of medfly in Sicily, the first records on the captures started during the 3rd week (mid October). Treatments B and C (AA+PT+TMA and AA+TMA, respectively) showed the best scores compared to the others and to the control (NuLure). Evaluating the captures among the 6 different baits utilized for the control of olive fruit fly in Apulia, first records started during the 3rd week (begin of September), and the best scores were detected on the traps with NuLure, showing a sex ratio in the captures of 1:1. Interesting data were recorded both years with the pheromone treatment (side experiment), showing a performance extremely high compared even with NuLure. (author)

  2. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author)

  3. Evaluation of techniques for C and ASG banding of the mitotic chromosomes of Anastrepha species (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Selivon

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods previously described by Canovai et al. (Caryologia 47: 241-247, 1994 which produced C and ASG bands in mitotic chromosomes of Ceratitis capitata were applied to the chromosomes of several Anastrepha species. Metaphase plate yield was substantially increased by use of imaginal disks together with cerebral ganglia. The C-bands were quite prominent allowing the resolution of tiny blocks of heterochromatin. The ASG method produced G-like banded chromosomes, which permitted recognition of each individual chromosome. These simple techniques do not require special equipment and may be valuable for karyotype variability studies in fruit flies and other DipteraTécnicas descritas anteriormente por Canovai et al. (Caryologia 47: 241-247, 1994, que produzem bandas C e ASG nos cromossomos mitóticos de Ceratitis capitata, foram testadas com os cromossomos de várias espécies de Anastrepha. O número de metáfases analisáveis aumentou significativamente quando, além dos gânglios cerebrais, discos imaginais foram utilizados nas preparações. O bandamento tipo C produzido foi bastante conspícuo, permitindo inclusive a resolução de pequenos blocos de heterocromatina. O método ASG produziu uma fração significativa de metáfases cujos cromossomos apresentavam um nítido bandamento do tipo G, que permitiu diferenciar cada cromossomo do cariótipo. Essas técnicas simples, aplicadas sem a necessidade de equipamento especial, podem ser úteis para estudos de variabilidade cariotípica intra ou inter-específica

  4. Future needs in research on genetic sexing of Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author makes suggestions on the direction of research for genetic sexing over the next several years and prepared the paper as a guide for discussion. The literature of genetic and cytogenetic studies on insects as a whole is the basis for most of the approaches that the genetic control community has used, but only a tiny fraction of the literature is directed at genetic sexing and most of that is limited to, small scale laboratory studies. The effort to use genetic sexing strains on the scale of mass rearing of medflies is unprecedented, and it is not surprising that a few problems have been encountered during implementation. Consideration of this fact leads to the conclusion that it is necessary to 'think big' and target the research. (author)

  5. Detection of Wolbachia in wild Tunisian populations of Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the pest management programmes, we used the Wolbavhia pipientis, this bacteria caused a hight sterility in the medfly. by the technique of molecular biology, we have detect the Wolbachia pipientis in the wild populations in Tunisia.

  6. Sterility and meeting competitiveness of medfly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic methodology in the determination of sterilising dosage in male med flies and mating competitiveness with the normal males was carried out in the laboratory. Application of the Sterile Insect Technique (S.I.T.) by three irradiation dosages on Seib-6096 pupae results in sterility when dosage increased. A lower mating competitiveness was observed with the increase in sterility value. This value was determined from the corrected egg hatch percent. The resulting data showed that irradiation dosage of γ 10.0 Krad gave a good advantage to suppress the population in the next generation. The method suggested a good application in the control and eradication of fruit flies. (author)

  7. First record of spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Hrnčić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae is an invasive pest originating from Southeast Asia. It was detected for the first time in Europe in 2008 (Spain and Italy and subsequently in other European countries. It is a highly polyphagous pest that infests healthy, ripening fruit and presents a serious threat to fruit production, particularly of soft skinned fruit. In the first half of October 2013, a new fruit fly species was unexpectedly detected in Tephri traps baited with the three-component female-biased attractant BioLure that is regularly used for monitoring the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera: Tephritidae in Montenegro. Brief visual inspection identified the new species as the spotted wing drosophila D. suzukii. The pest was first recorded in several localities on the Montenegrin seacoast around Boka Kotor Bay. After the finding, all Drosophila specimens were collected from traps for further laboratory observation. A quick follow-up monitoring of other Tephri traps was carried out within the next few days on the rest of the seacoast (localities from Tivat to Ulcinj. Additionally, Tephri traps were set up around Lake Skadar and in the city of Podgorica, as well as on fresh fruit markets in Podgorica. The results of this preliminary study showed that D. suzukii was present in all surveyed locations and adults were captured until late December. Both sexes were found in traps with BioLure. Our data show that D. suzukii is present in southern parts of Montenegro and there is a serious threat of its further spreading, particularly towards northern parts of the country where the main raspberry and blueberry production is placed. The results also show that Tephri traps baited with BioLure can be used for detection and monitoring of spotted wing drosophila.

  8. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological effectiveness

  9. Rhythmicity of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) attraction to cuelure: Insights from an interruptable lure and computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe and validate an Agent-Based Simulation (ABS) of invasive insects and use it to investigate the time to extirpation of Ceratitis capitata using data from seven outbreaks that occurred in California from 2008-2010. Results are compared with the length of intervention and quarantine imposed...

  10. Captures of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects in biolure and torula yeast traps in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioLure, a synthetic food attractant for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) that uses a combination of three chemical components (ammonium acetate, trimethylamine hydrochloride and putrescine), was deployed in MultiLure traps in predominantly native forests, non-native forests,...

  11. Proton conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Cerate perovskites of the general formula AM{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where A = Sr or Ba and where M = Gd, Nd, Y, Yb or other rare earth dopant, are known to conduct a protonic current. Such materials may be useful as the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures, as an electrochemical hydrogen separation membrane, or as a hydrogen sensor. Conduction mechanisms in these materials were evaluated using dc cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry, allowing currents and activation energies for proton, electron, and oxygen ion contributions to the total current to be determined. For SrYb{sub 0.05}Ce{sub 0.95}O{sub 3-{delta}}, one of the best and most environmentally stable compositions, proton conduction followed two different mechanisms: a low temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 0.42{+-}0.04 eV, and a high temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 1.38{+-}0.13 eV. It is believed that the low temperature process is dominated by grain boundary conduction while bulk conduction is responsible for the high temperature process. The activation energy for oxygen ion conduction (0.97{+-}0.10 eV) agrees well with other oxygen conductors, while that for electronic conduction, 0.90{+-}0.09 eV, is affected by a temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Evaluated by direct measurement of mass flux through a dense ceramic with an applied dc field, oxygen ions were determined to be the majority charge carrier except at the lowest temperatures, followed by electrons and then protons.

  12. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  13. Breakfast of champions or kiss of death? Survival and sexual performance of protein-fed, sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly being used around the world to control Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly as part of an area-wide integrated approach. One option that may improve the effectiveness of the SIT, by increasing the sexual competitiveness of released sterile males, consists of feeding males protein during the post-teneral stage, a diet that increases sexual performance of wild males. We examine the effects of diet on the successive hurdles males must overcome in order to inseminate females, i.e., joining leks, copulating females, having their sperm stored and inhibition of female remating. In addition, we address the effects of diet on post-release foraging success, longevity, and the ability to withstand starvation. While protein feeding universally increases the sexual success of wild males, its effect on sterile males varies with strain, experimental settings, and environmental conditions. In some cases, treatments that resulted in the best sexual performance were significantly associated with increased vulnerability to starvation. However, no particular diet affected the ability of sterile males to find nutrients in the field when these where available. We suggest it may be better to release relatively short-lived flies that are highly competitive, rather than long-lived, sexually ineffective ones. (author)

  14. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs; Esterilizacao de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com raios-X para programas de tecnica do inseto esteril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional {gamma} radiation from {sup 60}Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of {gamma} rays (thus, a RBE{approx}1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of {gamma} rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE{approx}1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE{approx}0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE{approx}1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and {gamma} rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no

  15. Intra-tree activity of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae): effects of posteclosion light, crowding, adult diet, and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were held under varying conditions of fight, density, food, and irradiation prior to release of males on potted guava, Psidium guajava L., plants in outdoor cages. Male activity after release was measured in terms of number of leaves visited and duration of flights within the plant canopy

  16. The Sterile Insect Technique and the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): Assessing the Utility of Aromatherapy in a Hawaiian Coffee Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating abilit...

  17. Proton-conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Coffey, G.W.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Single-cell solid oxide fuel cells were constructed using strontium cerate as the electrolyte and their performance tested. Like certain zirconates, hafnates, and tantalates, the cerate perovskites are among a class of solid electrolytes that conduct protons at elevated temperatures. Depending on the temperature and chemical environment, these ceramics also support electronic and oxygen ion currents. A maximum power output of {approx}100 mW per cm{sup 2} electrolyte surface area was obtained at 900{degrees}C using 4% hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. A series of rare earth/ceria/zirconia were prepared and their electrical properties characterized. Rare earth dopants included ytterbia, yttria, terbia, and europia. Ionic conductivities were highest for rare earth/ceria and rare earth zirconia compositions; a minimum in ionic conductivity for all series were found for equimolar mixtures of ceria and zirconia. Cerium oxysulfide is of interest in fossil energy applications because of its high chemical stability and refractory nature. An alternative synthesis route to preparing cerium oxysulfide powders has been developed using combustion techniques.

  18. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, Parasitoid Longevity in Presence of the Host, and Host Status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin),...

  19. Sterile insect technique and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the utility of aromatherapy in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd E; McInnis, Donald O; Rodd, Charles; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine

    2007-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating ability of the released males. One potential solution involves the prerelease exposure of males to particular attractants. In particular, exposure of male Mediterranean fruit flies to ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, root oil (GRO) has been shown to increase mating success in laboratory and field cage trials. Here, we describe a field experiment that compares the level of egg sterility observed in two Hawaiian coffee, Coffea arabica L., plots, with GRO-exposed, sterile males released in one (treated) plot and nonexposed, sterile males released in the other (control) plot. Once per week in both plots over a 13-wk period, sterile males were released, trap captures were scored to estimate relative abundance of sterile and wild males, and coffee berries were collected and dissected in the laboratory to estimate the incidence of unhatched (sterile) eggs. Data on wild fly abundance and the natural rate of egg hatch also were collected in a remote area that received no sterile males. Despite that sterile:wild male ratios were significantly lower in the treated plot than in the control plot, the incidence of sterile eggs was significantly higher in the treated plot than in the control plot. Correspondingly, significantly higher values of Fried's competitiveness index (C) were found, on average, for treated than control sterile males. This study is the first to identify an association between the GRO "status" of sterile males and the incidence of egg sterility in the field and suggests that prerelease, GRO exposure may represent a simple and inexpensive means to increase the effectiveness of Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs. PMID:17461047

  20. Male sex pheromones in Ceratitis FAR complex (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, Blanka

    Stockholm: International Society of Chemical Ecology, 2015. s. 436. [ISCE 2015. 29.06.2015-03.07.2015, Stockholm] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fruit flies * species recognition * reproduction isolation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Moscas frugívoras (Diptera, Tephritoidea coletadas em Aquidauana, MS Frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea collected in Aquidauana, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto Rodrigues

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil as moscas frugívoras são pragas importantes de frutas e hortaliças. O conhecimento da flutuação populacional dessas espécies em cada bioma é um importante requisito para a adoção de estratégia de controle de pragas nos agroecossistemas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade de espécies de moscas-das-frutas infestantes de frutas silvestres e cultivadas em Aquidauana, MS. Vinte e uma espécies de frutas foram amostradas de fevereiro de 2003 a janeiro de 2004. As espécies de Tephritidae encontradas foram: Anastrepha striata Schiner, 1868, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. Os frugívoros Lonchaeidae e Muscidae encontrados foram: Neosilba sp. e Atherigona orientalis (Schiner, 1868, respectivamente. Um total de 2.568 moscas foram coletadas, das quais 2.394 representadas pela mosca-do-Mediterrâneo C. capitata. A associação entre moscas frugívoras e espécies de frutas é discutida.In Brazil, frugivorous flies represent important pests of fruits and vegetables. Information on populational fluctuation of these species in each biome is an important requirement for the adoption of a strategy of pest control in the agroecosystems. The objective of this paper is to assess the diversity of fruit fly species occurring in wild and cultived fruits in Aquidauana, MS. Twenty-nine fruit species were sampled from February 2003 to January 2004. The Tephritidae species recovered were: Anastrepha striata Schiner, 1868, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. The frugivorous Lonchaeidae and Muscidae recovered were: Neosilba sp. and Atherigona orientalis (Schiner, 1868, respectively. A total of 2.568 flies were obtained, from which 2.394 flies were the Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata. The association between frugivorous flies and the fruit species is discussed.

  2. Effects of male sterility on female remating in the mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Chapman, Tracey

    2004-01-01

    Mating-induced reductions in female receptivity are common in insects. These responses are of interest because of their utility in insect pest control. In addition, the control of receptivity is likely to be the subject of sexual conflict over remating frequency. We investigated the specific effect of male sterility on female receptivity in an important pest species, the Mediterranean fruitfly (medfly), in which sterile males are often used for population suppression. Sterile males performed ...

  3. Dosimetry practice for irradiation of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme the sterility of mass-reared insects, in our case Mediterranean fruit flies, is of primary importance. Mediterranean fruit fly pupae are irradiated in an AECL-CP-JS-7400 irradiator. Originally the capacity was 31,300 Ci, but because of the natural decay of cobalt, the actual source strength is 14,836 Ci. Thus, the dose with which the pupae are irradiated is 14.5 +- 1 krad (145 +- 10 Gy). A great risk in the daily release of sterile flies is that some batches of fertile flies may also be released. To ensure that this does not occur, continuous dosimetric check-ups have to routinely be carried out. Fricke dosimetry is ideal for this purpose because it has a range of response to doses of 4 to 40 krad (40 to 400 Gy) and because it is an economic and simple dosimetric system. (author)

  4. Sexual courtship of steriles males of Ceratitis Capitata (WIED) in SIT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the SIT programme, the success of sterile males to compete with the fertile males is an important parameter for assuring efficiency. In this study, two methods are tested to improve the sterile male quality: the first is the exposure of sterile males to different concentrations of Ginger Root Oil (GRO) (0, 20, 50 and 80 μl), the second is the exposure of males to different irradiation doses (80, 90, 100, 110, 120 and 145 Gy). The comparison of these methods depends to study of quality parameters (emergence, flight ability, survival) and courtship behaviour of sterile males (sperm production, mating competitiveness, sperm transfer). The 80μl concentration of GRO improves the mating competitiveness of males to compare with the Control (respectively: 68% and 46%). The 80 Gy irradiation dose assure the same result then the Control. (Author)

  5. Biochemical genetic studies on genotype strains of medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four genotypes of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), i.e. two laboratory strains (dark and yellow pupae), genetic sexing line and wild strain were examined biochemically in larvae, pupae and adult stages by means of isoelectrophoresis to determine further genetic variations. Isozymes of alkaline phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase and esterase enzymes were chosen for study. The medfly genotypes exhibited variations in the strains, as well as the genetic sexing line according to the biological characters. In order to identify some markers to distinguish individuals of different strains it should prove necessary to compare the electrophoretic pattern mobilities of isozyme numbers and activities of the three tested enzymes. The isoenzymes were genetically different from one genotype to another and from one stage to another. These results appear to be consistent over polymorphic loci. The functional genes of alkaline phosphatase larvae were higher in band numbers and activities than those of pupae and adult extractions in all materials. No variations were found between the adult males and females of all materials except the males of the genetic sexing line, which were more active. Electrophoresis and spectrophotometer enzymatic analysis of polyphenol oxidase indicated that the larval stage was more active than the other stages. In addition, the larval polyphenol oxidase activity of the yellow pupae strain and the genetic sexing line were more active than the others. Concerning the esterases, the genes controlling the activity of isozymes were different from one strain to another according to the stages of development. The esterases band numbers were low in larvae, but a high number was found in adult males of the genetic sexing line and the females of the yellow pupae strain. The results of this work were supported by previous results of Sabrah et al., where the genic polymorphism and ontogenic variation of esterase isoenzymes in medfly collected from different geographical zones in Egypt was studied

  6. Sterile insect technique: new technology to control fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, in the Lower Basin of the Sao Francisco Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SIT is the creation, on a large scale, the insect-pest to be controlled and weekly release of these insects sterilized in the field.The sterile insects copulate with the wild, but do not generate descendants. The basic premises for the use of SIT in insect control are: the reproduction is through sexual intercourse, the female copulate preferably only once there is ease of creation of the plague in industrial scale in artificial diet. The efficiency of the SIT may be greater when only the males are released in the field because they increase the probability of copulating with wild females only, with reductions in the cost of production and release. In the case of fruit-flies, sterile females continue doing puncture in the fruits, which decreases the quality for export. To be able to release only males in the field, in 1980s, was developed a mutant strain, whose females emerge from pupae white, thus being able to discard the white ones, keeping the pupae Brown for the release of sterile males. Ten years after, to save on the industrial scale production system, was obtained a mutant whose females possess lethal temperature sensitivity of 34 deg C, still in the embryo stage. Then the eggs are placed on artificial diet, and when they arrive at the pupa stage, they are all brown and males. Forty-eight to 24 hours before the emergence of adults, the pupae are painted with fluorescent powder paint, bagged and irradiated with gamma radiation of 95Gy of Co-60 or X-ray. As soon as the males emerge, are marked with fluorescent ink and when they reach 3 to 5 days old, are released into the field. Thus, when monitoring is done in Jackson traps in the field, it is possible to distinguish wild male sterile under black light or epifluorescence microscope with males, because the sterile are fluorescent. On application of the SIT to Moscamed, sterile males are released in the field must display good dispersibility, good survival and good sexual performance. The efficiency and effectiveness of the use of the SIT depend on the success of the sterile males in competition with wild males for copulating of females. According to FAO / IAEA / USDA (2003 ), so that the SIT is technically feasible in controlling Moscamed, it must occur in field conditions, at least 20 % of matings between sterile males and wild females tsl. One of the ways to increase the efficiency of SIT is releasing a nine to one hundred times the population of sterile males compared to the wild population in this field, it increases the likelihood of wild females are copulated by sterile males. Understanding the behaviors and strategies used by the wild and sterile males approach the females for copulating has great relevance to the SIT programs, since determining the acceptance and response of wild females. The strategy in copulating fruit-flies consists of: a) clustering of males at the bottom of foliage of host or non-host plants; b) issuance of the sex pheromone; c) call through the beating of the wings; d) arrival of the female, which is the male face to face; e) both touch with antennas; f) males jump about the females and initiate copulating, and the female may or may not accept the male g) end copulation

  7. Chemical Stimulants and Genetic Sexing Boost the SIT: Evidence from Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera Dorsalis in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and chemical means have been developed to significantly improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against tephritid fruit flies in recent years. Beginning with the development of genetic sexing techniques some 25 years ago, all-male strains of several species of fruit flies h...

  8. The sterile-male technique for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied., in the Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain problems caused by the use of insecticides in the management of agricultural pests, such as environmental pollution, insecticide resistance and disturbance of biological balance, has led to the development of selective pest control methods. A prominent place among these for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly has been attained by the species specific sterile-insect technique (SIT). This study reviews the status of field programmes in countries of the Mediterranean basin, and of related mass rearing, irradiation and field release methodology. The SIT has been successfully tested in Spain, Italy, Israel and Cyprus. In all these cases, however, tests were conducted in small semi-isolated areas where at best a high degree of suppression but not eradication of the fly could be obtained since immigration of gravid females was always possible. The SIT programme in Cyprus and data on medfly ecology in the island is here reviewed in more detail. A proposal is make for the eradication of medfly from Cyprus by the use of an integration of methods, namely bait spraying, cultural practices and sterile-insect releases. (author)

  9. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O. T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, S. DOĞANCA, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  10. Factors affecting female re-mating frequency in the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mating and re-mating of two laboratory strains (Petapa and Guate), one wild population (Antigua) of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and one of the hybrids between them were studied under laboratory conditions. No evidence of sexual isolation at first mating was found among them. Re-mating frequency was higher under crowded conditions for the two laboratory strains. The probability of Pe tap a females re-mating depended more on the origin of the male and was negatively associated with the duration of the first mating, but these variables had no effect on re-mating tendency of Guate females. Matings by Petapa males were significantly less prolonged than those of Guate or hybrid males. With respect to re-mating, Petapa non-virgin females preferred Petapa to Guate males. (author)

  11. Behavioral resistance to the sterile insect technique by Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot test of the sterile insect technique (SIT) program against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in coffee plantations in Hawaii failed after several years of continuous releases apparently, at least in part, because native C. capitata females from the treated area on Kauai altered their mating preferences and began rejecting most laboratory-reared males during courtship. In outdoor field cage experiments, females from other non-SIT Hawaiian islands did not change their mating preferences over the same period and accepted laboratory males 5-10 times more often than did resistant Kauai females. Two indices were devised to quantify the degrees of mating compatibility between laboratory-reared, sterilized flies and wild flies. The relative isolation index compares the numbers of homotypic (laboratory to laboratory or wild to wild) matings with heterotypic (laboratory to wild) matings, thus measuring the extent of departure from random mating conditions. The relative sterility index measures the proportion of wild females mating with laboratory males, thus providing a field cage level estimate of induced sterility. The results and implications of a series of field cage mating tests are discussed in the context of tephritid SIT programs worldwide

  12. Size differences between normal and irradiated sperm heads in mated female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique has been developed to distinguish between irradiated (sterile) and normal (wild or laboratory) sperm found in spermathecae of mated Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Darkfield microscopy (l,000 × magnification) can be used to separate readily the sperm head lengths of irradiated males (20.5-29.0 μm; mean, 25.7) from those of wild males (27.5-33.0 μm; mean, 30.1). The sperm heads of laboratory adapted, nonirradiated males are intermediate in length compared with sperm from sterile and wild individuals. Sperm heads from three different wild populations in Hawaii were all strikingly similar in length. Field-collected females can be dissected to assess the mating frequency of released males in a sterile insect technique program. The frequency of multiple matings involving both types of males can also be measured. Two Bactrocera species found in Hawaii were examined and were found to have very similar sperm-head lengths when compared with each other, yet each had ≍3 μm longer average sperm-head lengths compared with those of C. capitata. The technique may be further useful in distinguishing sperm among other interspecific or conspecific tephritid populations. The potential effects of varying laboratory rearing or irradiation conditions on sperm-head length in tephritids remain to be investigated

  13. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  14. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  15. Effect of the sex ratio on egg collection and hatch of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the female:male ratio in the adult cages of artificially reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was increased from 50:50 to 80:20 (the initial number of total adults was always the same) a 50% overall increase in the fertilized eggs collected per cage occurred during the first 2 weeks of adult life. Smaller increases occurred when the sex ratios were between 50:50 and 80:20, and there was a decrease (compared with the 80:20 sex ratio) when the sex ratio was 90:10 because the males needed several days to fertilize all, or nearly all of the females. At high female:male ratios, there was no increase in the eggs sticking on the oviposition net, in spite of the increased egg laying per surface unit of oviposition net. (author). 8 refs, 5 tabs

  16. Effect of acclimation to outdoor condition on the sexual performance of mass-produced Medflies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of integrated area-wide programs to control the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) require that the released males attract wild females and transfer sterile sperm. However, knowledge about male sexual performance after they are released is scarce. We conducted a study to evaluate male sexual performance in field cage tests, according to standard quality control procedures. Mass-reared 5-d-old sterile males from the genetic sexing strain VIENNA 7mix2000 were acclimated for 0, 1, and 3 d to outdoor conditions before competing with wild males for wild females. Although the proportion of mating (PM) in the test was satisfactory, the resulting relative sterility index (RSI) data showed no significant differences among the treatments. The data indicate that pre-conditioning males to outdoor conditions in Madeira did not confer an advantage in field cage sexual performance. (author)

  17. Anticancer properties of Thymbra capitata and Helichrysum italicum essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Poças

    2014-06-01

    It has long been recognised that some EOs have antimicrobial, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, insecticidal activities. However, studies into their anti-tumoral activities are scarce. This study, indicates that Thymbra capitata and Helichrysum italicum EOs exhibited antitumor activity against RKO and MCF7 cells, deserving further research into both the mechanism of the observed anti-tumour activity and potential cancer therapeutic applications.

