WorldWideScience

Sample records for ceramiques sous irradiation

  1. Renovating a Fusee Ceramique Barrel Vault

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal to renovate a Fusee Ceramique Barrel Vault with steel diagonals In 1956 two workshops, varying in height and span, were built in Wormerveer, The Netherlands. Both workshops were roofed with a concrete barrel vault with a thickness of 110 mm. The cylindrical vaults w

  2. Micro-mechanical modeling of the growth/percolation of pressurized pores in a ceramic matrix at high temperatures; Modelisation micromecanique de la croissance et de la percolation de pores sous pression dans une matrice ceramique a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, P.G

    2007-11-15

    The aim of this work is to propose an elasto-plastic model of damage in a porous ceramics containing two populations of saturated cavities: the nuclear fuel uranium dioxide highly irradiated and at high temperature. The followed approach consists in a multi-scale approach based on the hypothesis of separation of the scales between the two populations of cavities (spherical intragranular pores and spheroidal intergranular pores) and of those of the macroscopic isotropy. The proposed elasto-plastic model of damage treats separately of the elasticity, of the surface of plasticity and of the evolution of the internal parameters of the model with load. The taking into account of different pressures in each population of cavity is carried out for elasticity-plasticity-damage. The model developed for the elastic behaviour takes into account the two populations of cavity, their morphology, their distribution and the pore pressures inside them. The proposed plasticity criteria is based on homogenization methods for non linear behaviours. At the grain scale, the first population of cavity is taken into account by a plasticity criteria of Gurson-Tvegaard-Needleman type. At the scale of grains collection, the presence of a second population of cavity inside a compressible matrix leads to the development of new superior boundaries and pertaining estimations for the effective plasticity surface. These models depend on the morphology and of the distribution of cavities. In the case of drained cavities, an analytical estimation, based on the writing of the classical variational principle with a compressible velocity field and an average on the equiprobable orientations is developed. In the case of saturated cavity, another estimation, based on the variational approach of Ponte Castaneda (1991) with a linear N phases comparison composite is proposed. These models are compared to numerical simulations by finite elements and to numerical simulations using the fast Fourier

  3. Effects of combined electron-beam irradiation and sous-vide treatments on microbiological and other qualities of chicken breast meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.; Lucht, L.; Chuaqui-Offermanns, N

    1994-07-01

    The microbiological safety, refrigeration shelf-life, and nutritional quality of chicken breast meat were investigated following combined electron-beam irradiation and cooking under vacuum (sous-vide). Chicken breast meat inoculated with 10{sup 6} CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes was irradiated with an electron beam at doses up to 3.1 kGy under vacuum in barrier bags, cooked in a boiling water bath for 3 min 45 s (previously determined to achieve an internal temperature of 71.1{sup o}C), and stored at 8{sup o}C for up to 5 weeks. Listeria was undetectable in samples treated with combined sous-vide and irradiation at 3.1 kGy, but the organism survived the sous-vide treatment without irradiation and multiplied during storage. A similar study, conducted with uninoculated chicken breast meat, revealed that the product which received both irradiation (3 kGy) and sous-vide treatment had a shelf-life of at least 8 weeks at 8{sup o}C, whereas the unirradiated samples treated sous-vide spoiled in 16 days. Listeria was undetectable in combination treated samples, but some of the unirradiated sous-vide samples tested after long storage showed high levels of Listeria. Some loss of thiamine occurred with the combined treatments. (author)

  4. Study of of epoxy polymers aging under irradiation; Etude du vieillissement sous irradiation de polymeres epoxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longieras, N

    2004-01-01

    This work concerns the mechanisms of aging under irradiation of epoxy polymers. As epoxy network are insoluble, physicochemical characterisation is difficult to achieve and the interpretation is complex. Thus, we investigated first the degradation of a linear phenoxy polymer which contains DGEBA moiety as a repeat unit. Results obtained on this polymer were then used to study the more complex DGEBA/TETA network. In order to assess the role of oxygen on the aging mechanism, both radiolysis under helium and radio-oxidation under pure oxygen were carried out. The study of radiolysis under helium of phenoxy polymer shows a chain scission mechanism. This result was confirmed by the increase of molecular mobility measured by T{sub 2} and T{sub 1{rho}} NMR relaxation times. Identification of the degradation products were carried out using NMR and FTIR spectrometries. From the quantitative correlation of the whole experimental results, it was possible to determine the main polymer degradation mechanism: each chain scission is followed by the formation of two phenolic terminations, a loss of the intermediate aliphatic chain and the formation of acetone and isopropanol. Radio-oxidation displays a sharp degradation profile of oxidation products including formiate, ester and carboxylic acid groups. Like phenoxy polymer, DGEBA/TETA exhibits a chain scission mechanism. This result was confirmed by a net increase of NMR relaxation times. Dipolar spectra measured from 2DWISE solid state NMR two-dimensional sequence indicate that chain scission occur mainly at methylene amine site. Phenolic termination and acetone are not produced during aging of DGEBA/TETA network as in phenoxy polymer but new products are identified such as unsaturation, isopropyl alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, methide with two hetero-atom. Oxygen effect during irradiation leads mainly to amide formation and to carboxylic acid and ester. (author)

  5. Installation for analytic chemistry under irradiation; Installation de chimie analytique sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradin, J.; Azoeuf, P.; Guillon, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    An installation has been set up for carrying out manipulations and chemical analyses on radioactive products. It is completely remote-controlled and is of linear shape, 15 metres long; it is made up of three zones: - an active zone containing the apparatus, - a rear zone giving access to the active zone, - a forward zone independent of the two others and completely protected from which the remote-control of the apparatus is effected. The whole assembly has been designed so that each apparatus corresponding to an analytical technique is set up in a sealed enclosure. The sealed enclosures are interconnected by a conveyor. After three years operation, a critical review is now made of the installation. (authors) [French] L'installation a ete realisee pour effectuer des manipulations et des analyses chimiques sur des produits radioactifs. Elle est totalement telecommandee et se presente sous une forme lineaire de 15 metres de longueur et comporte trois zones: - une zone active d'appareillage, - une zone arriere d'intervention, - une zone avant independante des deux premieres et totalement protegee, ou s'operent les telecommandes de l'appareillage. L'ensemble a ete concu de facon a ce que chaque appareillage correspondant a une technique d'analyse soit implante dans une enceinte etanche. Les enceintes etanches sont reliees entre elles par un convoyeur. Apres trois annees de fonctionnement nous faisons le bilan et les critiques de l'installation. (auteurs)

  6. Behavior under irradiation of super-mirror for neutron guides; Tenue sous irradiation de supermiroirs pour guides de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N' Guy-Marechal, K

    1997-10-15

    The aim of this work is to study the aging of NiCx/Ti super-mirror multilayers used in neutron guides under thermal neutron irradiation. These multilayers allow an increase of the apparent critical angle of total reflection by creating constructive interferences. Neutrons fluxes are thus increased in neutron guides made with a super-mirror coating. Thin films of one and ten bilayers have been deposited on a silicon and a borosilicate glass substrate. We have then studied the evolution of their optical, structural and mechanical properties after irradiation and annealing. After irradiation, a decrease in neutron reflectivity has been observed, due to the interdiffusion of both materials: this phenomenon was particularly important in the coatings deposited on a glass substrate. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy have shown that the structural evolutions of both nickel and titanium do not depend on the substrate. Nickel layers remain face-centered cubic after treatment, whereas the initially hexagonal closed-packed titanium becomes face-centered cubic with a texture in the [111] direction. This phase transformation has been attributed to the formation of a TiH compound containing as much as 50% hydrogen. Despite these structural changes, stress relaxation has occurred after irradiation in our layers. On the contrary, the mean stress that we have determined in previous samples, elaborated in another laboratory, has increased after irradiation. Comparison of both results shows that stress evolution is linked to the deposition conditions. As stress remains almost unchanged after annealing, we may conclude that only irradiation defects, and not heating, lead to stress evolution. Our samples being very similar to real neutron guides, we can extend the results we have obtained in this work to real super-mirrors. (author)

  7. Aging under irradiation of super-mirrors used in neutron guides; Tenue sous irradiation de supermiroirs pour guides de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N`Guy-Marechal, K

    1997-10-16

    The aim of this work is to study the aging of NiC{sub x}/Ti super-mirror multilayers used in neutron guides under thermal neutron irradiation. These multilayers allow an increase of the apparent critical angle of total reflection by creating constructive interferences. Neutrons fluxes are thus increased in neutron guides made with a super-mirror coating. Thin films of one and ten bilayers have been deposited on a silicon and a borosilicate glass substrate. We have then studied the evolution of their optical, structural and mechanical properties after irradiation and annealing. After irradiation, a decrease in neutron reflectivity has been observed, due to the interdiffusion of both materials: this phenomenon was particularly important in the coatings deposited on a glass substrate. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy have shown that the structural evolutions of both nickel and titanium do not depend on the substrate. Nickel layers remain face-centered cubic after treatment, whereas the initially hexagonal closed-packed titanium becomes face-centered cubic with a texture in the [111] direction. This phase transformation has been attributed to the formation of a TiH compound containing as much as 50 % hydrogen. Despite these structural changes, stress relaxation has occurred after irradiation in our layers. On the contrary, then mean stress that we have determined in previous samples, elaborated in another laboratory, has increased after irradiation. Comparison of both results shows that stress evolution is linked to the deposition conditions. As stress remains almost unchanged after annealing, we may conclude that only irradiation defects, and not heating, lead to stress evolution. Our samples being very similar to real neutron guides, we can extend the results we have obtained in this work to real super-mirrors. (author) 62 refs.

  8. Study of boron carbide evolution under neutron irradiation; Contribution a l'etude de l'evolution du carbure de bore sous irradiation neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeone, D. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie (DMT), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand II, (CNRS), 63 - Aubiere (France)

    1999-07-01

    Owing to its high neutron efficiency, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) is used as a neutron absorber in control rods of nuclear plants. Its behaviour under irradiation has been extensively studied for many years. It now seems clear that brittleness of the material induced by the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li capture reaction is due to penny shaped helium bubbles associated to a high strain field around them. However, no model explains the behaviour of the material under neutron irradiation. In order to build such a model, this work uses different techniques: nuclear microprobe X-ray diffraction profile analysis and Raman and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to present an evolution model of B{sub 4}C under neutron irradiation. The use of nuclear reactions produced by a nuclear microprobe such as the {sup 7}Li(p,p'{gamma}){sup 7}Li reaction, allows to measure lithium profile in B{sub 4}C pellets irradiated either in Pressurised Water Reactors or in Fast Breeder Reactors. Examining such profiles enables us to describe the migration of lithium atoms out of B{sub 4}C materials under neutron irradiation. The analysis of X-ray diffraction profiles of irradiated B{sub 4}C samples allows us to quantify the concentrations of helium bubbles as well as the strain fields around such bubbles.Furthermore Raman spectroscopy studies of different B{sub 4}C samples lead us to propose that under neutron irradiation. the CBC linear chain disappears. Such a vanishing of this CBC chain. validated by NMR analysis, may explain the penny shaped of helium bubbles inside irradiated B{sub 4}C. (author)

  9. Evolution of the macroscopic properties of two epoxy resins during ageing under irradiation; Evolution des proprietes macroscopiques de deux resines epoxydes lors du vieillissement sous irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignoud, L

    2001-11-15

    In this study, the thermomechanical properties of two epoxy resins (DGEBA/TETA and DGEBA/DDM systems) are analysed as a function of the irradiation dose. The maximum conversion and reticulation is obtained by post-curing treatment. Irradiation by electrons results in a decrease of the glass transition temperature and of the elastic modulus in the rubbery region. These results can be interpreted invoking a destruction of the crosslinks and chains breaks within the resin. The Arrhenius diagrams obtained for the various doses shows that the cooperative mobility associated with the {alpha} relaxation becomes faster after the irradiation. On the contrary, more local mobility corresponding to the {gamma} relaxation is also modified, but in a lesser extent. The stress-strain curves are also discussed. In uniaxial compression test, the plastic flow stress {sigma}{sub p} decreases when the irradiation dose increases and this effect can largely be accounted for by a variation of T{sub g}. Post-irradiative effects are studied in inert atmosphere. Reticulation increases when the material is heated to a higher temperature than its T{sub g}. This effect suggest the presence of radical formed during irradiation. For DGEBA/TETA system, glass transition temperature T{sub g} shifts towards lowest temperatures. This shift increases the molecular mobility and enhances the physical ageing process at the ambient temperature. The results are well described by the quasi point defects theory. Direct effect of irradiation and physical ageing evolve with the scale parameter t{sub 0}. This parameter characterizes the gap (in time and/or temperature) between the principal relaxation and simplest ones. By connecting t{sub 0} to the amount of irradiation, it is possible to predict the modifications of the behaviour and to predict these evolutions for various amounts. (author)

  10. Displacement damage and transmutations in metals under neutron and proton irradiation; Dommage de deplacements et transmutations dans les metaux sous irradiation de neutrons et de protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimirov, P. [FZK, Institute of Materials Research I, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bouffard, S. [CEA/DRECAM, Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche ions lasers (CIRIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    2008-04-15

    The knowledge of the defect and impurity generation rates, as well as the defect spatial distribution, is the corner stone for the understanding of the evolution of material properties under irradiation. This knowledge is also an essential element for comprehensive experimental simulations of the behavior of irradiated materials. In this article the interaction of neutron and proton irradiation with metals is discussed with respect to displacement damage production. Charged particle irradiation is also briefly illustrated. After discussion of the primary interaction of projectiles (neutrons, charged particles in general, and protons in particular) with target atoms/nuclei, we describe the interaction of a recoil atom with other target atoms resulting in the slowing down of the projectile, displacement damage, impurity atom production due to nuclear reactions, and the creation of atomic displacement cascades. Then the further evolution of defect structure is discussed. The next section, devoted to sub-cascade formation, is divided into two parts. The first experimental evidence of sub-cascade formation under neutron and charged particle irradiation is presented. Then the models of sub-cascade formation are described. Finally we review the models for the calculation of displacement damage and show how these models can be applied to displacement damage calculation under neutron irradiation with a demonstration of a real application of the methods discussed to several nuclear facilities. (authors)

  11. Stability under irradiation of a fine dispersion of oxides in a ferritic matrix; Stabilite sous irradiation de particules d'oxydes finement dispersees dans des alliages ferritiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnet, I

    1999-07-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels are being considered for high temperature, high fluence nuclear applications, like fuel pin cladding in Fast Breeder Reactors. ODS alloys offer improved out of pile strength characteristics at temperature above 550 deg.C and ferritic-martensitic matrix is highly swelling resistant. A clad in an ODS ferritic steel, call DY (Fe-13Cr-1,5Mo+TiO{sub 2}+Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been irradiated in the experimental reactor Phenix. Under irradiation oxide dissolution occurs. Microstructural observations indicated that oxide evolution is correlated with the dose and consist in four phenomena: the interfaces of oxide particles with the matrix become irregular, the uniform distribution of the finest oxide (< 20 nm) disappear, the modification of oxide composition, and a halo of fine oxides appear around the larger oxides. The use of such a material requires a study of oxide stability under irradiation, since the oxide particles provide the desired mechanical properties. The study is based on two types of alloys, the DY and four ferritic steels Fe-9Cr-1Mo reinforced by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO or MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. These materials were irradiated with charged particles in order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of dissolution. Irradiation with 1 MeV Helium does not induce any modification, neither in the chemical modification of the particles nor in their spatial and size distribution. Since most of the energy of helium ions is lost by inelastic interaction, this result proves that this kind of interaction does not induce oxide dissolution. Irradiation with 1 MeV or 1.2 MeV electrons leads to a significant dissolution with a radius decrease proportional to the dose. These experiments prove that oxide dissolution can be induced by Frenkel pairs alone, provided that metallic atoms are displaced. The comparison between irradiation with ions (displacements cascades) and electrons (Frenkel

  12. Study of the behaviour under neutron irradiation of hafnium diboride; Etude du comportement sous irradiation neutronique du diborure d`hafnium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheminant-Coatanlem, P

    1998-12-31

    Owing to its good neutron cross section and to its high melting point, hafnium diboride is a potential candidate for a use as neutron absorbing material in control rod of pressurized water reactor of the next generation. The main causes of damage under neutron irradiation in this ceramic are due to the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction that introduces in the crystal structure new atoms and point defects. The materials under consideration are the stoichiometric HfB{sub 2} compound and the HfB{sub 2} + 10 vol. % Hf compound. They are been irradiated with neutrons at several fluences and temperatures. Electron irradiations, helium and lithium implantations have been carried out in order to simulate the creation of point defects and/or fission products. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy have been used to determine damage mechanisms in HfB{sub 2}. At a low temperature (<500 deg C), irradiation defects precipitate in dislocation loops of both nature, interstitial and vacancy. Those loops have a particular organisation in the HfB{sub 2} lattice: vacancy loops are lying in the basal plane and interstitial loops in planes perpendicular to basal planes. This induces anisotropic deformation of grains that originates internal stress development. These stresses are associated with the dislocation staking and consequently with the cavity formation at grain boundaries. At a higher temperature (>700 deg C), the same dislocation loops are observed. But, in addition, the irradiation defects diffuse to grain boundaries where helium bubbles are formed. The damage caused by this latter mechanism becomes predominant. The HfB{sub 2} + 10 vol. % Hf materials is more resistant under neutron irradiation than the HfB{sub 2} pellets that display a very damaged surface. This result is explained by the fact that, on the one band, the HfB{sub 2} + 10 vol. % Hf pellets have a higher toughness than the HfB{sub 2} pellets and, on the other hand, the HfB{sub 2} + 10 vol. % Hf

  13. Investigating the irradiation behavior of nuclear materials: the contribution of the JANNUS platform; Etude du comportement sous irradiation des materiaux nucleaires: apport de la plateforme JANNUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocellier, P.; Miro, S.; Serruys, Y. [Departement des materiaux pour le nucleaire, Direction de l' energie nucleaire, CEA Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-07-01

    The JANNUS platform (Joint Accelerators for Nano-sciences and Nuclear Simulation) comprises two experimental facilities, one located at Saclay, the other nearby at Orsay. The Saclay facility brings together 3 electrostatic particle accelerators: a single-ended, 3-MV Pelletron-accelerator (EPIMETHEE), a tandem 2-MV Pelletron (JAPET), and a single-ended 2.5-MV Van de Graaff accelerator (YVETTE), set up around a common experiment chamber. The Orsay facility features a mixed-mode 2-MV accelerator (ARAMIS), and a 190-kV ion implanter (IRMA), both being coupled to a 200-kV transmission electron microscope. This setup allows the evolution of the sample's microstructure to be observed in situ, while it is undergoing irradiation, in single- or dual-beam configuration. A typical irradiation experiment, in triple-beam configuration, matches the conditions required, e.g., by applications in the area of fusion. The multicharged heavy-ion beam delivered by EPIMETHEE serves to simulate the atomic displacements caused, within the material, by neutrons. YVETTE provides helium ({sup 4}He), and JAPET hydrogen ({sup 1}H), as yielded by nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and (n, p). This characterization - whether structural, chemical, or mechanical - may be carried out during irradiation (in situ), or immediately subsequent to it (ex situ). Materials science can now avail itself of an altogether comprehensive panoply of physicochemical analysis techniques, e.g. electron microscopy, atom-probe tomography, X-ray diffraction and absorption... 2 examples illustrate the contribution made by the JANNUS platform to our understanding of the irradiation behavior of nuclear materials. The first example concerns hexagonal silicon carbide (6H-SiC), the second one an ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) ferritic-martensitic alloy. (A.C.)

  14. SiO{sub 2} on silicon: behavior under heavy ion irradiation; SiO{sub 2} sur silicium: comportement sous irradiation avec des ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, C

    2004-03-15

    Heavy ion irradiation was performed on a-SiO{sub 2} layers deposited on Si. Damage of the surface was studied by means of Atomic Force Microscopy. Hillocks appear for an electronic stopping power higher than 16 keV/nm. The height of the hillocks decreases with the thickness of the oxide layer. Infrared Spectroscopy studies show that the damage threshold for a-SiO{sub 2} is at an electronic stopping power of 2 keV/nm. Therefore it is probable that the origin of the hillocks comes from the silicon layer. This could be explain within the frame of thermal spike model. The theoretical thresholds are 8 keV/nm and 1.8 keV/nm for silicon and a-SiO{sub 2} respectively. Chemical etching after irradiation gives a technical possibility to create nano-pits, whose size and shape can be controlled. Additionally, these structures allowed to determine the AFM tip radius. (author)

  15. The Effect of Low Dose Irradiation and Grapefruit Extract on C. perfringens Growth from Spores in sous vide Processed Pork-Based Mexican Entrée

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sous vide, a common cooking method for meat and poultry products is widely used for providing ready-to-eat meals. Traditionally, these products have limited shelf life, ranging from 2 to 3 weeks. However, similar products may be stored for longer periods in the U.S. and other countries, requiring ad...

  16. Influence of the silica fillers on the ageing of epoxy resins under irradiations; Etude de l'influence des charges de silice sur le vieillissement des resines epoxyde sous irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benard, F.

    2004-12-17

    stiffening of the nano-metric silica filled resin and the reactions between the resin and the silica surface during irradiations. This study permits to assert that the silica fillers in the epoxy resins protect the network from the irradiations. (author) [French] L'objectif de ces travaux etait d'etudier l'influence de la silice sur le vieillissement des resines epoxyde sous irradiation. Les resines epoxyde obtenues par la reaction d'une polyamine aliphatique (la Triethyltetraamine) avec le prepolymere DGEBA sont difficilement analysables du fait de leur caractere insoluble et infusible. Des modeles chimiques de structures tres voisines de celle de la resine DGEBA/TETA synthetises purs et en presence de silice nanometrique sont analyses par les methodes classiques de chimie organique (RMN du liquide, SEC, Spectrometrie de masse Maldi-tof). Des differences de reactivite des amines primaires et secondaires en presence de silice nanometrique sont mises en evidence. Les analyses des modeles irradies montrent un phenomene majoritaire de coupures de liaisons C-O et C-N accompagnees par la formation d'extremites phenoliques, de terminaisons methylcetone, de fonctions amines primaires et secondaires et notamment d'une double liaison C=C en alpha d'un azote. La RMN {sup 1}H et la RMN {sup 13}C quantitative revelent un effet d'ecran du a la silice et mettent en evidence des reactions entre les especes chimiques reactives creees par les irradiations et la surface de la silice. Les analyses thermiques, thermomecaniques des differentes resines epoxyde en fonction de la dose d'irradiation et du type de silice montrent la diminution de la temperature de transition vitreuse, des temperatures des relaxations et de la densite de reticulation confirmant des phenomenes majoritaires de coupures de liaisons au cours des irradiations. En presence de silice nanometrique, la diminution de la densite de reticulation est ralentie. Ce phenomene peut s

  17. Study of clustering point defects under irradiation in dilute iron alloys; Etude de la formation sous irradiation des amas de defauts ponctuels dans les alliages ferritiques faiblement allies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong-Hardouin Duparc, T.H.A

    1998-12-31

    In low copper steels for nuclear reactor pressure vessel, point defect clustering plays an important role in hardening. These clusters are very small and invisible by transmission electron microscopy. In order to study the hardening component which results from the clustering of freely migrating point defects, we irradiated in a high voltage electron microscope Fe, the FeCu{sub 0.13%}, FeP{sub 0.015%} and FeN{sub 33ppm} alloys and the complex FeMn{sub 1.5%}Ni{sub 0.8%}Cu{sub 0.13%}P{sub 0.01%} alloy the composition of which is close to the matrix of pressure vessel steel. We studied the nucleation of dislocation loops and their growth velocity. The observations and the analyses have shown that in the complex model alloy, the interstitial dislocation loops are smaller and their density is more important than for the others alloys. The diffusion coefficients of interstitials and vacancies are obtained with the help of a simplified model. The densities of dislocation loops and their growth velocities obtained experimentally are reproduced by means of a cluster dynamics model we have developed. This is achieved self-consistently by using as a first trial the approximated coefficients obtained with the simplified model. The results of calculations have shown that the binding energy of di-interstitials must be very important in the binary iron alloys and only 0.95 eV in iron. Copper, nitrogen and phosphorus stabilize di-interstitials in iron. Finally the distribution of interstitial loops at 290 deg C and at 2.10{sup -9} dpa/s is calculated with the diffusion coefficient of point defects adjusted in FeCu. A distribution of small loops appears which gives an increase of hardening estimated to 10 Hv instead of 33 Hv experimentally observed. This low value can be improved by assuming in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations that a little fraction of di-interstitials is created at 2.5 MeV. (author) 111 refs.

  18. Étude des mécanismes de scintillation et des modifications sous irradiation des propriétés du fluorure de cérium en vue de son utilisation en calorimétrie électromagnétique de haute résolution

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette

    1995-01-01

    Étude des mécanismes de scintillation et des modifications sous irradiation des propriétés du fluorure de cérium en vue de son utilisation en calorimétrie électromagnétique de haute résolution

  19. Late effects on skin and subcutaneous tissues after breast irradiation; Effets tardifs de la radiotherapie mammaire sur la peau et les tissus sous-cutanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubray, B. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Delanian, S. [Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France); Lefaix, J.L. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie

    1997-12-01

    Late damages to the skin and subcutaneous tissues are almost inescapable because of the high skin doses required in the irradiation of breast tumours. While the clinical and histological descriptions date back to the first decades of the therapeutic use of ionising radiation the recent advances in cellular and molecular biology have significantly contributed to the increased understanding of late skin injury mechanisms. In particular, sub-cutaneous fibrosis appears to be the partly reversible results of a continuous and self-maintained local process, possibly sensitive to therapeutic intervention. A second very active research avenue is the development of biologic assays potentially able to predict the probability of increased normal tissue injury after irradiation in individual patients. Such a test would allow the adaptation of the treatment modalities to the radiobiological behaviour of normal tissues. To date, these expectations have not been met. The quality of the irradiation and its modalities (total dose, fractionation, inter fraction interval) remain the main ways to achieve an optimal functional and cosmetic outcome. (authors)

  20. Radiation enhanced thermal diffusion of chlorine in uranium dioxide; Diffusion thermique et sous irradiation du chlore dans le dioxyde d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipon, Yves [Ecole doctorale de physique et d' astrophysique, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-I, Lyon (France)

    2006-12-15

    This work concerns the study of the thermal and radiation enhanced diffusion of {sup 36}Cl in uranium dioxide. It is a contribution to PRECCI programme (research programme on the long-term behaviour of the spent nuclear fuel). {sup 36}Cl is a long lived volatile activation product (T = 300 000 years) able to contribute significantly to the instant release fraction in geological disposal conditions. We simulated the presence of {sup 36}Cl by implanting a quantity of {sup 37}Cl comparable to the impurity content of chlorine in UO{sub 2}. In order to evaluate the diffusion properties of chlorine in the fuel and in particular to assess the influence of the irradiation defects, we performed two kinds of experiments: - the influence of the temperature was studied by carrying out thermal annealings in the temperature range 900 - 1300 deg. C; we showed that implanted chlorine was mobile from temperatures as low as 1000 deg. C and determined a thermal diffusion coefficient D{sub 1000} {sub deg.} {sub C} around 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} and deduced an activation energy of 4.3 eV. This value is one of lowest compared to that of volatile fission products such as iodine or the xenon. These parameters reflect the very mobile behaviour of chlorine; - the irradiation effects induced by fission products were studied by irradiating the samples with {sup 127}I (energy of 63.5 MeV). We showed that the implanted chlorine diffusion in the temperature range 30 - 250 deg. C is not purely athermal. In these conditions, the diffusion coefficient D{sub 250} {sub deg.} {sub C} for the implanted chlorine is around 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} and the activation energy is calculated to be 0.1 eV. Moreover, at 250 deg. C, we observed an important transport of the pristine chlorine from the bulk towards the surface. This chlorine comes from a zone where the defects are mainly produced by the nuclear energy loss process at the end of iodine range. We showed the importance of the

  1. Study of silica coatings degradation under laser irradiation and in controlled environment; Etude de la degradation de couches minces de silice sous flux laser et en environnement controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, S

    2006-11-15

    Performances of optical components submitted to high laser intensities are usually determined by their laser-induced damage threshold. This value represents the highest density of energy (fluence) sustainable by the component before its damage. When submitted to laser fluences far below this threshold, optical performances may also decrease with time. The degradation processes depend on laser characteristics, optical materials, and environment around the component. Silica being the most used material in optics, the aim of this study was to describe and analyse the physical-chemical mechanisms responsible for laser-induced degradation of silica coatings in controlled environment. Experimental results show that degradation is due to the growth of a carbon deposit in the irradiated zone. From these results, a phenomenological model has been proposed and validated with numerical simulations. Then, several technological solutions have been tested in order to reduce the laser-induced contamination of silica coatings. (author)

  2. Study of the irradiation effect on zirconolite and monazite-brabandite matrices: comparison of the damages induced by the auto irradiation and the external irradiation; Etude du comportement sous irradiation des matrices zirconolite et monazite-brabantite: comparaison des dommages induits par l auto irradiation et l irradiation externe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picot, V. [CEA Centre de Marcoule BP17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Blondiaux, G. [CNRS/CERI, 3A rue de la Ferollerie 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Deschanels, X.; Peuget, S.; Fillet, C. [CEA/DEN Centre de Marcoule BP17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Glorieux, B. [CNRS/PROMES 7, rue du Four Solaire 66120 Font Romeu Odeillo (France); Loubet, J.L.; Pavan, S. [LTDS, UMR CNRS 5513, Ecole Centrale de Lyon 36 avenue Guy de Collongue 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Henry, S. [CSNSM/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    Two ceramics, the zirconolite matrix and the solid solution monazite-brabantite have been studied for the conditioning of minor actinides. Under the effects of irradiation damages due to {alpha} disintegrations, important changes of macroscopic and mechanical properties of matrices have been revealed. The doping of the matrices with short living actinides and the external irradiation of inactive materials by heavy and light ions are two techniques which have been used for simulating the effects of {alpha} disintegrations. The comparison of the obtained results on doped and ions implanted materials have allowed to dissociate the effects of the nuclear interactions (elastic collisions) of the electronic interactions (inelastic collisions) due to {alpha} disintegrations. The results have shown that the swelling and hardness variations of a zirconolite matrix doped with plutonium 238 are due to the nuclear interactions of the {alpha} disintegrations. (O.M.)

  3. The thorium phosphate diphosphate as matrix for radioactive waste conditioning: radionuclide immobilization and behavior under irradiation; Le phosphate diphosphate de thorium, matrice pour le conditionnement des dechets radioactifs: immobilisation de radionucleides, comportement sous irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichot, Erwan [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-04-13

    The aim of this work was to perform successively the decontamination of liquid solutions and the final immobilization of radionuclide storage using the same matrix. For this, thorium phosphate-diphosphate (TPD) of the formula Th{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 23}, is proposed as a very resistant to water corrosion matrix. A new compound, thorium phosphate hydrogeno-phosphate (TPHP) of the formula Th{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}), nH{sub 2}O with n=3-7 was synthesized and characterized. Heated at 1100 deg.C it is transformed into the TDP. Ion exchange properties of TPHP were investigated. The exchange yields of imponderable caesium, strontium and americium ion onto TPHP (NaNO{sub 3} 0.1 M media at pH=6) are equal to 60% for the first one and 100% for the two others. The results interpreted in terms of ion-exchange led to determine selectivity coefficient values for each cation and suggested that only hydrated ions are exchanged. While the TPD is proposed for the high level nuclear waste storage, the irradiation effects, particularly structural modifications were studied using both {gamma} irradiation and charged particle irradiation. ESR and TL methods were carried out in order to identify radicals created during gamma radiation exposure. Correlation between ESR and TL experiments performed at room temperature clearly show three of PO{sub 3}{sup 2-} species and one POO{center_dot} species of free radicals. We have shown that Au-ion irradiation in the range of MeV energy involved TPD structure and chemical modifications. Important sputtering was interpreted in terms of local thermal chemical decomposition. We have shown, at room temperature, that the amorphization dose for heavy ion irradiation is between 0.1 to 0.4 dpa. (author) 146 refs., 46 figs., 21 tabs.

  4. High fetal irradiation: about one pregnant woman receiving infra diaphragmatic radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma; Irradiation foetale elevee: a propos d'une femme dont la grossesse etait meconnue irradiee en sous-diaphragmatique pour un lymphome hodgkinien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, M.V.; Brunaud, C.; Marchesi, V.; Hoffstetter, S.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Service de Radiotherapie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bologna, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Nancy-Brabois, Service d' Hematologie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2007-12-15

    We report the case of a 19-year-old young woman for whom was discovered a pregnancy at the end of the irradiation for a Hodgkin lymphoma (stage IV bone Bb), initially treated by chemotherapy. The radiotherapy delivered 36 Gy in infra-diaphragmatic volumes (lumbo-aortic, spleen, L5), beginning in a pregnant patient for less than 4 amenorrhea weeks. The calculated received fetal dose (literature data, measurement with software T.P.S., measurement on phantom) is high: it's between 2.8 and 5 Gy. With a current follow-up of 4 years since the radiotherapy's end, the patient is in complete remission and her child presents with a normal development for the age, in spite of the infra diaphragmatic irradiation. (authors)

  5. Understanding and predicting the behaviour of silver base neutron absorbers under irradiations; Comprehension et prediction du comportement sous irradiation neutronique d`alliages absorbants a base d`argent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgranges, C

    1998-12-31

    The effect of neutron irradiation induced transmutations on the swelling of AgInCd (AIC) alloys used as neutron absorber in the control rods of Pressurized Water Reactors has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Effective atomic volumes have been determined in synthetic AgCdInSn alloys with various compositions and containing fcc and hc phases, representative of irradiated AIC (Sn is a transmutation product). Swelling is shown to result first from the transmutation of Ag into Cd and of In into Sn, both with larger effective volume than the mother atom, and second from grain boundaries precipitation of s still less dense hc phase when solid solubility of transmuted products is exceeded. For both fcc and hc phases, we have determined profiles at the temperatures in the vicinity of the operating temperature. Unusual characteristics of second phase growth at grain boundaries induced by transmutations are identified on a simple binary alloy model: kinetics is controlled by irradiation temperature which scales diffusivities and flux which scales transmutation rates, as well as by the grain size in the underlying matrix. To address the AgInCdSn alloys, a novel technique is proposed to model diffusion in multicomponent alloys. It is based on a linearization of a simple atomistic model. With a single set of parameters, for each phase, our model well reproduces our interdiffusion measurements in quaternary alloys as well as existing interdiffusion experiments in binary alloys. Finally this diffusion model implemented with a moving interface algorithm is used to model the growth of the second phase induced by transmutation in the AIC under irradiation. (authors) 74 refs.

  6. Under - diaphragm irradiation of an osseous stage 4 Hodgkin lymphoma at a patient whose pregnancy was unknown; Irradiation sous-diaphragmatique d'un lymphome hodgkinien de stade 4 osseux chez une patiente dont la grossesse etait meconnue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, M.V.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Brunaud, C.; Marchesi, V.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Service de Radiotherapie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bologna, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Brabois, Service d' Hematologie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2007-11-15

    Four years after the irradiation, the patient was in situation of complete forgiveness: the child was normal, there was neither a deformation nor a mental disorder, but the neoplastic risk persists, thus long-term surveillance is imperative. If the pregnancy is known, we have to arrest the foetal risks incurred in order to propose a termination of pregnancy; therefore, are made the measures on phantoms of the dose that he would receive, according to the tumoral localization, to the dose necessary to eradicate the tumor, to the field and the possible masks for an optimal tumoral control. (N.C.)

  7. Theoretical study of silicon carbide under irradiation at the nano scale: classical and ab initio modelling; Etude theorique a l'echelle nanometrique du carbure de silicium sous irradiation: modelisation classique et ab initio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, G

    2006-10-15

    The behaviour of silicon carbide under irradiation has been studied using classical and ab initio simulations, focusing on the nano scale elementary processes. First, we have been interested in the calculation of threshold displacement energies, which are difficult to determine both experimentally and theoretically, and also the associated Frenkel pairs. In the framework of this thesis, we have carried out simulations in classical and ab initio molecular dynamics. For the classical approach, two types of potentials have been used: the Tersoff potential, which led to non satisfactory results, and a new one which has been developed during this thesis. This potential allows a better modelling of SiC under irradiation than most of the empirical potentials available for SiC. It is based on the EDIP potential, initially developed to describe defects in silicon, that we have generalized to SiC. For the ab initio approach, the feasibility of the calculations has been validated and average energies of 19 eV for the C and 38 eV for the Si sublattices have been determined, close to the values empirically used in the fusion community. The results obtained with the new potential EDIP are globally in agreement with those values. Finally, the elementary processes involved in the crystal recovery have been studied by calculating the stability of the created Frenkel pairs and determining possible recombination mechanisms with the nudged elastic band method. (author)

  8. Study of irradiation damages in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels in the framework of nuclear waste transmutation; Dommages d'irradiation dans des ceramiques de structure spinelle MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} et ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} application a la transmutation des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet-Dodane, C

    2002-07-01

    The transmutation of minor actinides in-reactor is one solution currently being studied for the long time management of nuclear waste. In the heterogeneous concept the radionuclides are incorporating in an inert ceramic matrix. The support material must be insensitive to radiation damage. Fission product damage is the main radiation damage source during the transmutation process and therefore it is of the utmost importance to study their effects. We irradiated spinels MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} (matrix of reference) and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} by fast ions (by example: {sup 86}Kr of approximately 400 MeV) simulating the fission products. Under these conditions, the damage is primarily due to the electronic energy losses (S{sub e}). One of the structural features of spinel AB{sub 2}O{sub 4} is that the two cations (A{sup 2+} and B{sup 3+}) can exchange their site. This phenomenon is quantified by the inversion parameter. We highlight by XRD in grazing incidence that the structural changes observed in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} correspond to an order-disorder transition from the cation sub-networks and not to a phase shift as described in the literature. Using other techniques characterizing the space group (Raman spectroscopy) as well as the local order (NMR 27Al, spectroscopy of absorption X with the thresholds K of Al and Zn), we confirm this interpretation. Moreover, for a fluence of 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}, the loss of the order at long distance is observed thus meaning a beginning of amorphization of material. The ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel presents the same behaviour. For this last spinel, an evolution of the inversion parameter according to the stopping power 2 was highlighted after irradiation by ions {sup 86}Kr from approximately 20 MeV. We illustrate our study by the analysis of the results obtained in XRD of an irradiation out of composite fuel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} + UO{sub 2}) called THERMHET. (authors)

  9. Experimental study and simulation of fused silica damage initiation by laser pulse irradiation; Etude experimentale et modelisation de l'initiation de l'endommagement de la silice sous irradiation laser impulsionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneau, F.; Combis, J.L.; Vierne, J. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee, 91 (France)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    In order to resolve problems concerning the understanding and the control of laser-induced damage of silica optical elements, a collaboration between the CEA (CESTA/DLP, DIF/DPTA, and Grenoble/LETI) and different university laboratories has been undertaken. Ultra-pure silica 'model' samples, seeded with gold nano-particles whose diameter does not exceed 5 nm, were made at the LASIM in Lyon. The aim in using these samples is to observe the mechanism of damage initiation that can be attributed to inclusions of nano-metric site. This report presents the different steps encountered during this study: making the samples, the laser-induced damage tests performed at the CESTA, and the 'Nomarski' and 'atomic force' microscope observations of this damage carried out at the Fresnel Institute in Marseille. These samples were also used for a series of experiments using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer at ANL near Chicago. This installation is of great interest because it enables us to combine the laser irradiation of the sample with the chemical identification of material ejected by the sample. A precise evaluation of the quantity of gold atoms emitted during irradiation can thus be obtained from the experimental results. The experimental data is then interpreted, and in particular, compared to, numerical simulations obtained with the DELPOR program. A very encouraging result is the existence of a pre-damage phase at very low fluences that is not detectable by classical optical devices. The experimental means developed for such 'model' samples should be transposable to the analysis of industrial glasses. (authors)

  10. Study and simulation of the behaviour under irradiation of helium in uranium dioxide; Etude et modelisation du comportement sous irradiation de l'helium dans le dioxyde d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G

    2007-06-15

    Large quantities of helium are produced from {alpha}-decay of actinides in nuclear fuels during its in-pile operating and its storage. It is important to understand the behaviour of helium in these matrix in order to well simulate the evolution and the resistance of the fuel element. During this thesis, we have used nuclear reaction analyses (NRA) to follow the evolution of the helium implanted in polycrystalline and monocrystalline uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). An experimental rig was developed to follow the on-line helium release in UO{sub 2} and the evolution of {sup 3}He profiles as a function of annealing temperature. An automated procedure taking into account the evolution of the depth resolution was developed. Analyses performed with a nuclear microprobe allowed to characterise the spatial distribution of helium at the grain scale and to study the influence of the sample microstructure on the helium migration. This work put into evidence the particular role of grain boundaries and irradiation defects in the helium release process. The analyse of experimental results with a diffusion model corroborates these interpretations. It allowed to determine quantitatively physical properties that characterise the helium behaviour in uranium dioxide (diffusion coefficient, activation energy..). (author)

  11. Study by ESR of free radicals created by irradiation in some organic substances. Application for dosimetry of the measure of free radicals produced in alanine; Etude par RPE des radicaux libres crees sous irradiation dans certaines substances organiques. Application en dosimetrie de la mesure des radicaux libres crees dans l'alanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descours, S.; Assayrenc, J.; Bermann, F.; Couderc, B.; Choudens, H. de; Delard, R.; Rassat, A.; Servoz-Gavin, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This report complete the results obtained with free radicals created in glycine. The nature and number of these radicals produced by irradiation in cysteine and glutathion have been investigated free radicals generated in alanine have specially been studied. A linear law exists in a large scale of doses between the number of radicals and the absorbed dose. This property in connection with the high stability of these radicals is very interesting for an use of this amino-acid in dosimetry field. The background of non irradiated alanine is a limit for the best sensibility. With 1 g of alanine in powder, it is possible to make {gamma} measurements between 5 rads and 5. 10{sup 6} rads. For neutrons, the radicals production yield is lower than for {gamma}. By adding paraffin, it is possible to get a larger yield and to realize compacts dosimeters easier for use than alanine in powder. By adjunction of a higher Z constituent (Ca or Ba for example), it would be possible to improve the yield of the dosimeter for {gamma} energy less than 70 keV. (authors) [French] Ce rapport complete les resultats donnes par ailleurs sur les radicaux libres crees dans la glycine. La nature et le nombre de radicaux crees sous irradiation dans la cysteine et le glutathion ont ete determines. On a etudie plus particulierement les radicaux crees dans l'alanine. Une relation lineaire existe sur une grande gamme de doses absorbees entre le nombre de radicaux crees et la dose absorbee, ceci joint a la grande stabilite de ces radicaux, conduit a une utilisation tres interessante de ces acides amines en tant que dosimetre. La predose de l'alanine non irradiee limite la sensibilite minimum. Quoi qu'il en soit avec 1 g d'alanine en poudre il est possible d'effectuer en {gamma} des mesures entre 5 rads et 5.10{sup 6} rads. En neutrons le rendement radicalaire est plus faible qu'en {gamma}, l'adjonction de paraffine permet de remonter le rendement et de realiser des

  12. Analyse van de vervormingen van de Fusee Ceramique daken van de productiehallen in Dongen: Rapport met bevindingen betreffende de vervormingen van de Fuseedaken van de productiehallen van Coca Cola in Dongen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    In 1962 werden in Dongen bedrijfshallen gemaakt met cilindervormige overkappingen waarin ter besparing van gewicht en cement ceramische elementen, de Fusée's Ceramique, werden gelegd. De schalen worden ondersteund met balken 450*750 mm2 en kolommen 450 * 450 mm2 op een raster van 5,6 m * 20,4 m. Het

  13. Etude d'un revêtement d'acier inoxydable Z 2 CND 18-12 réalisé sur un acier doux, sous irradiation laser avec injection de poudre coaxiale au faisceau

    OpenAIRE

    FOUQUET, F; Sallamand, P.; Dierickx, P.; Bonne, D.; Millet, J.

    1994-01-01

    Le présent travail traite du dépôt d'acier inoxydable austénitique de type AISI 316 L sur acier doux par projection de poudre sous faisceau laser et de la caractérisation du revêtement élaboré. Les revêtements obtenus par cette technique sont de bonne qualité, exempts de fissures, avec peu de porosités et parfaitement adhérents au substrat. Leur microstructure très fine est dendritique ou cellulaire. La structure est apparue majoritairement austénitique, mais avec présence non négligeable de ...

  14. Irradiation behaviour of the R7T7 glass: comparison of studies by actinides doping and by external irradiation; Comportement sous irradiation du verre de type R7T7: comparaison d etudes par dopage en actinides et par irradiation externe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuget, S.; Deschanels, X.; Nivet, P. [CEA Marcoule, ATALANTE, DEN/DTCD, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Loubet, J.L.; Pavan, S. [Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systemes, UMR CNRS 5513, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36, avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Henry, S. [IN2P3 CSNSM, bat 108 91405 Orsay-Campus (France); Peaucelle, C. [IN2P3 IPN Lyon, bat Paul Dirac, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Picot, V. [CNRS CERI, CEA Marcoule, ATALANTE, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effects produced on the macroscopic properties of the R7T7 glass by ions irradiations (He, Kr, Au, Si) to those induced by the accumulation of alpha disintegrations in glasses doped with {sup 244}Cm. Similar changes, decrease followed by stabilization, of hardness and density in terms of the dose are observed for the two types of solicitations. Concerning the change of the glass hardness, a similar behaviour is observed between the glasses doped with curium and those irradiated by Kr, Au and Si ions, in terms of the nuclear energy deposited on the material which reveal that they are the ballistic effects which are responsible of the behaviour change. Concerning the density, its variation is observed on the same range of nuclear energy deposited for the two types of irradiation conditions, which reveal too that it is because of the ballistic effects. On the other hand, according to the external irradiations conditions, the observed swelling can be more important than those induced by the alpha disintegrations, that could revealed an influence of the nature of the sent ion. (O.M.)

  15. SOUS LE PAVÉ: LA PLAGE!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2017-01-01

    around something that could be labeled geologic resonance: The ability of a creative work or an area to bring humans on wavelengths with geology’s ‘deep time.’ When the avant-garde art movement the Situationists used the slogan ‘sous les pavés: la plage!’ the beach was associated with the free natural...... space in contrast to the paved street, which represented the suppressing power of society. But the slogan can also remind us of geology’s omnipresent character. Geology is right at our feet in and below the hard surfaces of the city, and we do not need to visit geological sights to experience geologic...

  16. Fabrication, characterization and radiation damage stability of hollandite based ceramics devoted to radioactive immobilisation; Synthese, caracterisation et etude du comportement sous irradiation electronique de matrices de type hollandite destinees au confinement du cesium radioactif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin-Chevaldonnet, V. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DETCD/SCDV), Dept. d' Etudes du Traitement et du Conditionnement des Dechets, Service de Conditionnement des Dechets et Vitrification, 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2004-11-01

    Research on treating specifically the long-lived and high level nuclear wastes, notably cesium, is currently carried out in France. Cesium immobilization in host matrices of high chemical durability constitutes the favoured option. Hollandite matrix is a good candidate because of its high cesium incorporation ability and its excellent chemical stability. During this study, different compositions of hollandite ceramics Ba{sub x}Cs{sub y}C{sub z}Ti{sub 8-z}O{sub 16} (C = Al{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Ga{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Sc{sup 3+}), synthesized by oxide route, were characterized in terms of structure, microstructure and physical and chemical properties. Iron ions seems to be the most suitable of the studied C cations to get high-performance hollandites. The stability of these ceramics under external electron irradiation, simulating the {beta} particles emitted by radioactive cesium, were also estimated, at the macroscopic and atomic scale. The point defects creation and their thermal stability were followed by electron paramagnetic resonance. (author)

  17. Development of ODS ferritic-martensitic steels for application to high temperature and irradiation environment; Developpement d'une nouvelle nuance martensitique ODS pour utilisation sous rayonnement a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambard, V

    2000-07-01

    Iron oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are candidate for nuclear fuel cladding. Therefore, it is crucial to control their microstructure in order to optimise their mechanical properties at temperatures up to 700 deg C. The industrial candidates, ODS ferritic alloys, present an anisotropic microstructure which induces a weakening of mechanical properties in transversal direction as well as the precipitation of brittle phases under thermal aging and irradiation. For this purpose, we tried to develop a material with isotropic properties. We studied several 9Cr-1Mo ferritic/martensitic alloys, strengthened or not by oxide dispersion. The mechanical alloying was performed by attribution and powders were consolidated by hot extrusion. In this work, different metallurgical characterisation techniques and modelling were used to optimise a new martensitic ODS alloy. Microstructural and chemical characterization of matrix has been done. The effect of austenitizing and isochronal tempering treatments on microstructure and hardness has been studied. Oxide distribution, size and chemical composition have been studied before and after high temperature thermal treatment. The study of phase transformation upon heating has permitted the extrapolation to the equilibrium temperature formation of austenite. Phase transformation diagrams upon cooling have been determined and the transformation kinetics have been linked to austenite grain size by a simple relation. Fine grain size is unfavourable for the targeted application, so a particular thermal treatment inducing a coarser grain structure has been developed. Finally, tensile properties have been determined for the different microstructures. (author)

  18. Formation mechanism of solute clusters under neutron irradiation in ferritic model alloys and in a reactor pressure vessel steel: clusters of defects; Mecanismes de fragilisation sous irradiation aux neutrons d'alliages modeles ferritiques et d'un acier de cuve: amas de defauts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meslin-Chiffon, E

    2007-11-15

    The embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under irradiation is partly due to the formation of point defects (PD) and solute clusters. The aim of this work was to gain more insight into the formation mechanisms of solute clusters in low copper ([Cu] = 0.1 wt%) FeCu and FeCuMnNi model alloys, in a copper free FeMnNi model alloy and in a low copper French RPV steel (16MND5). These materials were neutron-irradiated around 300 C in a test reactor. Solute clusters were characterized by tomographic atom probe whereas PD clusters were simulated with a rate theory numerical code calibrated under cascade damage conditions using transmission electron microscopy analysis. The confrontation between experiments and simulation reveals that a heterogeneous irradiation-induced solute precipitation/segregation probably occurs on PD clusters. (author)

  19. Atom probe study of the microstructural evolution induced by irradiation in Fe-Cu ferritic alloys and pressure vessel steels; Etude a la sonde atomique de l`evolution microstructurale sous irradiation d`alliages ferritiques Fe-Cu et d`aciers de cuve REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareige, P.

    1996-04-01

    Pressure vessel steels used in pressurized water reactors are low alloyed ferritic steels. They may be prone to hardening and embrittlement under neutron irradiation. The changes in mechanical properties are generally supposed to result from the formation of point defects, dislocation loops, voids and/or copper rich clusters. However, the real nature of the irradiation induced-damage in these steels has not been clearly identified yet. In order to improve our vision of this damage, we have characterized the microstructure of several steels and model alloys irradiated with electrons and neutrons. The study was performed with conventional and tomographic atom probes. The well known importance of the effects of copper upon pressure vessel steel embrittlement has led us to study Fe-Cu binary alloys. We have considered chemical aging as well as aging under electron and neutron irradiations. The resulting effects depend on whether electron or neutron irradiations ar used for thus. We carried out both kinds of irradiation concurrently so as to compare their effects. We have more particularly considered alloys with a low copper supersaturation representative of that met with the French vessel alloys (0.1% Cu). Then, we have examined steels used on French nuclear reactor pressure vessels. To characterize the microstructure of CHOOZ A steel and its evolution when exposed to neutrons, we have studied samples from the reactor surveillance program. The results achieved, especially the characterization of neutron-induced defects have been compared with those for another steel from the surveillance program of Dampierre 2. All the experiment results obtained on model and industrial steels have allowed us to consider an explanation of the way how the defects appear and grow, and to propose reasons for their influence upon steel embrittlement. (author). 3 appends.

  20. Research trends in radiobiology since 40 years. a new approach: the enzymatic repair function of DNA, internal factor in evolution of biological systems under irradiation; Etude des tendances des recherches en radiologie depuis 40 ans. Une nouvelle voie de recherche: la fonction de reparation enzymatique de l'ADN, facteur interne d'evolution des systemes biologiques sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    . Il y a moins d'une generation, l'on croyait encore que les effets des rayonnements sur les systemes vivants etaient des effets directs, immediats, irreparables et definitifs. Depuis lors, on s'est rendu compte que les radiolesions pouvaient resulter d'effets indirects, etre tardives, reparables, et le plus souvent modifiables par des traitements chimiques ou biochimiques ad hoc. Cependant, la percee decisive en radiobiologie se situe entre 1962 et 1964, avec la decouverte que la cellule possede un mecanisme de defense active vis-a-vis de tout ce qui peut porter atteinte a l'integrite du patrimoine genetique inscrit dans la structure meme de l'ADN. L'existence d'une quatrieme fonction de l'ADN, celle d'auto-reparation, par voie enzymatique sous controle genetique, apporte enfin a la radiobiologie la base biologique moleculaire qui lui manquait pour sortir de la nuit 'phenomenologique' ou elle s'etait enfoncee apres l'abandon de la generalisation de la theorie de Lea, faute de preuve experimentale. Dans la seconde partie, cette fois prospective, de l'etude l'auteur tente une synthese elargie en considerant le role que peut jouer cette fonction de reparation de l'ADN non seulement du point de vue de la survie des systemes biologiques irradies en presence ou non d'agents modificateurs de dose ou mutagenes, mais aussi de celui de l'evolution naturelle ou artificielle de ces systemes sous rayonnement. Les donnees les plus recentes de la litterature sont en accord avec ce qui ne constitue encore qu'une hypothese generale de recherche. Des travaux portant sur les caracteres phenotypiques et genotypiques lies a l'acquisition de radioresistance gamma et UV, chez 'Escherichia coli K12', ont ete entrepris par l'auteur, en collaboration avec O. Tremeau en vue d'apporter une contribution experimentale nouvelle a cet egard. (auteur)

  1. Palatability of sous vide processed chicken breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B E; Larick, D K

    1996-08-01

    The influences of brine composition, internal temperature, heating rate, and storage periods up to 28 d on flavor, texture, and color of sous vide processed chicken breast were evaluated. Pectoralis major muscles containing water and sodium chloride, with or without sodium lactate, were browned and vacuum packaged. Sous vide processing was by fast or slow heating to an internal temperature of 77 or 94 C. Product was evaluated after 0, 14, and 28 d storage at 4 C. Quality was evaluated by gas chromatographic analyses of flavor volatiles, shear, color, and sensory panels. Incorporation of sodium lactate into brine did not influence oxidative stability (as measured by headspace gas chromatography) or sensory warmed-over flavor. Presence of sodium lactate did result in enhanced fresh roasted or meaty and saltiness sensory scores as well as a more yellow color. The more rapid heating rate decreased sulfur-containing compounds and did not influence other volatile concentrations. Products processed to 94 C were less juicy, less tender, and contained higher quantities of alcohols and hydrocarbons than those processed to 77 C. Storage resulted in a decline in fresh roasted or meaty flavor note and an increase in warmed-over flavor note and quantities of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, hydrocarbons, and total headspace volatiles.

