WorldWideScience

Sample records for ceramics industry

  1. Industrial Ceramics: Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The expanding use of ceramic products in today's world can be seen in the areas of communications, construction, aerospace, textiles, metallurgy, atomic energy, and electronics. The demands of science have brought ceramics from an art to an industry using mass production and automated processes which requires the services of great numbers as the…

  2. Lower energy costs in the ceramics industry - via ceramic fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zander, H.P.

    1983-04-01

    Ceramic fibres, due to their high thermal and chemical resistance, receive increasing attention as insulating material for industrial purposes. After a short characterisation, examples of furnace wall lining are given, and a tunnel-kiln car for baking of sanitation ceramics is investigated with a view to possibilities of supplementary insulation.

  3. Interactive Industrial Robot Programming for the Ceramic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Veiga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interactive programming method for programming industrial robots in ceramic applications. The main purpose was to develop a simple but flexible programming system that empowers the user with product driven programming without compromising flexibility. To achieve this flexibility, a two step hybrid programming model was designed: first the user sketches the desired trajectory in a spatial augmented reality programming table using the final product and then relies on an advanced 3D graphical system to tune the robot trajectory in the final workcell. The results measured by the end-user feedback show that a new level of flexibility was reached for this type of application.

  4. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  5. Water reservoir as resource of raw material for ceramic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-04-01

    The industries related to the ceramics such as construction bricks, pottery and tile are the important sectors that cover the large part of the working population in Tunisia. The raw materials, clay or silt are excavated from opencast site of limestone clay stratum. The opencast site give the negative impact on landscape and environment, risks of landslide, soil erosion etc. On the other hand, a most serious problem in water resource management, especially in arid land such as Tunisia, is sedimentation in reservoirs. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs reduces the water storage capacity. The authors proposed the exploitation of the sediment as raw material for the ceramics industries in the previous studies because the sediment in Tunisia is fine silt. In this study, the potential of the water reservoirs in Tunisia as the resource of the raw material for the ceramics industries is estimated from the sedimentation ratio in the water reservoirs.

  6. The Role of Ceramics in a Resurgent Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J

    2006-02-28

    With fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs and worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, there is growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Ceramic materials have long played a very important part in the commercial nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, ceramic materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, ceramic processes are also being applied to fuel reprocessing operations. Ceramic materials continue to provide a vital contribution in ''closing the fuel cycle'' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable grout, ceramics, and glass. In the next five years, programs that are currently in the conceptual phase will begin laboratory- and engineering-scale demonstrations. This will require production-scale demonstrations of several ceramic technologies from fuel form development to advanced stabilization methods. Within the next five to ten years, these demonstrations will move to even larger scales and will also include radioactive demonstrations of these advanced technologies. These radioactive demonstrations are critical to program success and will require advances in ceramic materials associated with nuclear energy applications.

  7. Ceramic fibres for the automotive industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryatt, J.

    1985-01-01

    The outstanding thermal, physical and chemical properties of ceramic fibres make them a noticeable contender for inclusion in engineered systems to satisfy such performance demands. A wide range of fibres and fibre-based products are available which exhibit such characteristics as high temperature continuous service ability (1600/sup 0/C if required), low thermal conductivity, excellent resistance to chemical attack (including reducing conditions), good acoustic performance at all temperatures and good resistance to vibration. They are also lightweight, fireproof and incombustible. Ceramic fibres should really be referred to as refractory fibres as they are based on combinations of high purity alumina and silica. Two groups of products exist. The most common have a continuous-use temperature of 1260/sup 0/C. These fibres are characterized by an alumina content of 40-50% but refractoriness and temperature use limit can be increased to about 1400/sup 0/C by modifying the basic chemistry. This generally involves increasing the alumina content to as much as 62% or adding chromia or zirconia to the basic mix. The second and less common group of fibres is characterized by both chemistry and crystal morphology. Chemistry is biased towards a high alumina content (over 70%), while production routes are designed to yield as high a crystal phase (and so enhanced high temperature stability) as possible.

  8. RADIATION-HYGIENIC EVALUATION OF MODERN CERAMIC INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Lisachenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic industry widely uses zirconium materials with an increased amount of natural radionuclides. The external irradiation gives a major contribution to the dose of exposure of workers in this branch of industry. The contribution of dust radiation factor at various stages of the production technology is mainly given by a dispersiveness of used materials. The contribution of radon isotopes to the exposure of workers is about 0.1 mSv/year. When traditional zirconium raw materials are used, the doze of natural exposure of workers in the modern industry usually does not exceed 1 mSv/year. The necessity of the industrial radiation control is caused by a wide range of natural radionuclides content in zirconium materials, the peculiarities in the production technology etc.

  9. Study of The Technological Profile of The Red Ceramic Industry of Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Pinto de Cerqueira Pedrosa de Oliveira; Luciana Peixoto Santa Rita

    2015-01-01

    The red ceramic industry in Brazil is a sector that is growing every year, characterized by the production of ceramic tiles as brick, tile, ceramic blocks, which basically uses, as main raw material, the clay. Due to the constant evolution of mechanization and production increase, plus the emergence of new companies, it is clear that processing techniques as well as technological modernization are key to achieving a higher performance segment of red ceramic process thus winning, t...

  10. Exposure to refractory ceramic fibres in the metal industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnainmaa, Markku; Kangas, Juhani; Mäkinen, Milja; Metsärinne, Sirpa; Tossavainen, Antti; Säntti, Jaakko; Veteli, Marika; Savolainen, Heikki; Kalliokoski, Pentti

    2007-08-01

    Refractory ceramic fibres (RCF) are used in thermal isolation in the metal industry where high temperatures are regularly employed. Asbestos materials were earlier commonly used for these purposes. In this work, two Finnish steel plants, three foundries and a repair shop were studied for the ceramic fibre exposure of their workers under normal production and during the replacement of oven insulation. Personal and stationary sampling was used together with a novel nasal lavage sampling for the evaluation of personal exposure. Fibres were counted with optical and electron microscopy and they were identified using an energy-dispersive X-ray analyser. Ceramic fibres were found in most production phases [range <0.01-0.29 fibres per cubic centimetre (f cm(-3))]. Considerably higher fibre counts were obtained during the maintenance work (range <0.01-14.2 f cm(-3)). Nasal sampling was found to correlate with the airborne fibre concentrations at the group level. The mean fibre concentrations varied from 34 to 6680 f ml(-1) of lavage liquid. Use of personal respiratory protectors diminished the exposure on the average as analysed in the lavage specimens, but the effect of respirator use did not appear clearly in the results. Because of the heat conditions, the workers used the respirators for a strict minimum period. A considerable exposure to RCF occurs in the studied plants. Its risk should be evaluated and managed more closely in view that the material is carcinogenic. Use of personal respiratory protectors should be encouraged. Their effective use could be verified by the nasal sampling for fibres after the work shift.

  11. Study on the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry; Estudo sobre a utilizacao do gas natural na industria ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The production, principal applications, characteristics and properties, advantages of the gas natural is showed. A sectorial overview of the ceramic industry and the utilization of the natural gas in the ceramic industry is presented. The expectations are systematized and the impact of the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry is evaluated. Some conclusions are withdrawn and recommendations suggested.

  12. An Territorial Analysis Of The Industrial Sector Of Tableware Ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Roberto Alves Teixeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic industry of tableware is characterized by the production of products such as dinner sets, tea and coffee, and decorative products. This sector has a great importance to the Brazilian economy (responsible for more than 20 thousand jobs. Thus this paper aims to conduct a brief analysis of the key characteristics of the sector which has been struggling against the highly competitive with large corporations and with other countries leading many Brazilian companies to bankruptcy. The methodology is based on the reading of books, theses and articles, written by authors such as Raffestin (1994, Coutinho and Ferraz (1994, Presnell (2006, Belingeri (2005 and others. The analyzes were collected in organs like IBGE, CNAE, ALICEWEB and RAIS.

  13. Association of soil cadmium contamination with ceramic industry: A case study in a Chinese town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Q. Lin [Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210018 (China); Liu, Cong [Jiangsu Provincial Department of Land Resources, Nanjing 210017 (China); Wu, H. Yun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Xianlin Campus, Box 624, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Zhu, B. Wan [Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210018 (China); Chen, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Xianlin Campus, Box 624, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China); Huang, Lei, E-mail: huanglei@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Xianlin Campus, Box 624, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination is attributable to many sources, among which the ceramic industry is probably an important contributor whose relationship will be explored in this study. Upon studying a town in southeastern China that is quite famous for its ceramics, we observed that the soil Cd distribution agreed with the local ceramic industry's distribution in space and time from 2004 to 2014. Ceramic and pigment samples from a typical factory were selected in a case study, and a sediment core from a nearby river was collected. First, an application of the geo-accumulation index suggested that the sediment was very strongly polluted by Cd (mean 1874 mg/kg). Second, sediment dating indicated that the Cd concentration surge and the establishment of the factory were proximate in time (2002–2004). Third, principal component analysis showed high loading of Cd (0.947) solely, suggesting that the factory was most likely responsible for the Cd pollution found in the sediments of a nearby river. Finally, we infer that the soil cadmium pollution in the whole area may be related to the region's prosperous ceramic industry. Local government should reinforce controls of the ceramic industry and implement effective countermeasures. - Highlights: • The sediment is strongly polluted by Cd in a Chinese town. • Cd concentration surged when the nearby ceramic factory was established. • Cd is solely loaded in a principal component and abundant in the ceramic pigments. • The local ceramic industry may be responsible for the soil Cd contamination.

  14. Study of The Technological Profile of The Red Ceramic Industry of Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Pinto de Cerqueira Pedrosa de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The red ceramic industry in Brazil is a sector that is growing every year, characterized by the production of ceramic tiles as brick, tile, ceramic blocks, which basically uses, as main raw material, the clay. Due to the constant evolution of mechanization and production increase, plus the emergence of new companies, it is clear that processing techniques as well as technological modernization are key to achieving a higher performance segment of red ceramic process thus winning, this way, the market, about terms of competitiveness and productivity. This time, watching these aspects, the present study aims to analyze the technological landscape of the production process of the Red Ceramic Industry in Alagoas State, with regard to equipment used in the manufacturing steps, checking for the possibility of existing technological levels these industries in Alagoas in its production process, analyzing these, aiming thus conduct a study of the technological profile of the Red Ceramic Industry. The methodology will support the field research through questionnaires with entrepreneurs as well as qualitative bibliographic nature, with content analysis. Thus, the data surveys have indicated the existence of technological levels for this segment, mapping the characteristics of the productive process and its technological profile in the State of Alagoas and can verify in a few steps a possible disharmony. Therefore, by the the analysis of the data allowed the highlight of four steps to the red ceramic production process, these being the extraction of raw materials, the conformation of parts by molding and extrusion, and thermal processes through the final stages of drying and burning, considering the existence of technological levels by analyzing the study of technological profile, with regard to equipment used in the production process of state Red Ceramic Industries.

  15. Characterization of ceramics used in mass ceramic industry Goianinha/RN; Caracterizacao de massa ceramica utilizada em industria ceramica de Goianinha/RN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales Junior, J.C.C.; Nascimento, R.M. do; Andrade, J.C.S.; Saldanha, K.M., E-mail: jccalado@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Dutra, R.P.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Ceramicos

    2011-07-01

    The preparation of the the ceramic mass is one of the most important steps in the manufacture of ceramic products, since the characteristics of the raw materials used, and the proportions that they are added, directly influence the final properties of ceramic products and the operational conditions of processing. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the characterization of a ceramic mass used in the manufacture of sealing blocks by a red ceramic industry of the city of Goianinha / RN. We analyzed the chemical and mineralogical composition; thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis; granulometric analysis; evaluation of plasticity; and determining the technological properties of specimens used in test firing at 700, 900 and 1100 ° C. The results show that the ceramic body studied has characteristics that allow use in the manufacture of sealing blocks when burned at a temperature of 900 ° C. (author)

  16. CO2 laser photoacoustic detection of ammonia emitted by ceramic industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthel, M S; Schramm, D U; Lima, G R; Carneiro, L; Faria, R T; Castro, M P P; Alexandre, J; Toledo, R; Silva, M G; Vargas, H

    2011-01-01

    A homemade photoacoustic spectrometer has been constructed for monitoring gas emission from several sources. Numerous air pollutant gases are emitted exhaust of industries, vehicles and power plants. The photoacoustic technique is extremely sensitive and selective in detecting various gases. This work focuses on the gas emitted by the ceramic industry in northern Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil, the ceramic industry plays a remarkable role in the economy activity of this region, in recent years, this region developed into a significant red ceramic complex. The potential impact on the atmospheric environment of the region due to gaseous pollutant emissions from these anthropogenic sources needs to be evaluated. In this work we identified NH3 present in the samples collected in the kiln of a ceramic plant, in the concentration range of 33-52 ppmV. The ammonia gas present in our collected samples might come from the excess nitrogen in the manure soil from where the ceramic material was extracted. This soil was used for the sugarcane culture which is another important economic activity of this region.

  17. CO 2 laser photoacoustic detection of ammonia emitted by ceramic industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthel, M. S.; Schramm, D. U.; Lima, G. R.; Carneiro, L.; Faria, R. T., Jr.; Castro, M. P. P.; Alexandre, J.; Toledo, R.; Silva, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2011-01-01

    A homemade photoacoustic spectrometer has been constructed for monitoring gas emission from several sources. Numerous air pollutant gases are emitted exhaust of industries, vehicles and power plants. The photoacoustic technique is extremely sensitive and selective in detecting various gases. This work focuses on the gas emitted by the ceramic industry in northern Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil, the ceramic industry plays a remarkable role in the economy activity of this region, in recent years, this region developed into a significant red ceramic complex. The potential impact on the atmospheric environment of the region due to gaseous pollutant emissions from these anthropogenic sources needs to be evaluated. In this work we identified NH 3 present in the samples collected in the kiln of a ceramic plant, in the concentration range of 33-52 ppmV. The ammonia gas present in our collected samples might come from the excess nitrogen in the manure soil from where the ceramic material was extracted. This soil was used for the sugarcane culture which is another important economic activity of this region.

  18. HOW TO USE SOLID WASTE OF OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN CERAMIC BRICKS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinovа T. A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the recycling problem of solid waste of oil and gas industry is observed. We have developed the bases of resource saving technology for minimizing exhausted sorbents and catalysts pollution with their using as silica-containing additives in raw mix for production of ceramic bricks of standard quality

  19. Development of UHTC- Ultra-high-temperature ceramics for aerospace and industrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bellosi, Alida

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium and Hafnium diborides and carbides belong to the class of Ultra-High-Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) for their high melting point (2700-3900?C). The interest on these materials is due to the unique combination of properties 8High hardness, high electrical and thermal conductivity, chemical inertness). They constitute a clss of promising materials for HT applications in industrial secors like foundry, refractory or nuclear plants. Applications are also found in aerospace industry: leadin...

  20. Glass and glass–ceramic coatings, versatile materials for industrial and engineering applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitava Majumdar; Sunirmal Jana

    2001-02-01

    Among various coating systems for industrial and engineering applications, glass and glass–ceramic coatings have advantages of chemical inertness, high temperature stability and superior mechanical properties such as abrasion, impact etc as compared to other coating materials applied by thermal spraying in its different forms viz. PVD, CVD, plasma, etc. Besides imparting required functional properties such as heat, abrasion and corrosion resistance to suit particular end use requirements, the glass and glass–ceramic coatings in general also provide good adherence, defect free surface and refractoriness. Systematic studies covering the basic science of glass and glass–ceramic coatings, the functional properties required for a particular end-use along with the various fields of application have been reviewed in this paper.