  18. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly Dietas baseadas em proteína de soja para moscas do Mediterrâneo

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho; Carlos Caceres; Amirul Islam; Vivat Wornoayporn; Walter Enkerlin

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagase, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagase in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very impor...

  19. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of Fipronil and Imidacloprid on Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Adan del Rio, Angeles; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Bengochea Budia, Paloma; Budia Marigil, Maria Flor; Estal Padillo, Pedro Del; Medina Velez, Maria Pilar; Aguado Cortijo, Pedro Luis

    2011-01-01

    Psyttalia concolor (Szèpligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid of several species of tephritid (Diptera) larvae, such as Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Here, we report on the effects of imidacloprid and fipronil on P. concolor females, when different routes of exposure were evaluated: residual contact (cover and bait sprays) and via treatment of host species. Moreover, the persistence of the bait formulated compound also was studied. Fo...

  20. Hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Emejulu Adamma; Nwadike Constance Nnedimma

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata (A. capitata) leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Methods:Cholesterol diet was administered to Wistar rats at a dose of 40 mg per 0.2 mL 3 times daily for 14 days while the control received distilled water. These animals were treated with extract of A. capitata at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Lipid profiles were observed and compared. Results:Administration of A. capitata caused significant decrease in cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol when compared with the control (P<0.05) which was dose dependent. Also, it was observed that high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was significantly increased when compared with the control. Conclusions:This observation suggests that the leaf extract of A. capitata could probably serve as a potential natural product for treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  1. Small polarons and point defects in barium cerate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Michael; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2015-12-01

    Barium cerate (BaCeO3) is a well-known ionic conductor of both hydrogen and oxygen. In applications, it is frequently doped (for instance with Y) to increase stability and promote diffusion. However, the effects of doping and native defects are not fully understood. Computational studies have been stymied by the nature of the conduction band, which is made up of cerium 4 f states. These states present a challenge to ab initio techniques based on density functional theory within the standard approximations for exchange and correlation. Using a hybrid functional, we investigate the effects of hydrogen impurities and native defects on the electrical and optical properties of BaCeO3. We discuss the tendency of excess electrons or holes to localize in the form of small polarons. We also explore the interactions of polarons with hydrogen impurities and oxygen vacancies, and their impact on luminescence properties.

  2. Enthalpy of formation of (In, Gd)-doped barium cerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • BaCe0.7Gd0.2In0.1O2.85 was prepared by solid-state reaction. • The standard formation enthalpy was determined. • The stabilization energy (ΔstH°) was calculated. • ΔstH° of BaCe0.7Gd0.2In0.1O2.85 is higher than BaCe0.7Nd0.2In0.1O2.85 and BaCeO3. - Abstract: Solution enthalpies of barium cerate doped by gadolinium and indium and a mixture of BaCl2 + 0.7CeCl3 + 2GdCl3 + 0.1InCl3 have been measured in 1 mol dm−3 HCl with 0.1 mol dm−3 KI. For the first time the standard molar formation enthalpy of BaCe0.7Gd0.2In0.1O2.85 has been determined by solution calorimetry as follows: ΔfH° (298.15 K) = −1615.84 ± 9.01 kJ mol−1. The stabilization energy for above-mentioned compound has been calculated as well. It has been shown that barium cerate doped gadolinium and indium has higher stabilization energy than BaCe0.7Nd0.2In0.1O2.85 and BaCeO3. The reaction enthalpy with CO2 interaction has been calculated for BaCe0.7Gd0.2In0.1O2.85

  3. Feasibility of eradicating Ceratitis spp. fruit flies from the Western Cape of South Africa by the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit production (deciduous fruit, table and wine grapes, and citrus) is a major export-based industry in the Western Cape, with more than 200,000 ha under cultivation. The gross value of these fruits (excluding wine) exceeds US$400 million per annum. Deciduous fruit and table grapes make up the major portion of the industry, with approximately 110,000 ha under production. The Western Cape is host to two species of fruit flies, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the Natal fruit fly, C. rosa Karsch. One or both of these species attack at least 19 species of fruits in this area. Both species have very similar life cycles and habits, and can cause enormous crop losses especially to fruits, but also to some vegetables. Both commercial and resource-limited farmers are affected by fruit flies. Control of fruit flies is currently based on ground applications of insecticides, either as full-cover foliar sprays or low-volume bait sprays. Control costs and crop losses for deciduous fruit and table grapes alone are estimated at US$4 million annually. South Africa is the only southern hemisphere deciduous fruit-exporting country that is not fruit fly-free or is not currently engaged in a project to eradicate fruit flies. Unless similar steps are taken, this situation is likely to threaten the competitiveness of the Western Cape's industry. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture of the United Nations recently approved funding for the INFRUITEC Centre of the ARC-Fruit, Vine and Wine Research Institute in Stellenbosch to undertake a study to determine the feasibility of eradicating fruit flies from the Western Cape by the sterile insect technique (SIT). Most fruits in the Western Cape are produced in valley systems, and many valleys are isolated from one another to a greater or lesser extent. The Western Cape is itself well isolated from other areas with fruit fly hosts: by the ocean on the eastern, southern and

  4. Biodiversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritoidea em matas nativas e pomares domésticos de dois municípios do Estado do Tocantins, Brasil Biodiversity of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea in native forests and orchards in two counties of the State of Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy A. do Bomfim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta análise faunística comparativa das espécies de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em armadilhas McPhail (junho a dezembro de 2002 com proteína hidrolisada de milho a 5%. Foram comparadas a riqueza de espécies e a estrutura populacional entre ambientes de mata e pomar dos municípios de Palmas e Porto Nacional, TO. Foram capturados 1.748 indivíduos de espécies de três gêneros de Tephritidae: Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 e Ceratitis MacLeay, 1829. De Lonchaeidae foram capturadas espécies de três gêneros: Lonchaea Fallén, 1820, Neosilba McAlpine, 1962 e Dasiops Rondani, 1856. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. Dezenove espécies de Anastrepha foram coletadas, sendo a maioria dos indivíduos (69,1% de A. obliqua (Macquart, 1835. Não houve diferença significativa (P This paper presents comparative and faunistic analysis of the species of fruit flies captured in McPhail traps (from June to December 2002 baited with 5% corn protein hydrolyzed. Species richness and the patterns of population are compared between forest and orchard environments and between the counties of Palmas and Porto Nacional. A total of 1,748 individuals of Tephritidae belonging to species of three genera were collected: Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 and Ceratitis MacLeay, 1829. Species of three genera of Lonchaeidae were also captured: Lonchaea Fallén, 1820, Neosilba McAlpine, 1962 and Dasiops Rondani, 1856. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 and nineteen species of the genus Anastrepha were collected. Most of the collected individuals (69.1% belonged to A. obliqua (Macquart, 1935. The average numbers of tephritid individuals in Palmas and native forests were significantly lower than Porto Nacional and orchards, respectively. According to the Shannon diversity index (H' and test t used for comparing the fruit flies fauna among the environments, it was verified that only one comparison showed

  5. Diptera. Chapter 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Skuhravá

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the 19,400 native species and 125 families forming the European diptera fauna, 98 species (less than 0.5% in 22 families are alien to Europe. These aliens constitute 66 species (18 families of the suborder Brachycera and 32 species (4 families of the suborder Nematocera. By family in this category, there are 23 Cecidomyiidae species, 18 Drosophilidae, nine Phoridae, eight Tachinidae and seven Culicidae. Another 32 fly species belonging to five families are considered to be alien in Europe. These invasives native to other European countries are composed of 14 species of Cecidomyiidae, seven Syrphidae, five Culicidae and three species each of Anthomyiidae and Tephritidae. The date of the first record in Europe is known for 84 alien species. Arrivals of alien species of Diptera have accelerated rapidly since the second half of the 20th century. North America appears to be the dominant contributor of the alien flies. The majority of alien Diptera were introduced into or within Europe unintentionally, with only three predators released intentionally for biological control. Alien Diptera are predominantly phytophagous (35.6%, while a lesser portion are zoophagous (28.6% or detrivorous/mycetophagous (29.6%. Ecological impacts on native fauna and flora have not been documented for any of the alien species established in Europe. However, 14 alien species have economic impacts on crops.

  6. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  7. Adult population dynamics of the bolivian fruit flies Anastrepha sp. (Diptera: Tephritidae at Municipality Coroico, Department of The La Paz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzáles Manuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in Paco (1603 msnm communities, it Marca (1511 msnm and Capellania (1720 msnm, of the Municipality of Coroico, department of La Paz, Bolivia. In orchards frutícolas semicomerciales, they settled 15 traps distributed McPhail in a similar way among areas, five for community, sampling" "points. The censuses were carried out with an interval of 15 days, they were identified and they quantified the mature flies of the fruit. For the captures of the individuals, they settled the traps McPhail, using the attractive (Buminal one and as conserving borax. The traps were distributed in representative parcels, having as main cultivations, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, guava and avocado. The identification taxonómica of the captured species was carried out in the laboratory of the National Program of Control of Flies of the fruit (PROMOSCA, clerk of the National Service of Agricultural Sanity and Alimentary (SENASAG Inocuidad. 1210 mature flies of the fruit were captures, those that grouped for species, sex, capture dates and community, corresponding to the seven carried out censuses. The species of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedeman were identified, Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha serpentine (Wiedeman, Anastrepha sp, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, Blepharoneura sp Loew, Hexaresta sp Hering, Hexachaeta sp Loew, Tomoplagia sp Coquillett, Tetreuaresta sp Hendel, being that of more presence Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedeman with 818 and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, with 354. The temperature and presence of spices put up frutícolas of flies of the fruit in maturation state explain the observed fluctuations.

  8. The gene transformer of anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera, tephritidae and its evolution in insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Ruiz

    Full Text Available In the tephritids Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae, the gene transformer acts as the memory device for sex determination, via an auto-regulatory function; and functional Tra protein is produced only in females. This paper investigates the evolution of the gene tra, which was characterised in twelve tephritid species belonging to the less extensively analysed genus Anastrepha. Our study provided the following major conclusions. Firstly, the memory device mechanism used by this gene in sex determination in tephritids likely existed in the common ancestor of the Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha phylogenetic lineages. This mechanism would represent the ancestral state with respect to the extant cascade seen in the more evolved Drosophila lineage. Secondly, Transformer2-specific binding intronic splicing silencer sites were found in the splicing regulatory region of transformer but not in doublesex pre-mRNAs in these tephritids. Thus, these sites probably provide the discriminating feature for the putative dual splicing activity of the Tra-Tra2 complex in tephritids. It acts as a splicing activator in dsx pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the female-specific exon promotes the inclusion of this exon into the mature mRNA, and as a splicing inhibitor in tra pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the male-specific exons prevents the inclusion of these exons into the mature mRNA. Further, a highly conserved region was found in the specific amino-terminal region of the tephritid Tra protein that might be involved in Tra auto-regulatory function and hence in its repressive splicing behaviour. Finally, the Tra proteins conserved the SR dipeptides, which are essential for Tra functionality.

  9. Evaluation of certain trapping systems for capturing the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in Assiut, Egypt during 1987-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven types of traps were used for evaluating the efficiency of 16 different trapping systems in catching males and females of medflies in citrus orchards during 1987 to 1991 in Assiut, Egypt. For the non-liquid trapping systems, the Jackson trap (JT) with white sticky insert baited with trimedlure was used as the standard trap, whereas that for the liquid systems was the International Pheromones McPhail trap (IPMT) baited with 300 ml of aqueous solution of nulure + borax. The results obtained under the dry climatic conditions of Assiut showed that, among the non-liquid trapping systems, the Hawaiian dry trap baited with trimedlure plug (TMLP) + DDVP dispenser in the same plastic basket (stuck at the center of trap ceiling) was the best system for catching males of medfly. It was followed by the Nadel dry trap baited with TMLP + Naled plug in the same basket stuck on the ceiling, and the Maghrebmed dry trap baited with TMLP + DDVP dispenser in the same basket hung at the level of trap holes. 11 refs, 5 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Effect of symbiotic bacteria added to the larval environment on the quality of the sterile male Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program of fight against Ceratite being based on the TIS becomes increasingly efficient when one controls these various factors well mainly the performances of the produced sterile males. While basing itself on the symbiotic relation between the bacteria present in the intestine of Ceratite and the latter, we have in this present adopted work at a method of breeding which could improve qualities of the male. This method consists in introducing certain beneficial bacteria in Ceratite (Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Klebsiella) into the medium of breeding following various combinations. The effect of these bacteria was analyzed by carrying out various tests of quality control to release the parameters of quality (Productivity, Poids, Emergence and Aptitude for the flight) and the parameters of the sexual behavior (Latency time, Duration of coupling and competitiveness). (author)

  11. Non-cytotoxic Thymus capitata extracts prevent Bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Boubaker–Elandalousi, Ramzi; Mekni–Toujani, Marwa; Kaabi, Belhassen; Larbi, Imen; Diouani, Mohamed-Fethi; Gharbi, Mohamed; Akkari, Hafidh; B’chir, Fatma; Ghram, Abdeljelil

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1) still causes great economic loss to the livestock industry and trade because there aren’t any available drugs that proved to be fully effective against it. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the antiviral activities of the Thymus capitata extracts were evaluated for the development of new, non toxic and specific anti-herpesvirus drug. Aqueous extracts (AE), ethanolic extracts (EE) and essential oil (EO) of the aerial parts of Thymus capitata were...

  12. Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

  13. Cuticular hydrocarbons corroborate the distinction between lowland and highland Natal fruit fly (Tephritidae, Ceratitis rosa) populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Pompeiano, A.; Ekesi, S.; De Meyer, M.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 507-524. ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ceratitis rosa * cryptic species * chemotaxonomy * GCxGC/MS * integrative taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2014 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6222

  14. Comparative analysis of sorption-desorption parameters of oxygen in barium and strontium cerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    it is suggested the equation for description of experimental dependences of oxygen index from partial pressure of oxygen for doped strontium cerate. It is shown, that oxygen index came off on saturation with the growth of partial pressure and does mot exceed value x/2, e.g. in these condition it is impossible to introduce extra-stoichiometric oxygen

  15. An Integrative Approach to Unravel the Ceratitis FAR Cryptic Species Complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Meyer, M.; Delatte, H.; Ekesi, S.; Jordaens, K.; Kalinová, Blanka; Mwatawala, M.; Steck, G.; Van Cann, J.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Virgilio, M.

    Bangkok: Siam Print, 2014 - (Malavasi, A.; Cardoso-Pereira, R.; Orankanok, W.). s. 43 ISBN 978-616-358-012-2. [ISFFEI 2014. International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance /9./. 12.05.2014-16.05.2014, Bangkok] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ceratitis * cryptic species * integrative taxonomy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Gamma radiation effect on production of four pheromonal components of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical method enabling the collection and gas chromatographic analysis of delta-1-pyrroline that is released from calling males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was developed. Using this procedure along with previously reported methods for the analyses of geranyl acetate, ethyl-(E)-3-octenoate, and E,E-alpha-farnesene, we compared pheromone production among fruit-reared, factory-reared fertile, and factory-reared sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies in Guatemala. There were no significant differences in pheromone production (ng per male per hour) from 0600 to 1400 hours. In collections made from 1400 to 1700 hours, however, factory-reared fertile males produced significantly more of the three major terpene components (geranyl acetate, ethyl-(E)-3-octenoate, E,E-alpha-farnesene), whereas the factory-reared sterile males produced significantly more of the four-component blend (the three terpenes plus delta-1-pyrroline) than fruit-reared males. Sterile males produced a significantly higher percentage of ethyl-(E)-3-octenoate, based on the four component pheromone blend, during the 1000- to 1400-hour collections. Thus, the primary difference in pheromone production among the tested flies was that the fruit-reared males produced pheromone over a shorter time during the day. Gamma radiation did not affect adversely the amount of total pheromone produced but did affect component ratios in the pheromone blend

  17. Composition of Mediterranean fruit fly third instar larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and diet: Nutrient balance studies on amino acids, minerals and nutrient composition in fresh and spent mass rearing diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass production of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) larvae, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, requires a rearing diet (Tanaka et al. 1969 1970) of which the nutrient requirements and digestibility have not been established. Setbacks in rearing productivity from the expected 100% yield to as low as 3% yield may occasionally be directly attributed to insecticide contamination or a variety of possible cause(s) (Kobayashi, 1993). These causes include inadequate nutrition, poor diet formulation, overcrowding of either microorganisms or Drosophila, or to the inherent processes of oxidative or microbial deterioration of nutrients. The purpose of this study was to establish the nutritional status of the Mediterranean fruit fly diet through a material balance study for changes in proximate composition (i.e., moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates), amino acids, minerals between fresh and spent diets, and in the fruit fly larvae themselves

  18. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their associations with native host plants in a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, K; Martins, D S; Zucchi, R A

    2008-10-01

    The results presented in this paper refer to a host survey, lasting approximately three and a half years (February 2003-July 2006), undertaken in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest located in Linhares County, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A total of 330 fruit samples were collected from native plants, representing 248 species and 51 plant families. Myrtaceae was the most diverse family with 54 sampled species. Twenty-eight plant species, from ten families, are hosts of ten Anastrepha species and of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Among 33 associations between host plants and fruit flies, 20 constitute new records, including the records of host plants for A. fumipennis Lima and A. nascimentoi Zucchi. The findings were discussed in the light of their implications for rain forest conservation efforts and the study of evolutionary relationships between fruit flies and their hosts. PMID:18439337

  19. Caracterização química da amêndoa de coquinho-azedo (Butia capitata var capitata Chemical characterization of nut of Butia capitata var capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Faria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A palmeira Butia capitata var capitata produz o coquinho-azedo, fruto de odor agradável e penetrante, cuja polpa é aproveitada para a produção de um suco saboroso na região norte de Minas Gerais. As sementes apresentam uma amêndoa cuja exploração ainda é bastante limitada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição da amêndoa do coquinho-azedo, visando a avaliar suas possibilidades de uso. Na amêndoa, a composição química (umidade, proteínas, lipídios, cinzas e fibras foi determinada por métodos gravimétricos. Os teores dos principais minerais foram avaliados por espectrofotometria de emissão atômica com fonte de plasma indutivo, e a composição dos ácidos graxos presentes na gordura da semente foi determinada por cromatografia a gás. A amêndoa do coquinho-azedo apresentou 9,9 % de umidade e 57,8 % de lipídios totais, 25,8 % de fibra detergente neutro, 17,6 % de fibra detergente ácido e 1,6 % de cinzas em base seca. A gordura extraída da amêndoa de coquinho-azedo apresentou elevados teores de ácido láurico (42,1 %, que foi seguido pelo ácido oléico (16,9 %. Predominaram os ácidos graxos saturados (78,9 %, principalmente os de cadeia média (C6-C12.The Butia capitata palm tree produce a very aromatic fruit named "coquinho-azedo", which freeze pulp is frequently used to produce agreeable juice in north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. "Coquinho-azedo" kernel contains a nut that is not frequently explored. The purpose of the present study was the chemical characterization of "coquinho-azedo" nut to evaluate the possibilities of its use. The moisture, lipids, ash and fiber contents were determined by gravimetric methods. The mineral profile was characterized by inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer and the fatty acids profile was characterized by gas chromatography. The coquinho-azedo nut presented 9,9 % of moisture, 57,8 % of total lipid, 25,8 % of neutral detergent fiber, 17,6 % of acid detergent fiber

  20. Sedimentation and the reproductive biology of the Hawaiian reef-building coral Montipora capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Hédouin, Laetitia; Waller, Rhian G; Smith, Derek; Truong, William; Gates, Ruth D

    2014-02-01

    Environmental conditions can influence the physiology of marine organisms and have important implications for their reproductive performance and capacity to supply new recruits. This study examined the seasonal reproductive patterns of the coral Montipora capitata in habitats exposed to different sedimentation regimes. Although M. capitata is a main reef-building coral in the Hawaiian Archipelago, little is known about the gametogenic cycle and reproductive ecology of this important species. Our results indicate that gamete production in M. capitata is a resilient process; no differences in gamete development or fecundity were observed among sites with very different sedimentation regimes. The gametogenic cycle of M. capitata lasts between 10 and 11 months, with spawning occurring over 3-5 months during warmer months (May-September). Oocytes were found throughout the year, but spermatocysts were only found April-August. The largest increases in oocyte size occurred during February to May, the months when solar radiation increased rapidly. The largest variation in oocyte sizes was found during July and August; during this period individual colonies contained mature oocytes for immediate spawning and new oocytes being formed for spawning the next year. The capacity of M. capitata to reproduce in areas with high sedimentation is an interesting finding highlighting the potential of the species for acclimatization, adaptation, or both. Despite this optimistic finding, the management of terrestrial runoff and the restoration of habitat quality for corals remains a top priority to ensure the renewal and maintenance of coral populations. PMID:24648203

  1. Stability of Fried Olive and Sunflower Oils Enriched with Thymbra capitata Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Rohaim, A.; Figueiredo, A. C.; Pedro, L. G.; Barroso, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of olive and sunflower oils for domestic uses after frying cow steak or only heating were evaluated in the presence or absence of the carvacrol-rich essential oil of Thymbra capitata. The treatments consisted of sunflower and olive oils either enriched with 200 mg/l of T. capitata oil or without it, heating at 180°C for 20 min, or frying 100 g cow steak at the same temperature and for the same period of time. In all assays, acid, peroxide, and p-anisidine values were followed ov...