  2. Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum sous vide: characterization and quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane de Cássia Pontes Ramos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physical and physico-chemical quality parameters of sous vide preparation of pen-reared tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. To prepare the tambaqui sous vide, 200 g of fillet, 50 g of basil sauce (1:4 fish fillet:sauce ratio and 10 mL of 5% sodium lactate were used. The product was then vacuum-packaged, pasteurized at 65 ºC for 12.5 min and refrigerated. The presence of Salmonella spp., sulfite-reducing Clostridium and Listeria monocytogenes was not detected in the samples analyzed. The coliform count at 45 ºC and coagulase-positive staphylococci were below the limit (103 permitted by the law in vigor. Water retention capacity and chloride content analyses revealed that the tambaqui fillet differed significantly (P<0.05 from the sous vide because of the addition of basil sauce. The total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS content of the fillet and sous vide were below the limits established by the law, indicating good quality. The lightness (L* and yellow color (b* of the fillet and the sous vide did not differ significantly (P>0.05, but the red color (a* decreased in the sous vide, which is related to the addition of basil sauce. The chroma (C* and hue angle (ho differed significantly (P<0.05, and the fillet samples were lighter in color, whereas the sous vide was characterized by yellow color. The n-6/n-3 ratios found for the fillet and the sous vide are within the recommended values, which is important for human metabolism. The fillet and sous vide also had high calcium, zinc, magnesium and potassium concentrations. It is concluded that tambaqui sous vide is a good source of nutrients, rich in fatty acids and minerals essential for human health.

  3. Elaboration by ion implantation of cobalt nano-particles in silica layers and modifications of their properties by electron and swift heavy ion irradiations; Elaboration par implantation ionique de nanoparticules de cobalt dans la silice et modifications de leurs proprietes sous irradiation d'electrons et d'ions de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Orleans, C

    2003-07-15

    This work aims to investigate the capability of ion irradiations to elaborate magnetic nano-particles in silica layers, and to modify their properties. Co{sup +} ions have been implanted at 160 keV at fluences of 2.10{sup 16}, 5.10{sup 16} and 10{sup 17} at/cm{sup 2}, and at temperatures of 77, 295 and 873 K. The dependence of the particle size on the implantation fluence, and more significantly on the implantation temperature has been shown. TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) observations have shown a mean diameter varying from 1 nm for implantations at 2.10{sup 16} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, to 9.7 nm at 10{sup 17} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 873 K. For high temperature implantations, two regions of particles appear. Simulations based on a kinetic 3-dimensional lattice Monte Carlo method reproduce quantitatively the features observed for implantations. Thermal treatments induce the ripening of the particles. Electron irradiations at 873 K induce an important increase in mean particle sizes. Swift heavy ion irradiations also induce the ripening of the particles for low fluences, and an elongation of the particles in the incident beam direction for high fluences, resulting in a magnetic anisotropy. Mechanisms invoked in thermal spike model could also explain this anisotropic growth. (author)

  4. Characterisation and behaviour under irradiation of rare-earth doped powellite phases - Application to the long term behaviour of nuclear waste matrices; Caracterisation et comportement sous irradiation de phases powellites dopees terres rares - Application au comportement a long terme des matrices de confinement des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, C.

    2010-09-15

    This work deals with the behaviour under irradiation of a glass-ceramic made after heat treatment of a molybdenum rich R7/T7 type glass. Rare earth elements (Eu{sup 3+} and Nd{sup 3+}) are used as surrogates of minor actinides and fission products as well as structural luminescent probes. We will focus on the behaviour of the crystalline phase which is a powellite type calcium molybdate that incorporated other elements including rare earth elements. In order to determine the crystalline-chemical properties of the powellite structure, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence analyses are led on natural powellite samples and synthetic ceramics with compositions from pure CaMoO{sub 4} to Ca{sub 0.76}Sr{sub 0.1}Na{sub 0.07}Eu{sub 0.01}La{sub 0.02}Nd{sub 0.02}Pr{sub 0.02}MoO{sub 4}, a model composition of the crystalline phase of the glass-ceramic. The analyses of synthetic samples irradiated with He, Ar and Pb ions compared to the behaviour of a natural powellite sample that contains uranium indicate that powellite resist strongly to irradiation and never reach the amorphous state. (author)

  5. Nutritional quality of sous vide cooked carrots and brussels sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-06-13

    Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion.

  6. Calculateur de jeux sous-redresseurs

    OpenAIRE

    Llatser Nieto, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Le sujet de ce stage concerne le compresseur haute pression d’un moteur de forte puissance (MFP), le GE90-115B. Le rôle d’un CoHP est d’élever la pression du flux d’air primaire en transformant l’énergie cinétique dû à la rotation du rotor en énergie de pression. De cette façon, une pression suffisante à l’entrée de la chambre de combustion permet d’avoir un bon rendement pour le moteur. De part son architecture, les CoHP autorisent une recirculation sous les redresseurs de chaque étage. Cett...

  7. Stress, microstructure and evolution under ion irradiation in thin films grown by ion beam sputtering: modelling and application to interfacial effects in metallic multilayers; Contraintes, microstructure et sollicitation sous irradiation aux ions de films minces elabores par pulverisation ionique: modelisation et application a l'etude des effets interfaciaux dans des multicouches metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelle, A

    2006-09-15

    We have investigated the formation of the interfacial chemical mixing in Mo/Ni multilayers, and particularly the influence of ballistic effects during the growth. For this purpose, hetero-epitaxial b.c.c./f.c.c. Mo(110)/Ni(111) multilayers were grown by two deposition methods: thermal evaporation and direct ion beam sputtering. As a preliminary, an accurate description of the stress state in pure sputtered Mo thin films was required. Microstructural and stress state analyses were essentially carried out by X-ray diffraction, and ion irradiation was used as a powerful tool to control the stress level. We showed that thermal evaporated thin films exhibit a weak tensile growth stress ({approx} 0.6 GPa) that can be accounted for by the grain boundary relaxation model, whereas sputtered thin films develop large compressive growth stress (- 2 to - 4 GPa). This latter results from the bombardment of the growing film by the energetic particles involved during the sputtering process (atomic peening phenomenon), which induces the formation of defects in the layers, generating volume distortions. We thus developed a stress model that includes a hydrostatic stress component to account for these volume strains. This model allowed us to determine the 'unstressed and free of defects lattice parameter' a{sub 0}, solely linked to chemical effects. For epitaxial Mo layers, it was possible to separate coherency stress from growth stress due to their distinct kinetic evolution during ion irradiation. Therefore, the stress analysis enabled us to determine the a{sub 0} values in Mo sub-layers of Mo/Ni superlattices. A tendency to the formation of an interfacial alloy is observed independently of the growth conditions, which suggests that thermodynamic forces favour the exchange mechanism. However, the extent of the intermixing effect is clearly enhanced by ballistic effects. (author)

  8. La base sous-marine de Bordeaux, sous le béton la culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Marsan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Active à peine plus d’un an pendant l’Occupation, la base sous-marine de Bordeaux cristallise encore les souvenirs douloureux des heures sombres du Port de la Lune. Le bunker attire pourtant depuis les années 1960 des artistes, cinéastes, plasticiens et musiciens fascinés par l’esprit du lieu. Institutionnalisée au début des années 1990, la base sous-marine devient un espace dédié au nautisme avant d’être consacrée à l’art contemporain au début du XXIe siècle. Aujourd’hui au cœur du projet d’aménagement des bassins à flot du quartier de Bacalan, la base sous-marine questionne et intrigue ses visiteurs sur son passé, mais aussi – et surtout – sur son avenir.Build during the German occupation, the submarine base of Bordeaux active during hardly more than a year still crystallizes the painful memories of the dark hours of the « Port de la Lune ». Nevertheless, the bunker attracts artists, film-makers, visual artists and musicians fascinated by the spirit of the place since the 1960’s. Institutionalized at the beginning of 1990’s, the submarine base became a space dedicated to the yachting before contemporary art at the beginning of the XXIth century. Nowadays at the heart of the project of redevelopment of the wet docks in the urban area of Bacalan, the submarine base questions and intrigues its visitors on its past, but also – and especially – on its future.

  9. Improvement of microbiological safety of sous-vide meals by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. E-mail: huto@omega.kee.hu; Polyak-Feher, K.; Andrassy, E.; Meszaros, L

    2002-03-01

    Experimental batches of smoked-cured pork in stewed beans sauce were inoculated with spores of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, more heat and radiation resistant than spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum. After vacuum packaging, the meals were treated with combinations of pasteurizing heat treatments and gamma irradiation of 5 kGy. Prior and after treatments, and periodically during storage at 10 deg. C, total aerobic and total anerobic viable cell counts, and selectively, the viable cell counts of B. cereus and sulphite-reducing clostridia have been determined. The effects of the treatment order as well as addition of nisin to enhance the preservative efficiency of the physical treatments were also studied. Heat-sensitization of bacterial spores surviving irradiation occurred. The quality-friendly sous-vide cooking in combination with this medium dose gamma irradiation and/or nisin addition increased considerably the microbiological safety and the keeping quality of the meals studied. However, approx. 40% loss of thiamin content occurred as an effect of combination treatments, and adverse sensorial effects may also limit the feasible radiation doses or the usable concentrations of nisin.

  10. Improvement of microbiological safety of sous-vide meals by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J.; Polyák-Fehér, K.; Andrássy, É.; Mészáros, L.

    2002-03-01

    Experimental batches of smoked-cured pork in stewed beans sauce were inoculated with spores of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, more heat and radiation resistant than spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum. After vacuum packaging, the meals were treated with combinations of pasteurizing heat treatments and gamma irradiation of 5 kGy. Prior and after treatments, and periodically during storage at 10°C, total aerobic and total anerobic viable cell counts, and selectively, the viable cell counts of B. cereus and sulphite-reducing clostridia have been determined. The effects of the treatment order as well as addition of nisin to enhance the preservative efficiency of the physical treatments were also studied. Heat-sensitization of bacterial spores surviving irradiation occurred. The quality-friendly sous-vide cooking in combination with this medium dose gamma irradiation and/or nisin addition increased considerably the microbiological safety and the keeping quality of the meals studied. However, approx. 40% loss of thiamin content occurred as an effect of combination treatments, and adverse sensorial effects may also limit the feasible radiation doses or the usable concentrations of nisin.

  11. Behaviour of high purity UO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O interfaces under helium beam irradiation in deaerated conditions; Comportement des interfaces UO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O de haute purete sous faisceau d'ions He{sup 2+} en milieu desaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, E

    2005-11-15

    A question put within the framework of the nuclear fuel storage worn in geological site is what become to them in the presence of water. The aim of a fundamental program, of PRECCI project (ECA), is to highlight the behaviour of interfaces which can be used as models for the interfaces nuclear spent fuel/water if the fuel is uranium UO{sub 2} dioxide. This doctorate is interested in the effect of the alpha activity which is the only one that exist in the spent fuel after long periods. The aim is to identify the mechanisms of alteration and of leaching of surfaces under alpha irradiation. A method is developed to irradiate UO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O interfaces in deaerated conditions with the beam of He{sup 2+} produced by a cyclotron. The He{sup 2+} ions cross an UO{sub 2} disc and emerge in water with an energy of 5 MeV. Leachings under irradiation are carried with a large range of particles flux. The post-irradiation characterization of the surface of the discs realised by micro-Raman spectroscopy allowed to identify the alteration layer. It is made up of studtite UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}),4H{sub 2}O, and of schoepite UO{sub 3},xH{sub 2}O. The analysis of the solutions shows that the uranium release strongly increases. The electrochemical properties of the interfaces under irradiation strongly differ from those before irradiation. This work allows to propose that the radiolytic species seen by the interface are it during the heterogeneous phase of evolution of the traces and are species of short lives. Modeling show that the radiolytic radicals species can migrate toward the interface and react with the UO{sub 2} surface. (author)

  12. Sous vide processed foods: are they safe for the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, M E

    1992-01-01

    Demographic trends and market analyses indicate that Americans' interest in convenience foods that are nutritious, safe, and high quality will influence the food industry into the next century. The increase in individuals over 55 plus working women, and the changing family have caused the food industry to develop a new generation of foods. One of the processes, sous vide, is an advanced method where fresh foods are vacuum sealed in impermeable plastic, cooked at low temperature in circulating water, and chilled and held at refrigerator temperature for up to three weeks. Nutritionists and food scientists have concerns about the food safety of sous vide products and the possible increase in food borne illnesses. Continued research is needed for the food industry to deliver safe, nutritious foods, particularly to the elderly.

  13. Modeling of the PWR fuel mechanical behaviour and particularly study of the pellet-cladding interaction in a fuel rod; Contribution a la modelisation du comportement mecanique des combustibles REP sous irradiation, avec en particulier le traitement de l`interaction pastille-gaine dans un crayon combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourdequin, N.

    1995-05-01

    In Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) power plants, fuel cladding constitutes the first containment barrier against radioactive contamination. Computer codes, developed with the help of a large experimental knowledge, try to predict cladding failures which must be limited in order to maintain a maximal safety level. Until now, fuel rod design calculus with unidimensional codes were adequate to prevent cladding failures in standard PWR`s operating conditions. But now, the need of nuclear power plant availability increases. That leads to more constraining operating condition in which cladding failures are strongly influenced by the fuel rod mechanical behaviour, mainly at high power level. Then, the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) becomes important, and is characterized by local effects which description expects a multidimensional modelization. This is the aim of the TOUTATIS 2D-3D code, that this thesis contributes to develop. This code allows to predict non-axisymmetric behaviour too, as rod buckling which has been observed in some irradiation experiments and identified with the help of TOUTATIS. By another way, PCI is influenced by under irradiation experiments and identified with the help of TOUTATIS which includes a densification model and a swelling model. The latter can only be used in standard operating conditions. However, the processing structure of this modulus provides the possibility to include any type of model corresponding with other operating conditions. In last, we show the result of these fuel volume variations on the cladding mechanical conditions. (author). 25 refs., 89 figs., 2 tabs., 12 photos., 5 appends.

  14. Sous Vide Teknolojisinin Geleneksel Yemeklerimize Uygulanması

    OpenAIRE

    Topal, Şeminur; Pala, Mehmet; Saygı, Birol

    2015-01-01

    Increasing consumer demands for ready-to eat meals has resulted in the improvement of “sous vide” or vacuum packaging technology followed by processing in-pack. “Çoban Kavurma” was the first meal processed, in the application experiments of this technology to Turkish traditional dishes. After processing and during the cold storage (4 oC); the sensorial, microbiological, physical and chemical qualities were determined periodically. The results showed that; a stable state on the product...

  15. L’adaptation pour le sous-titrage

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Rapide tour d’horizon du monde du sous-titrage pour présenter les différentes facettes de la profession, les principaux enjeux et difficultés d’une traduction qui doit faire cohabiter le texte avec les dialogues originaux. Le but étant de faire prendre conscience au public cinéphile et aux différents acteurs du monde de l’image de l’importance de l’adaptation cinématographique. Vuelo de pájaro sobre el mundo del subtitulado con el objeto de presentar las diferentes facetas de la profesión,...

  16. Composes inter-halogenes sous pression: etude des transformations structurales dans le monobromure d'iode sous forme dense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Alexandre

    La famille des composes halogenes et inter-halogenes representent des solides moleculaires adoptant des phases denses communes avec des solides moleculaires diatomiques comme l'azote et l'hydrogene. Parmi les transformations structurales et electroniques induites sous haute pression et observees dans ces solides, on note, entre autres, la dissociation moleculaire et la metallisation. De plus, l'etude des phases denses de l'iode a permis recemment l'observation d'une structure cristalline possedant une modulation dite incommensurable, c'est-a-dire une modulation possedant une periodicite differente de celle de la structure cristalline, jetant ainsi une lumiere nouvelle sur le processus de dissociation moleculaire dans les solides halogenes. Dans ce memoire, on propose d'etudier les changements structuraux dans monobromure d'iode (IBr), un compose inter-halogene possedant des proprietes structurales semblables a celles de deux composes halogenes, soit l'iode (I 2) et le brome (Br2) sous leur forme solide. Des experiences de diffraction des rayons X de poudres en utilisant un rayonnement synchrotron ont ete realisees a temperature ambiante sur l'IBr en variant la pression jusqu'aux environs de 60 GPa. La nature chimique particuliere du compose IBr a necessite la mise au point de techniques de chargement d'echantillon destinees a preserver l'integrite chimique de la substance utilisee. On rapporte egalement l'observation d'une phase de l'IBr presentant une modulation incommensurable. Les phases observees dans l'IBr permettent d'etablir des paralleles avec les phases denses rapportees dans I2 et Br2 par le biais d'un modele phenomenologique decrivant la sequence structurale des solides halogenes sous forme condensee.

  17. Safety evaluation of sous vide-processed ready meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, H; Rosnes, J T; Brendehaug, J; Kleiberg, G H

    2002-01-01

    To assess survival, growth and toxin production of spore-forming bacteria in sous vide products exposed to a relatively high heat treatment. During a three-year period, 2,168 sous vide-processed, commercially available ready-made meals with a shelf life of 3-5 weeks were examined. The products were stored at 4 degrees C for the first 1/3 and at 7 degrees C for the remaining 2/3 of their shelf life period. Three-fourths of the samples had less than 10 bacteria per gram the day after production, and none had more than 1,000. Similar numbers were found at the end of the shelf life when stored as described above. At abuse temperature (20 degrees C), the number of bacteria increased to 10(6)-10(7) cfu g(-1) 7 d after production. A total of 350 isolates of Bacillus spp. were collected, but no Clostridium strains were detected. Only 11 of the 113 tested strains were able to grow at 7 degrees C in broth, and none of the psychrotrophic strains were able to produce substantial amounts of toxins causing food poisoning. The health risk of these products is small as long as the temperature during storage is low. For microbial testing of the end products, traditional plating will suffice.

  18. Clostridium perfringens growth from spore inocula in sous-vide processed pork-based Mexican entrée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Garcia, Denise Y; Juneja, Vijay K; Valenzuela-Melendrez, Martin; Díaz-Cinco, Martha E; Thippareddi, H; Aida Peña-Ramos, E

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of Citricidal wih irradiation on Clostridium perfringens growth from spores in a sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée was investigated. Citricidal was added at 200 or 800 ppm after mixing pork meat with tomatillo sauce and inoculated with 3 log(10) CFU/g of C. perfringens spores. Samples were irradiated at either 0 or 2 kGy, heated to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C, and stored at 4 degrees C for 28 d, 15 degrees C for 45 d, and 25 degrees C for 26 h. To simulate the conditions that may occur during transportation, distribution, storage, or handling in supermarkets or by consumers, the effect of static temperature abuse on C. perfringens growth was assessed by transferring samples stored at 4 to 25 degrees C for 13 and 15 h. Total C. perfringens populations were determined by plating diluted samples on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar. Growth was not observed up to 45 d of storage at 15 degrees C in samples supplemented with 800 ppm of Citricidal. At 25 degrees C, no significant differences (P > 0.05) on the lag phase duration due to antimicrobial treatments was observed. The temperature abuse of refrigerated products for up to 15 h did not lead to C. perfringens growth to high infective dose levels of 1 million cells required to cause food poisoning. The results suggest that 800 ppm Citricidal can have significant bacteriostatic activity against C. perfringens and may provide a degree of protection against this pathogen in sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée, under mild temperature abuse (

  19. Fabrice d’Almeida, La vie mondaine sous le nazisme

    OpenAIRE

    Rival, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    La mondanité est un concept rarement mobilisé dans les études historiques, moins encore quand on s’intéresse à la période nazie. Fabrice d’Almeida se propose de combler cette lacune et justifie son entreprise de deux manières. D’une part, il regrette que les historiens aient longtemps passé sous silence cet aspect du nazisme, au prétexte de se préserver, après la Shoah, de toute complaisance à l’égard de ce régime. D’autre part, il inscrit son projet dans le renouveau de l’histoire culturelle...

  20. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Ji-Han; Ahn, Su-Jin; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (psous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers.

  1. à la capture de radicaux sous irradiation X à 1,5 keV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Talat Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available L’environnement chimique de l’ADN en situation biologique est complexe notam-ment en raison de la présence d’histones, protéines nucléaires, associées en quantité approximativement égales à l’ADN pour former la chromatine. Les histones possèdent de nombreux radicaux basiques arginine et lysine chargés positivement et dont la majorité se trouve sur les chaînes émergentes, l’ADN présente quant à lui des charges négatives sur ses groupements phosphates localisés tout au long de la double hélice. Dans cette étude, la complexité de la structure de la chromatine nucléaire est dans un premier temps mimée en solution aqueuse par la formation de complexes entre un ADN plasmidique sonde et les trois acides aminés basiques, Arg, His, Lys, qui, mis à part His, sont protonés au pH physiologique. Ces acides aminés libres en solution sont réputés être des capteurs efficaces de radicaux libres, notamment pour le radical hydroxyle, conférant ainsi un pouvoir protecteur vis-à-vis des effets indirects sur l’ADN en situation d’exposition aux rayonnements ionisants. A concentration fixée, les capacités de capture des acides aminés libres, σ, pour le radical hydroxyle sont typiquement les suivantes σHis ≈σArg > σLys (σLys ≈ 0,1 × σArg. Nous avons mesuré les taux de cassures simple brin par plasmide et par Gray (χ lors d’expositions de solutions aqueuses de complexes [acide aminé – ADN plasmidique] aux rayons X ultra-mous (1,5 keV. A concentrations égales, les trois acides aminés complexés et présents en large excès ne manifestent pas une capacité de protection de l’ADN proportionnelle à leur capacité de capture libre et en solution ; on trouve en effet des taux de cassures dans l’ordre suivant χHis > χArg > χLys (χLys ≈ 0,01 χArg. Après avoir détaillé le mode opératoire de ces mesures, nous analyserons sur des bases bibliographiques, les modes spécifiques d’interaction des acides aminés basiques avec l’ADN. La spécificité des liaisons de l’arginine avec l’ADN et plus particulièrement sa propension à être un ligand bidentate qui se lie aux bases (principalement G de l’ADN nous permet d’expliquer les taux de cassures simple brin particulièrement élevés observés avec Arg. Un mécanisme de transfert de radical intermoléculaire est suggéré pour Arg. Un raisonnement globalement similaire peut être tenu pour la lysine. Pour l’histidine, nous suggérons quelques voies possibles qui conduiraient à expliquer les taux de cassure anormalement élevés observés, mais cela demandera des expériences complémentaires.

  2. Photoconductivité et photoémission de diamant(s) sous irradiation XUV femtoseconde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, J.; Geoffroy, G.; Guizard, S.; Esnouf, S.; Olevano, V.; Petite, G.; Klimentov, S. M.; Pivovarov, P. A.; Garnov, S. V.; Carre, B.; Martin, P.; Belsky, A.

    2005-06-01

    Nous décrivons une étude des propriétés de photoconductivité (PC) induite dans différents types de diamants (monocristaux de type IIa et couches CVD) par des impulsions femtosecondes XUV (jusqu'à l'harmonique 19 du laser titane/saphir). En complément de ces études, les spectres de photoémission de ces échantillons ont aussi été étudiés (harmoniques 13 à 27). En fonction de l'ordre de l'harmonique, on constate que le signal de PC augmente tout d'abord (harmoniques 9 à 13) puis diminue au delà. Si l'augmentation s'interprète aisément comme résultant de phénomènes de multiplication par collisions inélastiques, la diminution ultérieure n'a pas pour le moment d'explication. Les mesures de spectre de photoémission suggèrent un effet important de la relaxation par émission de plasmons. Enfin, nous avons réalisé le premier calcul ab-initio de la durée de vie des porteurs tenant compte des interactions électron-électron, à l'aide d'une approche de théorie quantique à plusieurs corps de type GW. Au voisinage du gap, on observe un comportement proche de celui d'un liquide de Fermi. A plus haute énergie on observe des déviations à ce comportement, provenant d'effets de structure de bande d'une part, et d'excitations de plasmons d'autre part.

  3. Al-Ḥudayyda sous occupation ottomane (1849-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Chevalier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Petit port de pêche situé sur les côtes de la mer Rouge, al-Ḥudayyda change progressivement de statut et de dimensions avec l’arrivée de l’armée ottomane en 1839. Al-Ḥudayyda se voit alors choisi comme l’un des points stratégiques (militaire et politique du dispositif colonial ottoman.Grâce aux différentes infrastructures mises en place par l’administration ottomane, mais aussi grâce à l’ouverture du canal de Suez en 1869, le village attire peu à peu une population multi-ethnique et cosmopolite venue y commercer ou simplement y trouver refuge, dans un contexte politique régional passablement agité. D’une centaine de Yéménites à l’origine, il compte 42 000 âmes à la veille de la première guerre mondiale.La cohabitation sous administration ottomane va-t-elle générer ou non des échanges ou emprunts entre les différentes communautés ? Les Ottomans vont-ils réussir à transcender les multiples appartenances identitaires au profit d’une appartenance citoyenne à l’empire, comme le prévoit leur ambitieux programme de réformes ? La ville d’al- Ḥudayyda sera-t-elle dotée d’une identité spécifique suffisamment forte pour que les individus appartenant aux différentes communautés présentes s’identifient à la ville ? Voilà quelques-unes des questions auxquelles cet article tente de répondre.

  4. Geothermal power generation. Bruchsal and Soultz-sous-Forets; Geothermische Stromerzeugung. Bruchsal und Soultz-sous-Forets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergner, Hanna; Eggeling, Lena; Koelbel, Thomas; Muench, Wolfram [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Forschung und Innovation; Genter, Albert [G.E.I.E EMC, Soultz-sous-Forets (France)

    2012-11-01

    For more than 100 years geothermal heat and power production has been an important part of the share of energy in areas with outstanding geological conditions. Also under the typical conditions in Middle Europe the geothermal energy gains in importance. In the following, we focus on two geothermal power plants located in the Upper Rhine Valley: Soultz-sous-Forets and Bruchsal, commissioning in 2008 and 2009. By comparing both sites the big difference lies in the technology used for extracting hot thermal water: while the German plant in Bruchsal has access to a natural hot water source in a relatively low depth of 2,000 to 2,500 m, the French sister project performs by chemical and hydraulic stimulation a man-developed reservoir as energy source in a depth of 5,000 m. The plant in Soultz consists of four wells with a wellhead temperature of 165 C. In Bruchsal a typical geothermal doublet is used where the thermal brine has a wellhead temperature of about 124 C. Also the power plants show significant differences. On both locations binary-cycles are responsible for power generation, but in Soultz a regular Organic-Rankine-Cycle (ORC) is installed, in Bruchsal a Kalina-Cycle is in operation. What both projects have in common is their research character. Corrosion, the prevention of scalings and the optimization of all plant's components are in the focus of many research projects. Even so the electricity generation costs can already compete with other renewable energies by today, the reliable availability of geothermal power plants and the reduction of the power generation costs to 10 ct/kWh in the next decade is the current goal of the entire research effort. (orig.)

  5. Effect of Sous Vide Cooking Method on Nutritional Values of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Coşansu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sous vide is a cooking method in which food is heat processed after vacuum packaging in heat stable pouches. Meat, chicken, fish and vegetables can be cooked by this method; even meals containing these ingredients can be preserved by heat processing after precooking and vacuum packaging steps. Meanwhile sous vide cooking is a preservation method that the product is cooled rapidly after heat processing and can be stored for long periods. By this method, food can be cooked in vacuum packed without losing its flavour, taste and nutritional value. In this review, the effects of sous vide cooking on the major nutrients of vegetables such as antioxidant compounds and vitamins will be mentioned.

  6. Determination of shelf life of sous vide salmon (Salmo salard) based on sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pedro; Nieto, Gema; Bañón, Sancho; Garrido, María Dolores

    2009-10-01

    Sous vide technology permits precooked dishes of high sensory and nutritional quality to be obtained with a longer shelf life than is possible using other cooking-cooling methods. Salmon portions (200 g; 0.5, w:w; greased with olive oil) were par-roasted (300 degrees C/3 min), cooked using sous vide technology (80 degrees C/43 min), and maintained in anaerobic conditions at 2 degrees C for 0, 4, 8, 12, 15, 18, 22, and 25 d. At each control day, Enterobacteriaceae counts were made and the attributes of sensory spoilage were determined (3 visual, 2 odor, 2 flavor, and 3 texture attributes) by a panel of trained judges. A loss of smell, taste, color, and juiciness was detected during storage, along with the appearance of off-odors and off-flavors. The shelf life of the sous vide salmon based on sensory analysis was established at 18 d.

  7. Optimisation par algorithme génétique sous contraintes

    OpenAIRE

    Barnier, Nicolas; Brisset, Pascal

    1999-01-01

    Dans le cadre de la programmation logique par contraintes sur les domaines finis CLP(FD), nous proposons une nouvelle méthode d'optimisation reposant sur un algorithme génétique. L'idée de base est de faire manipuler par l'algorithme génétique des sous-domaines des variables du CSP. La population de l'algorithme génétique est ainsi constituée de chaînes de sous-domaines dont l'adaptation est calculée par la résolution des " sous-CSP " corres\\-pondants qui sont plus simples que le problème ori...

  8. Sous vide- ja matalalämpökypsennysmenetelmien tulevaisuus Suomessa

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Saija; Nasr, Suzanna

    2013-01-01

    Tutkimuksen aihe valikoitui tutkijoiden mielenkiinnosta sous vide- ja matalalämpökypsennysmenetelmiä kohtaan. Opinnäytetyön aiheena ovat tulevaisuuden ruoanvalmistusmenetelmät. Tutkimuksen aihe rajattiin sous vide- ja matalalämpökypsennysmenetelmien käyttöön Suomessa. Tutkimuksen avulla pyritään selvittämään kyseisten menetelmien tulevaisuutta Suomessa lähinnä elintarviketeollisuuden näkökulmasta. Tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten menetelmiä hyödynnetään tällä hetkellä, ja miten menetelmie...

  9. Development of Pangasius steaks by improved sous-vide technology and its process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Namita; Singh, Chongtham Baru; Kumar, Raushan; Martin Xavier, K A; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Venkateshwarlu, Gudipati; Balange, Amjad K

    2016-11-01

    The present study embarked on the objective of optimizing improved sous-vide processing condition for development of ready-to-cook Pangasius steaks with extended shelf-life using response surface methodology. For the development of improved sous-vide cooked product, Pangasius steaks were treated with additional hurdles in various combinations for optimization. Based on the study, suitable combination of chitosan and spices was selected which enhanced antimicrobial and oxidative stability of the product. The Box-Behnken experimental design with 15 trials per model was adopted for designing the experiment to know the effect of independent variables, namely chitosan concentration (X1), cooking time (X2) and cooking temperature (X3) on dependent variable i.e. TBARS value (Y1). From RSM generated model, the optimum condition for sous-vide processing of Pangasius steaks were 1.08% chitosan concentration, 70.93 °C of cooking temperature and 16.48 min for cooking time and predicted minimum value of multiple response optimal condition was Y = 0.855 mg MDA/Kg of fish. The high correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.975) between the model and the experimental data showed that the model was able to efficiently predict processing condition for development of sous-vide processed Pangasius steaks. This research may help the processing industries and Pangasius fish farmer as it provides an alternative low cost technology for the proper utilization of Pangasius.

  10. Croissance des fonctions sous-harmoniques et des fonctions entières dans $C^N$

    CERN Document Server

    Supper, R; Ramis, J P

    2005-01-01

    Ce mémoire d'habilitation présente une synthèse de mes travaux de ces dernières années et expose quelques projets de recherche. Il aborde différentes questions relatives à la croissance des fonctions sous-harmoniques (dans la boule unité ou dans l'espace tout entier) et des fonctions entières de type exponentiel, par exemple: caractérisation des fonctions sous-harmoniques avec une croissance de type Bloch, étude de la mesure de Riesz d'une fonction sous-harmonique, minoration des fonctions sous-harmoniques d'ordre au plus un, détermination des fonctions entières de plusieurs variables complexes dont la partie réelle s'annule en certains poin

  11. Kyste hydatique sous cutané isolé: à propos d’un cas et revue de la literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemrhari, Bahija; Baha, Hasna; Azzouzi, Soufia; Chiheb, Soumyia

    2016-01-01

    La localisation sous cutanée, primitive et isolée, du kyste hydatique est exceptionnelle, même dans les pays où la maladie hydatique est endémique. Nous rapportons le cas d’une jeune patiente présentant un kyste hydatique sous cutané sans atteintes viscérales associées. PMID:27800067

  12. Une localisation exceptionnelle de la tuberculose vertébrale Mal de Pott sous-occipital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaoui, Sana; Majdoub, Senda; Zaghouani, Houneida; Fradj, Hosni Ben; Bakir, Dejla; Bouajina, Elyes; Kraiem, Chakib

    2013-01-01

    Le mal de Pott est la forme la plus commune de la tuberculose osseuse touchant essentiellement le rachis dorso-lombaire. La localisation sous-occipitale reste exceptionnelle. Le diagnostic de cette entité est le plus souvent tardif ce qui expose à des complications graves. Les radiographies standard ne sont parlantes qu’à un stade tardif de la maladie, d'où l'intérêt de l'imagerie moderne notamment la tomodensitométrie (TDM) et l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) qui permettent un diagnostic précoce. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas de tuberculose sous-occipitale. Le diagnostic était posé sur l'imagerie en coupe et confirmé histologiquement à la biopsie transorale. Sont rappelés les aspects en imagerie de cette localisation particulière du mal de Pott. PMID:23819005

  13. Safety aspects of "sous vide" products and prevention of microbial risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, T

    1995-03-01

    The diversity and quantities of vacuum packed and vacuum cooked prepared meals and menu components are rapidly growing on the European market. Because of the minimal heat processing, high water activity, absence of preservatives, and the use of many different often exotic ingredients, these products have a high risk potential. For this reason, Anglo-Saxon governments and industries are very sceptical about the safety of "sous vide" products. Industrial practice, as well as parallel tests and recent studies on inoculated packs have shown that, in many cases, it is more a potential than a real risk. Quality is the primary concern for "sous vide" products, and safety must be guaranteed by the application of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept, along with an adequate combination of different inhibitory factors (temperature of heating and cooling, pH, incorporation of starter cultures, bacteriocins and some particular enzymes).

  14. [The use of "sous vide" technology in the packaging of chilled and ready to serve food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, S

    1999-01-01

    As chilled precooked dishes show limited to 3-5 days shelf life several additional factors have to be applied to extend it up to 21 or even 42 days as is sometimes allowed for sous vide technology products. Those factors comprise high hygienic standards for raw materials and premises as well as technological steps and parameters that efficiently destroy microbial contamination, and do not allow for recontamination or bacterial growth. Such steps include precooking which also means pasteurisation in high vacuum or anaerobic atmosphere in sealed pouches, blast chilling, low temperature storage parameters as well as high temperature of reheating process and quick serving procedures. Paper specifies parameters for each technological steps and presents microbiological requirements for final products. Sous vide technology allows for good quality and high nutritional value in soups, meats in sauces and stewed vegetables. It is used for individual consumer in chilled "ready to eat" line dishes in supermarkets and supplies such dishes for catering units.

  15. Advantages of sous-vide cooked red cabbage: structural, nutritional and sensory aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Iborra Bernad, María del Consuelo; Tárrega, Amparo; García Segovia, Purificación; Martínez Monzó, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The comparison between equivalent cooking treatments should be applied in a systematic way. This study proposes a methodical way to provide cooked samples with similar firmness using two cooking treatments. In addition, the structural, nutritional and sensory properties of red cabbage cooked with sous-vide treatment in comparison with traditional cooking (boiling water) was evaluated. Changes in texture, color and anthocyanin content were measured in samples cooked with traditional cooking...

  16. Shelf Life Extension of Maple pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L. Spread Using Sous Vide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ķirse Asnate

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sous vide packaging on the shelf life of maple pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L. spread. Pea spreads were made of ground re-hydrated cooked maple peas ‘Bruno’ (Pisum sativum var. arvense L., to which salt, citric acid, oil, and spices were added. Pea spread was stored in polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PE film pouches, packaged in vacuum and hermetically sealed. Pea spread pouches were heat treated in a water bath, then rapidly cooled in ice-water and stored at 4.0 ± 0.5 °C. Sous vide was applied in three different heat regimens +(65.0; 80.0 and 100.0 ± 0.5 °C with cooking times 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min at a constant temperature. Total plate count was determined according to ISO 4833-1:2014 on Plate Count Agar and Enterobacteriaceae determination was performed in accordance with ISO 21528-2:2004 on Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar. Total plate count in pea spread without thermal treatment was 3.41 log10 CFU g−1, in all sous vide packaged pea spread samples microbial contamination was significantly lower (p < 0.05. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in any samples. It is possible to extend the shelf life of sous vide maple pea spread up to 14 weeks when stored at 4.0 ± 0.5 °C.

  17. Nouveaux loisirs, nouveaux espaces: les fonds sous-marins du littoral languedocien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Galinier

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available L’exploration des fonds sous-marins fascine un nombre croissant de jeunes citadins. Le littoral de l’Hérault, même bas et peu rocheux, ne fait pas exception à la règle et l’activité subaquatique s’y développe. Les effets n’en sont pas négligeables pour les revenus de certaines communes littorales, ainsi que sur l’environnement.

  18. Application of nisin and pediocin against resistance and germination of Bacillus spores in sous vide products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, M L; Torres, B; Herrera, J J R; Bernárdez, M; Pastoriza, L

    2009-03-01

    Sous vide and other mild preservation techniques are increasingly demanded by consumers. However, spores often will survive in minimally processed foods, causing both spoilage and safety problems. The main objective of the present work was to solve an industrial spoilage problem associated with two sous vide products: mushrooms and shellfish salad. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis predominated as the most heat-resistant organisms isolated from mushrooms and shellfish salad, respectively. The combined effects of nisin and pediocin against resistance and germination of both Bacillus species were described by empirical equations. Whereas nisin was more effective for decreasing thermal resistance of B. subtilis spores, pediocin was more effective against B. licheniformis. However, a significant positive interaction between both biopeptides for decreasing the proportion of vegetative cells resulting from thermoresistant spores was demonstrated in later experiments, thus indicating the increased efficacy of applying high concentrations of both bacteriocins. This efficacy was further demonstrated in additional challenge studies carried out at 15 degrees C in the two sous vide products: mushrooms and shellfish salad. Whereas no vegetative cells were detected after 90 days in the presence of bacteriocins, almost 100% of the population in nontreated samples of mushrooms and shellfish salad was in the vegetative state after 17 and 43 days of storage at 15 degrees C, respectively.

  19. Volatile compound profile of sous-vide cooked lamb loins at different temperature-time combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Ruiz, Jorge; Del Pulgar, José Sánchez; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Antequera, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60 and 80°C) and time (6 and 24h) to assess the effect on the volatile compound profile. Major chemical families in cooked samples were aliphatic hydrocarbons and aldehydes. The volatile compound profile in sous-vide cooked lamb loin was affected by the cooking temperature and time. Volatile compounds arising from lipid oxidation presented a high abundance in samples cooked at low or moderate cooking conditions (60°C for 6 and 24h, 80°C for 6h), while a more intense time and temperature combination (80°C for 24h) resulted on a higher concentration of volatile compounds arising from Strecker degradations of amino acids, as 2-methylpropanal and 3-methylbutanal. Therefore, sous-vide cooking at moderately high temperatures for long times would result in the formation of a stronger meaty flavor and roast notes in lamb meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physico-Chemical and Structural Characteristics of Vegetables Cooked Under Sous-Vide, Cook-Vide, and Conventional Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iborra-Bernad, C; García-Segovia, P; Martínez-Monzó, J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, physico-chemical and structural properties of cut and cooked purple-flesh potato, green bean pods, and carrots have been studied. Three different cooking methods have been applied: traditional cooking (boiling water at 100 °C), cook-vide (at 80 and 90 °C) and sous-vide (at 80 °C and 90 °C). Similar firmness was obtained in potato applying the same cooking time using traditional cooking (100 °C), and cook-vide and sous-vide at 90 °C, while in green beans and carrots the application of the sous-vide (90 °C) required longer cooking times than cook-vide (90 °C) and traditional cooking (100 °C). Losses in anthocyanins (for purple-flesh potatoes) and ascorbic acid (for green beans) were higher applying traditional cooking. β-Carotene extraction increased in carrots with traditional cooking and cook-vide (P vide. Traditional cooking was the most aggressive treatment in green beans because the secondary walls were reduced compared with sous-vide and cook-vide. Sous-vide preserved organelles in the carrot cells, which could explain the lower extraction of β-carotene compared with cook-vide and traditional cooking. Sous-vide cooking of purple-flesh potato is recommended to maintain its high anthocyanin content. Traditional boiling could be recommended for carrots because increase β-carotenes availability. For green beans, cook-vide, and sous-vide provided products with higher ascorbic acid content. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Conventional food preparation, cook and chill and sous-vide as optional methods for institutional kitchens. Perinteinen ruoanvalmistus, cook and chill ja sous-vide toimintavaihtoehdot suurkeittioessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeivaerinta, T., Reisbacka, A., Salminen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to clarify the situation concerning the energy consumption, economics and the appropriateness of the three options when applied in institutional households. The options included in the study were conventional (preparation-cooking-serving), cook and chill and sous-vide (vacuum cooking-chilling). A further aim was to compare industrially produced products to self-made products. Each option was studied in connection with several devices embodying latest technology. The overall price for a portion was found to be cheapest when using the conventional preparation method. The cook and chill method was only slightly more expensive. The result of this study also support the understanding that when appropriately planned, cook and chill and sous-vide food preparation options make possible the rationalisation of kitchen work. The appropriateness of different food preparation methods depends on the versatility of the functions and programmes built into cooking devices. A combination oven is appropriate and conserves energy when cooking or heating up large quantities. Significant waste of water (126-146 1/h) is possible because of the structural solutions and modes of use of such an oven. A microwave oven saves energy when used to heat up ready-made portions. The amount of energy consumed by an air-cooled chilling cabinet in the cooling of food makes it more economical to use than a water-cooled model. The amount of electricity consumed by a refrigerator or an equivalent cold storage is 5-14 times less than that consumed by chilling devices

  2. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  3. Comparison between boiling and vacuum cooking (sous-vide) in the bioaccessibility of minerals in bovine liver samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Francisco L F; de Lima, João P S; Melo, Luciana S; da Silva, Yarina S M; Gouveia, Sandro T; Lopes, Gisele S; Matos, Wladiana O

    2017-10-01

    Only some of ingested nutrients are available for absorption by the organism. The foods generally are submitted to some heat processing that may interfere in the bioaccessibility of nutrients. There are no studies of the influence of cooking under vacuum (sous vide) on the bioaccessibility of minerals. This study evaluated the in vitro bioaccessibility of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg and Zn in bovine liver samples after traditional cooking in water and using the sous vide procedure. All heat treatments of bovine liver promoted the increase of the bioaccessibility of Ca, Cu, Fe, K and Mg, except for Zn when the effect was the opposite. The sous vide method provided higher bioaccessibility of these minerals than cooking in boiling water, except for K when both methods presented equivalent values. Samples of raw liver and liver cooked using sous vide method presented the following percentage of bioaccessible fraction, respectively: 39.7% and 95.8% (Ca), 8.78% and 26.9% (Cu), 8.80% and 39.5% (Fe), 30.2% and 42.6% (K), 26.4% and 43.9% (Mg), 24.8% and 36.3% (Zn). Thus, under the aspect of improvement availability of studied minerals by organism, the sous-vide technique was the most suitable to cook bovine liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cook-chill, cook-freeze, cook-hold, sous vide: risks for hospital patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P J; Dart, S P; Hadlington, C J

    1991-06-01

    Changes in eating habits and developments in food technology are occurring at the same time as an upward trend in foodborne infection in Britain. Vulnerable people such as the elderly and hospital patients are increasingly likely to consume food produced by new systems such as 'cook-chill' and 'cuisson sous vide'. The microbiological hazards of these systems are assessed as negligible, provided that production is controlled by appropriate methods such as the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) approach. The occurrence and control of bacterial contamination in a hospital cook-chill system is reviewed in this context.

  5. Leuconostoc rapi sp. nov., isolated from sous-vide cooked rutabaga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Snauwaert, I.; Pihlajaviita, S.;

    2015-01-01

    .1 and 98.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity towards the type strain, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, multilocus sequence analysis of the pheS, rpoA and atpA genes, and biochemical and genotypic characteristics allowed to differentiate strain LMG 27676T from all established......A Gram-positive, ovoid lactic acid bacterium, strain LMG 27676T, was isolated from a spoiled sous-vide cooked rutabaga. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the novel strain belongs to the genus Leuconostoc, with Leuconostoc kimchi and Leuconostoc miyukkimchii as nearest neighbours (99...

  6. Long-time water level observations at the HDR-testsite Soultz-sous-Forets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornstaedter, J.; Heinemann-Glutsch, B.; Zaske, J. [GTC-Kappelmeyer GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Pressure or water level measurements have been performed by GTC in different wells at the geothermal testsite Soultz-sous-Forets for six years now. The water lever variations are mainly influenced by earth tides, barometric pressure variations, hydraulic testing and stimulation. The small scale variations are influenced by tidal and barometric forcing functions, the large scale variations by hydraulic testing and stimulation. By analyzing such measurements it is possible to get important information about the hydrualic connections between the boreholes, as well as aquifer parameters. (orig./AKF)

  7. Influence of sous vide processing, steaming and boiling on vitamin retention and sensory quality in broccoli florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M A

    1993-10-01

    In this study the effect of sous vide processing, steaming and traditional boiling of broccoli florets on retention of ascorbic acid, vitamin B6 and folacin was investigated. Freshly prepared samples were also sensorily evaluated. In all heat treatments ascorbic acid was found to have the highest retention, and was therefore judged not to be suitable as an indicator for vitamin retention in general. When the three types of heat treatment were compared, boiling showed lowest retention of all the vitamins examined (45-64% in 5 min), whereas sous-vide processing gave the highest retentions (97-100% in 5 min). Retentions during steaming were a little lower (83-100% in 5 min). Sensory evaluation showed that sous-vide cooked and steamed broccoli florets generally had higher acceptability than boiled.

  8. Changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking in the lipid and volatile profile of European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Manzanos, María J; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to shed light on the changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking on the lipids and volatile profile of farmed and wild European sea bass meat. None of the cooking techniques provoked changes due to hydrolytic or oxidation processes detectable by (1)H NMR on sea bass lipids. The lipid profile of main and minor lipidic components was maintained after cooking. However, study by SPME-GC/MS evidenced that steaming and sous-vide cooking modified the volatile profile of sea bass meat, especially in farmed specimens. The compounds generated came from the occurrence, to a very small extent, of lipid and protein degradation. By contrast, boiling scarcely modified the initial characteristics of raw sea bass. Thus, from a sensory point of view and considering the odour-active compounds generated, steaming and sous-vide cooking provoked more noticeable changes than boiling, especially in farmed sea bass meat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, T.

    1986-01-01

    The proposed use of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 and cesium 137 for food irradiation in the United Kingdom is discussed, with particular reference to the possible dangers and disadvantages to the safety and wholesomeness of the food.

  10. Physico-Chemical and Structural Characteristics of Vegetables Cooked Under Sous-Vide, Cook-Vide, and Conventional Boiling

    OpenAIRE

    Iborra Bernad, María del Consuelo; García Segovia, Purificación; Martínez Monzó, Javier

    2015-01-01

    [EN] In this paper, physico-chemical and structural properties of cut and cooked purple-flesh potato, green bean pods, and carrots have been studied. Three different cooking methods have been applied: traditional cooking (boiling water at 100 °C), cook-vide (at 80 and 90 °C) and sous-vide (at 80 °C and 90 °C). Similar firmness was obtained in potato applying the same cooking time using traditional cooking (100 °C), and cook-vide and sous-vide at 90 °C, while in green beans and carrots the app...

  11. [Food irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  12. Vacuum brazing of metals (1961); Brassure sous vide des metaux (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapujoulade, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We have studied brazing in vacuum aiming its application for the making of containers and apparatus meant for high vacuum (p < 10{sup -8} torr). We first define the wettability of a brazing alloy on a metal and we remind the influence of the various parameters which act on this wettability (nature of the solid, of the liquid, geometrical and physicochemical state of the surface, metallurgical reactions occurring at the interface, temperature, time). We give then the results of the tests carried out in order to determine the conditions of wettability in vacuum of some brazing alloys on metals which can be used for the above mentioned apparatus (stainless steel, aluminium, bronze, titanium, zirconium, kovar, nickel, copper). (author) [French] Nous avons etudie la brasure sous vide en vue de son application a la construction d'enceintes et apparelilage destines a l'obtention des vides eleves (p < 10{sup -8} torr). Nous definissons d'abord la mouillabilite d'une brasure sur un metal et nous rappelons l'influence des differents parametres qui agissent sur cette mouillabilite (nature du solide, du liquide, etat geometrique et physico-chimique de la surface, reactions metallurgiques a l'interface, temperature, temps). Nous donnons ensuite les resultats des essais effectues dans le but de determiner les conditions de mouillabilite sous vide de certaines brassures sur des metaux utilisables dans les constructions mentionnees ci-dessus (acier inoxydable, bronze d'aluminium, titane, zirconium, kovar, nickel, cuivre). (auteur)

  13. Quality evaluation of cook-chilled chicory stems (Cichorium intybus L., Catalogna group) by conventional and sous vide cooking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Massimiliano; Gonnella, Maria; Giannino, Donato; Santamaria, Pietro

    2014-03-15

    Chicory stems, appreciated both raw and cooked, represent a nutritious and refined food. In this study the effects on the quality of stems cooked by conventional (boiling, steaming and microwaving) and innovative (sous vide) methods were analysed. Several physical, chemical and sensory traits were compared using two local varieties (Galatina and Molfettese) of southern Italy (Puglia region). Independently of the variety, the sous vide method did not significantly affect (redness, yellowness and hue angle) or had the least impact on (lightness and total colour difference) quality parameters among the four methods as compared with the raw product. Following sensory analysis, the sous vide product always showed the highest score among the cooking methods. Moreover, this innovative method did not affect total phenol (TP) content and antioxidant activity (AA) compared with uncooked stems of both varieties. Microwaving increased TP content and AA (though associated with higher weight loss), while different responses depending on the chicory variety were observed after boiling and steaming. The results indicate the sous vide technique as optimal to preserve several traits, including organoleptic ones, for the quality of cook-chilled chicory stems. They also provide product-specific information usually required for cooking process strategies in the industrial sector of ready-to-eat vegetables. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

    2012-06-01

    Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2 °C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems.

  15. Effect of sous vide processing on physicochemical, ultrastructural, microbial and sensory changes in vacuum packaged chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, B M; Khansole, Panjab S; Shashi Kumar, M; Krishnaiah, N; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Deepak, S J

    2017-01-01

    The processing of sous vide chicken sausages was optimized under vacuum packaging condition and cooking at 100 ℃ for 30 min (SV30), 60 min (SV60) and 120 min (SV120) and compared with aerobically cooked control at 100 ℃ for 30 min. Sous vide processing of chicken sausages (SV30) produced higher (p Sous vide processing of chicken sausages enriched with rosemary diterpene phenols retained the freshness and quality up to 120 days during storage at 4 ± 1 ℃ relative to control sausages that were spoiled on 20th day. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth remained below the spoilage levels for all the SV-processed sausages throughout the storage and addition of rosemary diterpene mixture at 0.02% v/w reduced the microbial growth and improved (p sous vide processing minimizes lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken sausages with improved product quality and shelf-life at 4 ± 1 ℃. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Guide pour la rédaction de cahiers des charges pour la sous-traitance en mécano-soudage

    CERN Document Server

    Cheminat, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Ce rapport est principalement dédié aux rédacteurs de cahiers des charges lors de sous-traitance en soudage. Le choix de faire sous-traiter une fabrication et le choix du sous-traitant revêtent une triple dimension technique, économique et stratégique. Un sous-traitant n'est pas un simple fournisseur ; il est un véritable partenaire technique pour le donneur d'ordre qui lui confie la réalisation d'un produit qu'il a lui-même conçu. La sous-traitance nécessite alors, outre un audit préalable du partenaire, un suivi en continu, à distance, et une communication entre le donneur d'ordre et le sous-traitant. Le cahier des charges est un des éléments de cette communication. C'est un outil essentiel, notamment lorsque le marché est soumis à des normes, imposées par contrat entre le donneur d'ordre et le sous-traitant. Ce présent document est un guide pour la rédaction du document de consultation, afin d'être le plus précis et exhaustif possible, mais il ne saurait être utilisé pour établi...

  17. Effect of high energy electrons on the skin and on the underlying tissues of the rabbit. A clinical and histological study; Effets des electrons de haute energie sur la peau et les tissus sous-jacents du lapin. Etude clinique et histologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legeay, G.; Vialettes, H.; Adnet, J.J.; Court, L.; Masse, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The authors consider in this report the effects of high-energy electrons on rabbit teguments and on the underlying tissues after a single high dose irradiation. After briefly considering the mechanism of interaction between the electrons and matter as a function of their energy, the authors describe the dosimetry carried out, as a function of the irradiation device. The animal received surface doses of 5700 to 22100 rads in the thigh; the electron energy varied from 21 to 30 MeV. A clinical study was carried out over a period of nine months with a view to following the evolution of the damage and the functional degradation of the underlying tissues. A histological study of the induced damage was made after a second irradiation using 30 MeV electrons to produce doses of 16400 rads. Interesting observations were made concerning the damage caused to muscular and nerve tissues. (authors) [French] Les auteurs etudient, dans ce rapport, les effets des electrons de haute energie sur les teguments du lapin et les tissus sous-jacents apres une irradiation unique a dose elevee. Apres un rappel du mecanisme de l'interaction des electrons avec la matiere en fonction de leur energie, la dosimetrie realisee est exposee en fonction du dispositif d'irradiation. Les animaux ont recu, au niveau de la cuisse, des doses en surface de 5700 a 22100 rads; les energies des electrons vont de 21 a 30 MeV. Une etude clinique des lesions, observees pendant 9 mois, decrit leur evolution ainsi que les alterations fonctionnelles des tissus sous-jacents. Une etude histologique des lesions induites a ete realisee au cours d'une seconde experience pour des doses de 16400 rads avec des electrons de 30 MeV. D'interessantes observations ont ete faites concernant les lesions des tissus musculaires et nerveux. (auteurs)

  18. Registration of vehicles at the Gex sous-préfecture: now by appointment only

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The Gex sous-préfecture has informed CERN that it has taken the following steps in order to reduce waiting times at its counters for the issue of carte grise vehicle registration certificates. As of 1 February 2016, you must book an appointment via the website http://www.rdv.ain.gouv.fr/ for all services relating to the registration of vehicles, in particular the:   change of the holder of a registration certificate, issue of a certificat de situation administrative (administrative status certificate required for the sale of a vehicle), change of marital status (or company name in the case of legal entities), change of address, change in the technical specification of the vehicle, corrections to registration certificates, equests for duplicates (loss or theft of registration certificates), registration of a diplomatic vehicle (CERN), registration of a new vehicle, registration of vehicles purchased tax-free in the Pays de Gex free zone (formerly TTW series), and import of vehicles (from ...

  19. Accès au tunnel sous la Manche (Terminal Transmanche)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Parallèlement aux travaux de construction du tunnel sous la Manche, l’emprise du chantier situé du côté français (Fig. n°1 : Localisation des zones fouillées) a fait l’objet (1986-1988) de prospections de surface, de sondages puis de fouilles de sauvetage sur les secteurs les plus sensibles. De par son ampleur (plus de 900 ha) et le caractère systématisé du traitement archéologique,cette opération reste une référence de première importance au plan régional, mais aussi national. Elle préfigu...

  20. Thérèse et Louise, ou le plaisir sous la contrainte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cavaillé

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nous nous proposons de confronter ici Thérèse philosophe, dont l’attribution à Boyer d’Argens semble désormais à peu près certaine, à quelques unes de ses sources du siècle précédent, et en particulier, aux Dialogues de Louisa Sigea, sous leurs deux formes majeures, l’original latin attribué à Nicolas Chorier ou à son patron Salvaing de Boissieu, publié d’abord en 1659, et sa très belle transposition, plutôt que traduction au sens strict, de 1680, l’Académie des Dames, qui contient à la fois ...