  1. An industry-wide pulmonary study of men and women manufacturing refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasters, G K; Lockey, J E; Levin, L S; McKay, R T; Rice, C H; Horvath, E P; Papes, D M; Lu, J W; Feldman, D J

    1998-11-01

    An industry-wide pulmonary morbidity study was undertaken to evaluate the respiratory health of employees manufacturing refractory ceramic fibers at five US sites between 1987 and 1989. Refractory ceramic fibers are man-made vitreous fibers used for high temperature insulation. Of the 753 eligible current employees, 742 provided occupational histories and also completed the American Thoracic Society respiratory symptom questionnaire; 736 also performed pulmonary function tests. Exposure to refractory ceramic fibers was characterized by classifying workers as production or nonproduction employees and calculating the duration of time spent in production employment. The risk of working in the production of refractory ceramic fibers and having one or more respiratory symptoms was estimated by adjusted odds ratios and found to be 2.9 (95 percent confidence interval 1.4-6.2) for men and 2.4 (95 percent confidence interval 1.1-5.3) for women. The effect of exposure to refractory ceramic fibers on forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), the ratio of the two (FEV1/FVC), and forced expiratory flow (liters/second) between 25 percent and 75 percent of the FVC curve (FEF(25-75)) was evaluated by multiple regression analysis using transformed values adjusted for height, by dividing by the square of each individual's height. For men, there was a significant decline in FVC for current and past smokers of 165.4 ml (p ceramic fibers. For FEV1, the decline was significant (p ceramic fibers. These findings indicate that there may be important sex differences in response to occupational and/or environmental exposure.

  2. Monitoring and evaluation of duct emission and stationary sources of ceramic industries by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Fonseca, Roney Jose, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de, E-mail: aesvives@unimep.b [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor and evaluate the emission of metals from ducts and stationary sources in ceramic industries in the region of the ceramic centre of Santa Gertrudes in the state of Sao Paulo. There has been a growth of this industrial sector in recent years. This reflected upon the environment in this region which is responsible for 60% of ceramic tile floor production. From 2005 to 2006, samples of gases emitted by several ceramic companies in that region were collected. Metal concentration was determined through X-ray Fluorescence by Total Reflection with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF) technique. The analyses were carried out in the National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (NLSL) and used a polychromatic beam of light to stimulate the samples and a hyper pure Germanic detector for the characteristic X-ray detection. The following elements were detected: Al, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. High concentrations of elements such as Chromium, Nickel and Lead were observed in the samples analyzed which presented values of concentrations higher than the ones permitted by legislation. (author)

  3. Advanced ceramic coating development for industrial/utility gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogan, J. W.; Stetson, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    A program was conducted with the objective of developing advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Coating application was by plasma spray. Duplex, triplex and graded coatings were tested. Coating systems incorporated both NiCrAly and CoCrAly bond coats. Four ceramic overlays were tested: ZrO2.82O3; CaO.TiO2; 2CaO.SiO2; and MgO.Al2O3. The best overall results were obtained with a CaO.TiO2 coating applied to a NiCrAly bond coat. This coating was less sensitive than the ZrO2.8Y2O3 coating to process variables and part geometry. Testing with fuels contaminated with compounds containing sulfur, phosphorus and alkali metals showed the zirconia coatings were destabilized. The calcium titanate coatings were not affected by these contaminants. However, when fuels were used containing 50 ppm of vanadium and 150 ppm of magnesium, heavy deposits were formed on the test specimens and combustor components that required frequent cleaning of the test rig. During the program Mars engine first-stage turbine blades were coated and installed for an engine cyclic endurance run with the zirconia, calcium titanate, and calcium silicate coatings. Heavy spalling developed with the calcium silicate system. The zirconia and calcium titanate systems survived the full test duration. It was concluded that these two TBC's showed potential for application in gas turbines.

  4. Material of Burned Coal Wastes Spoil Heaps As Source of Mullite for Ceramic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daněk Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning or burnt out mine spoil heaps may be potential sources of materials not only for building purposes, but they may also be used in the ceramic industry. Decay of the coal mass contained in the mine spoil heaps often leads to self-ignition. As a consequence of spontaneous mine fire, which may approach 1600 °C, the surrounding waste rock undergoes thermal conversion. The temperature conditions inside the burning spoil heaps are analogous to the production conditions of refractory opening materials and fillers in rotary furnaces. The article deals with an analysis of anthropogenic porcelanites in terms of their phase composition and their possible application in the ceramic industry. The material under analysis underwent X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence to identify its chemistry and mineralogy. The article also proposes an enrichment method for the given material, through which a higher proportion of its useful component, mullite, may be obtained. Applying this method, approximately 60 % relatively pure separated raw material suitable for the ceramic industry may be obtained from the original material.

  5. Pilot study for a quantification of lead exposure in the ceramics and glass industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, K.H.; Weltle, D.; Schiele, R.; Weissflog, S.; Mayer, P.; Valentin, H.

    1981-11-01

    The lead level in the blood of 2706 workers was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. delta-ALA concentrations in 400 urine samples were measured by photometry. The statistical analysis shows that lead concentrations are higher in the blood of glass workers (median: 51 ..mu..g/dl) than in workers of the ceramics industry (median: 44 ..mu..g/dl). In the ceramics industry, lead exposure is highest during glazing preparation and shaping. In the glass industry, foundrymen, furnace men, glass makers and mixers are most exposed. Of the glass workers, 21% exceeded the maximum permissible value of 70 ..mu..g/dl as compared with 14% of the ceramics workers. The difference was less pronounced in female workers. The maximum permissible concentration was exceeded in 18% of all cases. In the two years of observation, blood lead concentrations of 216 persons with at least three control examination was reduced by 20%. 53 other workers with three control examinations were transferred to other working places because of their high blood lead levels. Blood lead concentrations were reduced by 17% per month (median: 5 ..mu..g/dl per month). Reasons for this very slow reduction may be found in further lead exposure at the new place of work and in redistribution of lead from the soft tissues. The study shows that working conditions have been improved in the period of observation. Further reduction of lead levels requires information on the dangers of lead and technical measures to reduce lead exposure at the place of work.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of an industrial dryer in a ceramic production: an application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utlu, Zafer [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Istanbul Aydin University (Turkey)], E-mail: zaferutlu@aydin.edu.tr, email: zafer_utlu@yahoo.com; Hepbasli, Arif [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)], email: ahepbasli.c@ksu.edu.sa, email: arifhepbasli@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    The drying industry always aims to reduce the amount of moisture from production and to reach this goal using the minimum amount of energy and at minimum cost. The purpose of this paper is to give the energy and exergy analysis of a ceramic plant and to determine the energy and exergy utilization efficiencies of this plant's drying process. Exergy analysis has been widely used for various thermal systems and drying is a significant element of these systems and is an energy intensive operation. In this study, the exergy analysis method was applied to a drying system on a ceramic production line. This process was divided into three stages with the aim of calculating the values for exergy destruction and efficiency of the system in reference (dead state) temperature. Mass, elemental, and heat losses were also studied by means of the actual plant operational data and conclusions were drawn from this that are listed in this paper.

  7. Raw-materials mixtures from waste of the coal industry for production of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpern, E.I. [Scientific-Manufacturing Enterprise ``Ceramics``, Donetsk (Ukraine); Pashchenko, L.V. [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry of NASU, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    The liquidation of waste dumps on the surface of mining enterprises and realization of measures by environment protection of air and aquatic basins are connected to the complex processing of mining mass. The main directions of utilization of mining rocks and coal wastes realized in Ukraine industry are: - filling of mines worked-out area by grouting solutions; - ceramic brick, porous filling materials and binding materials production; - road-making, construction of hydrostructures and industrial objects; - output of concrete items predominantly for using in mining conditions. The peculiarity of wastes using in above-mentioned fields is the possibility of their mass application in quantities commensurable with valumes of their yields. The experience of enterprises work which process mining rocks into building materials by burning method (ceramic brick, porous aggregates of concretes as aggloporite, expanded clay aggregate) has shown that unconstant and, as the rule, exceeding norms content of carbon and sulphur in the rock results to deterioration of products quality and technological factors of production. Unstability of carbon content in raw material makes the burning process hardly operated. Obtained products having residual carbon in the view of coke residue are often characterized by lower physical-mechanical characteristics. (orig./SR)

  8. [Lead exposure in the ceramic tile industry: time trends and current exposure levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, S; Ferri, F; Olmi, M

    1998-01-01

    There is a high density of industries for the production of ceramic tiles in the District of Scandiano (province of Reggio Emilia, Emilia Romagna region). In this area, since the beginning of 1970s, the time trend of Pb exposure in ceramic tile plants has been evaluated by means of biological monitoring (BM) data collected at the Service of Prevention and Safety in the Work Environment and its associated Toxicology Laboratory. From these data, a clear decreasing time trend of exposure levels is documented, the reduction being more evident during the seventies and in 1985-88. During the seventies BM was introduced systematically in all ceramic tile plants with the determination of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA-U). As a consequence of the BM programme, hygienic measures for the abatement of pollution inside the plants were implemented, and a reduction, from 20.6% to 2%, of ALA-U values exceeding 10 mg/l, was observed. In 1985, the determination of lead in blood (PbB) replaced that of ALA-U in the BM programmes and highlighted the persistence of high level of exposure to Pb, which could not be outlined by means of ALA-U because of its lower sensitivity. PbB levels were 36.1 micrograms/100 ml and 25.7 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. These results required the implementation, within the plants, of additional hygienic measures and a significant reduction of PbB was obtained in the following three years. In 1988 PbB levels were 26.0 +/- 10.7 and 21.6 +/- 10.3 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. In 1993-95 Pb levels were obtained from 1328 male and 771 female workers of 56 plants, accounting for about 40% of the total number of workers in the ceramic industry, in the zones of Sassuolo and Scandiano. Exposure levels are not different from those observed in the preceding years, with PbB levels of 25.3 +/- 11.1 and 19.1 +/- 9.2 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively.

  9. Energy saving options by means of addition of burned-up biomass materials in the ceramics industry; Energiebesparingsmogelijkheden door toevoeging van biomassa-uitbrandstoffen in de keramische industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walda, E.

    2013-06-01

    In 2011/2012 is an exploratory study has been executed on the availability of biomass and the potential applicability in the building ceramics industry. The study consisted of (1) a literature and desk study, in which an overview is made of available and ceramic applicable (renewable) burned-up materials, and (2), laboratory tests in which ultimately potentially applicable burned-up material (sawdust) is examined for its coarse ceramic applicability. In this article the results of the two-pronged research are presented [Dutch] In 2011/2012 is een orienterend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de beschikbaarheid van biomassa en de mogelijke toepasbaarheid in de bouwkeramische industrie. Het onderzoek bestond uit (1) een literatuur- en deskstudie, waarbij een overzicht is gemaakt van verkrijgbare en keramisch toe te passen (hernieuwbare) uitbrandstoffen, en (2) een laboratoriumonderzoek, waarbij uiteindelijk een potentieel toepasbare uitbrandstof (zaagsel) is onderzocht op zijn grofkeramische toepasbaarheid. In dit artikel worden de resultaten van het tweeledige onderzoek gepresenteerd.

  10. Effect of ceramic industrial particulate emission control on key components of ambient PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Monfort, Eliseo; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Celades, Irina; Miró, José Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM(10) components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits are produced. The PM(10) emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000-2006, taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/EC, leading to a marked decrease in PM(10) emissions. By contrast, emissions from tile manufacture remained relatively constant because of the few changes in the implementation of corrective measures. On the other hand, ambient PM(10) levels and composition measurements were carried out from 2002 to 2006. A high correlation between PM(10) emissions from frit manufacture and ambient levels of Zn, As, Pb and Cs (R(2) from 0.61 to 0.98) was observed. On the basis of these results, the potential impact of the implementation of corrective measures to reduce emissions from tile manufacture was quantified, resulting in a possible decrease of 3-5 microg/m(3) and 2 microg/m(3) in ambient mineral PM(10) (on an annual basis) in urban and suburban areas, respectively. This relatively simple methodology allows us to estimate the direct effect of a reduction in primary particulate emissions on ambient levels of key particulate components, and to make a preliminary quantification of the possibilities of air quality improvement by means of further emission reduction. Therefore, it is a useful tool for developing future air quality plans in the study area and in other industrialised areas.

  11. Ceramic membrane filters for fine particulate removal in coal-fired industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Wincek, R.T.; Glick, D.C.; Scaroni, A.W.; Makris, P.; Krecker, J.; Jung, G.; Stubblefield, D.J.

    1998-07-01

    Strategies are being developed at Penn Sate to produce ultralow emissions when firing coal-based fuel, i.e., micronized coal and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF), in industrial boilers. The research is being conducted at the bench, pilot, and demonstration scale, and the emissions being addressed are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine particulate matter (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), and air toxics (trace elements and volatile organic compounds). Specific activities are identifying/developing a low-temperature NO{sub x} reduction catalyst, studying the occurrence of nitrogen in coal and the fundamental mechanisms of NO{sub x} production, characterizing air toxic emissions, investigating the use of BioLime{trademark} for simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} reduction, and evaluating a ceramic filter for fine particulate control. Results from trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions testing when firing coal-based fuels are reported elsewhere in these proceedings. This paper discusses the preliminary results obtained using ceramic membrane filters for fine particulate removal when firing micronized coal in a package boiler.

  12. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composites for Shrouds and Combustor Liners of Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra; Jill Jonkowski; Joseph Mavec; Paul Bakke; Debbie Haught; Merrill Smith

    2011-01-07

    This report covers work performed under the Advanced Materials for Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines (AMAIGT) program by GE Global Research and its collaborators from 2000 through 2010. A first stage shroud for a 7FA-class gas turbine engine utilizing HiPerComp{reg_sign}* ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material was developed. The design, fabrication, rig testing and engine testing of this shroud system are described. Through two field engine tests, the latter of which is still in progress at a Jacksonville Electric Authority generating station, the robustness of the CMC material and the shroud system in general were demonstrated, with shrouds having accumulated nearly 7,000 hours of field engine testing at the conclusion of the program. During the latter test the engine performance benefits from utilizing CMC shrouds were verified. Similar development of a CMC combustor liner design for a 7FA-class engine is also described. The feasibility of using the HiPerComp{reg_sign} CMC material for combustor liner applications was demonstrated in a Solar Turbines Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine (CSGT) engine test where the liner performed without incident for 12,822 hours. The deposition processes for applying environmental barrier coatings to the CMC components were also developed, and the performance of the coatings in the rig and engine tests is described.

  13. PREPARATION OF RECYCLING CERAMIC TILES USING CERAMIC INDUSTRIAL WASTE%利用陶瓷工业废料制备再生陶瓷墙地砖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王功勋

    2011-01-01

    Recycling ceramic tile was made from raw materials using waste ceramic polishing powder(PP),and waste tiles,and using borax was added as a supplementary flux.Effects of PP sintering property on the strength of recycling ceramic tiles were investigated.Effects of PP on microstructure were detected by SEM tests.Results show that PP is beneficial to improve the sintering property because of its fine particle and glass phase.Strength of recycling ceramic tiles is increased by adding PP and borax compound.In the experimental,borax mass fraction of 0.5%,PP mass fraction of 2% and ceramic tile granule mass fraction of 25%,the strength of recycling ceramic tiles is the highest.This treatment technology features large integrated utilization efficiency for ceramic industrial waste and high strength of recycle ceramic tiles.%以废弃陶瓷抛光砖粉、陶瓷墙地砖烧成废料为原材料,硼砂作辅助熔剂制备再生陶瓷墙地砖,研究陶瓷抛光砖粉的高温烧结性能及其对再生墙地砖强度的影响,采用SEM测试分析陶瓷抛光砖粉对再生陶瓷制品微观结构的影响。结果表明:抛光砖粉含玻璃相、颗粒细小,有利坯体烧结密实;复掺少量抛光砖粉和硼砂,可提高制品强度。在硼砂掺量为0.5%,陶瓷抛光砖粉为2%、烧成废料为25%的实验条件下,所得再生陶瓷制品强度最高。该方法具有陶瓷工业废料的综合利用率高,制得的再生陶瓷制品强度高等特点。

  14. Biological monitoring of glazers exposed to lead in the ceramics industry in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouroki, Fatemeh Kargar; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Golbabaei, Farideh; Barkhordari, Abolfazle; Rahimi-Froushani, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to heavy metals, particularly lead, takes place in the ceramics industry. Lead is used in glaze to produce smooth and brilliant surfaces; thus, there is a likelihood of occupational adverse effects on humans. Urine samples were collected from 49 glazers at the start and end of the work shifts (98 samples). Solid phase extraction was used for separation and pre-concentration of the analyte. Samples were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Lung function tests were performed on both control and lead exposed subjects. Statistical analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the data obtained. The concentration of lead in glazers was 6.37 times higher than in the control group. Lung functions were significantly lower in the glazers compared to the control group (p determinants of high exposure levels.