  2. Sterile insect technique: new technology to control fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, in the Lower Basin of the Sao Francisco Valley; Tecnica do inseto esteril: nova tecnologia para combater a mosca-das-frutas, Ceratitis capitata, no Submedio do Vale do Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordao; Barbosa, Flavia Rabelo [Embrapa Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio Souza do [Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Viana, Rodrigo; Malavasi, Aldo [Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Sampaio, Raimundo [Agencia Estadual de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The SIT is the creation, on a large scale, the insect-pest to be controlled and weekly release of these insects sterilized in the field.The sterile insects copulate with the wild, but do not generate descendants. The basic premises for the use of SIT in insect control are: the reproduction is through sexual intercourse, the female copulate preferably only once there is ease of creation of the plague in industrial scale in artificial diet. The efficiency of the SIT may be greater when only the males are released in the field because they increase the probability of copulating with wild females only, with reductions in the cost of production and release. In the case of fruit-flies, sterile females continue doing puncture in the fruits, which decreases the quality for export. To be able to release only males in the field, in 1980s, was developed a mutant strain, whose females emerge from pupae white, thus being able to discard the white ones, keeping the pupae Brown for the release of sterile males. Ten years after, to save on the industrial scale production system, was obtained a mutant whose females possess lethal temperature sensitivity of 34 deg C, still in the embryo stage. Then the eggs are placed on artificial diet, and when they arrive at the pupa stage, they are all brown and males. Forty-eight to 24 hours before the emergence of adults, the pupae are painted with fluorescent powder paint, bagged and irradiated with gamma radiation of 95Gy of Co-60 or X-ray. As soon as the males emerge, are marked with fluorescent ink and when they reach 3 to 5 days old, are released into the field. Thus, when monitoring is done in Jackson traps in the field, it is possible to distinguish wild male sterile under black light or epifluorescence microscope with males, because the sterile are fluorescent. On application of the SIT to Moscamed, sterile males are released in the field must display good dispersibility, good survival and good sexual performance. The efficiency and effectiveness of the use of the SIT depend on the success of the sterile males in competition with wild males for copulating of females. According to FAO / IAEA / USDA (2003 ), so that the SIT is technically feasible in controlling Moscamed, it must occur in field conditions, at least 20 % of matings between sterile males and wild females tsl. One of the ways to increase the efficiency of SIT is releasing a nine to one hundred times the population of sterile males compared to the wild population in this field, it increases the likelihood of wild females are copulated by sterile males. Understanding the behaviors and strategies used by the wild and sterile males approach the females for copulating has great relevance to the SIT programs, since determining the acceptance and response of wild females. The strategy in copulating fruit-flies consists of: a) clustering of males at the bottom of foliage of host or non-host plants; b) issuance of the sex pheromone; c) call through the beating of the wings; d) arrival of the female, which is the male face to face; e) both touch with antennas; f) males jump about the females and initiate copulating, and the female may or may not accept the male g) end copulation.

  3. Implementation of integrated pest management of Ceratitis malgassa in citrus groves in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Three species of Ceratitinae have been recorded in Madagascar but most of the economic damage is done by the endemic species Ceratitis malgassa that is considered as the main pest of many fruits (cultivated and wild). During the 1960s, some research on different control methods of Ceratitis malgassa has been undertaken, such as the introduction of natural enemies (4 Opius species from Mauritius and Dirrhinus giffardi). The utilisation of the Sterile Insect Technique has also been considered, but the lack of financial means has prevented such studies. Since 1998 the Ministry of Agriculture through the Plant Protection Service in collaboration with fruit producers and NGO's is carrying out activities to implement the system of integrated pest management in different citrus groves: - Trapping system: test of different traps, monitoring using traps; - Developing the sanitation methods; - Determination of Ceratitis malgassa response to attractants such as trimedlure, torula yeast, tri- lure and protein hydrolysat in view of the application of bait spraying and the male annihilation technique; - Biological control using natural enemies is not yet applied because results of the latest research is not yet available. Many producers who want to export their fruits are interested in the SIT. (author)

  4. Phytochemical and biological studies of Butia capitata Becc. leaves cultivated in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagwa Mohamed Ammar; Mohammed Said Hefnawy; Sahar Youssef Al-Okbi; Doha Abdou Mohamed; Nabil Khamis El-Sayed; Amira Ahmed El-Anssary; Tom Mabry

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Butia capitata (B. capitata) leaf extracts along with phytochemical analysis of the proposed bioactive constituents.Methods:organic solvents and screened for their anti-inflammatory activities in tested animals and in-vitro antioxidant effect. An extensive phytochemical investigation of the bioactive extracts through paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), high pressure liquid chromatography and spectral analysis. GC-Mass, ultraviolet, hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, electron ionization-mass spectrometry, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation and heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation were carried out.Results:Results showed that different extracts possess promising antioxidant effect and Different successive extracts of B. capitata Becc. leaves were prepared with selective significant anti-inflammatory activity with variable degrees. The results of the phytochemical investigation of the bioactive extracts revealed the presence of volatile substances, lipoidal matter, α-tocopherol, free sugars, polysaccharides and flavonoidal compounds.Conclusions: B. capitata leaf extracts were shown to possess variable antioxidant effect, the most promising was methanol extract. Both polar and non polar extracts were proved to have anti-inflammatory activity, the non polar extract was superior in this respect. The bioactivity of the extracts was ascribed to the presence of flavonoids, sterols and α-tocopherol.

  5. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Tucuman, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    to leave the cage and disperse. In March 1945, Ceratitis capitata was captured for the first time in traps. Since that event, insecticide sprays are increasingly used against this pest mainly in citrus orchards. In the fifties the ''citrus tristeza virus'' (CTV) wiped out all orange, grapefruit and tangerine orchards which were grafted on sour orange rootstock. They were replaced by lemons, the only tolerant species on sour orange. Some orange and grapefruit varieties were also grown on tolerant rootstocks. Between 1950 and 1975 new studies were carried out in order to establish the importance of C. capitata as a new pest. In 1952-53 trap catches show SAFF more abundant than medfly, when lemons were already the predominant species of citrus. In 1960-63 the number of grapefruits increased again and medfly became more abundant. Between 1960 and 1980, medflies were predominant in trap catches, probably because of the expansion of citrus orchards. No further studies of this species continued after 1980. It is not clear if medfly displaced SAFF by competition in citrus orchards, or if the expansion of the citrus area restricted SAFF to the forest where wild guavas and peaches are still present. The fact is that in my samplings of citrus fruits in Tucuman and other places like La Rioja province, I have never obtained specimens of SAFF. Several laboratory, semifield and field tests should be done in order to establish the current importance of SAFF in Tucuman. (author)

  6. Sexual Competitiveness of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Males Exposed to Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morató, Santiago; Shelly, Todd; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. Here, we aimed to establish whether males of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Under seminatural conditions, we observed that, in trials using wildish males (from a young laboratory colony started with wild flies) exclusively, exposure to the aroma of bitter orange had no effect on male mating success but exposure to the odor grapefruit oil increased male mating success significantly. In a separate test involving both exposed and nonexposed wildish and mass-reared, sterile males, although wildish males were clearly more competitive than sterile males, exposure to grapefruit oil had no detectable effect on either male type. Exposure to oils had no effect on copulation duration in any of the experiments. We discuss the possibility that the positive effect of grapefruit essential oils on wildish male competitiveness may have been linked to exposure of females to grapefruit as a larval food, which may have imprinted them with grapefruit odors during pupal eclosion and biased their response as adults to odors of their maternal host. PMID:26470173

  7. Effect of adult diet on signaling activity, mate attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were performed to examine the effect of adult diet on calling activity, female attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In all tests, comparisons were drawn between males fed sugar only ('protein-deprived' males) and males fed a protein-sugar mixture ('protein-fed' males). In tests of long-distance attraction, aggregations consisting of protein-deprived males exclusively or protein-fed males exclusively were established in a coffee field, and females were released from a central release point. Protein-fed and protein-deprived males displayed similar calling levels, but approximately twice as many female sightings were recorded at groups of protein-fed males than at groups of protein-deprived males. A second test of female attraction compared single groups of protein-deprived and protein-fed males within the canopy of a field-caged host plant. As before, calling activity did not vary with diet, and in this case numbers of female sightings were also similar between aggregations of protein-fed vs. protein-deprived males. In mating trials conducted on field-caged host plants, protein-fed males achieved significantly more matings than protein-deprived males. These results are compared with other recent studies on the nutritional ecology of male Mediterranean fruit flies. (author)

  8. Effects of irradiation on the courtship behavior of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae) mass reared for the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of routine irradiation of the mass-reared males of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata on their mating performance were re-evaluated. Male courtship behavior was observed and quantified both in laboratory (video recording cages) and field cage conditions. For the experiments, samples of the strains routinely mass-reared for SIT operations at Seibersdorf, Austria; Mendoza, Argentina and Metapa, Mexico, were used. No major qualitative differences were found in the courtship pattern between irradiated and non-irradiated males. However, the results revealed that the process of routine irradiation as commonly used in the mass rearing facilities at the time of the experiments, reduces the mating performance of the sterilized males nearly two-fold. A whole range of quantitative differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated males were detected and described, and their implications for the efficiency of SIT operations are discussed. In contrast, partial sterilization with low doses of radiation did not affect the mating competitiveness of the treated males to a noticeable degree. In view of the results obtained, and due to the current wider use of 'male-only' strains in SIT operations, a re-evaluation of the sterilization strategy and irradiation doses for males used in SIT is recommended. (author)

  9. Gas-exchange patterns of Mediterranean fruit fly Pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): A tool to forecast developmental stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of gas-exchange (CO2 emission) was investigated for developing Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) pupae incubated at different temperatures. This study was undertaken to explore the usefulness of gas-exchange systems in the determination of physiological age in developing pupae that are mass produced for sterile insect technique projects. The rate of CO2 emission was measured in a closed flow-through system connected to commercial infrared gas analysis equipment. Metabolic activity (rate of CO2 emission) was related to pupal eye-color, which is the current technique used to determine physiological age. Eye-color was characterized digitally with 3 variables (Hue, Saturation and Intensity), and color separated by discriminant analysis. The rate of CO2 emission throughout pupal development followed a U-shape, with high levels of emission during pupariation, pupal transformation and final pharate adult stages. Temperature affected the development time of pupae, but not the basic CO2 emission patterns during development. In all temperatures, rates of CO2 emission 1 and 2 d before adult emergence were very similar. After mid larval-adult transition (e.g., phanerocephalic pupa), digital eye-color was significantly correlated with CO2 emission. Results support the suggestion that gas-exchange should be explored further as a system to determine pupal physiological age in mass production of fruit flies. (author)

  10. Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author)

  11. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author)

  12. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids. PMID:22251652

  13. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai xia Gu; Shu Xing Shen; Yan Hua Wang; Jian Jun Zhao; Shu Xin Xuan; Xue Ping Chen; Xiao Feng Li; Shuang Xia Luo; Yu Jing Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  14. Thymbra capitata essential oil prevents cell death induced by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortigón-Vinagre, María P; Blanco, José; Ruiz, Trinidad; Henao, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    An interdisciplinary experimental investigation on the antioxidant activity of Thymbra capitata essential oil was made. This plant is a Mediterranean culinary herb, whose essential oil antioxidant power has recently been demonstrated in vitro as one of the highest in nature. We tested if this in vitro antioxidant capacity was reproducible on biological systems using as model system primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. The composition and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the T. capitata essential oil were also assessed. Cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species level were measured in cells treated with pathophysiologic doses of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (capitata essential oil, and the ability of small doses (capitata essential oil. PMID:25203731

  15. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Figueiredo, A. C.; M.M. Costa; Martins, D; Barroso, J.G.; Pedro, L. G.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 degreesC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants) were used and subjected to t...

  16. Evaluation of ionizing radiation as quarantine treatment in Tephritidae (Diptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation was used to treat: eggs at different ages of C. capitata, third instar larvae of C. capitata, A. fraterculus and A. obliqua, papayas infested with a known number of C. capitata eggs; papayas and mangoes with C. capitata and A. fraterculus eggs and first instar and mangoes infested with third instar larvae of C. capitata and A. fraterculus. Third instar irradiated larvae of C. capitata were more sensitive than larvae of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua in terms of pupation rate. The pupation and emergence rate were different when C. capitata eggs of 24 and 48 h were irradiated in vitro and in papaya. C. capitata infesting either papaya or mango presented higher frequency of fruits heavily infested (more than 100 pupae per fruit), when compared with A. fraterculus. No emergence was found in C. capitata and A. fraterculus when infested fruits were irradiated at 40, 80 and 160 Gy. The dose of 150 Gy is recommended not only to provide no adult emergence but also to decrease the number of pupae when the commodity is infested by eggs and young larvae. (author)

  17. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils isolated from Thymbra capitata L. (Cav.) andOriganum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Leonor; Miguel, Graça; Gomes, Sónia; Costa, Ludmila; Venâncio, Florencia; Teixeira, Adriano; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2005-10-19

    Antilisterial activities of Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare essential oils were tested against 41 strains of Listeria monocytogenes. The oil of T. capitata was mainly constituted by one component, carvacrol (79%), whereas for O. vulgare three components constituted 70% of the oil, namely, thymol (33%), gamma-terpinene (26%), and p-cymene (11%). T. capitata essential oil had a significantly higher antilisterial activity in comparison to O. vulgare oil and chloramphenicol. No significant differences in L. monocytogenes susceptibilities to the essential oils tested were registered. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. capitata essential oil and of carvacrol were quite similar, ranging between 0.05 and 0.2 microL/mL. Antioxidant activity was also tested, the essential oil of T. capitata showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than that of O. vulgare. Use of T. capitata and O. vulgare essential oils can constitute a powerful tool in the control of L. monocytogenes in food and other industries. PMID:16218659

  18. Effect of age on the mating propensity of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of age on the mating propensity of both wild and laboratory-reared Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was investigated under laboratory and field cage conditions. The optimal age for wild flies ranged from 7 to 13 days, whereas in laboratory-reared flies it was between 3 and 5 days old. Virgin flies were selective and more prone to mate than flies that were held with both sexes combined and therefore, had a chance to mate before the test. The difference among ages in laboratory-reared flies was significant only in virgin flies. Virgin females showed a tendency to increase their mating propensity as they got older, whereas virgin males showed a bimodal pattern, with peaks at 4 and 11 days old. When flies of both strains and different ages were combined, laboratory-reared females accounted for 72% of the all the matings and most matings were by 4-day-old females. Wild males accounted for 67% of all the matings and the maximum number of matings were by 10-day-old males. For quality control purpose, flies should be virgin and at their optimal age, this will produce more robust data for statistical analysis. For control purpose, it is recommended to release sterile flies at 1-2 days old, because flies in the field will be at their maximum mating propensity. Our results support the concept that releasing males only will make the Sterile Insect Technique more effective, since sterile males will be virgin and therefore, more prone to mate. (author)

  19. Comparisons of demographic parameters: Six parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and their fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four economically important fruit flies have been introduced accidentally into the Hawaiian Islands. They are the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (introduced in 1895), the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (in 1907), the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) (in 1945) and the Solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons (Hendel) (in 1983). These fruit flies jeopardise development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable industry in Hawaii, cause exported fruits to undergo expensive quarantine treatment and provide a reservoir for introduction into mainland United States. The establishment of fruit flies in Hawaii resulted in subsequent releases of numerous entomophagous insects. For example, Bess et al. (1961) listed a total of 32 natural enemies released between 1947 and 1952. Today, Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), Biosteres vandenboschi (Fullaway), Psyttalia incisi (Silvestri), Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) and Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri) are the most abundant species. These species have played a major role in the reduction of fruit flies throughout the Hawaiian Islands. For example, as a result of parasitisation (60-79.1%) by F. arisanus, the average number of Oriental fruit fly larvae per guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit declined from 8.5 in 1950 to 2.6 in 1955 (Clausen et al. 1965). Demographic population analysis has diverse applications: analysing population stability and structure, estimating extinction probabilities, predicting life history evolution, predicting outbreaks in pest species and examining the dynamics of colonising or invading species. This study of the demography of Hawaiian fruit flies and their parasitoids is based on data from Vargas et al. (1984) and Vargas and Ramadan (1998). This paper describes the comparative demography of F. arisanus, B. tryoni, B. longicaudata, B. vandenboschi, P. incisi and P. fletcheri

  20. Bait matrix for novel toxicants for use in control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notion of geographical isolation as a protective barrier for a nation's agricultural assets is going fast by the wayside as agricultural trade expands globally. Barriers are breaking down in the interests of export or import of agricultural products and with expanded trade the probabilities of moving undesirable pests from one locality to another are increasing. The notion of invading pest species may be, in great part, the movement of people that facilitate the movement of exotic insects. The dilemma to a receiving state or country is what to do to do prevent the entry of, detect, or eliminate a new pest species. If the pest can not be eliminated, then, what is the risk and cost of living with it and manage its numbers. The first line of defence should be regulatory based on evidence provided by science. The second should be an active response that curtails the survival of the new pest. An insecticidal spray strategy has worked well time and time again against the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) each time these fruit flies have invaded California in the past. The insecticide strategy is still being used against B. dorsalis but is being replaced against C. capita with continual releases of sterile flies. The action embodies the concept that the continued presence of sterile flies will nullify the reproductive capability of incoming feral flies due to shear competition for mates. The continual release of sterile flies appears to work very well in the Los Angeles basin area and targets only the species in question. However, such a technique is not available for a number of fruit fly species. Consequently, reliance on an insecticidal strategy will continue. But, if novel toxins with little or no contact toxicity are used, more attention must be given to the carriers of such toxins to ensure that they attract flies to spray deposits and entice them to consume the residues. (author)

  1. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270, CEP 60511-110 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: braga@cnpat.embrapa.br; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: C.Caceres@iaea.org; Enkerlin, Walter [Insect Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: W.Enkerlin@iaea.org

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  2. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) populations to Mamestra brassicae (L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Lema Márquez, Margarita; Vilar, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops are severely damaged by different insect pests. Larvae of lepidopterous pests feed on foliage, creating large holes in leaves. Cabbage plants can tolerate some feeding damage before head formation. However, as larvae grow, they move to the center of the plant, boring into the cabbage head and resulting in head deformation, which reduce product marketability (Shelton et al., 1982). Feeding damage also increases the plants’ susceptibility to dise...

  3. Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Ekspor Kubis (Brassica O. Capitata) dari Kabupaten Karo

    OpenAIRE

    Sinuhaji, Nomi Br

    2012-01-01

    NOMI BR. SINUHAJI, 2012. The Analysis of Some Variables which Influence the export of Cabbages (Brassica O. Capitata) in Karo District (Supervised by Dr. Ir. Tavi Supriana, MS and Ir. Luhut Sihombing, MP). The demand of exporting cabbages to Malaysia and Singapore tends to increase, while the market segments of exporting cabbages from Karo District at the present time are new competitors, such as the People’s Republic of China, Thailand, and Vietnam. The aim of the research was to analyze ...

  4. Using genetic diversity information to establish core collections of Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Oliveira Santos-Garcia; Guilherme Toledo-Silva; Rodrigo Possidonio Sassaki; Thais Helena Ferreira; Rosângela Maria Simeão Resende; Lucimara Chiari; Cláudio Takao Karia; Marcelo Ayres Carvalho; Fábio Gelape Faleiro; Maria Imaculada Zucchi; Anete Pereira Souza

    2012-01-01

    Stylosanthes species are important forage legumes in tropical and subtropical areas. S. macrocephala and S. capitata germplasm collections that consist of 134 and 192 accessions, respectively, are maintained at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Cerrados (Embrapa-Cerrados). Polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity and population structure with the aim to assemble a core collection. The mean values of H O and H E for S. macrocephala were 0.08 and 0....

  5. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ...

  6. Barium-137 M milkers based on 12-molybdo cerate column matrix. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of 134 Cs+ and 131,133 Ba2+ radiotracers (10-4 M for each) in HCl, H N O3, Na Cl, Na N O3, and N H4 Cl solutions on 12-Molybdo cerate (IV) has been studied by batch equilibrium at room temperature. The corresponding distribution coefficients (Kd values in mi/g) were determined as a function of the composition of the reaction medium and drying temperature; 50, 150 and 200 degree C of the molybdate matrix under comparable conditions, Cs+ ions are strongly retained on the adsorbent material than Ba2+ ions. Elution performance of the daughter 134m Ba (T1/2=2.7 min.) from its parent 137 Cs (T1/2=30 y) was investigated on small chromatographic columns of the matrix. Based on the data obtained, 2 g 12-molybdo cerate (IV), dried at 200 degree C, loaded with 1 mCi 137 Cs/137m Ba milkers was prepared. The generated 137m Ba daughter was continuously eluted by passing a mixture solution of 0.1 M HCl + 0.1 M N H4 Cl as eluent through the column bed at flow rates of 1 and 2 m1/min. Eluate assessment proved reproducibility of the elution yields about 58% 137m Ba in 5 m1 eluate. Radionuclidic and chemical purity of the eluate proved to be suitable for use in nuclear medicine and also industrial applications. 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. Mating-induced changes in olfactory-mediated behavior of laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) mated to conspecific males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were mated with laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild male flies to assess the ability of males to alter olfactory-mediated behavioral responses of females to male-produced pheromone or host fruit odor. Virgin females of all 3 types showed a preferential attraction and arrestment on yellow spheres emitting male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. Laboratory-reared normal and wild females mated to laboratory reared normal, sterile, or wild males switched their behavior showing strong preferential attraction to, arrestment on, and egg-laying in (for laboratory-reared females) yellow spheres emitting host fruit odor (guava) over male-produced pheromone. Sterile females did not show a significant switch in behavior except when mated to sterile males. The olfactory-mediated behavioral switch was most evident in the laboratory-reared normal female × laboratory-reared normal male mating. These findings suggest that irradiation of males inducing gamete sterility does not affect the factor(s) from the male accessory gland associated with altering female olfactory behavior. The ability of sterile males to alter adequately olfactory-mediated behavior of wild females is discussed in the context of the sterile insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in the field

  8. Larval endoparasitoids (Hymenoptera of frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea reared from fruits of the cerrado of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul , Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel A. Uchôa-Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a five years survey of endoparasitoids obtained from the larvae of frugivorous Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae flies. The insects were reared from cultivated and wild fruits collected in areas of the cerrado in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The flies obtained from 14 host fruit species were eight Anastrepha species, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Tephritidae; Dasiops sp. and Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae. Eleven parasitoid species were collected: Braconidae - Asobara anastrephae (Muesebek, 1958, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, D. fluminensis (Costa Lima, 1938, Opius bellus Gahan, 1930 and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913; Figitidae - Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower, 1919, Odontosema anastrephae (Borgmeier, 1935 and Trybliographa infuscata Gallardo, Díaz & Uchôa-Fernandes, 2000 and, Pteromalidae - Spalangia gemina Boucek, 1963 and S. endius Walker, 1839. In all cases only one parasitoid emerged per puparium. D. areolatus was the most abundant and frequent parasitoid of fruit fly species, as was L. anastrephae in Neosilba spp. larvae. This is the first record of A. nordlanderi in the midwestern Brazilian region.

  9. Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Jere Kahanpää; Kaj Winqvist; Theo Zeegers

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera ’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae , Asilidae , Athericidae , Bombyliidae , Mythicomyiidae , Rhagionidae , Scenopinidae , Stratiomyidae , Tabanidae , Therevidae , Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae .

  10. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L. Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro, L.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants were used and subjected to the same conditions. The best yield oil was obtained from the whole aerial part of T. capitata collected during the flowering phase. The major component of the oils was carvacrol. Relative high amounts of p-cymene, γ-terpinene and β-caryophyllene were also found. BHT revealed to be the best antioxidant when the olive oil was used. On sunflower oil, the antioxidant ability of BHT was not so evident, being the carvacrol-rich essential oils of T. capitata or carvacrol more important antioxidants.Se analizaron, mediante GC y GC/MS, los componentes volátiles de aceites aislados de las distintas partes de la Thymbra capitata, recogida en diferentes etapas de desarrollo. Se evaluó la actividad antioxidante de estos aceites de la T. capitata, midiendo el índice de peróxidos, en aceites de oliva y girasol, almacenados a 60 ºC. Estos índices de peróxidos se compararon con los obtenidos cuando no se agregó ningún antioxidante (control y cuando se utilizó BHT o carvacrol, en las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento. El mayor rendimiento en aceite se obtuvo de la parte aérea de T. capitata recogida durante la etapa de floración. El componente mayoritario de los aceites fue el carvacrol. También se encontraron, cantidades relativamente elevadas, de p-cimeno, γ-terpineno y β-cariofileno. El mejor antioxidante para el aceite de oliva resultó ser el BHT. En el aceite del girasol, la actividad antioxidante del BHT no fue tan evidente, mientras que el

  11. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  12. Enhanced sintering and conductivity study of cobalt or nickel doped solid solution of barium cerate and zirconate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricote, Sandrine; Bonanos, Nikolaos

    atmospheres and compared to the undoped compounds. The ionic and p-type conductivities have been determined, as well as the activation energy in wet reducing atmospheres, in which protonic conduction is dominant. A decrease of the ionic conductivity is noticeable for the cobalt or nickel doped barium...... zirconate (x = 0), while not for cobalt or nickel solid solution of barium cerate and zirconate (x = 0.2)....