  1. Les objets sous contrainte. Gages, saisies, confiscations, vols,pillages, recel au Moyen Âge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Feller

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Du jeudi 20 au samedi 21 novembre 2009, à l’initiative d’Ana Rodriguez et de Laurent Feller, s’est tenu à Auxerre, dans la maison du Coche d’Eau, un séminaire d’études international portant sur Les objets sous contrainte. Gages, saisies, confiscation, vol, pillage, recel au Moyen Âge. Organisée conjointement par le Lamop, l’université de Paris 1 et le CCHS (CSIC de Madrid, partiellement financée par un projet Picasso de l’association Égide, l’opération a bénéficié du soutien de l’université ...

  2. Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during rapid and slow heating in sous vide cooked beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T B; Knøchel, S

    1996-06-01

    Heating at slowly rising temperatures is suspected to enhance thermotolerance in Listeria monocytogenes and, since anaerobic environments have been shown to facilitate resuscitation of heat-injured cells of this micro-organism, concern may arise about the possibility of L. monocytogenes surviving in minimally preserved products. The effect of rapid ( > 10 degrees C min-1) and slow (0.3 and 0.6 degrees C min-1) heating on survival of L. monocytogenes in sous vide cooked beef was therefore examined at mild processing temperatures of 56 degrees, 60 degrees and 64 degrees C. No statistically significant difference (P = 0.70) was observed between the tested heating regimes. Since the average pH of beef was low (5.6), and little or no effect was observed, a pH-dependency of heat shock-induced thermotolerance in L. monocytogenes is suggested to account for this result.

  3. Leuconostoc rapi sp. nov., isolated from sous-vide-cooked rutabaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Snauwaert, Isabel; Pihlajaviita, Seija; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, ovoid, lactic acid bacterium, strain LMG 27676T, was isolated from a spoiled sous-vide-cooked rutabaga. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the novel strain belongs to the genus Leuconostoc, with Leuconostoc kimchii and Leuconostoc miyukkimchii as the nearest neighbours (99.1 and 98.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity towards the type strain, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, multilocus sequence analysis of the pheS, rpoA and atpA genes, and biochemical and genotypic characteristics allowed differentiation of strain LMG 27676T from all established species of the genus Leuconostoc. Strain LMG 27676T ( = R-50029T = MHB 277T = DSM 27776T) therefore represents the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Leuconostoc rapi sp. nov. is proposed.

  4. EVHA, un logiciel d'évaluation de l'habitat du poisson sous Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GINOT V.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available EVHA est un logiciel destiné à l'évaluation de la capacité physique d'accueil des rivières vis-à-vis de certaines espèces de poissons cibles. Son approche est essentiellement graphique. Après avoir dépouillé les données topographiques et calé le modèle hydraulique, l'utilisateur étudie sa station selon les quatre représentations proposées, courbes fonction du débit, vues en plan, profils en long ou profils en travers. Les variables, Surface Pondérée Utile (SPU, SPU normée à 100 mètres, et valeur d'habitat, mais aussi surfaces mouillées, hauteurs d'eau, vitesses et nombres de Froude, volumes, peuvent être calculés soit en restant au niveau du point d'observation, soit en moyennant les valeurs par transect, par faciès, ou pour l'ensemble de la station. Les données générées peuvent être visualisées sous forme textuelle et exportées au format des principaux tableurs pour un traitement plus complet. Développé sous Windows, EVHA gère le «copier-coller», la sauvegarde des graphes au format vectoriel, l'impression et la gestion de la couleur et du noir et blanc. Sa bibliothèque de courbes de préférences peut s'enrichir des courbes produites par l'utilisateur.

  5. Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2011-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E enhanced the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat.

  6. Probabilistic methods for the simulation of fuel particles behavior under irradiation; Apport des methodes probabilistes dans la simulation du comportement sous irradiation du combustible a particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannamela, C

    2007-09-15

    This work is devoted to the evaluation of mathematical expectations in the context of structural reliability. We seek a failure probability estimate (that we assume low), taking into account the uncertainty of influential parameters of the System. Our goal is to reach a good compromise between the accuracy of the estimate and the associated computational cost. This approach is used to estimate the failure probability of fuel particles from a HTR-type nuclear reactor. This estimate is obtain by means of costly numerical simulations. We consider different probabilistic methods to tackle the problem. First, we consider a variance reducing Monte Carlo method: importance sampling. For the parametric case, we propose adaptive algorithms in order to build a series of probability densities that will eventually converge to optimal importance density. We then present several estimates of the mathematical expectation based on this series of densities. Next, we consider a multi-level method using Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm. Finally, we turn our attention to the related problem of quantile estimation (non extreme) of physical output from a large-scale numerical code. We propose a controlled stratification method. The random input parameters are sampled in specific regions obtained from surrogate of the response. The estimation of the quantile is then computed from this sample. (author)

  7. EXPRESSION IN VIVO DU GÈNE GFP SOUS LA FORME D’UNE PROTÉINE DE FUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Negura

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La protéine GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein se caractérise par sa capacité à émettre sous l’action des rayons UV une lumière verte de basse énergie, ce qui la rend particulièrement utile en biotechnologies. Nous avons procédé à la production de la GFP in vivo par Eschericha coli sous forme d’une protéine chimère de fusion avec le peptide de la –Galactosidase. Pour ce, nous avons cloné un fragment d’ADN comportant la phase codante de la GFP à partir d’un vecteur dans lequel il ne peut être exprimé vers un autre vecteur permettant lui cette expression.

  8. Kinetic modeling to study the quality of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) sous vide during storage at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fabiane C P; Ribeiro, Suezilde C A; Peixoto Joele, Maria R S; Sousa, Consuelo L; Lourenço, Lúcia F H

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the changes in quality of tambaqui sous vide during refrigerated storage using degradation kinetics. Tambaqui sous vide was prepared and stored at three temperatures (1, 4, 10 °C). The microorganism counts and the physicochemical analyses were analyzed every three days. The results obtained were fitted to the Labuza models and by Arrhenius equation. The results of the microbiological and physicochemical analyses obtained better fits to the zero-order model. The Arrhenius equation better fit to the velocity constants of the zero-order model, which showed that the changes in the values of attributes are related to temperature. Higher Ea values were found for the microorganism counts than for the physicochemical parameters, which proves the greater dependency of microorganisms on variations in temperature. The assessment of changes in quality based on temperature allows the storage conditions to be optimized.

  9. Comportement sous polarisation d'un acier dans des solutions simulant des bétons (sans chlorures ) : Etude 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Bouteiller, Véronique

    2004-01-01

    Un acier de précontrainte a été étudié sous polarisation dans des solutions simulant des bétons (sans chlorures). L'acier a été étudié sous quatre états de surface différents (acier tel quel, acier poli, acier rouillé artificiellement et acier rouillé naturellement dans trois solutions différentes simulant des bétons "sain", légèrement carbonaté et "carbonaté". Les courbes potentiodynamiques montrent que la formation d'oxydes et/ou le dégagement d'hydrogène dépendent de la surface de l'acier ...

  10. O poema como exílio: Sousândrade-Guesa em “O inferno de Wall Street”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cernicchiaro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay intends to read in O Guesa, of Joaquim de Sousândrade, a sort of exile-poem. A desert where the poet is an eternal errant, a stranger in his own language, where the representation is not possible anymore and what remains is multi-idiomatic fragmentation, roars, babbles, cacophonies, cries, screams and inversions. A between-place of discords, rupture and deflection, of combat language inside the language.

  11. Observations sur le sous-genre des Pouillots (Ficedula), et notamment sur le Pouillot Lusciniole, Sylvia (fic.) Polyglotta, de Vieillot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, H.

    1848-01-01

    Les oiseaux dont nous nous proposons de traiter, forment un petit sous-genre démembré de celui des becs-fins ou Sylvia de Latham. C’est, à proprement parler, à BECHSTEIN que l’on en doit l’établissement, quoique cet auteur l’ait pris dans un sens plus ou moins différent de celui que nous y attachons

  12. Patrimonialiser les bases de sous-marins et le Mur de l’Atlantique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Prelorenzo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Le Mur de l’Atlantique court de la frontière espagnole jusqu’au nord de la Norvège. Au sein de ce dispositif sont installées cinq bases de sous-marins : Dunkerque, Saint-Nazaire, Lorient, La Rochelle et Bordeaux. Après une période de purgatoire, liée aux souvenirs trop frais des bombardements qu’ils ont attirés sur les villes, les édifices du mur sont entrés dans la sphère de la culture et du tourisme. Nous posons alors la question suivante : de quoi ces édifices portent-ils témoignage, et nous envisageons plusieurs aspects : leur évident modernisme qui les situe à un moment de l’histoire de l’architecture, leur hétérogénéité qui fait de ces bâtiments des sortes d’ovni, sans aucun rapport ni d’échelle ni de forme avec l’architecture civile, une technique d’enfouissement et de camouflage génératrice d’un nouveau paysage. Mais ces édifices peuvent-ils être exonérés de leur but guerrier ? Quel est le message de leur recyclage dans le culturel, le festif ou le commercial ? Deux bases de sous-marins sont plus particulièrement présentées, celle de Saint-Nazaire et celle de Lorient.The Atlantic Wall stretches from the Spanish border to northern Norway. Within this system there are five bases for submarines: Dunkirk, Saint-Nazaire, Lorient, La Rochelle and Bordeaux. After a period of purgatory, with the painful memories of the wartime air raids which destroyed the cities around the bases, the buildings which the Atlantic Wall comprises have now entered the spheres of culture and tourism. What do these buildings bear witness to? Their frank modernism puts them at a precise moment in the history of architecture. Their heterogeneity makes them like UFOs, without any relation of scale or form to civil architecture. Their specific techniques of dissimulation and camouflage created new landscapes. But can these buildings be freed from the memories of their original military purpose? What message is

  13. Integral modeling and financial impact of the geothermal situation and power plant at Soultz-sous-Forêts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidinger, Philipp

    2010-07-01

    The science about deep Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) is still an emerging process and for further spreading economics is the key of the technology. To understand the financial situation, a program for economic evaluation was developed. This software (Euronaut) is completely modularized and considers all cash flows. Projects like an EGS are wrapped into tree-like structures. Based on the results which were gained at Soultz-sous-Forêts, two configurations were designed. The first EGS configuration consists of a simplified two well (doublet) system where the dependencies of all components (mainly the reservoir, wells, pumps and the heat-to-power conversion unit) are physically and economically linked together. The realization of these dependencies and their complex interactions enable a sensitivity analysis of the borehole depth and reservoir depth, respectively. As a result, depth dependent effective costs and revenues of an EGS plant with the geohydrological characteristics of Soultz-sous-Forêts are determined. As a future development, the second configuration will adapt the actual situation at Soultz-sous-Forêts with the individual features of all four wells (GPK1 - GPK4). Then, this model can be used for all kinds of sensitivity analyses to clarify the impact of certain components or to optimize the operation scheme; e.g. the flow rates.

  14. Improvement of thermal conductivity of ceramic matrix composites for 4. generation nuclear reactors; Amelioration de la conductivite thermique des composites a matrice ceramique pour les reacteurs de 4. generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrero, J.

    2009-11-15

    This study deals with thermal conductivity improvement of SiCf/SiC ceramic matrix composites materials to be used as cladding material in 4. generation nuclear reactor. The purpose of the study is to develop a composite for which both the temperature and irradiation effect is less pronounced on thermal conductivity of material than for SiC. This material will be used as matrix in CMC with SiC fibers. Some TiC-SiC composites with different SiC volume contents were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The sintering process enables to fabricate specimens very fast, with a very fine microstructure and without any sintering aids. Neutron irradiation has been simulated using heavy ions, at room temperature and at 500 C. Evolution of the thermal properties of irradiated materials is measured using modulated photothermal IR radiometry experiment and was related to structural evolution as function of dose and temperature. It appears that such approach is reliable to evaluate TiC potentiality as matrix in CMC. Finally, CMC with TiC matrix and SiC fibers were fabricated and both mechanical and thermal properties were measured and compare to SiCf/SiC CMC. (author)

  15. Sous l’empire de la folie : Moby-Dick, Shakespeare & compagnie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Imbert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at translating Moby-Dick back into Shakespeare’s ornate lingo, and back again into a Swiftian or Sternian brand of “jabberwocky,” in order to expose the sheer nonsense that underlies lame attempts at standing for the Body Politic called Leviathan, understanding it, or making sense of the whale as a whole.Melville emprunte à Shakespeare le motif de la volonté de puissance, du rêve d’empire sous l’emprise de la folie du pouvoir. Le drame d’Achab est de s’ériger en maître absolu face au Leviathan et de s’ignorer possédé par la folle du logis, l’hysterica passio qui habite Lear et qui lui souffle, dans tous les sens du terme, son rêve dément de domination. L’histoire cherche à se répéter sur le modèle des tragédies de Shakespeare mais finit par dégénérer en farce. Le délire de Pip achève de la faire sombrer dans le non-sens.

  16. Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in sous-vide processed marinated chicken breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyotis, Dimitrios; Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Juneja, Vijay K

    2017-10-01

    The heat resistance of a cocktail of five Salmonella strains and five L. monocytogenes strains was determined in teriyaki-marinated chicken breasts. Inoculated meat, packaged in bags, were completely immersed in a circulating water bath and cooked to a final temperature of 55, 57.5 or 60°C in 1h, and then held for predetermined times. The surviving Salmonella and L. monocytogenes cells were enumerated by surface plating on XLD agar and Palcam agar, respectively. D-values, determined by linear regression, of Salmonella in chicken breast ranged from 47.65min at 55°C to 7.48min at 60°C; the values for L. monocytogenes ranged from 54.81min at 55°C to 10.39min at 60°C. Marination rendered the pathogen more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. The results of this study will assist the food industry in ensuring microbiological safety of sous-vide processed marinated chicken breasts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Etude de conception d’une traversée sous vide 30 kV

    CERN Document Server

    Prost, A

    2011-01-01

    Dans le cadre de la construction du nouveau distributeur à ferrites BIDIS situé dans la ligne de transfert du Linac4 vers l’injecteur Booster du complexe PS, il est nécessaire de réaliser un nouveau développement de traversée haute tension pour assurer l’alimentation de ces septa sous vide. De manière à éviter toute pollution des enceintes de l’accélérateur en cas de fuite de vide, il a été choisi de développer une traversée n’utilisant ni liquide, ni gaz isolant. Cette technologie nous incite à faire une étude de design plus poussée, dans le choix des formes géométriques des pièces constituant ces traversées, ainsi que des distances à respecter entre les différentes parties soumises à la haute tension, afin d’éviter tous claquages ou apparition de courant limitant la tenue à la haute tension.

  18. Shelf Life of Chicken Meat Balls Submitted to Sous Vide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖP Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the appropriate temperature for processing storage of chicken meatballs made of minced chicken meat with the sous vide method. The chicken meatballs were prepared and separated into four experimental groups according to the application of heat treatment (10 and 20 minutes and storage time (+2 and +10°C. Sensory, microbiological (total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total psychrotrophs, lactic acidbacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridiumperfringens, Listeria spp., chemical (pH, thiobarbituric acid, color (L*, a*, b* values, and texture profile analyses were performed on meatball samples. Cl. perfringens and Listeria spp. were not detected in meatball samples during the storage period. Samples cooked at 10 minute and stored at +2°C the highest count of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (p<0.05. For lipid oxidation, interaction was observed between cooking time and storage temperature, with higher TBARs values for samples stored at 10 °C, while cooking time and storage temperature showed no influence on the color and textural analysis parameters. For the treatments evaluated, cooking time x storage temperature seem affect more microbiological and chemical parameters than color and textural parameters of chicken meatballs.

  19. Spoilage of sous vide cooked salmon (Salmo salar) stored under refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Garrido, M D; Bañón, S

    2011-02-01

    The spoilage of Sous Vide 'SV' cooked salmon stored under refrigeration was studied. Samples were packaged under vacuum in polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked at an oven temperature/time of 80 (°)C/45 min, quickly chilled at 3 (°)C and stored at 2 (°)C for 0, 5 or 10 weeks for catering use. Microbial (aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, acidity, L*a*b* color, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, odor, flavor, texture and overall quality) parameters were determined. SV processing prevented the growth of aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae. There were no relevant changes in pH, water activity, TBARS, CIELab color associated with cooked salmon spoilage. Instrumental texture data were contradictory. Slight decrease in lactic acid levels was found. In contrast, the SV cooked salmon suffered considerable sensory deterioration during its refrigerated storage, consisting of severe losses of cooked salmon odor and flavor, slight rancidity, discoloration associated with white precipitation, and moderates softness, and loss of chewiness and juiciness. No acidification, putrefaction or relevant rancidity was detected. The sensory spoilage preceded microbiological and physical-chemical spoilage, suggesting that microbiological quality alone may overestimate the shelf life of SV cooked salmon.

  20. Effect of salt addition on sous vide cooked whole beef muscles from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudagna, S R; Pazos, A A; Guidi, S M; Sanchez, G; Carp, D J; Gonzalez, C B

    2008-07-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl, 0-1.4%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP, 0-0.5%) were added to Semitendinosus muscles and submitted to sous vide cooking at different temperatures (55-75°C). The effects of these three factors on pH, cooking loss, instrumental colour parameters, protein solubilization and distribution, and micro- and ultra-structure were evaluated. Quadratic surface responses equations were obtained from data (pH, cooking loss and colour parameters) as a function of the salts concentrations and cooking temperature. Both salts - alone or in combination - successfully reduced cooking loss. The best results were obtained for the combinations 0.25%STPP+1.20%NaCl and 0.25%STPP+0.70%NaCl, and temperatures between 60 and 65°C. Under these conditions, cooking loss was reduced close to 0%. pH was only dependent on STPP concentration, with a threshold concentration value of 0.25%. Temperature increment and NaCl addition produced a redness reduction. STPP incorporation recovered partially this parameter in comparison to non-added samples. Microscopy and SDS-PAGE results support the effect of the selected combinations of factors, suggesting that both salts together induced protein solubilization and gelation upon heating.

  1. Development of a convenience and safety chilled sous vide fish dish: Diversification of aquacultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, M C; López, G; Díaz, P; Linares, M B; Garrido, M D

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic expansion of the ready-to-eat seabream sector in its adaptation to new lifestyles has led to the search for new presentation formats in seabream (Sparus aurata). Green sauce (olive oil, wine vinegar, garlic, fresh parsley, black pepper, basil and salt) and 60 ℃ of cooking temperature were chosen by the panellists for the sous vide cooking process. Seabream fillet and sauce were packaged in polypropylene trays, cooked, chilled and stored at 2 ℃. Microbiological (total viable counts,Enterobacteriaceae,lactic acid bacteria, anaerobic psychrotrophic, moulds and yeasts, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes), chemical (pH and TBARs) and sensory parameters were determined at 0, 7, 17, 34, 48 and 62 days. In the conditions used, the microbiological counts remained stable, and Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were absent. The acidic sauce had a positive effect on the pH of the product, and low TBARs were obtained throughout storage. The processing conditions used in the present study allowed a chilled ready-to-eat seabream product of consistently high quality up to 62 days of storage to be obtained, representing an expansion of the products offered by the aquacultural industry. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Sigand : une application SIG sous androïd (tablette de la gestion des chantiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAKIB SAFAR BATI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L’introduction de données terrain pour les études environnementales ou de gestion de l’espace, régionales ou locales est une nécessité incontournable pour la validation des traitements et des interprétations mais aussi pour fournir des compléments d’informations aux divers travaux. Mais ce retour terrain est également de plus en plus demandé pour les gestionnaires de chantiers et de projets qui ont une exigence de contrôle ou de suivi et donc d’une information temps réel sur l’avancement des travaux, autrement pour introduire de nouvelles informations sur la base de données géoréférencées. Les avancées technologiques en matière de manipulation de l’information géographique (GPS, tablette graphique, téléphone portable, réalité augmentée permettent d’espérer la mise à dispositiondes professionnels, voire d’un plus large public, des outils adéquats pour de tels travaux. Actuellement, les outils d’élaboration, de gestion et d’exploitation des bases de données géographiques (solutions SIG ne sont pas encore complètement opérationnels en version « tablette » ; des applications telles que Qgis ou ArcGis sous Androïd attendent encore des développements. Nous présentons ici la première version d’une application SIG sous Androïd (disponible sur tablette pour la gestion en temps réel des chantiers qui permet de charger des couches vectorielles et de les mettre à jour sur le terrain en fonction de l’observation directe ; les couches (préalablement géoréférencées sont projetées sur des fonds cartographiques fournis par un serveur cartographique Google Maps (Route, Satellite, terrain; dans le cas d’absence de connexion internet, le fond cartographique est ramené d’un cache. Nous utilisons SpatialiteAndroïd pour le stockage et la manipulation des données géographiques. Le contrôleur de cartes Google Maps est employé pour afficher en mode cartographique les données stockées dans

  3. European HDR research programme at Soultz-sous-Forets (France) 1987-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baria, R.; Baumgaertner, J.; Gerard, A. [SOCOMINE, Projet Geothermique, Soultz-sous-Forets (France); Jung, R. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Garnish, J. [DGXII, European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    1999-10-01

    The site at Soultz-sous-Forets (France) has been selected as the future European HDR research site (Garnish, J., Baria, R., Baumgaertner, J., Gerard, A., 1994. GRC Trans. 18, 431-438; Baria, R., 1990. Proceedings of Camborne School of Mines. International HDR Conference, June 1989, p. 613. Robertson Scientific Publications, London). Since 1987, extensive testing of the underground has been carried out using a single well (GPK1), initially to a depth of 2000 m and then to a depth of around 3590 m. From 1995 onwards the testing of the underground has utilized two deep wells. The hydraulic tests carried out in 1993-1994 demonstrated the potential of the site as a future European Scientific Prototype. In particular, the tests showed that in the Rhine graben the fracture network in the basement is well-developed, with a degree of permeability. While some minor fluid movement occurs naturally, hydraulic simulation has been shown to increase substantially the overall transmissivity. The Soultz site has been used for testing a modified or alternative facet of the concept of HDR developed in recent years. The geological setting also offers other advantages in terms of relatively low stimulation pressures, a characteristic that may simplify the task of developing a promising circulation system. A second deep well (GPK2) was drilled late in 1994, with the aim of developing circulation between the two deep wells. In 1995, GPK2 was stimulated for the first time and a short circulation test was attempted between the two deep wells. During 1996, GPK2 was stimulated again using higher flow rates to improve the injectivity further. It is planned to install the necessary infrastructure to carry out, during 1997, a 4-month circulation test at around 25 kg/s, using a downhole pump to produce from GPK2 and reinjecting the produced fluid into GPK1.

  4. Induced seismicity in EGS reservoir : analysis of persistent multiplets at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchie, Léna; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Abundant seismicity is generally observed during the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs, especially during phases of hydraulic stimulations. At the Enhanced Geothermal System of Soultz-Sous-Forêts in France, the induced seismicity has been thoroughly studied over the years of exploitation and the mechanism at its origin has been related to both fluid pressure increase during stimulation and aseismic creeping movements. The fluid-induced seismic events often exhibit a high degree of similarity and the mechanism at the origin of these repeated events is thought to be associated with slow slip process where asperities on the rupture zone act several times. In order to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms associated with such events and on the damaged zones involved during the hydraulic stimulations, we investigate the behaviour of the multiplets and their persistent nature, if it prevails, over several water injection intervals. For this purpose, we analysed large datasets recorded from a downhole seismic network for several water injection periods (1993, 2000, …). For each stimulation interval, thousands of events are recorded at depth. We detected the events using the continuous kurtosis-based migration method and classified them into families of comparable waveforms using an approach based on cross-correlation analysis. We obtain precise relative locations of the multiplets using differential arrival times obtained through cross-correlation of similar waveforms. Finally, the properties of the similar fluid-induced seismic events are derived (magnitude, spectral content) and examined over the several hydraulic tests. Hopefully these steps will lead to a better understanding of the repetitive nature of these events and the investigation of their persistence will outline the heterogeneities of the structures (temperatures anomalies, regional stress perturbations, fluid flow channelling) regularly involved during the different stimulations.

  5. Fracture mapping in the Soultz-sous-Forêts geothermal field using microearthquake locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Sophie; ToksöZ, M. Nafi

    2007-07-01

    In 2003, a massive hydraulic fracturing experiment was carried out at the European Geothermal Hot Dry Rock site at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France. The 2 week injection of water generated a high level of microseismic activity, triggering about 90,000 microearthquakes during and after the fluid injection. Of these, 21,000 events, detected at all stations, were located individually with a grid search algorithm to characterize the extent of the seismic zones and ultimately of the fracture network. The accuracy of these initial locations was around 70 m, not sufficient to map detailed fracture patterns. A precise relocation effort was undertaken to reduce the location uncertainties using three different techniques: joint hypocenter determination (JHD), collapsing and multiplet analysis. The collapsing method was added to the JHD results to further consolidate the hypocenters. On the other hand, a multiplet analysis was performed on the initial data set for identifying microearthquakes with similar waveforms and hence relocating relatively the correlated events. The delays in traveltime were computed by wavelet analysis and the events were relocated using a grid search algorithm. We found 7463 events whose seismograms correlated with a correlation coefficient of 0.8 or higher, most of which were doublets. Multiplets are horizontal tube-like structures with lengths from a hundred to several hundred meters striking along the direction of the maximum compressive horizontal stress. We interpret these structures as the preferential paths where fluid flow is largely confined. This hypothesis is reinforced by the good correlation in depth between the events and the fluid outflows observed in the well. Therefore we believe that these relocated events highlight the zones where the permeability of the reservoir is increased.

  6. Nutritional advantages of sous-vide cooking compared to boiling on cereals and legumes: Determination of ashes and metals content in ready-to-eat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Daglia, Maria; Meneghini, Silvia; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Peroni, Gabriella; Faliva, Milena Anna; Perna, Simone

    2017-05-01

    In order to guarantee the highest quality of ready-to-eat cereals and legumes, two different cooking methods have been applied: traditional cooking and sous-vide. Ashes and metals content (magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc, and copper) has been determined and compared in 50 samples of red lentils, peas, Borlotti beans, pearl barley, and cereals soup. All the samples cooked with sous-vide showed a significant increase in the content of minerals with the exception of potassium in cereal soup, iron in Borlotti beans, and magnesium in pearl barley. Ash content increased in legumes and in cereal soup cooked with sous-vide method. The higher different ashes concentration between total samples cooked with traditional cooking and with sous-vide was registered in zinc (+862 mg), iron (+314 mg), potassium (+109 mg), and copper (+95 mg). Sous-vide is preferred as it provides products with a higher concentration of metals compared to the ones cooked with traditional cooking.

  7. Alternative Submarine Watch Systems: Recommendation for a New CF Submarine Watch Schedule (Systemes Differents d’Horaire de Garde a Bord des Sous-Marins: Nouvel Horaire Recommande Pour les Sous-Marins des FC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    certains horaires peuvent nuire au sommeil et hypothéquer le rendement au travail. L’évaluation des horaires de garde à bord des sous-marins des FC...réalisée en 2007 a révélé des problèmes chroniques de sommeil et des niveaux dangereusement faibles d’efficacité cognitive chez les membres de l’équipage...du sommeil , le groupe de chercheurs a évalué trois horaires de garde différents, soit l’horaire à 1 tour sur trois de huit heures exigeant trois

  8. Protection biologique contre ravageurs aériens sur tomate sous abris : compte-rendu d'essai 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Mazollier, Catherine; Lambion, Jérôme; Ranc, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    En agriculture biologique, les moyens de protection contre les ravageurs aériens sont coûteux et leur efficacité est parfois insuffisante. La pratique des brumisations sous abris réduit les températures et augmente l’hygrométrie, et peut améliorer la protection contre l’acarien Tetranychus urticae, comme l'ont montré les essais du GRAB conduits de 2002 à 2004 sur melon, aubergine et concombre. Cet essai a pour objectif d’étudier l’intérêt de la brumisation et de la lutte biologique contre l'e...

  9. Tumeur sous scapulaire: élastofibrome dorsal bilatéral à propos d'un cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlimi, Meriem; Boukind, Samira; Elatiqi, Oumkeltoum; Elamrani, Driss; Benchamkha, Yassine; Ettalbi, Saloua

    2015-01-01

    L’élastofibrome dorsal est une tumeur bénigne rare des parties molles siégeant typiquement sous la pointe de la scapula. Nous rapportons notre observation; pour préciser les caractéristiques cliniques et paracliniques de ce type de tumeur ainsi que les modalités de prise en charge; cette entité gagnerait à être connue par tout praticien; pour permettre une attitude thérapeutique bien codifiée. PMID:26405479

  10. Faulting mechanisms and stress regime at the European HDR site of Soultz-sous-Forets, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenot, Nicolas; Charlety, Jean; Haessler, Henri [Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre (IPGS-EOST), 5 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Dorbath, Louis [Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre (IPGS-EOST), 5 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Laboratoire des Mecanismes et Transferts en Geologie (IRD, LMTG), 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2006-10-15

    The state of stress and its implications for shear on fault planes during fluid injection are crucial issues for the HDR (Hot Dry Rock) or EGS (Enhanced or Engineered Geothermal System) concept. This is especially true for hydraulic stimulation experiments, aimed at enhancing the connectivity of a borehole to the natural fracture network, since they tend to induce the shearing of fractures, which is controlled by the local stress regime. During the 2000 and 2003 stimulation tests at Soultz-sous-Forets, France, about 10,000 microearthquakes were located with a surface seismological network. Hundreds of double-couple (DC) focal mechanisms were automatically determined from first-motion polarities using the FPFIT program [Reasenberg, P.A., Oppenheimer, D., 1985. FPFIT, FPPLOT and FPPAGE: Fortran computer programs for calculating and displaying earthquake fault-plane solutions. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 85-739, 25 pp.]. The majority of these mechanisms indicate normal-faulting movement with a more or less pronounced strike-slip component. Some quasi-pure strike-slip events also occurred, especially in the deeper part of the stimulated rock volume, at more than 5 km depth. Although we found a double-couple solution for all events, we tried to observe and quantify the proportion of the non-double-couple (NDC) component in the seismic moment tensor for several microseisms from the 2003 data. The study shows that the NDC is higher for the events in the vicinity of the injection well than for the events far from the well. We used the method of Rivera and Cisternas [Rivera, L., Cisternas, A., 1990. Stress tensor and fault-plane solutions for a population of earthquakes. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 80, 600-614.] to perform the inversion of the deviatoric part of the stress tensor from P-wave polarities. This method was applied to different datasets from the 2000 test, taken from the shallower and deeper parts of the stimulated region. The results show a stable

  11. Influence of Sous Vide and water immersion processing on polyacetylene content and instrumental color of parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Ashish; Koidis, Anastasios; Rai, Dilip K; Tuohy, Maria; Brunton, Nigel

    2010-07-14

    The effect of blanching (95 +/- 3 degrees C) followed by sous vide (SV) processing (90 degrees C for 10 min) on levels of two polyacetylenes in parsnip disks immediately after processing and during chill storage was studied and compared with the effect of water immersion (WI) processing (70 degrees C for 2 min.). Blanching had the greatest influence on the retention of polyacetylenes in sous vide processed parsnip disks resulting in significant decreases of 24.5 and 24% of falcarinol (1) and falcarindiol (2) respectively (p 0.05). 1 levels in WI processed samples were significantly higher than in SV samples (p

  12. Mechanisms of induced conductivity in polyvinylidene fluoride irradiated by X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, R. M.

    1992-10-01

    Prompt and delayed components of conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) samples induced by continuous irradiation of X-rays were measured under vacuum. The prompt component was composed of two distinct parts, classified as instantaneous radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) and time-dependent evolution of the RIC. With the help of thermally stimulated current measurements carried out with both virgin and irradiated samples, which indicated the existence of deep-trap levels in the material, we developed a model of kinetics of the carriers to explain the time-evolution of the RIC. Hot electrons generated by irradiation ware considered as responsible for the instantaneous part of the RIC. We also showed that the electrodes had a nonblocking behaviour during the electrical current measurements under irradiation, while the external electric field caused the generated carriers to drift out of the sample. Nous avons mesuré sous vide la conductivité induite due à la radiation des rayons X sur des échantillons de poly(fluorure de vinylidène), pendant et après irradiation (composante retardée). Pendant l'irradiation la conductivité induite est formée de deux différentes parties : l'une est la conductivité instantanée, et l'autre est une fonction croissante avec le temps. Grâce à la méthode du courant stimulé par la température, exécutée sur des échantillons vierges d'une part, et irradiés d'autre part, nous avons conclu à l'existence de niveaux de pièges profonds dans le matériau. Nous avons par la suite développé un modèle de cinétique des porteurs qui explique l'évolution avec le temps de la conductivité induite. Les électrons chauds créés par la radiation ont été considérés comme responsables de la conductivité induite instantanée. Nous montrons aussi que les électrodes sont non-bloquées pendant les mesures de courant électrique sous irradiation, alors que le champ électrique appliqué rejette les porteurs hors de l'échantillon.

  13. Food irradiation makes progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooij, J. van (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses.

  14. Change in physical and chemical characteristics related to the binomial time-temperature used in sous pasteurization see Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C.A. Kato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate sous vide fish and assess the influence of time and temperature on the pasteurization process through quality parameters. The raw material (tambaqui fillets and the sous vide underwent physical, physicochemical, and microbiological analyses. A sauce was prepared containing soy sauce, water, horseradish and garlic flakes. The product's pasteurization parameters of time and temperature were defined according to a 22 central composite rotatable design (CCRD, and the dependent variables were water holding capacity (WHC and instrumental texture aiming at obtaining high WHC values for the product to maintain the desired juiciness. The microbiological analysis required by legislation have indicated that the fish fillets and sous vide were within de standard. The values of total coliforms found in the samples (fillets and sous vide analyzed were below the critical level of 10² CFU/g. The counts of sulphite-reducing clostridia and psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria on plates in the samples were <1x10 CFU/g. In conclusion, temperature was the most important factor in the pasteurization process, significantly contributing to the quality of the final product. The mathematical models proposed were considered predictive for each response.

  15. Food irradiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, L.

    1986-08-01

    The paper concerns food irradiation in The People's Republic of China. Its use is envisaged to prolong storage times and to improve the quality of specific foodstuffs. Commercialisation in China, demonstration plants, seasonal shortages and losses, Shanghai irradiation centre, health and safety approval, prospects for wider applications and worldwide use of food irradiation, are all discussed.

  16. Solid state synthesis and sintering of monazite-type ceramics: application to minor actinides conditioning; Synthese par voie solide et frittage de ceramiques a structure monazite. Application au conditionnement des actinides mineurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregiroux, D

    2005-11-15

    In the framework of the French law of 1991 concerning the nuclear waste management, several studies are undertaken to develop specific crystalline conditioning matrices. Monazite, a rare earth (TR{sup 3+}) orthophosphate with a general formula TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4}, is a natural mineral containing significant amount of thorium and uranium. Monazite has been proposed as a host matrix for the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) specific conditioning, thanks to its high resistance to self irradiation and its low solubility. Its is now of prime importance to check the conservation of these properties on synthesized materials, which implies to master all the stages of the elaboration process, from the powder synthesis to the sintering of controlled microstructure pellets. This work can be divided into two main parts: The first part deals with the synthesis by high temperature solid state route of TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} powders (with TR{sup 3+} = La{sup 3+} to Gd{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+}). The chemical reactions occurring during the firing of starting reagents are described in the case of monazite with only one or several cations. From these results, a protocol of synthesis is described. The incorporation of tetravalent cations (Ce{sup 4+}, U{sup 4+}, Pu{sup 4+}) in the monazite structure was also studied. The second part of the present work deals with the elaboration of controlled density and microstructure monazite pellets and their related mechanical and thermal properties. The study of crushing and sintering is presented. For the first time, experimental results are confronted with theoretical models in order to deduce the densification and grain growth mechanisms. By the comprehension of the various physicochemical phenomena occurring during the various stages of the monazite pellets elaboration process (powder synthesis, crushing, sintering...), this work allowed the development of a protocol of elaboration of controlled microstructure monazite TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4

  17. Les images en géographie sous l’angledes humanités numériques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Hallair

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available L’article présente une méthodologie pour conserver, stocker, inventorier, archiver, numériser, indexer, valoriser et diffuser des archives géographiques sous l’angle des Digital humanities. L’article applique cette méthodologie aux images en géographie avant de présenter un projet de plate-forme documentaire concernant les plaques de verres du fonds Emmanuel de Martonne hébergées actuellement par l’UMR CNRS 8586 PRODIG.This article points out the methodology of Digital humanities to preserve, to stock, to make an inventory, to digitize, to index, to enhance the value und to spread geographical archives. It applies this methodology to geographical visual documents and presents a database project about photographic plates of the Emmanuel de Martonne’s collection localised in the research center PRODIG (UMR CNRS 8586.

  18. Influence of Citric Acid on the Pink Color and Characteristics of Sous Vide Processed Chicken Breasts During Chill Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Han; Hong, Go-Eun; Lim, Ki-Won; Park, Woojoon; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Chicken breast dipped with citric acid (CA) was treated by sous vide processing and stored in a refrigerated state for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 14 d. A non-dipped control group (CON) and three groups dipped in different concentrations of citric acid concentration were analyzed (0.5%, 0.5CIT; 2.0%, 2CIT and 5.0%, 5CIT; w/v). Cooking yield and moisture content increased due to the citric acid. While the redness of the juice and meat in all groups showed significant increase during storage, the redness of the citric acid groups was reduced compared to the control group (psous vide chicken breast at 2% and 5% citric acid concentrations.

  19. Effect of different temperature-time combinations on lipid and protein oxidation of sous-vide cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Armenteros, Monica; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-04-15

    Forty-five lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) and time (6, 12 and 24 h) to assess the effect on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins. Heating induced both lipid and protein oxidation in lamb loins. Higher cooking temperature-time combinations increased conjugated dienes and decreased thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) values and hexanal. Total protein carbonyls increased throughout time at all cooking temperatures considered, while α-aminoadipic (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (GGS) increased when cooking at 60 °C but not at 80 °C. Links between the decrease in secondary compounds from lipid oxidation due to cooking at higher temperatures and for longer times with the increased levels of 3-methylbutanal and greater differences between total protein carbonyls and AAS plus GGS were hypothesised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contribution à l'utilisation de sous-produits industriels : application au cas du phosphogypse de Sfax ( Tunisie)

    OpenAIRE

    Rouis, Badreddine

    1991-01-01

    Le travail exposé dans ce mémoire est une approche pour la réutilisation d'un sous produit industriel: Le PHOSPHOGYPSE. Nous avons commencé par un rappel du cadre géo-politique de cette étude en précisant l'origine du matériau, son mode de stockage et son incidence sur l'environnement de la ville de SFAX (Tunisie). En deuxième partie, nous avons étudié la possibilité de l'utilisation du phosphogypse en remblai en effectuant une série d'essais géotechniques dont le paramètre principal est la t...

  1. Survival characteristics and the applicability of predictive mathematical modelling to Listeria monocytogenes growth in sous vide products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyati, H

    2000-06-01

    Survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes isolates during sous vide processing and storage, and the applicability of predictive modelling in determining the potential for growth of L. monocytogenes in broth models and in sous vide products was investigated. L. monocytogenes grew in anaerobic tryptose phosphate broth and in chicken and beef samples by 2 log cycles in 8 days at 3 degrees C and 4-5 log cycles in 6 days at 8 degrees C. However, heating to an internal temperature of 70 degrees C resulted in a 4-5 log reduction and 70 degrees C/2 min resulted in a reduction greater than 7 log cycles. Lowering the product pH to 5.0 was effective in inhibiting L. monocytogenes growth, whereas a sodium chloride concentration of 2% had a negligible effect on growth rates. The square root model (Ratkowsky et al., 1983) predicted L. monocytogenes growth rates at 0-25 degrees C with a coefficient of determination (R2 value) of 98.36-99.63% and a bias factor of 1.08 to 1.21 in beef, chicken and broth substrates of unmodified pH. In addition, the Response Surface Polynomial Model (Version 3.1, Buchanan et al., 1989) predicted generation times at 5-25 degrees C with a 0-17.4% difference between observed and expected generation times in tryptose phosphate broth at pH 7.3. There were however, large differences (25.5 vs. 5.3 h) between observed generation times at pH 5.6 (8 degrees C) and those predicted by the Pathogen Modelling Program in tryptose phosphate broth. A divergence from predicted values was also noted at lower temperatures (0-3.5 degrees C) in the square root model.

  2. Alteration mechanisms of UOX spent fuel in aqueous media; Mecanismes d'alteration sous eau du combustible irradie de type UOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzeau, B

    2007-06-15

    The mechanisms of underwater alteration of spent fuels need to be understood on the assumption of a direct disposal of the assemblies in a geological formation or for long duration storage in pool. This work is a contribution to the study of the effects of the alpha and/or beta/gamma radiolysis of water on the oxidation and the dissolution of the UO{sub 2} matrix of UOX spent fuel. The effects of the alpha radiolysis, predominant in geological disposal conditions, were quantified using samples of UO{sub 2} doped with plutonium. The leaching experiments highlighted two types of control for the matrix alteration according to the alpha activity. The first is based on the radiolytic oxidation of the surface and leads to a continuous release of uranium in solution whereas the second is based on a control by the solubility of uranium. An activity threshold, located between 18 MBq/g and 33 MBq/g, was defined in a carbonated water. The value of this threshold is dependent on the experimental conditions and the presence or not of electro-active species such as hydrogen in the system. The effects of the alpha/beta/gamma radiolysis in relation with the storage conditions were also quantified. The experimental data obtained on spent fuel indicate that the alteration rate of the matrix based on the behaviour of tracer elements (caesium and strontium) reached a maximum value of some mg.m{sup -2}.d{sup -1}, even under very oxidizing conditions. The solubility of uranium and the nature of the secondary phases depend however on the extent of the oxidizing conditions. (author)

  3. Alteration mechanisms of UOX spent fuel under water; Mecanismes d'alteration sous eau du combustible irradie de type UOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzeau, B

    2008-06-15

    The mechanisms of spent fuel alteration in aqueous media need to be understood on the assumption of a direct disposal of the assemblies in a geological formation or for long duration storage in pool. This work is a contribution to the study of the effects of the alpha and/or beta/gamma radiolysis of water on the oxidation and the dissolution of the UO{sub 2} matrix of UOX spent fuel. The effects of the alpha radiolysis, predominant in geological disposal conditions, were quantified by using samples of UO{sub 2} doped with plutonium. The leaching experiments highlighted two types of control for the matrix alteration according to the alpha activity. The first is based on the radiolytic oxidation of the surface and leads to a continuous release of uranium in solution whereas the second is based on a control by the solubility of uranium. An activity threshold, between 18 MBq.g{sup -1} and 33 MBq.g{sup -1}, was defined in a carbonated water. The value of this threshold is dependent on the experimental conditions and the presence or not of electro-active species such as hydrogen in the system. The effects of the alpha/beta/gamma radiolysis in relation with the storage conditions were also quantified. The experimental data obtained on spent fuel indicate that the alteration rate of the matrix based on the behaviour of tracer elements (caesium and strontium) reached a maximum value of some mg.m{sup -2}.d{sup -1}, even under very oxidizing conditions. The solubility of uranium and the nature of the secondary phases depend however on the extent of the oxidizing conditions. (author)

  4. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  5. The effects of sous-vide cooking parameters on texture and cell wall modifications in two apple cultivars: A response surface methodology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Abel; Le Meurlay, Dominique; Lara, Isabel; Symoneaux, Ronan; Madieta, Emmanuel; Mehinagic, Emira

    2017-03-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the effects of sous-vide cooking parameters, such as time and temperature and their interactions, on textural attributes of 'Mondial Gala' and 'Granny Smith' apple cultivars. For this, different response surface methodology-based models were developed. This methodology proved a suitable means for the assessment of changes in textural parameters and cell wall modifications during the processing of apples. 'Mondial Gala' fruit displayed better aptitude for the preservation of textural properties after high-temperature processing conditions and were therefore apparently more suited to sous-vide cooking than 'Granny Smith' apples. Pectin methylesterase activity levels in 'Mondial Gala' apples were enhanced at mild temperatures and pectins in this cultivar displayed a lower degree of methylation. Therefore, the establishment of calcium-mediated linkages between cell wall polymers might have been favoured in 'Mondial Gala' apples, thus reinforcing tissues and improving the preservation of textural attributes, in comparison to 'Granny Smith' samples.

  6. Factors influencing resuscitation and growth of heat injured Listeria monocytogenes 13-249 in sous vide cooked beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T B; Knøchel, S

    2001-01-22

    The growth of Listeria monocytogenes 13-249 in vacuum-packed, minced beef was investigated as a function of degree of heat injury (including no injury i.e. uncooked beef), growth phase (logarithmic and late stationary phase), pH (5.6 and 6.2), and storage temperature (3, 10 and 20 degrees C) during a storage period of 30 days. Late logarithmic and late stationary phase cultures of L. monocytogenes 13-249 showed similar growth in refrigerated, vacuum-packed, raw minced beef with a high pH (6.2). In normal pH (5.6) beef there was no growth at 3 degrees C while growth at 10 and 20 degrees C was only observed for logarithmic phase cultures. Heat injured late stationary phase cultures with 95-99.9% injured cells in the surviving population (as measured by differential plating on enriched vs. selective media after sous vide cooking) did not grow or repair sublethal injuries in sous vide cooked beef at 3 degrees C while repair and growth took place at 10 as well as at 20 degrees C. In logarithmic phase cultures heat injury occurred very rapidly and > or = 99.9% heat injury was observed in all trials in spite of much lower pasteurization values and fewer log10 reductions compared with late stationary phase cultures. Regardless of growth phase, all cultures where a high degree of heat injury (> or = 99.9%) was observed, did not subsequently grow in the beef product at 3 or 10 degrees C within 30 days. Growth of heat injured cultures preexposed to heat shock (46 degrees C, 30 min) or slowly rising temperatures (0.3 degrees C min(-1)) before heat injury was also investigated. Heat shocked or heat adapted cultures generally responded in the same manner as non-stressed cultures (no growth at 3 degrees C) except that a longer lag phase was observed in beef processed at slowly rising temperatures and in normal pH beef at 10 degrees C. Although processing at slowly rising temperatures may slightly increase the survival of L. monocytogenes 13-249 in cooked beef, there seem to be no

  7. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  8. Microbial, physical-chemical and sensory spoilage during the refrigerated storage of cooked pork loin processed by the sous vide method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pedro; Nieto, Gema; Garrido, María Dolores; Bañón, Sancho

    2008-10-01

    The aim was to study spoilage during the refrigerated storage of cooked pork loin processed by the sous vide method. Samples were packaged under vacuum into polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked at an oven temperature/time of 70°C/12h, chilled at 3°C and stored at 2°C for 0, 5 or 10 weeks. Microbial (psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, acidity, L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) colour, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, odour, flavour, texture and acceptance) parameters were determined. The results showed that sensory spoilage preceded microbiological spoilage of sous vide pork loin. Counts bellow 1logcfu/g of psychrotrophs, anaerobic psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria were detected in any control week, while moderate counts (2-3logcfu/g) of moulds and yeasts were found. Minor changes in water activity, lipid oxidation, CIELab colour, hardness, cohesiveness or gumminess were associated with spoilage of pork loin, only decreases of lactic acid, springiness and shear force were observed. The pork loin was unacceptable after 10 weeks. This loss of acceptance was mainly due to the deterioration of meaty flavour and odour, although the loss of appearance, juiciness and firmness also contributed. Moderate warmed-over and rancidity were detected. The sensory analysis was the most effective method for determining the shelf life of the sous vide pork-based dishes.

  9. Infrared radiant ceramic plaques; Plaques radiantes ceramiques a infrarouge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-05-01

    Infrared plaques developed by MORGAN MATROC can now produce radiant heat from both natural and bottled gas with substantially lower NOx levels, and greater fuel efficiency and cleanliness, than other mass produced gas burning systems. The properties of this ceramic system, in particular very low thermal conductivity, allied to the infrared process for heat conversion, result in efficient radiation of energy. Morgan Matroc now claims half of the world-wide market of infrared plaque. (authors)

  10. Amorphization of α-Quartz under Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, L.; Duraud, J. P.

    1996-12-01

    The course of radiation induced damage produced in α-quartz by neutrons, ions, electrons or photons — commonly known as metamictization — has been re-analyzed by careful comparison of available experimental data. Specific interest was devoted to confront experimental metamict state features with current structural models. It comes out that the metamict state of irradiated quartz should exhibit some structural characteristics of the modulated structure proposed for vitreous silica. The metamictization process is consistent with a structural relaxation process of a highly defective quartz matrix. According to this new point defect analysis, structural relaxation should be triggered by a critical concentration of oxygen vacancy point defects likely to significantly lower the connectivity of the SiO{2} network. Various experimental results are interpreted by incorporating the influence of the SiO{2} crystalline polymorph and the influence of the nature of the irradiating particle to the point defect model. Nous avons étudié les modifications de propriétés et de structures de monocristaux de quartz α, consécutives à une irradiation sévère par des neutrons, des ions, des électrons ou des photons. Ce phénomène d'altération du quartz sous irradiation porte le nom de métamictisation. Notre travail exploite les recoupements de travaux antérieurs. Une attention particulière a été portée à la confrontation entre les données structurales expérimentales disponibles sur l'état métamicte du quartz et les modèles structuraux proposés. L'état métamicte du quartz présente ainsi les caractéristiques structurales du modèle de structure modulée, avancé pour décrire la structure de la silice thermique. Le mécanisme de métamictisation procéderait par relaxation de la matrice cristalline fortement endommagée. Ce phénomène de relaxation serait initié par l'apparition de concentration critique de défauts ponctuels de type lacunes d

  11. Studies and support for the EGS reservoirs at Soultz-sous-Forets. April 2004 - May 2009. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portier, S.; Vuataz, F.-D. [Centre de Recherche en Geothermie (CREGE), Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the activities carried out during the period from April 2004 up to May 2009 at Soultz-sous-Forets, France, in connection with the enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) at that location. The report describes the work performed by the Swiss EGS Research and Development group involved in the Soultz project. The principal target set was to install and operate a power plant, enabling the deep reservoir/heat exchanger to be operated, evaluated and improved under realistic conditions. The Swiss contributors have been participating in several work packages: Short and long term tests and medium-term tests of the three-well reservoir/heat exchanger system, development and up-scaling, technical and economic design of larger, industrial, EGS units and the development of stimulation methodology for EGS. The exchange of findings obtained during this project phase is discussed, as is the state-of-the-art of EGS stimulation methods, the interpretation of logging data. Also, seismic /-hydraulic factors, the evaluation of the production/injection performance of the boreholes and reservoir development strategies are discussed as are the modelling of geochemical impact of forced fluid circulation in the deep geothermal reservoir and the results of chemical stimulation tests performed on site.

  12. Efficacy of Combined Sous Vide-Microwave Cooking for Foodborne Pathogen Inactivation in Ready-to-Eat Chicory Stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Massimiliano; Gonnella, Maria; de Candia, Silvia; Serio, Francesco; Baruzzi, Federico

    2017-07-01

    There is a variety of different food processing methods, which can be used to prepare ready-to-eat foods. However, the need to preserve the freshness and nutritional qualities leads to the application of mild technologies which may be insufficient to inactivate microbial pathogens. In this work, fresh chicory stems were packed under a vacuum in films, which were transparent to microwaves. These were then exposed to microwaves for different periods of time. The application of sous vide microwave cooking (SV-MW, 900 W, 2450 MHz), controlled naturally occurring mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds for up to 30 d when vacuum-packed vegetables were stored at 4 °C. In addition, the process lethality of the SV-MW 90 s cooking was experimentally validated. This treatment led to 6.07 ± 0.7 and 4.92 ± 0.65 log cfu/g reduction of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated over the chicory stems (100 g), respectively. With an initial load of 9 log cfu/g for both pathogens, less than 10 cfu/g of surviving cells were found after 90 s cooking. This shows that short-time microwave cooking can be used to effectively pasteurize vacuum-packed chicory stems, achieving >5 log cfu/g reduction of E. coli and L. monocytogenes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Principles and Application of Sous-vide%真空恒温烹饪技术原理及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 乔兴

    2012-01-01

    真空恒温烹饪技术是从烹饪原料的分子层面入手,通过使用相对低气压、蛋白质变性温度点控制等理化及生化手段,运用现代烹饪仪器和设备制作出新式菜肴的烹饪方法。掌握真空恒温烹饪的技术原理,对应用于意境菜肴创作以及传统菜肴技术改良具有现实意义。%Sous-vide is a method of cooking which can be used to create new dishes with the help of modem cooking apparatuses and equipments as it applies such techniques as relatively low pressure and protein denaturation control to preserve intact molecules in cooking materials. This technique is of practical significance in creating artistic cuisine and improving traditional dishes as well.

  14. AGC-2 Irradiation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Windes, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled, very high temperature reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. In past applications, graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) designs.[ , ] Nuclear graphite H 451, used previously in the United States for nuclear reactor graphite components, is no longer available. New nuclear graphites have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for the new NGNP reactor design. To support the design and licensing of NGNP core components within a commercial reactor, a complete properties database must be developed for these current grades of graphite. Quantitative data on in service material performance are required for the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of each graphite grade with a specific emphasis on data related to the life limiting effects of irradiation creep on key physical properties of the NGNP candidate graphites. Based on experience with previous graphite core components, the phenomenon of irradiation induced creep within the graphite has been shown to be critical to the total useful lifetime of graphite components. Irradiation induced creep occurs under the simultaneous application of high temperatures, neutron irradiation, and applied stresses within the graphite components. Significant internal stresses within the graphite components can result from a second phenomenon—irradiation induced dimensional change. In this case, the graphite physically changes i.e., first shrinking and then expanding with increasing neutron dose. This disparity in material volume change can induce significant internal stresses within graphite components. Irradiation induced creep relaxes these large internal stresses, thus reducing the risk of crack formation and component failure. Obviously, higher irradiation creep levels tend to relieve more internal stress, thus allowing the

  15. Irradiation Defects in Silicon Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The application of irradiation in silicon crystal is introduced.The defects caused by irradiation are reviewed and some major ways of studying defects in irradiated silicon are summarized.Furthermore the problems in the investigation of irradiated silicon are discussed as well as its properties.

  16. Food irradiation; Napromieniowanie zywnosci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W. [Instytut Chemii i Techniki Jadrowej, Doswiadczalna Stacja Radiacyjnego Utrwalania Plodow Rolnych, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author) 14 refs, 3 tabs

  17. Total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  18. La mixité scolaire, la coéducation sous la Seconde République en Espagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvire Diaz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Le débat sur la mixité scolaire, appelée coéducation, indissociable de l'enseignement féminin et des droits des femmes, fut largement ouvert en Espagne sous la Seconde République (1931-1936. Nous traiterons de l’état des mentalités quant à l’éducation des filles au travers de trois exemples d’opinion : Mirguet, Sarabia, Mihura. Ces exemples illustrent des tendances opposées à la coéducation, pour des raisons religieuse, morale ou réactionnaire, du fait même que l'éducation des filles reste un monde à part. Malgré toutes les propositions pour établir un programme scolaire et éducatif pour les jeunes filles, il ressort que paradoxalement les auteurs, d'idéologie ou de nationalité différentes ou dont les objectifs diffèrent, se recoupent de manière significative : l'éducation est une adéquation de la femme à son milieu et à son rôle et statut traditionnels.The debate on co-education, inevitably linked with the education of girls and women’s rights, was wide-ranging during the Spanish Second Republic (1931-1936. Attitudes towards girls’ education will be examined by looking at three examples of opinion: Mirguet, Sarabia and Mihura. These examples illustrate opposing points of view on co-education, based on religious, moral or reactionary grounds, since girls’ education remained a world apart. In spite of proposals to establish a school curriculum for young girls, paradoxically, the authors, with differeing ideologies, nationalities and aims, are significantly similar: education for girls should develop a harmonious link between girls’ background, and their traditional role and status.