  15. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  16. The energy efficiency and environmental impacts in the ceramic industry: the case of ceramic coatings segment; A eficiencia energetica e os impactos na industria ceramica: o caso do segmento de revestimentos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], email: mauro_berni@yahoo.com.br; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian ceramic industry has great importance for the country, with a stake of more than 1.0% of GDP, or approximately $ 6 billion. The segment of ceramic coatings due to the higher revenues, production, employment, value of manufacturing and penetration in foreign markets, has been the highlight of the ceramic sector. Besides most representative in economic terms, the ceramic coatings segment presents with the largest final energy consumption and volume of emissions. This work shows the evolution of the final energy consumption of the ceramic sector, showing that the segment of ceramic coatings can be successful harnessing of potential energy conservation with reflections on the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, the study evaluates: the process and energy sources; reducing impacts along the entire life cycle of products and the management actions providing a new corporate culture and social and environmental responsibility.

  17. Contribution to the sustainable management of resources by novel combination of industrial solid residues into red ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, V; Spiliotis, X; Papastergiadis, E; Ntampegliotis, K; Papapolymerou, G; Samaras, P

    2015-03-01

    Limited amounts of industrial residues are recycled while the remaining huge quantities are stockpiled or disposed of, thus frequently leading to soil contamination. The utilization of industrial residues as valuable secondary resources into ceramics can contribute to efficient waste management and substitution for massive amounts of natural resources (clayey minerals) demanded for ceramic production. The low cost of these residues and even possible energy savings during mixture firing may also be beneficial. In the present study, the innovative combination of lignite fly ash with steel-making dust into clay-based red ceramics is undertaken, to contribute both to sustainable use of resources and prevention of soil contamination. Brick specimens were shaped by extrusion and fired, their microstructure was examined and the effect of the mixture composition and firing temperature on physico-mechanical properties was determined. Ceramic microstructures were successfully obtained by a suitable combination of fly ash with steel dust (5 + 5 wt%) into clays. Properties can be predicted and tailored to meet the needs for specific applications by appropriately adjusting the mixture composition and sintering temperature.

  18. Characterization of clays used in the red ceramics industry at Itabaianinha-SE (Brazil); Caracterizacao das argilas utilizadas na industria de ceramica vermelha em Itabaianinha-SE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, T.F.; Andrade, C.E.C. de; Santos, C.R. dos; Barreto, L.S., E-mail: thiago_figueiredo91@yahoo.com.br [Nucleo de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Local Cluster of red ceramic industry in the state of Sergipe comprises Itabaianinha-SE, Itabaiana and Baixo Sao Francisco municipalities (Propria and Santana do Sao Francisco). The city of Itabaianinha concentrates a large number of ceramics and potteries producing ceramic bricks and tiles. The study was conducted in a red ceramic industry of the region. The focus of this work was an incremental innovation in the process and product. It was analyzed three types of clays used for manufacturing of ceramic bricks (barro preto, diamante and jardim). The samples were prepared by pressing and heat treated between 600 ° C - 1100 C °. The samples characterization was by thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and physical tests (water absorption, linear retraction and three points flection). The clays are composed mainly of kaolinite, illite-muscovite and quartz. The results showed that the Barro Preto clay showed better results in retraction, absorption and mechanical strain. (author)

  19. Preparation of ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers and application for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment in electrobath reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Gao, Yue; Xu, Yunyun; Gao, Fan; Yu, Huan; Lu, Yue [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China); Yue, Qinyan, E-mail: qyyue58@yahoo.com.cn [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China); Li, Jinze [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dried sewage sludge and scrap iron used as raw materials for sintering ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new media ceramics used as fillers in electrobath of micro-electrolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified micro-electrolysis used in cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This modified micro-electrolysis could avoid failure of the electrobath reactor. - Abstract: As new media, ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers (Cathode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - CCF, and Anode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - ACF) employed in electrobath were investigated for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment. 60.0 wt% of dried sewage sludge and 40.0 wt% of clay, 40.0 wt% of scrap iron and 60.0 wt% of clay were utilized as raw materials for the preparation of raw CCF and ACF, respectively. The raw CCF and ACF were respectively sintered at 400 Degree-Sign C for 20 min in anoxic conditions. The physical properties (bulk density, grain density and water absorption), structural and morphological characters and toxic metal leaching contents were tested. The influences of pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the media height on removal of COD{sub Cr} and cyclohexanone were studied. The results showed that the bulk density and grain density of CCF and ACF were 869.0 kg m{sup -3} and 936.3 kg m{sup -3}, 1245.0 kg m{sup -3} and 1420.0 kg m{sup -3}, respectively. The contents of toxic metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ba, Ni and As) were all below the detection limit. When pH of 3-4, HRT of 6 h and the media height of 60 cm were applied, about 90% of COD{sub cr} and cyclohexanone were removed.

  20. Fusion and Development of Jingdezhen Ceramic Cultural Tourism with Ceramic Creative Industry%关于景德镇陶瓷文化旅游与陶瓷创意产业融合发展的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何裕宁; 邱其霖

    2015-01-01

    Jingdezhen known as “the porcelain city of one thousand years” has a long history and rich ceramic culture. In this great age of tourism, Jingdezhen has made full use of its resources and advantages and blazed a distinctive path on which the tours of ceramic culture promote the development of the local economy. The booming ceramic cultural tourism has played a positive role industry in the emergence of creative ceramic industry, which in turn encourages cultural tours around the city. Facing the resource exhaustion and ceramic industrial transformation, the city must seek a new road to better fuse ceramic cultural tourism with ceramic creative industry.%景德镇被誉为“千年瓷都”,具有悠久的陶瓷历史和丰厚的陶瓷文化底蕴。在“大旅游时代”的背景下,景德镇充分利用自身资源和优势,走出了一条以陶瓷文化旅游推动地方经济发展的特色道路。而陶瓷创意产业作为新兴产业,陶瓷文化旅游产业的蓬勃发展对其有着积极的推动作用。同时,陶瓷创意产业的发展又在助推文化旅游。在面临资源枯竭、陶瓷产业转型发展的双向压力下,景德镇需要积极探索陶瓷文化旅游产业与陶瓷创意产业融合发展的新道路。

  1. Light element ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, KJ; Varma, KBR; Raju, AR

    1988-01-01

    An overview of a few structually important light element ceramics is presented. Included in the overview are silicon nitide, sialon, aluminium nitride, boron carbide and silicon carbide. Methods of preparation, characterization and industrial applications of these ceramics are summarized. Mechanical properties, industrial production techniques and principal uses of these ceramics are emphasized.

  2. Alumina polymorphs affect the metal immobilization effect when beneficially using copper-bearing industrial sludge for ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Xiuqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of recycling copper-bearing industrial sludge as a part of ceramic raw materials was evaluated through thermal interaction of sludge with aluminum-rich precursors. To observe copper incorporation mechanism, mixtures of copper-bearing sludge with alumina polymorphs (γ-Al2O3 and α-Al2O3) were fired between 750 and 1250°C. Different copper-hosting phases were identified by X-ray diffraction, and CuAl2O4 was found to be the predominant phase throughout the reactions. The experimental results indicate different CuAl2O4 initiating temperatures for two alumina materials, and the optimal temperature for CuAl2O4 formation is around 1100°C. To monitor the stabilization effect, prolonged leaching tests were carried out to leach sintered products for up to 20d. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in copper leachability for products with higher CuAl2O4 content formed from both alumina precursors despite their different sintering behavior. Meanwhile, the leachability of aluminum was much lower than that of copper, and it decreased by more than fourfold through the formation of CuAl2O4 spinel in γ-Al2O3 system. This study clearly indicates spinel formation as the most crucial metal stabilization mechanism when sintering multiphase copper-bearing industrial sludge with aluminum-rich ceramic raw materials, and suggests a promising and reliable technique for reusing industrial sludge.

  3. ESEEM of industrial silica-bearing powders: reactivity of defects during wet processing in the ceramics production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Maurizio; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Pardi, Luca A.; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    A study is undertaken to ascertain whether changes in the speciation of inorganic radicals are occurring during the ceramic industrial production that involves abundant silica powders as raw material. Industrial dusts were sampled in two ceramic firms, immediately after the wet mixing stage, performed with the aid of a relevant pressure. The dusts were then characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, analysis of the trace elements through chemical methods, granulometry, continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and pulsed electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies. The results of the characterisation point to a relevant change in the speciation of the two samples; namely, a prevailing contribution due to an inorganic radical different from that pertaining to pure quartz is pointed out. The combined interpretation of EPR and ESEEM data suggests the attribution of the main paramagnetic contribution to the A-centre in kaolinite, a constituent that is added to pure quartz at the initial stage of the ceramic production. In one of the two samples, a second weak EPR signal is attributed to the quartz's hAl species. By taking into account the relative quantities of quartz and kaolinite mixed in the two samples, and the relative abundances of the two radical species, we propose that the partial or complete suppression of the hAl species in favour of the A-centre of kaolinite has occurred. Although this change is apparently fostered by the mixture between quartz and another radical-bearing raw material, kaolinite, the suppression of the hAl centre of quartz is ascribed to the role played by the pressure and the wet environment during the industrial mixing procedure. This suppression provides a net change of radical speciation associated with quartz, when this phase is in contact with workers' respiratory system.

  4. Preparation of ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers and application for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment in electrobath reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Gao, Yue; Xu, Yunyun; Gao, Fan; Yu, Huan; Lu, Yue; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Jinze

    2011-11-30

    As new media, ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers (Cathode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - CCF, and Anode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - ACF) employed in electrobath were investigated for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment. 60.0 wt% of dried sewage sludge and 40.0 wt% of clay, 40.0 wt% of scrap iron and 60.0 wt% of clay were utilized as raw materials for the preparation of raw CCF and ACF, respectively. The raw CCF and ACF were respectively sintered at 400°C for 20 min in anoxic conditions. The physical properties (bulk density, grain density and water absorption), structural and morphological characters and toxic metal leaching contents were tested. The influences of pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the media height on removal of COD(Cr) and cyclohexanone were studied. The results showed that the bulk density and grain density of CCF and ACF were 869.0 kg m(-3) and 936.3 kg m(-3), 1245.0 kg m(-3) and 1420.0 kg m(-3), respectively. The contents of toxic metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ba, Ni and As) were all below the detection limit. When pH of 3-4, HRT of 6h and the media height of 60 cm were applied, about 90% of COD(cr) and cyclohexanone were removed.

  5. Development and sintering of alumina based mixed oxide ceramic products for sensor applications in petroleum industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Muniz, L.B.; Aguiar, L.A.R.; Sanguinetti Ferreira, R.A. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, CEP 50741-530, Recife-PE (Brazil); Albino Aguiar, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, CEP 50670-901 Recife-PE (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In petroleum production, different types of sensors are required to monitor temperature, pressure, leakage of inflammable gases, etc. These sensors work in very hostile environmental conditions and frequently suffer from abrasion and corrosion problems. Presently perovskite oxide based ceramic materials are increasingly being used for such purposes, due to their highly inert behavior in hostile environment. In the present work, we have developed and characterized alumina based complex perovskite oxide ceramics, Ba{sub 2}AlSnO{sub 5.5}. These ceramics were prepared by solid state reaction process and produced in the form of circular discs by uniaxial pressure compaction technique. Green ceramic bodies were sintered at different sintering temperatures (1200 to 1500 deg. C) in air atmosphere. Structural and microstructural characteristics of sintered Ba{sub 2}AlMO{sub 5.5} were studied by XRD and SEM techniques. Mechanical properties were tested by Vickers microhardness tests. Ceramics sintered in the temperature range 1300 deg. C 1400 deg. C presented best results in terms of microstructural characteristics and mechanical performance. (authors)

  6. Energy saving by optimization of wall construction of industrial furnaces using ceramics and mullite fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zander, H.

    1984-01-01

    A change to better insulation, using ceramic fibre, not only reduces energy consumption but can raise productivity to levels higher than ever before. To design ceramic fibre into a furnace, calculations are made based on VDI standard 2055, in unsteady and constant conditions for different refractory materials. The results show the difference in wall to wall temperature drop and energy requirements, depending on the process conditions. A newly developed mullite fibre has recently been introduced. This material has all the well-known ceramic fibre advantages of light weight, good insulating properties and excellent thermal shock resistance. As a mullite fibre it also has higher refractoriness, negligible shrinkage and much improved resistance to chemical attack.

  7. Demonstration of a full-scale plant using an UASB followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation of industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Terutake; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takase, Osamu; Kekre, Kiran A; Ang, Wui Seng; Tao, Guihe; Seah, Harry; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    This study comprehensively evaluated the performance of a full-scale plant (4550m(3)d(-1)) using a UASB reactor followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation and reuse of mixed industrial wastewater containing many inorganics, chemical, oil and greases. This plant was demonstrated as the first full-scale system to reclaim the mixed industrial wastewater in the world. During 395days of operation, influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) fluctuated widely, but this system achieved COD removal rate of 91% and the ceramic MBR have operated flux of 21-25LMH stably. This means that this system adsorbed the feed water fluctuation and properly treated the water. Energy consumption of this plant was achieved 0.76kWhmm(-3) and this value is same range of domestic sewage MBR system. The combination of an UASB reactor and ceramic MBR is the most economical and feasible solution for water reclamation of mixed industrial wastewater.

  8. Fibre-reinforced ceramics for industrial applications; Faserverstaerkte Keramik in industriellen Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuchs, M.; Spoerer, J.; Zechmeister, H. [MAN Technologie AG, Karlsfeld (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    High-performance composites now include also materials with a ceramic matrix. By means of the long-fibre reinforcement of ceramics, using carbon (C) or silicium carbide (SiC) fibres embedded in SiC matrix material, a breakthrough has been achieved regarding enhanced embrittlement behaviour of ceramics. The basic mechanism of the reinforcement, as well as different fabrication methods which are now ready for transfer to market, are described. Exemplary results of applications are reported, which demonstrate the high fracture toughness, thermo-shock resistance and tribological stress tolerance of the ceramic composite. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zu den Hochleistungsverbundwerkstoffen gehoeren inzwischen auch die Werkstoffe mit keramischer Matrix. Mit der Langfaserverstaerkung von Keramik ist unter Verwendung von Kohlenstoff (C)- oder Siliciumcarbid (SiC)-Fasern, die in SiC-Matrixmaterial eingebettet werden, ein Durchbruch bei der Verbesserung des Sproedbruchverhaltens keramischer Werkstoffe gelungen. Der Grundmechanismus der Verstaerkung und verschiedene, inzwischen anwendungsreife Herstellverfahren werden beschrieben. Beispielhafte Ergebnisse von Anwendungsentwicklungen werden vorgestellt, in denen die hohe Bruchzaehigkeit, Thermoschockbestaendigkeit und tribologische Belastbarkeit von Verbundkeramik demonstriert wird. (orig.)

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, Fine Ceramics Industry Basic Issues Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    substrate material, and phosphates for use as bioceramic materials; and such structural materials as zirconia, silicon 26 carbide, and silicon nitride. R&D...communications equipment, and for bioceramics materials in the medical equipment field. And while R&D has yet to get underway, it is hoped that fine ceramics...Lion Corporation Bioceramic dental crowns Ishihara Pharmaceuticals Aluminum titanate machinable

  10. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Thermal energy storage application to the brick/ceramic industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, D.R.

    1976-10-01

    An initial project to study the technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in the three major consumer markets, namely, the residential, commercial and industrial sectors is described. A major objective of the study was to identify viable TES applications from which a more concise study could be launched, leading to a conceptual design and in-depth validation of the TES energy impacts. This report documents one such program. The brick/ceramic industries commonly use periodic kilns which by their operating cycle require time-variant energy supply and consequently variable heat rejection. This application was one of the numerous TES opportunities that emerged from the first study, now available from the ERDA Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identified as Report No. COO-2558-1.