  13. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author)

  14. Effects of pre-irradiation conditioning of Medfly pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Hypoxia and quality of sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of pupae in sterile insect technique (SIT) projects is usually undertaken in hypoxic atmospheres, which have been shown to lessen the deleterious effects of irradiation on the quality of adult sterile flies. Although this is the accepted technology in most mass-rearing and sterilization facilities, to date no information has been generated on the actual levels of oxygen (O2) in pupae-packing containers during irradiation. The present study utilized recently-developed technology to investigate the O2 level inside bags in which pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are packed prior to irradiation, the ability of pupae to create hypoxic environments in these bags, and the effect of O2 atmospheres on the quality of irradiated males. Pupae, 1 d before adult emergence, were shown to deplete the O2 level in sealed bags in approximately 1 h. The rate of O2 consumption was dependent upon pupal age and incubation temperature. Incubation temperature did not significantly affect the quality of pupae or mating capacity of resultant adult males if pupae were irradiated under maximal hypoxic conditions inside packing bags. In contrast, mating competitiveness drastically decreased when pupae were irradiated under ambient O2 conditions, with the packing bag open. There was no difference in the mating capacity of males when pupae were irradiated in sealed bags under either 10% or 2% O2 levels, or under maximal hypoxia. Normal doses of fluorescent dye, applied to pupae to mark sterile flies, did not affect the ability of pupae to create hypoxic conditions inside packing bags, nor the quality control parameters of either pupae or adults. Current practices in mass-rearing facilities are discussed in the light of these results. (author)

  15. Mating and re-mating of medflies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Guatemala: Individual fly marking in field cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) depends critically upon the ability of sterilized, released males to locate and mate with wild females. The overall efficiency of the method also depends upon the relative frequencies of re-mating by wild females following first matings to laboratory or wild males. Using a newly devised technique that individually marks the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), a field cage study was undertaken in a Guatemala coffee orchard to record individual fly mating behaviors between each of several laboratory strain and coffee-reared wild flies. Five laboratory strains were tested- a genetic sexing strain examined in sex ratios between 50%-100% sterile males, two standard bisexual strains, and two Fl hybrid strains. The marking technique revealed a substantial amount of information on individual fly mating and re-mating. Wild male flies significantly out-competed each of the lab strains in the first matings with both wild and lab females. Approx. 22% and 3% of wild males and females, respectively, re-mated in the field cages during two consecutive morning observation periods, while 4-8% of lab males, and 2-8% of lab females re-mated, respectively. Male flies from each lab strain averaged significantly shorter copulation times than wild males. Female flies, either lab or wild, tended to re-mate more often if they first mated to a lab male, but the differences were not statistically significant. An index was devised to provide a measure of relative male mating quality. Wild males tended to have higher individual index values than lab strain males. Average values of the latter ranged from ca. half to roughly equal that of wild males. (author)

  16. Wild Thymbra capitata from Western Rif (Morocco): essential oil composition, chemical homogeneity and yield variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhy, Khadija; Benlhabib, Ouafae; Al Faiz, Chaouki; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Felix

    2013-08-01

    Essential oils (EO, 15 collective samples and 47 individual samples) of Thymbra capitata collected from Moroccan Western Rif were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) in combination with retention indices (RI), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-SM) and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Twenty components were identified. Carvacrol (68.2%-85.9%) was by far the major component of all the samples, while the content of thymol (0.1-0.3%) was very low. Other components present in appreciable amounts were gamma-terpinene (up to 8.9%), p-cymene (up to 7.1%), linalool (up to 4.4%) and (E)-beta-caryophyllene (up to 4.1%). In contrast, the yield of EO varied drastically from sample to sample (0.5-3.7%). No correlation could be established between yield of EO and altitude, pH, chemical composition and granularity of the soil. Cultivation under controlled conditions is suggested to improve the quantitative characteristics of carvacrol-rich Moroccan T. capitata. PMID:24079192

  17. Agronomical and chemical characterisation of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. biotypes from Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Leto, Claudio; Cicero, Nicola; Tropea, Alessia; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Licata, Mario; La Bella, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the agronomical and chemical characterisation of 13 Sicilian biotypes of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav., grown under the same agricultural and environmental condition, are reported. The main morpho-productive parameters and quali-quantitative profile of essential oils (EOs) were determined. The EOs were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis statistical methods were used to group biotypes according to the EOs chemical composition. The EO yield ranged between 4.6 and 8.1 (v/w). A total of 38 EO compounds have been identified. The compounds mostly represented were α-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, borneol, carvacrol and β-caryophyllene. In all biotypes, the carvacrol (67.4-79.5%) was the main compound, confirming that T. capitata is a carvacrol chemotype. The results showed that all Sicilian Thymbra biotypes have a good adaptation to the climatic conditions of the test environment. PMID:25600887

  18. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  19. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly Dietas baseadas em proteína de soja para moscas do Mediterrâneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae. Diets containing sugar beet bagase, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagase in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver dietas adequadas e econômicas para a criação massal de moscas de frutas do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae. Foram testados dietas com bagaço de beterraba açucareira, farelo de trigo, levedura de cerveja e outras dietas de farelo de trigo e proteína de soja prensada brasileira. Dietas compostas por proteína de soja apresentaram resultados positivos de recuperação de pupas, pesos de pupa e emergência de adultos. O bagaço de soja, na forma de pellet com 60% de proteína, pode ser um importante substituto de outras fontes de proteína.

  20. Development of female medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) attractant system for trapping and sterility assessment: investigations of the efficiency of various medfly female trapping combinations in the western part of Turkey in support of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen combinations, formed from eight traps including some of their versions and seven lures and attractants, were tested between the years of 1994-1997. The traps tested were: Jackson trap (JT); International Pheromone's McPhail traps (IPMT); Yellow and white bottomed, Closed-bottom dry trap (CBDT); Open-bottom dry trap (OBDT); Agrisense dry trap; Tephri trap; and Frutect trap. The lures included: ammonium acetate (AA) plus putrescine (P), the FA-2 lure; AA+P+ trimethylamine (TMA), the FA-3 lure; NuLure and borax (NU+B); a special liquid lure; and Trimedlure (TML). For killing agents, either toxicant squares of DDVP or the surfactant Triton were used. Each experiment per year generally consisted of two independent tests that lasted eight weeks. The field plot design was linear or mostly randomized block design. Fruit infestation level was estimated for each test. Mating status of the captured females was also studied. The assessment was based on the number of adult captured. Singe the yearly experiments were not based on the same treatments, some combinations were eliminated or modified after testing. In 1994, the CBDT baited with FA-2 was tested against JT, TML and seemed almost as attractive as JT with the percentage of 61% - 62% females. A modified trap, the OBDT was tested in 1995 along with IPMT, NU+B and Agrisense drytrap, FA-2 and they showed the weakest capture efficiencies. In 1996 when the OBDT and IPMT were tested with FA-2 and FA-3 lures, the traps with FA-3 showed better performance than the same traps with FA-2 (4.07 vs 1.96 and 10.32 vs 3.04 flies/trap/day (F/T/D) respectively). The Tephri trap, which was first tested with NU+B, had best capture efficiency results when used with DDVP plug. The Frutect trap with its own liquid lure gave the weakest result followed by OBDT, FA-2. In 1997, the Tephri, FA-3,wet, in both tests, seemed to be the most attractive treatment with 14.14 and 3.96 F/T/D followed by Tephri, FA-3,dry with 12.37 and 2.63 F/T/D, IPMT, FA-3,dry with 10.71 and 2.63 F/T/D, and IPMT-FA-3,wet with 8.97 and 2.51 F/T/D, OBDT-FA-3, which was contractors choice, seemed to be the weakest treatment with 1.51 and 0.95 F/T/D. However, it had the highest percentage of female capture percentage (94%-97%). The wet versions of both the Tephri trap and IPMT captured higher percentages of females (92%-94%) and (91%-93%), respectively, than their dry versions (77%-83%) and (76%-79%), respectively. The mating status of the captured females seemed to be a little inconsistent in 1995 and 1996, whereas, the percentage of unmated females were higher than mated ones in all treatments in 1997. (author)

  1. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro, L.; Barroso, J.G.; Martins, D; M.M. Costa; Figueiredo, A. C.; Miguel, M. G.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants) were used and subjecte...

  2. Electrochemical Properties of Barium Cerate Doped with Zinc for Methanol Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium cerate and its zinc doped series, BaCe/sub 1-x/Zn/sub x/O/sub 3/ with 0.02 <= x <= 0.16, were synthesized using ammonia as a co-precipitant. The influence of zinc on phase and morphology was characterized using XRD and SEM, respectively. XRD revealed orthorhombic crystallinity for x= 0 to 14 mol% but distorted hexagonal phase for x = 16 mol%. SEM images revealed homogeneity of synthesized powders. The synthesized materials were then tested for their function as electrocatalyst for model analyte, methanol. Methanol electro-oxidation in acidic media was studied by modifying platinum electrode with BaCeO/sub 3/ materials using cyclic voltammetry. Kinetic (k/sub s,h/, D/sub o/) and thermodynamic parameters (E/sub a/, delta G, delta H, delta S) were estimated for methanol electroxidation. The deduced value of diffusion coefficient of order of 10/sup -10/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ indicated faster kinetics of methanol oxidation using BaCeO/sub 3/ than zinc doped sample in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ medium. The increasing temperature and methanol concentration enhanced the peak currents which pointed to the suitability of these materials as electrocatalysts. The stability and catalytic activity of these materials at various temperatures also aided to their potentiality in PEMFC application. (author)

  3. Origanum vulgare and Thymbra capitata Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Perez, Enrique; Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oregano (Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare) essential oils (EOs), cultivated and extracted in the South-East of Spain, were analysed by GC/MS to determine their composition. (E)-β-Caryophyllene (0.5-4.9%), thymol (0.2-5.8%), p-cymene (3.8-8.2%), γ-terpinene (2.1-10.7%) and carvacrol (58.7-77.4%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, where (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene, (+)-a- pinene and (+)-β-pinene were determined as the main enantiomers. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods, accounting for activity against free radicals and reducing power. Important inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase (LOX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer and insecticidal activities, mainly due to carvacrol. These properties support the potential use of oregano EOs as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:26996035

  4. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. II. Assessment of the optimal temperature and the substrate for male-only production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study has been conducted to assess the effect and interaction of various storage substrates and conditions on eggs of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Tests were carried out with the genetic sexing strain VIENNA 8/D53, a strain that carries a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that allows the selective killing of female zygotes. This study identifies strategies to enhance the storage and transport conditions through assessment of effect on egg, pupal and adult survival in order to facilitate the establishment of satellite mass rearing facilities for the production of male medflies. Eggs were immersed in two different substrates and stored at different temperatures and for different time periods. Findings from this study suggest that egg storage periods, and to some extent, the storage substrates have significant effects on pupal and adult survival. For 72-h storage periods, the eggs preserved in agar solution at 10 deg. C produced the most pupae. There was an inverse relationship between the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the substrate during storage and the quality and survival of the stored/transported eggs. Apparently low levels of dissolved oxygen reduce metabolic rates, allowing the storage period to be prolonged. (author)

  5. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: prendon@aphisguate.co [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  6. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  7. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. 1. Effect of temperature, embryo age , and storage time on survival and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operational use of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing strains in Sterile Insect Technique applications can be maximized by developing methods for effective shipment of eggs. This would enable a central production facility to maintain the relevant mother stocks and large colonies to supply eggs to satellite centers that would mass produce only males for irradiation and release. In order to achieve this, the survival of medfly embryos of different ages was assessed after storage at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 deg. C in water for different periods of time. Survival was affected by all 3 variables, i.e., embryo age, water temperature, and length of storage. Storage of embryos at any temperature for 120 h resulted in almost no survival. Controlling the age of the embryo at the time of the temperature treatment is crucial for the success of this procedure. Embryos collected between 0 to 12 h after oviposition and pre-incubated at 25 deg. C for 12 h provide a suitable 72 h window for shipment when maintained between 10 to 15 deg. C. Under these conditions, no significant reductions in survival during all the developmental stages were observed. (author)

  8. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of Globimetula oreophila (Oliv van Tiegh and Phragmanthera capitata (Spreng Balle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O O Ogbole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants will continue to be relevant in the production of lead compounds that can be utilized for its antibacterial activity directly or through chemical modification (s. Aims: The present study is conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity vis-ΰ-vis phytochemical constituents of Globimetula oreophila and Phragmanthera capitata. Materials and Methods: Cup plate agar diffusion assay was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the extracts of both plants against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by plotting the diameters of zones of inhibition against the logarithm of concentrations and the straight line graph so generated extrapolated to the value equivalent to the diameter of the cork-borer. The antilog of the corresponding value of concentration was taken as the MIC value. Statistical Analysis: All the values of the results of cup plate diffusion assay were expressed as means of two replicates ± standard deviation. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones and flavonoid in both plants. Antibacterial screening of both plants showed that both of them were active against all clinical bacterial isolates tested with P. capitata having a higher activity than G. oreophila on most of the isolates. The ability of both plants to inhibit the growth of S. typhi is a major breakthrough in the control of incidence of typhoid fever notwithstanding the reports of resistance to existing antibiotics. Conclusion: It therefore follows that the importance of both plants in the management and control of infections with which all the bacterial isolates used for this study were associated cannot be underestimated.

  9. Experimental and DFT studies on the antioxidant activity of a C-glycoside from Rhynchosia capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.; Kumaresan, R.; Deepha, V.; Sivakumar, Raman

    2013-02-01

    Rhynchosia capitata (=Glycine capitata) Heyne ex roth, was found to possess polyphenolics including flavonoids, which acts as potential antioxidant. The study of ethanolic extract of roots and leaves reveals that the leaves possess high polyphenolics including flavonoids than roots. This was also confirmed by DPPH radical scavenging activity. Leaf powder of the plant was extracted with different solvents by soxhlet apparatus in the order of increasing polarity. The DPPH scavenging activity of methanol fraction was found to be high compared to the crude extract and other fractions. Nitric oxide scavenging activity was dominant in chloroform fraction compared to methanol fraction. Presence of flavonoids especially vitexin, a C-glycoside in methanol and chloroform fractions were confirmed by high pressure thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. The structural and molecular characteristics of naturally occurring flavonoid, vitexin was investigated in gas phase using density functional theory (DFT) approach with B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. Analysis of bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) reveals that the OH site that requires minimum energy for dissociation is 4'-OH from B-ring. To explore the radical scavenging activity of vitexin, the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index properties were computed and interpreted. The nonvalidity of Koopman's theorem has been verified by the computation of Eo and Ev energy magnitudes. Interestingly, from BDE calculations it was observed that BDE for 4'-OH, 5-OH and 7-OH are comparatively low for vitexin than its aglycone apigenin and this may be due to the presence of C-8 glucoside in vitexin. To substantiate this, plot of frontier molecular orbital and spin density distribution analysis for neutral and the corresponding radical species for the compound vitexin have been presented.

  10. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TREATMENTS FOR OVERCOMING DORMANCY IN Butia capitata (MARTIUS) BECCARI SEEDS TRATAMENTOS FÍSICOS E QUÍMICOS PARA SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE Butia capitata (MARTIUS) BECCARI

    OpenAIRE

    Delacyr da Silva Brandão Júnior; Hélida Mara Magalhães; César Fernandes Aquino; Paulo Sérgio Nascimento Lopes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pre-germination treatments for overcoming dormancy in Butia capitata seeds. The experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks design, in a 3x3 factorial scheme (mechanical treatments x immersion substances), with 20 seeds per plot and four replications. For mechanical treatments, seeds with endocarp (pyrene), seeds without endocarp, and scarified pyrenes were used, whereas, for the immersion substances, gibberellic acid, water, and the contr...

  11. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Graça Miguel; Custódia Gago; Maria Dulce Antunes; Cristina Megías; Isabel Cortés-Giraldo; Javier Vioque; A. Sofia Lima; A. Cristina Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 Maria Graça Miguel et al. The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS·+ and peroxyl free radicals...

  12. Deposition and electrochemical characterization of Yttrium doped Barium cerate and zirconate heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epitaxial heterostructures consisting of an yttrium doped barium cerate, BaCe0.8Y0.2O3,(BCY) layer sandwiched between two yttrium doped barium zirconate, BaZr0.8Y0.2O3,(BZY) thin layers have been deposited on insulating (001) MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The first BZY layer was aimed at improving the lattice match with the MgO substrate, the second at protecting the BCY layer. Ionic conductivity has been studied in the 300 °C–600 °C temperature range as a function of the BCY thickness in dry air and wet 5% H2 in Ar atmosphere. In both atmospheres, heterostructures showed a conductivity slightly larger than that of BCY pellets sintered under optimized conditions. Such a result has been attributed to the absence of blocking grain boundaries in the epitaxial heterostructures due to their good crystallographic quality. The BCY sandwich heterostructures showed an improved chemical stability relative to standard BCY pellets. - Highlights: • Heterostructures based on BaCe0.8Y0.2O3 and BaZr0.8Y0.2O3 were realized by PLD • Ionic conductivity has been studied in the 300 °C–600 °C range. • The conductivity was greater than that of optimized BaCe0.8Y0.2O3 pellets • The result was ascribed to the high film quality and to the lack of blocking grains • The chemical stability was improved relative to standard BaCe0.8Y0.2O3 pellets

  13. Respuesta de ecotipos de Stylosanthes capitata a dosis de cobre en solución nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizarro Esteban A.

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available La solución nutritiva de Arnon y Hoagland se modificó a 1/10 para simular las condiciones de acidez y fertilidad del suelo de las sabanas bien drenadas isohipertérmicas de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia. Se usaron seis concentraciones de cobre (0,0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 Y 0.8 ppm. la solución nutritiva se renovó cada 15 días y se aplicaron nitrógeno (14 ppm/semana e hierro (1 ppm, 3/semana. La cantidad de materia seca producida por los ecotipos y el cultivar Capica en los tratamientos de 0.2, 0.4 Y0.8 ppm Cu, fue relativamente te nula. La producción de materia seca de la parte aérea, raíz y total de la planta fue diferente en los ecotipos de S capitata. Así mismo hubo diferencias significativas en la concentración, absorción y translocación del cobre por lo ecotipos y el cultivar Capica. El requerimiento diferencial de cobre, manifestado en la producción de materia seca en la parte aérea en el nivel 0.05 ppr por los ecotipos CIAT 1693 y 1728 por el cultivar Capica (CIAT 102801, se define como el resultado de las relaciones evolutivas de cada ecotipo con el nivel de cobre disponible en la solución del suelo.In the greenhouse ecotypes of Stylosanthes capitata were cultivated to observe their behavior under different copper concentrations. A nutrient solution based on Arnon and Hoagland's (1/10 was used to simulate the acidity and the fertility of well drained savannas of the Eastern Planes of Colombia. Six concentrations of copper were used (O, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 ppm with rewal of the nutrient solution every 15 days, and applications of nitrogen (14 ppm/week and iron (1 ppm, three times/week. The dry matter quantity produced by the ecotypes and the Capica cultivar under treatments of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 ppm Cu, relatively nill. A differential behavior of Stylosanthes capitata ecotypes responses to applied copper was observed in relation to dry matter production in aerial, part, root and total plant. So, there were significant

  14. Economic evaluation of three alternative methods for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel, Palestinian Territories, and Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is a major pest of fruit crops in the Mediterranean Basin countries. If no control measures are applied in Israel, Palestinian Territories, and Jordan against this pest, the annual fruit losses are estimated to be about U.S. $365 million, which is more than half the total revenue produced by fruits considered to be Mediterranean fruit fly hosts in these countries. Under the current control programs, the direct damage (yield loss and control costs) and indirect damage (environmental impact and market loss) amount to U.S. $192 million per year. This amount could increase each year if the current control programs are kept. The aim of this study was to evaluate, on a regional basis, the economic returns of 3 improved alternative Mediterranean fruit fly control methods using a 9-yr time frame. The control alternatives include population suppression using bait sprays, population suppression using massive release of sterile male flies, and population eradication also using massive releases of sterile male flies. For each option, an action plan was prepared which includes intensity, frequency and timing of sampling (trapping and fruit gathering), control (bait sprays and sterile male releases), and postcontrol (quarantine and emergency capacity) techniques. For the economic evaluation costs and benefits at net present value are computed for each control option to estimate the economic indices. Results indicate that the 3 area-wide control options are technically and economically feasible and all are better than the current control programs. For each option, the economic returns on a medium and long term are discussed, along with the environmental impact. Over the 9-yr time frame, the greatest economic return is from the sterile male suppression option. Over a much longer time frame, the greatest return is for the sterile male eradication option

  15. Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae and their parasitoids in the State of Piaui, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to identify the species of fruit flies and their parasitoids associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (caja S. mombin L., umbu-caja Spondias sp., umbu S. tuberosa Arr. Câm. and wild plum Ximenia americana L., in the State of Piaui, Brazil. Samples (63 of fruits were collected from November 2009 to July 2010, totalizing 4,495 fruits and 46,906 kg. It was possible to obtain 10,617 puparia, from which 4,497 tephritids and 1,118 braconid parasitoids emerged. Regarding Spondias spp., the highest occurrence was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, with 100% for umbu and umbu-caja. Caja presented an average of 99.52% of A. obliqua, 0.46% of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and 0.97% of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. Wild plum percentages were 97.83% for A. alveata Stone and 2.17% for A. fraterculus. Infestation rates were 429.2, 178.4, 158.9 and 43.3 puparia/kg in umbu-caja, caja, wild plum and umbu, respectively. Pupal viability was 77.8%, 69.3%, 52.5% and 41.1% to umbu, wild plum, umbu-caja and caja, respectively. By analyzing the sample parasitoids, the percentage was 21.39% for the Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti species and 78.61% for Opius bellus Gahan. For the first time, it was recorded in Brazil X. americana as a host to A. alveata, as well as D. aleolatus and O. bellus as parasitoids of A. obliqua and A. alveata in Piaui.

  16. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases. PMID:27171821

  17. Formation and structural organization of the egg-sperm bundle of the scleractinian coral Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gamiño, J. L.; Weatherby, T. M.; Waller, R. G.; Gates, R. D.