  19. L’économie américaine sous l’Administration Bush The US Economy under the Bush Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Lambert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article dresse un bilan de la performance économique américaine au cours des huit années de la présidence Bush. Sous l’Administration Bush, et après une année de récession consécutive à l’éclatement de la « bulle internet », l’économie américaine a connu six années d’expansion. Cette expansion a été plus forte que dans les autres économies du G7, grâce notamment à une croissance plus élevée de la productivité et à une politique monétaire accommodante. Elle s’est néanmoins accompagnée d’un certain nombre de déséquilibres qui pesaient sur la situation dans les derniers mois de la présidence Bush.This article surveys the performance of the US economy over the eight years of the Bush Presidency. Under the Bush Administration and after a year of recession following the bursting of the internet bubble, the American economy enjoyed six years of expansion. This expansion was stronger than in the other G7 economies, thanks in particular to higher productivity growth and a very supportive monetary policy. However, it was the source of several imbalances which weighed on the situation as the Bush Presidency was drawing to a close.

  20. Effets Seebeck et Nernst dans les cuprates: Etude de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi sous champ magnetique intense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberte, Francis

    2010-06-01

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de transport thermoelectrique, les effets Seebeck et Nernst, dans une serie d'echantillons de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Des resultats obtenus recemment au Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses a Grenoble sur La1.7Eu0.2Sr0.1 CuO4, La1.675Eu0.2Sr0.125CuO 4, La1.64Eu0.2Sr0.16CuO4, La1.74Eu0.1Sr0.16CuO4 et La 1.4Nd0.4Sr0.2CuO4 sont analyses. Une attention particuliere est accordee aux equations de la theorie semi-classique du transport et leur validite est verifiee. La procedure experimentale et les materiaux utilises pour concevoir les montages de mesures sont expliques en detail. Enfin, un chapitre est dedie a l'explication et l'interpretation des resultats de transport thermoelectrique sur YBa2Cu3O6+delta publies au cours de l'hiver 2010 dans les revues Nature et Physical Review Letters. Les donnees d'effet Seebeck dans les echantillons de La 1.8-x,Eu0.2SrxCuO 4, ou un changement de signe est observe, permettent de conclure a la presence d'une poche d'electrons dans la surface de Fermi qui domine le transport a basse temperature dans la region sous-dopee du diagramme de phase. Cette conclusion est similaire a celle obtenue par des mesures d'effet Hall dans YBa 2Cu3O6+delta et elle cadre bien dans un scenario de reconstruction de la surface de Fermi. Les donnees d'effet Nernst recueillies indiquent que la contribution des fluctuations supraconductrices est limitee a un modeste intervalle de temperature au-dessus de la temperature critique.

  1. Irradiation and food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  2. Physico-chemical, textural and structural characteristics of sous-vide cooked pork cheeks as affected by vacuum, cooking temperature, and cooking time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Pulgar, José; Gázquez, Antonio; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the influence of different factors on sous-vide cooked pork. Pork cheeks were cooked at different combinations of temperature (60°C or 80°C), time (5 or 12h) and vacuum (vacuum or air packaged). Weight losses were lower and moisture content higher in samples cooked for a shorter time (P=0.054) and at a lower temperature (PVacuum packaging showed no influence on any of the studied variables. For the treatments evaluated, cooking temperature×time combination seems to be more important than vacuum packaging in the textural and colour parameters of pork cheeks.

  3. Qu'est-ce que le care ? Souci des autres, sensibilité, responsabilité, sous la direction de Pascale Molinier, Sandra Laugier et Patricia Paperman

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Le livre intitulé « Qu'est-ce que le care ? Souci des autres, sensibilité, responsabilité » rassemble huit contributions d'auteurs différents sous la direction de Pascale Molinier, Sandra Laugier et Patricia Paperman sur l'éthique du care. Il est difficile d'en faire une synthèse. Ce sont comme des voix différentes qui exposent certains points essentiels de cette éthique. Toutes ces voix, dont les auteurs sont des femmes, contestent un ordre moral et social pour en revendiquer un autre. Cette...

  4. Acquisition de données en vidéo sous-marine sur les ulves offshore de la baie de Douarnenez

    OpenAIRE

    Lunven, Michel; Le Gall, Erwan; Gaffet, Jean-dominique

    2006-01-01

    En baie de Douarnenez, des estimations du stock d'ulves offshore ont été effectuées en 2004 et 2005 à l'aide de techniques de vidéo sous-marine. Au total, 4 campagnes ont été menées au cours de cette période, permettant une estimation de la biomasse d'ulves posées sur le fond, au-delà de l'estran par des fonds de 2 à 20 mètres.

  5. Développement mobile sous Android (Conception et réalisation d’un jeu en réseau « jeu d’allumettes »)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Nous avons donc réalisé une application Android contenant les fonctionnalités désirés. Ce projet nous a permis de découvrir le SDK Android, avec ses particularités. Cette expérience fut très enrichissante Car la programmation sous Android permet d'utiliser nos connaissances en JAVA dans un nouveau contexte qui est aujourd'hui présent sur de nombreuses plateformes portables (tablettes, Smartphone...etc.). Ainsi notre application est potentiellement portable sur plusieurs type d'appareils fo...

  6. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervan, P.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Wilson, J.

    2013-12-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1×1 cm2) silicon sensors.

  7. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, P; Hodgson, P; Marin-Reyes, H; Wilson, J

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1 x 1 cm^2 ) silicon sensors.

  8. Irradiation of food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, J.; Stanbrook, I.; Shersby, M.

    1989-07-12

    The House of Commons was asked to support the Government's intention to allow the use of the irradiation of foodstuffs under conditions that will fully safeguard the interests of the consumer. The Government, it was stated, regards this process as a useful additional way to ensure food safety. The effect of the radiation in killing bacteria will enhance safety standards in poultry meat, in some shell-fish and in herbs and spices. The problem of informing the public when the food has been irradiated, especially as there is no test to detect the irradiation, was raised. The subject was debated for an hour and a half and is reported verbatim. The main point raised was over whether the method gave safer food as not all bacteria were killed in the process. The motion was carried. (U.K.).

  9. Effect of the cooking method (grilling, roasting, frying and sous-vide) on the oxidation of thiols, tryptophan, alkaline amino acids and protein cross-linking in jerky chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fábio A P; Ferreira, Valquíria C S; Madruga, Marta S; Estévez, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Broiler breast (pectoralis major) meat was submitted to salting with NaCl + NaNO3 followed by a drying process to produce jerky-type chicken. The final product (raw broiler charqui) was desalted and then cooked using grilled, roasted, fried and sous-vide techniques. Sous-vide cooked samples showed lowest results of moisture loss compared to roasted and fried ones. Fatty acid profile suffered minor changes after cooking of broiler charqui. Regarding to protein oxidation, tryptophan fluorescence, protein carbonylation and disulphide bonds formation of chicken charqui were affected by cooking temperature while free thiol groups, Schiff base formation and hardness were mostly impacted by the length of cooking. Instrumental color of broiler charqui was affected by the type of cooking, being closely related with Maillard products formation. In conclusion, sous-vide technique seems to be the most advantageous cooking method to obtain high-quality ready-to-eat chicken charqui.

  10. Dans le ventre du Léviathan. La science du droit constitutionnel sous le national-socialisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stolleis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article Michael Stolleis s’intéresse au devenir de la science du droit constitutionnel sous le régime national-socialiste. L’intérêt de la question dépasse la simple curiosité historique, car elle concerne une discipline de la science juridique centrale à tout État démocratique. Partant des attaques contre le positivisme juridique qui émergent au cours de la République de Weimar, l’article s’ouvre sur une typologie des groupes qui constituent l’Union des professeurs de droit public. Stolleis montre l’affaiblissement progressif des « positivistes » à la faveur des groupes à l’idéologie plus autoritaire et antidémocratique. Cette première typologie des forces en présence permet ensuite d’analyser plus finement les différentes attitudes face à la mise en place du régime national-socialiste – allant de l’émigration (extérieure ou intérieure à la collaboration, en passant par le retrait vers des domaines de la pensée juridique moins directement exposés politiquement. S’intéressant au destin de la discipline plutôt qu’aux devenirs individuels, Stolleis constate l’effacement progressif du droit constitutionnel face à un pouvoir n’acceptant aucune contrainte, aucune restriction. Au point que le silence des représentants de cette discipline semble total après 1938. Enfin, l’article se conclut sur un appel à l’étude historique de la période, d’autant plus nécessaire que l’immédiat après-guerre fut marqué par l’occultation des faits et la volonté de laisser le passé être le passé.

  11. Solar Irradiance Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Sami K

    2012-01-01

    The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

  12. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  13. Cellular Response to Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; YAN Shi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    To explore the nonlinear activities of the cellular signaling system composed of one transcriptional arm and one protein-interaction arm, we use an irradiation-response module to study the dynamics of stochastic interactions.It is shown that the oscillatory behavior could be described in a unified way when the radiation-derived signal and noise are incorporated.

  14. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raica, Nicholas; McDowell, Marion E.; Darby, William J.

    1963-01-15

    The wholesomeness of irradiated foods was evaluated in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys over a 2-year period, or 4 generations. Data are presented on the effects of a diet containing radiation-processed foods on growth, reproduction, hematology, histopathology, carcinogenicity, and life span. (86 references) (C.H.)

  15. Study of high density polyethylene under UV irradiation or mechanical stress by fluorescence spectroscopy; Etude du comportement du polyethylene haute densite sous irradiation ultraviolette ou sollicitation mecanique par spectroscopie de fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douminge, L.

    2010-05-15

    Due to their diversity and their wide range of applications, polymers have emerged in our environment. For technical applications, these materials can be exposed to aggressive environment leading to an alteration of their properties. The effects of this degradation are linked to the concept of life duration, corresponding to the time required for a property to reach a threshold below which the material becomes unusable. Monitoring the ageing of polymer materials constitute a major challenge. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique able to provide accurate information concerning this issue. In this study, emphasis was placed on the use of fluorescence spectroscopy to study the phenomena involved in either the UV radiation or mechanical stresses of a polymer. In the case of high density polyethylene, the lack of intrinsic fluorescent signal leads to the use of a dye. This dye gives a fluorescent response depending on its microenvironment. All modifications in the macromolecular chain generate a shift of the fluorescent peak. This work can be dissociated in two major parts, on one hand the influence of UV aging on the fluorescent response and in another hand the influence of mechanical stresses. In the first part, complementary analyses like FTIR or DSC are used to correlate fluorescent results with known photo degradation mechanisms. The results show the great sensibility of the technique to the microstructural rearrangement in the polymer. In the second part, the dependence between the stress and the fluorescence emission gives opportunity to evaluate internal stresses in the material during cyclic solicitations. (author)

  16. Electrochemical measurements of mass transfer in RTILs (Room Temperature Ionic Liquids) medium under low frequency ultrasound irradiation; Mesures electrochimiques de transfert de matiere en milieu RTIL's (Room Temperature Ionic Liquids) sous irradiation ultrasonore basse frequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, C.; Hihn, J.Y.; Rebetez, M.; Doche, M.L. [Universite de Franche Comte - IUT Dept. Chimie, Institut UTINAM-UMR CNRS 6213, 25 - Montbeliard (France); Costa, C.; Bisel, I. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LPCP), 30 - Marcoule (France); Moisy, Ph. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCA), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to measure the influence of ultrasounds on the mass transfer at the electrode. The electro diffusional method which consists to measure the limit diffusion current on the polarization curve i=f(E) of a reversible couple in diluted solution in the electrolyte. The used couple changes with the electrolytic medium: potassium ferro/ferricyanide in water, ferrocene/ferricinium for acetonitrile and for the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(tri-fluoro-methyl-sulfonyl)imide [BuMIm][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N]). The limit diffusion currents are converted into mass transfer coefficients and then into a dimensional Sherwood numbers to allow an easier comparison of the results between the different research teams participating to this study. Recent tests, carried out in partner laboratories (LCMI-UFC, LPCP-CEA and LCA-CEA) have demonstrated the interest of the use of power ultrasounds in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs) but revealed too a lot of experimental difficulties. Nevertheless, it appears that the ultrasounds are an aging mode particularly adapted to the RTILs because the mass transfer to the electrode is there 5 times more efficient than in presence of an electrode turning at 4500 tr.min{sup -1}, while limiting their re-hydration. (O.M.)

  17. Study by electron spin resonance of the free radicals created under irradiation in glycine; Etude par la technique de resonance paramagnetique electronique des radicaux crees sous irradiation dans la glycine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomet, P.; Rassat, A.; Servoz-Gavin, P.; Choudens, H. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The free radicals created by different radiations in glycine are measured by electron spin resonance and their number is evaluated in function of the absorbed dose. This number decreases when the LET of the radiations increases ; in other words,high LET radiations gives less radiochemical effects; in contrary with the fact that high LET radiations creates more damage in biological materials. The decreasing with time of the number of free radicals and the speed of this decrease is a function of temperature; by the study of the kinetics of this decrease, an attempt has been made to prove the presence of three radicals. (authors) [French] Les radicaux crees par divers rayonnements dans la glycine sont detectes par resonance paramagnetique electronique et leur nombre est evalue en fonction de la dose. Ce nombre varie dans le sens inverse du T.E.L moyen, c'est-a-dire que les rayonnements de T.E.L eleves donnent des effets radiochimiques plus petits alors que les effets radiobiologiques sont importants avec des T.E.L eleves. La decroissance dans le temps du nombre de radicaux est observee et la vitesse de diminution des radicaux est liee a la temperature. Etudiant la cinetique de recombinaison, on peut faire l'hypothese de l'existence de 3 radicaux. (auteurs)

  18. Soybean, palm kernel, and animal-vegetable oils and vitamin E supplementation effect on lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Bailey, C A; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Leyva-Ovalle, O R; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2010-04-01

    There is an increasing demand in precooked chicken meat products for restaurants and catering services. Because cooked chicken meat develops lipid oxidation relatively fast, sous vide chicken meat was studied to assess its shelf-life. Six hundred Cobb x Ross broilers were fed for 6 wk with a basal corn-soybean meal diet including soybean, palm kernel, or animal-vegetable oil, each supplemented with 33 or 200 mg/kg of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Broilers were randomly assigned into 6 treatments and 4 repetitions with 25 birds each. Boneless breast or thigh muscle pieces were dissected into 5 x 5 x 5 cm cubes, vacuum-packed, cooked in water bath (until 74 degrees C internal temperature), chilled, and stored at 4 degrees C for 1, 5, 10, 25, and 40 d. For each storage day, each pouch contained 3 pieces of meat, either breast or thigh. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis, to quantify malonaldehyde (MDA) values, was conducted to estimate the lipid oxidation development. Nonheme iron values of cooked meat were analyzed. Fatty acid methyl esters analysis was performed in chicken muscle to determine its fatty acid composition. There was no interaction between dietary fat and vitamin E level in all of the variables studied except in nonheme iron. Dietary fat significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of the muscle (P sous vide chicken meat has a prolonged shelf-life, which is enhanced by dietary supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E.

  19. Physicochemical and microbiological changes during the refrigerated storage of lamb loins sous-vide cooked at different combinations of time and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Hernández, Alejandro; Ruiz, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of cooking temperature (either 60 ℃ or 80 ℃) and time (6 h or 24 h) on the physicochemical (weight loss, moisture content, instrumental color, instrumental texture, lipid and protein oxidation) and microbiological changes underwent by sous-vide cooked lamb loins during refrigerated storage for 30 days. There was a slight trend to decreasing weight losses in some of the cooking treatments, but only in samples cooked at 60 ℃ for 6 h it was paralleled with an increase in moisture content. The only noteworthy oxidative change was a marked decrease in conjugated dienes after two weeks of storage in samples cooked at 80 ℃ for 24 h. Neither instrumental texture nor color showed noticeable variations during the storage. Microbial population remained quite low during the whole refrigerated storage. Overall, most of the studied parameters showed only scarce changes throughout 30 days of refrigerated storage that most likely would not influence the quality of sous-vide cooked loin lambs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Migration Level of Bisphenol-A in Sous-Vide-Cooked Trout Fillets at Different Cooking Temperatures and Cooking Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Fatih; Seyyar, Esra

    2016-04-20

    The effects of different cooking temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C) and cooking levels (medium and well) on some quality properties, the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), and the migration level of bisphenol-A (BPA) in trout fillets cooked by sous-vide were investigated. As a result, as expected, cooking caused a reduction in water content of the samples, whereas pH, TBARS, L*, and b* values increased. Cooking loss values ranged between 14.78 and 20.51%. Whereas IQ, MeIQ, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, AαC and MeAαC could not be detected in the analyzed samples, varying levels of IQx (up to 0.16 ng/g) and MeIQx (up to 5.66 ng/g) were detected. It was determined that total HCA amounts ranged between 1.28 and 5.75 ng/g, and all or a big part of the total HCAs belonged to MeIQx. In addition, the migration level of BPA in sous-vide-cooked samples ranged between 4.93 and 27.11 ng/g.

  1. Effect of different temperature-time combinations on physicochemical, microbiological, textural and structural features of sous-vide cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Martín, Alberto; Mayoral, Ana Isabel; Ruiz, Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60, 70, and 80 °C) and time (6, 12, and 24 h). Different physicochemical, histological and structural parameters were studied. Increasing cooking temperatures led to higher weight losses and lower moisture contents, whereas the effect of cooking time on these variables was limited. Samples cooked at 60 °C showed the highest lightness and redness, while increasing cooking temperature and cooking time produced higher yellowness values. Most textural variables in a texture profile analysis showed a marked interaction between cooking temperature and time. Samples cooked for 24h showed significantly lower values for most of the studied textural parameters for all the temperatures considered. Connective tissue granulation at 60 °C and gelation at 70 °C were observed in the SEM micrographs. The sous-vide cooking of lamb loins dramatically reduced microbial population even with the less intense heat treatment studied (60 °C-6 h). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Post irradiation test report of irradiated DUPIC simulated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Jung, I. H.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2001-12-01

    The post-irradiation examination of irradiated DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) simulated fuel in HANARO was performed at IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) in KAERI during 6 months from October 1999 to March 2000. The objectives of this post-irradiation test are i) the integrity of the capsule to be used for DUPIC fuel, ii) ensuring the irradiation requirements of DUPIC fuel at HANARO, iii) performance verification in-core behavior at HANARO of DUPIC simulated fuel, iv) establishing and improvement the data base for DUPIC fuel performance verification codes, and v) establishing the irradiation procedure in HANARO for DUPIC fuel. The post-irradiation examination performed are {gamma}-scanning, profilometry, density, hardness, observation the microstructure and fission product distribution by optical microscope and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA)

  3. Comparaison des effets des irradiations γ, X et UV dans les fibres optiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Baggio, J.; Boukenter, A.; Meunier, J.-P.; Leray, J.-L.

    2005-06-01

    Les fibres optiques présentent de nombreux avantages incitant à les intégrer dans des applications devant résister aux environnements radiatifs associés aux domaines civil, spatial ou militaire. Cependant, leur exposition à un rayonnement entraîne la création de défauts ponctuels dans la silice amorphe pure ou dopée qui constitue les différentes parties de la fibre optique. Ces défauts causent, en particulier, une augmentation transitoire de l'atténuation linéique des fibres optiques responsable de la dégradation voire de la perte du signal propagé dans celles-ci. Dans cet article, nous comparons les effets de deux types d'irradiation: une impulsion X et une dose γ cumulée. Les effets de ces irradiations sont ensuite comparés avec ceux induits par une insolation ultraviolette (244 nm) sur les propriétés d'absorption des fibres optiques. Nous montrons qu'il existe des similitudes entre ces différentes excitations et qu'il est possible, sous certaines conditions, d'utiliser celles-ci afin d'évaluer la capacité de certaines fibres optiques à fonctionner dans un environnement nucléaire donné.

  4. Reboiser sous les tropiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierlot, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To Reafforest in the Tropics. Le sanctuaire de gorilles de Lossi constitue une expérience sur la synergie entre la recherche scientifique et la conservation de la nature. Trois parties prenantes sont impliquées dans un processus de gestion participative: l'Etat congolais, la communauté autochtone représentée par l'association des ayants droits des terres de Lossi et le programme européen sur les écosystèmes forestiers d'Afrique centrale. Une enquête de terrain a été effectuée sur le site de Lossi en 2003; elle avait comme objectif d'étudier les effets générés par la gestion participative et d'identifier les contraintes liées à l'exécution de cette approche participative en milieu réel. Les travaux de recherche sur la primatologie ont abouti à l'habituation des gorilles à la présence humaine, ce qui a conduit à la création d'un tourisme de vision de gorilles de plaine de l'Ouest. Un camp de touristes a été construit, ainsi que l'ouverture de la route d'accès au sanctuaire. Le tourisme a généré des emplois en faveur de la population locale qui est aussi prestataire de contrats sur les travaux de réfection des routes. Une partie des revenus a permis la construction d'un centre de santé intégré. Cependant, les travaux de recherche scientifique et le tourisme ont été ralentis pendant l'apparition de la fièvre hémorragique d'Ebola et pendant les trois épisodes de la guerre civile. La consolidation et le long terme de cette entreprise de cogestion du patrimoine naturel de Lossi consiste en l'établissement d'un plan d'aménagement et de gestion, qui concilie la conservation, le développement rural et la recherche scientifique tout en garantissant une répartition équitable des revenus entre les trois partenaires.

  5. Irradiated cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F/sub 0/ animals and growth and development of the F/sub 1/ offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment.

  6. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  7. Dimensionnement des actionneurs électriques alimentés à fréquence variable sous faible tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedinger, J.-M.; Vilain, J.-P.

    1999-09-01

    In Part I we present a multidisciplinary analysis model for the prediction of functional connections between the design variables and the electromagnetical, electrical and thermal performances of a brushless permanent magnet motor. In this paper we have elaborated a design methodology for electrical motors supplied from a variable-frequency low-voltage source. The objective is to take into account the influence of the inverter's dynamics from the beginning of the design, for the same reasons as we do for electromechanical and thermal constraints. The procedure is based on a Sequential Quadratic Programming optimization method. Two techniques are used to take into account the influence of the inverter: the first one develops the performance analysis with the multidisciplinary model; the second one considers the inverter's current reference as a supplementary optimization variable for the control of the design. Optimization difficulties linked to the chopping of the converter are discuted in connection with a sensitivity analysis of the torque, with respect to the inverter's current reference; a method is proposed to enhance the performances of the algorithm. The method has been applied to the design of a permanent magnet brushless DC motor used in the propulsion system of an electrical scooter; evolution of the design with the complexity level of analysis model is evidenced. Dans une première partie nous avons développé un modèle d'analyse pluridisciplinaire qui établissait les dépendances fonctionnelles entre les variables de conception et les performances magnéto-électro-thermiques d'un moteur brushless à aimants permanents. Dans cet article nous décrivons une procédure de dimensionnement adaptée à la conception de la machine alimentée à fréquence variable sous faible tension. L'objectif est d'intégrer la dynamique du convertisseur électronique dès la phase initiale du dimensionnement, au même titre que les spécifications

  8. L'intervention sous-marine : situation actuelle et perspectives d'avenir Underwater Operations and Techniques: Current Situation and Future Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand A. R. V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A l'occasion de la Conférence Internationale de Paris sur la Pénétration sous-marine(6-8 décembre 1982, cet article fait le point sur les différents moyens d'intervention sous-marine disponibles à ce jour (plongeurs, engins télécommandés, sous-marins à pression atmosphérique et sur un certain nombre de problèmes technologiques communs (matériaux, télémanipulation, navigation, sources d'énergie. Ce domaine est encore en pleine évolution et fait appel aux récentes innovations technologiques. Bien que les engins télécommandés semblent avoir actuellement la faveur des industriels, les autres moyens restent d'avenir prometteur, la complémentarité devant remplacer dans le futur la concurrence La résurrection de l'Argyronète qui doit devenir en 1985 un banc d'essais des nouvelles techniques est le témoignage de l'activité de ce secteur industriel. This article is based on the International Symposium in Paris on Underwater Operations and Techniques 6-9 December 1982. It reviews the different methods now available for underwater operations (divers, remote-controlled vehicles, atmospheric-pressure submarines and various technological problems common to all of them (materials, remote manipulation, navigating, power sources. This field is evolving rapidly and makes use of the most recent technological innovations. Although remote-controlled vehicles now seem to be favored by industrialists, the other methods still have a promising future, and the complementariness of these methods can be expected to replace rivalry among them. The resurrection of the Argyronète project, which should become a test bench for new techniques in 1985, is a good illustration of the activity going on in this industrial sector.

  9. Regulation of food irradiation and detection of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1998-12-31

    The main international standards for irradiated foods are those produced by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The international regulatory environment is now favourable towards irradiated foods. Most countries still regulate on a food-by-food, case-by-case basis. However in Asia there is movement towards a Harmonised Regulation for Irradiated Foods. The WHO believes that irradiated foods may be safely irradiated at any dose above 10 kGy. This may lead to the Codex maximum dose being raised or abandoned. If this occurs there are opportunities to produce shelf-stable foods in lightweight packaging that last for years at room temperature. Detection methods for irradiated foods are now available and may assist to reassure consumers that labelling regulations can be enforced. (author)

  10. ATF Neutron Irradiation Program Irradiation Vehicle Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cetiner, N. O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Petrie, Christian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Smith, Kurt R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; McDuffee, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Civil Nuclear Energy Working Group (CNWG) is engaged in a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to explore issues related to nuclear energy, including research on accident-tolerant fuels and materials for use in light water reactors. This work develops a draft technical plan for a neutron irradiation program on the candidate accident-tolerant fuel cladding materials and elements using the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The research program requires the design of a detailed experiment, development of test vehicles, irradiation of test specimens, possible post irradiation examination and characterization of irradiated materials and the shipment of irradiated materials to Japan. This report discusses the conceptual design, the development and irradiation of the test vehicles.

  11. The natural seismic hazard and induced seismicity of the european HDR (hot dry rock) geothermal energy project at Soultz-sous-Forets (Bas-Rhin, France); Alea sismique naturel et sismicite induite du projet geothermique europeen RCS (roche chaude seche) de Soultz-sous-Forets (Bas-Rhin, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, J.A.

    1996-06-07

    Development of the Soultz-sous-Forets HDR (Hot Dry Rock) geothermal energy project will involve important fluid injections which will induce micro-seismic events. This thesis discusses the natural seismicity of the region and induced seismicity associated with fluid injections. A catalogue of all historical and instrument seismicity of the Soultz-sous-Forets (SSF) region has been compiled. This seismicity does not correspond to movements along the major tectonic features of the region. The area around SSF has been identified as being one where high heat flow corresponds to low seismicity. The largest well documented seismic event in the region which took place in 1952 had an epicentral intensity of VI. All important data pertaining to the series of seismic events which took place in the region from August to October 1952 have been collected and are presented. This work details the installation and operation of a permanent 3 station network of accelerometers and seismometers around the HDR site. Also the installation and operation of a mobile network of vertical seismometers during fluid injections. 167 micro-seismic events were recorded on the surface network, with magnitudes from -0.5 to 1.9. The preferential alignment of the micro-seismic cloud is N160 deg. Individual focal mechanisms of the larger seismic events correspond to an extensional tectonic regime. Stress inversion of P wave polarities indicates that the maximum stress is vertical and the intermediate and minimum stress axes horizontal. The largest of the horizontal stresses is orientated N124 deg and the smallest N34 deg. Induced seismic movement is taking place on pre-existing fractures controlled by the in situ stress seismic movement is taking place on pre-existing tectonic fractures controlled by the in situ stress field, and the largest of the induced events had a magnitude 1.9. This level of seismicity does not pose any environmental hazard to the region around Soultz-sous-Forets. (author) 151

  12. Gemstone dedicated gamma irradiation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omi, Nelson M.; Rela, Paulo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: nminoru@ipen.br; prela@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to its poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator constructed in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations, were performed. With the definitive optimized irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. This work presents some optimization parameters and the expected performance of the irradiator. (author)

  13. Identité hors territoire. Les élites espagnoles exilées en France sous la dictature de Primo de Rivera (1923-1930)

    OpenAIRE

    Elvire Diaz

    2006-01-01

    Le territoire étant un point d’ancrage de l’identité individuelle et nationale, nous verrons dans ce travail si hors territoire, il peut y avoir préservation de l’identité, individuelle, collective, nationale, débouchant sur une dé-territorialisation, au sens défini par Gilles Deleuze. Notre objet d’étude portera sur le cas d’une micro-société hors territoire, les élites intellectuelles espagnoles exilées en France sous la dictature du Général Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923-1930). Le général Mi...

  14. Identité hors territoire. Les élites espagnoles exilées en France sous la dictature de Primo de Rivera (1923-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvire Diaz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Le territoire étant un point d’ancrage de l’identité individuelle et nationale, nous verrons dans ce travail si hors territoire, il peut y avoir préservation de l’identité, individuelle, collective, nationale, débouchant sur une dé-territorialisation, au sens défini par Gilles Deleuze. Notre objet d’étude portera sur le cas d’une micro-société hors territoire, les élites intellectuelles espagnoles exilées en France sous la dictature du Général Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923-1930.Le général Mig...

  15. L’émergence d’une banque supérieure sous le régime de la liberté bancaire

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    La théorie de la banque centrale analyse la hiérarchisation bancaire dans le cadre du monopole d'émission de billets de banque. Or sous le régime de la liberté bancaire dans lequel les banques peuvent émettre des billets et des dépôts à vue sans restrictions quantitatives ou autres, la structure bancaire converge également vers la hiérarchisation. L'émergence d'une banque supérieure intervenant en tant que prêteur en dernier ressort est alors un phénomène spontané et constitue une innovation ...

  16. La contribution de Jean d’Osma à la pensée politique castillane sous le règne de Ferdinand III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sous le rapport des domaines d’intervention de la royauté embrassés par sa culture écrite, le règne de Ferdinand III prépare à bien des égards celui d’Alphonse X. S’y font jour notamment la volonté d’étendre l’usage d’un référent juridique commun – le Fuero juzgo  ou For de Tolède, traduction-adaptation du Liber iudiciorum wisigothique, dont le roi dote Cordoue et Séville – ainsi qu’une intense activité historiographique qui se solde par la production de trois grandes chroniques : le Chronico...

  17. Des ordres privilégiés sous l′Ancien Régime%旧制度下的特权等级及其消亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文立

    2003-01-01

    Cet article constitue un précis historique de la longue évolution du clergé et de la noblesse,ordres privilégiés en France sous l′Ancien Régime,de leur apparition au haut Moyen Age,à travers les siècles et surtout la Révolution,jusqu′à leur effacement réel au début de la Troisiéme République. Néanmoins,des valeurs traditionnelles propres aux ordres privilégiés subsistent encore de nos jours,puisqu′elles font partie de cet héritage spirituel,moral et culturel accepté plus ou moins par des couches sociopolitiques,souvent de la droite ou plutot de l′extrême droite.

  18. Écrire dans la variante de l’autre : le cas de Sous les vents de Neptune de Fred Vargas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pour tout auteur, choisir d’écrire dans une langue ou dans la variante d’une langue qui n’est pas la sienne représente un défi de taille. Nous nous intéresserons au roman Sous les vents de Neptune, de l’écrivaine française Fred Vargas, qui a situé une partie de son intrigue au Québec, sans maîtriser la notion de variation linguistique. En analysant les réactions des lecteurs européens et québécois, de même que les caractéristiques de la langue québécoise de Vargas, nous aborderons la question de l’impérialisme linguistique et de son anachronisme au xxie siècle.

  19. Développement d’une application orientée événement pour les réseaux de capteurs sous Contiki

    OpenAIRE

    LOUH, Amina Warda; LAROUCI, Bouchra

    2015-01-01

    Les réseaux de capteurs sans fil se caractérisent par l‟aspect miniaturisé et les ressources limitées en termes d‟énergie, calcul et stockage. Ils sont conçus pour plusieurs domaines d‟applications. Dans le cadre de notre projet, on a développé une application orientée événement pour les réseaux de capteurs sans fil sous Contiki. Cette application consiste à envoyer une alerte quand un événement pertinent survient. Pour réaliser cette application, nous avons utilisé des outils logiciels...

  20. Description matricielle de l'anisotropie de la transition inter-sous-bande d'une structure à multi-puits quantiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Y. G.; Le Rouzo, J.; Ribet, I.; Haïdar, R.; Guérineau, N.

    2006-10-01

    Dans un puits quantique, les transitions radiatives inter-sous-bande sont telles que seule la composante du champ électrique parallèle à l'axe de croissance est affectée. Cette spécificité confère à l'absorption un caractère foncièrement anisotrope. Nous établissons la matrice de transfert d'une structure à multi-puits quantiques en assimilant chaque puits à une couche mince anisotrope uniaxe. À l'anisotropie intrinsèque (règles de sélection) se superpose une anisotropie structurelle (biréfringence de forme). Les symétries du système permettent néanmoins de découpler les états de polarisation (s) et (p).

  1. Démantèlement des centrales nucléaires : le rôle du sous-traitant dans le processus de décision

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Christophe; Guarnieri, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Le démantèlement des centrales nucléaires en cours et à venir repose avec acuité la question de la fiabilité organisationnelle. D'une part parce-que les organisations se recomposent face à de nouveaux enjeux, d'autre part parce qu'elles externalisent un grand nombre de tâches en lien avec le démantèlement. La sous-traitance n'est certes pas une nouveauté dans la maintenance des centrales, cependant la particularité des opérations de démantèlement nous conduit à ré-explorer l'organisation dans...

  2. Gazettes sous influence : le Courrier du Bas-Rhin, la Gazette des Deux-Ponts et les sujets touchant la Russie vers 1770

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Dulac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vers 1770, la campagne anti-russe du gouvernement français tend à dégrader l’image de la Russie, ce qui lèse gravement ses intérêts, notamment quand elle doit emprunter pour financer la guerre avec la Turquie. Aussi le prince Dmitri Alexeevitch Golitsyn, ministre plénipotentiaire à La Haye, se montre-t-il alors très actif sur ce terrain. Sa correspondance avec Pétersbourg témoigne de ses efforts, aux effets inégaux, pour influer sur les informations diffusées par quelques journaux : principalement le Courrier du Bas-Rhin, publié par Jean Manzon à Trèves, sous contrôle prussien, et dans une moindre mesure les deux Gazettes des Deux-Ponts, l’une politique, l’autre littéraire. Le journaliste de Trèves, qui trouve son intérêt à prendre le parti de la Russie, met en œuvre en sa faveur un discours journalistique abondant et parfois très élaboré. Cependant, la ligne du journal subit des fluctuations sensibles, selon l’évolution de la situation et à la suite de diverses interventions, dont celles du roi de Prusse et d’autre part de Stanislas-Auguste, qui pensionne un temps le journaliste. La Gazette des deux Ponts pratique l’information orientée avec plus de finesse, et, comme la gazette littéraire, accorde une large place à la matière russe : mais sur le plan politique, son traitement reste le plus souvent sous influence française et répond rarement aux vœux de D. A. Golitsyn.

  3. Safety evaluation of sous vide-processed products with respect to nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum by use of challenge studies and predictive microbiological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyytiä-Trees, E; Skyttä, E; Mokkila, M; Kinnunen, A; Lindström, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Ahvenainen, R; Korkeala, H

    2000-01-01

    Sixteen different types of sous vide-processed products were evaluated for safety with respect to nonproteolytic group II Clostridium botulinum by using challenge tests with low (2. 0-log-CFU/kg) and high (5.3-log-CFU/kg) inocula and two currently available predictive microbiological models, Food MicroModel (FMM) and Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP). After thermal processing, the products were stored at 4 and 8 degrees C and examined for the presence of botulinal spores and neurotoxin on the sell-by date and 7 days after the sell-by date. Most of the thermal processes were found to be inadequate for eliminating spores, even in low-inoculum samples. Only 2 of the 16 products were found to be negative for botulinal spores and neurotoxin at both sampling times. Two products at the high inoculum level showed toxigenesis during storage at 8 degrees C, one of them at the sell-by date. The predictions generated by both the FMM thermal death model and the FMM and PMP growth models were found to be inconsistent with the observed results in a majority of the challenges. The inaccurate predictions were caused by the limited number and range of the controlling factors in the models. Based on this study, it was concluded that the safety of sous vide products needs to be carefully evaluated product by product. Time-temperature combinations used in thermal treatments should be reevaluated to increase the efficiency of processing, and the use of additional antibotulinal hurdles, such as biopreservatives, should be assessed.

  4. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlatescu, Ioana, E-mail: scarlatescuioana@gmail.com; Avram, Calin N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Virag, Vasile [County Hospital “Gavril Curteanu” - Oradea (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  5. Irradiated stars with convective envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lucy, L B

    2016-01-01

    The structure of low-mass stars irradiated by a close companion is considered. Irradiation modifies the surface boundary conditions and thereby also the adiabatic constants of their outer convection zones. This then changes the models' radii and luminosities. For short-period M dwarf binaries with components of similar mass, the radius inflation due to their mutual irradiation is found to be < 0.4%. This is an order of magnitude too small to explain the anomalous radii found for such binaries. Although stronger irradiation of an M dwarf results in a monotonically increasing radius, a saturation effect limits the inflation to < 5%.

  6. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  7. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  8. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  9. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlermann, Dieter A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Just with the emergence of the idea to treat food by ionizing radiation, the concerns were voiced whether it would be safe to consume such food. Now, we look back on more than hundred years of research into the 'wholesomeness', a terminology developed during those efforts. This review will cover the many questions which had been raised, explaining the most relevant ones in some detail; it will also give place to the concerns and elucidate their scientific relevance and background. There has never been any other method of food processing studied in such depth and in such detail as food irradiation. The conclusion based on science is: Consumption of any food treated at any high dose is safe, as long as the food remains palatable. This conclusion has been adopted by WHO, also by international and national bodies. Finally, this finding has also been adopted by Codex Alimentarius in 2003, the international standard for food. However, this conclusion has not been adopted and included at its full extent in most national regulations. As the literature about wholesomeness of irradiated food is abundant, this review will use only a few, most relevant references, which will guide the reader to further reading.

  10. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  11. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  12. World trend of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooij, J.G. van

    1984-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years several policies and programmes have been developed in the field of food irradiation at the national level and by international organizations concerned, which aim at the general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of the wholesomeness, the technological and economic feasibility, and the regulatory aspects of this process. This paper reviews international aspects of the standardization of food irradiation, national regulatory aspects of food irradiation, general remarks on the acceptance of Codex General Standards for irradiated foods, and specific remarks on the Codex General Standard for irradiated foods. An overall average dose for all foods, which was formulated in 1980 by a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee, is 10 kGy. This 10 kGy is not a level above which irradiated foods become unsafe, rather, it is a level at or below which safety has been established. Irradiation dose is divided into low-dose (up to about 1 kGy) and medium-dose (about 1-10 kGy). Future outlook and needs are discussed.

  13. Food irradiation and bacterial toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranter, H.S.; Modi, N.K.; Hambleton, P.; Melling, J.; Rose, S.; Stringer, M.F.

    1987-07-04

    The authors' findings indicate that irradiation confers no advantage over heat processing in respect of bacterial toxins (clostridium botulinum, neurotoxin A and staphylococcal enterotoxin A). It follows that irradiation at doses less than the ACINF recommended upper limit of 10 kGy could not be used to improve the ambient temperature shelf life on non-acid foods.

  14. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  15. Irradiation of fresh fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh-jen, Yen; Jin-lai, Zhou; Shao-chun, Lai

    Occasionally, in China, marine products can not be provided for the markets in good quality, for during the time when they are being transported from the sea port to inland towns or even at the time when they are unloaded from the ship, they are beginning to spoil. Obviously, it is very important that appropiate measures should be taken to prevent them from decay. Our study has proved that the shelf life of fresh Flatfish (Cynoglossue robustus) and Silvery pomfret (stromateoides argenteus), which, packed in sealed containers, are irradiated by 1.5 kGy, 2.2 kGy and 3.0 kGy, can be stored for about 13-26 days at 3° - 5° C.

  16. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  17. Pallet irradiators for food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, R. G.; Chu, R. D. H.

    This paper looks at the various design concepts for the irradiation processing of food products, with particular emphasis on handling the products on pallets. Pallets appear to offer the most attractive method for handling foods from many considerations. Products are transported on pallets. Warehouse space is commonly designed for pallet storage and, if products are already palletized before and after irradiation, then labour could be saved by irradiating on pallets. This is also an advantage for equipment operation since a larger carrier volume means lower operation speeds. Different pallet irradiator design concepts are examined and their suitability for several applications are discussed. For example, low product holdup for fast turn around will be a consideration for those operating an irradiation "service" business; others may require a very large source where efficiency is the primary requirement and this will not be consistent with low holdup. The radiation performance characteristics and processing costs of these machines are discussed.

  18. Late sequelae of superficial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, I.C.; Young, J.E.

    1984-10-01

    Superficial irradiation results in well recognized late sequelae including not only sclerosis and atrophy of skin and subcutaneous tissue, but also the development of benign and malignant tumors of skin and adjacent structures. The long latency between irradiation and its late effects allowed the early uncontrolled use of radiation treatment for benign conditions. The subsequent recognition of the causal relationship between tumors and previous irradiation has restricted its use to more appropriate purposes, although it is possible that it is still overused in some areas of dermatologic practice. Clinicians need to be aware of the time interval between irradiation and the development of its late sequelae, and the incidence of these sequelae. Appropriate irradiation exposure history should be a part of the evaluation of every patient.

  19. Prediction under Uncertainty on a Mature Field Prévision de production sous incertitude pour un champ mature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feraille M.

    2012-04-01

    uses Gaussian process modeling and an adaptive design strategy. In the final step of the workflow, parametric response surfaces are used to approximate the reservoir production forecasts and obtain their probabilistic distribution by propagating the remaining posterior uncertainty of input parameters. Dans le cadre de l’ingénierie de réservoir, des simulateurs permettent de comprendre et prédire le déplacement des fluides dans le réservoir et ainsi d’optimiser son exploitation. Ces simulateurs prennent en entrée un grand nombre de paramètres qui peuvent être entachés d’incertitudes. Afin d’assurer une production future correcte, la comparaison des différents scénarios d’exploitation possibles doit tenir compte de ces incertitudes. Les prévisions de production ne doivent pas être évaluées en ne considérant qu’un seul cas « moyen » pour chaque scénario mais en intégrant l’incertitude sur les paramètres d’entrée. Dans le cadre de champ mature où un historique de production est disponible, le formalisme Bayésien est bien adapté pour répondre au problème des prédictions sous incertitudes. En effet, il permet de définir les incertitudes, dites a posteriori, sur les entrées du modèle de réservoir en prenant en compte à la fois les données statiques et dynamiques. Ces incertitudes a posteriori peuvent ensuite être propagées afin de calculer des prévisions de production probabilistes pour chaque scénario, tout en respectant la connaissance statique et dynamique du réservoir. Mais l’obtention des incertitudes a posteriori ainsi que la propagation de celles-ci sur les prévisions de production nécessitent un nombre souvent prohibitif de simulations du modèle réservoir. Dans cet article, nous proposons une application de plusieurs techniques statistiques avancées afin de prendre en compte les incertitudes dans les prévisions de production pour un champ mature et ce en utilisant un nombre raisonnable de simulations. Le

  20. Les glissements sous-marins de la pente continentale niçoise et la rupture de câbles en mer Ligure (Méditerranée occidentale).

    OpenAIRE

    Gennesseaux, Maurice; Mauffret, Alain; Pautot, Guy

    1980-01-01

    Le 16 octobre 1979, en mer Ligure, deux câbles sous-marins ont été détériorés par un courant de turbidité issu des abords de la côte niçoise. où de vastes glissements sous-marins non provoqués par un séisme se sont probablement produits le même jour. Les vitesses moyennes du courant, déterminées par l'heure d'un des glissements et les lieux et heures de rupture des câbles, ont été de 17 km/h en amont du premier câble et 7 km/h en aval, mais ont pu atteindre 40 km sur la pente continentale. [...

  1. 温度和时间对真空低温烹调产品品质影响的研究现状%The Research Status of Effect of Time and Temperature on Properties in Sous Vide Cooking Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜俊芝; 徐迅; 王琪

    2015-01-01

    Sous vide是一种真空包装经严格温度控制的烹调方法.相对于传统的烹饪方法,精确的温度控制保证了产品良好的成熟度和质构,真空包装更好地保留了产品的风味和营养,同时提高了产品的货架期.对温度和时间这两个加工参数对Sous vide产品的营养、风味和食用安全性的影响研究进行了综述,并对保证产品质量提出了烹饪温度和时间的优化方法.

  2. Phytosanitary irradiation - Development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2016-12-01

    Phytosanitary irradiation, the use of ionizing radiation to disinfest traded agricultural commodities of regulated pests, is a growing use of food irradiation that has great continued potential for increase in commercial application. In 2015 approximately 25,000 t of fresh fruits and vegetables were irradiated globally for phytosanitary purposes. Phytosanitary irradiation has resulted in a paradigm shift in phytosanitation in that the final burden of proof of efficacy of the treatment has shifted from no live pests upon inspection at a port of entry (as for all previous phytosanitary treatments) to total dependence on certification that the treatment for target pests is based on adequate science and is commercially conducted and protected from post-treatment infestation. In this regard phytosanitary irradiation is managed more like a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) approach more consistent with food safety than phytosanitation. Thus, phytosanitary irradiation offers a more complete and rigorous methodology for safeguarding than other phytosanitary measures. The role of different organizations in achieving commercial application of phytosanitary irradiation is discussed as well as future issues and applications, including new generic doses.

  3. Un aspect nouveau de la prospection sismique en appliquant la théorie des sous-ensembles flous Improvement of Seismic Prospecting by Using Fuzzy Subsets Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bois P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Durant les dix dernières années, la théorie des sous-ensembles flous a connu un intérêt croissant grâce aux travaux de Zadeh [1]. Cette théorie a vu son champ d'application s'étendre à différentes branches des mathématiques pures et appliquées en particulier à la topologie, à la théorie des graphes, des automates et à la reconnaissance des formes. Son but est d'analyser l'imprécision qui se glisse partout dans le comportement humain et dans la connaissance humaine. Cet article donne deux applications de la théorie des sous-ensembles flous à la prospection sismique. La première concerne l'interprétation d'une section sismique qui consiste à tracer une carte du sous-sol montrant la position des différents horizons sismiques situés au dessous de la surface du sol. Le problème qui se pose au sismicien est de trouver la structure géologique correspondante dans un plan vertical à la surface du sol. La seconde est la détermination de la nature des réservoirs contenant des hydrocarbures. On utilisera une méthode s'appuyant sur la reconnaissance des formes avec apprentissage préalable. Cette méthode consiste à comparer la nature d'un réservoir qui a été foré à celle d'un réservoir inconnu. Le réservoir connu joue le rôle du moniteur dans le processus d'apprentissage. Pour ce faire, un algorithme est conçu utilisant la méthode de Burg appliquée à des portions de traces sismiques représentatives des deux réservoirs. Enfin, une analyse floue des données représentant ces deux réservoirs sert de critère pour décider s'ils sont de nature identique ou différente. During the past decade, interest in fuzzy subsets theory has led to the development of a well-organized theory developed by Zadeh [1]. This theory has grown up, exploring and developing various branches of pure and applied mathematics, including topology, graph theory, mapping, automata and pattern recognition. Basically, the theory of fuzzy subsets

  4. Incidence des accidents vasculaires cérébraux chez les patients VIH positifs sous traitement antirétroviral au long court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapoure, Yacouba Njankouo; Nkongni, Ines Nepetsoun; Luma, Henry Namme; Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo Mbtachou; Barla, Esther; Ngwane, Samuel; Mouelle, Albert Soné; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Avec l'introduction de la trithérapie dans les années 1996, la morbidité et la mortalité liées à l'infection par le VIH a nettement diminué. Concomitamment avec ce succès clinique, plusieurs changements métaboliques incluant diabète, hypertension artérielle, dyslipidémie et lipodystrophie ont été observés, ceux-ci étant des pourvoyeurs d'accidents vasculaires cérébraux. L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer l'incidence des accidents vasculaires cérébraux chez les patients VIH positifs sous traitement antirétroviral au long court. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude de cohorte rétrospective, menée dans le Centre de Traitement Agrée de l'Hôpital Général de Douala (HGD), avec un recueil des données sur 10 ans allant de Mai 2001 à avril 2010, portant sur les patients VIH positifs adultes sous traitement antirétroviral depuis au moins 6 mois. Les patients étaient suivis selon le protocole national de prise en charge du Cameroun. La survenue d'un AVC a été déterminée par la méthode Kaplan-Meyer tandis que les facteurs associés à la survenue d'un AVC ont été recherché par le test de Khi-2. Le seuil de signification statistique était fixé à 0,05. Résultats 307 patients étaient inclus dont 62,4% de sexe féminin, et l’âge moyen était de 40,1 ± 9,9 ans. L'incidence des AVC était de 1,7% sur 72 mois de suivi sans différence significative entre les femmes et les hommes (P= 0,76). Le taux d'incidence calculé était de 0,3 pour 100 personnes années. Dans 85,7% des cas il s'agissait d'un AVC ischémique. Le délai moyen de survenue d'un AVC était de 33,4 mois. Les facteurs associés à la survenue d'un AVC étaient: les patients ayant initié leur traitement au stade III et IV de l'OMS et le taux de CD4 > 100/mm3 à l'initiation du traitement antirétroviral. Conclusion L'incidence des AVC chez les patients VIH positifs sous traitement antirétroviral est similaire à celle rapportée ant

  5. Physical properties of beryllium oxide - Irradiation effects; Proprietes physiques et caracteristiques mecaniques de l'oxyde de beryllium fritte - Effet de l'irradiation et guerison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This work has been carried out in view of determining several physical properties of hot-pressed beryllium oxide under various conditions and the change of these properties after irradiation. Special attention has been paid on to the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal diffusivity coefficient. Several designs for the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient have been achieved. They permit its determination between 50 and 300 deg. C, between 400 and 800 deg. C. Some measurements have been made above 1000 deg. C. In order to measure the thermal diffusivity coefficient, we heat a perfectly flat surface of a sample in such a way that the heat flux is modulated (amplitude and frequency being adjustable). The thermal diffusivity coefficient is deduced from the variations of temperature observed on several spots. Tensile strength; compressive strength; expansion coefficient; sound velocity and crystal parameters have been also measured. Some of the measurements have been carried out after neutron irradiation. Some data have been obtained on the change of the properties of beryllium oxide depending on the integrated neutron flux. (author)Fren. [French] L'objet de cette etude est la determination de plusieurs proprietes physiques de l'oxyde de beryllium fritte sous charge dans differentes conditions et l'evolution de ces proprietes apres irradiation. Une attention particuliere a ete portee sur la mesure de la conductibilite et de la diffusivite thermiques. Differents montages ont ete realises pour mesurer la conductibilite thermique. Ils permettent la determination entre 50 et 300 deg. C, entre 400 et 800 deg. C; quelques mesures ont ete faites au-dessus de 1000 deg. C. Pour la mesure du coefficient de diffusivite thermique, on realise une attaque thermique, de frequence et d'amplitude reglables d'une face parfaitement plane d'un echantillon d'oxyde de beryllium. Les variations de temperature sont

  6. Proton irradiation of simple gas mixtures: Influence of irradiation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Norbert J.; Schuster, R.; Hofmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to get information about the influence of irradiation parameters on radiolysis processes of astrophysical interest, methane gas targets were irradiated with 6.5 MeV protons at a pressure of 1 bar and room temperature. Yields of higher hydrocarbons like ethane or propane were found by analysis of irradiated gas samples using gas chromatography. The handling of the proton beam was of great experimental importance for determining the irradiation parameters. In a series of experiments current density of the proton beam and total absorbed energy were shown to have a large influence on the yields of produced hydrocarbons. Mechanistic interpretations of the results are given and conclusions are drawn with regard to the chemistry and the simulation of various astrophysical systems.

  7. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  8. Irradiation embrittlement of neutron-irradiated ferritic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayano, H.; Narui, M.; Ohta, S.; Morozumi, S.

    1985-08-01

    In this study three kinds of Fe-Cr ferritic steels were examined by the instrumented Charpy test and tensile test before and after JMTR irradiation ( 2.2×10 23 f.n./m 2). In the unirradiated samples, 100%-martensite 5Cr-2Mo steel showed the highest adsorbed energy and the highest toughness at low temperatures, follewed by the 9Cr-2Mo steel, and the 20%-martensite 5Cr-2Mo steel showed the third highest toughness. In the irradiated samples, however, thoughness was low as a whole, especially in 20%-martensite 5Cr-2Mo steel. It was clarified that 100%-martensite 5Cr-2Mo steel had the lowest Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) and the highest fracture toughness, and that its DBTT and fracture toughness changed a little upon irradiation, showing excellent irradiation characteristics. The general equations were considered for correlation among strength, ductillity, DBTT and fracture toughness ( J value)

  9. La Vie Politique sous la Restauration a Travers ’Le Rouge et le Noir’ de Stendahl (The Political Life during the Restauration as Depicted in Le Rouge et le Noir by Stendahl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    CCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Clanification) (UNCLASSIFIED) 4 by Stendhal THE POLITICAL LIFE DURING THE RESTAURATION AS DEPICTED IN Le Rouge...34OVERPRINT" Brian CHRISTENSEN The Political Life during the Restauration as depicted in Le Rouge et le Noir by Stendhal CONSTRUCTION : The overall...Brian CHRISTENSEN La vie politique sous la Restauration A travers Le Rouge et le Noir de Stendhal CONSTRUCTION La construction d’ensemble du mdmoire est

  10. Effect of Grapefruit Seed Extract on Thermal Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during Sous-Vide Processing of Two Marinated Mexican Meat Entrées.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin; Peña-Ramos, E Aida; Juneja, Vijay K; Camou, Juan Pedro; Cumplido-Barbeitia, German

    2016-07-01

    D- and z-values for Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200, and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes were packaged in sterile bags, immersed in a water bath, and held at 55, 57.5, 60, and 62.5°C for different periods of time. Depending upon the temperature, D-values at 0 ppm of GSE ranged from 26.19 to 2.03 min in BRCS and 26.41 to 0.8 min in PTS. Adding 800 ppm of GSE to BRCS thermally treated at 55 and 62.5°C significantly decreased inactivation time by 35%. A reduction in time of 25.9, 10.6, and 40.1% at 55, 57.5, and 60°C, respectively, was observed in PTS with 800 ppm of GSE. The z-values of L. monocytogenes were not significantly affected by GSE addition; average z-values were 7.25 and 5.09°C for BRCS and PTS, respectively. Estimated thermal lethality for a 7-D log reduction of L. monocytogenes under commercial-size sous-vide conditions at a reference temperature of 55°C was reached at 78 and 71 min for BRCS without and with 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. For PTS, 7-D reduction was attained at 69 and 61 min without and with addition of 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. Supplementing both Mexican meat entrées (BRCS and PTS) with 800 ppm of GSE rendered L. monocytogenes cells more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. The results of this study will assist the retail food industry in designing acceptance limits on critical control points pertaining to cooking regimes to effectively eliminate L. monocytogenes in BRCS and PTS sous-vide processed Mexican meat entrées.