  11. Ceramic MEMS Designed for Wireless Pressure Monitoring in the Industrial Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Pavlin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless pressure-monitoring system for harsh-environment applications. Two types of ceramic pressure sensors made with a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC were considered. The first type is a piezoresistive strain gauge pressure sensor. The second type is a capacitive pressure sensor, which is based on changes of the capacitance values between two electrodes: one electrode is fixed and the other is movable under an applied pressure. The design was primarily focused on low power consumption. Reliable operation in the presence of disturbances, like electromagnetic interference, parasitic capacitances, etc., proved to be contradictory constraints. A piezoresistive ceramic pressure sensor with a high bridge impedance was chosen for use in a wireless pressure-monitoring system and an acceptable solution using energy-harvesting techniques has been achieved. The described solution allows for the integration of a sensor element with an energy harvester that has a printed thick-film battery and complete electronics in a single substrate packaged inside a compact housing.

  12. Advanced ceramic coating development for industrial/utility gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, C. A.; Lau, S. K.; Bratton, R. J.; Lee, S. Y.; Rieke, K. L.; Allen, J.; Munson, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of ceramic coatings on the lifetimes of metal turbine components and on the performance of a utility turbine, as well as of the turbine operational cycle on the ceramic coatings were determined. When operating the turbine under conditions of constant cooling flow, the first row blades run 55K cooler, and as a result, have 10 times the creep rupture life, 10 times the low cycle fatigue life and twice the corrosion life with only slight decreases in both specific power and efficiency. When operating the turbine at constant metal temperature and reduced cooling flow, both specific power and efficiency increases, with no change in component lifetime. The most severe thermal transient of the turbine causes the coating bond stresses to approach 60% of the bond strengths. Ceramic coating failures was studied. Analytic models based on fracture mechanics theories, combined with measured properties quantitatively assessed both single and multiple thermal cycle failures which allowed the prediction of coating lifetime. Qualitative models for corrosion failures are also presented.

  13. INDUSTRIAL CLUSTER EFFECT STIMULATES THE SCALE ECONOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Problems of China Building & Sanitary Ceramics industrial clusters,Current status and development of building ceramics industry at home and abroad,The formation and development of Jiajiang's building ceramics industrial clusters,Resource is momentum for industrial clusters' development

  14. Real options theory: financial-economic assessment of projects in the ceramics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léony Luis Lopes Negrão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate economically the implementation of Clean Development Mechanism in the substitution of non-renewable biomass to renewable biomass in the production process of a red ceramics enterprise. The evaluation intended to show the value of management flexibility, according to adaptations made in the methodology proposed by Copeland & Antikarov (2001, adding to the traditional discounted cash flow the evaluation the Real Options. This procedure follows a routine of essential steps for the analysis of variables that comprises the model and enabled the ordination of the results based both on the Real Options and the present values, including management flexibility evaluation.  It could be concluded that Real Options Theory, and the Option to Delay or Postponement contributed with information that might assist and improve projects investment decisions, since several real-world inherent uncertainties are considered.

  15. THE UTILIZATION OF Fe(III WASTE OF ETCHING INDUSTRY AS QUALITY ENHANCHEMENT MATERIAL IN CERAMIC ROOFTILE SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vaulina Yulistia Delsy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste is produced from various industrial activities. FeCl3 used in this study as an addition to the material quality in synthesis of ceramic rooftile from Kalijaran village clay, Purbalingga. Etching industrial waste FeCl3 contacted with clay. Waste being varied waste as diluted and undiluted while clay grain size varied as 60, 80, 100, 140, and 230 mesh. Both clay and waste are contacted at 30-100 minutes. The results showed that the optimum of time and grain size variation is clay with 80 mesh grain size within 70 minutes. While physical properties of the rooftile contained Fe meet all ISO standards and are known to tile, the best quality is to use clay that has been in contact with the waste that is created 1000 times dilution. The stripping test of Fe (III by rain water and sea water showed that the average rate of Fe-striped of the tile body that is made with soaked with diluted waste are 0.068 ppm/day and 0.055 ppm/day while for tile bodies soaked with waste is not diluted are 0.0722 ppm/day and 0.0560 ppm/day.

  16. Technological State and Industrial Development of Engineering Ceramics%工程陶瓷的技术现状与产业发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖汉宁; 刘井雄; 郭文明; 高朋召

    2016-01-01

    The main properties, new preparation processes and key technique difficulties of the main engineering ceramics including Al2 O3 , ZrO2 , SiC and Si3 N4 are reviewed.The applications and industrial development of engineering ceramics in new fields of aerospace and aviation,electronics and information,new energy,energy saving and environmental protection are expected.The engineering ceramics tend to develop in the direction of structure refinement, compound composition and integration of structure and function in future. Moreover,the efforts should be made to lower the preparation costs and improve the industrial scale production of engineering ceramics,and let the engineering ceramics play a better role in the transformation and upgrading of some traditional industries.%针对氧化铝、氧化锆、碳化硅和氮化硅等主要工程陶瓷的主要性能、最新制备技术、关键技术难点等进行了综述,对工程陶瓷在航天航空、电子信息、新能源和节能环保等新兴领域的应用和产业发展进行了展望。工程陶瓷今后应朝着结构微细化、组成复合化和结构-功能一体化的方向发展,同时应努力降低其制备成本,扩大产业规模,更好地发挥工程陶瓷对相关传统产业转型升级的作用。

  17. Build up the Ceramics Platform, Enhance the Brand Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ To promote the export trade of China ceramics industry, to develop the overseas marking channel for domestic architecture sanitary ceramics industry ,China Ceramics City ,jointly with China's Foreign Trade magazine,start to publicize on the overseas market.

  18. Talk the Jingdezhen ceramic art creation group norms and ceramics culture industry development%论景德镇陶瓷艺术创作群体的规范与陶瓷文化产业的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁乐辉; 齐霞

    2012-01-01

    农耕文明背景下的景德镇制瓷历史,传统的个体性手工作坊式陶瓷艺术创作群体。延续散乱管理的个体意识下陶瓷艺术市场,致使景德镇陶瓷文化产业发展区域多样雷同化,失去特色性、鲜明性。本文从精英群体的健全机制、传统手工艺人的规范与传承、地域品牌意识的认知与提升三方面阐述景德镇陶瓷艺术创作群体规范的重要性与现实性,并促使景德镇陶瓷文化产业朝秩序化、特色化发展。%under the background of farming civilization of Jingdezhen porcelain history, traditional individual workshop type ceramic art groups, extended scattered management individual consciousness in ceramic art market, cause Jingdezhen ceramics culture industry development of regional diversity of similarity, their char- acteristics, bright sex. This article from the elite group of perfect mechanism, normative and inheritance of traditional craftsmen, regional brand awareness of cognition and improvement of three respects, elaborated the Jingdezhen ceramic art groups normative importance and reality, and make Jingdezhen ceramics culture indus- try in order to change, specialization development.

  19. Evaluation and Beneficiation of Feldspar from Arkosic Sandstone in South Jordan for Application in the Ceramic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Gougazeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the beneficiation and upgrading processes of a Jordanian feldspar ores to be finally implemented in the ceramic industry. The experimental work was conducted to evaluate the role of particle size distribution, chemical composition, mineral content and the magnetic impurities (Fe2O3 +TiO2 contents. The beneficiation of the 500-45 μm fractions, which constitutes about 30% of the ore, assaying 10.9% Al2O3, equivalent to approximately ca 56% feldspar, with a mean of magnetic content of 0.95 % iron and titanium oxides. The relationship of potassic-to-sodic feldspar amounts to approximately 18:1 in the feldspar fraction. High intensity magnetic separation and froth flotation test work was carried out, in order to decrease the iron contamination and increase the feldspar content. Magnetic separation alone decreased the iron contents of the feed to a range between 0.10 and 0. 12% iron oxides with an average yield greater than 85%. Flotation with HF provided a feldspar recovery by 45-55% with a concentrates assaying 17-17.35 % Al2O3. Iron contents were decreased from 0.46-0.68% to 0.17-0.23 %.

  20. Natural gas perspectives of diffusion on the brazilian structural ceramics industry; Perspectivas de difusao do gas natural na industria brasileira de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwob, Marcelo Rousseau Valenca

    2007-03-15

    This study evaluates the perspectives of the natural gas (NG) used by the Brazilian structural ceramics industry (BSCI), according to technological, economic and environmental aspects. It identifies the advantages of using NG, as well as the barriers faced by this energy source. Considering the amount of NG required by the thermal demand of the BSCI processes and the average energy specific use of the furnaces in operation in Brazil, the total consumption of NG will be nearly 12.06 Mm{sup 3/}day. However, the existence of few technical and economical adequate conversion conditions for ceramics furnaces (4% of continuous furnaces) limits the previous potential to only 0.67 Mm{sup 3/}day. In addition, considering the geographic intersection of the ceramics production clusters with the natural gas distribution grid of the Brazilian states, the estimated potential is lowered to 0.28 Mm{sup 3/}day. Yet, the perspective of the NG diffusion in the BSCI in the medium to the long term is more positive, owning to the increasing implementation of large scale production furnaces and cogeneration systems. Also worthwhile to this positive perspective are: the improving demand for certified structural ceramic products, with more quality and value added, and the expanding investment in low income classes dwelling programs. (author)

  1. Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was developed by the USDOE Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the USDOE and NASA advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990 the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities.

  2. Penetration of natural gas in industrial processes for direct burning: the case of ceramics, cement and glass industries; Penetracao do gas natural em processos industriais de queima direta: caso das industrias ceramica, cimento e vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti; Leite, Alvaro A. Furtado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Industrial sector can use the natural gas (NG) as raw material, as fuel and in co-generation. The NG as fuel is used, predominantly, to produce heat in the Brazilian industries. That rate, both main forms of industrial use of the NG are its direct burning in kilns - when the direct contact is had with the product - and the supply of process heat through boilers, for instance. Direct burning is used in the ceramic, cement and glass industries. This work discuss the penetration opportunity of the NG in the direct burning regarding the fuel oil and other energy that it can substitute, the environmental effects and the co-generation possibilities in each one of the analyzed industrial blanches in this work. (author)

  3. Almetax and industrial technology total center Shigaraki ceramic industry technology test field in Shiga Prefecture; Arumetakkusu to Shiga-ken kogyo gijutsu sogo senta sigaraki yogyo gijutsu gijutsu shikenjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Almetax and industrial technology total center Shigaraki ceramic industry technology test field in Shiga Prefecture. Almetax of the aluminum building material and industrial technology total center Shigaraki ceramic industry technology test field in Shiga Prefecture developed the light thermal insulation foaming tile in the cooperation. This is a tile using the ash which arises by the renewal process of the aluminum. The aluminum ash was mixed with the feldspar of the Shigaraki-made, and it was burnt at the low temperature. In the lightness under the half of usual tile, it has the heat retaining property over 3 times. almetax was being planned a waste loss thermal insulation a stone two bird environmental consideration type goods begin to. The aluminum ash is mixed with the feldspar, and by the process burnt at 1200-1250 degrees C, it decomposes, the aluminum nitride in the ash foams. Therefore, the stoma which was homogeneously independent in burnt tile is possible. It is lightly easy to be handled, and it is a feature that the heat retaining property is high. There is the strength from the foaming concrete, and the water absorption rate is low. The aluminum reconstruction technique of almetax was made to fuse with the technology of the ceramic industry technology test field of the pottery lightening. almetax studies the cost reduction of the decontamination processing of the ash. It aims at cost of product of 3 thousand yen /m{sup 2} of usual tile level. The commercialization as partition between two rooms of external wall and life space of the building has been planned. The gross discharge of the domestic aluminum ash has been estimated with annual about 192 thousand tons. Though the part is utilized as a secondary material of the iron and steel refining, it deals with the excess minute as an industrial waste. (translated by NEDO)

  4. Verification of ceramic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behar-Lafenetre, S.; Cornillon, L.; Rancurel, M.; Graaf, D. de; Hartmann, P.; Coe, G.; Laine, B.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the "Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures" contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and instr

  5. Evolution of reuse of sludge from water treatment plant in the red ceramic industry; Avaliacao do reaproveitamento do lodo de estacao de tratamento de agua (ETA) na industria ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.A.; Martins, B.E.D.B.S.; Couto, V.M.P.; Campos, J.C.; Almeida, V.C., E-mail: valeria@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Escola de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The ceramic industry has enormous potential to absorb wastes. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the use of a sludge (WTP) in the physical and mechanical properties of the burning of a red ceramic body. Compositions were prepared with different percentages of mud by the method of forming the pressed and sintered at 900 deg C, 1000 deg C and 1100 ° C. The specimens were tested for linear shrinkage, water absorption, porosity and stress rupture flexion. Were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results show that the incorporation of sludge WTP changes the quality of ceramics. (author)

  6. A comparison between ceramic membrane filters and conventional fabric filters for fine particulate removal from a coal-fired industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Wincek, R.T.; Glick, D.C.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Drury, K. [Corning Inc., Painted Post, NY (United States); Makris [Corning Inc., Acton, MA (United States); Stubblefield, D.J. [Corning Inc., Corning, NY (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Penn State is developing technologies for ultralow emissions when firing coal-based fuels, i.e., micronized coal and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) in industrial boilers. Emissions being addressed are SO{sub 2}, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), and air toxics (trace elements and volatile organic compounds). Results from trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions testing, when firing coal-based fuels, are reported elsewhere in these proceedings. This paper discusses the evaluation of ceramic membrane filters for fine particulate removal in a package boiler when firing micronized coal and CWSF.

  7. Organosilane-Based Coating of Quartz Species from the Traditional Ceramics Industry: Evidence of Hazard Reduction Using In Vitro and In Vivo Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Christina; Escrig, Alberto; Bonvicini, Giuliana; Ibáñez, Maria Jesús; Monfort, Eliseo; Salomoni, Arturo; Creutzenberg, Otto

    2017-02-28

    The exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS), e.g. quartz, in industrial settings can induce silicosis and may cause tumours in chronic periods. Consequently, RCS in the form of quartz and cristobalite has been classified as human lung carcinogen category 1 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1997, acknowledging differences in hazardous potential depending on source as well as chemical, thermal, and mechanical history. The physico-chemical determinants of quartz toxicity are well understood and are linked to density and abundance of surface silanol groups/radicals. Hence, poly-2-vinylpyridine-N-oxide and aluminium lactate, which effectively block highly reactive silanol groups at the quartz surface, have formerly been introduced as therapeutic approaches in the occupational field. In the traditional ceramics industry, quartz-containing raw materials are indispensable for the manufacturing process, and workers are potentially at risk of developing quartz-related lung diseases. Therefore, in the present study, two organosilanes, i.e. Dynasylan® PTMO and Dynasylan® SIVO 160, were tested as preventive, covalent quartz-coating agents to render ceramics production safer without loss in product quality. Coating effectiveness and coating stability (up to 1 week) in artificial alveolar and lysosomal fluids were first analysed in vitro, using the industrially relevant quartz Q1 as RCS model, quartz DQ12 as a positive control, primary rat alveolar macrophages as cellular model system (75 µg cm-2; 4 h of incubation ± aluminium lactate to verify quartz-related effects), and lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA strand break induction (alkaline comet assay) as biological endpoints. In vitro results with coated quartz were confirmed in a 90-day intratracheal instillation study in rats with inflammatory parameters as most relevant readouts. The results of the present study indicate that in particular Dynasylan® SIVO 160 (0.2% w/w of quartz) was able

  8. 近代中国陶瓷业发展轨迹——以景德镇陶瓷工业发展为视角%MODERN CHINESE CERAMICS IN DEVELOPMENT TRAJECTORY-TO INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IS THE PERSPECTIVE OF JINGDEZHEN CERAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练崇潮

    2011-01-01

    传统中国陶瓷业是世界发展的奇迹,在几千年的发展历程中,中国陶瓷业发展遥遥领先于世界.但到了近代,中国陶瓷业的发展慢慢落后于世界.面对这种局面,许多有识之士创办近代陶瓷企业来促进近代中国陶瓷业的转型.通过陶瓷企业的创办,带动了近代中国陶瓷业的发展.本文以景德镇近代陶瓷工业发展为视角,来探讨近代中国陶瓷业的发展.%Traditional Chinese ceramics in the development of a miracle, thousands of years of the developing history, Chinese ceramics in development is well ahead of the world. but in modern china, the development of ceramics in slowly to the world, facing this situation, many people of insight establishment of modern ceramic enterprises to promote Chinese ceramics in the transformation of china, through the establishment of modern china, has led to the development of ceramics. In Jingdezhen ceramics in the modern industrial development, to the development of ceramics in modern China.