    2011-06-01

    The majority of scleractinian corals are hermaphrodites that broadcast spawn their gametes separately or packaged as egg-sperm bundles during spawning events that are timed to the lunar cycle. The egg-sperm bundle is an efficient way of transporting gametes to the ocean surface where fertilization takes place, while minimizing sperm dilution and maximizing the opportunity for gamete encounters during a spawning event. To date, there are few studies that focus on the formation and structure of egg-sperm bundle. This study explores formation, ultrastructure, and longevity of the egg-sperm bundle in Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral in Hawai`i. Our results show that the egg-sperm bundle is formed by a mucus layer secreted by the oocytes. The sperm package is located at the center of each bundle, possibly reflecting the development of male and female gametes in different mesenteries. Once the egg-sperm bundle has reached the ocean surface, it breaks open within 10-35 min, depending on the environmental conditions (i.e., wind, water turbulence). Although the bundle has an ephemeral life span, the formation of an egg-sperm bundle is a fundamental part of the reproductive process that could be strongly influenced by climate change and deterioration of water quality (due to anthropogenic effects) and thus requires further investigation.

  18. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymbra capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, L R; Pinto, E; Gonçalves, M J; Pina-Vaz, C; Cavaleiro, C; Rodrigues, A G; Palmeira, A; Tavares, C; Costa-de-Oliveira, S; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J

    2004-06-01

    The composition and the antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymbra capitata on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains were studied. Twenty-two samples of the essential oils from the aerial parts of the plant were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. All samples are of the carvacrol type, with a high content of carvacrol (60.0 - 65.8 %) and its biogenetic precursors, gamma-terpinene (8.2 - 9.5 %) and p-cymene (6.0 - 7.5 %). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity against Candida (7 clinical isolates and 3 ATCC type strains), Aspergillus (5 clinical isolates, 2 CECT and 2 ATCC type strains) and 5 dermatophyte clinical strains. To clarify its mechanism of action on Candida strains, the inhibition of germ tube and a flow cytometry assay with propidium iodide (PI) were used. The oil exhibited antifungal activity for all the tested strains, particularly for dermatophytes, with MIC values ranging from 0.08 to 0.32 microL/mL. Regarding Candida, concentrations lower than the MIC values prevented germ tube formation. After a short incubation time the cells incorporated quickly PI, meaning that the fungicidal effect is mainly due to direct lesion of the membrane. PMID:15229809

  19. Variation of volatiles in Tunisian populations of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imen Ben El Hadj; Guetat, Arbi; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Volatiles from 14 wild Tunisian populations of Thymbra capitata (=Thymus capitatus Hoffmanns. et Link=Coridothymus capitatus Rchb.f.), sampled in five ecological areas (sub-humid, upper semi-arid, mean semi-arid, lower semi-arid, and upper arid areas) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. Thirty-nine constituents representing 94.2 to 99.5% of the total oil were identified. Carvacrol (38; 51.1-75.9%), p-cymene (13; 3.7-15%), γ-terpinene (12; 1.4-11.9%), and trans-β-caryophyllene (22; 2.9-4.6%) are the major compounds. A significant variation among populations and population's bioclimatic stage for the majority of compounds was shown. The chemical population structure, estimated using a principal-component analysis (PCA) and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis performed on all populations and compounds and based on Euclidean distances among populations, was high. Both methods allowed separation of the populations into distinct groups defined rather by minor than by major compounds. The spatial compound distribution is linked to ecological factors, indicating that local selective environmental factors influence chemical-composition diversity. Conservation strategies should involve all populations because of their low size and their high level of destruction. Populations exhibiting particular compounds other than the major ones should first be protected. In situ conservation of populations should be accomplished appropriately according to bioclimate. PMID:22782875

  20. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  1. Droogboeketten als vector voor exoten (Diptera: Tephritidae)?

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Everlasting flowers as a vector for exotic insects (Diptera: Tephritidae)? In this paper two rearing occasions of exotic fruit fly species of the genus Terellia are documented. Terellia fuscicornis (Loew, 1844) was reared from a ‘tropical’ plant (probably a thistle species) of unknown origin. Terellia longicauda (Meigen, 1830) was reared from Cirsium rivulare from southern France. On both occasions the plants were left to dry to serve as everlasting flowers. The differences between these exot...

  2. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vicoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot, but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes. Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  3. Nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. capitata seedlings affected by the different nitrogen fertilizer forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, urea and farmyard manure on nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seedlings were studied. pH of the plant growth niedia was higher in the nitrate fertilizer treatment than the ammonium and other fertilizer forms. NO3--N application increased NRA in plant, but NH4+-N decreased NRA in plant. Harvesting date and different fertilizer doses increased NRA while NH4+-N decreased plant nitrate uptake. There was a significant relationship between NRA and fertilizer types.

  4. The nitrogen and nitrate economy of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var capitata L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Martin R; Seginer, Ido; Burns, Amanda; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J; Burns, Ian G; White, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Quantifying and simulating the relationships between crop growth, total-nitrogen (total-N) and nitrate-N (NO3--N) concentration can improve crop nutritional husbandry. In this study, the relationship between shoot relative growth rate (RGR) and shoot total-N, organic-N and NO3--N concentration of hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata L. cv. Kennedy) was described and simulated. Plants were grown hydroponically for up to 74 d. Nitrogen was supplied throughout (control; T1), or removed at 35 d (T2) and 54 d (T3), respectively, after sowing. The organic-N and NO3--N concentration declined in the shoots of control plants with growth, until commercial maturity approached when organic-N and NO3--N concentration increased. There were sub-linear relationships between both total-N and organic-N concentration, and shoot RGR, in the N-limited treatments, i.e. shoot RGR approached an asymptote at high shoot N concentration. The proportional effects of total-N and organic-N concentration on shoot RGR were independent of plant age. A dynamic simulation model ('Nicolet'), derived previously under different conditions, was used to simulate the growth, dry matter content, organic-N, and NO3--N concentration of lettuce grown under the extreme N-stress conditions experienced by the plants. In view of the largely successful fitting of the model to experimental data, the model was used to interpret the results. Suggestions for model improvement are made. PMID:12885858

  5. The familes Lonchopteridae, Opetiidae and Pipunculidae of Malta (Diptera, Aschiza)

    OpenAIRE

    Ebejer, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    An account is given of the three Aschiza families of Diptera: one species of Lonchopteridae, one species of Opetiidae and four species of Pipunculidae that occur in Malta and which are all new records for this country

  6. Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Russell, Robin; Aeby, Greta S.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue loss diseases or white syndromes (WS) are some of the most important coral diseases because they result in significant colony mortality and morbidity, threatening dominant Acroporidae in the Caribbean and Pacific. The causes of WS remain elusive in part because few have examined affected corals at the cellular level. We studied the cellular changes associated with WS over time in a dominant Hawaiian coral, Montipora capitata, and showed that: (i) WS has rapidly progressing (acute) phases mainly associated with ciliates or slowly progressing (chronic) phases mainly associated with helminths or chimeric parasites; (ii) these phases interchanged and waxed and waned; (iii) WS could be a systemic disease associated with chimeric parasitism or a localized disease associated with helminths or ciliates; (iv) corals responded to ciliates mainly with necrosis and to helminths or chimeric parasites with wound repair; (v) mixed infections were uncommon; and (vi) other than cyanobacteria, prokaryotes associated with cell death were not seen. Recognizing potential agents associated with disease at the cellular level and the host response to those agents offers a logical deductive rationale to further explore the role of such agents in the pathogenesis of WS in M. capitata and helps explain manifestation of gross lesions. This approach has broad applicability to the study of the pathogenesis of coral diseases in the field and under experimental settings.

  7. Effect of the volatile constituents isolated from Thymus albicans, Th. mastichina, Th. carnosus and Thymbra capitata in sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria G; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Costa, Monya M; Martins, Denise; Duarte, João; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2003-12-01

    The composition of essential oils isolated from Thymus albicans and Thymbra capitata collected in Algarve (Portugal), Th. mastichina collected in Algarve and Estremadura (Portugal) and Th. carnosus also collected in Algarve, during the flowering phase, was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant capacity of the oils as well as some of their main components was determined by periodic evaluation of the peroxide values in sunflower oils stored at 60 degrees C. These peroxide values were compared to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control (without adding antioxidants) under the same experimental conditions. The oils of Th. albicans and Th. mastichina, collected in Algarve, were dominated by 1,8-cineole (68% and 45%, respectively), whereas linalool (52%) was the main component from the oils isolated from Th. mastichina collected in Estremadura. Carvacrol (68%) was the major component present in the oils of Thymbra capitata while borneol (18%), terpinen-4-ol (11%) and camphene (9%) were the major ones in the essential oil of Th. carnosus. The essential oils as well as some of their main components showed higher antioxidant capacity than that of the synthetic antioxidant BHT. At the end of the experiment (57 days), BHT showed a percentage of inhibition of 20%, while that of the essential oils ranged from 46% for Th. carnosus, to 59% for Th. mastichina collected in Estremadura. PMID:14727767

  8. A filter rearing system for mass reared genetic sexing strains of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), is arguably the world's most widespread pest of fresh fruit production. With mounting controversy over using chemicals against insect pests, the sterile insect technique (SIT) has become increasingly more important as a successful technology in controlling or eradicating many insect pests. However, the wider adoption of SIT for Medflies has been hindered by damage to fruit from sterile female stings (Hendrichs et al. 1995). Moreover, the release of sterile females in SIT for Medflies is not efficacious (Hendrichs et al. 1995), a point validated in the field in Hawaii (McInnis et al. 1994) and Guatemala (Rendon, personal communication). Hendrichs et al. (1995) list many other advantages for releasing only male Medflies including improved economy, increased safety and improved field monitoring. Genetic systems for the separation of sexes have been developed for Medflies (Franz and Kerremans 1994, Willhoeft et al. 1996) and they allow for large-scale releases of only males. Genetic sexing strains (GSS), as they are known, are based upon selectable characters linked to the male sex by using a Y-autosome translocation (Franz et al. 1996). There are two types of GSS used in mass rearing. First, strains based upon a recessive mutation (wp) change the pupal colour from brown to white. In these strains, females emerge from white pupae and males from brown pupae. A machine is used to sort the pupae based upon colour. First described by Robinson and Van Heemert (1982), the most recent strain, SEIB 6-96 based upon the T(Y;5) 2-22 translocation, is relatively stable in small scale rearing (Franz et al. 1994). Second are the temperature sensitive lethal strains (wp/tsl) which carry a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation in addition to wp. In tsl strains, female embryos are killed by exposing eggs to a 3 C temperature during development (Franz et al. 1996). Male embryos are not temperature sensitive and

  9. Qualidade sanitária de sementes de coquinho-azedo (Butia capitata no Norte de Minas Gerais Health quality of Butia capitata seeds in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélida Mara Magalhães

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O coquinho-azedo (Butia capitata Mart. Becc. é uma palmeira nativa dos cerrados brasileiros e seus frutos são fonte de alimento para seres humanos e animais. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar e quantificar os microorganismos nas sementes dessa espécie, utilizando análises "blotter test" e meio Batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA. Amostras foram colhidas em Abóboras, distrito de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais (MG e, em um esquema fatorial 2 x 2, as sementes com e sem endocarpo foram analisadas pelo "blotter test" e BDA, empregando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualisado, com 10 repetições. Essas sementes apresentaram microflora diversificada e a retirada do endocarpo não interferiu na análise microbiológica do coquinho-azedo. Mais espécies de microorganismos foram recuperadas na análise no meio BDA, com predominância de fungos Fusarium spp. e Penicillium spp., independentemente da análise. Portanto, a maior parte da microflora identificada nesse trabalho foi fúngica e o melhor teste foi o crescimento em BDA.Coquinho-azedo (Butia capitata Mart. Becc. is a Brazilian Cerrado native palm tree. Its fruit is used as food to human and animals. This record aim was to identify the microorganisms in the seeds of this species, using the "blotter test" and potato-dextrose-agar (PDA medium. Samples were collected in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State. In a factorial scheme 2 x 2, seeds with or without endocarp, were analysed by blotter test" and BDA, using a randomly designed with ten replications. These seeds presented a diversified microorganism population and endocarp removing did not interfere in coquinho-azedo microbiological analysis. Greater numbers of microorganism species were recovered in PDA medium, and mostly were Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. This study concluded that predominantly B. capitata microorganism population was fungus and PDA was better medium.

  10. Hole diameters in pet bottles used for fruit fly capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurico Paulo Batistella Pasini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted during the period from 31 January to 6 March 2012 in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil to determine the efficiency of different hole diameters in PET trap bottles on pests in guava and persimmon orchards. In a randomised block design in a factorial scheme, we assessed the average number adults of Anastrepha fraterculus, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephitidae and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae infruits thatemerged in two situations (in the plant and on the soil; we also assessed the number of captured adults in trap bottlesunder two conditions, different hole diameters and different days after placement of the attractive solution. Smaller diameter sizescaptured more A. fraterculus, C. capitata and Z. indianusadults. The 1.0 cm diameter was the most efficient hole size in reducing the adult emergence of Tephritidae to Z. indianus, whereas the smallest diameter hole sizes, 0.6 and 0.8 cm, showed the highest efficiencies in controlling adult emergence in persimmon fruit and guava fruit.

  11. Assessment of differences between X and gamma rays in order to validate a new generation of irradiators for insect sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Walder, Julio M.M., E-mail: piaui@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Parker, Andrew G.; Jessup, Andrew; Orozco-Davila, Dina; Islam, Amirul; Dammalage, Thilakasiri, E-mail: A.Jessup@iaea.or [Joint FAO/IAEA-UN A-2444, Seibersdorf (Austria). Insect Pest Control Subprogramme; Pereira, Rui, E-mail: R.Cardoso-Pereira@iaea.or [Joint FAO/IAEA-UN, Vienna (Austria). Insect Pest Control Subprogramme

    2009-07-01

    Recent fears of terrorism provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programs around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing energy from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. In order to validate a novel Xray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X-rays and traditional gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24 to 48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of gamma radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at about 40-60 Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. There were no significant differences between X and gamma radiation regarding mating indices. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and gamma radiation, and X-rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as gamma rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X-ray irradiators for pest control programs in UN Member States. (author)

  12. Assessment of differences between X and γ rays in order to validate a new generation of irradiators for insect sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent fears of terrorism provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programs around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing energy from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. In order to validate a novel Xray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24 to 48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of γ radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at about 40-60 Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. There were no significant differences between X and γ radiation regarding mating indices. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and γ radiation, and X-rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as γ rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X-ray irradiators for pest control programs in UN Member States. (author)

  13. A new generation of X ray irradiators for insect sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent fears of terrorism have provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing radiation from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. To validate a novel X ray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X rays and traditional γ radiation from 60Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24-48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10-70 Gy, respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of γ radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at ∼ 40-60Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters and mating indices were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and γ radiation, and X rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as γ rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X ray irradiators for pest control programmes that integrate the SIT. (author)

  14. Effect of X-ray irradiation on fruit quality of clementine mandarin cv. 'Clemenules'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Miquel [Centre de Technologia Postcollita, Institut Valencia d' Investigacions Agraries (IVIA), Ctra. de Montcada a Naquera, km. 4.5, E-46113 Montcada, Valencia (Spain); Palou, Lluis [Centre de Technologia Postcollita, Institut Valencia d' Investigacions Agraries (IVIA), Ctra. de Montcada a Naquera, km. 4.5, E-46113 Montcada, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: lluis.palou@ivia.es; Angel del Rio, Miguel [Centre de Technologia Postcollita, Institut Valencia d' Investigacions Agraries (IVIA), Ctra. de Montcada a Naquera, km. 4.5, E-46113 Montcada, Valencia (Spain); Jacas, Josep-Anton [Departament de Ciencies Experimentals, Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Campus del Riu Sec, E-12071 Castello de la Plana (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    The effects of a potential quarantine treatment consisting of exposure to X-ray irradiation against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on 'Clemenules' mandarin quality are presented and compared with those from the standard cold temperature quarantine treatment. X-ray irradiation doses of 0.195 and 0.395 kGy had no detrimental effects on fruit quality (rind color, firmness, juice yield, maturity index, internal volatiles, deterioration index and sensory evaluation). These results therefore indicate that X-ray irradiation is a harmless and highly effective quarantine technique for clementine mandarin and this technique could be as useful as the current cold treatment for 'Clemenules' mandarins.

  15. Effect of X-ray irradiation on fruit quality of clementine mandarin cv. 'Clemenules'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of a potential quarantine treatment consisting of exposure to X-ray irradiation against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on 'Clemenules' mandarin quality are presented and compared with those from the standard cold temperature quarantine treatment. X-ray irradiation doses of 0.195 and 0.395 kGy had no detrimental effects on fruit quality (rind color, firmness, juice yield, maturity index, internal volatiles, deterioration index and sensory evaluation). These results therefore indicate that X-ray irradiation is a harmless and highly effective quarantine technique for clementine mandarin and this technique could be as useful as the current cold treatment for 'Clemenules' mandarins

  16. Occurrence and managing of fruit flies in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered to be pests of potential importance because they damage fruits or limit their commercialisation. They therefore constitute one of the principal problems for the fruit industry world-wide. Of particular interest are the species of the genus Anastrepha Schiner widely distributed in the neotropical region where, according to Norrbom and Chung (1988), more than 180 species are known. In Cuba, five members of this genus are reported in addition to Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaeker and up to now, no other species are known (Alayo and Garcia, 1983). Although Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman or pest fruit flies from the genus Anastrepha and Bactrocera do not exist in the country, a defence programme has been operating for many years which includes among other measures, fruit sampling and trapping. The present work was undertaken in order to study the status of these insects in Cuba

  17. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  18. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Gago, Custódia; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Vioque, Javier; Lima, A Sofia; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS(•+) and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells. PMID:26229547

  19. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graça Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS•+ and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells.

  20. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Gago, Custódia; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Vioque, Javier; Lima, A. Sofia; Figueiredo, A. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS•+ and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells. PMID:26229547

  1. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  2. Studies on the Effect of E-Selen as Antioxidant in Ameliorating the Physiological Status of Gamma-Irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Fly,Ceratits capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biologically based control methods, such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), which relies on the sterilization by irradiation of large numbers of insects, is gaining an increasing role in the control of medfly in Mediterranean areas. However, the exposure of cells to ionizing radiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are associated with radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Because of the serious damaging potential of ROS, cells depend on the elaboration of the antioxidant defense system (AODS), both enzymatic and non enzymatic oxidant defense mechanisms. Enzymes of antioxidative defense system – peroxidase, esterasase and alcohol dehydrogenase are known to play an important main role in endogenous cell protection from oxidative damage.The antioxidant Eselenis an exogenous antioxidant containing both selenium and vitamin E. It was added to the larval artificial diets of the Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata in various concentrations. The produced full grown pupae were exposed to gamma rays at dose rate of 90Gy (sterilizing dose) and are used during this experiment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of gamma-irradiation on C. capitata endogenous antioxidant activity (peroxidase, esterase and alcohol dehydrogenase and to examine whether the presence of eselen has the influence on activity of antioxidant and in reducing consequently the oxidative stress and tissue injury induced by gamma radiation in thefruit fly, C. capitata (Wied.). The results indicated that antioxidant pretreatments to the larval rearing dietand irradiation of the produced full grown pupae may have some beneficial effects against irradiation-induced injury to success the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for controlling the Med fly, C. capitata .

  3. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83. ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  4. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests

  5. Revision of the subfamily Rogenhoferinae stat. nov. (Diptera, Cuterebridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Guimarães

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Rogenhoferinae stat. nov. (Diptera, Cuterebridae is revised. Two genera are recognized: Rogenhofera Brauer (Type-species, trigonophora Brauer and Andinocutereba Guimarães (Type-species, fassleri Guimarães. Five species are recorded in Rogenhofera, one R. lopesi is described as new. Key to species, illustrations and distribution are presented.

  6. De wapenvlieg Clitellaria ephippium terug van weggeweest (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Korf, W.; Leij, van der, A.

    2000-01-01

    Clitellaria ephippium, rediscovered in the Netherlands after 100 years (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Clitellaria ephippium has been found in the Netherlands only between 1870 and 1880 near Venlo. In 1999 a female of this beautifully coloured fly was caught near Tegelen. This locality is very close to the first site, in the northern part of the province of Limburg.

  7. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  8. Ethology of Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox) (Diptera: Asilidae) in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southwest Wyoming, Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox), hunted primarily from the surface of the sandy substrate in a greasewood community. Prey, captured in flight, represented four insect orders with Diptera and Hymenoptera predominating. Courtship consisted of the male approaching the female from...

  9. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  10. Vegetable leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and their plant hosts in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumdar, S.; B.A. Bhuiya

    2014-01-01

    Most leafminer flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are serious polyphytophagous insect pests of vegetables. In the present communication an account of four species of agromyzid flies, viz., Liriomyza chinensis (Kato), L. sativae Blanchard, Melanagromyza obtusa Malloch and Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) is provided. Of these, L. chinensis is new to Bangladesh fauna. All these agromyzids were reared from 17 economic vegetable host plants in Bangladesh.

  11. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  12. Are all eggs created equal? A case study from the Hawaiian reef-building coral Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L.; Bidigare, Robert R.; Barshis, Daniel J.; Alamaru, Ada; Hédouin, Laetitia; Hernández-Pech, Xavier; Kandel, Frederique; Leon Soon, Sherril; Roth, Melissa S.; Rodrigues, Lisa J.; Grottoli, Andrea G.; Portocarrero, Claudia; Wagenhauser, Stephanie A.; Buttler, Fenina; Gates, Ruth D.

    2013-03-01

    Parental effects have been largely unexplored in marine organisms and may play a significant role in dictating the phenotypic range of traits in coral offspring, influencing their ability to survive environmental challenges. This study explored parental effects and life-stage differences in the Hawaiian reef-building coral Montipora capitata from different environments by examining the biochemical composition of mature coral colonies and their eggs. Our results indicate that there are large biochemical differences between adults and eggs, with the latter containing higher concentration of lipids (mostly wax esters), ubiquitinated proteins (which may indicate high turnover rate of proteins) and antioxidants (e.g., manganese superoxide dismutase). Adults displayed high phenotypic plasticity, with corals from a high-light environment having more wax esters, lighter tissue δ13C signatures and higher Symbiodinium densities than adults from the low-light environment who had higher content of accessory pigments. A green-algal pigment (α-carotene) and powerful antioxidant was present in eggs; it is unclear whether this pigment is acquired from heterotrophic food sources or from endolithic green algae living in the adult coral skeletons. Despite the broad phenotypic plasticity displayed by adults, parental investment in the context of provisioning of energy reserves and antioxidant defense was the same in eggs from the different sites. Such equality in investment maximizes the capacity of all embryos and larvae to cope with challenging conditions associated with floating at the surface and to disperse successfully until an appropriate habitat for settlement is found.

  13. From parent to gamete: vertical transmission of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae ITS2 sequence assemblages in the reef building coral Montipora capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Padilla-Gamiño

    Full Text Available Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered. Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Many corals produce aposymbiotic larvae that are infected by Symbiodinium from the environment (horizontal transmission, which allows for the acquisition of new endosymbionts (different from their parents each generation. In the remaining species, Symbiodinium are transmitted directly from parent to offspring via eggs (vertical transmission, a mechanism that perpetuates the relationship between some or all of the Symbiodinium diversity found in the parent through multiple generations. Here we examine vertical transmission in the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by comparing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages in parent colonies and the eggs they produce. Parental effects on sequence assemblages in eggs are explored in the context of the coral genotype, colony morphology, and the environment of parent colonies. Our results indicate that ITS2 sequence assemblages in eggs are generally similar to their parents, and patterns in parental assemblages are different, and reflect environmental conditions, but not colony morphology or coral genotype. We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring.

  14. Optimal salinity and temperature intervals of Limapontia capitata (Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa) determined by growth and heart rate measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K.