  11. Influence of the geothermal fluid rheology in the large scale hydro-thermal circulation in Soultz-sous-Forêts reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, Bérénice; Magnenet, Vincent; Fond, Christophe; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Many numerical models have been developed in deep geothermal reservoir engineering to interpret field measurements of the natural hydro-thermal circulations or to predict exploitation scenarios. They typically aim at analyzing the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical and Chemical (THMC) coupling including complex rheologies of the rock matrix like thermo-poro-elasticity. Few approaches address in details the role of the fluid rheology and more specifically the non-linear sensitivity of the brine rheology with temperature and pressure. Here we use the finite element Code_Aster to solve the balance equations of a 2D THM model of the Soultz-sous-Forêts reservoir. The brine properties are assumed to depend on the fluid pressure and the temperature as in Magnenet et al. (2014). A sensitive parameter is the thermal dilatation of the brine that is assumed to depend quadratically with temperature as proposed by the experimental measurements of Rowe and Chou (1970). The rock matrix is homogenized at the scale of the equation resolution assuming to have a representative elementary volume of the fractured medium smaller than the mesh size. We still chose four main geological units to adjust the rock physic parameters at large scale: thermal conductivity, permeability, radioactive source production rate, elastic and Biot parameters. We obtain a three layer solution with a large hydro-thermal convection below the cover-basement transition. Interestingly, the geothermal gradient in the sedimentary layer is controlled by the radioactive production rate in the upper altered granite. The second part of the study deals with an inversion approach of the homogenized solid and fluid parameters at large scale using our direct THM model. The goal is to compare the large scale inverted estimates of the rock and brine properties with direct laboratory measurements on cores and discuss their upscaling in the context of a fractured network hydraulically active. Magnenet V., Fond C., Genter A. and

  12. Investigation of fluid flow paths within granitic batholiths: the Soultz-sous-Forêts 'Enhanced Geothermal System' and the Catalan Coastal Ranges examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Joachim; Geraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Le Garzic, Edouard; Sausse, Judith

    2010-05-01

    Geothermal exploitation of deep and hot rocks at industrial scale requires an accurate assessment of the available resource. In particular, temperature, porosity, connected porosity, fluids path, permeability, rock volume attainable by drainage, have to be constrained to forecast the potential of an area, and to further manage the heat resource during exploitation. We will present our work devoted to structural controls on fluid circulations in deep granitic basements. The first example is the current Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS being developed for over 20 years in the hot granite of the Upper Rhine Graben. Depth levels of naturally flowing deformation zones are known at well positions, but the fluid flow paths between the boreholes are still poorly understood. Our new developments of Vertical Seismic Profiling methods provide mapping of these permeable structures between the boreholes in 3D, below the sedimentary filling of the graben in the 1500-3500 depth range. As typical hercynian strike directions are identified, this study demonstrates the major role of inherited structures in the control of fluid flow paths. 3D representation with gOcad allows to build a reservoir model from various data. Such 3D approach is of major importance to identify the structural relations between the faults populations, especially their intersections and connectivity. The second example is also located within the European Cenozoic Rift System. Outcropping granites of the Catalan Coastal Ranges allow to access their structures in 3D with a comprehensive set of methods. Multi-scalar fractures have been identified from Digital Elevation Model to field analysis. Carbonate fillings are observed in fractures of specific orientations. They illustrate old fluid flow paths occurring in natural conditions. Conditions of their emplacement are provided by geochemical signatures. The geometry of the veins (orientations and connections) and their distribution illustrate how a rock mass volume can be

  13. Inhibition of growth of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B in sous vide cooked meat products is achieved by using thermal processing but not nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, M; Mokkila, M; Skyttä, E; Hyytiä-Trees, E; Lähteenmäki, L; Hielm, S; Ahvenainen, R; Korkeala, H

    2001-06-01

    The safety of refrigerated processed foods of extended durability (REPFEDs) with respect to nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum is under continuous evaluation. In the present study, mild (P7.0(85.0) values 0 to 2 min [P, pasteurization value; z-value 7.0 degrees C; reference temperature 85.0 degrees C]) and increased (P7.0(85.0) values 67 to 515 min) heat treatments were evaluated in relation to survival of nonproteolytic C. botulinum type B spores in sous vide processed ground beef and pork cubes. The use of two concentrations of nisin in inhibition of growth and toxin production by nonproteolytic C. botulinum in the same products was also evaluated. A total of 96 samples were heat processed and analyzed for C. botulinum by BoNT/B gene-specific polmerase chain reaction and for botulinum toxin by a mouse bioassay after storage of 14 to 28 days at 4 and 8 degrees C. Predictably, after mild processing all samples of both products showed botulinal growth, and one ground beef sample became toxic at 8 degrees C. The increased heat processing, equivalent to 67 min at 85 degrees C. resulted in growth but not toxin production of C. botulinum in one ground beef sample in 21 days at 8 degrees C: in the pork cube samples no growth was detected. The increased heating of both products resulted in higher sensory quality than the milder heat treatment. Nisin did not inhibit the growth of nonproteolytic C. botulinum in either product; growth was detected in both products at 4 and 8 degrees C, and ground beef became toxic with all nisin levels within 21 to 28 days at 8 degrees C. Aerobic and lactic acid bacterial counts were reduced by the addition of nisin at 4 degrees C. The study demonstrates that the mild processing temperatures commonly employed in sous vide technology do not eliminate nonproteolytic C. botulinum type B spores. The intensity of each heat treatment needs to be carefully evaluated individually for each product to ensure product safety in relation to

  14. (Irradiation creep of graphite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1990-12-21

    The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

  15. Interactions between impurities and defects created by irradiation in iron; Interactions entre les impuretes et les defauts crees par irradiation dans le fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    chapitre est consacre a l'expose et aux discussions de nouveaux resultats experimentaux. Grace a l'addition d'impurete dans le fer, des experiences de trainage magnetique, energie stockee, resistivite et dilatometrie ont permis d'etablir que le stade I se rattache au modele propose par Granato et Nilan (90): seul le dernier sous-stade I{sub E} provient de la disparition des interstitiels dans les lacunes apres leur libre migration dans le reseau. Divers modeles sont discutes pour le stade II; s'il est probable que les diinterstitiels sont observables apres une irradiation aux electrons, aucune bande de trainage ne semble leur correspondre apres une irradiation aux neutrons. Des phenomenes particuliers apparaissent dans le fer irradie lorsqu'il contient des impuretes telles que nickel ou silicium (apparition de nouvelles bandes de trainage, leur transformation les unes dans les autres); ils refletent la complication successive du defaut elementaire interstitiel de fer-atome d'impurete. Enfin, dans une derniere section, l'auteur decrit quelques experiences effectuees sur des alliages fer-carbone irradies ou non ; elles montrent que le carbone apres avoir precipite a une temperature inferieure a 300 deg. C, se remet en solution lorsque l'alliage est chauffe au-dela de 330 deg. C. (auteur)

  16. Irradiation of food - the facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, V. (International Food Research Association, Leatherhead (UK))

    1985-06-01

    The author outlines the history of the process for the interest of the baking industry, and discusses the difficulties concerning public relations in this field, before the introduction of irradiation to the British food industry.

  17. Sanitary safety of irradiated foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A.

    Consideration on the acceptability of the irradiation of food, especially from the toxicological point of view, is presented. The conditions of the potencial permission of the preservation of food by radiation in CSSR are briefly given.

  18. Progress in food irradiation: Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegeman, H.

    1982-11-01

    The Dutch contribution gives an accurate description of the gamma radio preservation facility where a great variety of types of fruit, vegetables, meat and spices were treated with radiosensitivity of bacteria and fungi as well as spores being tested. Wholesomeness studies were limited to feeding tests on pigs and mutagenity tests on Salmonella typhimurium. 12 products were given as authorized for irradiation stating irradiation effect, radiation dose and shelf-life duration.

  19. ATLAS Pixel Group - Photo Gallery from Irradiation

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Photos 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 - Photos taken before irradiation of Pixel Test Analog Chip and Pmbars (April 2000) Photos 8,9,10,11 - Irradiation of VDC chips (May 2000) Photos 12, 13 - Irradiation of Passive Components (June 2000) Photos 14,15, 16 - Irradiation of Marebo Chip (November 1999)

  20. Facultés de droit en crise : formation et socialisation des élites allemandes sous la République de Weimar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Bénédicte Vincent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available L’article se propose d’explorer l’univers des facultés de droit sous la République de Weimar, que les contemporains jugent en « crise ». Cette perception renvoie tout d’abord aux difficultés d’adaptation d’un enseignement qui est de plus en plus écartelé entre les exigences de la science (transmettre une compréhension historique de l’évolution du droit et celles de la pratique (préparer les étudiants au monde professionnel par une connaissance du droit en vigueur : l’Université apparaît ainsi comme un lieu de confrontation entre professeurs et autorités étatiques pour le contrôle du cursus juridique. Par ailleurs, dans un contexte de grande expansion des effectifs étudiants, les facultés de droit ne connaissent pas de démocratisation de leur public et restent le domaine des élites traditionnelles ; de ce fait, elles semblent en décalage avec leur époque et continuent de former un univers passéiste que conforte l’engagement des étudiants dans des corporations traditionnelles. Ce mode de socialisation explique leur radicalisation dans le camp antirépublicain dès les années 1920.

  1. Les enjeux de la traduction sous la Révolution française. La transmission des textes du républicanisme anglais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymonde Monnier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des traductions est essentielle pour éclairer la généalogie de la transmission des idées et des théories politiques. L’article tente de comprendre les enjeux politiques et stratégiques de la traduction sous la Révolution française, notamment celle des textes républicains de la première révolution anglaise. Quand et pourquoi les concepts développés en leur temps par les théoriciens du Commonwealth prennent-ils une nouvelle actualité en 1789? Comment et dans quelles circonstances les traducteurs se réapproprientils ces textes pour agir sur le cours des choses? Le but est de dépasser l’analyse en termes de transfert et d’influence d’une tradition pour s’intéresser au contexte de réception, à l’agenda politique des traducteurs et à l’épreuve de la traduction dans un état donné de la langue. Comment ces textes s’insèrent-t-ils dans le contexte intellectuel et les conventions argumentatives du moment? Dans quelle mesure ces traductions ont-elles été des outils de l’innovation politique?

  2. Can faults become barriers for deep fluid circulation? Insights from high-resolution seismic VSP tomography at the Soultz-sous-Forêts geothermal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Marco; Dorbath, Catherine; Lubrano Lavadera, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) surveys are generally used for modelling converted phases of the seismic body waves propagating in the medium allowing the detection of waves interpreted as reflections on steeply dipping reflecting structures such as faults, abrupt lateral changes of lithology, and fractures. At the Enhanced Geothermal System geothermal field of Soultz-sous-Forêts the analysis of data recorded during a VSP experiment allowed describing the presence of at least two structures near the wells. Here we show how seismic tomography method can be applied to the VSP data to reconstruct the 3-D shape of structures in the volume surrounding the geothermal wells. The three-dimensional P wave velocity model obtained shows positive velocity anomalies associated with the main faults observed by the VSP analysis and negative anomalies in the regions affected by massive hydraulic stimulations performed in the past. This pattern can be explained as a different response of the rock volume to the fluid injections where regions marked by relative pre-existing high permeability were less affected by the hydraulic stimulations. This difference in permeability produced regions that could work as barriers for fluid diffusion through the reservoir. Comparisons of our high resolved model with the location of the induced seismicity and with another model obtained using seismic noise correlation give evidence of the presence of these structures and may explain the poor connection between the wells GPK4 and GPK2-GPK3 system.

  3. Le lymphangiome kystique du plancher buccal étendu a la région sous mandibulaire de l’adulte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Elboukhari; Karim, Nador; Hicham, Attifi; Mohamed, Zalagh

    2016-01-01

    Les lymphangiomes kystiques sont des lésions congénitales bénignes prédominantes nettement au niveau de la région de la tête et du cou plus particulièrement dans le triangle cervical postérieur. Ces malformations des vaisseaux lymphatiques sont fréquemment diagnostiquées chez l'enfant. Nous rapportons le cas clinique d'un lymphangiome kystique du plancher buccal ayant survenu chez un adulte de 28 ans et qui s'est étendu progressivement vers la région sous mandibulaire gauche. La tumeur suspecté cliniquement a été bien exploré à la tomodensitométrie. Le traitement a consisté en une exérèse complète par voie endobuccale avec étude histologique qui a confirmé le diagnostic d'un lymphangiome kystique macroscopique. Le suivi à quatre ans n'a montré aucune récidive. PMID:27795797

  4. L'interdépendance entre les sous-systèmes conjugal et parental: une analyse personne-processus-contexte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigras Marc

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans le présent article nous étudions les mécanismes de transmission des difficultés socioaffectives entre les systèmes conjugal et parental sous l'effet d'une part de stress contextuels comme la pauvreté des familles et, d'autre part, des caractéristiques personnelles des membres de ces familles comme le sexe et l'âge de l'enfant. Un échantillon de couples avec ou sans enfant permet dans une première étude d'estimer l'impact de la présence de l'enfant sur le couple alors que deux autres études posent la question complémentaire de l'impact du couple sur l'enfant. Les résultats de ces études contribuent à démontrer l'interdépendance entre le couple et l'enfant alors que chaque membre de la famille peut-être une source d'influence sur les autres. Nous argumentons qu'une réponse aversive à des problèmes extrafamiliaux favorise des stress intrafamiliaux mais que cela se révèle surtout selon les caractéristiques des membres de la famille.

  5. Effect of the addition of conventional additives and whey proteins concentrates on technological parameters, physicochemical properties, microstructure and sensory attributes of sous vide cooked beef muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2012-03-01

    Beef muscles submitted to four enhancement treatments (1.88% whey protein concentrate (WPC)+1.25% sodium chloride (NaCl); 1.88% modified whey protein concentrate (MWPC)+1.25%NaCl; 0.25% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP)+1.25%NaCl; 1.25%NaCl) and a control treatment (non-injected muscles) were sous vide cooked. Muscles with STPP+NaCl presented a significantly higher total yield (106.5%) in comparison to those with WPC/MWPC+NaCl (94.7% and 92.9%, respectively), NaCl alone (84.8%) or controls (72.1%). Muscles with STPP+NaCl presented significantly lower shear force values than control ones; also, WPC/MWPC+NaCl added muscles presented similar values than those from the other treatments. After cooking, muscles with STPP+NaCl or WPC/MWPC+NaCl depicted compacted and uniform microstructures. Muscles with STPP+NaCl showed a pink colour, meanwhile other treatment muscles presented colours between pinkish-grey and grey-brown. STPP+NaCl added samples presented the highest values of global tenderness and juiciness. The addition of STPP+NaCl had a better performance than WPC/MWPC+NaCl. However, the addition of WPC/MWPC+NaCl improved total yield in comparison to NaCl added or control ones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride addition plus tumbling procedures on technological parameters, physical properties and visual appearance of sous vide cooked beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2007-07-01

    Beef muscles cooked by the sous vide system were evaluated for the effects of pre-injection tumbling, brine addition and post-injection tumbling on technological parameters, physical properties, visual appearance and tissue microstructure. The muscles were injected at 120% (over original weight) with a brine formulated to give a concentration of 3.5% whey protein concentrate and 0.7% sodium chloride on an injected raw product basis. Pre-injection tumbling did not affect most of the evaluated parameters. Brine addition reduced significantly the cooking and total weight losses. Total weight loss was 7.2% for injected muscles, and significantly higher (28.2%) for non-injected ones. Brine incorporation increased pH and reduced shear force values of cooked muscles. Extended post-injection tumbling (5rpm-10h) improved brine distribution and visual appearance, and also diminished the shear force values of cooked muscles. However, this treatment increased the weight losses of post-injection tumbling and cooking-pasteurization stages.

  7. Using numerical analysis to develop and evaluate the method of high temperature sous-vide to soften carrot texture in different-sized packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoon-Ki; Uhm, Joo-Tae; Yoon, Won Byong

    2014-04-01

    The high-temperature sous-vide (HTSV) method was developed to prepare carrots with a soft texture at the appropriate degree of pasteurization. The effect of heating conditions, such as temperature and time, was investigated on various package sizes. Heating temperatures of 70, 80, and 90 °C and heating times of 10 and 20 min were used to evaluate the HTSV method. A 3-dimensional conduction model and numerical simulations were used to estimate the temperature distribution and the rate of heat transfer to samples with various geometries. Four different-sized packages were prepared by stacking carrot sticks of identical size (9.6 × 9.6 × 90 mm) in a row. The sizes of the packages used were as follows: (1) 9.6 × 86.4 × 90, (2) 19.2 × 163.2 × 90, (3) 28.8 × 86.4 × 90, and (4) 38.4 × 86.4 × 90 mm. Although only a moderate change in color (L*, a*, and b*) was observed following HTSV cooking, there was a significant decrease in carrot hardness. The geometry of the package and the heating conditions significantly influenced the degree of pasteurization and the final texture of the carrots. Numerical simulations successfully described the effect of geometry on samples at different heating conditions. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations on the odour profile of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigioni, G; Langman, L; Szerman, N; Irurueta, M; Vaudagna, S R

    2008-07-01

    Semitendinosus muscles added with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were submitted to sous vide cooking. Four enhancement treatments and a control were tested: 0.875% WPC (w/w)+0.625% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+0.625% NaCl, 0.875% WPC+1.875% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+1.875% NaCl, and control (non-injected muscles). Odour analyses were carried out with an electronic nose (EN) system. EN data were evaluated applying Principal Component Analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis and Partial Least Squares algorithm. EN was able to discriminate the odour profiles of cooked enhanced beef as a function of the amount of WPC added. No significant differences in odour profiles were observed regarding NaCl concentration. These results agreed with those obtained when odour profiles were analysed in WPC dispersions. The reported results support the applicability of EN methodology for analysing the impact of processing parameters on beef odour profiles.

  9. L’entrée des jeunes dans l’agriculture : cas du maraichage sous serre dans les Ziban (Algérie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Hartani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En Algérie, l’approvisionnement des marchés de gros en fruits et légumes dépend quasi exclusivement de la production locale. L’abondance et la régularité de ces productions constituent un enjeu important de sécurité alimentaire pour l’Etat qui doit assurer un approvisionnement suffisant des villes, en forte croissance démographique. La plaine des Ziban tout autour de la ville de Biskra connait une forte dynamique agricole. Située aux portes du Sahara, cette plaine se caractérise par de vastes étendues de terres, un climat aride et de nombreux points d’eau. Notre étude porte sur les trajectoires des nombreux jeunes algériens qui affluent dans cette plaine pour y trouver du travail, plus particulièrement pour cultiver le maraîchage sous serre. Débutant en tant qu’ouvriers ou métayers, ils arrivent à économiser et peuvent rapidement devenir métayers, locataires puis propriétaires. Leur projet correspond soit à un investissement à moyen terme dans l’activité agricole localement ou dans leur région d’origine soit à quitter l’agriculture. Nous nous interrogeons enfin sur la capacité des politiques publiques à intégrer ces nouveaux acteurs dans la profession agricole.

  10. L'interdépendance entre les sous-systèmes conjugal et parental: une analyse personne-processus-contexte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bigras

    Full Text Available Dans le présent article nous étudions les mécanismes de transmission des difficultés socioaffectives entre les systèmes conjugal et parental sous l'effet d'une part de stress contextuels comme la pauvreté des familles et, d'autre part, des caractéristiques personnelles des membres de ces familles comme le sexe et l'âge de l'enfant. Un échantillon de couples avec ou sans enfant permet dans une première étude d'estimer l'impact de la présence de l'enfant sur le couple alors que deux autres études posent la question complémentaire de l'impact du couple sur l'enfant. Les résultats de ces études contribuent à démontrer l'interdépendance entre le couple et l'enfant alors que chaque membre de la famille peut-être une source d'influence sur les autres. Nous argumentons qu'une réponse aversive à des problèmes extrafamiliaux favorise des stress intrafamiliaux mais que cela se révèle surtout selon les caractéristiques des membres de la famille.

  11. Interdiffusion de puits quantiques controlee par irradiation laser excimere pour l'integration de composants photoniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genest, Jonathan

    L'integration de composants discrets sur un systeme unique, tel une puce electronique, augmente les performances totales du systeme, fait apparaitre de nouvelles fonctionnalites et diminue les couts associes a la fabrication des dispositifs. Ces ameliorations, appliquees au secteur de la microelectronique, sont grandement responsables des avancements importants qu'ont connus les technologies de l'information et des communications au cours des dernieres annees. Puisque la fabrication de circuits photoniques integres necessite l'integration de structures ayant des bandes interdites differentes a partir d'une meme puce semiconductrice, leur niveau d'integration est bien inferieur que celui atteint pour un microprocesseur standard. Parmi les techniques ayant le potentiel de fabriquer des circuits photoniques integres monolithiquement, l'interdiffusion de puits quantique post-expitaxial controlee spatialement augmente la bande interdite d'une heterostructure semiconductrice a l'interieur de regions definies. Le processus d'interdiffusion, active thermiquement, est accelere par la diffusion d'impuretes et de defauts ponctuels tels que les lacunes et les interstitiels. L'hypothese de depart de mes travaux de doctorat suppose que la radiation laser ultra-violette module la diffusion et la generation de defauts ponctuels dans les heterostructures reposant sur les technologies a base de GaAs et d'InP et, consequemment, controle spatialement l'interdiffusion de puits quantiques. Nous avons demontre que lorsque appliquee sur des heterostructures a base de GaAs, l'irradiation laser excimere l'interdiffusion en favorisant la croissance d'un stresseur de surface qui empeche la diffusion des defauts ponctuels vers les puits quantiques. Nous avons souligne l'influence de la vapeur d'eau physisorbee sur la croissance du stresseur et avons determine la resolution spatiale de la technique. Dans les heterostructures basees sur les technologies InP, meme sous le seuil d'ablation, l

  12. Effects of irradiation upon spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    ESR studies were performed on untreated and irradiated samples of paprika powder, ground black pepper, and a spice mixture of the following composition: paprika, 55%; black pepper, 14%; allspice, 9%; coriander, 9%; marjoram, 7%; cumin, 4%; and nutmeg, 2%. Gamma radiation doses from 0.5 to 5 Mrad were applied. In the case of paprika samples, the effect of moisture content on the formation and disappearance of radiation-induced free radicals was also investigated. Shortly after irradiation (on the day of radiation treatment) high amounts of free radicals were detected in irradiated spice samples but they diminished upon storage. After a period of 3 months the ESR signals of the irradiated samples approximated those of the controls. The free radicals found in unirradiated ground spices did not disappear during a storage period as long as one year. The formation and disappearance of radiation-induced free radicals were found to be strongly affected by the moisture content of samples. If a sample of low moisture content containing a high free radical concentration after irradiation was placed in an atmosphere of higher moisture content, the free radicals decayed rapidly.

  13. Irradiation damage to the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennessy, J.J.

    1987-07-01

    While some degree of injury to normal, non-tumor-bearing, intrathoracic structures always occurs following irradiation for cure or palliation of neoplastic disease, clinical expression of this injury is uncommon. However, under certain circumstances, clinical manifestations may be severe and life threatening. Acute radiographic manifestations of pulmonary injury usually appear either synchronous with or, more typically, seven to ten days after the onset of the clinical syndrome. The acute signs of edema and slight volume loss within the irradiated zone are nonspecific except for their temporal and spatial relationship to the irradiation of the patient. Resolution of the acute changes is followed by pulmonary cicatrization, which is almost always stable within one year after completion of therapy. Change in postirradiation scarring following stabilization of the reaction must always be assumed to be due to some other process. While the radiograph primarily reveals pulmonary injury, all tissues, including the heart and major vessels, are susceptible, and the radiologist must recognize that any change within the thorax of a patient who has undergone thoracic irradiation may be a complication of that treatment. Differentiation of irradiation injury from residual or recurrent tumor, drug reaction, or opportunistic infection may be difficult and at times impossible.

  14. Nutritional aspects of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, T.K.

    1981-08-01

    From the nutritional point of view the irradiation of fruits and vegetables presents few problems. It should be noted that irradiation-induced changes in the ..beta..-carotene content of papaya (not available to the Joint Expert Committee in 1976) have been demonstrated to be unimportant. The Joint Expert Committee also noted the need for more data on thiamine loss. These have been forthcoming and indicate that control of insects in rice is possible without serious loss of the vitamin. Experiments with other cereal crops were also positive in this regard. The most important evidence on the nutritional quality of irradiated beef and poultry was the demonstration that they contained no anti-thiamine properties. A point not to be overlooked is the rather serious loss of thiamine when mackerel is irradiated at doses exceeding 3 kGy. Recent evidence indicates that thiamine loss could be reduced by using a high dose rate application process. Though spices contribute little directly to the nutritional quality of the food supply they play an important indirect role. It is thus encouraging that they can be sterilized by irradiation without loss of aroma and taste and without significant loss of ..beta..-carotenes. Of future importance are the observations on single cell protein and protein-fat-carbohydrate mixtures. The reduction of net protein utilization in protein-fat mixtures may be the result of physical interaction of the components.

  15. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  16. Currently developing opportunities in food irradiation and modern irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, R. [Director Business Development. SteriGenics International Inc. 17901 East Warren Avenue No. 4, Detroit, Michigan 48224-1333 (United States)

    1997-12-31

    I. Factor currently influencing advancing opportunities for food irradiation include: heightened incidence and awareness of food borne illnesses and causes. Concerns about ensuring food safety in international as well as domestic trade. Regulatory actions regarding commonly used fumigants/pesticides e.g. Me Br. II. Modern irradiator design: the SteriGenics {sup M}ini Cell{sup .} A new design for new opportunities. Faster installation of facility. Operationally and space efficient. Provides local {sup o}nsite control{sup .} Red meat: a currently developing opportunity. (Author)

  17. Post-irradiation examination and R and D programs using irradiated fuels at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Yong Bum; Min, Duck Kee; Kim, Eun Ka and others

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the Post-Irradiation Examination(PIE) and R and D programs using irradiated fuels at KAERI. The objectives of post-irradiation examination (PIE) for the PWR irradiated fuels, CANDU fuels, HANARO fuels and test fuel materials are to verify the irradiation performance and their integrity as well as to construct a fuel performance data base. The comprehensive utilization program of the KAERI's post-irradiation examination related nuclear facilities such as Post-Irradiation Examination Facility (PIEF), Irradiated Materials Examination Facility (IMEF) and HANARO is described.

  18. Directional irradiances and fractional clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Andersen, Elsa; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2017-04-01

    For large scale implementation of solar energy, better understanding of the directional and temporal variations in the solar resource is needed. This includes understanding the shading within a multiple row field of solar panels and how this affects the electricity or heat production. We have studied directional irradiances measured simultaneously from 16 downward directions at 1 minute temporal resolution. Also, we have performed measurements of the variations in the field of view across individual solar heating panels in the operational solar district heating plant in Hedehusene in Denmark. By combining a model of directional diffuse irradiances with the field of view variation across a solar panel in a solar panel field we can quantify the effect of shading of diffuse irradiances on the heat flow from the panel.

  19. Neutron irradiation of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.; Ermi, R.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Seven subcapsules from the FFTF/MOTA 2B irradiation experiment containing 97 or 100% dense sintered beryllium cylindrical specimens in depleted lithium have been opened and the specimens retrieved for postirradiation examination. Irradiation conditions included 370 C to 1.6 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, 425 C to 4.8 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, and 550 C to 5.0 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}. TEM specimens contained in these capsules were also retrieved, but many were broken. Density measurements of the cylindrical specimens showed as much as 1.59% swelling following irradiation at 500 C in 100% dense beryllium. Beryllium at 97% density generally gave slightly lower swelling values.

  20. Endodontics and the irradiated patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, F.L.

    1976-11-01

    With increasingly larger numbers of irradiated patients in our population, it seems likely that all dentists will eventually be called upon to manage the difficult problems that these patients present. Of utmost concern should be the patient's home care program and the avoidance of osteroradionecrosis. Endodontics and periodontics are the primary areas for preventing or eliminating the infection that threatens osteoradionecrosis. Endodontic treatment must be accomplished with the utmost care and maximum regard for the fragility of the periapical tissues. Pulpally involved teeth should never be left open in an irradiated patient, and extreme care must be taken with the between-visits seal. If one is called upon for preradiation evaluation, routine removal of all molar as well as other compromised teeth should be considered. Attention should be directed to the literature for further advances in the management of irradiated patients.

  1. Long-lived interaction between hydrothermal and magmatic fluids in the Soultz-sous-Forêts granitic system (Rhine Graben, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardien, Véronique; Rabinowicz, Michel; Vigneresse, Jean-Louis; Dubois, Michel; Boulvais, Philippe; Martini, Rossana

    2016-03-01

    The 5 km deep drilling at Soultz-sous-Forêts samples a granitic intrusion under its sedimentary cover. Core samples at different depths allow study of the evolving conditions of fluid-rock interaction, from the syn-tectonic emplacement of Hercynian granites at depth until post-cooling history and alteration close to the surface. Hydrogen, carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of CO2 and H2O have been measured in fluid inclusions trapped in magmatic quartz within samples collected along the drill core. Early Fluid Inclusions Assemblage (FIA) contains aqueous carbonic fluids whereas the latest FIA are H2O-rich. In the early FIA, the amount of CO2 and the δ13C value both decrease with depth, revealing two distinct sources of carbon, one likely derived from sedimentary carbonates (δ13C = - 2‰ V-PDB) and another from the continental crust (δ13C = - 9‰ V-PDB). The carbon isotope composition of bulk granites indicates a third carbon source of organic derivation (δ13C = - 20‰ V-PDB). Using a δD - δ18O plot, we argue that the water trapped in quartz grains is mainly of meteoric origin somewhat mixed with magmatic water. The emplacement of the Soultz-sous-Forêts granite pluton occurred in a North 030-040° wrench zone. After consolidation of the granite mush at 600 °C, sinistral shear (γ 1) concentrated the final leucocratic melt in vertical planes oriented along (σ1, σ2). Crystallization of this residual leucocratic melt occurred while shearing was still active. At a temperature of 550 °C, crystallization ended with the formation of vertical quartz veins spaced about 5 mm, and exhibiting a width of several cm. The quartz veins form a connected network of a few kilometers in height, generated during hydrothermal contraction of the intrusion. Quartz crystallization led to the exsolution of 30% by volume of the aqueous fluid. As quartz grains were the latest solid phase still plastic, shearing localized inside the connected quartz network. Aqueous fluid was

  2. Thermal Expansion of Irradiated Polytetrafluoroethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Subrahmanyam, HN; Subramanyam, SV

    1987-01-01

    The thermal expansion coefficient of gamma-irradiated Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been measured in the temperature range 80-340 K by using a three-terminal capacitance technique. The samples are irradiated in air at room temperature with gamma rays from a $Co^{60}$ source at a dose rate of 0.26 Mrad/h. The change in crystallinity is measured by an x-ray technique. The expansion coefficient is found to increase with radiation dose below 140 K owing to the predominant effect of degradati...

  3. Dislocation morphology in deformed and irradiated niobium. [Neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C. P.

    1977-06-01

    Niobium foils of moderate purity were examined for the morphology of dislocations or defect clusters in the deformed or neutron-irradiated state by transmission electron microscopy. New evidence has been found for the dissociation of screw dislocations into partials on the (211) slip plane according to the Crussard mechanism: (a/2) (111) ..-->.. (a/3) (111) + (a/6) (111).

  4. Élaboration d'un bronze Cu-8%Sn fritté sous pression et l'étude de son aptitude à l'absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucif, K.; Keraghel, F.; Alem, S.

    2005-05-01

    L'introduction des píeces miniatures dans le domaine de l'informatique et la microélectronique nécessite une grande précision et un environnement propre. D'autre part, la conservation d'énergie exige des pièces légères et une bonne longévité. Pour résoudre ces problèmes, des pièces autolubrifiées ont été proposées. En effet, plusieurs disciplines peuvent s'ingérer pour élaborer ces pièces: la métallurgie des poudres pour produire des pièces poreuses, la tribologie pour caractériser la pièce en fonctionnement et la mécanique des fluides pour évaluer le comportement échantillon -lubrifiant.
Dans ce présent travail, nous présentons l'évolution de la densité des échantillons élaborés en fonction de: la température d'élaboration, la pression de compactage, et le temps de maintien et l'évolution de l'absorption des lubrifiants par un alliage Cu-8% Sn fritté sous pression. Les lubrifiants choisis sont l'eau et une huile de machine à usage domestique et leur aptitude à l'autolubrification.

  5. Influences de la symphonie concertante sur la musique de la Cour parisienne sous l'Empire et la Restauration (1800-1830

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dratwicki, Alexandre

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The origins of the very much appreciated "symphonie concertante" can be found in the importance of public concerts given in Paris at the end of the 18th century. The specific repertoire played at the French Court during the years 1800-1830 distinctly shows this vogue for the "symphonie concertante", for it reveals the still unknown importance of virtuosity. Considered as an musical entertainment for the pompous parties at the French Court or as an musical accompaniment for the masses given at the Imperial and Royal Chapel, this "decorative concertant syle" became an essential part of the Regime etiquette during the Napoleonic empire as well as the Restoration period. This music, perfectly incorporated into the official guidelines, will disappear as a consequence of the political events of 1830 and the arrival of a new aesthetic movement, the Romanticism.

    [fr] La vogue du concert public à Paris, à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, fut à l'origine de l'essor phénoménal que connut la symphonie concertante. Le répertoire de la musique de la Cour - entre 1800 et 1830 - est particulièrement représentatif de cette mode : il révèle une place encore insoupçonnée laissée à la virtuosité. Agrémentant les messes de la Chapelle ou les bals donnés lors de fastueuses soirées, ce « style concertant décoratif » devint un élément constitutif de l'apparat gouvernemental sous l'Empire et la Restauration. Une sorte d'académisme officiel que les événements politiques de 1830 et l'essor du romantisme musical feront définitivement disparaître.

  6. Hiérophanie et sotériologie dans les traditions ismaéliennes du sous-continent indo-pakistanais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Boivin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Vers 1845, Hasan 'Alî Shâh, le guide divin (imam des Ismaéliens, trouva refuge dans le sous-continent indien. Auprès de ses disciples indiens, les Khojâhs, il exalta sa filiation avec l'imam Husayn pour légitimer son statut de sauveur, favorisant ainsi le développement des rituels shiites liés à Moharram. Son successeur 'Alî Shâh poursuivit cette œuvre avec la création du culte d'Amîr Pîr, où il essayait de marquer l'identité propre des Ismaéliens. Enfin, Sultân Muhammad Shâh éradiqua tous les intercesseurs pour se présenter comme le qâ'im, un sauveur individuel accessible à tous ici et maintenant.Dans la littérature religieuse des Khojâhs (ginân-s, bien que 'Alî soit présenté comme le mahdi, l'imam est qualifié de Naklankî, nom du 10e avatar de Vishnû, dont la parousie, chez les Hindous, est encore à venir. En revanche, chez les Ismaéliens de tradition persane du nord du Pakistan, l'imam est le qâ'im qui sauve les croyants individuellement, cet acte constituant une condition pour participer à la Résurrection orchestrée par le mahdi, le premier imam 'Alî. Les Ismaéliens ont par conséquent fait passer au premier plan le salut spirituel, alors que la Résurrection finale est reléguée dans un temps indéterminé.

  7. Thermal destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in sous-vide cooked ground beef as affected by tea leaf and apple skin powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Kawamoto, S; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the heat resistance of a four-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of white and green tea powders and an apple skin extract. Inoculated meat was cooked using the sous-vide technique, i.e., the meat was packaged in sterile bags and completely immersed in a circulating water bath at low temperature for a period of time. The bags were cooked for 1 h to an internal temperature of 55, 58, 60, or 62.5 degrees C, and then held from 240 min at 55 degrees C to 10 min at 62.5 degrees C. The surviving bacteria were enumerated by spiral plating onto tryptic soy agar overlaid with sorbitol-MacConkey agar. Inactivation kinetics of the pathogens deviated from first-order kinetics. D-values (time, in minutes, required for the bacteria to decrease by 90%) in the control beef ranged from 67.79 min at 55 degrees C to 2.01 min at 62.5 degrees C. D-values determined by a logistic model ranged from 36.22 (D1, the D-value of a major population of surviving cells) and 112.79 (D2, the D-value of a minor subpopulation) at 55 degrees C to 1.39 (D1) and 3.00 (D2) at 62.5 degrees C. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in the sensitivity of the bacteria to heat was observed with the addition of 3% added antimicrobials. D-value reductions of 62 to 74% were observed with apple powder and 18 to 58% with tea powders. Thermal death times from this study will assist the retail food industry to design cooking regimes that ensure the safety of beef contaminated with E. coli O157:H7.

  8. Inhomogeneous microstructural growth by irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishan, K.; Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper we discuss the development of heterogeneous microstructure for uniform irradiation conditions. It is shown that microstructural inhomogeneities on a scale of 0.1 μm can develop purely from kinematic considerations because of the basic structure of the rate equations used to d...

  9. Microstructural processes in irradiated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Morgan, Dane; Jiao, Zhijie; Almer, Jonathan; Brown, Donald

    2016-04-01

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at two symposia, the Microstructural Processes in Irradiated Materials (MPIM) and Characterization of Nuclear Reactor Materials and Components with Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation, held in the TMS 2015, 144th Annual Meeting & Exhibition at Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida, USA on March 15-19, 2015.

  10. Preservation of foodstuffs by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sielaff, H.; Thiemig, F.; Schleusener, H. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Nahrungsgueterwirtschaft und Lebensmitteltechnologie)

    1985-03-01

    Application and experimental testing of irradiation in foodstuff processing are accomplished in more than 20 countries. Radiation treatment of foodstuffs and commodities with doses between 0.5 - 50 kGy is licensed in the GDR, too. Examples of application of ionizing radiation in food processing are discussed.

  11. Decommissioning of an irradiation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, A.G. [Radiation Protection and Safety Services, Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    Distributed throughout hospital, research establishments in the United Kingdom and many other countries are Irradiation Units and Teletherapy machines used for either research purposes or treatment of patients for radiotherapy. These Irradiation Units and Teletherapy machines are loaded with radioactive sources of either Cobalt 60 or Caesium 137. The activity of these sources can range from 1 Terabecquerel up to 100 Terabecquerels or more. Where it is possible to load the radioactive sources without removal from the shielded container into a transport package which is suitable for transport decommissioning of a Teletherapy machine is not a major exercise. When the radioactive sources need to be unloaded from the Irradiation Unit or Teletherapy machine the potential exists for very high levels of radiation. The operation outlined in the paper involved the transfer from an Irradiation Unit to a transport package of two 3.25 Terabecquerel sources of Cobalt 60. The operation of the removal and transfer comes within the scope of the United Kingdom Ionising Radiation Regulations 1985 which were made following the Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This paper illustrates a safe method for this operation and how doses received can be kept within ALARA. (author)

  12. Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-10-01

    We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  13. Sous la montagne de plastique, une mine d’or ? : Le mythe du recyclage à l’épreuve d’une filière vietnamienne.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Meur, Mikaëla

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Cet article propose d’analyser une filière de recyclage des matières plastiques dans un village du delta du fleuve Rouge, au Vietnam. Cette activité florissante est marquée par des circulations matérielles locales, régionales et globales et elle représente un « Eldorado » pour les petits entrepreneurs vietnamiens projetant de faire fortune dans le recyclage des déchets. L’idée d’une relation alchimique du déchet à l’or permet alors de questionner le recyclage sous l’an...

  14. Erreurs induites par l’utilisation d’un capteur de grande taille, un ceptomètre par exemple, pour calculer un coefficient d’extinction à partir de la mesure des rayonnements transmis sous une culture

    OpenAIRE

    Tournebize, Régis; Cornet, Denis; BONHOMME, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    L’estimation des rayonnements solaires interceptés par une culture est une donnée devenue courante en agronomie pour évaluer sa production. Cette estimation est le plus souvent faite à partir de la seule mesure de l’indice foliaire LAI et l’utilisation d’un coefficient d’extinction des rayonnements K. Ce coefficient K est souvent évalué à partir de mesures ponctuelles de l’indice foliaire et de la fraction des rayonnements solaires transmis sous une culture TR, en utilisant la for...

  15. Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Joe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Keller, Paul [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kohse, Gordon [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tittmann, Bernhard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Reinhardt, Brian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rempe, Joy [Rempe and Associates, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high-accuracy and -resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation-tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric

  16. How irradiation can help food processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, M. (University Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Industrial Microbiology)

    1984-06-01

    A review is given of Cobalt-60 irradiation in the food processing industry, and in particular the techniques of preservation of foodstuffs and the extension of shelf life. A typical food irradiation facility is described, and the economics of such facilities are presented. The consumer acceptance and safety of irradiated foods are discussed, and the potential applications of a food irradiation programme in Ireland is examined.

  17. Neutron irradiation effects on plasma facing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, V.; Federici, G.; Rödig, M.; Snead, L. L.; Wu, C. H.

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the effects of neutron irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties and bulk tritium retention of armour materials (beryllium, tungsten and carbon). For each material, the main properties affected by neutron irradiation are described and the specific tests of neutron irradiated armour materials under thermal shock and disruption conditions are summarized. Based on current knowledge, the expected thermal and structural performance of neutron irradiated armour materials in the ITER plasma facing components are analysed.

  18. Evaluation of irradiation hardening of proton irradiated stainless steels by nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro, E-mail: kiyohiro.yabuuchi@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aobaku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Kuribayashi, Yutaka [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aobaku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Nogami, Shuhei, E-mail: shuhei.nogami@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aobaku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hasegawa, Akira, E-mail: akira.hasegawa@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aobaku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Ion irradiation experiments are useful for investigating irradiation damage. However, estimating the irradiation hardening of ion-irradiated materials is challenging because of the shallow damage induced region. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prove usefulness of nanoindentation technique for estimation of irradiation hardening for ion-irradiated materials. SUS316L austenitic stainless steel was used and it was irradiated by 1 MeV H{sup +} ions to a nominal displacement damage of 0.1, 0.3, 1, and 8 dpa at 573 K. The irradiation hardness of the irradiated specimens were measured and analyzed by Nix–Gao model. The indentation size effect was observed in both unirradiated and irradiated specimens. The hardness of the irradiated specimens changed significantly at certain indentation depths. The depth at which the hardness varied indicated that the region deformed by the indenter had reached the boundary between the irradiated and unirradiated regions. The hardness of the irradiated region was proportional to the inverse of the indentation depth in the Nix–Gao plot. The bulk hardness of the irradiated region, H{sub 0}, estimated by the Nix–Gao plot and Vickers hardness were found to be related to each other, and the relationship could be described by the equation, HV = 0.76H{sub 0}. Thus, the nanoindentation technique demonstrated in this study is valuable for measuring irradiation hardening in ion-irradiated materials.

  19. Schedule and status of irradiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    To provide an updated summary of the status of irradiation experiments for the neutron-interactive materials program. The current status of reactor irradiation experiments is presented in tables summarizing the experimental objectives, conditions, and schedule. Currently, the program has two irradiation experiments in reactor; and 8 experiments in the planning or design stages. Postirradiation examination and testing is in progress on 18 experiments.

  20. Food irradiation: research and technology, preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many interesting and exciting developments have occurred in the field of food irradiation since the publication of the first edition of Food Irradiation: Research and Technology in 2006. The 2nd edition of the book reviews our latest knowledge on food irradiation, highlights the current developments...

  1. Complexation des acides aminés basiques arginine, histidine et lysine avec l'ADN plasmidique en solution aqueuse : participation à la capture de radicaux sous irradiation X à 1,5 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq Khalil, Talat; Taillefumier, Baptiste; Boulanouar, Omar; Mavon, Christophe; Fromm, Michel

    2016-09-01

    L'environnement chimique de l'ADN en situation biologique est complexe notam-ment en raison de la présence d'histones, protéines nucléaires, associées en quantité approximativement égales à l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Les histones possèdent de nombreux radicaux basiques arginine et lysine chargés positivement et dont la majorité se trouve sur les chaînes émergentes, l'ADN présente quant à lui des charges négatives sur ses groupements phosphates localisés tout au long de la double hélice. Dans cette étude, la complexité de la structure de la chromatine nucléaire est dans un premier temps mimée en solution aqueuse par la formation de complexes entre un ADN plasmidique sonde et les trois acides aminés basiques, Arg, His, Lys, qui, mis à part His, sont protonés au pH physiologique. Ces acides aminés libres en solution sont réputés être des capteurs efficaces de radicaux libres, notamment pour le radical hydroxyle, conférant ainsi un pouvoir protecteur vis-à-vis des effets indirects sur l'ADN en situation d'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants. A concentration fixée, les capacités de capture des acides aminés libres, σ, pour le radical hydroxyle sont typiquement les suivantes σHis ≈σArg > σLys (σLys ≈ 0,1 × σArg). Nous avons mesuré les taux de cassures simple brin par plasmide et par Gray (χ) lors d'expositions de solutions aqueuses de complexes [acide aminé - ADN plasmidique] aux rayons X ultra-mous (1,5 keV). A concentrations égales, les trois acides aminés complexés et présents en large excès ne manifestent pas une capacité de protection de l'ADN proportionnelle à leur capacité de capture libre et en solution ; on trouve en effet des taux de cassures dans l'ordre suivant χHis > χArg > χLys (χLys ≈ 0,01 χArg). Après avoir détaillé le mode opératoire de ces mesures, nous analyserons sur des bases bibliographiques, les modes spécifiques d'interaction des acides aminés basiques avec l'ADN. La spécificité des liaisons de l'arginine avec l'ADN et plus particulièrement sa propension à être un ligand bidentate qui se lie aux bases (principalement G) de l'ADN nous permet d'expliquer les taux de cassures simple brin particulièrement élevés observés avec Arg. Un mécanisme de transfert de radical intermoléculaire est suggéré pour Arg. Un raisonnement globalement similaire peut être tenu pour la lysine. Pour l'histidine, nous suggérons quelques voies possibles qui conduiraient à expliquer les taux de cassure anormalement élevés observés, mais cela demandera des expériences complémentaires.

  2. Characterization and interpretation of a fractured rocky massif from borehole data. Boreholes of geothermal project at Soultz-sous-Forets and other examples of unidirectional sampling; Caracterisation et interpretation d`un volume rocheux fracture a partir de donnees de forages. Les forages geothermiques de Soultz-sous-Forets et autres exemples d`echantillonnages unidirectionnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezayes, CH.

    1995-12-18

    In this thesis, we study fractures from borehole data on two sites: in one, located at Soultz-sous-Forets (Alsace) in the Rhine graben, boreholes reach a delta Jurassic series forming a petroleum reservoir. At Soultz, fractures have been studied on cores and borehole images. Striated faults present on cores permit to determine the tectonic history of the granite, completed by field study in Vosges Massif. This history corresponds to the Rhine graben history knowing by different authors. The analysis of vertical induced fractures observed on borehole images indicates a present-day NW-SE to NNW-SSE compression. These variations of stress direction are confirmed by others in situ measurements, as hydraulic injection, micro-seismicity, etc... On cores and borehole images, numerous fractures have been observed. Most of them are linked to the E-W distension, which permits the Rhine graben opening at Oligocene. At greatest scale, in quartz minerals, the micro-fractures are constitute by fluid inclusion trails. Several sets are related to the E-W distension, but others sets are linked to compressive stages. These sets are not observed on cores. This is a under-sampling of some fractures by the boreholes, but theses fractures exit into to rock massif. On borehole images, fracture density is weakest than the cores, however the set organisation is the same. At Ravenscar, the distribution of fracture spacing along different unidirectional sampling shows a exponential negative law. However, the fracture density varies with sampling. (author) 199 refs.

  3. Transition de phase quantique de type verrouillage-deverrouillage dans les canaux lineaires coherents des phases en rayures dans les doubles puits quantiques sous champ magnetique perpendiculaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faribault, Alexandre

    groupe de renormalisation perturbatif des couplages Josephson generaux permet alors de conclure si la phase deverrouillee peut etre stable lorsque l'on traite les fluctuations quantiques qui ne sont pas incluses dans l'approximation GRPA. Ces calculs nous permettent de conclure que la phase en rayures coherentes dans les doubles puits quantiques sous champ magnetique perpendiculaire est telle que les canaux coherents demeurent toujours verrouilles et ce, peu importe la valeur de la distance inter-puits. On envisage par contre que l'ajout d'un biais electrostatique pourrait permettre de modifier les proprietes du double puits de facon telle qu'une phase en rayures deverrouillees puisse etre stabilisee par les fluctuations quantiques.

  4. Development of data base on food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Izumi, Fumio

    1995-12-01

    For the exact understanding on food irradiation in Japan, it is important to provide information of food irradiation to consumers, industries and government offices. However, many of information on food irradiation are only restricted in a few experts or institutes relating to this field. For this reason, data base of food irradiation has been completed together with the systems necessary for input the data using computer. In this data base, about 630 data with full reports were inputted in computer in the field of wholesomeness studies, irradiation effects on food, radiation engineering, detection methods of irradiated food and Q and A of food irradiation for easy understanding. Many of these data are inputted by Japanese language. Some English reports on wholesomeness studies are also included which were mainly obtained from international projects of food irradiation. Many of data on food irradiation are responsible in the fields of food science, dietetics, microbiology, radiation biology, molecular biology, medical science, agricultural science, radiation chemistry, radiation engineering and so on. Data base of food irradiation contains many useful data which can apply to many other fields of radiation processing not only on food irradiation but also on sterilization of medical equipments, upgrading of agricultural wastes and others. (author).

  5. Spectrophotometric analysis of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josimovic, L.; Cudina, I.

    1987-01-01

    Seven different spices (thyme, cinnamon, coriander, caraway, pimento, paprika, black pepper) were treated by gamma radiation at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy, and the effect on chemical quality was determined. The effects of this dose were assessed by spectrophotometric analysis of some water-soluble constituents of spices (carbohydrates; carbonyl compounds) and on the content of water-insoluble steam-volatile oils. The colour of paprika and the content of piperine in pepper held in different packaging materials were measured in unirradiated and irradiated samples as a function of storage time. In all cases irradiation does not bring about any distinct qualitative or quantitative chemical changes based on spectrophotometric analysis of spice extracts.

  6. Study of rice. gamma. -irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, J.J.; Chau, R.S.; Chen, S.C.; Chu, S.L.; Fu, Y.K.; Fang, C.K.; Fu, Y.H.

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether the /sup 60/Co gamma-irradiated milled rice packed in economic and practical sealed bags could be preserved in common granaries in Taiwan for more than one year rather than slightly over one month without quality deterioration. As a result of this experiment we found that during the preservation of over a period of 18 months, the contents, such as moisture, ash, protein and fiber, of Tainan-5 Bon-Lai (Japonica Type) rice irradiated with 20 and 40 krad doses were quite stable, whereas reducing sugar showed slight fluctuations but did not vary significantly either. The fat, vitamin B/sub 1/ and niacin contents were found being reduced, while the increase in fatty acid content was an inevitable phenomenon along with the proceeding of the preservation.

  7. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, I. (Nuclear Inst. for Food and Agriculture, Peshawar (Pakistan))

    1990-01-01

    Large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly. (author).

  8. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  9. The reprocessing of irradiated fuels by halides and their compounds; Le traitement des combustibles irradies par les halogenes et leurs composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, M.; Faugeras, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A brief description is given of the experiments leading to the choice of the process volatilization of fluorides by gas phase attack. The chemical process is described for certain current types of clad Fuels: the aluminium or the zirconium cladding is first volatilized as chloride by attack with gaseous hydrogen chloride. The uranium is then transformed into volatile hexafluoride by attack with fluorine. These reactions are carried out consecutively in the same reactor in the presence of a fluidized bed of alumina which facilitates heat exchange. The experiments have been carried out in quantities from 100 gms to several kilograms of fuel, first without activity, and then with tracers. A description is given of the laboratory research which was carried out simultaneously on the separation of uranium and plutonium fluorides. Finally, an apparatus is described which is intended to test the process on irradiated fuel at an activity level of several thousands of curies of fission products. (authors) [French] On rappelle brievement les experimentations qui nous ont permis de decider du procede adopte volatilisation des fluorures par attaque en phase gazeuse. On decrit le processus chimique pour certains types courants de combustibles Gaines: dans un premier stade, l'aluminium ou le zirconium est volatilise sous forme de chlorure par action de l'acide chlorhydrique. Ensuite, l'uranium est transforme en hexafluorure volatil par action du fluor. Ces operations se font successivement dans un meme reacteur, en presence d'un lit fluidise d'alumine qui a pour but de faciliter les echanges thermiques. L'experimentation a ete conduite sur des quantites allant de 100 g a plusieurs kg de combustibles, en inactif, puis avec des traceurs. On decrit les etudes de laboratoire menees parallelement sur la separation des fluorures d'uranium et de plutonium. Enfin, on decrit une installation en construction destinee a experimenter le procede sur

  10. Particular applications of food irradiation fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Anuradha

    2016-12-01

    On fresh fruits and vegetables, irradiation at low and medium dose levels can effectively reduce microbial counts which can enhance safety, inhibit sprouting to extend shelf-life, and eliminate or sterilize insect pests which can serve to facilitate trade between countries. At the dose levels used for these purposes, the impact on quality is negligible. Despite the fact that regulations in many countries allow the use of irradiation for fresh produce, the technology remains under-utilized, even in the light of an increase in produce related disease outbreaks and the economic benefits of extended shelf life and reduced food waste. Putative concerns about consumer acceptance particularly for produce that is labeled as irradiated have deterred many companies from using irradiation and retailers to carry irradiated produce. This section highlights the commercial use of irradiation for fresh produce, other than phytosanitary irradiation which is covered in supplementary sections.

  11. Irradiation effects on hydrases for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu E-mail: mfuruta@riast.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Ohashi, Isao; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio

    2000-03-01

    To apply an irradiation technique to sterilize 'Hybrid' biomedical materials including enzymes, we selected papain, a well-characterized plant endopeptidase as a model to examine durability of enzyme activity under the practical irradiation condition in which limited data were available for irradiation inactivation of enzymes. Dry powder and frozen aqueous solution of papain showed significant durability against {sup 60}Co-gamma irradiation suggesting that, the commercial irradiation sterilizing method is applicable without modification. Although irradiation of unfrozen aqueous papain solution showed an unusual change of the enzymatic activity with the increasing doses, and was totally inactivated at 15 kGy, we managed to keep the residual activity more than 50% of initial activity after 30-kGy irradiation, taking such optimum conditions as increasing enzyme concentration from 10 to 100 mg/ml and purging with N{sub 2} gas to suppress the formation of free radicals. (author)

  12. Stereotactic Irradiation of Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the best stereotactic irradiation (STI) technique in treatment of small lung tumors, using dose-volume statistics. Methods: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the study phantom consisting of CT using the software of FOCUS-3D planning system. The beam was a 6MV X-ray from a Varian 2300C. The analysis data of Dose-volume statistics was from the technique used for: (1) 2- 12 arcs; (2) 20° - 45° separation angle of arcs; (3) 80° - 160° of gantry rotation. Then we studied the difference of DVH with various irradiation techniques and the influence of target positions and field size by calculated to the distribution of dose from 20%- 90% of the six targets in the lung with 3×3 cm2, 4′ 4 cm2 and 5′ 5 cm2 field size. Results: The volume irradiated pulmonary tissue was the smallest using a six non-coplanar 120° arcs with 30° separation between arcs in the hypothetical set up, the non-coplanar SRI was superiority than conventional one's. The six targets were chosen in the right lung, the volume was the largest in geometric center and was decreased in hilus, bottom, anterior chest wall, lateral wall and apex of the lung in such an order. The DVH had significant change with an increasing field size. Conclusion: the irradiation damage of normal pulmonary tissue was the lowest using the six non-coplanar 120° arcs with a 30° separation between arcs by <5×5 cm2 field and the position of target was not a restricting factor.

  13. RERTR-8 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-8, was designed to test monolithic mini-fuel plates fabricated via hot isostatic pressing (HIP), the effect of molybdenum (Mo) content on the monolithic fuel behavior, and the efficiency of ternary additions to dispersion fuel particles on the interaction layer behavior at higher burnup. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-8 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

  14. RERTR-6 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-6 was designed to evaluate several modified fuel designs that were proposed to address the possibility of breakaway swelling due to porosity within the (U. Mo) Al interaction product observed in the full-size plate tests performed in Russia and France1. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-6 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

  15. Irradiation history of meteoritic inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel

    somewhat philosophical question. . . did our solar system form under special circumstances, and what are the implications for the occurrence of similar planetary systems and ultimately life around other stars? In this thesis, we present methods and measurements pertaining to the study of irradiation......K anomalies were formed during co-storage in the protoplanetary disc, providing constraints on the disc dynamics leading up to planet formation....