  9. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  10. Ceramic industries of Dwarka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_1_110.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_1_110.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. Ceramic industries of Poompuhar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name 4_Indian_Conf_Mar_Archaeol_Proc_1997_127.pdf.txt stream_source_info 4_Indian_Conf_Mar_Archaeol_Proc_1997_127.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  12. Characterisation of the sintering behaviour of Waelz slag from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust recycling for use in the clay ceramics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijorna, N; de Pedro, M; Romero, M; Andrés, A

    2014-01-01

    Waelz slag is an industrial by-product from the recovery of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust which is mainly sent to landfills. Despite the different chemical and mineralogical compositions of Waelz slag compared to traditional clays, previous experiments have demonstrated its potential use as a clay substitute in ceramic processes. Indeed, clayey products containing Waelz slag could improve mechanical and environmental performance, fixing most of the metallic species and moreover decreasing the release of some potential pollutants during firing. However, a deeper understanding of the complex phase transformations during its thermal treatment and the connection of this behaviour with the end properties is desirable in order to explain the role that is played by the Waelz slag and its potential contribution to the ceramic process. For this purpose, in the present study, the chemical, mineralogical, thermal and environmental behaviour of both (i) unfired powdered samples, and (ii) pressed specimen of Waelz slag fired up to different temperatures within the typical range of clay based ceramic production, has been studied. The effect of the heating temperature on the end properties of the fired samples has been assessed. In general, an increase of the firing temperature promotes sintering and densification of the products and decreases the open porosity and water absorption which also contributes to the fixation of heavy metals. On the contrary, an increase in the leaching of Pb, Cr and Mo from the fired specimens is observed. This can be attributed to the creation of Fe and Ca molybdates and chromates that are weakly retained in the alkali matrix. On the other side, at temperature above 950 °C a weight gain related to the emission of evolved gases is observed. In conclusion, the firing temperature of the ceramic process is a key parameter that affects not only the technical properties but also strongly affects the leaching behaviour and the process emissions.

  13. Portfolio: Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

  14. Requirements analysis and data model design for the development of vertical ERP solutions for the ceramic industry; Analisis de requerimientos y diseno de modelo de datos para el desarrollo de una solucion ERP vertical adaptada al sector ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra-Bandenes, R. F.; Gil-gomez, H.; Belver-Lopez, R.; Asensio-Cuesta, S.

    2013-05-01

    Currently, the existing information systems, and specifically the ERP, can not give adequate support to the management of manufacturing companies of ceramic tile, because, among other reasons, not to contemplate the existence of tone, size and quality within the same product. This feature, caused by the lack of homogeneity of the product (LHP), generates various problems in managing the product through the different business processes, such as, stocks management, order management, the production management, etc. Thus, it is necessary to develop an ERP solution that is able to manage adequately the ceramic product, including tone, size and quality. In this paper we analyze the requirements of the ceramic sector, in terms of product identification, and propose a data model to meet these requirements. The model arises as a basic guide for the development of vertical ERP solutions tailored to the ceramic industry. (Author) 30 refs.

  15. Requirements analysis and data model design for the development of vertical ERP solutions for the ceramic industry; Analisis de requerimientos y diseno de modelo de datos para el desarrollo de una solucion ERP vertical adaptada al sector ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra-Badenes, R. F.; Gil-Gomez, H.; Bellver-Lopez, R.; Asensio-Cuenta, S.

    2013-06-01

    Currently, the existing information systems, and specifically the ERP, can not give adequate support to the management of manufacturing companies of ceramic tile, because, among other reasons, not to contemplate the existence of tone, size and quality within the same product. This feature, caused by the lack of homogeneity of the product (LHP), generates various problems in managing the product through the different business processes, such as, stocks management, order management, the production management, etc. Thus, it is necessary to develop an ERP solution that is able to manage adequately the ceramic product, including tone, size and quality. In this paper we analyze the requirements of the ceramic sector, in terms of product identification, and propose a data model to meet these requirements. The model arises as a basic guide for the development of vertical ERP solutions tailored to the ceramic industry. (Author)

  16. Use of new raw materials and industrial wastes to improve the possibilities of using ceramic materials from Bailén (Jaén, southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán-Arboledas, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials used by the ceramic industry in Jaén (southern Spain consist of mixtures of carbonated clays from the Guadalquivir Basin and red clays from the Iberian Massif. The mixtures formulation usually obeys empirical experience developed by this industry for many generations. This work evaluates different possibilities of using these raw materials to manufacture new ceramic products on the basis of clay physical-chemical properties and analyzes limitations to produce high added value products. As an alternative to overcome these limitations, the mixture of these clays with raw materials from near regions (pyrophyllite clay and with different industrial wastes is proposed. These wastes are screen glass from monitors and oil impregnated diatomaceous earth. The study of the technological properties shows that the new mixtures are suitable for the processing of ceramic products in which structural and thermal insulating properties are improved or kept.La materia prima empleada por la industria cerámica de Jaén consiste en mezclas de margas de la Depresión del Guadalquivir con arcillas rojas del Macizo Ibérico. La formulación de estas mezclas responde generalmente a la experiencia empírica desarrollada por esta industria durante generaciones. El presente trabajo evalúa las posibilidades de utilización de estas materias primas para fabricar nuevos productos cerámicos de construcción basándose en sus propiedades físico-químicas y analiza las limitaciones que presentan para la fabricación de productos de mayor valor añadido. Como alternativa para superar estas limitaciones se propone la mezcla con arcillas pirofilíticas de áreas geográficamente cercanas y con diferentes residuos industriales. Estos residuos son vidrio de pantalla descontaminado y tierras diatomeas impregnadas con aceites vegetales. El estudio de caracterización tecnológica muestra que las nuevas mezclas permiten el procesamiento de piezas cerámicas y que en

  17. Combustion gas cleaning in the ceramic tile industry: technical guide; Nettoyage des fumees de combustion dans l'industrie ceramique: guide technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezaun, F.J. [ENAGAS-Grupo Gas Natural (Spain); Mallol, G.; Monfort, E. [instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC (Spain); Busani, G. [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e l' Amiente, ARPA (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This document presents a summary of a technical guide drawn up on combustion gas cleaning systems in ceramic frit and tile production. The guide describes the method to be followed for selecting the best possible solutions for reducing pollutant concentrations in different emission sources, in accordance with current regulatory requirements and the CET recommendation. There are three sources of combustion gas air emissions that need to be cleaned in ceramic tile and frit production and they are usually related to the following process stages: slip spray drying, tile firing and frit melting. The different nature of the emissions means that different substances will need to be cleaned in each emission. Thus, in spray drying and frit melting, the only species to be cleaned are suspended particles, while in tile firing, it is also necessary to reduce the fluorine concentration. The systems analysed in this guide are mainly wet cleaning systems, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. In the study, the efficiency of these cleaning systems is compared at each emission source from a technical and economic point of view, and concrete solutions are put forward in each case, together with a list of suppliers of the technologies involved. (authors)

  18. An Analysis of the Competitiveness of Chaozhou Ceramic Industry Cluster%潮州陶瓷产业集群竞争力探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑銮娟

    2014-01-01

    产业集群是产业组织结构的重要形式,是提高区域产业经济竞争力的有效途径。陶瓷产业作为潮州首要支柱产业,产业总体规模、集聚规模及出口贸易规模都较为强大,且产业链完整和区域品牌厚实,产业集群竞争力比较优势明显。但受宏观环境影响,产业出口贸易增长率放缓,企业产品品牌建设滞后,自主创新能力弱,产业劣势显现。通过对潮州陶瓷产业比较优势的发挥,产业结构的优化升级,企业品牌的建设,产品科技含量的增加,出口增长方式的转变,多元市场的开拓等多种途径的综合运用,可以进一步提升集群竞争力。%Industrial cluster is an important form of industrial organization and construction.It is an effec⁃tive way to upgrade economic competitiveness in regional industrial development. As the pillar industry in Cha⁃ozhou, ceramics industry is strong in general, clustering and exporting scales, having an integrated industrial chain with rich brands, with outstanding advantages in clusterization competitiveness. Impacted by macro envi⁃ronment, however, the industry suffers from a slowdown in export business growth, and is delayed in its brands establishment, and also weakened in creativity. Its competitive strengths can be further exalted by overall com⁃bination of various approaches including advantages exertion, upgrading of industrial construction, brand estab⁃lishment, increasing applications of scientific technology, changes in export increase mode, and strategy imple⁃mentation of market diversification, etc.

  19. Application of Ceramic Filter in Tailings and Treatment of Other Industrial Waste Residue%陶瓷过滤机在选矿尾矿及其它工业废渣处理的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德平; 贾彪

    2009-01-01

    介绍了陶瓷过滤机与其他过滤机相比具有生产率高、节能降耗、清洁环保等方面的优点,列举了陶瓷过滤机在国内几大矿山的使用情况,指出陶瓷过滤机在矿山、冶金、化工、建材等行业中废渣、废水处理方面的广泛应用前景.%Ceramic filter has advantages over other filters in high productivity, energy saving and consumption reducing, and environmental protection. The service conditions of the ceramic filter in domestic large mines are cited. It considers that the ceramic filter has extensive use in treatment of waste residue and waste water of mine, metallurgy, chemical industry and building materials.

  20. Blue Model of Ceramic Bearing Application Strong of Industry Competition%陶瓷轴承应用开启蓝海产业竞争发展风头正劲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic material with low density ,high elastic modulus ,thermal expansion coeffi‐cient ,wear resistance ,high temperature resistant ,corrosion resistance and other excellent proper‐ties ,become the ideal material of manufacturing high speed precision bearings ,and has been widely used .According to the function of the ceramic bearing and its application field ,this paper introduces the main types and performance characteristics of ceramic bearing ,this paper discusses the ceramic bearing industry and the market prospect at home and abroad ,points out the developing trend of the technology of ceramic bearing .%陶瓷材料具有密度小、弹性模量高、线胀系数小、耐磨、耐高温、耐腐蚀等优良性能,成为制造高速精密轴承的理想材料,并且受到了越来越广泛的应用。根据陶瓷轴承的功能及其应用领域,介绍了陶瓷轴承的主要类型及性能特点,论述了国内外陶瓷轴承的产业及市场前景,指出了陶瓷轴承技术的发展趋势。

  1. Incorporação de lodo de lavanderia industrial na fabricação de tijolos cerâmicos Incorporation of industrial laundry mud in the production of ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. S. Herek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O lodo gerado em ETEs de lavanderias industriais é um material não inerte de Classe IIA, devido �� sua solubilidade em água. Este resíduo tem recebido atenção especial devido à grande quantidade produzida e, consequentemente, ao custo demandado para destino em aterros industriais. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a qualidade dos tijolos cerâmicos de vedação, fabricados com lodo de lavanderia industrial incorporado em massa cerâmica vermelha, pelo processo de extrusão, em escala de laboratório (73 x 35 x 55 mm, com os seguintes percentuais de lodo de lavanderia: 0 (modelo, 5, 10, 15 e 20% em peso. Após a queima, em indústria cerâmica, a qualidade dos tijolos foi analisada por meio de ensaios de resistência à compressão, absorção de água, lixiviação e solubilização. Nos resultados obtidos observou-se que a resistência à compressão é inversamente proporcional à quantidade de lodo adicionada, enquanto a absorção de água é diretamente proporcional à mesma quantidade de lodo adicionada na fabricação dos tijolos. No ensaio de lixiviação nenhum dos metais pesados analisados foi lixiviado; para o ensaio de solubilização nenhum dos metais analisados foi detectado, comprovando que o produto é inerte. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, é possível a fabricação de tijolos de vedação com até 20% de resíduo de lavanderias industriais incorporados em argila.The sludge from wastewater treatment in industrial laundries is a II-A class non-inert material, due to its solubility in water. This waste has been paid special attention, due to the large quantities that are produced and therefore the high cost of the final destination in landfills. This way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of sealing ceramic bricks manufactured with sludge from industrial laundry incorporated in red ceramic mass, by the extrusion process, in laboratory scale (73 x 35 x 55 mm, with the following weight

  2. On Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents four ceramics activities for secondary-level art classes. Included are directions for primitive kiln construction and glaze making. Two ceramics design activities are described in which students make bizarrely-shaped lidded jars, feet, and footwear. (AM)

  3. Beneficiation of feldspar ore for application in the ceramic industry: Influence of composition on the physical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Gaied

    2015-03-01

    Experimental studies indicate that an acceptable concentrate for industrial application can be obtained from these rocks. The feldspar yield was used to evaluate the process efficiency. Besides, the cone shrinkage, water absorption, degree of vitrification, mechanical properties (flexural strength and dielectric behaviour were used to monitor the quality of the recovered feldspars.

  4. Vacating the Cage for Better Birds: Transformation in Foshan Building Ceramic Industry%论佛山建陶之“腾笼换鸟”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜蔚篮; 梁健彬

    2012-01-01

    改革开放以来,佛山建陶产业发展迅猛,取得了辉煌成就。随着佛山经济的进一步发展,佛山市政府做出了"腾笼换鸟"的战略决策。本文在介绍佛山建陶产业取得成就的基础上,对"腾笼换鸟"的原因进行了分析,并对"腾笼换鸟"具体举措进行了归纳。%Foshan ceramic industry has been developing rapidly and making brilliant achievements after China's reforms and opening-up. With the economy in a new phase of development, Foshan government decides on a plan to" vacate the cage for better birds." This paper explains why and how the city implements that plan.

  5. Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1991-07-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.

  6. Ceramic Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  7. Ceramic joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehman, R.E. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the relation between reactions at ceramic-metal interfaces and the development of strong interfacial bonds in ceramic joining. Studies on a number of systems are described, including silicon nitrides, aluminium nitrides, mullite, and aluminium oxides. Joints can be weakened by stresses such as thermal expansion mismatch. Ceramic joining is used in a variety of applications such as solid oxide fuel cells.

  8. Ceramic membrane development in NGK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    2011-05-01

    NGK Insulators, Ltd. was established in 1919 to manufacture the electric porcelain insulators for power transmission lines. Since then, our business has grown as one of the world-leading ceramics manufacturing companies and currently supply with the various environmentally-benign ceramic products to worldwide. In this paper, ceramic membrane development in NGK is described in detail. We have been selling ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes and ultra-filtration (UF) membranes for many years to be used for solid/liquid separation in various fields such as pharmaceutical, chemical, food and semiconductor industries. In Corporate R&D, new ceramic membranes with sub-nanometer sized pores, which are fabricated on top of the membrane filters as support, are under development for gas and liquid/liquid separation processes.

  9. Ceramic membrane development in NGK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi, E-mail: kinsakai@ngk.co.jp [Corporate R and D, NGK Insulators, Ltd., Nagoya 467-8530 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    NGK Insulators, Ltd. was established in 1919 to manufacture the electric porcelain insulators for power transmission lines. Since then, our business has grown as one of the world-leading ceramics manufacturing companies and currently supply with the various environmentally-benign ceramic products to worldwide. In this paper, ceramic membrane development in NGK is described in detail. We have been selling ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes and ultra-filtration (UF) membranes for many years to be used for solid/liquid separation in various fields such as pharmaceutical, chemical, food and semiconductor industries. In Corporate R and D, new ceramic membranes with sub-nanometer sized pores, which are fabricated on top of the membrane filters as support, are under development for gas and liquid/liquid separation processes.

  10. Low thermal expansion glass ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This book is one of a series reporting on international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies With the series, Schott aims to provide an overview of its activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide where glasses and glass ceramics are of interest Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated This volume describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization Thus glass ceramics with thermal c...

  11. A model to enable indirect manufacturing options transactions between organisations: An application to the ceramic industry; Modelo de trasvase indirecto de opciones de fabricacion entre organizaciones: Una aplicacion a la industria ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, R.; Gomez-Gasquet, P.; Oltra-Badenes, R. F.