    1977-12-01

    Growth rate of Limapontia capitata was determined at various temperatures and salinities. An optimal temperature of about 15/sup 0/C was found on the basis of growth rate, percentage of nongrowing animals during the experiments, spawning, and heart rate measurements. Q/sub 10/ of heart rates shows a high value in the temperature interval immediately preceding maximum heart rate. This indicates a marked increase in respiration without a corresponding increase in growth. Heat coma sets in at 38-40/sup 0/C, and cold coma is estimated to set in around 0/sup 0/C. In late summer and early autumn, when the experimental animals were collected, the estimated mean water temperature in the sampling area is about 15/sup 0/C. Based on the same factors as above (no heart rate measurements), an optimal salinity of about 30/sup 0///sub 00/ was determined. This is far from the mean of the sampling area (about 15%), and spawning is as abundant (or more so) at 20 and 15%, so some kind of adaption to salinity--although not with respect to growth--seems to exist. Death of osmotic stress only occurred at room temperature (20-23/sup 0/C) and a concurrent salinity of 5%.

  15. Species of Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae) inside freshwater sponges in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio de Oliveira Roque; Susana Trivinho-Strixino; Sheyla Regina Marques Couceiro; Neusa Hamada; Cecília Volkmer-Ribeiro; Maria Conceição Messias

    2004-01-01

    Larvae of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Diptera, Chironomidae) inside freshwater sponges are reported for the first time in Brazil.Espécies de Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae) no interior de esponjas de água doce no Brasil. Larvas de Oukuriella Epler, 1986 no interior de esponjas de água doce são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

  16. Anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils: effects of Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, and Lippia graveolens on trophozoites growth, viability, adherence, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marisa; Dinis, Augusto M; Salgueiro, Ligia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Custódio, José B A; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2010-04-01

    The present work evaluates the anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils obtained from Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and Lippia graveolens aromatic plants. The effects were evaluated on parasite growth, cell viability adherence, and morphology. The tested essential oils inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia. T. capitata essential oil is the most active followed by O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris, and L. graveolens oils. The tested essential oils at IC50 (71-257) microg/ml inhibited parasite adherence (p capitata, O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and L. graveolens essential oils have antigiardial activity in vitro and seem to have potential for the treatment of the parasitic disease caused by the protozoan G. lamblia. PMID:20217133

  17. Effect of depth of placement and levels of fertilizer phosphorus on its utilization in two genotypes of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of depth of placement and levels of applied P fertilizer on its utilization by two genotypes of cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata was studied using 32P labelled superphosphate. In both the genotypes, phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff %) increased with increasing level of P application. Placement of P fertilizer at 5 cm depth resulted in higher Pdff and utilization efficiency decreased with increasing level of applied P. Mahyco hybrid 413 utilized fertilizer P more efficiently than Pride of India. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  18. Analyses of volatiles produced by the African fruit fly species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břízová, Radka; Vaníčková, Lucie; Faťarová, M.; Ekesi, S.; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 385-404. ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ceratitis FAR complex * chemotaxonomy * male and female-borne volatiles * GCxGC-TOFMS * GC-EAD Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2014 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6223

  19. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author)

  20. Invloed van inundatie van graslanden op terrestrische dansmuggen (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Moller Pilot, H.

    2005-01-01

    Influence of flooding on terrestrial chironomids in grassland (Diptera: Chironomidae) Although flooding is an important factor for the invertebrate fauna of grassland, not much is published on this topic. As in other groups the different species of terrestrial Chironomidae display different reactions during flooding. Some larvae will move to drier parts, others remain on the spot. All species can survive for some time submerged in water, but the uptake of water can be a problem, especially in...

  1. De boorvlieg Tephritis acanthiophilopsis nieuw voor Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, J.T.; Aartsen, van, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The fruitfly Tephritis acanthiophilopsis new for the Netherlands (Diptera: Tephritidae) The first record of Tephritis acanthiophilopsis Hering, 1938 for the Netherlands is presented. A single male was collected with a malaisetrap on the ‘Stampersplaat’, a shoal in the ‘Grevelingen’, just north of the town of Brouwershaven, province of Zeeland. The genus Tephritis Latreille, 1804 is characterized and the difference between the two Dutch species of the cometa-group is illustrated.

  2. De boorvlieg Trupanea amoena nieuw voor Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, J.T.; Hamers, B

    2006-01-01

    The fruitfly Trupanea amoena new for the Netherlands (Diptera: Tephritidae) The first record of Trupanea amoena (Von Frauenfeld, 1857) is given. A female was photographed at the Kunderberg near the town of Voerendaal, province of Limburg. The genus is characterized and a key to the two Northwest European species is given, as well as the differences with the similar Tephritis cometa (Loew, 1840). All three species are illustrated and the distribution of both Trupanea species in the Netherlands...

  3. Comparison of the ecological energetics of the polychaetes capitella capitata and nereis succinea in experimental systems receiving similar levels of detritus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, K. R.

    The ecological energetics, including specific growth rate, population production and trophic transfer, was measured for the polychaetes Capitella capitata and Nereis succinea in laboratory systems receiving similar detritus food rations (1500 mg C · m -2 · d -1). The opportunistic Capitella species more effectively exploited the available food because of a higher specific growth rate and a higher population density. The metabolic cost was high (production : respiration 0.66, versus 2.50 for Nereis), but a greater proportion of the available detritus went into production in Capitella (trophic transfer efficiency is the ratio between worm production and food supplied; 27% for Capitella and 3% for Nereis). Opportunistic species such as Capitella capitata can exploit high organic conditions as in these laboratory growth studies. They effectively exploit not only by fast population increase when food levels increase, but also by achieving high population densities. The more typical, larger, benthic deposit feeders, such as Nereis succinea, not only have a shower population response to increasing food, but behavioural interactions due to crowding ( i.e., increased mortality) may limit population density to levels that do not maximally exploit available food.

  4. Revisão de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) Revision of Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    1999-01-01

    Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) a neotropical genus with ten species is revised. Redescriptions of eight species were made: E. nuda Hull, 1971, E. amabilis (Wulp, 1881), E. beckeri Lamas & Couri, 1998, E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830), E. caminaria (Wiedemann, 1830), E. knutsoni Hull, 1971, E. maracajula Hull, 1971 and E. truxalia Hull, 1971, with illustrations of the types, male terminalia and spermathecae. Two synonymies - E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830), syn.: E. bicinc...

  5. Monographical study for the identification and control of diptera pest species on Romanian wheat crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Malschi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During 1978-2006, the agro-ecological research on the main species of wheat diptera pests,on integrated control systems and strategy of their management were performed, as part of sustainabledevelopment technology of wheat crop. The studies approached the species characteristics, the attackdiagnosis, the parallel evolution of populations and losses, insecticides effect, the biological efficiency andselective moment of treatments; the main objectives were: integrated diptera pest control and forecastof losses, protection and use of the natural reservoir of entomophagous in regional diptera populationslimitation, in cereal agroecosystems. The research proved the crucial role of entomophagous as naturalpredators, and their efficiency in decreasing wheat pests abundance, in normal conditions.

  6. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  7. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  8. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TREATMENTS FOR OVERCOMING DORMANCY IN Butia capitata (MARTIUS BECCARI SEEDS TRATAMENTOS FÍSICOS E QUÍMICOS PARA SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE Butia capitata (MARTIUS BECCARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delacyr da Silva Brandão Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pre-germination treatments for overcoming dormancy in Butia capitata seeds. The experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks design, in a 3x3 factorial scheme (mechanical treatments x immersion substances, with 20 seeds per plot and four replications. For mechanical treatments, seeds with endocarp (pyrene, seeds without endocarp, and scarified pyrenes were used, whereas, for the immersion substances, gibberellic acid, water, and the control (without immersion were used. The emergence of seedlings began within 51 days, in pyrenes scarified and treated with gibberellic acid. The difference between the first and last count was 190 days. There was no interaction effect for the characteristics assessed, except for the mechanical treatments. It was possible to conclude that the scarified pyrenes showed a higher performance for most  characteristics assessed: emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length, and root fresh and dry mass.

    KEY-WORDS: Arecaceae; pyrene; scarification; gibberellins.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-germinativos, na superação de dormência em sementes de coquinho-azedo. O experimento foi montado em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x3 (tratamentos mecânicos x substâncias de imersão, com 20 sementes por parcela e quatro repetições. Nos tratamentos mecânicos, utilizaram-se sementes com endocarpo (pirênio, sementes sem endocarpo e pirênios escarificados, enquanto, nos tratamentos de substância de imersão, foram utilizados ácido giberélico, água e a testemunha (sem imersão. A emergência das plântulas iniciou-se aos 51 dias, em pirênios escarificados e tratados com ácido giberélico. A diferença entre a primeira e a última contagem foi de 190 dias. Para as características avaliadas, não houve efeito da interação, somente dos tratamentos mecânicos. Concluiu-se que os pirênios escarificados

  9. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria C Maia; Nava, Dori E.

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  10. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  11. Species of Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Oliveira Roque

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges are reported for the first time in Brazil.Espécies de Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae no interior de esponjas de água doce no Brasil. Larvas de Oukuriella Epler, 1986 no interior de esponjas de água doce são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

  12. Monographical study for the identification and control of diptera pest species on Romanian wheat crops

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Malschi

    2009-01-01

    During 1978-2006, the agro-ecological research on the main species of wheat diptera pests,on integrated control systems and strategy of their management were performed, as part of sustainabledevelopment technology of wheat crop. The studies approached the species characteristics, the attackdiagnosis, the parallel evolution of populations and losses, insecticides effect, the biological efficiency andselective moment of treatments; the main objectives were: integrated diptera pest control and f...

  13. First Report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Commercial Fruits and Vegetables in Pennsylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months ...

  14. Development of a genetic sexing mechanism in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata for isolation of males in the egg or neonatal larval stage. Coordinated programme on development of sexing mechanisms in fruit flies through manipulation of radiation induced conditional lethals and other genetic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of biochemical markers has allowed a sufficiently detailed evaluation of the genetic variability of the medfly; it has also fostered significant progress in the field of formal genetics. Chromosomal examinations have provided clues for interpreting genetical aspects of sex determination and of occasional recombination of linked factors in heterozygous males. The results obtained are considered a reliable basis for rewarding progress both in basic research and in applied programs

  15. Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Raga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly

  16. A New Species of Chyliza (Diptera, Psilidae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaghaninia S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A New Species of Chyliza (Diptera, Psilidae from Iran. Khaghaninia, S., Gharajedaghi, Ya. — Chyliza (Dasyna qaradaghi from Iran (type locality: Qaradagh Forests (Qala Deresi, East Azerbaijan Province is described. C. qaradaghi Khaghaninia et Gharajedaghi, sp. n. is similar to Chyliza (Dasyna extenuata (Rossi, 1790 in having arista thickened in basal third with dense black hairs and lacking anteroventral comb of black spinules on male fore tibia. New species differs from C. extenuata by head yellow, only occiput partly black and hind tibia largely black; C. extenuata has head completely black and hind tibia yellow. Both species differ also by the shape of male genitalia.

  17. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  18. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  19. 结球甘蓝减数分裂中染色体异常行为分析%Analysis on Chromosome Abnormal Behavior in Meiosis of Brassica oleraces var. Capitata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵治亮

    2009-01-01

    对300多个纯合二倍体结球甘蓝花粉母细胞减数分裂各时期的染色体进行观察,发现自然条件下纯合二倍体甘蓝花粉母细胞在减数分裂的双线期、终变期以及中期Ⅰ出现了高频率的1~3个四价体和中期Ⅰ有高频率的1~3对染色体提早分离和滞后分离2种异常现象,探讨了甘蓝结实率不高与染色体异常行为之间的关系.%The chromosomes from more than 300 pollen mother cells of homozygous diploid of Brassica oleraces var. Capitata L were observed in every period of meiosis. It was found that altofrequent 1-3 quadrivalent appeared in diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase I of meiosis of pollen mother cells of B. oleraces var. Capitata under natural conditions, and 2 kinds of abnormal phenomenas such as altofrequent 1-3 pairs of chromosomes separated early or late in metaphase I of meiosis. The relationship between low seed setting rate of B. oleraces var. Capitata and chromosome abnormal behavior was explored.

  20. Checklist of the Diptera (Insecta of Finland: an introduction and a summary of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Kahanpää

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980. The number of true flies (Diptera known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase, Pipunculidae (98%, and Chironomidae (90%.

  1. 甘蓝LFY基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of LFYZQ from Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤青林; 王志敏; 任雪松; 宋明; 王小佳

    2011-01-01

    DNA and RNA were extracted from bolting stem apex of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L.var. capitata L. ) cultivar ZQ and LFYzQ gene fragments were cloned by RT-PCR respectively with 2 pairs of primers. LFYzQ of DNA and cDNA sequence fragments assembly were respectively 2 560 bp and 1 239 bp. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence by BLAST on line indicated that homology of LFYzQ was up to 91% between Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. and Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L., up to 87 % between it and Arabidopsis thaliana, up to 86 % between it and Brassicajuncea Coss., and up to 87 % between it and Raphanus sativus L. Analysis of gene structure by DNAstar indicated that LFYzQ including 3 extrons ( 452, 394, 393 bp )which totally coded 412 amino acids and 2 introns ( 514, 807 bp )which were unanimous with nucleotide splicing rules of GT-AG. Analysis of amino acids among LFYzQ and other 12 kinds of Brassicaceae LFY on line were divided into 2 classes: class Ⅰ with 3 plants ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Brassica oleracea var. capitata L., Jonopsidium acaule ) and class Ⅱ with other 10 plants. Molecular relativity quality of LFYzQ was 46 kD. LFYzQ was an unstable and hydrophobic protein with 4 kinds of active sites: N-myristoylation site, protein kinase C phosphorylation site, Casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation site and Amidation site.%以甘蓝ZQ启动抽薹的茎尖为材料,分别提取DNA和RNA,以两对引物扩增并序列拼接得到甘蓝LFYZQ基因DNA序列和cDNA完整编码区,长度分别为2 560、1 239 bp,与花椰菜、拟南芥、芥菜和萝卜同源性分别达到91%、87%、86%、87%.该基因含有3个外显子(452、394、393 bp)和2个内含子(514、807 bp),共编码412个氨基酸,内含子剪接位点均符合经典GT-AG法则.将LFYZQ与网上公布的12种十字花科植物LFY氨基酸序列按分子进化分成两类:甘蓝LFYZQ与花椰菜以及Jonopsidium属植物Jonopsidium acaule这3个分为一类;其余10种植物分

  2. Production of dry matter of Stylosanthes capitata submitted to phosphorus in soil with different textures Produção de matéria seca de Stylosanthes capitata submetido à adubação fosfatada em solos com diferentes texturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Nakase Otsubo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The low availability of phosphorus is among the factors that limit the development of the Stylosanthes. Only with the appropriate management aiming to increase the phosphorus liberation in the soil we can provide the increase in yield of this leguminous plant. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the University of Londrina (UEL, the objective was to evaluate the effect of P shoots of Stylosanthes capitata in soil with sandy texture (Typical Yellow Dystropic – LVAd and clay (Typical Eutrophic – Lvef. The experimental design used was completely randomized with four replications in a 2x5x2 factorial design, in which the factors were two soil types, five shots of phosphorus (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and two cuts. For the sowing, seeds of Stylosanthes capitata were used. The aerial part’s cuts were made at 60 and 105 days after sowing. Regardless of the texture and cut, the phosphated fertilization increased the dry matter production of Stylosanthes’ aerial part, and the maximum yield was obtained with a shot of 105 kg ha-1 P2O5. Among the soils the biggest production was obtained in the second cut and soil of sandy texture. With the increase of the doses, the phosphorus content increases in dry matter yield, improving their nutritional quality for animal feed. The maximum dry matter production (2.39 g / plant in sandy soil and 1.36 g / plant in clay soil were obtained with doses of 102.69 and 113.25 kg ha-1 P2O5, respectively.A baixa disponibilidade de fósforo (P está entre os fatores que limitam o desenvolvimento do estilosante. Somente com manejo adequado que vise aumentar a liberação do fósforo no solo se consegue altos rendimentos desta leguminosa. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de doses de P na produção de matéria seca de Stylosanthes capitata em solos com texturas arenosa (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distr

  3. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains. PMID:23926790

  4. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae. PMID:26003979

  5. Winter flight of flies (Diptera in Hongneung Arboretum, Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter phenology (diapause and activity of insects is expected to change more significantly than that of other seasons, because temperature will increase more in winter than in other seasons in temperate regions. However, studies on winter phenology of insects are rare. It is expected that winter flights of flies (Diptera will increase as climate warms. This study aims to find the relationship between flight of flies and temperature. The survey on flies and weather (temperature and rainfall was carried out in the Hongneung Arboretum in Seoul, Korea. Flies were collected weekly from December 2012 to February 2013 using sweeping and Malaise trap. In the survey, 106 flies belonging to 28 morphospecies and 17 families were collected. Richness and abundance of flies were positively correlated with temperature.

  6. Quantifying the potential pathogens transmission of the blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A Maldonado

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the potential capability of transporting and passing infective pathogens of some blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Mihályi's danger-index was calculated for seven species. The original equation was modified to include synanthropic information to discriminate between asynanthropic, hemisynanthropic, and eusynanthropic status. Three groups were recognized, of which Phaenicia cluvia and Musca domestica proved the flies with lowest index value (D = 2.93 and 3.00 respectively; Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps and Sarconesia chlorogaster presented a significantly higher index value (p < 0.10; D = 4.28, 4.44 and 5.66 respectively and C. megacephala, C. vicina and P. sericata appear to represent the heaviest potential sanitary risk with the highest index value (p < 0.10; D = 15.54, 16.88 and 12.49 respectively.

  7. Polytene Chromosome Analysis of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Yesmin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation constitutes a first effort to study the polytene chromosomes of Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae. It is a serious pest of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex group, infesting various types of fruits and vegetables in Southeast Asia, Australia and the Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse each arm of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of this species individually. The tips, distinguishing characteristics as well as significant landmarks are recognized in each chromosome arm. Photographic illustrations of the chromosomes is presented and discussed. The information can be used for comparative studies among species of the tephritid genera which facilitate the development of novel control methods.

  8. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Aedes vigilax (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two main clades of the medically significant saltmarsh mosquito Aedes vigilax Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) were obtained using combined Illumina and Sanger sequencing. The two 15,877 bp circular genomes share 99.0% nucleotide identity and encode 37 genes with identical gene arrangement similar to previously published Culicidae species with a non-coding A + T rich region between rns and tRNA-Ile. Protein initiation codon is ATN apart from ND5 (GTG) and COX1 (TCG). Eight protein-coding genes encode full TAA stop codon, while five are completed by mRNA polyadenylation. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:26099979

  9. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.

  10. Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia S. Couri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae. Neodexiopsis Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae is a very well represented genus in the Neotropical Region, known from almost 100 species. In Bolivia, it is known only from four species: N. declivis, N. incurva, N. oculata and N. recedens, all described by Stein. The study of material from South America deposited at Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris, France, enabled the description of one new species to science. A key for the recognition of the five species known to Bolivia is given.

  11. Revisão de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Revision of Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae a neotropical genus with ten species is revised. Redescriptions of eight species were made: E. nuda Hull, 1971, E. amabilis (Wulp, 1881, E. beckeri Lamas & Couri, 1998, E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830, E. caminaria (Wiedemann, 1830, E. knutsoni Hull, 1971, E. maracajula Hull, 1971 and E. truxalia Hull, 1971, with illustrations of the types, male terminalia and spermathecae. Two synonymies - E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830, syn.: E. bicincta Hull, 1971; and E. nuda Hull, 1971, syn.: E. shannoni Hull, 1971 - are proposed. A key to species are presented except to E. goyaz (Macquart, 1840 and E. aperta (Macquart, 1847, which were not included in this study, as no material was examined.

  12. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  13. First records of the 'bathroom mothmidge' Clogmia albipunctata, a conspicuous element of the Belgian fauna that went unnoticed (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Boumans; J.-Y. Zimmer; F. Verheggen

    2009-01-01

    The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of circumtropical origin, the species probably spread to synanthropic habitats in northern and central

  14. Checklist of the 'lower Brachycera' of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the 'lower Brachycera' of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  15. A New Species of Megarhyphus,an Interesting Discovery from the Lower Jurassic of England(Diptera,Anisopodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ewa KRZEMI(N)SKA; Robert A. CORAM; Wies(l)aw KRZEMI(N)SKI

    2010-01-01

    The oldest representative of the genus Megarhyphus Kovalev(Diptera:Anisopodidae)is described from the Lower Jurassic(Sinemurian)of England.A summary of our knowledge of Jurassic Anisopodidae is given.

  16. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  17. Identification of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, V.; Halada, Petr; Hlaváčková, K.; Dokianakis, E.; Volf, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 21 (2014), s. 1-7. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : diptera * phlebotomine sand flies * MALDI * human pathogens Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  18. Fourier analysis of wing beat signals: assessing the effects of genetic alterations of flight muscle structure in Diptera.

    OpenAIRE

    Hyatt, C J; Maughan, D W

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining and analyzing the wing beat frequency in Diptera is presented. This method uses an optical tachometer to measure Diptera wing movement during flight. The resulting signal from the optical measurement is analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique, and the dominant frequency peak in the Fourier spectrum is selected as the wing beat frequency. Also described is a method for determining quantitatively the degree of variability of the wing beat frequency about...

  19. A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae) from Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Woodley, Norman E.

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae), P. imitator, n. sp., is described from Chiapas, Mexico. The new species is compared to previously described species and diagnostic notes are presented for separation of Paraberismyia from Berismyia Giglio-Tos.

  20. Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia S. Couri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae. Neodexiopsis Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae is a very well represented genus in the Neotropical Region, known from almost 100 species. In Bolivia, it is known only from four species: N. declivis, N. incurva, N. oculata and N. recedens, all described by Stein. The study of material from South America deposited at Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris, France, enabled the description of one new species to science. A key for the recognition of the five species known to Bolivia is given.Neodexiopsis Malloch da Bolivia com descrição de uma espécie nova (Diptera, Muscidae. Neodexiopsis Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae é um gênero muito bem representado na região Neotropical, conhecido por quase 100 espécies. Na Bolívia, ele é conhecido por apenas quatro espécies: N. declivis, N. incurva, N. oculata e N. recedens, todas descritas por Stein. O estudo do material da América do Sul depositado no Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris, France, permitiu a descrição de uma nova espécie para a ciência. Uma chave para o reconhecimento das cinco espécies presentes na Bolívia é fornecida.

  1. A remarkable new species of Eutrichopoda Townsend, 1908 (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-01-01

    A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini. PMID:27395220

  2. The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambkin, Christine L.; Sinclair, Bradley J.; Pape, Thomas; Courtney, Greg W.; Skevington, Jeffrey H.; Meier, Rudolf; Yeates, David K.; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Wiegmann, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the megadiverse insect order Diptera (flies) have successfully colonized all continents and nearly all habitats. There are more than 154 000 described fly species, representing 1012% of animal species. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of such a large component of global...

  3. Molecular species identification of cryptic apple and snowberry maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western and Central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Washington state, identification of the quarantine apple pest Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is complicated by the presence of the cryptic species R. zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae). Distinguishing the two flies is important because there is a zero tolerance policy for R. pomonella in apple p...