  16. Microstructural processes in irradiated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Morgan, Dane; Jiao, Zhijie; Almer, Jonathan; Brown, Donald

    2016-04-01

    This is an editorial article (preface) for the publication of symposium papers in the Journal of Nuclear materials: These proceedings contain the papers presented at two symposia, the Microstructural Processes in Irradiated Materials (MPIM) and Characterization of Nuclear Reactor Materials and Components with Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation, held in the TMS 2015, 144th Annual Meeting & Exhibition at Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida, USA on March 15–19, 2015.

  17. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.

    1968-01-01

    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  18. Spectroscopic analysis of irradiated erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Nabila S. [Biophysics Lab, Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), AEA, P.O. Box 29, Madinat Nasr, Cairo (Egypt); Desouky, Omar S., E-mail: omardesouky@yahoo.com [Biophysics Lab, Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), AEA, P.O. Box 29, Madinat Nasr, Cairo (Egypt); Ismail, Nagla M.; Dakrory, Amira Z. [Physics Department, Faculty of Girls for Arts, Sciences and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of gamma radiation on the lipid part of the erythrocyte membrane, and to test the efficiency of lipoic acid as a radioprotector. This effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results showed an increase in the number of spin density by 14%, 22% and 65% after exposure to 25, 50 and 100 Gy respectively; whereas there was a decline in the obtained density after incubation with lipoic acid by a factor of approximately 32%. The FT-IR spectra of the irradiated erythrocytes samples showed a marked decrease in the intensity of all characteristic peaks, which increased as the irradiation dose increased. The second-derivative of these spectra, allow the conformationally sensitive membrane acyl chain methylene stretching modes to be separated from the protein (mostly hemoglobin) vibrations that dominate the spectra of intact cells. The 2850 cm{sup -1} band showed changes in the band shape and position after exposure to 50 and 100 Gy. Therefore it can be concluded that the band at 2850 cm{sup -1} only is useful in monitoring the radiation effect of the lipids cell membrane intact cells. - Highlights: > Effect of {gamma} radiation on erythrocyte membrane was studied using EPR and FT-IR. > Efficiency of {alpha}-lipoic acid as radioprotector was tested. > Lipoic acid diminished the free radicals number after gamma irradiation by 32%. > FT-IR spectra of the irradiated erythrocyte showed a decrease in their intensity. > Lipoic acid enhances the membrane to resist the action of gamma radiation.

  19. Pontage fémoro-fémoral croisé avec tunnulisation périnéale sous-scrotale pour une infection grave du triangle de scarpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrad, Melek Ben; Miri, Rim; Kaouel, Karim; Derbel, Bilel; Tarzi, Mariem; Ghedira, Faker; Kalfat, Tawfik; Mizouni, Hbiba; Khayati, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Nous décrivons dans cet article une technique de revascularisation des patients ayant une infection de prothèse vasculaire sus-crurale au niveau dutriangle de scarpa, et qui minimise le risque d'infection récurrente du greffon. Cette technique consiste en un pontage fémoro-fémoral croisé avec un tunnel périnéal sous-cutané loin du scarpa infecté que le tunnel classique sus-pubiensous-cutané ne permet pas. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient âgé de 52 ans, artéritique, multi-opérés, admis pour infection du scarpa droit sur un pontage fémoro-fémoral prothétique perméable, le patient a eu une explantation de ce pontage et une revascularisation par un pontage périnéal sous-scrotal veineux loin du site infectieux; l’évolution a été excellente et le pontage est encore perméable après deux ans de suivi. Le pontage fémoro-fémoral périnéal est une procédure exceptionnellement réalisée, mais qui peut constituer une vraie option thérapeutique de revascularisation chez les patients avec une infection du scarpa. PMID:26955419

  20. Applications of sub-optimality in dynamic programming to location and construction of nuclear fuel processing plant; Application de la sous-optimalite en programmation dynamique a la localisation et la cadence optimales de construction des equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L.; Deledicq, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, section des etudes economiques generales

    1968-09-01

    First, the point of applying Dynamic Programming to optimization and Operational Research problems in chemical industries are recalled, as well as the conditions in which a dynamic program is illustrated by a sequential graph. A new algorithm for the determination of sub-optimal politics in a sequential graph is then developed. Finally, the applications of sub-optimality concept is shown when taking into account the indirect effects related to possible strategies, or in the case of stochastic choices and of problems of the siting of plants... application examples are given. (authors) [French] On rappelle d'abord l'interet de la Programmation Dynamique dans les problemes d'optimisation et de Recherche Operationnelle dans les industries chimiques, et les conditions de representation d'un programme dynamique par un graphe sequentiel. On expose ensuite un nouvel algorithme de determination de politiques sous-optimales dans un graphe sequentiel. On montre enfin les applications du concept de sous-optimalite a la prise en compte d'effets indirects lies aux politiques possibles, aux choix dans l'aleatoire, a des problemes de localisation optimale d'usines... et on donne des exemples d'utilisation. (auteurs)

  1. Research on Sous-vide Cooking Technique for Improving the Taste and FIavor of Meat%真空恒温烹饪技术对肉类风味口感改善的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔兴; 陈龙

    2015-01-01

    通过对真空恒温烹饪技术理论依据的阐述,结合实验评鉴,选择具有代表性的四川传统菜肴蒜泥白肉和西式蜜汁烤翅为研究对象,考察真空恒温烹饪技术对肉类风味口感改善,研究结果将为四川传统菜肴和西式腌制烧烤类菜品的制作加工及技术革新提供支持。%Describe the Sous-vide cooking technique,select Sichuan traditional dishes such as pork with garlic sauce and western roasted wings with honeydew as the research objects,combined with experimental evaluation,research the effect of Sous-vide cooking technique on improving the taste and flavor of meat,the results will provide support for the processing and technical innovation of Sichuan traditional dishes and western-style pickled and roasted dishes.

  2. Status of Post Irradiation Examination of FCAB and FCAT Irradiation Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD)

    2016-09-29

    A series of irradiation programs are ongoing to address the need for determining the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys. These irradiation programs, deemed the FCAT and FCAB irradiation programs, use the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to irradiate second generation wrought FeCrAl alloys and early-generation powder-metallurgy (PM) oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys. Irradiations have been or are being performed at temperatures of 200°C, 330°C, and 550°C from doses of 1.8 dpa up to 16 dpa. Preliminary post-irradiation examination (PIE) on low dose (<2 dpa) irradiation capsules of tensile specimens has been performed. Analysis of co-irradiated SiC thermometry have shown reasonable matching between the nominal irradiation temperatures and the target irradiation temperatures. Room temperature tensile tests have shown typical radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement at irradiations of 200°C and 330°C, but a propensity for softening when irradiated to 550°C for the wrought alloys. The PM-ODS FeCrAl specimens showed less hardening compared to the wrought alloys. Future PIE includes high temperature tensile tests on the low dose irradiation capsules as well as the determination of reference fracture toughness transition temperature, To, in alloys irradiated to 7 dpa and higher.

  3. Status of Post Irradiation Examination of FCAB and FCAT Irradiation Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD)

    2016-09-29

    A series of irradiation programs are ongoing to address the need for determining the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys. These irradiation programs, deemed the FCAT and FCAB irradiation programs, use the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to irradiate second generation wrought FeCrAl alloys and early generation powder-metallurgy (PM) oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys. Irradiations have been or are being performed at temperatures of 200°C, 330°C, and 550°C from doses of 1.8 dpa up to 16 dpa. Preliminary post-irradiation examination (PIE) on low dose (<2 dpa) irradiation capsules of tensile specimens has been performed. Analysis of co-irradiated SiC thermometry have shown reasonable matching between the nominal irradiation temperatures and the target irradiation temperatures. Room temperature tensile tests have shown typical radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement at irradiations of 200°C and 330°C but a propensity for softening when irradiated to 550°C for the wrought alloys. The PM-ODS FeCrAl specimens showed less hardening compared to the wrought alloys. Future PIE includes high temperature tensile tests on the low dose irradiation capsules as well as the determination of reference fracture toughness transition temperature, To, in alloys irradiated to 7 dpa and higher.

  4. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium.

  5. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks.

  6. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks.

  7. Tutoriel Android sous Android Studio

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Dima

    2015-01-01

    Engineering school; Le système d’exploitation Android est actuellement l’OS le plus utilisé dans le monde faisant tourner des smartphones, tablettes, montres connectées, liseuses électroniques, télévisions interactives, et bien d'autres. C’est un système, open source qui utilise le noyau Linux. Il a été créée par Android, Inc. qui fut rachetée par Google en 2005. Le développement d’applications pour Android s’effectue en Java en utilisant des bibliothèques spécifiques. Le but de ce tutoriel e...

  8. Le CERN sous les yeux

    CERN Multimedia

    Lambelet, S

    1984-01-01

    J. Grinevald, A. Gsponer, L. Hanouz et P. Lehmann sortent un livre : "la quadrature du CERN". Ils apportent une vision critique de la physique des particules et entament une réflexion sur les buts de cette science (1 page).

  9. Des Orques sous les tropiques

    OpenAIRE

    Sounguet, Guy-Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Les populations de Cétacés qui vivent au Sud et qui atteignent les côtes du Gabon, quittent la région antarctique à la fin de l'été austral. Lorsque la banquise s'étend vers le nord, ils remontent vers les côtes occidentales africaines en empruntant le courant froid antarctique qui les portent jusqu'à l'équateur. Cette migration saisonnière Sud-Nord s'effectue durant l'hiver austral. Les animaux font leur apparition dans les régions équatoriales en juin pour repartir à partir de septembre. Bi...

  10. A study by internal friction of defects produced in iron and nickel irradiated at very low temperatures; Etude au moyen du frottement interne des defauts crees par irradiation a tres basse temperature dans le fer et le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating-Hart, G. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This work represents a contribution to the study of point defects in metals. After a brief review of the theory of internal friction we will discuss some technical innovations aimed at increasing the flexibility of the apparatus at our disposal. These innovations have allowed us to extend our range of measurements down to 20 deg. K. We will then discuss our experimental results. Firstly, we describe preliminary experiments on electron irradiated iron and the evidence for a laminar structure. Secondly, we present and account of the first measurements on nickel after neutron irradiation at 27 deg. K. We will compare the results with those obtained by other methods in this laboratory. Essentially we have observed transitory peaks at low temperature due to close Frenkel pairs and we have noticed the absence of a peak which would correspond to the magnetic after effect band of stage I{sub E}. An attempt is made to explain the disappearance of the observed peaks upon the application of an internal saturating magnetic field. (author) [French] Ce memoire constitue une contribution a l'etude des defauts ponctuels dans les metaux. Apres un bref apercu theorique sur le frottement interne, nous presenterons quelques realisations techniques destinees a accroitre les possibilites des instruments qui nous ont ete confies. Ces dernieres nous ont permis d'etendre la gamme des mesures jusqu'a 20 deg. K. Nous parlerons ensuite de nos resultats experimentaux. En premier lieu, ceux obtenus au cours de premieres experiences, sur le fer irradie aux electrons mettent en evidence des structures de laminage. En second lieu, nous exposerons les premieres mesures realisees sur du nickel irradie aux neutrons; nous comparerons ces resultats avec ceux obtenus par d'autres moyens experimentaux dans le laboratoire. Nous avons observe essentiellement des pics fugitifs a basse temperature dus aux paires proches de Frenckel et nous avons constate l'absence d'un pic

  11. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Thermal analysis applied to irradiated propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi; Machado, Luci Brocardo; del Mastro, Nélida Lucia

    2002-03-01

    Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by bees. Raw propolis requires a decontamination procedure and irradiation appears as a promising technique for this purpose. The valuable properties of propolis for food and pharmaceutical industries have led to increasing interest in its technological behavior. Thermal analysis is a chemical analysis that gives information about changes on heating of great importance for technological applications. Ground propolis samples were 60Co gamma irradiated with 0 and 10 kGy. Thermogravimetry curves shown a similar multi-stage decomposition pattern for both irradiated and unirradiated samples up to 600°C. Similarly, through differential scanning calorimetry , a coincidence of melting point of irradiated and unirradiated samples was found. The results suggest that the irradiation process do not interfere on the thermal properties of propolis when irradiated up to 10 kGy.

  13. Thermal analysis applied to irradiated propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi; Machado, Luci Brocardo; Mastro, N.L. del E-mail: nelida@usp.br

    2002-03-01

    Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by bees. Raw propolis requires a decontamination procedure and irradiation appears as a promising technique for this purpose. The valuable properties of propolis for food and pharmaceutical industries have led to increasing interest in its technological behavior. Thermal analysis is a chemical analysis that gives information about changes on heating of great importance for technological applications. Ground propolis samples were {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated with 0 and 10 kGy. Thermogravimetry curves shown a similar multi-stage decomposition pattern for both irradiated and unirradiated samples up to 600 deg. C. Similarly, through differential scanning calorimetry , a coincidence of melting point of irradiated and unirradiated samples was found. The results suggest that the irradiation process do not interfere on the thermal properties of propolis when irradiated up to 10 kGy.

  14. Renal graft irradiation in acute rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilepich, M.V.; Sicard, G.A.; Breaux, S.R.; Etheredge, E.E.; Blum, J.; Anderson, C.B.

    1983-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants, a randomized study was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients with acute rejection were given standard medical management in the form of intravenous methylprednisolone, and were chosen randomly to receive either graft irradiation (175 rads every other day, to a total of 525 rads) or simulated (sham) irradiation. Eighty-three rejections occurring in 64 grafts were randomized to the protocol. Rejection reversal was recorded in 84.5% of control grafts and 75% of the irradiated grafts. Recurrent rejections were more frequent and graft survival was significantly lower in the irradiated group (22%) than in the control group (54%). Graft irradiation does not appear to be beneficial in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants when used in conjunction with high-dose steroids.

  15. (Irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, W.R.

    1990-09-24

    The traveler served as a member of the two-man US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored team who visited the Prometey Complex in Leningrad to assess the potential for expanded cooperative research concerning integrity of the primary pressure boundary in commercial light-water reactors. The emphasis was on irradiation embrittlement, structural analysis, and fracture mechanics research for reactor pressure vessels. At the irradiation seminar in Cologne, presentations were made by German, French, Finnish, Russian, and US delegations concerning many aspects of irradiation of pressure vessel steels. The traveler made presentations on mechanisms of irradiation embrittlement and on important aspects of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program results of irradiated fracture mechanics tests.

  16. The IRMA gamma irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, L.; Raboin, M.; Corbiere, J. [IRSN, Fontenat-aux-roses (France)

    2011-07-01

    The IRMA cobalt-60 irradiation cell has been installed at the Saclay research centre (25 km from Paris) for 40 years. IRMA is a facility with a maximum authorized capacity of 1, 700 TBq (i.e. approx. 46, 000 Ci). It is a test facility intended primarily for research and development studies on how equipment and materials respond to dose or dose rate exposure. Cobalt-60 gamma photons are the reference in this field. Irradiation is panoramic and achieved using 4, independent, cylindrical sealed sources (11 mm in diameter and 452 mm in length). When not in use, the sources are stored in a lead cask with 0.30 m thick walls to allow safe access inside the cell (uncontaminated environment). With an internal volume of 24 m{sup 3}, it can accommodate a very wide variety of geometric configurations for exposure to gamma radiation. Available dose rates range from 5 {mu}Gy/h (which is the background radiation in the cell when the sources are enclosed in their lead cask) to 25 kGy/h (value obtained 10 cm from a source holder containing all four sources). The resulting doses can be used in experiments representing relatively extreme situations (reactor accidents, dose after x years for equipment in hot cells, reprocessing plants, and so on).The IRMA facility has performed several irradiation tests on new components for EPR and LWR. The IRMA facility is also adapted to check the performance of new biological shieldings and protections for reactors and reprocessing plants. In several other fields of nuclear applications, this facility is useful to characterize and calibrate radiation detectors for the nuclear, space, and military industries

  17. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, Joshua; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert O.; Chien, Hual-Te; Villard, Jean-Francois; Palmer, Joe; Rempe, Joy

    2014-07-30

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). The goal of this research is to characterize magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test will be an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.

  18. Mandibulotomy in the irradiated patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J.; Freeman, J.; Birt, D.

    1989-04-01

    Though the mandibular swing, as an approach to certain upper aerodigestive tract malignancies, has been gaining popularity in recent years, there has been little reported as to the feasibility of this procedure in subjects who have received radical preoperative radiotherapy. We have recently reported the results of 23 such patients, and we now present an update. The results presented are of a retrospective analysis of 44 patients, 50% of whom received radical preoperative radiotherapy to fields including the osteotomy site. As in the previous study, there were no statistically significant differences between the complication rates in the irradiated and nonirradiated patient populations. All the patients were orally rehabilitated.

  19. Thymus irradiation for myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currier, R.D.; Routh, A.; Hickman, B.T.; Douglas, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with progressive myasthenia gravis without thymoma received treatment of 3000 rads (30 Gy) to the anterior mediastinum, and a followup was conducted for five to 18 years. Twenty-four patients had generalized myasthenia, and four had ocular myasthenia gravis. Twenty patients with generalized myasthenia survived the several month post-treatment period and improved, but four died during that period. The improvement lasted a median of 1.5 years, and older patients had longer remissions than younger patients. The four patients who had ocular myasthenia did not change after treatment. Mediastinal irradiation produces a temporary remission in generalized myasthenia.

  20. AFIP-6 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-6 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a length prototypic to that of the ATR fuel plates (45 inches in length). The AFIP-6 test was the first test with plates in a swaged condition with longer fuel zones of approximately 22.5 inches in length1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-6 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

  1. Food irradiation: an unused weapon against hunger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, W.F. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles); Black, E.F.

    1978-02-01

    The author urges use of food irradiation technology now to ease the world's food supply shortage. The holdup appears to relate to whether irradiation is an additive under the 1958 Food Additive Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, although the FAO-IAEA-World Health Organization in 1976 declared five foods unconditionally safe for human consumption after irradiation. Another delay is seen as lack of commercial feasibility data. (PCS)

  2. Models of Solar Irradiance Variations: Current Status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Natalie A. Krivova; Sami K. Solanki

    2008-03-01

    Regular monitoring of solar irradiance has been carried out since 1978 to show that solar total and spectral irradiance varies at different time scales. Whereas variations on time scales of minutes to hours are due to solar oscillations and granulation, variations on longer time scales are driven by the evolution of the solar surface magnetic field. Here the most recent advances in modelling of solar irradiance variations on time scales longer than a day are briefly reviewed.

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugiyama, Asami

    1997-12-31

    We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

  4. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, K.N. [Post-harvest Technology Institute, 4, Ngo Quyen-Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Lam, N.D. [Ha Noi Radiation Center, VAEC, 5T-160, Nghiado, Tuliem, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Preliminary test of mango (Mangifera indica) preservation by irradiated chitosan coating has been investigated. The coating by using irradiated chitosan in 1.5% solution has extended the shelf life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango coated by irradiated chitosan has been keeping good color, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the mango without coating was spoiled completely and the coating of fruit with unirradiated chitosan inhibited the ripening. (author)

  5. Des membres du PS, de la LCR et du PCF reunis par le "non" a la Constitution (reunion sous l'egide de la Fondation Copernic mardi 19 octobre 2004 a la Maison des metallurgistes a Paris - referendum sur la constitution) Pour le chef de l'Etat, a Geneve, le 19 octobre, c'est "plus qu'une priorite"

    CERN Document Server

    Beatrice, G

    2004-01-01

    Des membres du PS, de la LCR et du PCF reunis par le "non" a la Constitution (reunion sous l'egide de la Fondation Copernic mardi 19 octobre 2004 a la Maison des metallurgistes a Paris - referendum sur la constitution) Pour le chef de l'Etat, a Geneve, le 19 octobre, c'est "plus qu'une priorite"

  6. The studies of irradiation hardening of stainless steel reactor internals under proton and xenon irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chaoliang; Zhang, Lu; Qian, Wangjie; Mei, Jinna; Liu, Xiang Bing [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzuhou (China)

    2016-06-15

    Specimens of stainless steel reactor internals were irradiated with 240 keV protons and 6 MeV Xe ions at room temperature. Nanoindentation constant stiffness measurement tests were carried out to study the hardness variations. An irradiation hardening effect was observed in proton- and Xe-irradiated specimens and more irradiation damage causes a larger hardness increment. The Nix-Gao model was used to extract the bulk-equivalent hardness of irradiation-damaged region and critical indentation depth. A different hardening level under H and Xe irradiation was obtained and the discrepancies of displacement damage rate and ion species may be the probable reasons. It was observed that the hardness of Xe-irradiated specimens saturate at about 2 displacement/atom (dpa), whereas in the case of proton irradiation, the saturation hardness may be more than 7 dpa. This discrepancy may be due to the different damage distributions.

  7. Un habitat orné en abri sous-roche au Magdalénien Moyen, Angles-sur-l'Anglin (Vienne, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakovleva, Ludmila

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Not Available.

    [fr] L'originalité du site du Roc-aux-Sorciers à Angles-sur l´Anglin dans la Vienne (France se traduit par la présence d'un art pariétal magdalénien sculpté dont une partie, disposée sur la paroi du fond de l'abri sous roche, forme une frise sur près de 18 mètres de long. L´ étude, tant thématique que technique ou stylistique, de cet art pariétal in situ démontre une organisation et une construction dans ce complexe figuratif sculpté. Les sujets, aussi bien dans leur traitement que dans leur rendu, répondent à des règles précises propres au site d'Angles. Ils se regroupent par espèce en s'associant à d'autres sujets animaliers ou humains dans des espaces nettement délimités formant ainsi une composition sculptée. Des zones figuratives rassemblant plusieurs de ces compositions sculptées assimilées à des "panneaux", sont mises en relation avec le positionnement de grands foyers installés sur la roche-mère. Cette analyse nous amène à mettre en valeur une structure complexe d'habitat en liaison avec cette frise pariétale. [es] Un hábitat decorado del Magdaleniense Medio en el abrigo de Angles-sur-l'Anglin (Vienne, France. La originalidad del yacimiento de Roc-aux-Sorciers en Angles-sur-l 'Anglin, en Vienne (Francia, se debe a la existencia de un arte parietal magdaleniense esculpido del que una parte, situada en la pared del fondo del abrigo, forma un friso de 18 m. de largo, aproximadamente. El estudio, tanto temático como técnico o estilístico, de este arte parietal in situ demuestra una organización en este complejo figurativo esculpido. Las figuras, tanto en su tratamiento como en su expresión, responden a reglas precisas, propias del yacimiento de Angles. Se agrupan por especies, asociándose a otras figuras animales o humanas, en unos espacios estrictamente limitados, formando así una composición esculpida. Las zonas figurativas que integran muchas de estas

  8. Crack Features and Shear-Wave Splitting Associated with Fracture Extension during Hydraulic Stimulation of the Geothermal Reservoir in Soultz-sous-Forêts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelinet M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent tomography results obtained within the scope of the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS European Soultz project led us to revisit the meso-fracturing properties of Soultz test site. In this paper, we develop a novel approach coupling effective medium modeling and shear-wave splitting to characterize the evolution of crack properties throughout the hydraulic stimulation process. The stimulation experiment performed in 2000 consisted of 3 successive injection steps spanning over 6 days. An accurate 4-D tomographic image was first carried out based upon the travel-times measured for the induced seismicity [Calò M., Dorbath C., Cornet F.H., Cuenot N. (2011 Large-scale aseismic motion identified through 4-D P-wave tomography, Geophys. J. Int. 186, 1295-1314]. The current study shows how to take advantage of the resulting compressional wave (Calò et al., 2011 and shear-wave velocity models. These are given as input data to an anisotropic effective medium model and converted into crack properties. In short, the effective medium model aims to estimate the impact of cracks on velocities. It refers to a crack-free matrix and 2 families of penny-shaped cracks with orientations in agreement with the main observed geological features: North-South strike and dip of 65°East and 65°West [Genter A., Traineau H. (1996 Analysis of macroscopic fractures in granite in the HDR geothermal well EPS-1, Soultz-sous-Forêts, France, J. Vol. Geoth. Res. 72, 121-141], respectively. The resulting output data are the spatial distributions of crack features (lengths and apertures within the 3-D geological formation. We point out that a flow rate increase results in a crack shortening in the area imaged by both compressional and shear waves, especially in the upper part of the reservoir. Conversely, the crack length, estimated during continuous injection rate phases, is higher than during the increasing injection rate phases. A possible explanation for this is that

  9. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  10. The irradiation effects on zirconium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negut, Gh.; Ancuta, M.; Radu, V.; Ionescu, S.; Stefan, V.; Uta, O.; Prisecaru, I.; Danila, N.

    2007-05-01

    Pressure tube samples were irradiated under helium atmosphere in the TRIGA Steady State Research and Material Test Reactor of the Romanian Institute for Nuclear Research (INR). These samples are made of the Zr-2.5%Nb alloy used as structural material for the CANDU Romanian power reactors. After irradiation, mechanical tests were performed in the Post Irradiation Examination Laboratory (PIEL) to study the influence of irradiation on zirconium alloys mechanical behaviour. The tensile test results were used for structural integrity assessment. Results of the tests are presented. The paper presents, also, pressure tube structural integrity assessment.

  11. Food irradiation facilities: Requirements and technical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Josef

    2016-12-01

    This survey presents some aspects and requirement for food irradiation facilities. Topics like radiation source, dose ranges and dose rate are discussed, together with logistics and operational considerations

  12. Study of irradiation creep of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Thin-wall tubing was produced from the 832665 (500 kg) heat of V-4 wt.% Cr-4 wt.% Ti to study its irradiation creep behavior. The specimens, in the form of pressurized capsules, were irradiated in Advanced Test Reactor and High Flux Isotope Reactor experiments (ATR-A1 and HFIR RB-12J, respectively). The ATR-A1 irradiation has been completed and specimens from it will soon be available for postirradiation examination. The RB-12J irradiation is not yet complete.

  13. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  14. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: aralcard@esalq.usp.br; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia

    2003-12-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  15. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: saliba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl{sub x} dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of {sup 235}U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  16. Infectivity of irradiated and non-irradiated metacestodes of Taenia saginata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerts, S.; Borchgrave, J. de; Brandt, J.R.A.; Kumar, V.; Deken, R. de; Falla, N.; Brabant, R. van (Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp (Belgium). Veterinary Dept.)

    No data are available on the fate of irradiated cysticerci of T. saginata in the human intestine. Since there is no definitive host of T. saginata other than man, this experiment was set up to study the infectivity of irradiated cysticerci of T. saginata in human volunteers in order to determine the minimal effective irradiation dose to inhibit their development. (Author).

  17. Effects of ion beam irradiation on semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashiyama, Isamu; Hirao, Toshio; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Ohshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Energetic heavy-ion irradiation apparatus has been developed for single-event effects (SEE) testing. We have applied three irradiation methods such as a scattered-ion irradiation method, a recoiled-atom irradiation method, and a direct-beam irradiation method to perform SEE testing efficiently. (author)

  18. Mise au point d'un procédé de carboxylation par électrosynthèse en milieu co2 sous pression et application en chimie fine

    OpenAIRE

    Chanfreau, Sébastien

    2005-01-01

    Nous proposons ici d'utiliser le co2 sous pression comme solvant et réactif pour réaliser la carboxylation électrochimique du chlorure de benzyle. Un co-solvant, le dimethylformamide (DMF), est nécessaire pour permettre la solubilisation du sel assurant la conductivité du milieu. Le comportement thermodynamique du mélange co2-DMF constituant lco2ilieu électrolytique a été modélisé en utilisant le modèle de Huron-Vidal. Le milieu a été caractérisé en utilisant une microélectrode pour détermin...

  19. Quantification et prédiction de la minéralisation nette de l'azote du sol in situ, sous divers pédoclimats et systèmes de culture français

    OpenAIRE

    Valé, Matthieu

    2006-01-01

    Dans le contexte actuel où l'agriculture doit produire de façon durable, la gestion de l'azote doit être raisonnée de plus en plus finement pour atteindre des objectifs multiples de rendement et de qualité des produits récoltés mais aussi de respect de l'environnement. Ces objectifs ne peuvent être atteints qu'en pilotant la fertilisation azotée au plus près des besoins de la plante et en adaptant le système de culture en interculture afin de réduire les pertes d'azote nitrique et sous forme ...

  20. Contribution a l'analyse des tendances de peupelement de macroinvertébrés benthique dans un contexte de réchauffement climatique.cas de sous basin de TAFNA

    OpenAIRE

    REZOUGUI, Amina

    2012-01-01

    Le changement climatique exerce une influence sur les écosystèmes aquatiques induisant à des variations dans leur structure. La sédentarité du peuplement des macroinvertébrés benthiques, le soumis sous l’influence de ces variations climatique. Pour mettre en évidence l’effet du changement climatique sur le peuplement des macroinvertébrés, on a effectué des prélèvements sur une période de sept mois (un prélèvement pour chaque mois). Sept stations de l’amont vers l’aval de l’oued Tafna ont été ...

  1. Enjeux de santé publique sous gouvernance globale de la propriété intellectuelle. De l'usage des flexibilités prévues par l'ADPIC au Sud.

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Guennif

    2007-01-01

    Les conditions épidémiologiques au Sud créent un besoin croissant de médicaments essentiels, notamment pour traiter les personnes infectées par le VIH/Sida. L'objet de cet article est de s'interroger sur cet enjeu sanitaire sous accord ADPIC. Sont confrontées les flexibilités prévues par l'accord pour promouvoir la santé publique dans les pays en développement et les mesures laborieuses prises par le Brésil, la Thaïlande et l'Inde pour améliorer l'accessibilité des médicaments antisida....

  2. Reprocessing technology development for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H.; Sakamoto, N. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Tatenuma, K. [KAKEN Co., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in a fusion reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the beryllium reprocessing technology for effective resource use. And, we have proposed reprocessing technology development on irradiated beryllium used in a fusion reactor. The preliminary reprocessing tests were performed using un-irradiated and irradiated beryllium. At first, we performed beryllium separation tests using un-irradiated beryllium specimens. Un-irradiated beryllium with beryllium oxide which is a main impurity and some other impurities were heat-treated under chlorine gas flow diluted with Ar gas. As the results high purity beryllium chloride was obtained in high yield. And it appeared that beryllium oxide and some other impurities were removed as the unreactive matter, and the other chloride impurities were separated by the difference of sublimation temperature on beryllium chloride. Next, we performed some kinds of beryllium purification tests from beryllium chloride. And, metallic beryllium could be recovered from beryllium chloride by the reduction with dry process. In addition, as the results of separation and purification tests using irradiated beryllium specimens, it appeared that separation efficiency of Co-60 from beryllium was above 96%. It is considered that about 4% Co-60 was carried from irradiated beryllium specimen in the form of cobalt chloride. And removal efficiency of tritium from irradiated beryllium was above 95%.

  3. Brazilian Consumer views on food irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, J.H.; Barcellos, M.N.; Frewer, L.J.; Nunes, T.P.; Landgraf, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the consumer attitude to food irradiation in São Paulo, Brazil, through a qualitative research perspective. Three focus groups were conducted with 30 consumers, responsible for food choices and purchases. Both irradiated and nonirradiated food samples were served in the

  4. Embrittlement behavior of neutron irradiated RAFM steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaganidze, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung II, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)]. E-mail: ermile.gaganidze@imf.fzk.de; Schneider, H.-C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung II, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dafferner, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung II, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Aktaa, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung II, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2007-08-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the embrittlement behavior of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 for different heat treatment conditions have been investigated. The irradiation to 16.3 dpa at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 {sup o}C) was carried out in the Petten High Flux Reactor in the framework of the HFR Phase-IIb (SPICE) irradiation project. Several reference RAFM steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X) and MANET-I were also irradiated at selected temperatures. The embrittlement behavior and hardening were investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with subsize specimens. The neutron irradiation induced embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 are comparable to those of investigated reference steels, being mostly pronounced for 250 {sup o}C and 300 {sup o}C irradiation temperatures. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at higher austenization temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behavior at irradiation temperatures of 250 {sup o}C and 350 {sup o}C.

  5. RBE of Cells Irradiated by Carbon Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The cells were mouse melanoma B16,human cervical squamous carcinoma HeLa,Chinese hamster pulmonary V79,and human hepatoma SMMC-7721.For~(12)C ion experiment,the cells of 1.55×10~5/ml were seeded in 35mm diameter petri dish and allowed to grow one day befbre irradiation.When immediately irradiated,the medium

  6. Food irradiation; Global aspects and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Akira (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture (Japan). Nodai Research Institute)

    1990-07-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs.

  7. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance... indicator must be provided in a clearly visible location to indicate if the pool water level is below the...

  8. Schedule and status of irradiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Robertson, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The current status of reactor irradiation experiments is presented in tables summarizing the experimental objectives, conditions, and schedule. Currently, the program has four irradiation experiments in reactor, and five experiments in the design or construction stages. Postirradiation examination and testing is in progress on ten experiments.

  9. In situ ion irradiation of zirconium carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Christopher J.; Motta, Arthur T.; Kirk, Mark A.

    2015-11-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is a candidate material for use in one of the layers of TRISO coated fuel particles to be used in the Generation IV high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor, and thus it is necessary to study the effects of radiation damage on its structure. The microstructural evolution of ZrCx under irradiation was studied in situ using the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory. Samples of nominal stoichiometries ZrC0.8 and ZrC0.9 were irradiated in situ using 1 MeV Kr2+ ions at various irradiation temperatures (T = 20 K-1073 K). In situ experiments made it possible to continuously follow the evolution of the microstructure during irradiation using diffraction contrast imaging. Images and diffraction patterns were systematically recorded at selected dose points. After a threshold dose during irradiations conducted at room temperature and below, black-dot defects were observed which accumulated until saturation. Once created, the defect clusters did not move or get destroyed during irradiation so that at the final dose the low temperature microstructure consisted only of a saturation density of small defect clusters. No long-range migration of the visible defects or dynamic defect creation and elimination were observed during irradiation, but some coarsening of the microstructure with the formation of dislocation loops was observed at higher temperatures. The irradiated microstructure was found to be only weakly dependent on the stoichiometry.

  10. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Th.

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10∗∗4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50°C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the iradiation field in a closed conveyor system.

  11. Passive SiC irradiation temperature monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, G.E.

    1996-04-01

    A new, improved passive irradiation temperature monitoring method was examined after an irradiation test at 627{degrees}C. The method is based on the analysis of thermal diffusivity changes during postirradiation annealing of polycrystalline SiC. Based on results from this test, several advantages for using this new method rather than a method based on length or lattice parameter changes are given.

  12. Embrittlement behavior of neutron irradiated RAFM steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaganidze, E.; Schneider, H.-C.; Dafferner, B.; Aktaa, J.

    2007-08-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the embrittlement behavior of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 for different heat treatment conditions have been investigated. The irradiation to 16.3 dpa at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 °C) was carried out in the Petten High Flux Reactor in the framework of the HFR Phase-IIb (SPICE) irradiation project. Several reference RAFM steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X) and MANET-I were also irradiated at selected temperatures. The embrittlement behavior and hardening were investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with subsize specimens. The neutron irradiation induced embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 are comparable to those of investigated reference steels, being mostly pronounced for 250 °C and 300 °C irradiation temperatures. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at higher austenization temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behavior at irradiation temperatures of 250 °C and 350 °C.

  13. Mechanical response of proton beam irradiated nitinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzal, Naveed [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan); Ghauri, I.M., E-mail: ijaz.phys@gmail.co [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan); Mubarik, F.E.; Amin, F. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the study of mechanical behavior of proton beam irradiated nitinol at room temperature. The specimens in austenitic phase were irradiated over periods of 15, 30, 45 and 60 min at room temperature using 2 MeV proton beam obtained from Pelletron accelerator. The stress-strain curves of both unirradiated and irradiated specimens were obtained using a universal testing machine at room temperature. The results of the experiment show that an intermediate rhombohedral (R) phase has been introduced between austenite and martensite phase, which resulted in the suppression of direct transformation from austenite to martensite (A-M). Stresses required to start R-phase ({sigma}{sub RS}) and martensitic phase ({sigma}{sub MS}) were observed to decrease with increase in exposure time. The hardness tests of samples before and after irradiation were also carried out using Vickers hardness tester. The comparison reveals that the hardness is higher in irradiated specimens than that of the unirradiated one. The increase in hardness is quite sharp in specimens irradiated for 15 min, which then increases linearly as the exposure time is increased up to 60 min. The generation of R-phase, variations in the transformation stresses {sigma}{sub RS} and {sigma}{sub MS} and increase in hardness of irradiated nitinol may be attributed to lattice disorder and associated changes in crystal structure induced by proton beam irradiation.

  14. Status of food irradiation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, O.K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Research on food irradiation in Brazil started in 1968 at the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. At the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, research on detection of irradiated foods is in progress. In 1973, the Brazilian government established a regulation about food irradiation. Nowadays, the products authorized to be irradiated are: rice, poultry, fish and fish products, potatoes, onions, avocados, persimmons, pineapples, wheat flour, maize, beans, spices, tomatoes, guavas, oranges, lemons, strawberries, mangoes, melons and papayas. The other recommended products to be approved in the future are: acerolas, apples, beans (dose > 1 kGy), beef, blueberries, cherries, cheeses, coffee, figs, fresh guaranas, garlics, grapefruits, grapes, mushrooms, nuts and pork. Today, there is only one commercial facility for irradiation services in the country, the Empresa Brasileira de Radiacoes Ltda. (EMBRARAD). This company operates a Nordion JS-7500 irradiator, with a present activity of about 1,000 kCi, designed for sterilizing medical devices. It also irradiates spices, dried foods, gemstones, cosmetics, wood and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The plant operates 24 hours a day and the spices and dried foods represent 15% of the business. Powder of guarana seeds is irradiated also for exportation. There are two other commercial facilities for radiation sterilization in Brazil, operating exclusively for their own production. (J.P.N.)

  15. Schedule and status of irradiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Robertson, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The current status of reactor irradiation experiments is presented in tables summarizing the experimental objectives, conditions, and schedule. Currently, the program has one irradiation experiment in reactor and five experiments in the design or construction stages. Postirradiation examination and testing is in progress on ten experiments.

  16. AGR-1 Post Irradiation Examination Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Paul Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-1 experiment was a multi-year, collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the performance of UCO (uranium carbide, uranium oxide) tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel fabricated in the U.S. and irradiated at the Advanced Test Reactor at INL to a peak burnup of 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom. This work involved a broad array of experiments and analyses to evaluate the level of fission product retention by the fuel particles and compacts (both during irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to simulate reactor accident conditions), investigate the kernel and coating layer morphology evolution and the causes of coating failure, and explore the migration of fission products through the coating layers. The results have generally confirmed the excellent performance of the AGR-1 fuel, first indicated during the irradiation by the observation of zero TRISO coated particle failures out of 298,000 particles in the experiment. Overall release of fission products was determined by PIE to have been relatively low during the irradiation. A significant finding was the extremely low levels of cesium released through intact coatings. This was true both during the irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to temperatures as high as 1800°C. Post-irradiation safety test fuel performance was generally excellent. Silver release from the particles and compacts during irradiation was often very high. Extensive microanalysis of fuel particles was performed after irradiation and after high-temperature safety testing. The results of particle microanalysis indicate that the UCO fuel is effective at controlling the oxygen partial pressure within the particle and limiting kernel migration. Post-irradiation examination has provided the final body of data that speaks to the quality of the AGR-1 fuel, building

  17. Hypopituitarism after irradiation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wara, W.M.; Richards, G.E.; Grumbach, M.M. Kaplan, S.L.; Sheline, G.E.; Conte, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nine children were referred to the University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, for growth evaluation. Each had received conventional radiation doses to the head for tumors not involving the hypothalamus or pituitary, and demonstrated clinical and laboratory evidence of hormonal deficiencies several years after treatment. Six had significant height retardation. Growth hormone deficiency was documented in all by lack of response to provocative insulin, arginine, and/or L-dopa stimulation. ACTH function was evaluated by plasma cortisol response to insulin hypoglycemia in 7; one had a subnormal response. Plasma gonadotropins were measured after lutenizing hormone releasing factor (LRF) in 7 patients; only one had an abnormal response for age and stage of sexual maturation. Foresight in treatment planning and careful follow-up of patients receiving irradiation to the head is critical, since hypothalamic-pituitary deficiencies which may occur insidiously over many years, can largely be compensated.

  18. RERTR-7 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-7A, was designed to test several modified fuel designs to target fission densities representative of a peak low enriched uranium (LEU) burnup in excess of 90% U-235 at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a peak surface heat flux of approximately 300 W/cm2. The RERTR-7B experiment was designed as a high power test of 'second generation' dispersion fuels at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a surface heat flux on the order of 230 W/cm2.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-7A and RERTR-7B experiments through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

  19. AFIP-2 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielle M Perez

    2011-04-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-2 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-2 experiment was fabricated by friction bond (FB) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-2 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results. The safety analyses performed for AFIP-2 are summarized in Table 5 of the following report.

  20. AFIP-2 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-2 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-2 experiment was fabricated by friction bond (FB) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-2 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results. The safety analyses performed for AFIP-2 are summarized in Table 5 of the following report.

  1. Osteonecrosis of acetabulum after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Gintaro; Matuda, Tatsuo; Takeuchi, Norihiro; Itoh, Haruo [Tokyo Koseinenkin Hospital (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    A case of osteonecrosis 8 years post irradiation was reported. The 70 years old female patient who, 8 years ago, received abdominal hysterectomy due to cervical cancer and then radiotherapy of 92.1 Gy within about 1.5 mo, had a pain at the left hip joint with a slight elevation of ALP. The roentgenography showed the fracture and callus of the left acetabulum; bone scintigraphy, a high accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc at the site; CT, abnormal fracture; MRI, low bright T1-weighted image and equi-bright T2-image; and MRI with Gd-DTPA, enhanced image. The hip joint was surgically reconstructed with cement (THR). Surgical and histopathological findings confirmed osteonecrosis without tumoral finding and the lesion was considered radiogenic. (K.H.)

  2. Modeling of Irradiation Hardening of Polycrystalline Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Garmestani, Hamid; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-09-14

    High energy particle irradiation of structural polycrystalline materials usually produces irradiation hardening and embrittlement. The development of predict capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior is very important in materials design for next generation reactors. In this work a multiscale approach was implemented to predict irradiation hardening of body centered cubic (bcc) alpha-iron. The effect of defect density, texture and grain boundary was investigated. In the microscale, dislocation dynamics models were used to predict the critical resolved shear stress from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In the macroscale, a viscoplastic self-consistent model was applied to predict the irradiation hardening in samples with changes in texture and grain boundary. This multiscale modeling can guide performance evaluation of structural materials used in next generation nuclear reactors.

  3. Cost effective alternative to low irradiance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleary, Scott T.

    1988-01-01

    Martin Marietta's Space Simulation Laboratory (SSL) has a Thermal Environment Simulator (TES) with 56 individually controlled heater zones. The TES has a temperature range of approximately minus 129 C to plus 149 C. Because of the ability of TES to provide complex irradiance distributions, it is necessary to be able to measure a wide range of irradiance levels. SSL currently uses ambient temperature controlled radiometers with the capacity to measure sink irradiance levels of approximately 42.6 mw/sq cm, sink temperature equals 21 C and up. These radiometers could not be used to accurately measure the lower irradiance levels of the TES. Therefore, it was necessary to obtain a radiometer or develop techniques which could be used to measure lower irradiance levels.

  4. Significance of primary irradiation creep in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erasmus, Christiaan, E-mail: christiaan.erasmus@gmail.com [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa); Kok, Schalk [Advanced Mathematical Modelling, CSIR Modelling and Digital Science, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hindley, Michael P. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)

    2013-05-15

    Traditionally primary irradiation creep is introduced into graphite analysis by applying the appropriate amount of creep strain to the model at the initial time-step. This is valid for graphite components that are subjected to high fast neutron flux fields and constant stress fields, but it does not allow for the effect of movement of stress locations around a graphite component during life, nor does it allow primary creep to be applied rate-dependently to graphite components subject to lower fast neutron flux. This paper shows that a differential form of primary irradiation creep in graphite combined with the secondary creep formulation proposed by Kennedy et al. performs well when predicting creep behaviour in experimental samples. The significance of primary irradiation creep in particular in regions with lower flux is investigated. It is shown that in low flux regions with a realistic operating lifetime primary irradiation creep is significant and is larger than secondary irradiation creep.

  5. Identification of irradiated pepper with comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto Miranda, Enrique Fco.; Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Carro Palacio, Sandra [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear. (CEADEN), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: efprieto@ceaden.edu.cu; damaris@ceaden.edu.cu; Iglesia Enriquez, Isora [Instituto de Investigacion para la Industria Alimenticia (IIIA), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)

    2007-07-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing radiations is a technological process utilized in order to increase the hygienic quality and the storage time of the foods. Several methods of detection of irradiated foods have been recommended. The comet assay of DNA is one fast and economical technique for the qualitative identification of irradiated foods. The objective of the present paper was to identify with the comet assay technique the modifications of the DNA molecule of irradiated pepper storage at environment and refrigeration temperatures and different post-irradiation times for different absorbed dose values, (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 kGy). It was demonstrated that for the high absorbed dose values was observed a greater break into fragments of the DNA molecule, which shows the application of this technique for the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  6. ATF Neutron Irradiation Program Technical Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Civil Nuclear Energy Working Group (CNWG) is engaged in a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to explore issues related to nuclear energy, including research on accident-tolerant fuels and materials for use in light water reactors. This work develops a draft technical plan for a neutron irradiation program on the candidate accident-tolerant fuel cladding materials and elements using the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The research program requires the design of a detailed experiment, development of test vehicles, irradiation of test specimens, possible post irradiation examination and characterization of irradiated materials and the shipment of irradiated materials to JAEA in Japan. This report discusses the technical plan of the experimental study.

  7. AGC-1 Irradiation Experiment Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Bratton

    2006-05-01

    The Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC) irradiation test program supports the acquisition of irradiated graphite performance data to assist in the selection of the technology to be used for the VHTR. Six irradiations are planned to investigate compressive creep in graphite subjected to a neutron field and obtain irradiated mechanical properties of vibrationally molded, extruded, and iso-molded graphites for comparison. The experiments will be conducted at three temperatures: 600, 900, and 1200°C. At each temperature, two different capsules will be irradiated to different fluence levels, the first from 0.5 to 4 dpa and the second from 4 to 7 dpa. AGC-1 is the first of the six capsules designed for ATR and will focus on the prismatic fluence range.

  8. ATF Neutron Irradiation Program Technical Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Civil Nuclear Energy Working Group (CNWG) is engaged in a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to explore issues related to nuclear energy, including research on accident-tolerant fuels and materials for use in light water reactors. This work develops a draft technical plan for a neutron irradiation program on the candidate accident-tolerant fuel cladding materials and elements using the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The research program requires the design of a detailed experiment, development of test vehicles, irradiation of test specimens, possible post-irradiation examination and characterization of irradiated materials and the shipment of irradiated materials to JAEA in Japan. This report discusses the technical plan of the experimental study.

  9. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Average V016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  10. Suivi par methode optique du frittage micro-ondes d'oxydes ceramiques.

    OpenAIRE

    Zymelka, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Microwave sintering is known to be a promising sintering technology. Indeed, this method has advantages such as reducing the duration of heat treatment and a significant energy saving compared with conventional processes. Year after year, sintering in a microwave environment is studied by a growing number of researchers. However, the reasons for the beneficial effect of this type of sintering are not clearly identified.In this context, the objective of this work was to verify the influence of...

  11. Embrittlement of irradiated F82H in the absence of irradiation hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)], E-mail: kluehrl@ornl.gov; Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki-Mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Sokolov, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    2009-04-30

    Neutron irradiation of 7-12% Cr ferritic/martensitic steels below 425-450 deg. C produces microstructural defects and precipitation that cause an increase in yield stress. This irradiation hardening causes embrittlement, which is observed in a Charpy impact or fracture toughness test as an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature. Based on observations that show little change in strength in steels irradiated above 425-450 deg. C, the general conclusion has been that no embrittlement occurs above these temperatures. In a recent study of F82H steel, significant embrittlement was observed after irradiation at 500 deg. C, but no hardening occurred. This embrittlement is apparently due to irradiation-accelerated Laves-phase precipitation. Observations of the embrittlement of F82H in the absence of irradiation hardening have been examined and analyzed with thermal-aging studies and computational thermodynamics calculations to illuminate and understand the embrittlement during irradiation.

  12. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is very similar to the GlidCop{trademark} alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to {approx}3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90{degrees}C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of {+-}0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as {approx}2 x 10{sup {minus}9}s{sup {minus}1}. These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys.

  13. Saturation behavior of irradiation hardening in F82H irradiated in the HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, T. [Blanket Engineering Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Shiba, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Stoller, R. [ORNL - Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., Oak Ridge, AK TN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Post irradiation tensile tests on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H have been conducted over the past two decades using Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of JAEA, and Fast Flux Testing Facility (FFTF) of PNNL and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of ORNL, USA, under Japan/US collaboration programs. According to these results, F82H does not demonstrate irradiation hardening above 673 K up to 60 dpa. The current study has been concentrated on hardening behavior at temperature around 573 K. A series of low temperature irradiation experiment has been conducted at the HFIR under the international collaborative research between JAEA/US-DOE. In this collaboration, the irradiation condition is precisely controlled by the well matured capsule designing and instrumentation. This paper summarizes recent results of the irradiation experiments focused on F82H and its modified steels compared with the irradiation properties database on F82H. Post irradiation tensile tests have been conducted on the F82H and its modified steels irradiated at 573 K and the dose level was up to 25 dpa. According to these results, irradiation hardening of F82H is saturated by 9 dpa and the as-irradiated 0.2 % proof stress is less than 1 GPa at ambient temperature. The deterioration of total elongation was also saturated by 9 dpa irradiation. The ductility of some modified steels which showed larger total elongation than that of F82H before irradiation become the same level as that of standard F82H steel after irradiation, even though its magnitude of irradiation hardening is smaller than that of F82H. This suggests that the more ductile steel demonstrates the more ductility loss at this temperature, regardless to the hardening level. The difference in ductility loss behavior between various tensile specimens will be discussed as the ductility could depend on the specimen dimension. (authors)

  14. History and prospects of irradiation treatment of sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of irradiation treatment of sewage sludge in the world.Since the first sludge irradiation plant was built in Geiselbullach, West Germany in 1973 which used 60Co as irradiation source, many sludge irradiators were constructed in USA, India, Japan, Canada, Poland and so on, which used 60Co, 137Cs or electron beam as irradiation sources.Some basic researches on irradiation treatment of sewage sludge are, respectively, reviewed, including optimization of irradiation parameters, synergistic effect of radiation with heat, oxygenation, irradiation-composting and potential applications of treated sludge.Some proposals have been suggested for further development of this technology.

  15. Le roi, l’armée et la science sous le règne de Carlos III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Le Flem

    2011-08-01

    Pays. Pour illustrer ce milieu, nous avons choisi quelques figures emblématiques comme Verboom ou Sabbatini.- La Marine. Comme la marine de Louis XVI en France, elle est à la pointe des découvertes géographiques, astronomiques, technologiques pour la construction des navires. Deux noms symbolisent cette élite : Jorge Juan et Alfonso de Ulloa, qui ont contribué avec La Condamine à la mesure du méridien terrestre. Il ne faut pas oublier les médecins de la marine qui améliorent les connaissances anatomiques, la chirurgie lourde et la pharmacopée.- Les académies militaires. Comme ses collègues de l’Illustration, Carlos III s’est particulièrement intéressé à leur création afin de former des élites militaires. L’école des ingénieurs militaires avait montré la voie sous Philippe V. Son fils complétera le dispositif. La création de l’Académie d’artillerie à Ségovie est un événement majeur de l’histoire militaire espagnole. Cette académie fut un centre de recherche en matière de chimie pour l’amélioration des poudres. Un élève de Lavoisier, Proust, vint installer et développer son laboratoire qui existe toujours à l’ombre de l’Alcazar. Nous avons conservé le manuel d’enseignement de Tomàs Morla qui est un résumé significatif des connaissances scientifiques et technologiques, notamment en matière de fonderie au xviiie siècle. L’armée espagnole est un reflet de l’esprit de modernité qui anime les élites espagnoles dans la seconde moitié du xviiie siècle. À la cour comme au pied des Andes, les savants, marins, artilleurs et ingénieurs sont très présents. En outre, ce qui est très précieux, ils ont laissé de nombreux écrits relatant leurs expériences. Le grand historien Juliàn Marias a appelé cette période « L’Espagne possible de Carlos III ».

  16. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieu N. Lan [Post Harvest Technology Inst. of Vietnam (Viet Nam)

    2000-09-01

    Application of irradiated chitosan has been investigated for coating of fruit preservation. Anti-fungal activity of chitosan was induced by {gamma}-ray irradiation in dry condition at 25 kGy. The irradiated chitosan can suppress the growth of Aspergillus. spp. and Fusarium. spp. isolated from Vietnam mango. Fusarium. spp. was sensitive for irradiated chitosan than the other strains. The coating from irradiated chitosan solution at dose 31 kGy has prolonged the storage life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango keeps good colour, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the control is spoiled completely and the sample of fruit with unirradiated chitosan coating could not ripe. The effect is due to the anti-fungal activity and change in physico-chemical properties of chitosan by irradiation. Radiation causes the decrease in viscosity affecting the gas permeability of coating film. The irradiated chitosan coating has positive effect on mango that is susceptible to chilling injury at low storage temperature. (author)

  17. Irradiation of onions on a large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Koji; Hayashi, Toru; Uozumi, J.; Sugimoto, Toshio; Aoki, Shohei

    1984-03-01

    A large number of onions of var. Kitamiki and Ohotsuku were irradiated in September followed by storage at 0 deg C or 5 deg C. The onions were shifted from cold-storage facilities to room temperature in mid-March or in mid-April in the following year. Their sprouting, rooting, spoilage characteristics and sugar content were observed during storage at room temperature. Most of the unirradiated onions sprouted either outside or inside bulbs during storage at room temperature, and almost all of the irradiated ones showed small buds with browning inside the bulb in mid-April irrespective of the storage temperature. Rooting and/or expansion of bottom were observed in the unirradiated samples. Although the irradiated materials did not have root, they showed expansion of bottom to some extent. Both the irradiated and unirradiated onions spoiled slightly unless they sprouted, and sprouted onions were easily spoiled. There was no difference in the glucose content between the unirradiated and irradiated onions, but the irradiated ones yielded higher sucrose content when stored at room temperature. Irradiation treatment did not have an obvious effect on the quality of freeze-dried onion slices. (author).

  18. The Next Spaceflight Solar Irradiance Sensor: TSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Greg; Pilewskie, Peter; Richard, Erik

    2016-05-01

    The Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) will continue measurements of the solar irradiance with improved accuracies and stabilities over extant spaceflight instruments. The two TSIS solar-observing instruments include the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) for measuring total- and spectral- solar-irradiance, respectively. The former provides the net energy powering the Earth’s climate system while the latter helps attribute where that energy is absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere and surface. Both spaceflight instruments are assembled and being prepared for integration on the International Space Station. With operations commencing in late 2017, the TSIS is intended to overlap with NASA’s ongoing SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) mission, which launched in 2003 and contains the first versions of both the TIM and SIM instruments, as well as with the TSI Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE), which began total solar irradiance measurements in 2013. We summarize the TSIS’s instrument improvements and intended solar-irradiance measurements.