    2014-07-01

    In the current competitive contexts, it is widely accepted and proved that inter-enterprise collaboration lead in many occasions to better results. The Spanish ceramic industry must improve, dropping its manufacturing costs in order to be able to compete with low cost products coming from Asia. In this sense, this work presents the main results obtained from applying an innovative model, which facilitates the transfer of manufacturing options between two ceramic enterprises that share a common supplier in the scenario where one of them needs more manufacturing capacity than the one booked according to its demand forecast and the another need less. Then, some decisional mechanisms are applied, which output the values for certain parameters in order to augment the benefit of all the three participants. With the application of this model better organisational results both economic and of service level are achieved. (Author)

  12. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  13. Fiscal 1996 report on the R and D result of industrial science and technology. R and D synergy ceramics (R and D on synergy ceramics); 1996 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Synergy ceramics no kenkyu kaihatsu (synergy ceramics no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper summarizes the general survey mainly conducted by FCRA (Fine Ceramics Research Association) in fiscal 1996, and the joint research results with some universities, from some R and D on synergy ceramics. Silicon nitride based ceramics expressed the same high thermal conductivity as metal by seed crystal addition, grain growth control and orientation control of sheet lamination. For its practical use, study was made on control factors of material, formation and sintering. Ca2Y2Si2O9 single crystal was prepared by float-zone method to determine its crystal structure. No volume change due to high-temperature phase transition as thermal expansion was found. In carbothermal reduction- nitridation of SiO2, addition of Si3N4 seed powder increased a reaction rate and formed uniform particles with an isotropic shape. An average particle size was dependent on the size and number of fine particles in seed powder. Addition of both Si3N4 and Fe compound could change a particle shape from a spherical grain to an elongated grain. A spherical Fe-Si metal grain was found on the tip of an elongated grain. 66 refs., 73 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Ceramic Methyltrioxorhenium

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, R; Eickerling, G; Helbig, C; Hauf, C; Miller, R; Mayr, F; Krug von Nidda, H A; Scheidt, E W; Scherer, W; Herrmann, Rudolf; Troester, Klaus; Eickerling, Georg; Helbig, Christian; Hauf, Christoph; Miller, Robert; Mayr, Franz; Nidda, Hans-Albrecht Krug von; Scheidt, Ernst-Wilhelm; Scherer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The metal oxide polymeric methyltrioxorhenium [(CH3)xReO3] is an unique epresentative of a layered inherent conducting organometallic polymer which adopts the structural motifs of classical perovskites in two dimensions (2D) in form of methyl-deficient, corner-sharing ReO5(CH3) octahedra. In order to improve the characteristics of polymeric methyltrioxorhenium with respect to its physical properties and potential usage as an inherentconducting polymer we tried to optimise the synthetic routes of polymeric modifications of 1 to obtain a sintered ceramic material, denoted ceramic MTO. Ceramic MTO formed in a solvent-free synthesis via auto-polymerisation and subsequent sintering processing displays clearly different mechanical and physical properties from polymeric MTO synthesised in aqueous solution. Ceramic MTO is shown to display activated Re-C and Re=O bonds relative to MTO. These electronic and structural characteristics of ceramic MTO are also reflected by a different chemical reactivity compared with its...

  15. Modeling and simulation of the atomization process in the ceramic tile industry; Modelagem e simulacao do processo de atomizacao na industria de revestimento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, Renata Cristina

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to numerically simulate the behaviour of the drying system for several sets of operating conditions in order to improve and optimize this process. However, the mathematical modeling adopted here can be employed to simulate other systems such as the processes that occur in liquid-fueled engines with direct spray injection and ceramic spraying for hard surfacing. Then, mathematical and physical models were established to simulate the interaction of continuous and disperse phases in drying processes of ceramic slurries. Solving the set of governing coupled partial differential equations, it is possible to study the influence of drying air on the atomized droplets of alumina slurry, and vice-versa. The materials used as continuous and disperse phase, air and alumina slurry respectively, are representative since any kind of gas and slurry can be used if its thermodynamic and transport properties are known. Several experimental tests were carried out in a spray dryer in the 'Laboratorio de Insumos', at IPEN - Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares for different sets of operating conditions: initial temperature of the drying air, the gas flow rate, the slurry feed rate and atomiser configuration among others. Measurements of the wet and the dry bulb temperatures were made in some experimental tests to allow the calculations of the air humidity. The dynamic pressure were also measured in order to determine the gas flow rate. Some samples of the material used in the tile industry and of the one produced at IPEN were analysed to determine: the morphology of the atomized material and the range of granules diameter through scanning electron microscopy; the amount of pores and the bulk density through porosimetry; the residual moisture of the material through thermogravimetry; and the granulometric distribution of granules and particles through laser diffraction. Important information about the process and the final material are

  16. Processing Nanostructured Structural Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    aspects of the processing of nanostructured ceramics, viz. • • • The production of a flowable and compactable dry nanopowder suitable for use in... composition due to the different synthesis routes used. Therefore, ‘industry-standard’ dispersants can cause flocculation rather than dispersion...stabilised zirconia (3-YSZ) were no higher than for conventional, micron-sized material of the same composition . However, detailed crystallographic

  17. 水溶性陶瓷芯在航空铝合金熔模铸造中的应用%Application of water soluble ceramic core in investment casting of aluminum alloy for aerospace industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄绪雷; 安庆贺; 史兴利

    2016-01-01

    介绍了水溶性陶瓷型芯在航空铝合金熔模铸造中的应用,阐述了水溶性陶瓷芯在生产使用及工艺控制中存在的问题,通过对水溶性陶瓷芯生产浇铸实验证明:水溶性陶瓷芯可以适用于各种内腔结构复杂,且表面质量要求高的中、小铝合金铸件。%Introduce application of water soluble ceramic core in investment casting of aluminum alloy for aerospace industry; Elaborate problems of water soluble ceramic core usage during production and process control;Draw conclusion through casting trial runs that water soluble ceramic core can be applied to a variety of aluminum alloy casting, small or medium sized, requiring for complex cavity structure and high surface quality.

  18. Engineering ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bengisu, Murat

    2001-01-01

    This is a comprehensive book applying especially to junior and senior engineering students pursuing Materials Science/ Engineering, Ceramic Engineering and Mechanical Engineering degrees. It is also a reference book for other disciplines such as Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Engineering. Important properties of most engineering ceramics are given in detailed tables. Many current and possible applications of engineering ceramics are described, which can be used as a guide for materials selection and for potential future research. While covering all relevant information regarding raw materials, processing properties, characterization and applications of engineering ceramics, the book also summarizes most recent innovations and developments in this field as a result of extensive literature search.

  19. Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book appears in the authoritative series reporting the international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies. This series provides an overview of Schott's activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide in which glasses and glass ceramics are of interest. Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated. This new extended edition describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics. The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions. Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization. Thus g...

  20. Structural Ceramics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  1. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roode, M. van [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  2. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roode, M. van

    1995-12-31

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  3. Ceramic tubesheet design analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallett, R.H.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    A transport combustor is being commissioned at the Southern Services facility in Wilsonville, Alabama to provide a gaseous product for the assessment of hot-gas filtering systems. One of the barrier filters incorporates a ceramic tubesheet to support candle filters. The ceramic tubesheet, designed and manufactured by Industrial Filter and Pump Manufacturing Company (EF&PM), is unique and offers distinct advantages over metallic systems in terms of density, resistance to corrosion, and resistance to creep at operating temperatures above 815{degrees}C (1500{degrees}F). Nevertheless, the operational requirements of the ceramic tubesheet are severe. The tubesheet is almost 1.5 m in (55 in.) in diameter, has many penetrations, and must support the weight of the ceramic filters, coal ash accumulation, and a pressure drop (one atmosphere). Further, thermal stresses related to steady state and transient conditions will occur. To gain a better understanding of the structural performance limitations, a contract was placed with Mallett Technology, Inc. to perform a thermal and structural analysis of the tubesheet design. The design analysis specification and a preliminary design analysis were completed in the early part of 1995. The analyses indicated that modifications to the design were necessary to reduce thermal stress, and it was necessary to complete the redesign before the final thermal/mechanical analysis could be undertaken. The preliminary analysis identified the need to confirm that the physical and mechanical properties data used in the design were representative of the material in the tubesheet. Subsequently, few exploratory tests were performed at ORNL to evaluate the ceramic structural material.

  4. 陶瓷纤维模块在工业炉中的应用%Application of Ceramic Fiber Module in Industrial Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鲁

    2011-01-01

    以冷轧带钢退火炉为例,介绍了陶瓷纤维模块炉内衬的应用以及安装方法,并对模块化内衬和层铺毯式内衬的炉壁温度进行对比分析.结果表明,陶瓷纤维模块用于炉内衬显示了众多的优越性.在新型炉窑设计或旧炉窑的改造中,陶瓷纤维模块应该成为首选的设计方案.%The application and installation methods of the furnace lined with ceramic fiber module were introduced by taking the example of continuous annealing furnace, and the furnace wall temperature with different lining was analyzed. The results showed that the ceramic fiber modules show much superiorities as furnace lining. The ceramic fiber module should be the preferred solution in the new furnace design or in the old furnace reform.

  5. 传统劳动密集型产业集群突破发展瓶颈初探--以湖南省醴陵陶瓷产业集群为例%A Brief Enquiry Into How Traditional Labor-intensive Industries Can Break The Development Bottleneck--with ceramics industrial cluster in Liling, Hunan Province as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彪

    2013-01-01

      在后工业时代和后金融危机时代的双重背景下,我国传统劳动密集型产业是我国十分重要的产业面临严峻考验。对于不同类型的劳动密集型产业,将面临产业升级、转移、退出的选择。本文以醴陵陶瓷产业集群为例,从其外部环境、集群内部协作、企业自身约束、政策导向四方面分析其所存在的问题,并从短期、长期两个角度为醴陵陶瓷产业集群升级发展提出可行性建议。%In this post-industrial era and faced with the aftermath of the financial crisis, domestic traditional labor-intensive industries, which figure prominently in China’s economy, are presented with grim challenges. They all have to make a choice between industrial upgrade, exit and transfer depending on the type of industry they are in. This essay takes the ceramics industrial cluster in Liling County as an example and looks into the problems there through an analysis on four aspects, namely, its external environment, corporate self-restraint, coordination inside the cluster and policy guidance. It further provides a feasible suggestion from short-term and long-term perspectives on approaches to upgrading and developing ceramics industry in Liling.

  6. Ceramic Seal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Juan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Custer, Joyce Olsen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hymel, Ross W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krementz, Dan [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gobin, Derek [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Harpring, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Varble, Don [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); DiMaio, Jeff [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States); Hudson, Stephen [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  7. The lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP) in the ceramic tile industry and its impact on the reallocation of inventories; La falta de homogeneidad del producto (FHP) en las empresas ceramicas y su impacto en la reasignacion del inventario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, F.; Alemany, M. M. E.; Lario, F. C.; Oltra, R. F.

    2011-07-01

    The allocation of the product available- to-promise (ATP) in make-to-stock (MTS) contexts is of the utmost importance as it can influence customer satisfaction and profits of the company. However, a proper initial allocation may become inadequate for several reasons. In these case, it is necessary the reallocation of inventory, which will be more complex the more ambitious goals to achieve with it and increased the amount of information to use. In this regard, it is noteworthy that the lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP), present in different industrial sectors, causes the atomization of the inventory and increases the complexity of the reallocation, difficult to obtain optimal solutions. This paper describes the problems of the LHP, first under a generic perspective and then, particularized to MTS ceramic companies. Subsequently, situations in which a specific allocation of ATP can no longer be appropriate in this context are identified and the reassignment, as a way to search for new valid assignments, is proposed. Finally, through a case study of a ceramic company, the impact of the LHP in each of the situations identified is analyzed, noting that the LHP causes some of these situations and in all of them, complicates the reallocation of inventory to orders. (Authors) 31 refs.

  8. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic hearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  9. An Overview on the Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Ceramics Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestre, J.; Silvestre, N; de Brito, J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their prominent properties (mechanical, stiffness, strength, thermal stability), ceramic composite materials (CMC) have been widely applied in automotive, industrial and aerospace engineering, as well as in biomedical and electronic devices. Because monolithic ceramics exhibit brittle behaviour and low electrical conductivity, CMCs have been greatly improved in the last decade. CMCs are produced from ceramic fibres embedded in a ceramic matrix, for which several ceramic materials (oxid...

  10. Determining the sustainability of ceramic and glass industry using environmental management tools; Determinacion de la sostenibilidad de la industria mineral de la ceramica y del vidrio mediante herramientas de gestion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espi Rodriguez, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    In the last few years we have seen the creation of an everyday larger and varied series of are creating large and varied series of environmental management tools used to analyze and classify environmentally each mineral and its physical, economic and environmental circumstances. Thus we now, count with the Material Flow Analysis (MFA) of a mining operation, the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Energy and Exergy Analysis, Cost Benefit Environmental Analysis, Carbon Footprints, the Best Available Technology (BTA) and many others able to analyze and classify ore deposit site types, availability of resources, environmental impact conditions, transparency in communication and almost all crucial aspects related with the environmental geometry of the mining production process. This paper focuses on the application of some management tools that best fit to the minerals used in the ceramic and glass industry. (Author) 12 refs.

  11. Geochemical and technological characterization of clays of Corumbataí Formation, Paraná Basin, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil for the application in the ceramic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofoletti, Sergio Ricardo; Torres Moreno, Maria Margarita; Batezelli, Alessandro; Zanardo, Antenor

    2014-05-01

    The Corumbataí Formation is a geological unit of the Paraná Basin comprises a range of predominantly argillaceous facies. These clays are important from an economic point of view, because they represent important mineral deposits suppliers of raw materials for the ceramic industry in the production of ceramic tiles.The study presents preliminary results of a research that aims to study the clays municipalities Tambaú, Ferreira and Santa Rosa of Viterbo in the State of São Paulo for their application and diversification of ceramic products. The methodology used was based on a detailed description of facies using the methodology in principles of analysis of Basin Miall (1984), followed by mineralogical identification by X-ray Diffraction, chemical analysis of major elements by X-ray Fluorescence and technological tests ceramic. According to the geological surveys of mines studied through columnar sections were identified the following lithofacies from base to top: Massive, Laminated, Intercalated and Altered. The mineralogy present on these lithofacies is composed by minerals: quartz, microclineo, albite, calcite, dolomite and hematite and by clay minerals illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The quartz represents the mineral more present in diffraction and occurs with d001 of 3.33Å in all lithofacies studied. The illite clay mineral represents the most frequent in studied samples presenting d 001 10Å in three conditions (natural, heated and treated with ethylene glycol) in which the blade was subjected to the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the presence of kaolinite or montmorillonite occurs or not in samples. It was observed a increased frequency of some minerals in the lithofacies studied, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), hematite and feldspar occurring in the intermediate portions of the profile with a predominance in lithofacies Intercalated. The illita clay mineral occurs throughout the profile, but with greater frequency in the lithofacies Massive and

  12. Thermal energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in ceramic tile manufacture - Analysis of the Spanish and Brazilian industries; Consumo de energia termica y emisiones de dioxido de carbono en la fabricacion de baldosas ceramicas Analisis de las industrias Espanola y Brasilena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Vaquer, E.; Mallol, G.; Alves, H. J.; Boschi, A. O.

    2012-11-01

    Spain and Brazil are two of the world's biggest ceramic tile producers. The tile manufacturing process consumes a great quantity of thermal energy that, in these two countries, is mainly obtained from natural gas combustion, which entails CO{sub 2} emission, a greenhouse gas. This study presents a comparative analysis of the thermal energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in the ceramic tile manufacturing process in Spain and Brazil, in terms of the different production technologies and different products made. The energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in ceramic tile manufacture by the wet process are very similar in both countries. In the dry process used in Brazil, less thermal energy is consumed and less CO{sub 2} is emitted than in the wet process, but it is a process that is only used in manufacturing one particular type of product, which exhibits certain technical limitations. While in Spain the use of cogeneration systems in spray-dryers improves significantly the global energy efficiency. The average energy consumption in the different process stages, in both countries, lies within the range indicated in the Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Ceramic Manufacturing Industry (BREF of the Ceramic Manufacturing Industry) of the European Union. (Author) 14 refs.