  4. Corrections and additions to Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera (Tabanidae of Coscarón & Papavero (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Loureiro Henriques

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some corrections and omitted taxonomic information for the "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae" are presented. Fifteen recently described species are listed for the Neotropical region. Presently, the Neotropical region has 1,205 Tabanidae species, besides 35 unrecognized species and 29 nomina nuda.

  5. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  6. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

  7. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae Extratos de Melia azedarach L. e sua atividade sobre Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise M. O. Cabral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.Os extratos brutos e as frações obtidas das sementes de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae foram testados em Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Os bioensaios mostraram inibição no desenvolvimento pós-embrionário das moscas e um significativo aumento do período larva recém eclodida- adulto. Além disso, o peso pupal foi reduzido e a proporção sexual alterada. Foi observada toxicidade para os ovos das moscas.

  8. Análise cladística de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) Cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    1999-01-01

    A cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae), a Neotropical genus that includes ten species, was made. The cladogram was obtained from eight studied species, based on a data matrix with 21 characters, using the program Hennig86. Character states were polarized following outgroup analysis, and an hypothetical ancestor was included in the analysis in order to root the tree. The options used, "ie*" and "xs w", resulted in four most parsimonious trees with ci =...

  9. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

  10. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  11. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  12. Host plant susceptibility to the swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Rebecca H

    2007-08-01

    The relative resistance and susceptibility of various cruciferous plants to swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), damage was investigated to provide growers with planting recommendations and to identify potential sources of resistance to the swede midge. Broccoli cultivars experienced more severe damage than cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The broccoli 'Paragon', 'Eureka', and 'Packman' are highly susceptible to the swede midge, whereas 'Triathlon' and 'Regal' showed reduced susceptibility to damage and slower development of damage symptoms. No differences were found between normal and red cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower in damage severity and progression of damage symptoms. Four new plant species (Brassica juncea Integlifolia group, Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Shulz., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.) are reported as hosts of the swede midge. The weed species Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb, Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex Dc., and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. exhibited no damage symptoms, and they seem to be nonhost crucifers for the swede midge. PMID:17849887

  13. Mushroom host influence on Lycoriella mali (Diptera: Sciaridae) life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, L; Keil, C B

    2005-04-01

    Lycoriella mali Fitch (Diptera: Sciaridae) infests mushroom crops early in the crop cycle. Recent observations in mushroom houses indicated a difference in emergence time and size of adult L. mali developing on various strains of commercial mushrooms. Samples of adult flies from isolated mushroom houses growing Portabella mushrooms were significantly heavier then those from oyster mushroom houses, whereas flies from shiitake mushroom houses were lightest in weight. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on four strains and species of Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. After the adults emerged, females were weighed, mated, and allowed to oviposit. The number of eggs laid increased as the weight of the female increased. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on eight strains and species of mushrooms. Flies were reared for four generations on each host mushroom mycelium then switched to different host mushrooms. Overall, the hybrid strain of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricomycetideae) was the most favorable host for L. mali, whereas the wild strain of A. bisporus was the least favorable host. Mushroom hosts influence developmental time, survivorship, weight, and reproduction of L. mali. PMID:15889722

  14. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae Tetraspanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin K. Murungi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps, all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.

  15. Marking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) With Rubidium or 15N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed. PMID:26470275

  16. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan, Shawn A; Lee, Jana C; Singleton, Merritt E; Vilaire, Auriel; Walsh, Doug B; Lavine, Laura S; Patten, Kim

    2013-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the United States. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies were conducted to assess whether cranberries may serve as hosts for D. suzukii. In the first study, the suitability of ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were assayed by examining adult oviposition and larval development in no-choice trials. In the second study, wounded and unwounded fruit were examined as potential hosts in choice and no-choice trials. Our first study showed that ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were unsuitable hosts (few eggs were laid, with no surviving puparia). In the wounded and unwounded berry study, no larvae survived to adulthood among unwounded berries. Within wounded fruit, D. suzukii readily fed and developed into adults. Together, these results suggest that unwounded cranberries--whether ripe, unripe, or over-ripe--are unsuitable as hosts for D. suzukii. Wounded rotting cranberries, however, can serve as hosts. Across the landscape, cranberry marshes with rotting fruit may contribute to D. suzukii source-sink dynamics. PMID:24498743

  17. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation.

  18. Bioenergetic and kinematic consequences of limblessness in larval Diptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrigan, D; Lighton, J R

    1993-06-01

    We report the cost of transport and kinematics of terrestrial locomotion by larval blowflies (Protophormia terraenovae, Diptera: Calliphoridae). We contrast inter- and intra-individual methods for estimating minimum cost of transport (MCOT) and the relationship between speed, contraction frequency and distance traveled per contraction. The minimum cost of transport calculated from intra-individual data is 2297 +/- 317 J kg-1 m-1 (S.E.M.) and the MCOT calculated from inter-individual comparisons is statistically indistinguishable at 1910 +/- 327 J kg-1 m-1. These values are almost ten times higher than the predicted value for a similar-sized limbed arthropod. Fly larvae travel by repeated peristaltic contractions and individual contractions cost about the same amount as individual strides in limbed insects. Both contraction frequency and distance traveled per contraction increase linearly with speed. Doubling the contraction frequency or the distance traveled per contraction approximately doubles speed. The cost of transport in fly larvae is among the highest recorded for terrestrial locomotion, confirming the suggestion that biomechanical and kinematic properties of limbless organisms with hydraulic skeletons lead to very high costs of transport. PMID:8340729

  19. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  20. Chironomid (Diptera, Chironomidae species assemblages in northeastern Algerian hydrosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chaib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae, and determine their substrate preferences, from two hydrosystems located in northeastern Algeria: the Kebir-East and the Seybouse wadis. Sixty-five species were recorded in 49 sampling sites distributed along the main courses of the two hydrographic nets and their tributaries. The majority of taxa comprised cosmopolitan species widely distributed along these two hydrosystems. Cricotopus (Cricotopus bicinctus showed the highest abundance and frequency of occurrence (29.52% and was widespread in almost all the sampling sites. Species richness ranged from 4 to 23, Shannon diversity between 0.15 and 0.90, Evenness from 0.23 to 1. A cluster analysis was carried out to represent the different groups of sites sharing similar species composition. Agglomerative cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into four clusters according to the community data. An Indval analysis was then carried out to detect indicator species for each group of the sampling sites. Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris was indicator of the first group of the sampling sites. Orthocladius pedestris, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus and C. bicinctus were indicators of the second group, and Polypedilum cultellatum of the third group. The fourth group was not characterized by any species. Indval analysis allowed also to determine species preferences for substrate size: Corynoneura scutellata and Dicrotendipes nervosus emphasized a preference to fine gravel, and Glyptotendipes pallens to fine sand.

  1. Field comparison of food-based synthetic attractants and traps for African tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four field trials were conducted on coffee orchards in Ruiru, Central Province, Kenya to compare captures of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Multilure Plastic McPhail type traps and Israeli Shabtiely traps baited with female selective food-based attractants. In trial 1, wet Ammonium Acetate (AA) + Trimethylamine (TMA) + Putrescine (PT), AA+TMA and TMA+PT captured significantly more female flies than the other treatments. In the second trial, both the wet and dry AA+TMA+PT and wet AA+TMA were superior to the other treatments in capturing females. Among the different synthetic food attractants, female C. capitata accounted for 67 to 72% of the total captures while 72 to 74% females were captured using NuLure as attractant in both trials. In trials 3 and 4, treatments containing half patch of AA were equally effective as those treatments containing full patch of AA and in trial 4, both treatments with half patch of AA captured significantly more female C. capitata than the NuLure treatment. In trial 3, all treatments in Multilure traps were selective for female C. capitata with percent female caught ranging from 62-67% across the different treatments while in trial 4, all treatments caught between 56 to 70% female flies. In all the trials, the different treatments generally captured lower number of males compared with female catches. Traps baited with the different three component treatments also captured Ceratitis fasciventris. Two other field trials were also conducted in mango orchards at Nguruman, Rift Valley Province and at Muhaka, Coast Province to compare catches of Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis cosyra in Multilure trap baited with female selective food-based attractants. At Nguruman, treatment AA+TMA+PT captured significantly more females and males of B. invadens compared with the other treatments while at Muhaka, the NuLure treatment caught more males and females of B. invadens although catches were not

  2. Dinâmica populacional e incidência de moscas-das-frutas e parasitoides em cultivares de pessegueiros (Prunus Persica L. Batsch no município de presidente prudente-sp Population dynamic and occurrence of fruit flies and their parasitoids in peach cultivars (Prunus persica L. Batsch in presidente prudente municipality, sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a dinâmica populacional e registrar a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical, Talismã, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 e Doçura 2, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Okinawa' e Umê, em Presidente Prudente-SP. Foram realizadas as correlações da dinâmica populacional com a temperatura e a precipitação, e também a infestação com as características químicas dos frutos, Sólidos Solúveis e Acidez Titulável. No período de julho de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, a dinâmica populacional de moscas-das-frutas foi obtida através de coletas semanais de moscas-das-frutas em armadilhas McPhail, e a incidência foi determinada através da coleta de 30 frutos/planta/cultivar. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre população de moscas-das-frutas e as variáveis de temperatura e precipitação, e sólidos solúveis e ácidez titulável. Entre as cultivares de pêssego, Aurora 2 apresentou maior infestação por C. capitata, da ordem de 22 e 23% nos anos 2004 e 2006, respectivamente. Também foi registrada a incidência de Neosilba spp. em frutos de pêssego. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae e Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae foram recuperados de pupários de Tephritidae.The objectives of this research were evaluate the population dynamic and diversity of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea on peach cultivars Tropical, Talisma, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 and Doçura 2, under the rootstocks 'Okinawa' and Umê, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. The dynamic population of fruit flies was correlated with temperature and precipitation. The fruit fly infestation was correlated with chemical characteristics of fruits

  3. Standardization of medfly trapping for use in sterile insect technique programmes: Assessment of various trap types on the island of Chios, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains information from a 5-year experimental programme, coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), on medfly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera, Tephritidae) trapping. The experiments aimed at standardizing trapping methods for use in Sterile Insect Technique programmes under various climatic and other ecological conditions. They were conducted during the months July to September 1987-1991 on the island of Chios, Greece, in citrus orchards with low to medium medfly populations. Seven different trap types and several trap treatments consisting of combinations of visual and olfactory (food, sexual) attractants were tested in a research coordinated protocol. Additional trap types and treatments were also assessed in side experiments. Among the treatments tested the most effective in total captures was the International Pheromones plastic McPhail (yellow bottom) trap type (IPMT), baited with a 300 ml water solution containing the protein Nulure 9%, borax 5% and provided with a Trimedlure (TML) plug in a basket hung from the trap-ceiling. This treatment captured predominantly males and was relatively selective for medflies because apparently TML has repellent effects on non-target insects and in part, on medfly females. The same treatment without TML was almost as effective capturing predominantly females but also a large number of non-target insects, which renders its service difficult. The IPMT was as effective as the other McPhail trap versions tested, including the classical glass trap. 15 refs, 7 tabs, 1 fig

  4. A practical, efficient and low cost diet for rearing the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae), has been artificially reared and used for the application of the sterile insect technique and other purposes, throughout the world. The larval diet used is rather expensive and it is mixed in the rearing facility. The most expensive ingredient used in this diet is yeast which is variable in composition and has a relatively short shelf life due mainly to its high nutritional value. This is particularly true for all countries like Greece which do not manufacture brewer's yeast. Also, it is widely known that the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae grow in a wide variety of fruits and artificial diets. These fruits and artificial diets, although very different in chemical/nutritional as well as physical/ecological parameters, are successfully tolerated and utilised by the larvae. These observations prompted the initiation of research into diets containing a variety of low cost ingredients widely used in the vertebrate feed industry and easily found in any country. To our knowledge, no one has tested complete diets produced by well-established feed manufacturers for larval rearing of this insect

  5. Field infestation of rambutan fruits by internal-feeding pests in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, G T; Follett, P A; Yoshimoto, J M

    2000-06-01

    More than 47,000 mature fruits of nine different varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) were harvested from orchards in Hawaii to assess natural levels of infestation by tephritid fruit flies and other internal feeding pests. Additionally, harvested, mature fruits of seven different rambutan varieties were artificially infested with eggs or first-instars of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to assess host suitability. When all varieties were combined over two field seasons of sampling, fruit infestation rates were 0.021% for oriental fruit fly, 0.097% for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and 0.85% for pyralids (Lepidoptera). Species of Cryptophlebia included both C. illepida (Butler), the native Hawaiian species, and C. ombrodelta (Lower), an introduced species from Australia. Cryptophlebia spp. had not previously been known to attack rambutan. The pyralid infestation was mainly attributable to Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milliere), a species also not previously recorded on rambutan in Hawaii. Overall infestation rate for other moths in the families Blastobasidae, Gracillariidae, Tineidae, and Tortricidae was 0.061%. In artificially infested fruits, both species of fruit fly showed moderately high survivorship for all varieties tested. Because rambutan has such low rates of infestation by oriental fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp., the two primary internal-feeding regulatory pests of rambutan in Hawaii, it may be amenable to the alternative treatment efficacy approach to postharvest quarantine treatment. PMID:10902340

  6. Combined postharvest X-ray and cold quarantine treatments against the Mediterranean fruit fly in ‘Clemenules’ mandarins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, survival of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on artificially infested 'Clemenules' clementine mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco) was assessed on fruit subjected to integrated quarantine treatments consisting of irradiation with X-rays at doses of 0 (control), 30, 54, and 164 Gy followed by exposure to 1 deg C for 0 (control), 3, 6, 9, or 12 days. Additionally, physico-chemical (rind color, firmness, and physiological disorders, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, maturity index, juice yield, and ethanol and acetaldehyde content) and sensory (sweetness, acidity, sensory maturity index, off-flavors, and mandarin-like flavor) fruit quality of 'Clemenules' clementines were assessed on X-irradiated fruit exposed to 1 deg C for 0 (control), 6, or 12 days. Complete insect mortality with no negative effects on fruit quality after 7 days at 20 deg C of shelf life was obtained on clementines firstly X-irradiated at 30 Gy and subsequently exposed to 1 deg C for 2 days. This combination of treatments considerably reduced quarantine time if compared to standard cold quarantine treatments (1.1-2.2 deg C for 14-18 days) and therefore showed promise as a potential commercial treatment for Spanish citrus exports

  7. Influence of composted tobacco waste and farmyard manure applications on the yield and nutrient composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Delibacak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic wastes in agriculture, forestry and land reclamation has been increasingly identified as an important issue for soil fertility, soil conservation and residue disposal. Using organic wastes in agriculture helps not only to dispose these materials economi¬cally, but also reduces negative effects on the envi¬ronment. In the present study, composted tobacco waste (CTW combined with farmyard manure (FM at different ratios was applied to Typic Xerofluvent soil, and the influence of these amendments on the yield and nutrient composition of butter head letttuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 18 parcels in a randomized-block design with three replications at the Agriculture Faculty’s Research Farm of Ege University in Menemen plain, in the Western Anatolia Region of Turkey (38°58′35.51″-38°58′36.03″N; 27°03′84.56″-27°03′89.81″E. Organic materials were applied to the soil after composting. The treatments were (1 control, (2 12.5 t ha-1 FM + 37.5 t ha-1 CTW, (3 25 t ha-1 FM + 25 t ha-1 CTW, (4 50 t ha-1 FM, (5 50 t ha-1 CTW, and (6 37.5 t ha-1 FM + 12.5 t ha-1 CTW. The maximum yield was obtained during the 1st vegetation period (62,7 t ha-1 in the 100 % CTW application. On account of the 2nd vegetation period’s coinciding with winter and the coldness of the months December, January and February, there happened a slowdown in the lettuce yield. The highest total yield of lettuce in both vegetation periods (102.7 t ha-1 was determined in 100% CTW application parcels. The lower lettuce yields were determined in the control parcels. CTW and FM applications raised N, P, K Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Zn and Mn contents of the lettuce. According to the results obtained, it can be said that CTW can be used in agricultural fields just like FM.

  8. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein. PMID:26695221

  9. [Mode of formation of the flight muscles in a nematocerous Diptera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebart-Pedebas, M C; Auber, J

    1982-01-01

    An electron microscope study was conducted on the origin of the dorsal longitudinal muscles of a Nematocerous Diptera (Chironomus). These imaginal muscles arise from three pairs of slender larval muscles that are characterized by the presence of myoblasts located beneath the basal lamina and adhering to the sarcoplasmic membrane. During the last larval instar the myoblasts increase in number, each of the associated muscle fibers loses its contractile material and splits longitudinally into two to form six columns of sarcoplasm. Differentiation of the fibrillar material begins in each of the six muscle rudiments after the adhering myoblasts have become incorporated. There are several possible origins for these myoblasts: they may be embryonic cells that persist in association with the larval muscle fibers; or --as in the case of Cyclorrhaphous Diptera-- they may migrate from elsewhere to invest these fibers. PMID:7138012

  10. First report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in commercial fruits and vegetables in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the flesh fly, Parasarcophaga portschinskyi (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian; Guo, Yadong; Zhang, Chaoyue; Zhou, Yong; Yan, Jie; Liao, Huidan; Lagabaiyila, Zha

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Parasarcophaga portschinskyi (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a forensically important entomology was sequenced for the first time. The 14,929 bp circular genome contains the 37 genes found in a typical Metazoan genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. It also contains one non-coding A + T-rich region. All the protein initiation codons are ATN, except for cox1 that begins with TCG. Each of the base composition on heavy strand was as follows A: 38.94%, G: 9.69%, C: 14.13%, T: 37.24% and the A + T content 76.18%. The mitochondrial genome of Parasarcophaga portschinskyi presented will be valuable for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the family Sarcophagidae and order Diptera, and could be used to identify favorable genetic markers for species identifications for forensic purposes. PMID:25319282

  12. Tabanidae and other Diptera on Camel’s Hump Vermont: Ecological Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Freeman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel’s Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel’s Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft elevation on Camel’s Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there.

  13. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengduan; Xing, Dan; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunxiao; Zhao, Tongyan

    2016-07-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) is presented using traditional Sanger sequencing. Its mitogenome are 16,660 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a non-coding A + T rich region. As in other insects, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND1, two rRNA and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition on heavy strand was as follows - A: 40.1%, G: 8.2%, C: 11.9%, T: 39.8% and the A + T content 79.9%. The results of phylogenetic analyzes showed that the Ae. albopictus has closed relationship with the family Culicidae and order Diptera. PMID:26114325

  14. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder; Renata Morelli; Karen Zamboni Costa; Kenya Martins Faggioni; Patrícia Alessandra Sanches; Beatriz Aguiar Jordão Paranhos; José Maurício Simões Bento; Maria de Lourdes Zamboni Costa

    2014-01-01

    Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) kept under fully artificial conditions. E...

  15. A new species of Anabarhynchus ( Diptera : Therevidae ) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    David Ferguson; David Yeates

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae  ( Diptera ) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchus kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Meg...

  16. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Magdi El-Hawagry; Hathal Al Dhafer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species ( Bombyliidae , Diptera ) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of...

  17. Overwintering Biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California

    OpenAIRE

    NELMS, BRITTANY M.; Macedo, Paula A.; KOTHERA, LINDA; Savage, Harry M.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2013-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar un...

  18. The evolution of water balance in Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae): correlations with climate

    OpenAIRE

    Kleynhans, Elsje; Terblanche, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The water balance of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) has significant implications for understanding biogeography and climate change responses in these African disease vectors. Although moisture is important for tsetse population dynamics, evolutionary responses of Glossina water balance to climate have been relatively poorly explored and earlier studies may have been confounded by several factors. Here, using a physiological and GIS climate database, we investigate potential interspecific...

  19. De larven van het geslacht Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclatuur en tabel tot de soorten (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Moller Pillot, H.K.M.; Wiersma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The larvae of the genus Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclature and key to the species (Diptera: Chironomidae). A review is given of the identities of groups and taxa of Einfeldia in the larval stage as given in the literature. Three species remain on the Dutch list: E. carbonaria (Meigen), E. dissidens (Walker) and E. pagana (Meigen). A key is presented to identify these species. Corrections are given to update a previously given key (Moller Pillot, 1984).

  20. [Genetic Differentiation of Populations of Baikal Endemic Sergentia baicalensis Tshern. (Diptera, Chironomidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, L S; Bukin, Yu S; Peretolchina, T E; Shcherbakov, D Yu

    2015-07-01

    The population structure of endemic species Sergentia baicalensis (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Lake Baikal was studied using the first subunit of the cytochrome C oxidase mitochondrial gene (Col). Two populations inhabiting different basins of this lake, the southern-central and northern, were detected. It was confirmed that the divergence time of this species was dated to Late Miocene (9.53 ± 3.9 Mya), during the period when geographically separated basins existed in the Baikal rift zone. PMID:26410937

  1. Introduction to the Asilidae Fauna (Insecta: Diptera) of Fars Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    SAGHAEI, Nazila; Ostovan,Hadi; SHOJAEI, Mahmoud; HAYAT, Rüstem

    2009-01-01

    Fars province in the south of Iran was surveyed for Asilidae (Insecta: Diptera) during 2006-2007. Twenty six species, belonging to 19 genera and 7 subfamilies: Apocleinae (5 species), Asilinae (7 species), Dasypogoninae (2 species), Laphriinae (2 species), Laphystiinae (1 species), Leptogastrinae (1 species) and Stenopogoninae (8 species), were recorded. Of these, 5 species are new to the fauna of Iran. Additionally 2 subfamilies, 10 genera, and 22 species were recorded for the first time fro...

  2. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Pinto e Vairo; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu; Claudio J.B. de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Ch...

  3. Alightment of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on Odorless Disks Varying in Color

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, D. M.; McGhee, P. S.; Hermann, S. L.; Gut, L. J.; Miller, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white backgr...

  4. Review and Phylogenetic Evaluation of Associations between Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) and Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Menno Reemer

    2013-01-01

    The immature stages of hoverflies of the subfamily Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) develop in ant nests, as predators of the ant brood. The present paper reviews published and unpublished records of associations of Microdontinae with ants, in order to discuss the following questions. (1) Are all Microdontinae associated with ants? (2) Are Microdontinae associated with all ants? (3) Are particular clades of Microdontinae associated with particular clades of ants? (4) Are Microdontinae assoc...

  5. Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.

  6. Some Streblidae and Nycteribiidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) from Maracá Island, Roraima, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Graciolli Gustavo; Linardi Pedro Marcos

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen species in five genera of Streblidae and two species in two genera of Nycteribiidae, collected in Maracá Island, State of Roraima, Brazil are presented with comments on bat hosts and geographical distribution. A total of 42 specimens of Diptera and 17 bats were captured from 1987 to 1988, integrating the "Maracá Project". All species of ectoparasites represent new geographic records for Roraima.

  7. Ectoparasitic insects (Diptera: Streblidae and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) of bats from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Analía Gladys Autino; Guillermo Luis Claps; Rubén Marcos Barquez; María Mónica Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Based on specimens collected from bats of different families, we add new species and extend the known ecological distribution and host associations of insect ectoparasites of bats in Peru. New information is provided for the distribution of 26 species of parasites (25 Diptera and 1 Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae). Four species (Neotrichobius ectophyllae, Strebla galindoi, Strebla paramirabilis and Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni) are new for Peru and 16 represent new records for the departme...