  19. Irradiation Behavior in High Entropy Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-qin XIA; Zhen WANG; Teng-fei YANG; Yong ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    As an increasing demand of advanced nuclear fission reactors and fusion facilities, the key requirements for the materials used in advanced nuclear systems should encompass superior high temperature property, good behavior in corrosive environment, and high irradiation resistance, etc. Recently, it was found that some selected high entropy alloys (HEAs) possess excellent mechanical properties at high temperature, high corrosion resistance, and no grain coarsening and self-healing abil-ity under irradiation, especially, the exceptional structural stability and lower irradiation-induced volume swelling, compared with other conventional materials. Thus, HEAs have been considered as the potential nuclear materials used for future ifssion or fusion reactors, which are designed to operate at higher temperatures and higher radiation doses up to several hundreds of displacement per atom (dpa). An insight into the irradiation behavior of HEAs was given, including fundamental researches to investigate the irradiation-induced phase crystal structure change and volume swelling in HEAs. In summary, a brief overview of the irradiation behavior in HEAs was made and the irradiation-induced structural change in HEAs may be relatively insensi-tive because of their special structures.

  20. AGC-1 Post Irradiation Examination Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Swank

    2011-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF), and examined at the INL Research Center (IRC) or Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This is the first in a series of status reports on the progress of the AGC experiment. As the first capsule, AGC1 was irradiated from September 2009 to January 2011 to a maximum dose level of 6-7 dpa. The capsule was removed from ATR and transferred to the HFEF in April 2011 where the capsule was disassembled and test specimens extracted from the capsules. The first irradiated samples from AGC1 were shipped to the IRC in July 2011and initial post irradiation examination (PIE) activities were begun on the first 37 samples received. PIE activities continue for the remainder of the AGC1 specimen as they are received at the IRC.

  1. Oxygen delivery in irradiated normal tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, M.F.; Ansari, R. [Univ. of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States). School of Biomedical Engineering; Gaber, M.W. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure significantly alters the structure and function of microvascular networks, which regulate delivery of oxygen to tissue. In this study we use a hamster cremaster muscle model to study changes in microvascular network parameters and use a mathematical model to study the effects of these observed structural and microhemodynamic changes in microvascular networks on oxygen delivery to the tissue. Our experimental observations indicate that in microvascular networks while some parameters are significantly affected by irradiation (e.g. red blood cell (RBC) transit time), others remain at the control level (e.g. RBC path length) up to 180 days post-irradiation. The results from our mathematical model indicate that tissue oxygenation patterns are significantly different in irradiated normal tissue as compared to age-matched controls and the differences are apparent as early as 3 days post irradiation. However, oxygen delivery to irradiated tissue was not found to be significantly different from age matched controls at any time between 7 days to 6 months post-irradiation. These findings indicate that microvascular late effects in irradiated normal tissue may be due to factors other than compromised tissue oxygenation. (author)

  2. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  3. Rheological changes in irradiated chicken eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Lucia F. S.; Del Mastro, Nelida L

    1998-06-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may cause foodborne illnesses. Humans may introduce pathogens into foods during production, processing, distribution and or preparation. Some of these microorganisms are able to survive conventional preservation treatments. Heat pasteurization, which is a well established and satisfactory means of decontamination/disinfection of liquid foods, cannot efficiently achieve a similar objective for solid foods. Extensive work carried out worldwide has shown that irradiation is efficient in eradicating foodborne pathogens like Salmonella spp. that can contaminate poultry products. In this work Co-60 gamma irradiation was applied to samples of industrial powder white, yolk and whole egg at doses between 0 and 25 kGy. Samples were rehydrated and the viscosity measured in a Brookfield viscosimeter, model DV III at 5, 15 and 25 degree sign C. The rheological behaviour among the various kinds of samples were markedly different. Irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy, known to reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels, showed almost no variation of viscosity of irradiated egg white samples. On the other hand, whole or yolk egg samples showed some changes in rheological properties depending on the dose level, showing the predominance of whether polimerization or degradation as a result of the irradiation. Additionally, irradiation of yolk egg powder reduced yolk color as a function of the irradiation exposure implemented. The importance of these results are discussed in terms of possible industrial applications.

  4. Spectroscopic investigation of UV irradiated enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, D.L.; Hibbard, L.B. (Spelman College, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Trptophan (Trp) undergoes photolysis when exposed to light in the near UV region. The enzyme systems horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLAD) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), which contain two and three Trps respectively, were chosen for analysis of Trp photolysis. Aqueous solutions of HLAD and G3PDH were irradiated at either 295 or 335nm with a xenon lamp. Tryptophan fluorescence was monitored at half hour intervals for two hours in the case of HLAD and one hour in the case of G3PDH. The decrease in fluorescence from 295 irradiation was compared to the fluorescence decrease from 335 irradiation and was found to be similar for both the HLAD and G3PDH samples irradiated at 295nm and for both samples irradiated at 335nm. It was found that, for HLAD, the 295 irradiation caused a decrease in fluorescence of 90% as compared to a decrease of only 12% of 335nm. Enzymatic assays were then performed to determine the enzymatic activity before and after irradiation.

  5. [Near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The practical electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879. Halogen lamp is the toughest and brightest electric light bulb. With light filter, it is used as a source of near infrared light. Super Lizer and Alphabeam are made as near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp. The light emmited by Super Lizer is linear polarized near infrared light. The wave length is from 600 to 1,600 nm and strongest at about 1,000 nm. Concerning Super Lizer, there is evidence of analgesic effects and normalization of the sympathetic nervous system. Super Lizer has four types of probes. SG type is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. B type is used for narrow area irradiation. C and D types are for broad area irradiation. The output of Alphabeam is not polarized. The wave length is from 700 to 1,600 nm and the strongest length is about 1,000nm. Standard attachment is used for spot irradiation. Small attachment is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. Wide attachment is used for broad area irradiation. The effects of Alphabeam are thought to be similar to that of Super Lizer.

  6. Cell death pathways in directly irradiated cells and cells exposed to medium from irradiated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jella, Kishore Kumar; Garcia, Amaya; McClean, Brendan; Byrne, Hugh J; Lyng, Fiona M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare levels of apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic cell death and senescence after treatment with both direct radiation and irradiated cell conditioned medium. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line) were irradiated (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 Gy) using a cobalt 60 teletherapy unit. For bystander experiments, the medium was harvested from donor HaCaT cells 1 hour after irradiation and transferred to recipient HaCaT cells. Clonogenic assay, apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic cell death, senescence and cell cycle analysis were measured in both directly irradiated cells and bystander cells A reduction in cell survival was observed for both directly irradiated cells and irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM)-treated cells. Early apoptosis and necrosis was observed predominantly after direct irradiation. An increase in the number of cells in G2/M phase was observed at 6 and 12 h which led to mitotic cell death after 72 h following direct irradiation and ICCM treatment. No senescence was observed in the HaCaT cell line following either direct irradiation or treatment with ICCM. This study has shown that directly irradiated cells undergo apoptosis, necrosis and mitotic cell death whereas ICCM-treated cells predominantly undergo mitotic cell death.

  7. Total body irradiation: current indications; L`irradiation corporelle totale: les indications actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-05-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  8. Oxygen intake in ion irradiated fullerene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit [Department of Nanosciences, Neel Institute, C.N.R.S., 25 rue des Martyrs, BP166 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110 067 (India)], E-mail: amit.kumar@grenoble.cnrs.fr; Khan, S.A. [Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Kumar, Manvendra [Physics Department, Allahabad University, P.O. Box 211002 (India); Agarwal, D.C. [RBS College, Agra (India); Singh, Fouran; Tripathi, A. [Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Govind; Shivaprasad, S.M. [Surface Physics and Nanostructures Group, NPL, New Delhi 110 060 (India); Salomon, J.; Pichon, L. [C2RMF, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Pivin, J.C. [CSNSM, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Avasthi, D.K. [Department of Nanosciences, Neel Institute, C.N.R.S., 25 rue des Martyrs, BP166 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-04-15

    The present work reports the change in the oxygen content in energetic ion irradiated fullerene films. The oxygen contents in irradiated films have been studied using on-line elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and off-line X-ray photo electron emission (XPS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) techniques. The XPS and NRA techniques show that the oxygen content increases with ion fluence, whereas on-line ERDA measurements reveal that the oxygen content decreases with ion fluence. These experiments give clear evidence that oxygen content in irradiated films increases after exposure to the atmospheric oxygen.

  9. Electromechanical engineering aspects of irradiator design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etienne, J.C.; Buyle, R.

    1984-01-01

    IRE, Institut National des Radioelements at Fleurus, has been irradiating foodstuffs since 1979. The steadily-increasing demands of the food industry led IRE to design and install a second, different type of irradiator. Selection criteria for choosing between the different alternatives or possibilities are given based on the primary consideration that a contract food irradiator must be able to provide a service in accordance with the requirements of his customers. The principal components - the radiation source geometry, the transport system and the control systems - are described. The choice of the major electromechanical components is discussed taking into account their susceptibility to radiation damage.

  10. Identification of irradiated crab using EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghraby, A. [Radiation Dosimetry Department, National Institute for Standards (NIS), Ministry of Scientific Research, Haram, 12211- Giza, P.O. Box: 136 (Egypt)]. E-mail: maghrabism@yahoo.com

    2007-02-15

    EPR spectroscopy is a fast and powerful technique for the identification of irradiated food. Crab exoskeleton was divided into six parts: dactyl, cheliped, carapace, apron, swimming legs, and walking legs. Samples of the exoskeleton were prepared and irradiated to Cs-137 gamma radiation in the range (1.156-5.365 kGy). EPR spectra of unirradiated as well as irradiated samples were recorded and analyzed. Response to gamma radiation was plotted for each part of the exoskeleton, dactyl was found to be the most sensitive part, followed by the apron (38%), cheliped (37%), walking legs (30%), swimming legs (24%), and carapace (21%) relative to the dactyl response.

  11. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  12. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemtanu, Monica R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)]. E-mail: monica@infim.ro; Brasoveanu, Mirela [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grecu, Maria Nicoleta [National Institute for Materials Physics, RO 77 125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Minea, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

  13. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

    2005-10-01

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

  14. Food irradiation - pros and cons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The use of ionising radiation for food preservation is a much-disputed topic, both among experts and among consumers. Pros and cons of this issue were discussed in detail at the consumers' forum. Professor Dr. Johannes Friedrich Diehl, Director of the Institute for Biochemistry of the Food Research Centre, Karlsruhe, is a well-known supporter of the new method of food preservation; he sees advantages in the radiopreservation of food because, for example, losses due to inedibility are reduced, the danger of salmonellosis is decreased, just as the use of chemicals. He thinks this method to be without danger to health, shown by many years of experience. Opponents to food irradiation like Prof. Dr. Konrad Pfeilsticker, Professor for food science and food chemistry at the Bonn University deem the method to be unnecessary and raise the problem of qualitative changes caused in the food. In the course of the discussions, the pros and cons seemed to balance each other out.

  15. Target irradiation experiments. [Hydra accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Target irradiation experiments have been carried out on the Hydra accelerator, operating at powers between 0.15 and 0.3 TW. As listed in Table I, four types of spherical shell targets have been studied: 3 mm diameter, 200 ..mu..m and 50 ..mu..m wall thickness Au targets; 3 mm diameter, 300 ..mu..m wall thickness plastic targets; and 0.85 mm diameter, 10 ..mu..m wall thickness Ni targets. When compared to a practical range for 700 keV electrons, the ratio of shell thickness to electron range varied between 0.03 for the Ni targets to 1.5 for the thick walled Au targets. Multiple exposure optical holography was utilized to determine ablator velocity, and a one-dimensional hydrodynamical materials code CHARTD was utilized to model target response and infer beam deposition. Energy deposition varied from 1 TW/gm for thick Au targets up to 8 TW/gm for thin Ni targets, and pusher velocities ranged between 0.5 and 3.5 cm/..mu..sec. Neutron production from D/sub 2/ and DT filled Ni exploding pusher targets was measured using Ag and Li activation counters and gated scintillator photomultiplier time of flight detectors.

  16. [Irradiation in stereotactic conditions: prerequisites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingon, P; Lisbona, A

    2014-10-01

    Indications of treatment by stereotactic body radiotherapy are dramatically increasing due to new potential indications. The conditions associated with the treatment delivery are multiple. The first step of the process is crucial. It is related to the validation of the indication proposed during the multidisciplinary meeting as regard the evidence-based proof of the concept. These emerging techniques mainly extracranial stereotactic body irradiation do not benefit from long-term evaluation in terms of efficiency as well as normal tissue late toxicities. Priority should be given to prospective independent clinical trials, validated by an independent scientific committee, performed under a relevant and well dedicated multicentric quality assurance program aiming to improve knowledge and selection of indications. The SFRO is still working with others professionals on the definition of the conditions for the implementation of such treatments and actively collaborates with the authorities to define the appropriate conditions to preserve the quality of the treatment delivery under these specific conditions. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutron Flux Characterization of Irradiation Holes for Irradiation Test at HANARO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Seong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The High flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr (HANARO is a unique research reactor in the Republic of Korea, and has been used for irradiation testing since 1998. To conduct irradiation tests for nuclear materials, the irradiation holes of CT and OR5 have been used due to a high fast-neutron flux. Because the neutron flux must be accurately calculated to evaluate the neutron fluence of irradiated material, it was conducted using MCNP. The neutron flux was measured using fluence monitor wires to verify the calculated result. Some evaluations have been conducted, however, more than 20% errors have frequently occurred at the OR irradiation hole, while a good agreement between the calculated and measured data was shown at the CT irradiation hole.

  18. Effect of irradiation temperature on microstructural changes in self-ion irradiated austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hyung-Ha; Ko, Eunsol; Lim, Sangyeob; Kwon, Junhyun; Shin, Chansun

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the microstructural and hardness changes in austenitic stainless steel after Fe ion irradiation at 400, 300, and 200 °C using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindentation. The size of the Frank loops increased and the density decreased with increasing irradiation temperature. Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) was detected across high-angle grain boundaries, and the degree of RIS increases with increasing irradiation temperature. Ni-Si clusters were observed using high-resolution TEM in the sample irradiated at 400 °C. The results of this work are compared with the literature data of self-ion and proton irradiation at comparable temperatures and damage levels on stainless steels with a similar material composition with this study. Despite the differences in dose rate, alloy composition and incident ion energy, the irradiation temperature dependence of RIS and the size and density of radiation defects followed the same trends, and were very comparable in magnitude.

  19. Quantification de la Charge Virale et tests de résistance du VIH-1 aux ARV à partir d’échantillons DBS (Dried Blood Spots chez des patients Guinéens sous traitement antirétroviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Bangoura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problématique: Comme dans plusieurs pays du Sud, le suivi virologique des patients sous traitement antirétroviral (TARV en Guinée est timide voire inexistant dans certaines localités. Le but de cette étude était d’évaluer la faisabilité technique et logistique de l’utilisation des DBS dans les tests de charge virale (CV et de génotypage.Méthode: De septembre à octobre 2010, les DBS ont été préparés à partir de prélèvements sanguins de patients adultes sous TARV. Le délai d’envoi des échantillons au laboratoire de référence était de 30 jours maximum après le prélèvement et se faisait à température ambiante. La CV a été quantifiée et les échantillons de patients en échec virologique (CV ≥ 3 log10 copies/mL ont été génotypés selon le protocole de l’ANRS. L’algorithme de Stanford version 6.0.8 a été utilisé pour l’analyse et l’interprétation des mutations de résistance.Résultats: Parmi les 136 patients inclus, 129 et 7 étaient respectivement sous première et deuxième ligne de traitement avec une médiane de suivi de 35 mois [IQR: 6-108]. L’échec virologique a été noté chez 33 patients. Parmi eux, 84.8% (n = 28/33 ont bénéficié d’ungénotypage. Le taux de résistance global était de 14% (n = 19/136. Le CRF02_AG était le sous type viral le plus prévalent (82%; n = 23.Conclusion: En plus de montrer la faisabilité technique et logistique des tests de CV et de génotypage à partir des DBS, ces résultats montrent l’intérêt de leurs utilisations dans le suivi virologique des patients sous TARV. Cette étude a permis également de documenter l’échec virologique, la résistance aux ARV et la diversité génétique du VIH-1 en Guinée.Mots clés: VIH-1, Résistance aux ARV, DBS (Dried Blood Spots, Guinée Conakry, Génotypage,Charge Virale. Quantification of Viral load and resistance tests of HIV-1 to ARVs from dried blood spotssamples in Guinean patients undergoing

  20. Irradiated foods: current trends and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Additional demands on keeping food safe and palatable through longer distribution chains have led industry executives to reconsider irradiation and other technologies as viable processing alternatives for many foods. Other intervention technologies (precision thermal, UV, and novel sanitizer formula...

  1. Hydrogen release from reactor-irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepikov, A.Kh. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Tazhibaeva, I.L. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Shestakov, V.P. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Romanenko, O.G. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Chikhray, Y.V. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Kenzhin, E.A. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation); Cherepnin, Yu.S. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation); Tikhomirov, L.N. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    Experiments on gas release of reactor-irradiated beryllium samples were carried out and compared to control samples. The simultaneous influence of reactor irradiation and exposure to hydrogen results in more hydrogen retention in beryllium, than if beryllium is initially irradiated and then exposed to hydrogen. Appearance of low temperature peaks at 460 K and 540 K with 0.71 eV/atom and 0.84 eV/atom desorption activation energies, respectively, assessed in a frame of a second order desorption model, is mainly responsible for the increase in hydrogen content. These peaks can be attributed to chemical hydrogen bonds with surface oxide. The simultaneous influence of hydrogen and nuclear reactor irradiation at a temperature of 1150 K was assumed to increase significantly microcrack formation near the surface of beryllium samples, resulting in an increase in low temperature peak intensities. (orig.).

  2. An advanced irradiation facilities and its usage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A carrier type gamma irradiator is an advanced device currently installed in Qingdao Irradiation Center (QIC) and has been put into operation for nine years in Qingdao, China. It utilizes Co-60 as the radiation source; the initial Co-60 loading is 1.48×1016Bq (0.4 million Curies). Rubber, natural and synthetic polymers, heat-shrinkable films and tubes, disposable medical supplies, some foods and drugs have been irradiated for test in the past. Especially a great success achieved on the radiation of compound food for young shrimp. The practice demonstrates that the bacteria in the compound food can be destroyed by the irradiation at optimum dosage between 5 000-6 000 Gy.

  3. Low cycle fatigue of irradiated LMFBR materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, L D

    1976-01-01

    A review of low cycle fatigue data on irradiated LMFBR materials was conducted and extensive graphical representations of available data are presented. Representative postirradiation tensile properties of annealed 304 and 316 SS are selected and employed in several predictive methods to estimate irradiated material fatigue curves. Experimental fatigue data confirm the use of predictive methods for establishing conservative design curves over the range of service conditions relevant to such CRBRP components as core former, fixed radial shielding, core barrel, lower inlet module and upper internals structures. New experimental data on fatigue curves and creep-fatigue interaction in irradiated 20 percent cold worked (CW) 316 SS and Alloy 718 would support the design of removable radial shielding and upper internals in CRBRP. New experimental information on notched fatigue behavior and cyclic stress-strain curves of all these materials in the irradiated condition could provide significant design data.

  4. Laser irradiation of carbon-tungsten materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, A.; Avotina, L.; Marin, A.; Lungu, C. P.; Grigorescu, C. E. A.; Demitri, N.; Ursescu, D.; Porosnicu, C.; Osiceanu, P.; Kizane, G.; Grigoriu, C.

    2014-09-01

    Carbon-tungsten layers deposited on graphite by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) were directly irradiated with a femtosecond terawatt laser. The morphological and structural changes produced in the irradiated area by different numbers of pulses were systematically explored, both along the spots and in their depths. Although micro-Raman and Synchrotron-x-ray diffraction investigations have shown no carbide formation, they have shown the unexpected presence of embedded nano-diamonds in the areas irradiated with high fluencies. Scanning electron microscopy images show a cumulative effect of the laser pulses on the morphology through the ablation process. The micro-Raman spatial mapping signalled an increased percentage of sp3 carbon bonding in the areas irradiated with laser fluencies around the ablation threshold. In-depth x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations suggested a weak cumulative effect on the percentage increase of the sp2-sp3 transitions with the number of laser pulses just for nanometric layer thicknesses.

  5. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes by Proton Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Euikwoun; Lee, Jeonggil; Lee, Younman; Jeon, Jaekyun; Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jeongha; Shin, Kwanwoo; Youn, Sang-Pil; Kim, Kyeryung

    2007-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit variety of superior physical properties including well-defined nanodimensional structure, high electrical and thermal conductivity, and good mechanical stability against external irradiations. Further, a large specific surface area per unit weight suggests that carbon nanotubes could be excellent candidates for gas storage, purification, and separation. However, the practical application of CNTs is limited mainly due to the metallic impurities that were used as a catalyst during the fabrication process. Here, we irradiated CNTs by using high energy proton beams (35.7 MeV at the Bragg Peak). Interestingly, metallic impurities such as Fe, Ni, Co and chunk of amorphous carbon that were attached on the surface of CNTs were completely removed after the irradiation. The mechanism of such the purification process is not understood. The possible speculation will be demonstrated combined with the changes of physical properties including the appearance of the magnetism after the irradiation.

  6. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated chickpea and corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmeddin Yazici, A.; Bedir, Metin; Bozkurt, Halil; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2008-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish a detection method for irradiated chickpea and corn by thermoluminescence (TL) method. The leguminous were packed in polyethylene bags and then the packets were irradiated at room temperature at different doses by 60Co gamma source at 1, 4, 8 and 10 kGy. Minerals extracted from the leguminous were deposited onto a clean aluminum disc and TL intensities of the minerals were measured by TL. It was observed that the extracted samples from both leguminous exhibit good TL Intensity and the TL intensity of glow curves of them increased proportionally to irradiation doses. The TL glow curve of both irradiated leguminous presents a single broad peak below 400 °C. The TL trapping parameters glow peaks were estimated by the additive dose (AD), Tm(Ea)-Tstop and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The fading characteristics of glow curves were also recorded up to 6 months.

  7. Downscaling of global solar irradiation in R

    CERN Document Server

    Antonanzas-Torres, F; Antonanzas, J; Perpiñán, O

    2013-01-01

    A methodology for downscaling solar irradiation from satellite-derived databases is described using R software. Different packages such as raster, parallel, solaR, gstat, sp and rasterVis are considered in this study for improving solar resource estimation in areas with complex topography, in which downscaling is a very useful tool for reducing inherent deviations in satellite-derived irradiation databases, which lack of high global spatial resolution. A topographical analysis of horizon blocking and sky-view is developed with a digital elevation model to determine what fraction of hourly solar irradiation reaches the Earth's surface. Eventually, kriging with external drift is applied for a better estimation of solar irradiation throughout the region analyzed. This methodology has been implemented as an example within the region of La Rioja in northern Spain, and the mean absolute error found is a striking 25.5% lower than with the original database.

  8. Y-Irradiation Degradation of Methamidophos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Renbang; BAO Huaying; XIA Lingyun

    2009-01-01

    The irradiation degradation of methamidophos in aqueous solutions by 60Co-γ rays was investigated.The effects of absorbed doses,saturated gas,and the additive of H2O2 on the degradation were also studied.The results showed that the increased with the increase of the irradiation dosage.At certain irradiation dosage,methamidophos could be degraded completely.The degradation rate of methamidophos in the solution saturated with oxygen was higher than those saturated with other gases,which reached 100% when the absorbed dose was 8 kGy.H2O2 degraded methamidophos slowly when it was used alone,but could accelerate the degradation obviously when it was used with irradiation together.

  9. Stability of γ-Irradiated Carmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Hélio M.; Fontenele, Rinaldo S.; DelMastro, Nélida L.

    2005-01-01

    Carmine is a dye used mainly for coloring food products and galenicals but also in inks. As food irradiation is becoming a regular treatment for food preservation, it is desirable to have a proper knowledge about the radiation sensitivity of additives that can be included in the food formula. The aim of this work was to establish the radiation stability of carmine against Co-60 gamma radiation. Samples of 50% pure carmine powder as well as 50%, 10% and 5% aqueous solutions were irradiated in a Gammacell 220, dose rate of about 5.2 kGy/h, with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 kGy. Spectrophotometric readings at 494 nm show a slight decrease of the absorbance as a function of dose: Samples irradiated with 4 and 32 kGy retained 95% and 90% of absorbance of the unirradiated samples respectively. These results indicate a rather good stability of carmine against γ-irradiation.

  10. The health physics of installations for decladding irradiated fuels or for handling radio-elements at Marcoule; La radioprotection des installations de degainage des combustibles irradies et des radio-elements a Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J.; Guillermin, P.; Mallet, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule, 30 - Chusclan (France)

    1966-07-01

    Radiation protection practices for handling reactor fuel elements are described. Elements of considerable specific radioactivity are handled under water. A study was made of water filtration and of ventilation in the building. The installations are divided up into zones depending on the radioactive risks, and the radiation level atmospheric contamination are the object of a systematic control at various points. A description is given of all aspects of health physics which have been encountered during six years: storage, transfer of radioactive material; decladding, rolling, waste disposal, specialized operations, installations in operation and at rest, and transport. In spite of the gradual increase in the activity of these installations, the total doses received by the personnel have hardly altered and the number of cases of physical contamination has diminished. (authors) [French] Dans ces installations, se manipulent sous l'eau des elements a radioactivite specifique considerable. La filtration de l'eau, la ventilation ont ete particulierement etudiees. L'ensemble a ete divise en lieux classes en fonction des risques radioactifs et des appareils controlent en permanence l'irradiation et la contamination atmospherique en certains points. Tous les aspects de la radioprotection resultant de six annees d'experience relatifs: au stockage, au deconteneurage, au degainage, au laminage, a l'evacuation des residus, aux travaux particuliers, installations en marche et a l'arret, et aux transports sont successivement decrits. Malgre l'accroissement progressif de l'activite de cet ensemble, les doses integrees par le personnel n'ont pratiquement pas augmente et le nombre des cas de contamination corporelle a diminue. (auteurs)

  11. Early Pulomonary Irradiation in Paraquat (Gramoxone) Poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Geol; Kim, Gwi Eon; Suh, Chang Ok [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-15

    Purpose : To evaluate whether the early pulmonary irradiation can prevent or decrease the pulmonary damage and contribute to improve ultimate survival in paraquat lung. Materials and Methods : From Jun. 1987 to Aug. 1993, thirty patients with paraquat poisoning were evaluated. Fourteen of these patients were received pulmonary irradiation(RT). All of the patients ere managed with aggressive supportive treatment such as gastric lavage, forced diuresis, antioxidant agents and antifibrosis agents. Ingested amounts of paraquat were estimated into three groups(A: minimal < about 5cc, B: mouthful 5-50 cc, C: Large > 50cc). Pulmonary irradiation was started within 24 hours after admission(from day 1 to day 11 after ingestion of paraquat). Both whole lungs were irradiated with AP/PA parallel opposing fields using C0-60 teletherapy machine. A total of 10Gy(2Gy/fr. X 5 days)was delivered without correction of lung density. Results : In group A, all patients were alive regardless of pulmonary irradiation and in group C, all of the patients were died due o multi-organ failure, especially pulmonary fibrosis regardless of pulmonary irradiation. However, in group B, six of 7 patients(86%) with no RT were died due to respiratory failure, but 4 of 8 patients with RT were alive and 4 of 5 patients who received pulmonary irradiation within 4 days after ingestion of paraquat were all alive though radiological pulmonary fibrosis. All 3 patients who were received pulmonary irradiation after 4 days after ingestion were died due to pulmonary fibrosis in spite of recovery from renal and hepatic toxicity. Conclusion : It is difficult to find out the effect of pulmonary irradiation on the course of the paraquat lung because the precise plasma and urine paraquat concentration were not available between control and irradiation groups. But early pulmonary irradiation within 4 days after paraquat poisoning with aggressive supportive treatment appears to decrease pulmonary toxicity and contribute

  12. Gamma irradiation effects in W films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claro, Luiz H. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil) and Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei (Brazil); Santos, Ingrid A. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Cassia F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    Using the van Der Pauw methodology, the surface resistivity of irradiated tungsten films deposited on Silicon substrate was measured. The films were exposed to {gamma} radiation using a isotopic {sup 60}Co source in three irradiation stages attaining 40.35 kGy in total dose. The obtained results for superficial resistivity display a time annealing features and their values are proportional to the total dose.

  13. Van de Graaff Irradiation of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Through irradiations using our 3 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator, Argonne is testing the radiation stability of components of equipment that are being used to dispense molybdenum solutions for use as feeds to 99mTc generators and in the 99mTc generators themselves. Components have been irradiated by both a direct electron beam and photons generated from a tungsten convertor.

  14. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Nam, Hye Seon; Oh, Kyong Nam; Woo, Si Ho; Kim, Kyeung Eun; Yi, Sang Duk; Park, Jun Young; Kim, Kyong Su; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2000-04-01

    In 1999, we have been studied (1) on the detection of irradiated foods by ESR spectroscopy, by thermoluminescence, and by viscometry for physical measurements, (2) on the detection of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones derived from fatty foods by GC/MS for chemical measurements, (3) on the screening and detection of irradiated foods by Comet assay and immunochemical (ELISA) technique for biological or biochemical measurements.

  15. ESR investigations on ion beam irradiated polycarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipara, M.I. (Institute for Physics and Technology of Materials, P.O. Box MG-7, Magurele, Bucharest, R-76900 (Romania)); Grecu, V.V. (University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, Magurele, Bucharest, R-76900 (Romania)); Notingher, P.V. (University Politehnica of Bucharest, Electrotechnical Faculty, 313, Splaiul Independentei, Str., 77206 Bucharest (Romania)); Romero, J.R. (Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingineria, Dept. de Fisica Aplicada, Ciudad Universitaria, Chaguaramos, Caracas (Venezuela)); Chipara, M.D. (Research Institute for Electrotechnics, 45-47 Tudor Vladimirescu, Bd., Bucharest, R-79623 (Romania))

    1994-06-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) investigations with a polycarbonate solid state nuclear detector, irradiated with oxygen ions, are reported. The nature of the paramagnetic defects induced by irradiation is discussed. The temperature dependence of resonance line parameters is studied. From the experimental data, obtained by ESR, spectroscopy, the activation energy for defect recombination, the average isotropic exchange integral between paramagnetic defects as well as the average distance between defects, are estimated. Correlations with latent tracks structure are discussed. ((orig.))

  16. [Histological findings in an irradiated choroidal melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinzer, S; Hasselbach, H; Bräsen, J H; Leuschner, I; Roider, J

    2011-06-01

    Histological findings of choroidal melanomas after proton beam irradiation have been reported for complicated cases after enucleation. We present specimens of a tumor after transretinal probe excision. One year after irradiation, the biopsy was examined histologically. The specimens showed pigmented, spindle-shaped cells staining positively for Melan-A and HMB-45. Ki-67 showed low proliferation. Caspase-3 staining was normal. The melanoma still contained vital and even single proliferating cells, but regressed afterwards without additional therapy.

  17. Synthesis of Coronene Using Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing YANG; Ying LI; Ming Gui XIE

    2003-01-01

    Using microwave irradiation, perylene was obtained from 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracar- boxylic dianhydride with copper powder in boiling quinoline. With the same method, 1,12- benzoperylene was synthesized from 1, 12-benzoperylene-1', 2'-dicarboxylic anhydride, and coronene was prepared from coronene-1, 2- dicarboxylic anhydride with good yield. Through Dields-Alder reaction, 1, 12-benzoperylene-1', 2'-dicarboxylic anhydride and coronene-1,2- dicarboxylic anhydride were also prepared using microwave irradiation.

  18. Food-irradiation technology and reconsideration for the safety of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aibara, Kageaki (National Inst. of Health, tokyo (Japan))

    1984-08-01

    In the first half of this paper, the definition of several basic concepts on radiation and the units of the quantities related to radiation are given to reconfirm them. In the second half of the paper, the general status of food irradiation technology and irradiated foods are reported. 25 years have elapsed since 1958 when the legal situation of food irradiation research was clarified in the U.S. as a part of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. The types of radiation authorized for use in food irradiation so far are ..gamma..-ray from /sup 60/Co and /sup 137/Cs, X-ray lower than 5 MeV, and electron beam lower than 10 MeV. Large scale irradiation plants operating in the world are listed. The biological effect of radiation includes sterilization, insecticide and growth control, and the sterilization effect further includes radappertization, radicidation and radurization. The insecticide and growth control are also divided into several categories. For these, respective examples of food concerned are listed. The trend of irradiated foods in the world shows that the irradiation treatment of foods is permitted over a wide range of foods. In 1980, the conclusion of the Joint Expert Committee on Integrity of Irradiated Foods of FAO/IAEA/WHO was issued. In the paper, the table of legally authorized irradiated foods in 20 countries in the world is given at the end.

  19. Embrittlement of irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels in the absence of irradiation hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, P.O. 2008 MS6138, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6138 (United States)], E-mail: kluehrl@ornl.gov; Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki-Mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Sokolov, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, P.O. 2008 MS6138, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6138 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Irradiation damage caused by neutron irradiation below 425-450 deg. C of 9-12% Cr ferritic/martensitic steels produces microstructural defects that cause an increase in yield stress. This irradiation hardening causes embrittlement observed in a Charpy impact test as an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature. Little or no change in strength is observed in steels irradiated above 425-450 deg. C. Therefore, the general conclusion has been that no embrittlement occurs above these temperatures. In a recent study, significant embrittlement was observed in F82H steel irradiated at 500 deg. C to 5 and 20 dpa without any change in strength. Earlier studies on several conventional steels also showed embrittlement effects above the irradiation-hardening temperature regime. Indications are that this embrittlement is caused by irradiation-accelerated or irradiation-induced precipitation. Observations of embrittlement in the absence of irradiation hardening that were previously reported in the literature have been examined and analyzed with computational thermodynamics calculations to illuminate and understand the effect.

  20. Embrittlement of irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels in the absence of irradiation hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge Noational Laboratory, TN (United States); Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Sokolov, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., TN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Neutron irradiation of 9-12% Cr ferritic/martensitic steels below 425-450 deg. C produces microstructural defects that cause an increase in yield stress and ultimate tensile strength. This irradiation hardening causes embrittlement, which is observed in Charpy impact and toughness tests as an increase in ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). Based on observations that show little change in strength in these steels irradiated above 425-450 deg. C, the general conclusion has been that no embrittlement occurs above this irradiation-hardening temperature regime. In a recent study of F82H steel irradiated at 300, 380, and 500 deg. C, irradiation hardening-an increase in yield stress-was observed in tensile specimens irradiated at the two lower temperatures, but no change was observed for the specimens irradiated at 500 deg. C. As expected, an increase in DBTT occurred for the Charpy specimens irradiated at 300 and 380 deg. C. However, there was an unexpected increase in the DBTT of the specimens irradiated at 500 deg. C. The observed embrittlement was attributed to the irradiation-accelerated precipitation of Laves phase. This conclusion was based on results from a detailed thermal aging study of F82H, in which tensile and Charpy specimens were aged at 500, 550, 600, and 650 deg. C to 30,000 h. These studies indicated that there was a decrease in yield stress at the two highest temperatures and essentially no change at the two lowest temperatures. Despite the strength decrease or no change, the DBTT increased for Charpy specimens irradiated at all four temperatures. Precipitates were extracted from thermally aged specimens, and the amount of precipitate was correlated with the increase in transition temperature. Laves phase was identified in the extracted precipitates by X-ray diffraction. Earlier studies on conventional elevated-temperature steels also showed embrittlement effects above the irradiation-hardening temperature

  1. a Study of Stress Relaxation Rate in Un-Irradiated and Neutron-Irradiated Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauri, I. M.; Afzal, Naveed; Zyrek, N. A.

    Stress relaxation rate in un-irradiated and neutron-irradiated 303 stainless steel was investigated at room temperature. The specimens were exposed to 100 mC, Ra-Be neutron source of continuous energy 2-12 MeV for a period ranging from 4 to 16 days. The tensile deformation of the specimens was carried out using a Universal Testing Machine at 300 K. During the deformation, straining was frequently interrupted by arresting the cross head to observe stress relaxation at fixed load. Stress relaxation rate, s, was found to be stress dependent i.e. it increased with increasing stress levels σ0 both in un-irradiated and irradiated specimens, however the rate was lower in irradiated specimens than those of un-irradiated ones. A further decrease in s was observed with increase in exposure time. The experiential decrease in the relaxation rate in irradiated specimens is ascribed to strong interaction of glide dislocations with radiation induced defects. The activation energy for the movement of dislocations was found to be higher in irradiated specimens as compared with the un-irradiated ones.

  2. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods; development of immunological identification of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyong Ae; Lee, Yoon Jin; Choi, Yoon Jung; Han, Su Kyong [Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay systems for the identification of irradiated egg, pork and chicken was developed. Eggs were irradiated in their shells to 0.5{approx}7kGy. Pork was irradiated to 0.5{approx}3kGy and chicken irradiated to 0.5kGy{approx}5kGy. The most sensitive proteins to irradiation were screened by SDS-PAGE and purified. Ovalbumin from egg, salt soluble protein(p) from pork, and salt soluble protein(c) from chicken showed the most sensitivity to irradiation. To investigate for a practical use in identifying of irradiated egg, pork and chicken, competitive ELISA was performed. The binding activity of ovalbumin to anti-ovalbumin IgG was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by irradiating up to 7kGy, and considerably lowered after irradiating at 7kGy. The concentration of 50% inhibition of ovalbumin to IgG was increased to 1.5(0.5kGy){approx}3.7(7kGy) times in an dose-dependent relationship. The binding activity of salt soluble protein(p) to anti-salt soluble protein IgG (anti-SSPp IgG)was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner by irradiating up to 3kGy, and considerably lowered after irradiating at 3kGy. The concentration of 50% inhibition of salt soluble protein to IgG was increased to 1.1(0.5kGy){approx}5.2(3kGy) times in a dose-dependent relationship. On the other hand, the binding activity of salt soluble protein(c) to anti-salt soluble protein IgG(anti-SSPc IgG) was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by irradiating up to 5kGy, too, and considerably lowered after irradiating at 5kGy. The concentration of 50% inhibition of salt soluble protein to IgG was increased to 1.1{approx}2.3 times in a dose-dependent relationship. SDS-PAGE of the irradiation sensitive proteins showed the partial breakdown of it was induced by irradiation. So, the lowering of binding activity was probably due to the partial breakdown of ovalbumin by irradiation. 25 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  3. Applications of electron spin resonance to some problems of radiation chemistry; Applications de la resonance paramagnetique electronique a quelques problemes de chimie sous rayonnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachaty, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The electron spin resonance (E.S.R.) spectra of gamma irradiated polar organic glasses, at 77 K, shows a single line centered at g {approx} 2, attributed to solvated electrons. The radicals produced on scavenging this species by electron acceptors, such as aromatic hydrocarbons, nitro-compounds and azines have been studied by E.S.R. In most cases, the radicals from these solutes, the spectra of which are observed after elimination by warming of the radicals from the matrices, are produced by protonation of the anions formed by scavenging of electrons at 77 K. Thus, in the case of glassy solutions of nitro-compounds, the radicals R NO{sub 2}H are formed. They are characterized by a{sub N} = 15 G (nitrobenzene) or a{sub N} = 28 G (nitro-alkane). These radicals are also generated by U.V, photolysis at room temperature of solutions of nitro-compounds in alcohols and are shown to be the precursors of nitroxide radicals R - N - R (with N - O) observed simultaneously. Gamma irradiation of solutions of pyridine and of the three diazines, in alcohol glasses at 77 K, produces the radical formed by hydrogen addition to these compounds. The value of the coupling constant of the additional proton (7-10 G) indicates that it is bound to a nitrogen in the sp{sup 2} hydridation state. One has shown, taking pyridine as an example, that the addition to a carbon gives a much greater value of the coupling constant, of the order of 50-60 G. (author) [French] Les spectres de resonance paramagnetique electronique (R.P.E.) obtenus apres irradiation gamma, a 77 K, de verres organiques polaires tels que les alcools, comportent une bande unique centree a g {approx} 2, attribuable aux electrons solvates. On etudie par R.P.E. les radicaux provenant de leur capture par des solutes ayant une affinite electronique, en particulier les hydrocarbures aromatiques, les composes nitres et les azines. En general, les radicaux provenant de ces solutes, dont on observe les spectres apres elimination

  4. Food Irradiation | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Using radiation to kill bacteria and other pathogens in food is called food irradiation. Irradiating food kills bacteria and molds that can make people sick. Irradiation does not remove toxins that are already in food. The high energy of the radiation breaks chemical bonds to stop bacteria and other pathogens from multiplying. Irradiation does not make food radioactive.

  5. Inhibition effect of ADSCs on thymomas induced by irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Xiong; Zhi-Hua Kong; Jun Zhu; Yu-Lin Yuan; Guo-Xiang Wang; Gan-Qing Xia

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate that the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on thymomas induced by irradiation.Methods: A total of 160 cleaning degree C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups randomly: control group of 40 mice with non-irradiation; irradiation group of 40 mice with irradiation; irradiation+ADSCs group with 40 mice, thymoma model mice injected with 0.5 mL ADSCs via tail vein at one day after last irradiation; non-irradiation+ADSCs group of 40 mice with the same ADSCs injection as irradiation+ADSCs group. All mice were sacrificed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th day after last irradiation, localization of ADSCs in thymoma tissue was detected using fluorescence microscope. Four groups mice were sacrificed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th day and the 6th month after last irradiation, pathological changes of thymus gland tissue were observed by HE staining and immunohistochemistry assay.Results: The thymoma incidence of irradiation+ADSCs group was significantly lower in control group. The expression of CD31 and PCNA in irradiation group and irradiation+ADSCs group mice was significantly higher than that of control group, and the expression of PCNA in irradiation+ADSCs group mice was significantly lower than that of radiation group mice. Conclusios:ADSCs can reduce the degree of irradiation damage of thymus tissue and inhibit the growth of thymoma induced by irradiation.

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation and discordant cardiac xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, E.; Dresdale, A.R.; Diehl, J.T.; Katzen, N.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Konstam, M.A.; Payne, D.D.; Cleveland, R.J. (Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation can prolong concordant cardiac xenografts. The effects of total lymphoid irradiation in a discordant xenograft model (guinea pig to rat) were studied with and without adjuvant pharmacologic immunosuppression. Inbred Lewis rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 6) served as a control group and rats received no immunosuppression. Group 2 (n = 5) received triple-drug therapy that consisted of intraperitoneal azathioprine (2 mg/kg), cyclosporine (20 mg/kg), and methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg) for 1 week before transplantation. Group 3 animals (n = 5) received 15 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation in 12 divided doses over a 3-week period. Group 4 (n = 6) received both triple-drug therapy and total lymphoid irradiation as described for groups 2 and 3. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay was performed to determine if a correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and rejection-free interval existed. Rejection was defined as cessation of graft pulsation and was confirmed by histologic test results. Only groups 1 and 2 showed a difference in survival (group 1, 6.9 +/- 1.0 minutes; group 2, 14.2 +/- 2.7 minutes, p = 0.02). Although total lymphoid irradiation did decrease complement-dependent cytotoxicity, linear regression revealed no correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and graft survival (coefficient of correlation, 0.30). Unlike concordant cardiac xenografts, total lymphoid irradiation with or without triple-drug therapy does not prolong graft survival.

  7. Etude de la microstructure d'un acier 316 titane apres vieillissement et apres irradiation aux neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, G.; Le Naour, J.; Vouillon, M.

    1981-10-01

    La précipitation qui se produit lors de vieillissements de longue durée entre 450 et 700°C dans un acier 316 Ti soit hypertrempé soit écroui, a été étudiée en couplant les techniques de microscopic électronique et de microanalyse X. Pour les cas expérimentaux étudiés, les résultats obtenus montrent que la composition des carbures M 23C 6 et des phases σ, Laves et χ est peu sensible aux conditions de vieillissement et dépend également peu de l'état structural initial. Leur teneur en éléments principaux de l'alliage est d'ailleurs voisine de celle des phases précipitées dans l'acier non stabilisé. Excepté les carbures de type M 6C, toutes ces phases ont une teneur en nickel inférieure à celle de la matrice. Les premiers rérultats obtenus sur des matériaux irradiés aux neutrons montrent que la précipitation sous flux est différente de celle qui se produit dans l'acier vieilli. Les phases γ' et G ainsi que les carbures riches en nickel ont été observés. L'attention a été attirée sur le fait qu'il n'y a pas de corrélation simple entre la vitesse de gonflement et la teneuer résiduelle en nickel de la matrice.

  8. Development of a Stochastic Hourly Solar Irradiation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Brecl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new solar irradiation model and implemented it in the SunIrradiance photovoltaic cell/module simulator. This model uses stochastic methods to generate the hourly distribution of solar irradiation on a horizontal or inclined surface from monthly irradiation values on the horizontal surface of a selected location and was verified with the measured irradiance data in Ljubljana, located in Central Europe. The new model shows better simulation results with regard to the share of the diffuse irradiation in the region than the other models. The simulation results show that the new solar irradiation model is excellent for photovoltaic system simulations of single junction PV technologies.

  9. Thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnioja, S

    1998-12-31

    A method of thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was developed for the detection of irradiated foods. The TL method is based on the determination of thermoluminescence of adhering or contaminating minerals separated from foods by wet sieving and treatment with high density liquid. Carbon tetrachloride provided a suitable alternative for foods that form gels with water. Thermoluminescence response of minerals in a first TL measurement is normalised with a second TL measurement of the same mineral sample after calibration irradiation to a dose of 5 kGy. The decision about irradiation is made on the basis of a comparison of the two TL spectra: if the two TL glow curves match in shape and intensity the sample has been irradiated, and if they are clearly different it has not been irradiated. An attractive feature of TL analysis is that the mineral material itself is used for calibration; no reference material is required. Foods of interest in the investigation were herbs, spices, berries and seafood. The presence of minerals in samples is a criterion for application of the method, and appropriate minerals were found in all herbs, spices and berries. The most common minerals in terrestrial food were tecto-silicates - quartz and feldspars - which with their intense and stable thermoluminescence were well suited for the analysis. Mica proved to be useless for detection purposes, whereas carbonate in the form of calcite separated from intestines of seafood was acceptable. Fading of the TL signal is considerable in the low temperature part of the glow curve during a storage of several months after irradiation. However, spices and herbs could easily be identified as irradiated even after two years storage. Conditions for seafood, which is stored in a freezer, are different, and only slight fading was observed after one year. The effect of mineral composition and structure on TL was studied for feldspars. Feldspars originating from subtropical and tropical regions exhibit lower TL

  10. Les encroûtements sous-marins de Méditerranée orientale : une explication génétique Subsea Incrustations in the Eastern Mediterranean: a Genetic Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allouc J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les encroûtements sous-marins ou fonds durcis ne sont pas spécifiques à la Méditerranée, mais ils y sont particulièrement abondants, notamment dans le bassin oriental. Ils tapissent les pentes de reliefs sous-marins et représentent un exemple de diagenèse superficielle liée aux périodes de vacuité sédimentaire. Il existe divers types d'encroûtements qui peuvent être distingués en fonction principalement de l'épaisseur de la partie indurée (appelée calcaire et de la teinte générale du matériau. Le plus souvent le calcaire surmonte une boue encore plus ou moins meuble. L'induration (ou lithification de cette dernière résulte de l'introduction d'un ciment de calcite magnésienne et on peut distinguer différentes étapes du processus d'après la nannostructure du calcaire. Le phénomène semble purement physico-chimique et résulterait de la conjonction de plusieurs facteurs : - présence de courants profonds; - sursaturation suffisamment élevée par rapport à la calcite non magnésienne; - très faibles concentrations en inhibiteurs de croissance cristalline autres que le magnésium. Bien qu'affectant des matériaux d'âges variés, cette forme de diagenèse sous-marine paraît essentiellement quaternaire. D'après les échantillons examinés, les conditions les plus favorables à la genèse des encroûtements apparaîtraient lors des stades climatiques froids (notamment le dernier et plus particulièrement durant leur phase terminale. Subsea incrustations or hardened sea floors are not specific to the Mediterranean, but they are particularly abundant there, especially in the eastern basin. They cover the slopes of subsea relief features and represent an example of surface diagenesis linked to periods of absence of sedimentation. Several types of incrustations can be distinguished, mainly as a function of the thickness of the indurated part (called limestone and the general color of the material. Such limestone usually

  11. Experimental and theoretical study of phase transitions under ball milling; Etude experimentale et modelisation des changements de phases sous broyage a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochet, P

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to determine how phase transition s under ball-milling depend on the milling conditions and to find out if one can rationalize such transitions with the theory of driven alloys. We have chosen two phase transitions: the order-disorder transition in Fe Al and the precipitation-dissolution NiGe. In the case of Fe Al we have found that the steady-state long range order parameter achieved under ball milling intensity; moreover the same degree of order is achieved starting from an ordered alloy or a disordered solid solution. On the way to fully disordered state the degree of order either decreases monotonically or goes through a short lived transient state. This behaviour is reminiscent of a first order transition while the equilibrium transition is second order. All the above features are well reproduced by a simple model of driven alloys, which was originally build for alloys under irradiation. The stationary degree of order results of two competitive atomic jump mechanisms: the forced displacements induced by the shearing of the grains, and the thermally activated jumps caused by vacancies migrations. Finally we have performed atomistic simulations with a Monte Carlo kinetic algorithm, which revealed the role of the fluctuations in the intensity of the forcing. Moreover we have shown that specific atomistic mechanisms are active in a dilute NiGe solid solution which might lead to ball milling induced precipitation in under-saturated solid solution. (author). 149 refs.

  12. Development of food irradiation technology and consumer attitude toward irradiated food in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Cho, Han-Ok (Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of))

    1992-12-01

    In Korea, the well-integrated research of biological effects of radiation has been launched from the late 1960s. As research activities, the following food items have been dealt with: sprouting foods, fruits, mushrooms, grains, spices or mixed condiments, fish or fishery products, meat or meat products, and fermented foods. The usage of gamma radiation from [sup 60]Co source is now authorized for food irradiation of the following items: potato, onion, garlic, chestnut, mushroom, dried mushroom, dried spices (including red pepper, garlic, black pepper, onion, ginger, and green onion), dried meat, powdered fish and shellfish, soybean paste powder, hot pepper paste powder, soybean sauce powder, and starch. Since the authorization of food irradiation in 1985, consumers' acceptance has been considered the most important. The survey evaluating the basic perception and attitule toward food irradiation revealed the following results. Consumers' awareness of food irradiation was 82%, with significantly higher in radiation workers than the general public (p<0.0001). Seventy-five percent distinguished the contaminated food by radionuclides from irradiated food. In purchasing irradiated foods, 50.9% required more information. The contribution of irradiated foods to wholesomeness was suspicious in 51%, acceptable in 33%, and uncertain in 16%. If information about the benefits of irradiation is provided to consumers, positive response was increased to 60%. The most critical impediment in the commercial application of food irradiation was found to have resulted from the general consumers' slow acceptance; however, consumers' attitude to irradiated food became positive if they understood the safety and advantages of this technology. The most important task is to overcome consumers' psychological resistance and transporting matters of the products to be irradiated. (N.K.).

  13. Do you know `food irradiation`?. A survey of consumer status toward food irradiation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu [Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In Japan potatoes have been irradiated for the purpose of sprout inhibition for more than 20 years and more than ten thousand irradiated potatoes are circulated in Japanese market in recent years. Nevertheless, there are few surveys about the consumer status toward food irradiation in Japan. We have been held `Radiation Fair -- The relationship between daily life and radiation--` during summer vacation season in August for more than 10 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan, for the purpose of public education and information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology especially to school kids. We displayed 200 kg of irradiated potatoes together with explanatory panels. We distributed questionnaires to the senior high school students (16 years old) and upward visitor for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes as well as impression toward the displays. According to the survey results in 1997, the ratio of respondents who had heard of irradiated potatoes was 51% of 228 answers. This value was smaller than those of the Gallop survey conducted in the United States (73%). After viewing the display and description of irradiated potatoes, almost half of the respondents indicated a positive feeling for tasting the irradiated potatoes. Most of the respondents chose one of the following issues, Freshness` (37%), `Open date` (13%), or `Food additives` (34%) as the major concerns about food safety. Interestingly, `Pesticide` and/or `Foodborne pathogen` highly were chosen by only 15% of the respondents in total even though these issue were highly ranked in the US surveys. These results indicate that original methodology is necessary for distributing the information related food irradiation related food irradiation efficiently. (J.P.N)

  14. The influence of late-stage pupal irradiation and increased irradiated: un-irradiated male ratio on mating competitiveness of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, M E H; Knols, B G J

    2009-06-01

    Competitiveness of released males in genetic control programmes is of critical importance. In this paper, we explored two scenarios to compensate for the loss of mating competitiveness after pupal stage irradiation in males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis. First, competition experiments with a higher ratio of irradiated versus un-irradiated males were performed. Second, pupae were irradiated just prior to emergence and male mating competitiveness was determined. Males were irradiated in the pupal stage with a partially or fully-sterilizing dose of 70 or 120 Gy, respectively. Pupae were irradiated aged 20-26 h (young) as routinely performed, or the pupal stage was artificially prolonged by cooling and pupae were irradiated aged 42-48 h (old). Irradiated males competed at a ratio of 3:1:1 to un-irradiated males for mates in a large cage design. At the 3:1 ratio, the number of females inseminated by males irradiated with 70 Gy as young pupae was similar to the number inseminated by un-irradiated males for the majority of the replicates. At 120 Gy, significantly fewer females were inseminated by irradiated than by un-irradiated males. The irradiation of older pupae did not result in a significantly improved male mating competitiveness compared to the irradiation of young pupae. Our findings indicate that the loss of competitiveness after pupal stage irradiation can be compensated for by a threefold increase of irradiated males, but only for the partially-sterilizing dose. In addition, cooling might be a useful tool to facilitate handling processes of large numbers of mosquitoes in genetic control programmes.

  15. Dosimetry Formalism and Implementation of a Homogenous Irradiation Protocol to Improve the Accuracy of Small Animal Whole-Body Irradiation Using a 137Cs Irradiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, N Patrik; Chen, Yong; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Guha, Chandan; Tomé, Wolfgang A

    2016-02-01

    Shielded Cs irradiators are routinely used in pre-clinical radiation research to perform in vitro or in vivo investigations. Without appropriate dosimetry and irradiation protocols in place, there can be large uncertainty in the delivered dose of radiation between irradiated subjects that could lead to inaccurate and possibly misleading results. Here, a dosimetric evaluation of the JL Shepard Mark I-68A Cs irradiator and an irradiation technique for whole-body irradiation of small animals that allows one to limit the between subject variation in delivered dose to ±3% are provided. Mathematical simulation techniques and Gafchromic EBT film were used to describe the region within the irradiation cavity with homogeneous dose distribution (100% ± 5%), the dosimetric impact of varying source-to-subject distance, and the variation in attenuation thickness due to turntable rotation. Furthermore, an irradiation protocol and dosimetry formalism that allows calculation of irradiation time for whole-body irradiation of small animals is proposed that is designed to ensure a more consistent dose delivery between irradiated subjects. To compare this protocol with the conventional irradiation protocol suggested by the vendor, high-resolution film dosimetry measurements evaluating the dose difference between irradiation subjects and the dose distribution throughout subjects was performed using phantoms resembling small animals. Based on these results, there can be considerable variation in the delivered dose of > ± 5% using the conventional irradiation protocol for whole-body irradiation doses below 5 Gy. Using the proposed irradiation protocol this variability can be reduced to within ±3% and the dosimetry formalism allows for more accurate calculation of the irradiation time in relation to the intended prescription dose.

  16. Incorporation du colza 00 sous forme de tourteau ou d'amande dans les aliments de la truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss : performance zootechnique et digestibilité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOU DADE B.