  13. Quantified Grading Mode of Occupational Protection Measures in The Ceramic Industry%陶瓷行业职业卫生防护措施量化分级模式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松根; 黄燕玲; 李土华; 杨才

    2011-01-01

    The combination of quantified grading and supervision monitoring on occupational health management is a new pattern of supervision that shifted from supervising only to laying equal stress on supervising and technical guidance. Foshan Institute for Occupational Disease Prevention took 30 ceramic enterprises as respondents for investigation, and established quantified grading mode of occupational protection measures in the ceramic industry in Foshan between June. 2007 - December 2009. Under this approach, a remarkable achievement was made through supervision monitoring on ceramic enterprises and treatment on main occupational hazards in workplace. The qualified rate of total dust concentration in workplace air were increased by 30% after rectification; the qualified rate of respirable dust concentration and noise was increased by nearly 20% and 20%, respectively which indicates that protective measures have been well improved. But some ceramic enterprises have not rectified completely. In order to raise efficiency of supervision,to complete rectification early, and to accelerate adjustment and upgrade of ceramic industry, it is necessary to urge related functional departments to intensify supervision according to the quantified grading assessment program of occupational health inspection.%量化分级与监督监测相结合的职业卫生管理是一种将单纯监管转向监管与技术指导并重的新型监管模式.佛山市职业病防治所以该市2007年6月-2009年12月间30家陶瓷企业作为对象进行调查,建立陶瓷行业职业卫生防护措施量化分级模式,根据量化分级方案,对陶瓷企业进行监督监测,整治作业场所存在的主要职业危害因素,并取得一定的成效,整改后工作场所空气中生产性总尘浓度合格率比整改前提高了30.0%,呼尘浓度合格率比整改前提高了近20%,噪声合格率比整改前提高了20%,说明防护措施已得到很好的改善.但部分企业职业病

  14. Effect of Workplace Noise on Hearing Ability in Tile and Ceramic Industry Workers in Iran: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mostaghaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Results. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%, 49 (8.83%, 22 (3.96%, and 63 (11.35% subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. Conclusions. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices.

  15. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M A; Bergman, W; Haslam, J; Brown, E P; Sawyer, S; Beaulieu, R; Althouse, P; Meike, A

    2012-04-30

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  16. Cr-Free Metallic-Ceramic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Cr-FREE METALLIC- CERAMIC COATINGS ASETS Defense 2014 Fort Myer, VA, November 18-20, 2014 Bruce McMordie Coatings for Industry 319... Ceramic Coatings 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Surface Engineering for Aerospace and Defense, 18-20 Nov 2014, Fort Myer, VA. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  17. Photoacoustic microscopy of ceramic turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, P. K.; Kinnick, R. R.; Heitman, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Scanning photoacoustic microscopy (SPAM) is evaluated as a nondestructive technique for the detection of both surface and subsurface flaws in polycrystalline ceramics, such as those currently under consideration for the high temperature components of small vehicular and industrial gas turbine engines; the fracture strength of these brittle materials is controlled by small, 25-200 micron flaws. Attention is given to the correlation of SPAM-detected flaws with actual, fracture-controlling flaws in ceramic turbine blades.

  18. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thomé

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to outstanding physicochemical properties, ceramics are key engineering materials in many industrial domains. The evaluation of the damage created in ceramics employed in radiative media is a challenging problem for electronic, space, and nuclear industries. In this latter field, ceramics can be used as immobilization forms for radioactive wastes, inert fuel matrices for actinide transmutation, cladding materials for gas-cooled fission reactors, and structural components for fusion reactors. Information on the radiation stability of nuclear materials may be obtained by simulating the different types of interactions involved during the slowing down of energetic particles with ion beams delivered by various types of accelerators. This paper presents a review of the radiation effects occurring in nuclear ceramics, with an emphasis on recent results concerning the damage accumulation processes. Energetic ions in the KeV-GeV range are used to explore the nuclear collision (at low energy and electronic excitation (at high energy regimes. The recovery by electronic excitation of the damage created by ballistic collisions (SHIBIEC process is also addressed.

  19. Ceramic Technology Project. Semiannual progress report, April 1991--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was developed by the USDOE Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS`s Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS`s automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the USDOE and NASA advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990 the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities.

  20. Ceramic Technology Project semiannual progress report, April 1992--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1993-07-01

    This project was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the DOE Office of Transportation Systems` automotive technology programs. Significant progress in fabricating ceramic components for DOE, NASA, and DOE advanced heat engine programs show that operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engines is feasible; however, addition research is needed in materials and processing, design, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base for producing reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A 5-yr project plan was developed, with focus on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  1. “政产学研”协同创新视角下景德镇高技术陶瓷产业发展问题探讨%Research on Jingdezhen High-Tech Ceramic Development from the Perspective of the Government-Industry-University-Research Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣蔚; 韩静

    2016-01-01

    景德镇着力打造的以高技术陶瓷为核心竞争力的产业新格局正在形成。高技术陶瓷在加工材料、制作工艺、性能等多方面突破了传统陶瓷的范围,已被广泛运用于电子、信息通讯、航空航天、机械工程等新兴领域。本文针对景德镇高技术陶瓷产业发展中的相关问题,在“产学研”理论中增加政府的机能,为协同创新提供有效的路径。%Jingdezhen strives to build a new industrial pattern with high-tech ceramics as its core competitive force. High-tech ceramics is widely used in electronics, information and communication, aerospace, and mechanic engineering. It surpasses traditional ceramics for its raw materials, production process and property. This paper focuses on high-tech ceramic development issues, with the aim to strengthen the government’s function in the industry-university-research cooperation to provide a valid innovation path for its collaborative innovation.

  2. Did we push dental ceramics too far? A brief history of ceramic dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubenreich, James E; Robinson, Fonda G; West, Karen P; Frazer, Robert Q

    2005-01-01

    Humankind has developed and used ceramics throughout history. It currently has widespread industrial applications. Dental ceramics are used for fabricating highly esthetic prosthetic denture teeth, crowns, and inlays. However, ceramic's biocompatibility and compressive strength are offset by its hardness and brittleness. Nonetheless, a single crystal sapphire aluminum oxide endosseous implant was developed in 1972 as an alternative to metal. It was more esthetic than its metallic counterparts and was eventually produced in a variety of shapes and sizes. Clinical studies demonstrated its excellent soft and hard tissue biocompatibility, yet the range of problems included fractures during surgery, fractures after loading, mobility, infection, pain, bone loss, and lack of osseointegration. Ultimately, single crystal sapphire implants fell into irredeemable disfavor because of its poor impact strength, and dentists and surgeons eventually turned to other implant materials. However, bioactive ceramic coatings on metal implants have kept ceramics as a key component in dental implantology.

  3. Ceramography and segmentation of polycristalline ceramics: application to grain size analysis by automatic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, X.; Coster, M.; Chermant, J.L.; Chermant, L. [LERMAT, ISMRA, Caen (France); Chartier, T. [SPCTS, ENSCI, Limoges (France)

    2002-07-01

    The knowledge of the mean grain size of ceramics is a very important problem to solve in the ceramic industry. Some specific methods of segmentation are presented to analyse, by an automatic way, the granulometry and morphological parameters of ceramic materials. Example presented concerns cerine materials. Such investigations lead to important information on the sintering process. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of Saudi pegmatite and its use in porcelain industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan M.H. Al-Marzouki; Christopher Jeffery; Gamal A. Khater

    2012-01-01

    Pegmatite is the main source of feldspar for ceramics industry. Usage of pegmatite in ceramic industry causes some problems due to the presence of mica and iron oxides. These materials reduce tile strength, hardness and density of the final product leading to low quality ceramic products. Southern Saudi pegmatite separation treatment was carried out in two phases in order to improve the ceramic quality of the feldspar obtained from this pegmatite. The first phase consists of gravitational sep...

  5. Applications of sol gel ceramic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, D. [Datec Coating Corp., Kingston, Ont. (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The sol gel method is a chemical technique in which polycrystalline ceramic films are fabricated from a solution of organometallic precursors. The technique is attractive for many industrial applications because it is a simple (films are processed in air), flexible (can be used to coat complex geometries) and cost effective (does not require expensive equipment) process. In addition, dense, high quality coatings can be achieved at much lower temperatures than is generally required for sintering bulk ceramics. In this paper the conventional sol gel method and the new datec process are reviewed and potential applications of sol gel coatings in automotive, aerospace, petrochemical, nuclear and electronic industries are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Review of micromachining of ceramics by etching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.T.TING; K.A.ABOU-EL-HOSSEIN; H.B.CHUA

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been an enormous surge in interest in ceramic materials and, as a result, there have been significant advances in their development and applications. Their inherent properties, such as capability of operating at temperatures far above metals, high level of hardness and toughness, low coefficient of thermal expansion and high thermal conductivity rendered ceramics to be one of the leading engineering materials. Many research works have been conducted in the past few years on machining of advanced ceramics using different processing methods in order to obtain a better surface roughness, higher material removal rate and improved tool life. Micromachining using chemical etching is one of those methods that do not involve the problem of tool life and direct tool-work piece contact. However, only a few research works have been done on micromachining of ceramics using chemical etching. Hence, study of chemical machining of advanced ceramics is still needed as the process has found wide application in the industry because of its relative low operating costs. In this work, we summarize the recent progresses in machining of different types of advanced ceramics, material processing methods such as wet etching and dry etching, and finally the prospects for control of material removal rate and surface quality in the process of ceramic micromachining.

  7. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  8. Analysis of the impact of ISO 14001 in the economic variables of the Spanish ceramic tile industry's companies; ISO 14001 y variables economicas, hay alguna relacion? Analisis de las empresas certificadas del sector ceramico espanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiro-Signes, A.; Segarra-Ona, M.; Mondejar-Jimenez, J.; Vargas-Vargas, M.

    2013-02-01

    The increased in the adoption of formally environmental certified practices through environmental management systems is a provable fact. Its implementation, which has a high cost for the companies, is expected to generate benefits, although the relation between the implementation of ISO 14001 and its influence on the improvement of economic indicators over time has not been documented. This paper analyzes the relation between the implementation of an environmental management system, the ISO 14001, and economic performance in the short, medium and long term for the companies of the Spanish ceramic tile industry. It explores the economic indicators for each of the 66 manufacturing companies which have implemented the aforementioned standard from 1996 until 2009 through a comparison with a control group. Results show that ISO 14001 does not affect the economic results of the studied companies. We have not found significant differences in the operating income values, neither in the increase in revenues in the long term in any of the three analyzed periods, contrary to the expected results. (Author) 60 refs.

  9. Ceramic Laser Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Villalobos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic laser materials have come a long way since the first demonstration of lasing in 1964. Improvements in powder synthesis and ceramic sintering as well as novel ideas have led to notable achievements. These include the first Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG ceramic laser in 1995, breaking the 1 KW mark in 2002 and then the remarkable demonstration of more than 100 KW output power from a YAG ceramic laser system in 2009. Additional developments have included highly doped microchip lasers, ultrashort pulse lasers, novel materials such as sesquioxides, fluoride ceramic lasers, selenide ceramic lasers in the 2 to 3 μm region, composite ceramic lasers for better thermal management, and single crystal lasers derived from polycrystalline ceramics. This paper highlights some of these notable achievements.

  10. Ceramic Matrix Composites .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mukerji

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The present state of the knowledge of ceramic-matrix composites have been reviewed. The fracture toughness of present structural ceramics are not enough to permit design of high performance machines with ceramic parts. They also fail by catastrophic brittle fracture. It is generally believed that further improvement of fracture toughness is only possible by making composites of ceramics with ceramic fibre, particulate or platelets. Only ceramic-matrix composites capable of working above 1000 degree centigrade has been dealt with keeping reinforced plastics and metal-reinforced ceramics outside the purview. The author has discussed the basic mechanisms of toughening and fabrication of composites and the difficulties involved. Properties of available fibres and whiskers have been given. The best results obtained so far have been indicated. The limitations of improvement in properties of ceramic-matrix composites have been discussed.

  11. Air quality comparison between two European ceramic tile clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Guerra, L.; Busani, G.; Sterni, A.; Querol, X.

    2013-08-01

    The European ceramic tile industry is mostly concentrated in two clusters, one in Castelló (Spain) and another one in Modena (Italy). Industrial clusters may have problems to accomplish the EU air quality regulations because of the concentration of some specific pollutants and, hence, the feasibility of the industrial clusters can be jeopardised. The present work assesses the air quality in these ceramic clusters in 2008, when the new EU emission regulations where put into force. PM10 samples were collected at two sampling sites in the Modena ceramic cluster and one sampling site in the Castelló ceramic cluster. PM10 annual average concentrations were 12-14 μg m-3 higher in Modena than in Castelló, and were close to or exceeded the European limit. Air quality in Modena was mainly influenced by road traffic and, in a lower degree, the metalmechanical industry, as evidenced by the high concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, Sn and Sb registered. The stagnant weather conditions from Modena hindering dispersion of pollutants also contributed to the relatively high pollution levels. In Castelló, the influence of the ceramic industry is evidenced by the high concentrations of Ti, Se, Tl and Pb, whereas this influence is not seen in Modena. The difference in the impact of the ceramic industry on the air quality in the two areas was attributed to: better abatement systems in the spray-drier facilities in Modena, higher coverage of the areas for storage and handling of dusty raw materials in Modena, presence of two open air quarries in the Castelló region, low degree of abatement systems in the ceramic tile kilns in Castelló, and abundance of ceramic frit, glaze and pigment manufacture in Castelló as opposed to scarce manufacture of these products in Modena. The necessity of additional measures to fulfil the EU air quality requirements in the Modena region is evidenced, despite the high degree of environmental measures implemented in the ceramic industry. The Principal

  12. Ceramic art in sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Rokavec, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Diploma seminar speaks of ceramics as a field of artistic expression and not just as pottery craft. I presented short overview of developing ceramic sculpture and its changing role. Clay inspires design and touch more than other sculpture media. It starts as early as in prehistory. Although it sometimes seems that was sculptural ceramics neglected in art history overview, it was not so in actual praxis. There is a rich tradition of ceramics in the East and also in Europe during the renaissanc...

  13. Ceramic to metal seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Gary S. (Albuquerque, NM); Wilcox, Paul D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1976-01-01

    Providing a high strength, hermetic ceramic to metal seal by essentially heating a wire-like metal gasket and a ceramic member, which have been chemically cleaned, while simultaneously deforming from about 50 to 95 percent the metal gasket against the ceramic member at a temperature of about 30 to 75 percent of the melting temperature of the metal gasket.

  14. A Utilização do Rejeito Industrial Cerâmico - Chamote - como Fator de Qualidade na Fabricação de Elementos Cerâmicos: um Estudo Experimental The Use of Industrial Ceramic Waste - Brick Powder - to Improve Product Quality in Ceramic Elements Manufacture: an Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ripoli Filho

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve pesquisa desenvolvida sobre a fabricação de elementos cerâmicos, através da utilização de chamote adicionado à argila. Chamote pode ser definido como um subproduto proveniente de rejeitos de material cerâmico. O experimento envolveu a utilização de sete tipos de amostras obtidas em olaria próxima à UFSM, as quais serviram para estudar as seguintes variáveis: teor de umidade de moldagem, proporção das misturas, argila-base e temperatura de queima. As principais características físicas e mecânicas observadas foram: retração linear de queima, absorção de água, porosidade, massa específica aparente e sucção inicial. A partir dessas observações chegou-se às seguintes conclusões: a possibilidade de utilizar o chamote homogeneizado na fabricação de elementos cerâmicos, desde que em proporção ideal e queimado a temperatura adequada; b as tensões de ruptura e absorção de água obtidas estão de acordo com aquelas previstas pelas normas brasileiras; c a adição de chamote à argila contribui potencialmente para o controle da retração. Por fim, verifica-se que a adição de chamote à argila permite o aproveitamento desse tipo de resíduo na fabricação de produtos de boa qualidade e contribui para reduzir a poluição ambiental.This work describes a reseach carried out on the manufacture of ceramic elements through the addition of brick powder to clay. Brick powder can the defined as a waste resulted from processing of ceramic materials. That experiment was developed using seven different clay samples from pottery located in the surroundings of UFSM. This material was used to study the following variables: basic clay, proportion of each component of the mixture, moisture drift to the moulding and burning temperature. The main physical and mechanical characteristics observed were: drying linear retraction, rupture tension, fire damage, burning linear contraction, water absorption, porosity

  15. Creep in ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelleg, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is one of its kind, since there are no other books on Creep in Ceramics. The book consist of two parts: A and B. In part A general knowledge of creep in ceramics is considered, while part B specifies creep in technologically important ceramics. Part B covers creep in oxide ceramics, carnides and nitrides. While covering all relevant information regarding raw materials and characterization of creep in ceramics, the book also summarizes most recent innovations and developments in this field as a result of extensive literature search.