  8. Some Streblidae and Nycteribiidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea from Maracá Island, Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciolli Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen species in five genera of Streblidae and two species in two genera of Nycteribiidae, collected in Maracá Island, State of Roraima, Brazil are presented with comments on bat hosts and geographical distribution. A total of 42 specimens of Diptera and 17 bats were captured from 1987 to 1988, integrating the "Maracá Project". All species of ectoparasites represent new geographic records for Roraima.

  9. Synanthropic trends in urban andextraurban taxocenoses of Sarcophaginae (Diptera in three central european cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Povolny

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to characterize the synanthropic trends in Sarcophaginae of three Central European cities, viz. Brno, Bratislava and Budapest. The polar ordination of both sarcophagine taxa and of their taxocenoses revealed clear-cut trends towards culturophily and synanthropy in the male preconnubial aggregations of Sarchophaginae evidencing that this group of high Diptera represent an excellent model for the study of this phenomenon.

  10. The first records of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    S. Khaghaninia; Kazerani, F.

    2014-01-01

    Based on collected specimens from Arasbaran Forests during 2013, four species belonging to 3 genera of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera; Stratiomyidae) [Actina chalybea Meigen, 1804; Beris schaposchnikowi Pleske, 1926; Beris clavipes (Linnaeus, 1767) and Chorisops nagatomii Rozkošný, 1979] were recognised, which are recorded for the first time from Iran. A key to the studied species is provided, as well as diagnostic characters along with photos of the studied species; their geographical dist...

  11. The first records of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khaghaninia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on collected specimens from Arasbaran Forests during 2013, four species belonging to 3 genera of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera; Stratiomyidae [Actina chalybea Meigen, 1804; Beris schaposchnikowi Pleske, 1926; Beris clavipes (Linnaeus, 1767 and Chorisops nagatomii Rozkošný, 1979] were recognised, which are recorded for the first time from Iran. A key to the studied species is provided, as well as diagnostic characters along with photos of the studied species; their geographical distributions are discussed.

  12. A DNA Barcode Library for Korean Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) and Indexes for Defining Barcode Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won

    2011-01-01

    Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified l...

  13. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C. A.; Roberto A. Zucchi

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha spe...

  14. Spook and Spookier code for stage-specific components of the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway in Diptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ono, Hajime; Rewitz, Kim; Shinoda, Tetsu;

    2006-01-01

    that catalyze the terminal hydroxylation steps in the conversion of cholesterol to the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. These P450s are conserved in other insects and each is thought to function throughout development as the sole mediator of a particular biosynthetic step since, where analyzed, each...... Bombyx and Manduca that is expressed in both embryos and larva. These studies suggest an evolutionary split between Diptera and Lepidoptera in how the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway is regulated during development....

  15. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Labud Valeria Alejandra; Semenas Liliana Graciela; Laos Francisca

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia) attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collec...

  16. A new name for the Neotropical genus Aniarella Enderlein (Diptera, Sciaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Özdikmen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new name for the Neotropical genus Aniarella Enderlein (Diptera, Sciaridae. A junior homonym was detected among neotropical sciarid flies genera and the following replacement name is proposed: Novaniarella nom. nov. for Aniarella Enderlein, 1911 (nec Bolivar, 1906. Accordingly, new combinations are herein proposed for the species currently included in this genus: Novaniarella azteca (Lane, 1959 comb. nov., Novaniarella brevis (Rubsaamen, 1894 comb. nov. and Novaniarella pelluscens (Enderlein, 1911 comb. nov.

  17. The crane flies (Diptera: Tipuloidea) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Matthew J.; Parker, Charles R.; Bernard, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    The list of crane flies (Diptera: Ptychopteridae, Tipuloidea, Trichoceridae) known from Great Smoky Mountains National Park is updated. Sampling in association with the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Great Smoky Mountains National Park resulted in the addition of 107 new Park records, bringing the current list to 250 species. This species assemblage is much richer than those of surrounding areas, although similar in composition. Total richness is estimated to be between 450 and 500 species for Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  18. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Pinto e Vairo; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu; Claudio J. B. de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.

  19. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.

  20. Modelling the Northward Expansion of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) under Future Climate Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Zuliani, Anna; Massolo, Alessandro; Lysyk, Timothy; Johnson, Gregory; Marshall, Shawn; Berger, Kathryn; Cork, Susan Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is affecting the distribution of pathogens and their arthropod vectors worldwide, particularly at northern latitudes. The distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) plays a key role in affecting the emergence and spread of significant vector borne diseases such as Bluetongue (BT) and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) at the border between USA and Canada. We used 50 presence points for C. sonorensis collected in Montana (USA) and south-central Alberta (Ca...

  1. Morphology and Developmental Rate of the Blow Fly, Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Forensic Entomology Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nophawan Bunchu; Chinnapat Thaipakdee; Apichat Vitta; Sangob Sanit; Kom Sukontason; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

    2012-01-01

    Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a forensically important blow fly species presented in many countries. In this study, we determined the morphology of all stages and the developmental rate of H. ligurriens reared under natural ambient conditions in Phitsanulok province, northern Thailand. Morphological features of all stages based on observing under a light microscope were described and demonstrated in order to use for identification purpose. Moreover, development time in e...

  2. Parasitoids of Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Southeast Turkey with 3 New Records

    OpenAIRE

    ÇIKMAN, Emine; BEYARSLAN, Ahmet; CİVELEK, Hasan Sungur

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine parasitoid species of the family Agromyzidae (Diptera) in Diyarbakır and Mardin provinces during 2002-2004. Infested leaves with leafminer larvae were collected from both cultivated and non-cultivated plants twice a month. The adult parasitoids were obtained by rearing from infested leaves in the laboratory. Five parasitoid species belonging to the Braconidae (Hymenoptera) were found. These species, Bracon kirgisorum Telenga, 1936, Opius basali...

  3. Wing shape is influenced by environmental variability in Polietina orbitalis (Stein) (Diptera: Muscidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Michelon Alves; Maurício Osvaldo Moura; Claudio J. B. de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We measured variation and covariation in wing morphology in six populations of the fly Polietina orbitalis (Stein) (Diptera: Muscidae) to test for geographic morphological structure. Additionally, we examined the role of environmental variables in determining geographic variation in wing shape. We sampled five populations in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil (Colombo, Fênix, Guarapuava, Jundiaí do Sul and Ponta Grossa), and one in Paraguay (Mbaracayú). We choose 15 landmarks to de...

  4. Revision of the Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera described by J. Macquart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Rafael

    Full Text Available Four Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera are revised: Aplomera pachymera (Macquart, 1838, A. gayi Macquart, 1838, Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 and E. polita Macquart, 1838. Aplomera chilensis (Bezzi, 1909 was also studied and it is being considered junior synonym of A. pachymera. Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 is confirmed to be a junior synonym of A. gayi Macquart, 1838. Lectotype is being designated for A. pachymera, A. chilensis and E. polita. Illustration of terminalia and photomicrographs of wings are also included.

  5. First record of spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Snježana Hrnčić; Sanja Radonjić

    2015-01-01

    The spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest originating from Southeast Asia. It was detected for the first time in Europe in 2008 (Spain and Italy) and subsequently in other European countries. It is a highly polyphagous pest that infests healthy, ripening fruit and presents a serious threat to fruit production, particularly of soft skinned fruit. In the first half of October 2013, a new fruit fly sp...

  6. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  7. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labud Valeria Alejandra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  8. Análise cladística de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae, a Neotropical genus that includes ten species, was made. The cladogram was obtained from eight studied species, based on a data matrix with 21 characters, using the program Hennig86. Character states were polarized following outgroup analysis, and an hypothetical ancestor was included in the analysis in order to root the tree. The options used, "ie*" and "xs w", resulted in four most parsimonious trees with ci = 79, ri = 80 and length 115. The monophiletism of Euprepina was supported by two synapomorphies.

  9. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.

  10. Lista faunística de los Quironómidos (Diptera, Chironomidae) de Madrid (España)

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, O.; Cobo, F.

    2006-01-01

    A check list of the Chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae) recorded from Madrid is provided for the first time. New unpublished records are included, of which six are new for the Iberian Peninsula. 218 species were found, coming from both lotic and lenitic environments.

    En el presente trabajo se aporta por primera vez una lista faunística de los quironómidos (Diptera, Chironomidae) citados en Madrid. También se añaden citas inéditas, siendo seis de ellas nuevas citas para la p...

  11. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  12. Mexican medfly programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This film tells the story of the fight against and final extinction of the Mediterranean fruit-fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Mexico. By producing billions of high quality sterile flies in the Medfly reproduction and sterilization laboratory in the province of Chiapas and releasing them over infested areas, the Moscamed Programme succeeded in eradicating this pest from Mexico in 1982

  13. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... scorch, Apiognomonia erythrostoma (Pers.), a fungus, and Brown rot, Monilinia fructigena Honey, a fungus.... The PRA determined that three of these four quarantine pests--brown rot, Medfly, and plum fruit moth...: Apiognomonia erythrostoma (Pers.), a brown rot fungus; Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, the Mediterranean...

  14. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  15. Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

  16. Genetic techniques in insect pest control: an overview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (1998), s. 40. [ FAO /IAEA International Conference on area-wide control of insect pests integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. 28.05.1998-02.06.1998, Penang] Keywords : Cochliomyia hominivorax * Ceratitis capitata Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Kahanpää

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae.

  18. Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  19. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  20. Captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera:Tephritidae) and non-target insects on red spheres versus yellow spheres and panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticky red spheres can be used to capture western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), but whether they capture more flies than yellow spheres and panels is poorly known. The objective of this study was to compare fly captures on red spheres versus yellow traps so...

  1. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  2. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  3. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  4. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Graciolli; Alexsander Araújo Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae). Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934), Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographic...

  5. Diptera, Ceratopogonidae Newman, 1834: new records of biting and predaceous midges from Iberá wetlands, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, Gustavo Ricardo; Pablo I. Marino; Mauad, Melina

    2012-01-01

    The first Argentina records of four species of biting and predaceous midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are provided from the Iberá wetlands in Corrientes Province: Forcipomyia (Euprojoannisia) unica Bystrak and Wirth, Echinohelea blantoni Wirth, Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth and Ratanaworabhan and Paryphoconusgrandis Macfie. This is the first record of the predaceous midge genus, Echinohelea Macfie, from Argentina. © 2012 Check List and Authors.

  6. Reduction in Emergence of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Sweet Cherries with Different Egg and Larval Distributions Using Newer Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...

  7. Three new genera and three new species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Rubiaceae from Guadeloupe, French West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new genera of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Faramitella Gagné, Anapeza Gagné and Pellacara Gagné, each with one new species, are described. The new species are from leaf galls on Rubiaceae collected in Guadeloupe, F.W.I.: Faramitella planicauda Gagné, new species, was reared from Fara...

  8. New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA, Agricultural Research Service scientists in Gainesville, FL and Israeli scientists regularly c...

  9. Morfologia comparada das terminálias masculina e feminina dos rhagionidae (Diptera, Tabanomorpha) neotropicais

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel D.D. Carmo; Charles Morphy D. Santos

    2011-01-01

    Apresentamos uma investigação comparativa da morfologia das terminálias masculina e feminina de gêneros da família Rhagionidae (Diptera, Brachycera, Tabanomorpha) com distribuição neotropical. Partindo do plano básico de Brachycera, hipóteses de homologias entre as peças reprodutivas foram analisadas em um contexto comparativo. Os resultados sugerem que as condições presentes em Rhagionidae são no geral muito modificadas quando comparadas com o ancestral comum mais recente de Brachycera. Este...

  10. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ferguson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic A. kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001, but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113.

  11. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2014-01-01

    Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchusoceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchuskampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113. PMID:25349526

  12. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-01-01

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.  PMID:25544092

  13. On the biology of Symbiocladius rhithrogenae (ZAVREL, 1924) (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Chornohora Mts., Ukraine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gilka, W.; Klonowska-Olejnik, M.; Godunko, Roman J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, - (2007), s. 285-291. ISSN 0032-3780 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Grant ostatní: Institute of Environmental Sciences(PL) BW/V/INOS/4/06; Institute of Environmental Sciences(PL) DS/WBiNoZ/INoS/756/06; INTAS Fellowship Grant for Young Scientists(BE) 05-109-4162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Diptera * Chironomidae * Symbiocladius rhithrogenae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  14. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica. PMID:26642812

  16. First record of fruit fly, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of Dacus (Callantra) longicornis Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) was detected for the first time in Bangladesh. An adult male fly was collected on 27th July, 2008 from small kitchen garden of Ganakbari, Savar area, containing various cucurbit crops viz., Cucurbita maxima (D.), Trichosanthus cucumerina (L.), Luffa acutungula (L.) etc. using a Mcphail trap baited with cue-lure. The fruit fly specimen were distinguished by the presence of a red-brown scutum, anatergite fuscous, face with a pair of black spots, abdomen petiolate with elongated abdominal tergite-1, cells bc and c fuscous, costal band overlapping R4+5, and absence of fore femoral spines. (author)

  17. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation. PMID:18209717

  18. Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) como responsable de miasis nosocomiales en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ólger Calderón-Arguedas; Sileny Luna; Guiselle Miranda; Adriana Troyo

    2014-01-01

    Se presentan dos casos de miasis nosocomiales, ocurridos en hospitales costarricenses, cuyo agente etiológico identificado fue Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). El primero tuvo lugar como infestación de una herida quirúrgica secundaria a una cirugía de abdomen, en la cual se observaron larvas de mosca asociadas con una secreción purulenta. Dicho cuadro conllevó la ejecución de una laparotomía exploratoria para descartar la presencia de más larvas, y el lavado de la cavidad per...

  19. Host plant record for the fruit flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C A; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the "Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce". This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  20. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

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    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  1. Biología de Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en enclaves representativos de la Comunidad Valenciana

    OpenAIRE

    Chordá Olmos, Francisco Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Los mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) es uno de los grupos de insectos de mayor notoriedad en Salud Pública no sólo por su molesta picadura sino, sobre todo, por la gran variedad y cantidad de enfermedades que transmiten al ser humano y a los animales. Entre ellas hay que destacar la Malaria, el Dengue, la Fiebre amarilla, el Virus del Oeste del Nilo, el Chikungunya, las Filariasis y diversas Encefalitis que anualmente afectan a millones de personas en todo el mundo. Para el control de las po...

  2. Two torymid species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Torymidae developing on Artemisia gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

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    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two parasitoid wasps, Torymus artemisiae Mayr and Torymoides violaceus (Nikol’skaya, were reared on Artemisia herba-alba (Asteraceae galles, in central Iran. Torymus artemisiae and T. violaceus were developed from the gall midges: Rhopalomyia navasi Tavares and R. hispanica Tavares, respectively. The occurrence of these two parasitic wasps in Iran, and their associations with R. navasi and R. hispanica, are new. Data on the wasps’ biological associations and geographical distribution are provided. The parasitoid compositions of the genus Rhopalomyia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were also discussed.

  3. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

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    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  4. Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): predatory ants and parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae) and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae). The adults of this solitary ectoparasitoid were also attacked by the ants and fell prey to spider webs. PMID:12489400

  5. Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae

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    Karlla Patrícia Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae. The male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 is described and illustrated for the first time based on material housed in the entomological collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. This monotypic subgenus has been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, first in the state of Amazonas and now in the state of Pará. The general structure of the male terminalia is similar that of other Lepidodexia, especially of the subgenus Lepidodexia, by the short distiphallus, juxta with apical projection, and vesica with a membranous spinous lobe.Descrição do macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. O macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez, com base em material depositado na coleção entomológica do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Esse subgênero monotípico tem sido registrado na Floresta Amazônica brasileira, primeiramente no estado do Amazonas e agora no Pará. A estrutura geral da terminália masculina é similar a de outras espécies de Lepidodexia, especialmente do subgênero Lepidodexia, pelo distifalo curto, juxta com projeção apical e vesica com lobo membranoso e espinhoso.

  6. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

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    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Chave pictórica para a identificação das espécies de Sarcophagidae (Diptera de potencial importância forense do sul do Brasil. Espécies da subfamília Sarcophaginae são importantes para a entomologia forense devido ao seu hábito necrófago. Este trabalho apresenta uma chave pictórica para a identificação de 22 espécies de Sarcophaginae de 10 gêneros encontradas na região sul do Brasil. São fornecidas fotografias dos principais estruturas das espécies, principalmente da terminália masculina.

  7. Parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae coletados em pupários no substrato rim bovino Parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae collected in pupae in the bovine kidney

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    Jean Patrick Bonani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo, identificar as principais espécies de parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, em Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, cujas larvas foram alimentadas com rim bovino. As coletas foram realizadas durante o período de agosto de 2003 a março de 2004. Um total de 921 parasitóides foram coletados em 942 pupas dessa mosca. A prevalência natural de parasitismo foi de 97%.The study aimed at identifying the main parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. The larvae were feed on bovine kidney. Samplings were conducted from August 2003 to March 2004, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 921 parasitoids in 942 pupae fly were collected. The prevalence natural parasitism was 97%.

  8. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: fanniidae no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae is reported. Pupae of F. pusio were collected in traps using human feces to attract the adults. Ten pupae were obtained, of which two were parasitized by S. nigroaenea, thus demonstrating a parasitism rate of 20.0%.

  9. Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea in Argentina, with information on the biology of the genus Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea en Argentina, con información sobre la biología del género

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    Raúl E. Campos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first literature record of the genus Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae from South America (Neotropical Region. New information on the biological cycle of Stenomicra species in the wild is provided, and four species of the genus Eryngium L. (Apiaceae are recorded as host plants for immature stages of this taxon. The specimens of Stenomicra sp. were collected in Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.En este estudio, se publica por primera vez para Sudamérica (Región Neotropical el género Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae. Se aporta información sobre su ciclo biológico en condiciones naturales y se mencionan cuatro especies del género Eryngium L. (Apiaceae, como plantas hospedadoras de los estados inmaduros. Los ejemplares de Stenomicra sp. fueron colectados en Sierra de la Ventana, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  10. Historical biogeography of the Fanniidae (Insecta, Diptera): A commentary on the age of the family Biogeografia histórica de Fanniidae (Insecta, Diptera): Un comentario sobre la edad de la familia

    OpenAIRE

    PETER LOWENBERG-NETO; Kirstern L. F. Haseyama; Claudio J. B. de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    In a study on Fanniidae biogeography, Dominguez & Roig-Juñent (2011) argued that the family had a Pangeic origin, Late Jurassic/early Cretaceous (~146 Ma). However, recent literature on Diptera supports that Schizophora radiation occurred during Cenozoic. Fanniidae is a widespread taxon and it was interpreted under the maximum vicariance paradigm; the consequence was an analysis with no alternative hypothesis, but Pangeic origin. We verified that Fanniidae historical narrative was incongruent...

  11. Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) as a natural enemy to Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in Brazil Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) como inimigo natural de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori; L. A. Pereira; O. M. S. Filho

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which wascollected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individual...

  12. Calliphoridae (Diptera) from wild, suburban, and urban sites at three Southeast Patagonian localities: Calliphoridae (Diptera) de ambientes no habitados, suburbanos y urbanos en tres localidades del sudeste patagónico

    OpenAIRE

    Juan C. Mariluis; Juan A. Schnack; Pablo P. Mulieri; Luciano D. Patitucci

    2008-01-01

    Species composition, relative abundance, sex ratio and habitat preference of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Caleta Olivia, Puerto Deseado, and Puerto San Julián (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina) were studied during late spring and summer in 2004-2005. Results showed a higher prevalence of the exotic species, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) and Phaenicia sericata (Meigen) at urban sites over the natives, Compsomyops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy) and Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wied...

  13. Diversity, distribution and floral specificity of tangle-veined flies (Diptera: Nemestrinidae) in north west Patagonia, Argentina Diversidad, distribución y especificidad floral de nemestrínidos (Diptera) en el noroeste de la Patagonia, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    MARIANO DEVOTO; DIEGO MEDAN

    2006-01-01

    Tangle-veined flies (Nemestrinidae) constitute a primitive and rather widespread family among Diptera. The genus Trichophthalma occurs in Australia and South America and is the only one in the family with a typically Gondwanian, disjoint distribution. The ecology and distribution of most southern South American species of this genus remains virtually unknown. We studied the diversity, distribution and flower specificity of flower-visiting species of the genus Trichophthalma in the temperate f...

  14. Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea) in Argentina, with information on the biology of the genus Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea) en Argentina, con información sobre la biología del género

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Raúl E.; María C Gramajo; Mercedes Lizarralde de Grosso

    2010-01-01

    This is the first literature record of the genus Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae) from South America (Neotropical Region). New information on the biological cycle of Stenomicra species in the wild is provided, and four species of the genus Eryngium L. (Apiaceae) are recorded as host plants for immature stages of this taxon. The specimens of Stenomicra sp. were collected in Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.En este estudio, se publica por primera vez para Su...

  15. Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): predatory ants and parasitoids Inimigos naturais do galhador Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): formigas predadoras e parasitóides

    OpenAIRE

    M. de S., Jr. MENDONÇA; H. P. Romanowski

    2002-01-01

    Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae) and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae). The adults of this solitary e...

  16. The skeletomuscular system of the larva of Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophilidae, Diptera): a contribution to the morphology of a model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Schneeberg, Katharina; Löffler, Andreas; Hünefeld, Frank; Meier, Rudolf; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-01-01

    The morphological features of the third instar larva of the most important insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, are documented for the first time using a broad spectrum of modern morphological techniques. External structures of the body wall, the cephaloskeleton, and the musculature are described and illustrated. Additional information about other internal organs is provided. The systematic implications of the findings are discussed briefly. Internal apomorphic features of Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha are confirmed for Drosophila. Despite the intensive investigations of the phylogeny of the megadiverse Diptera, evolutionary reconstructions are still impeded by the scarcity of anatomical data for brachyceran larvae. The available morphological information for the life stages of three insect model organisms -D. melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae), Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) - is addressed briefly. The usefulness of a combination of traditional and innovative techniques for an optimized acquisition of anatomical data for different life stages is highlighted. PMID:23010508

  17. First records of the 'bathroom mothmidge' Clogmia albipunctata, a conspicuous element of the Belgian fauna that went unnoticed (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Boumans, L.; Zimmer, J.-Y.; Verheggen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of circumtropical origin, the species probably spread to synanthropic habitats in northern and central Europe during the past decades. The first documented findings in Belgium are discussed, together with general information on the biology and recognition of the species.

  18. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3rd palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  19. Orientisargidae fam. n., a new Jurassic family of Archisargoidea (Diptera, Brachycera), with review of Archisargidae from China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Junfeng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A pair of fly impressions is described as a new species of a new genus, Orientisargus illecebrosus gen. et sp. n., referred to a new family Orientisargidae fam. n. within Archisargoidea of Brachycera, Diptera. The systematic position of Orientisargidae is discussed. Daohugosargus gen. n. is proposed for Sharasargus eximius KY Zhang et al., 2008. Uranorhagionidae is a junior synonym for Archisargidae. Meanwhile, Mostovskisarginae is a junior synonym for Uranorhagionidae. Mostovskisarg...

  20. Bush Blitz aids description of three new species and a new genus of Australian beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Exoprosopini)

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Lambkin; Justin Bartlett

    2011-01-01

    Bush Blitz is a three-year multimillion dollar program to document the plants and animals in hundreds of properties across Australia’s National Reserve System. The core focus is on nature discovery – identifying and describing new species of plants and animals. The Bush Blitz program has enabled the collection and description of beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from surveys in Western Australia and Queensland. Three new species of Australian beeflies belonging to the Exoprosopini a...