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available Huit lots de 100 truites arc-en-ciel ont été nourris pendant 12 semaines avec quatre aliments différents. Deux aliments contenant une proportion de 20 % de colza "00" dépelliculé à faible teneur en glucosinolates, soit sous forme de tourteau (TC, soit sous forme de graine entière (TG, ont été comparés à un aliment à base de farine de poisson (NS et à un autre aliment d'origine commerciale (COM. Les performances zootechniques, les compositions corporelles des poissons et les coefficients d'utilisation protéique et énergétique ont été suivis. La digestibilité des nutriments des deux matières premières testées (tourteau de colza et amande de colza a été déterminée. Les résultats obtenus nous indiquent que, même si la vitesse de croissance est semblable dans tous les lots, les meilleures performances zootechniques sont celles des poissons nourris avec l'aliment uniquement à base de farine de poisson, et que celles des poissons nourris avec les aliments contenant du colza (TC et TG sont aussi bonnes que celles des poissons nourris avec l'aliment commercial. L'incorporation du tourteau de colza n'induit pas une modification de la composition corporelle des poissons ; l'utilisation de l'amande de colza à un taux de 20 % entraîne une accumulation de la graisse périviscérale des poissons. Les coefficients d'utilisation digestive (CUD de la matière sèche, des protéines, des lipides et de l'énergie du tourteau de colza sont supérieurs à ceux notés pour l'amande de colza. A l'issue de cette étude, il apparaît que la digestibilité du tourteau de colza "00" est très bonne chez la truite arc-en-ciel et que l'on peut incorporer jusqu'à 20 % de ce tourteau dans leurs aliments sans réduire la croissance, ni modifier la composition corporelle des poissons ; tandis que l'utilisation des graines entières au même taux (20 % de l'aliment provoque une baisse du rendement en carcasse des poissons.

  17. Dimensionnement des actionneurs électriques alimentés à fréquence variable sous faible tension: I. Analyse du problème couplé magnétique, thermique, électrique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedinger, J.-M.; Vilain, J.-P.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, the autors present a model for the multidisciplinary operation analysis of a variable frequency electrical drive, in the case of low voltage supply. This model takes into account the coupling between the electromagnetic, thermal and electrical phenomena. It allows to evaluate the performances under permanent or transient thermal conditions, as we can find in the working cycles of electrical vehicles with on board energy supply. This model is a part of an optimal design procedure, which will be described in an other article. For this reason, this paper is devoted to explain the dependences between the design variables and the performances. The proposed model is applied to a permanent magnet brushless DC motor. The performances are evaluated for the S1 and S2 duty-cycling operations. The influence of the driving parameters of the converter is also examined. L'objectif de cet article est de présenter la synthèse d'un modèle d'analyse pluridisciplinaire adapté à la caractérisation des performances d'un entraînement électrique alimenté à fréquence variable sous faible tension. Le modèle prend en compte le couplage entre les phénomènes électromagnétique, thermique et électrique. Il permet d'étudier le fonctionnement sous les conditions de régime thermique permanent ou transitoire qui interviennent dans la définition des cycles de travail des engins de traction à énergie embarquée. Ce modèle d'analyse constitue un élément d'une procédure de dimensionnement optimal qui sera développée dans un article séparé; aussi l'exposé est-il conduit en explicitant les dépendances fonctionnelles entre les paramètres de dimensionnement et les performances. La procédure d'analyse est appliquée à l'étude d'un moteur à aimants permanents périphériques alimenté suivant le mode “brushless trapézoïdal"; les performances sont évaluées pour deux types de cycle de travail: le cycle S1 en régime permanent, et le cycle S2 en r

  18. Comportement des fondations et des ancrages de structures marines sous l'effet de sollicitations cycliques Behavior of Foundations and Anchors for Marine Structures under the Effect of Cyclic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Tirant P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'exploration et l'exploitation des hydrocarbures en haute mer conduisent à la mise en place d'ouvrages fixes ou flottants de dimensions de plus en plus colos sales, par des profondeurs d'eau sans cesse croissantes, atteignant actuellement 200 à 300 mètres en production, un millier de mètres en exploration. Les fondations des ouvrages pétroliers de production comprennent essentiel-lement- les pieux ou groupes de pieux, battus ou forés; - les fondations superficielles à embase poids. Le comportement des fondations ou ancrages de structures sous l'action des sollicitations cycliques est étudié, en fonction de la nature des terrains, à partir - de mesures et d'observations sur des structures réelles; d'expérimentations sur des modèles en semi-grandeur ou de simulations sur modèles réduits. Les exemples donnés situent la diversité des problèmes rencontrés pour l'instal-lation des ouvrages en haute mer et! l'ampleur des travaux nécessaires pour décrire plus correctement les phénomènes d'intéraction sols-structures mannes sous l'effet des chargements cycliques et transitoires et, par suite, mieux optimiser le dimensionnement des fondations et des ancrages. Exploration and production of hydrocarbons in the high seas lead ta the installation of fixed or floating structures having more and more colossal sizes at constantly increasing water depths which now attain 200 ta 300 meters for production and 1000 meters for exploration. The foundations of ail production structures mainly consist of - pilings or groups of pilings, either driven or drilled; superficial gravity foundations the behovior of foundations or anchors for such structures under the effect of cyclic stresses is examined as a function of the nature of formations, on the basis of - measurements and observations on actual structures, experiments with semi-full-sized models or by simulations with scale models. The examples given illustrate the diversity of the problems

  19. Profil de l'hémogramme chez les enfants paludéens de 0 à 5 ans sous quinine, cas de la République Démocratique du Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabamba, Arsène Tshikongo; Lukumwena, Zet Kalala; Longanga, Albert Otshudi

    2014-01-01

    Le paludisme constitue un des problèmes de santé publique majeur en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) à cause d'une part des risques d’épidémies dans certaines zones du pays et d'autre part à cause du nombre des malades et des décès qu'il provoque. Cette étude expose les aspects hématologiques liés à la prise de la quinine au cours du paludisme grave chez l'enfant. Pour ce faire, les prises de sang ont été effectuées à deux groupes d'enfants, dans différents centres hospitaliers de Lubumbashi: le premier groupe est constitué d'enfants gravement impaludés et sous traitement à la quinine; tandis que le second groupe, composé d'enfants impaludés aussi mais sans traitement à la quinine et sert de groupe témoin. Ces prélèvements ont été analysés pour une exploration de l'hémogramme par un dosage sérique des paramètres hématologiques ci-après: les globules rouges, l'hémoglobine, l'hématocrite et le volume globulaire moyen. Les résultats obtenus montrent une différence statistiquement significative entre les deux groupes d'enfants examinés. En effet, dans la majorité des cas, une augmentation des taux plasmatiques des paramètres hématologiques analysés a été observée dans le groupe d'enfants impaludés sous traitement à la quinine, traduisant ainsi l'apport de la quinine sur la stabilisation de l'hémogramme au cours d'un paludisme grave chez l'enfant de moins de cinq ans. PMID:25722768

  20. Removal of carbon-14 from irradiated graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Smith, Tara E.

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite waste exists worldwide and that quantity is expected to increase with decommissioning of Generation II reactors and deployment of Generation IV gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. This situation indicates the need for a graphite waste management strategy. On of the isotopes of great concern for long-term disposal of irradiated graphite is carbon-14 (14C), with a half-life of 5730 years. Study of irradiated graphite from some nuclear reactors indicates 14C is concentrated on the outer 5 mm of the graphite structure. The aim of the research presented here is to develop a practical method by which 14C can be removed. In parallel with these efforts, the same irradiated graphite material is being characterized to identify the chemical form of 14C in irradiated graphite. A nuclear-grade graphite, NBG-18, and a high-surface-area graphite foam, POCOFoam®, were exposed to liquid nitrogen (to increase the quantity of 14C precursor) and neutron-irradiated (1013 neutrons/cm2/s). During post-irradiation thermal treatment, graphite samples were heated in the presence of an inert carrier gas (with or without the addition of an oxidant gas), which carries off gaseous products released during treatment. Graphite gasification occurs via interaction with adsorbed oxygen complexes. Experiments in argon only were performed at 900 °C and 1400 °C to evaluate the selective removal of 14C. Thermal treatment also was performed with the addition of 3 and 5 vol% oxygen at temperatures 700 °C and 1400 °C. Thermal treatment experiments were evaluated for the effective selective removal of 14C. Lower temperatures and oxygen levels correlated to more efficient 14C removal.

  1. A Solar Irradiance Climate Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, O.; Lean, J. L.; Pilewskie, P.; Snow, M.; Lindholm, D.

    2016-08-01

    We present a new climate data record for total solar irradiance and solar spectral irradiance between 1610 and the present day with associated wavelength and time-dependent uncertainties and quarterly updates. The data record, which is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Climate Data Record (CDR) program, provides a robust, sustainable, and scientifically defensible record of solar irradiance that is of sufficient length, consistency, and continuity for use in studies of climate variability and climate change on multiple time scales and for user groups spanning climate modeling, remote sensing, and natural resource and renewable energy industries. The data record, jointly developed by the University of Colorado’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is constructed from solar irradiance models that determine the changes with respect to quiet sun conditions when facular brightening and sunspot darkening features are present on the solar disk where the magnitude of the changes in irradiance are determined from the linear regression of a proxy magnesium (Mg) II index and sunspot area indices against the approximately decade-long solar irradiance measurements of the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE). To promote long-term data usage and sharing for a broad range of users, the source code, the dataset itself, and supporting documentation are archived at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). In the future, the dataset will also be available through the LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Data Center (LISIRD) for user-specified time periods and spectral ranges of interest.

  2. Differential androgenesis in gamma irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihyang; Yoon, Yongdal [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The Leydig cells of the testis account for at least 75% of the total testosterone produced in the normal adult male. Whereas the production of estrogen from androgen is catalyzed by aromatase cytochrome P450, which is found in many tissues, including gonad, brain, adipose tissue, bone, and heart. The gamma-irradiation causes the impairment of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male mice. The present study was performed to analyze changes in testosterone concentrations and expression of steroidogenic enzyme of mice after whole body gamma-irradiation. Eight-week-old male ICR mice were irradiated with 6.5 or 10 Gy. At days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 after irradiation, testes were removed and processed for paraffin sections and isolation of mRNA. We calculated the gonad index from body and testis weight, and checked the testis volume. Hormonal analysis was performed by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum and intratesticular fluid. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression kinetics of the apoptotic gene and the cytochrome P450 aromatase gene after irradiation. In gamma-irradiated mice, the body weight reduced in comparison to that of the control group. Therefore, gonad indices increased. The testosterone concentrations in serum and intratesticular fluid were significantly reduced. RT- PCR data represented that the expression of Fas, Fas ligand, and aromatase cytochrome P450 showed the specific patterns against control groups. These results indicated that gamma- irradiation of adult mice induced the alteration of androgenesis and suggested that might counteract the spermatogenesis.

  3. Detection of low amount of irradiated ingredients in non-irradiated precooked meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioni, E; Horvatovich, P; Ndiaye, B; Miesch, M; Hasselmann, C

    The application of the European Standards for the detection of irradiated food by thermo luminescence of silicates, electron-spin resonance spectroscopy of bones or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of 2-alkylcyclobutanones does not allow the detection of irradiated ingredients included in small

  4. Short-term solar irradiance and irradiation forecasts via different time series techniques: A preliminary study

    CERN Document Server

    Join, Cédric; Fliess, Michel; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie Laure; Paoli, Christophe; Chaxel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This communication is devoted to solar irradiance and irradiation short-term forecasts, which are useful for electricity production. Several different time series approaches are employed. Our results and the corresponding numerical simulations show that techniques which do not need a large amount of historical data behave better than those which need them, especially when those data are quite noisy.

  5. Detection of low amount of irradiated ingredients in non-irradiated precooked meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioni, E; Horvatovich, P; Ndiaye, B; Miesch, M; Hasselmann, C

    2002-01-01

    The application of the European Standards for the detection of irradiated food by thermo luminescence of silicates, electron-spin resonance spectroscopy of bones or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of 2-alkylcyclobutanones does not allow the detection of irradiated ingredients included in small

  6. Dose measurement for systemic irradiation with a moving table specially designed for total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Makoto; Oida, Masatada; Nagumo, Junya; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Furuya, Teruo; Watanabe, Yoshiharu [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Hospital

    2001-07-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is performed in combination with chemotherapy to kill malignant tumor cells in the body prior to bone marrow transplantation. This study reports the results of dose measurements required for clinical application of the moving table technique to TBI. Since irradiation is performed as the table moves, the authors gathered sufficient basic data for irradiation by measuring output dose, tissue peak dose ratio (TPR), and the relationship between dose rate and movement velocity. The output doses were varied according to dose rate, movement velocity, radiation field, and source-target distance (STD) under these conditions. The authors measured the relationship between the dose rate and the movement velocity with the irradiation field and STD set to fit clinical applications. TPR during irradiation while moving differs from TPR during stationary irradiation, and it was measured according to the method of irradiation. The effect of body thickness was easily corrected by changing the movement velocity during the measurements. The authors measured the dose with a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during clinical application and confirmed the accuracy of the measurements. TBI with the moving table, it makes possible to perform bilateral irradiation in both posterior-anterior and anterior-posterior directions with the patient in the supine position, to reduce treatment time, to shield the lung well with reproducibility of posture, and to treat with high accuracy. (K.H.)

  7. KEY RESULTS FROM IRRADIATION AND POST-IRRADIATION EXAMINATION OF AGR-1 UCO TRISO FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hunn, John D.; Petti, David A.; Morris, Robert N.

    2016-11-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation experiment was performed as the first test of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel in the US Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The experiment consisted of 72 right cylinder fuel compacts containing approximately 3×105 coated fuel particles with uranium oxide/uranium carbide (UCO) fuel kernels. The fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor for a total of 620 effective full power days. Fuel burnup ranged from 11.3 to 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom and time average, volume average irradiation temperatures of the individual compacts ranged from 955 to 1136°C. This paper focuses on key results from the irradiation and post-irradiation examination, which revealed a robust fuel with excellent performance characteristics under the conditions tested and have significantly improved the understanding of UCO coated particle fuel irradiation behavior within the US program. The fuel exhibited a very low incidence of TRISO coating failure during irradiation and post-irradiation safety testing at temperatures up to 1800°C. Advanced PIE methods have allowed particles with SiC coating failure to be isolated and meticulously examined, which has elucidated the specific causes of SiC failure in these specimens. The level of fission product release from the fuel during irradiation and post-irradiation safety testing has been studied in detail. Results indicated very low release of krypton and cesium through intact SiC and modest release of europium and strontium, while also confirming the potential for significant silver release through the coatings depending on irradiation conditions. Focused study of fission products within the coating layers of irradiated particles down to nanometer length scales has provided new insights into fission product transport through the coating layers and the role various fission products may have on coating integrity. The broader implications of these results and the application of

  8. Assessing Nutrients Availability of Irradiated and Non-Irradiated Biosolids for the Agriculture Re-use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Sanchez, Monica

    2003-07-01

    Irradiation provides a fast and reliable means to disinfect biosolids generated by municipal wastewater treatment processes. The chemical integrity of some substances may be altered thus change the availability of plant nutrients. Chemical analyses on the biosolids showed a release of mineral forms of Nitrogen while Phosphorus chemical forms were not altered. Higher amounts of mineralized N were indirectly demonstrated in soils with irradiated biosolids by a respiration experiment, and higher nitrate concentrations were measured in the irradiated biosolids amended soils at field experiments. Crop field experiments (lettuce and sugarcane) confirmed that irradiated biosolids have higher fertilizing capability than equal amounts of non-irradiated biosolids. Maximum dose rate had no additive effect but a depleted result, thus marking the importance of the use of moderate biosolids rates. (author)

  9. Embrittlernent of irradiated F82H in the absence of irradiation hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, Ronald L [ORNL; Shiba, Kiyoyuki [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Neutron irradiation of 7-12% Cr ferritic/martensitic steels below 425-450 C produces microstructural defects and precipitation that cause an increase in yield stress. This irradiation hardening causes embrittlement, which is observed in a Charpy impact or fracture toughness test as an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature. Based on observations that show little change in strength in steels irradiated above 425-450 C, the general conclusion has been that no embrittlement occurs above these temperatures. In a recent study of F82H steel, significant embrittlement was observed after irradiation at 500 C. This embrittlement is apparently due to irradiation-accelerated Laves-phase precipitation. Observations of the embrittlement in the absence of hardening has been examined and analyzed with thermal-aging studies and computational thermodynamics calculations to illuminate and understand the effect.

  10. Light microscopic and autoradiographic study of non-irradiated and irradiated ocular wounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarthy, U.; Gardiner, T.A.; Archer, D.B.; Maguire, C.J. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK). Dept. of Opthalmology; Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK). Eye and Ear Clinic)

    1989-01-01

    Focal gamma irradiation was used to limit the intraocular extension of scar tissue which typically occurs after posterior perforating injury to the eye. Standard posterior perforating injuries were created in the right eye of forty-eight rabbits, half of which had the site of perforation focally irradiated using a Cobalt 60 ophthalmic plaque. Non-irradiated wounds healed with profuse formation of highly cellular and vascularised granulation tissue which invaded the vitreous to form contractile vitreo-retinal membranes. In irradiated eyes vitreo-retinal membrane formation was infrequent; the wounds showing only sparse granulation tissue with little or no extension into the vitreous cavity. Autoradiographic studies carried out in a second group of 40 animals showed that the episclera was the main source of the proliferating fibroblasts, and call counts confirmed that the inflammatory and repair responses in irradiated wounds were both delayed and attenuated. (author).

  11. Measurement of Diameter Changes during Irradiation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, K. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knudson, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Crepeau, J. C. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Solstad, S. [Inst. for Energy Technologoy, Halden (Norway)

    2015-03-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in advanced and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can experience significant dimensional and physical changes during irradiation. Currently in the US, such changes are measured by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The time and labor to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and handling may disturb the phenomena of interest. In-pile detection of changes in geometry is sorely needed to understand real-time behavior during irradiation testing of fuels and materials in high flux US Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). This paper presents development results of an advanced Linear Variable Differential Transformer-based test rig capable of detecting real-time changes in diameter of fuel rods or material samples during irradiation in US MTRs. This test rig is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory and will provide experimenters with a unique capability to measure diameter changes associated with fuel and cladding swelling, pellet-clad interaction, and crud buildup.

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, M.; Fritz, H.; Sauer, R.

    1986-12-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored.

  13. Dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Navjeet [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Mohan, E-mail: mohansinghphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Lakhwant [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Awasthi, A.M. [Thermodynamics Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452001 (India); Lochab, S.P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The present article reports the effect of gamma irradiation on the dielectric relaxation characteristics of muscovite mica. • Dielectric and electrical relaxations have been analyzed in the framework of dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and Cole–Cole formalisms. • The frequency dependent electrical conductivity has been rationalized using Johnsher’s universal power law. • The experimentally measured electric modulus and conductivity data have been fitted using Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation function. - Abstract: In the present research, the dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica was studied in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz–10 MHz and temperature range of 653–853 K, using the dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and conductivity formalisms. The dielectric constants (ϵ′ and ϵ′′) are found to be high for gamma irradiated muscovite mica as compared to the pristine sample. The frequency dependence of the imaginary part of complex electric modulus (M′′) and dc conductivity data conforms Arrhenius law with single value of activation energy for pristine sample and two values of activation energy for gamma irradiated mica sample. The experimentally assessed electric modulus and conductivity information have been interpreted by the Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation explanation. Using the Cole–Cole framework, an analysis of real and imaginary characters of the electric modulus for pristine and gamma irradiated sample was executed which reflects the non-Debye relaxation mechanism.

  14. Multiscale modeling of nanofoams under irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringa, E. M.; Rodriguez-Nieva, J.; Monk, J. D.; Caro, J. A.; Loeffler, M. J.; Cassidy, T. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Baragiola, R. A.; Farkas, D.

    2012-02-01

    Nanoscale porosity appears in solids under a number of conditions: radiation damage in nuclear reactors, initial stages of ductile failure, in astro-materials, etc. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we analyze the radiation damage and surface modification of materials with various nanoscale porosities, where experimental techniques can be difficult to use and interpret. We consider (a) irradiation with ions with energies in the range 1-25 keV, of interest for fusion and fission energy applications; (b) swift heavy ion irradiation, with energies up to few GeV, relevant for track formation and interstellar grain evolution. We find that irradiation effects have larger spatial extent than for full-density solids and include the production of point-defects and twins which change the mechanical properties of the samples. We use our MD results as input for a Monte Carlo (MC) code to calculate sputtering yields from nanofoams of different geometries under different irradiation conditions. We also use our MD results to build models which predict possible radiation endurance under intense irradiation.

  15. Disinfestation of different cereal products by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E.; Kiss, I.; Boros, A.; Horvath, Ny.; Toth, J.; Gyulai, P.; Szalma, A.

    1986-01-01

    The sensitivity of Tribolium confusum - small flour beetle -to radiation was studied in a dose range of 0-0.8 kGy. We found that the insect egg was the most sensitive to radiation, then larvae and pupae followed it. 0.2 kGy dose of irradiation kills these forms or their further development is inhibited. Imagoes do not immediately die after 0.8 kGy dose of irradiation; the young imagoes are more sensitive to radiation than the aged ones. 0.4 kGy average dose of irradiation is a suitable protection against Tribolium confusum. Disinfestation experiments were performed with wheat-germ and wheat-bran and the most important ingredients of the two products were analysed. The vitamin E content and the rate of lipid-oxidation of wheat germ were determined. The vitamin E content decreased after radiation treatment, however, during storage of at least 6 months, it remained at a level specified by food quality standards (higher than 10 mg%). Carbohydrate content of wheat-bran (water soluble carbohydrate content, crude-fibre and dietary fibre content) did not change at all. Storability of radiation disinfested wheat-germ was 8 months, wheat-bran 3-4 months. On the base of the results 2-2 tons of wheat-germ and wheat-bran were irradiated and trial marked in 1985. In 1986 the irradiation of 10 tons of wheat-germ is planned.

  16. Mechanical performance of irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Dalle-Donne, M.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    For the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Fusion Technology Programme, the neutron multiplier consists of a mixed bed of about 2 and 0.1-0.2 mm diameter beryllium pebbles. Beryllium has no structural function in the blanket, however microstructural and mechanical properties are important, as they might influence the material behavior under neutron irradiation. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating it. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from these irradiation experiments, emphasizing the effects of irradiation of essential material properties and trying to elucidate the processes controlling the property changes. The microstructure, the porosity distribution, the impurity content, the behavior under compression loads and the compatibility of the beryllium pebbles with lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) during the in-pile irradiation are presented and critically discussed. Qualitative information on ductility and creep obtained by hardness-type measurements are also supplied. (author)

  17. RESTORATION INDUCED BY CATALASE IN IRRADIATED MICROORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Raymond; Caldas, Luis Renato

    1952-01-01

    1. E. coli, strain K-12, and B. megatherium 899, irradiated in strict but still undefined physiological conditions with certain heavy doses of ultraviolet light, are efficiently restored by catalase, which acts on or fixes itself upon the bacteria in a few minutes. This restoration (C. R.), different from photorestoration, is aided by a little visible light. 2. At 37° the restorability lasts for about 2 hours after UV irradiation; the restored cells begin to divide at the same time as the normal survivors. 3. C. R. is not produced after x-irradiation. 4. B. megatherium Mox and E. coli, strain B/r show little C. R.; E. coli strain B shows none. None of these three strains is lysogenic, whereas the two preceding catalase-restorable strains are. 5. Phage production in the system "K-12 infected with T2 phage" is restored by catalase after UV irradiation, whereas phage production in the system "infected B" is not. 6. With K-12, catalase does not prevent the growth of phage and the lysis induced by UV irradiation (Lwoff's phenomenon). 7. Hypotheses are discussed concerning: (a) the chemical nature of this action of catalase; (b) a possible relation between C. R. and lysogenicity of the sensitive bacteria; (c) the consequences of such chemical restorations on the general problem of cell radiosensitivity. PMID:14898028

  18. Infrared Irradiation: Toward Green Chemistry, a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, René; Miranda, René; Martínez, Joel

    2016-03-26

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of where infrared irradiation has been employed, mainly as regards activating green mode for natural products extractions, as well as to favor a reaction, highlighting its actual importance. It is also underlined that infrared irradiation heating has been around for a long time; however, only in the last eighteen years have many of its advantages been applied to satisfy a wide range of chemical processes, natural products extractions, and for the promotion of many kinds of reactions. In addition, it is brought to light that near infrared irradiation is more efficient than middle and far infrared irradiations, being easily controllable and with the quality of a fast responding heat source. Thus, the main objective of this review is to offer infrared irradiation as an alternative clean energy source to activate reactions, in addition to favor the selective extraction of natural products, all of which is within the Green Chemistry protocol. Some recent results from our laboratory are also included.

  19. Low Irradiance Losses of Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, William F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mavromatakis, F. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete; Vignola, F. [University of Oregon

    2017-09-01

    The efficiency of a photovoltaic cell/module changes, as the intensity of incident irradiance decreases, in a non linear way and these changes are referred to as low irradiance losses. In this study data from field experiments, developed and organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, are used to evaluate the low irradiance losses for a variety of module technologies. The results demonstrate that the ratio of the normalized power divided by the normalized short circuit current provide a good measure of the module's low light efficiency losses after both the maximum power and the short circuit current are adjusted for temperature effects. The normalized efficiencies determined through the field data, spanning for several months, are in good agreement with those determined under controlled conditions in a solar simulator. An analytical relation for the normalized efficiency is proposed based on existing formulation for the fill factor. Despite the approximate nature of the fill factor relation, this approach produces reliable results. It will be shown that a normalized efficiency curve can be used to extract information on the series and shunt resistances of the PV module and that the shunt resistance as a function of solar irradiance can be studied. Alternately, this formulation can be used to study the low irradiance losses of a module when the internal resistances are known.

  20. Ion irradiation effects on metallic nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Giulian, R.; Schnohr, C. S.; Foran, G. J.; Cookson, D. J.; Byrne, A. P.; Ridgway, M. C.

    We have investigated structural and morphological properties of metallic nanocrystals (NCs) exposed to ion irradiation. NCs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy in combination with advanced synchrotron-based analytical techniques, in particular X-ray absorption spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. A number of different effects were observed depending on the irradiation conditions. At energies where nuclear stopping is predominant, structural disorder/amorphization followed by inverse Ostwald ripening/dissolution due to ion beam mixing was observed for Au and Cu NCs embedded in SiO2. The ion-irradiation-induced crystalline to amorphous transition in the NCs, which cannot be achieved in the corresponding bulk metals, was attributed to their initially higher structural energy as compared to bulk material and possibly preferential nucleation of the amorphous phase at the NC/SiO2 interface. At very high irradiation energies (swift heavy ion irradiation), where the energy loss is nearly entirely due to electronic stopping, a size-dependent shape transformation of the NCs from spheres to rod like shapes was apparent in Au NCs. Our preliminary results are in good agreement with considerations on melting of the NCs in the ion track as one mechanism involved in the shape transformation.

  1. Infrared Irradiation: Toward Green Chemistry, a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, René; Miranda, René; Martínez, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of where infrared irradiation has been employed, mainly as regards activating green mode for natural products extractions, as well as to favor a reaction, highlighting its actual importance. It is also underlined that infrared irradiation heating has been around for a long time; however, only in the last eighteen years have many of its advantages been applied to satisfy a wide range of chemical processes, natural products extractions, and for the promotion of many kinds of reactions. In addition, it is brought to light that near infrared irradiation is more efficient than middle and far infrared irradiations, being easily controllable and with the quality of a fast responding heat source. Thus, the main objective of this review is to offer infrared irradiation as an alternative clean energy source to activate reactions, in addition to favor the selective extraction of natural products, all of which is within the Green Chemistry protocol. Some recent results from our laboratory are also included. PMID:27023535

  2. Effects of irradiation on platelet function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, G.; Adams, G.A.; Labow, R.S.

    1988-09-01

    Current medical practice involves the irradiation of blood components, including platelet concentrates, before their administration to patients with severe immunosuppression. The authors studied the effect of irradiation on in vitro platelet function and the leaching of plasticizers from the bag, both immediately and after 5 days of storage. The platelet count, white cell count, pH, glucose, lactate, platelet aggregation and release reaction, and serotonin uptake were not altered by the irradiation of random-donor or apheresis units with 2000 rads carried out at 0 and 24 hours and 5 days after collection. The leaching of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate from the plastic bags followed by the conversion to mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was not increased by irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate platelet concentrates on the day of collection and subsequently store them for at least 5 days while maintaining in vitro function. This procedure could have considerable benefit for blood banks involved in the provision of many platelet products.

  3. Local graft irradiation in renal transplant rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Itoh, Hisao (Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-04-01

    From 1977 to 1988, of 142 renal transplantations, seven recipients (4.9%) received local graft irradiation following rejective reaction refractory to antirejection medical managements. Concurrent with the administration of pulsed high dose methylprednisolone and other antirejection medical managements, the graft was irradiated with a total dose of 6.0 Gy-150 cGy per fraction every other day at the midplane of the graft using two opposing portals of 4MX Linac. The fields were defined by palpation and echography. All patients had improvements in serum creatinine on the 10th day after beginning the irradiation. Four patients with peripheral lymphocytosis during the irradiation combined with pulsed high dose methylprednisolone improved in renal functions. On the other hand, out of 3 patients with lymphcytopenic changes, in two the transplanted graft was removed due to deteriorations, and the other patient is currently suffering from chronic rejection. Local graft irradiation can be useful in maintaining a rejective graft and reversing its functions in some patients whose rejective reaction failed to respond to the antirejection medical managements. (author).

  4. Infrared Irradiation: Toward Green Chemistry, a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Escobedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a comprehensive overview of where infrared irradiation has been employed, mainly as regards activating green mode for natural products extractions, as well as to favor a reaction, highlighting its actual importance. It is also underlined that infrared irradiation heating has been around for a long time; however, only in the last eighteen years have many of its advantages been applied to satisfy a wide range of chemical processes, natural products extractions, and for the promotion of many kinds of reactions. In addition, it is brought to light that near infrared irradiation is more efficient than middle and far infrared irradiations, being easily controllable and with the quality of a fast responding heat source. Thus, the main objective of this review is to offer infrared irradiation as an alternative clean energy source to activate reactions, in addition to favor the selective extraction of natural products, all of which is within the Green Chemistry protocol. Some recent results from our laboratory are also included.

  5. Electron irradiation effects on power MOS transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisina, F.; Tavolo, N. (S.G.S. Thomson Microelectronics, Catania (Italy)); Gombia, E.; Mosca, R. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Parma (Italy). Ist. MASPEC); Chirco, P.; Fuochi, P.G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). Lab. di Fotochimica e Radiazioni d' Alta Energia)

    1990-01-01

    Electron irradiation has been used to enhance the switching speed of the internal diode in high-voltage power MOS structures (BV{sub DSS} > 500 V). By using 12 MeV electron irradiation at room temperature it has been found that the reverse recovery time and the reverse recovery charge of power MOS internal diode can be reduced in a well controlled manner up to 70% and 90% of their initial value respectively increasing the radiation dose from 0 to 15 Mrads. Anyway an undesirable decrease of about 3V has been observed in the gate threshold voltage. This effect has been ascribed to the damage produced in the gate oxide of the device due to the electron irradiation. By annealing the device at temperature >315{sup 0}C it has been possible to restore the threshold voltage without heavily enhancing the carrier lifetime. DLTS measurements have been performed on electron-irradiated devices to identify the recombination centres introduced in the forbidden gap of the silicon. A comparison has been made with gold-diffused devices. The results obtained confirm that electron irradiation is feasible for power MOS transistors. (author).

  6. A fly-wheel drive with controlled-torque clutch for a reactors cooling circuit pumps; Entrainement des pompes du circuit de refrigeration d'un reacteur par volant a embrayage sous couple controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riettini, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-10-15

    After a theoretical study on the slowing down of a centrifugal pump, the motion equations have been checked by means of experimental tests. In order to have important slowing down times (which is the case of the cooling pumps of a research reactor) it is necessary to add a fly-wheel. To prevent troubles when starting, a block pump-fly-wheel with clutch under controlled torque was developed. It is so possible to start the fly-wheel progressively without increasing too much power of the driving motor. (author) [French] Apres une etude theorique sur le mouvement de ralentissement d'une pompe centrifuge, les equations du mouvement ont ete verifiees par des essais pratiques. Pour obtenir des temps de ralentissement importants (cas des pompes de refrigeration d'un reacteur de recherche) il est necessaire d'y adjoindre un volant d'inertie. Pour eviter les inconvenients au demarrage, on a etudie un ensemble pompe-volant avec embrayage sous couple controle. Cette solution permet de lancer progressivement le volant sans augmentation appreciable de la puissance du moteur d'entrainement. (auteur)

  7. Cooperative photo-induced effects: from photo-magnetism under continuous irradiation to ultra-fast phenomena - study through optical spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction; Effets photo-induits cooperatifs: du photomagnetisme sous irradiation continue aux phenomenes ultrarapides - etude par spectroscopie optique et diffraction X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glijer, D

    2006-12-15

    The control with ultra-short laser pulses of the collective and concerted transformation of molecules driving a macroscopic state switching on an ultra-fast time scale in solid state opens new prospects in materials science. The goal is to realize at the material level what happens at the molecular level in femto-chemistry. These processes are highly cooperative and highly non-linear, leading to self-amplification and self-organization within the material, a so-called photo-induced phase transition with a new long range order (structural, magnetic, ferroelectric,...). Two families of molecular compounds have been studied here: first of all, spin transition materials changing from a diamagnetic state over to a paramagnetic state under the effect of temperature or under continuous laser excitation. It concerns photo-active molecular bi-stability prototype materials in solid state, whose switching has been studied during X-ray diffraction, optical reflectivity and magnetism experiments. Then we have studied charge-transfer molecular systems, prototype compounds for ultrafast photo-induced phase transitions: insulator-metal, neutral-ionic....As well as ultrafast optical experiments, time-resolved X ray crystallography is a key technique in order to follow at the atomic level the different steps of the photo-induced transformation and thus to observe the involved mechanisms. We have underlined a process of photo-formation of one-dimensional nano-domains of lattice-relaxed charge-transfer excitations, governing the photo-induced phase transition of the molecular charge-transfer complex TTF-CA by the first time-resolved diffuse scattering measurements. Moreover, a new femtosecond laser-plasma source and a optical pump-probe spectroscopy set-up with a highly sensitive detecting system have been developed in this work. The results presented here will be an illustration of the present scientific challenges existing on the one hand with the development of projects of major scale (new ultrafast sources) and on the other hand with ultrafast photo-switching. (author)

  8. Irradiation effects in hydrated zirconium molybdate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourdrin, C.; Esnouf, S.; Dauvois, V.; Renault, J.-P.; Venault, L.; Tabarant, M.; Durand, D.; Chenière, A.; Lamouroux-Lucas, C.; Cochin, F.

    2012-07-01

    Hydrated zirconium molybdate is a precipitate formed during the process of spent nuclear fuel dissolution. In order to study the radiation stability of this material, we performed gamma and electron irradiation in a dose range of 10-100 kGy. XRD patterns showed that the crystalline structure is not affected by irradiation. However, the yellow original sample exhibits a blue-grey color after exposure. The resulting samples were analyzed by means of EPR and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Two sites for trapped electrons were evidenced leading to a d1 configuration responsible for the observed coloration. Moreover, a third defect corresponding to a hole trapped on oxygen was observed after electron irradiation at low temperature.

  9. Analysis and modeling of solar irradiance variations

    CERN Document Server

    Yeo, K L

    2014-01-01

    A prominent manifestation of the solar dynamo is the 11-year activity cycle, evident in indicators of solar activity, including solar irradiance. Although a relationship between solar activity and the brightness of the Sun had long been suspected, it was only directly observed after regular satellite measurements became available with the launch of Nimbus-7 in 1978. The measurement of solar irradiance from space is accompanied by the development of models aimed at describing the apparent variability by the intensity excess/deficit effected by magnetic structures in the photosphere. The more sophisticated models, termed semi-empirical, rely on the intensity spectra of photospheric magnetic structures generated with radiative transfer codes from semi-empirical model atmospheres. An established example of such models is SATIRE-S (Spectral And Total Irradiance REconstruction for the Satellite era). One key limitation of current semi-empirical models is the fact that the radiant properties of network and faculae a...

  10. Signal development in irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kramberger, Gregor; Mikuz, Marko

    2001-01-01

    This work provides a detailed study of signal formation in silicon detectors, with the emphasis on detectors with high concentration of irradiation induced defects in the lattice. These defects give rise to deep energy levels in the band gap. As a consequence, the current induced by charge motion in silicon detectors is signifcantly altered. Within the framework of the study a new experimental method, Charge correction method, based on transient current technique (TCT) was proposed for determination of effective electron and hole trapping times in irradiated silicon detectors. Effective carrier trapping times were determined in numerous silicon pad detectors irradiated with neutrons, pions and protons. Studied detectors were fabricated on oxygenated and non-oxygenated silicon wafers with different bulk resistivities. Measured effective carrier trapping times were found to be inversely proportional to fuence and increase with temperature. No dependence on silicon resistivity and oxygen concentration was observ...

  11. Proton irradiation effects in silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoen, E.; Vanhellemont, J.; Alaerts, A. [IMEC, Leuven (Belgium)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Proton irradiation effects in silicon devices are studied for components fabricated in various substrates in order to reveal possible hardening effects. The degradation of p-n junction diodes increases in first order proportionally with the fluence, when submitted to 10 MeV proton irradiations in the range 5x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} to 5x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. The damage coefficients for both p- and n-type Czochralski, Float-Zone and epitaxial wafers are reported. Charge-Coupled Devices fabricated in a 1.2 {mu}m CCD-CMOS technology are shown to be quite resistant to 59 MeV H{sup +} irradiations, irrespective of the substrate type. (author)

  12. Irradiation creep of vanadium-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Strain, R.V.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Matsui, H. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    A study of irradiation creep in vanadium-base alloys is underway with experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in the United States. Test specimens are thin-wall sealed tubes with internal pressure loading. The results from the initial ATR irradiation at low temperature (200--300 C) to a neutron damage level of 4.7 dpa show creep rates ranging from {approx}0 to 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}/dpa/MPa for a 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. These rates were generally lower than reported from a previous experiment in BR-10. Because both the attained neutron damage levels and the creep strains were low in the present study, however, these creep rates should be regarded as only preliminary. Substantially more testing is required before a data base on irradiation creep of vanadium alloys can be developed and used with confidence.

  13. Heavy ion irradiation of crystalline water ice

    CERN Document Server

    Dartois, E; Boduch, P; Brunetto, R; Chabot, M; Domaracka, A; Ding, J J; Kamalou, O; Lv, X Y; Rothard, H; da Silveira, E F; Thomas, J C

    2015-01-01

    Under cosmic irradiation, the interstellar water ice mantles evolve towards a compact amorphous state. Crystalline ice amorphisation was previously monitored mainly in the keV to hundreds of keV ion energies. We experimentally investigate heavy ion irradiation amorphisation of crystalline ice, at high energies closer to true cosmic rays, and explore the water-ice sputtering yield. We irradiated thin crystalline ice films with MeV to GeV swift ion beams, produced at the GANIL accelerator. The ice infrared spectral evolution as a function of fluence is monitored with in-situ infrared spectroscopy (induced amorphisation of the initial crystalline state into a compact amorphous phase). The crystalline ice amorphisation cross-section is measured in the high electronic stopping-power range for different temperatures. At large fluence, the ice sputtering is measured on the infrared spectra, and the fitted sputtering-yield dependence, combined with previous measurements, is quadratic over three decades of electronic ...

  14. Hybridizability of gamma-irradiated lactic dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M.

    1976-03-01

    The hybridizabilities of the gamma-irradiated chicken heart and pig muscle lactic dehydrogenases were estimated by hybridizing the irradiated enzymes with the unirradiated pig heart lactic dehydrogenase. The disc gel electrophoretic patterns of the inter- and intraspecific hybrids showed that the LDH activity of the pig heart isozyme band increased as a function of dose. This observation was analyzed upon the binomial redistribution pattern of the recombined subunits. The result shows that the hybridizabilities of both the chicken heart and pig muscle isozymes decreased along with the loss of catalytic activity and the release from substrate inhibition. The titration of free SH groups of the irradiated chicken isozyme suggested that the unfolding of the peptide chain destroyed the specific tertiary structure needed for the binding of subunits. (auth)

  15. Growth-irradiance relationships in phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkowski, P.G.; Dubinsky, Z.; Wyman, K.

    1985-03-01

    The steady state growth rates of three species of marine phytoplankton, Thalassiosira weisflogii, Isochrysis galbana, and Prorocentrum micans, were followed in turbidostat culture. At each growth irradiance, photosynthesis and respiration were measured by following changes in oxygen. Together with measurements of optical absorption cross sections, cellular chlorophyll, carbon and nitrogen, and excretion rates as well as knowledge of the quantum flux, the quantum requirement for growth and photosynthesis were calculated. Our results suggest that variations in growth rate caused by changes in irradiance may be related to changes in respiration rates relative to growth as well as changes in optical absorption cross sections for a given species. Interspecific differences in growth rate at a given irradiance are not related to changes in respiration however, but are primarily attributable to differences in optical absorption cross sections normalized to chlorophyll and differences in chlorophyll:carbon ratios.

  16. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase destruction by ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanker, J.; Giammara, B.; Strauss, G.

    1988-01-01

    The peroxidase activity of enriched leukocyte preparations on coverslips was determined cytochemically with a newly developed method. The techniques utilizes diaminobenzidine medium and cupric nitrate intensification and is suitable for analysis with light microscopy, SEM, and TEM. Blood specimens from control individuals were studied with and without in vitro UV irradiation and compared with those from psoriasis patients exposed therapeutically to various types of UV in phototherapy. All UV irradiated samples showed diminished neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MP) activity although that of the principal eosinophil peroxidase was unaffected. The SEMs supported the contention that decreased neutrophil MP activity might be related to UV induced degranulation. It is believed to be possible, eventually, to equate the observed MP degranulation effect after UV irradiation with diminished ability to fight bacterial infections.

  17. Status of food irradiation in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Quantum Beam Science Directorate, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Furuta, Masakazu [Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, 2-1-12 Kannonndai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Uenoyama, Naoki [Department of International Cooperation and Industrial Infrastructure Development, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Shimbashi Fuji Bld., 2-1-3, Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8605 Japan (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)], E-mail: kobayashi.yasuhiko@jaea.go.jp

    2009-03-15

    The status of food irradiation in the world in 2005 was investigated using published data, a questionnaire survey and direct visits. The results showed that the quantity of irradiated foods in the world in 2005 was 405,000 ton and comprised 1,86,000 ton (46%) for disinfection of spices and dry vegetables, 82,000 ton (20%) for disinfestation of grains and fruits, 32,000 ton (8%) for disinfection of meat and fish, 88,000 ton (22%) for sprout inhibition of garlic and potato, and 17,000 ton (4%) of other food items that included health foods, mushroom, honey, etc. Commercial food irradiation is increasing significantly in Asia, but decreasing in EU.

  18. Dosimetry procedures for an industrial irradiation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Ch.

    Accurate and reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a radiation processing plant. γ-Dose measurements were made on the GBS 84 irradiator for food and other products on pallets or in containers. Chemical dosimeters wre exposed in the facility under conditions of the typical plant operation. The choice of the dosimeter systems employed was based on the experience in chemical dosimetry gained over several years. Dose uniformity information was obtained in air, spices, bulbs, feeds, cosmetics, plastics and surgical goods. Most products currently irradiated require dose uniformity which can be efficiently provided by pallet or box irradiators like GBS 84. The radiation performance characteristics and some dosimetry procedures are discussed.

  19. Histometric investigations of irradiated rat testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulisch, B.

    1977-01-01

    Testes of 44 Wistar rats were locally exposed to hard 300 R X-rays. A histological examination was then carried out whose findings were compared with those of 13 control animals. The so-called hit method of Haug was employed. Evaluations of 100 sections of seminiferous tubules per animal showed that the ratio of germ cell area to tubule area decreased on irradiation. The area of basal cell nuclei decreased strongly and had been reduced to 1/5 of the original count on day 13 post irradiation. The area of spermatocyte nuclei was not reduced until day 13, that of spermatide nuclei not until day 26 post irradiation. The reduction of spermatocytes and spermatides is due to a lack of supply by the precurser cells which are irreversibly damaged by irradiation. Onset of repopulation of the germinal epithelium started on day 39 post irradiation. The reduction of the cross section of the seminiferous tubules, which was manifested as reduction of the total tubulus area , was accompanied by a decrease of cytoplasma area . The luminar area was strongly reduced on day 26. On this day, apart from Sertoli cells, almost only spermatides, which had taken over part of the luminar area , were found in the tubules. After transformation of these spermatides into spermatozoa, the luminar area increased again. The interstitial area increased on irradiation, but the author was unable to find out whether this was an absolute or a relative increase. These histometric investigations are a further proof of the existence of the hormone inhibin , which is assumed to control gonadotropin secretion.

  20. Changes in hypothalamus in continuously irradiated sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendarcik, J.; Stanikova, A.; Rajtova, V.; Molnarova, M. (Vysoka Skola Veterinarska, Kosice (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-09-01

    Neurosecretion, PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides and the Nissl substance were studied in the neurons of the rostral, medial and caudal hypothalamus of continuously irradiated ewes. The study was performed on 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed of a live weight of 34 kg. The animals were in the period of physiological anoestrus and their age was two to three years. The first group of six ewes was the control. The second group included 15 sheep irradiated with a total dose of 6.7 Gy (700 R) for seven days. Co/sup 60/ was used as the source of irradiation. The animals of this group were killed seven days following treatment. The ewes in the third group were left for the study of mortality. The brains were perfused with 2% buffered paraformaldehyde immediately after the bleeding of the sheep; then the brains were removed from the skulls and fixed in buffered picroformol. Paraffin slices were stained with haematoxylin-eosine, aldehyde-fuchsine and alcian blue for neurosecretion, by the PAS reaction for mucopolysaccharides and with cresyl violet for the Nissl substance. It was found that irradiation of the whole body inhibited the activity of neurosecretory cells in the rostral and medial hypothalamus, thus reducing neurosecretion. These regions also showed a reduced activity of the PAS reaction used for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides. The observed changes also included damage of the endothelium of blood vessels with the occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates and with haemorrhages. In this way, the trophism of neurosecretory cells was affected, which is ascribed to the decrease in the amount of neurosecretory material. In the caudal hypothalamus, neurosecretion and PAS-positivity were slightly stimulated by irradiation. The Nissl substance disappeared as a result of irradiation.

  1. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-02-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author).

  2. Enhancement of Irradiation Capability of the Experimental Fast Reactor Joyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shigetaka; Serine, Takashi; Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju

    2009-08-01

    The experimental fast reactor Joyo is the first sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan. One of its primary missions is to perform irradiation tests of fuel and structural materials to support the development of fast reactors. The MK-III high performance core upgrade to enhance the irradiation testing capabilities was completed in 2003. In order to expand Joyo's capabilities for innovative irradiation testing applications, neutron spectrum tailoring, lower irradiation temperature, movable sample devices and fast neutron beam holes are being considered. This program responds to existing irradiation needs and aims to further expand capabilities for a variety of irradiation tests.

  3. Microstructural change on electron irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, H.; Akasaka, N.; Takahashi, H.; Shibahara, I.; Onose, S.

    1992-09-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels were irradiated in a high voltage electron microscope (HVEM) to study their response to irradiation. Fe-13Cr with 0.25 wt% Y2O3 as dispersed particles and containing additions of either 0.45% Nb, 0.45% V and 0.67% Zr were irradiated at 673 and 723 K up to 15 dpa. The Y2O3 particles in all specimens were stable under these irradiation conditions. During irradiation, two types of dislocations were formed but observable voids were not formed. Furthermore, plate-like and granular-like precipitates formed in both the irradiated and nonirradiated regions.

  4. Investigation on radiation degradation of carboxymethylcellulose by ionizing irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sub; Choi, Jong-Il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Won; Chung, Young-Jin; Shin, Mee-Hye; Byun, Myung-Woo; Shin, Myung-Gon; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    This study was done to compare the effects of irradiations with gamma-rays and electron beams, on the viscosity of the carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), on the functional groups of CMC, and on the production of radicals. It was observed that the relative viscosities decreased as the irradiation doses increased, but the decrease was more significant when irradiation with gamma rays. FT-IR spectra showed no significant difference between the gamma-ray and the electron beam irradiated samples. ESR spectra showed that the gamma-ray irradiation produced more radicals than electron beam irradiation in CMC.

  5. Hypopituitarism following pituitary irradiation for acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloia, J.F.; Archambeau, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    Endocrine evaluation is reported in 8 acromegalic patients who received 5500 rad to the pituitary from a linear accelerator. There was a mean decrease in hGH levels of 72%. Plasma testosterone levels were low in 1 of the 6 male patients prior to pituitary irradiation and were below normal in all male patients on the final evaluation (3.1 +- 0.2 SD years postirradiation). Deficiency of TSH secretion developed in 2 patients following irradiation. This rather high incidence of postirradiation partial hypopituitarism was not anticipated and is thought to be related to radiation necrosis of the normal pituitary tissue which surrounds the adenoma.

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on deteriorated paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Monti, Michela; Piantanida, Giovanna; Sodo, Armida

    2016-08-01

    Even though gamma radiation application, also at the minimum dosage required for disinfection, causes depolymerization and degradation of the paper substrate, recently published papers seemed, instead, to suggest that γ-rays application could be envisaged in some conditions for Cultural Heritage original documents and books. In some of the published papers, the possible application of γ-rays was evaluated mainly by using mechanical tests that scarcely reflect the chemical modifications induced in the cellulosic support. In the present article the effect of low dosage γ-irradiation on cellulosic substrates was studied and monitored applying different techniques: colorimetry, spectroscopic measurements, carbonyl content and average viscometric degree of polymerization. Two different papers were investigated, a non-sized, non-filled cotton paper, and a commercial permanent paper. To simulate a real deteriorated document, which could need γ-rays irradiation, some samples were submitted to a hydrolysis treatment. We developed a treatment based on the exposition of paper to hydrochloric acid vapors, avoiding any contact of the samples with water. This method induces a degradation similar to that observed on original documents. The samples were then irradiated with 3 kGy γ-rays at a 5258 Gy/h rate. The aforementioned analyses were performed on the samples just irradiated and after artificial ageing. All tests showed negative effects of gamma irradiation on paper. Non-irradiated paper preserves better its appearance and chemical properties both in the short term and after ageing, while the irradiated samples show appreciable color change and higher oxidation extent. Since the Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario is responsible for the choice of all restoration treatments that could be applied on library and archival materials under the protection of the Italian State (http://www.icpal.beniculturali.it/allegati/DM-7

  7. Neutron Spectrum Measurements from Irradiations at NCERC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, Kevin Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Michelle A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bredeweg, Todd Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hutchens, Gregory Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); White, Morgan Curtis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Several irradiations have been conducted on assemblies (COMET/ZEUS and Flattop) at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) located at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Configurations of the assemblies and irradiated materials changed between experiments. Different metallic foils were analyzed using the radioactivation method by gamma-ray spectrometry to understand/characterize the neutron spectra. Results of MCNP calculations are shown. It was concluded that MCNP simulated spectra agree with experimental measurements, with the caveats that some data are limited by statistics at low-energies and some activation foils have low activities.

  8. Vanadium irradiation at ATR - neutronics aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Calculations were performed to estimate damage and transmutation rates in vanadium irradiated in the ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) located in Idaho. The main focuses of the study are to evaluate the transmutation of vanadium to chromium and to explore ways to design the irradiation experiment to avoid excessive transmutation. It was found that the A-hole of ATR produces damage rate of {approximately} 0.2%/dpa of vanadium to chromium. A thermal neutron filter can be incorporated into the design to reduce the vanadium-to-chromium transmutation rate to low levels. A filter 1-2 mm thick of gadolinium or hafnium can be used.

  9. Synthesis of Novolacs under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Chun; Li Yuancai; Zhang Yanfu

    2006-01-01

    Novolacs were successfully synthesized using oxalic acid as the catalyst in a self-designed device based on a domestic microwave oven. The fundamental characteristics of the synthesis of novolacs under microwave irradiation (MI) were investigated, and the properties of the resins polymerized and dehydrated under microwave irradiation and conventional heating (CH) were analyzed comparatively. The results show that MI reduced the polymerization and dehydration time greatly; and that the resins polymerized and dehydrated under MI presented longer flow distances (i. e. , higher flowability) and shorter cure time than those obtained under CH.

  10. ESR dose assessment in irradiated chicken legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordi, F. [II Universita, Rome (Italy). Dipartimento di Medicina Interna; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Santia, Rome (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy). Sezione Sanita

    1994-05-01

    The electron spin resonance technique has received a wide consensus for dose assessment in irradiated chicken bone. Nevertheless, some practical problems are still open like the most suitable mathematical expression to be used for dose evaluation with the re-irradiation method. In the present paper the linear and exponential approximations were analyzed using 40 bone chicken samples and a reproducible readout procedure. The results suggested the use of the exponential dose-effect relationship and gave some indications on the procedure to be practically adopted. (author).

  11. Molecular dynamics for irradiation driven chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sushko, Gennady B.; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    technologies such as focused electron beam deposition (FEBID). As an example, the new methodology is applied for studying the irradiation driven chemistry caused by FEBID of tungsten hexacarbonyl W(CO)6 precursor molecules on a hydroxylated SiO2 surface. It is demonstrated that knowing the interaction...... parameters for the fragments of the molecular system arising in the course of irradiation one can reproduce reasonably well experimental observations and make predictions about the morphology and molecular composition of nanostructures that emerge on the surface during the FEBID process....

  12. Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Szlufarska, Izabela [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-10-11

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known about basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC-based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation

  13. Irradiation Induced Microstructure Evolution in Nanostructured Materials: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Ji, Yanzhou; Tan, Pengkang; Zang, Hang; He, Chaohui; Yun, Di; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-02-06

    Nanostructured (NS) materials may have different irradiation resistance from their coarse-grained (CG) counterparts. In this review, we focus on the effect of grain boundaries (GBs)/interfaces on irradiation induced microstructure evolution and the irradiation tolerance of NS materials under irradiation. The features of void denuded zones (VDZs) and the unusual behavior of void formation near GBs/interfaces in metals due to the interactions between GBs/interfaces and irradiation-produced point defects are systematically reviewed. Some experimental results and calculation results show that NS materials have enhanced irradiation resistance, due to their extremely small grain sizes and large volume fractions of GBs/interfaces, which could absorb and annihilate the mobile defects produced during irradiation. However, there is also literature reporting reduced irradiation resistance or even amorphization of NS materials at a lower irradiation dose compared with their bulk counterparts, since the GBs are also characterized by excess energy (compared to that of single crystal materials) which could provide a shift in the total free energy that will lead to the amorphization process. The competition of these two effects leads to the different irradiation tolerance of NS materials. The irradiation-induced grain growth is dominated by irradiation temperature, dose, ion flux, character of GBs/interface and nanoprecipitates, although the decrease of grain sizes under irradiation is also observed in some experiments.

  14. Effect of UV irradiation on cutaneous cicatrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Eva; Rossen, Kristian; Sorensen, Lars Tue

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on human cutaneous cicatrices. In this randomized, controlled study, dermal punch biopsy wounds served as a wound healing model. Wounds healed by primary or second intention and were randomized to postoperative solar UV...

  15. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, December 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-01-15

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of December, 1964. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; trips; and Financial Operation.

  16. Aspheric surface testing by irradiance transport equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomali, Ramin; Darudi, Ahmad; Nasiri, Sadollah; Asgharsharghi Bonab, Armir

    2010-10-01

    In this paper a method for aspheric surface testing is presented. The method is based on solving the Irradiance Transport Equation (ITE).The accuracy of ITE normally depends on the amount of the pick to valley of the phase distribution. This subject is investigated by a simulation procedure.

  17. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, March 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-04-15

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of March, 1962. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and NPR Project.

  18. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, November 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-12-14

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of November, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operation; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; Financial Operation; and NPR Project.

  19. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, July 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-08-12

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of July, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  20. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, October 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-11-14

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of August, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.