  16. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  17. Laser Micromachining of Glass, Silicon, and Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rihakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief review is focused on laser micromachining of materials. Micromachining of materials is highly widespread method used in many industries, including semiconductors, electronic, medical, and automotive industries, communication, and aerospace. This method is a promising tool for material processing with micron and submicron resolution. In this paper micromachining of glass, silicon, and ceramics is considered. Interaction of these materials with laser radiation and recent research held on laser material treatment is provided.

  18. Laser Micromachining of Glass, Silicon, and Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Rihakova, L.; Chmelickova, H.

    2015-01-01

    A brief review is focused on laser micromachining of materials. Micromachining of materials is highly widespread method used in many industries, including semiconductors, electronic, medical, and automotive industries, communication, and aerospace. This method is a promising tool for material processing with micron and submicron resolution. In this paper micromachining of glass, silicon, and ceramics is considered. Interaction of these materials with laser radiation and recent research held o...

  19. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-04-05

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration. A high-power diesel engine valve for the DDC Series 149 engine was chosen as the demonstration part for this program. This was determined to be an ideal component type to demonstrate cost-effective process enhancements, the beneficial impact of advanced ceramics on transportation systems, and near-term commercialization potential. The baseline valve material was NAC's NT451 SiAION. It was replaced, later in the program, by an alternate silicon nitride composition (NT551), which utilized a lower cost raw material and a simplified powder-processing approach. The material specifications were defined based on DDC's engine requirements, and the initial and final component design tasks were completed.

  20. The friction and wear of ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/metal combinations in sliding contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    The tribological characteristics of ceramics sliding on ceramics are compared to those of ceramics sliding on a nickel-based turbine alloy. The friction and wear of oxide ceramics and silicon-based ceramics in air at temperatures from room ambient to 900 C (in a few cases to 1200 C) were measured for a hemispherically-tipped pin on a flat sliding contact geometry. In general, especially at high temperature, friction and wear were lower for ceramic/metal combinations than for ceramic/ceramic combinations. The better tribological performance for ceramic/metal combinations is attributed primarily to the lubricious nature of the oxidized surface of the metal.

  1. Fatores associados às alterações da função pulmonar em trabalhadores de indústria de cerâmica Factors associated with alterations in lung function among workers in the ceramics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adriano Salicio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a função pulmonar em trabalhadores de indústrias de cerâmica no município de Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso. Estudo transversal realizado com 183 trabalhadores de indústrias de cerâmica desse município. Para identificação dos fatores sociodemográficos, fatores ambientais e do tabagismo foi utilizado um questionário estruturado e para avaliação da função pulmonar foi realizada a espirometria. Foram realizadas análises descritiva, bivariada e regressão múltipla de Poisson. Os trabalhadores em sua maioria são do sexo masculino (94% predominando indivíduos com idade até 39 anos (74,9%. A prevalência de sintomáticos respiratórios foi de 44,9%, sendo 14,8% portadores de sintomas considerados como graves e 30,1% sintomas não graves. Foram encontradas associações de função pulmonar alterada com as variáveis tempo de exposição e substância inalada. Os trabalhadores com 4 ou mais anos de exposição apresentaram 1,99 vezes mais função pulmonar alterada que os indivíduos com tempo de exposição de até 3 anos ; os indivíduos que inalaram poeira e desmoldante apresentaram 2,97 vezes mais alteração da função pulmonar. Esta, nos trabalhadores avaliados, está relacionada ao maior tempo de exposição e à inalação de poeira e desmoldante.This article seeks to assess lung function in workers of ceramic industries in the municipality of Várzea Grande - Mato Grosso. A cross-sectional study of 183 workers was conducted in the ceramics town of Várzea Grande (MT. A structured questionnaire was used to identify socio-demographic factors, environmental factors and smoking. and spirometry was performed to evaluatie the pulmonary function. Descriptive analysis and bivariate and multiple Poisson regression were performed. The workers are mostly male (94% with a predominance of individuals aged 39 years (74.9%. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was 44.9%, 14.8 patients with symptoms

  2. Ceramic Technology Project semiannual progress report for October 1991--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. Focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. The work is organized into the following elements: materials and processing (monolithics [SiC, SiN], ceramic composites, thermal and wear coatings, joining), materials design methodology, data base and life prediction (structural qualification, time-dependent behavior, environmental effects, fracture mechanics, NDE), and technology transfer. Individual abstracts were prepared for the individual contributions.

  3. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabloff, J A [ed.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  4. Ceramic laser materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikesue, Akio; Aung, Yan Lin

    2008-12-01

    The word 'ceramics' is derived from the Greek keramos, meaning pottery and porcelain. The opaque and translucent cement and clay often used in tableware are not appropriate for optical applications because of the high content of optical scattering sources, that is, defects. Recently, scientists have shown that by eliminating the defects, a new, refined ceramic material - polycrystalline ceramic - can be produced. This advanced ceramic material offers practical laser generation and is anticipated to be a highly attractive alternative to conventional glass and single-crystal laser technologies in the future. Here we review the history of the development of ceramic lasers, the principle of laser generation based on this material, some typical results achieved with ceramic lasers so far, and discuss the potential future outlook for the field.

  5. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  6. 论功能型建筑陶瓷的作用及其应用%Functionalized Building Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税安泽; 覃东; 张勇林; 朱雯莉; 吴诚; 方桂金

    2012-01-01

    The functionalization of building ceramics is one of the main development directions for ceramic industry. The present paper summa-rizes the functionalized ceramics, including self-cleaning ceramic tiles, antibacterial ceramic tiles, solar ceramic tile, far-infrared ceramic tiles, anti-static ceramic, photoluminescence ceramic, humidity-controlling ceramic, electronegative ceramic tiles, porous heat insulation ce- ramic, water permeable brick, sound absorption ceramic, radar absorption ceramic tiles and dioxide absorption ceramic tiles and so on. The principle, process and the application of each functionalized ceramic tile are also given here.%将建筑陶瓷功能化是陶瓷行业的主要发展方向之一。本文对功能型建筑陶瓷,如自洁陶瓷、抗菌陶瓷、太阳能陶瓷、远红外辐射陶瓷、防静电陶瓷、发光陶瓷、调湿陶瓷、负离子陶瓷、多孔隔热陶瓷、透水砖、吸声陶瓷、吸收电磁波陶瓷和吸收二氧化碳陶瓷等方面进行了归纳,并阐述了各种功能型瓷砖的原理、工艺和应用。

  7. Defect production in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  8. Ceramic colorant from untreated iron ore residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Oscar Costa; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-09-30

    This work deals with the development of a ceramic colorant for glazes from an untreated iron ore residue. 6 mass% of the residue was added in suspensions (1.80 g/cm(3) density and 30s viscosity) of white, transparent and matte glazes, which were applied as thin layers (0.5mm) on engobeb and not fired ceramic tiles. The tiles were fired in laboratory roller kiln in a cycle of 35 min and maximum temperatures between 1050 and 1180°C. The residue and glazes were characterized by chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA and optical dilatometry) analyses, and the glazed tiles by colorimetric and XRD analyses. The results showed that the colorant embedded in the transparent glaze results in a reddish glaze (like pine nut) suitable for the ceramic roof tile industry. For the matte and white glazes, the residue has changed the color of the tiles with temperature.

  9. Metallic and intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N.; Alexander, K.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this task is to establish a framework for the development and fabrication of metallic-phase-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with improved fracture toughness and damage resistance. The incorporation of metallic phases that plastically deform in the crack tip region, and thus dissipate strain energy, will result in an increase in the fracture toughness of the composite as compared to the monolithic ceramic. It is intended that these reinforced ceramic matrix composites will be used over a temperature range from 20{degrees}C to 800-1200{degrees}C for advanced applications in the industrial sector. In order to systematically develop these materials, a combination of experimental and theoretical studies must be undertaken.

  10. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTT's automotive technology programs. This project is managed by ORNL and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DoD, and industry. Research is discussed under the following topics; Turbomilling of SiC Whiskers; microwave sintering of silicon nitride; and milling characterization; processing of monolithics; silicon nitride matrix; oxide matrix; silicate matrix; thermal and wear coatings; joining; design; contact interfaces; time-dependent behavior; environmental effects; fracture mechanics; nondestructive evaluation; and technology transfer. References, figures, and tables are included with each topic.

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on research and development of industrial science technologies. Research and development on synergy ceramics (research and development of ultra-high temperature gas turbines for electric power generation); 1998 nendo shinaji ceramics no kenkyu kaihatsu. Hatsuden'yo koon gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes development of synergy ceramics. In developing a technology to design property fusion processes, studies were made on control of nano-structures by using a high-order nano-structure process, and on evaluation of micro region properties. Such nanocomposite bodies were selected for the object as piezoelectric ceramics PZT group (which increases mechanical characteristics and durability without impeding electric characteristics) and alumina-group YAG (which enhances high-temperature strength). Three-dimensional analyses were performed on particle morphology and crack structures by using focusing ion beams as a study on destruction behavior by means of microscopic and macroscopic particle morphology control. This paper reports the achievements of research and development on control of continuous small pore morphology (uni-directionally pierced pores on a new-type low expansion material used as matrix), intra-particle interface (discusses methods to micronize silicon nitride ceramics tissues), intra-layer interface (oxide-based ceramics are laminated on surface to improve oxidation and heat resistance without impeding high-temperature mechanical properties of non-oxide-based ceramics), intra-layer boundary (Pb-based double composition piezoelectric body having stable layer interface), and boundaries between inorganic and organic matters. (NEDO)

  12. Wettable Ceramic-Based Drained Cathode Technology for Aluminum Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.N. Bruggeman; T.R. Alcorn; R. Jeltsch; T. Mroz

    2003-01-09

    The goal of the project was to develop the ceramic based materials, technology, and necessary engineering packages to retrofit existing aluminum reduction cells in order to reduce energy consumption required for making primary aluminum. The ceramic materials would be used in a drained cathode configuration which would provide a stable, molten aluminum wetted cathode surface, allowing the reduction of the anode-cathode distance, thereby reducing the energy consumption. This multi-tasked project was divided into three major tasks: (1) Manufacturing and laboratory scale testing/evaluation of the ceramic materials, (2) Pilot scale testing of qualified compositions from the first task, and (3) Designing, retrofitting, and testing the ceramic materials in industrial cells at Kaiser Mead plant in Spokane, Washington. Specific description of these major tasks can be found in Appendix A - Project Scope. Due to the power situation in the northwest, the Mead facility was closed, thus preventing the industrial cell testing.

  13. 环境管制影响下的佛山陶瓷产业区位变动机制%Relocation Mechanisms of the Ceramics Industry Impacted by the Environmental Regulations in Foshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈静; 魏成

    2012-01-01

    环境管制已成为影响污染产业区位变动的一项因素.目前国内外相关研究多采用统计数据的模型分析方法,但对环境管制发挥作用的方式和程度却存在很多争论.本研究以广东佛山市陶瓷产业为研究对象,运用半结构式访谈分析方法,采用区位变动中的推拉模型,探讨环境管制在(产业)迁出地对佛山陶瓷产业区位变动的推动机理,以及在(产业)迁入地对佛山陶瓷产业区位选择的拉动作用机制.结果发现,①环境管制是影响污染产业区位变化的重要因素,并且在迁出地和迁入地之间形成一个相互联系的过程,迁出地环境管制将通过企业行为影响迁入地环境管制.②探讨环境管制对企业区位变化的影响机制从政府和企业行为互动的角度具有很好的解释,而非仅考虑治污成本的影响.③在中国式地方分权的背景下环境管制成为地方政府调控本地产业发展的重要政策手段.但“污染避难所”假说是否成立仍然是一个难题.%Recent studies show that environmental regulations play a crucial role in the decision making of firm location. The methods in these empirical studies, however, are mainly quantitative models based on statistical data, and the way the environmental regulations work in the location decision are debatable. In this article, we analyze the relocation decision of the ceramic industry in Foshan City against the context of intensive environmental regulations through semi-structured interviews. The 'push-pull' model in the firm migration research is used to explore the way the environmental regulation works on to push firms from the old location and pulling them to the new sites. The conclusion is that the influences of the environmental regulation on the firm location decision cannot be ignored, and the effects of the environmental regulations depend on the social and economic conditions of the old and new sites. It is an interconnected

  14. Microelectrical Discharge Machining: A Suitable Process for Machining Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schubert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today ceramics are used in many industrial applications, for example, in the biomedical field, for high-temperature components or for cutting tools. This is attributed to their excellent mechanical and physical properties, as low density, high strength, and hardness or chemical resistance. However, these specific mechanical properties lead to problems regarding the postprocessing of ceramics. In particular, cutting processes require expensive tools which cause high manufacturing costs to machine ceramics. Consequently, there is a demand for alternative machining processes. Microelectrical discharge machining (micro-EDM is a thermal abrasion process which is based on electrical discharges between a tool and a workpiece. The advantages of micro-EDM are more and more in focus for ceramic machining. These advantages include the process of being a noncontact technology, an independency of material brittleness and hardness, a low impact on the material, and the achievable microstructures. This paper presents the current state of investigations regarding micro-EDM of ceramics. Beside the process principle of EDM, the used procedures for machining ceramics and insulating ceramics are described. Furthermore several machining examples are presented to demonstrate the possibilities of the micro-EDM process with regard to the machining of ceramics.

  15. Performance studies of scintillating ceramic samples exposed to ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Dissertori, G; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Wallny, R

    2014-01-01

    Scintillating ceramics are a promising, new development for various applications in science and industry. Their application in calorimetry for particle physics experiments is expected to involve an exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation. In this paper, changes in performance have been measured for scintillating ceramic samples of different composition after exposure to penetrating ionizing radiation up to a dose of 38 kGy. 2012 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record

  16. Performance studies of scintillating ceramic samples exposed to ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Dissertori, G; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pauss, F; Wallny, R

    2012-01-01

    Scintillating ceramics are a promising, new development for various applications in science and industry. Their application in calorimetry for particle physics experiments is expected to involve an exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation. In this paper, changes in performance have been measured for scintillating ceramic samples of different composition after exposure to penetrating ionizing radiation up to a dose of 38 kGy.

  17. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

    2012-06-29

    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant

  18. Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology Project bibliography, 1984--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology [for Advanced Heat Engines] Project was begun in 1983 to meet the ceramic materials needs of the companion DOE automotive engine program, the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) project, and the Heavy Duty Transport (low-heat-rejection, heavy-duty diesel) project. Goal is to develop an industry technology base for reliable and cost effective ceramics for applications in advanced automotive gas turbine and diesel engines. Research areas were identified following extensive input from industry and academia. Majority of research is done by industry (60%); work is also done at colleges and universities, in-house, and at other national laboratories and government agencies. In the beginning, reliability of ceramic components was the key issue. The reliability issues have largely been met and, at the present time, cost is the driving issue, especially in light of the highly cost-sensitive automotive market. Emphasis of the program has now been shifted toward developing cost-effective ceramic components for high-performance engines in the near-term. This bibliography is a compilation of publications done in conjunction with the Ceramic Technology Project since its beginning. Citations were obtained from reports done by participants in the project. We have tried to limit citations to those published and easily located. The end date of 1992 was selected.

  19. Ceramics As Materials Of Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Zaki, A.; Eteiba, M. B.; Abdelmonem, N.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper attempts to review the limitations for using the important ceramics in contact with corrosive media. Different types of ceramics are included. Corrosion properties of ceramics and their electrical properties are mentioned. Recommendations are suggested for using ceramics in different media.

  20. 基于波特五力模型的景德镇陶瓷文化创意产业基地竞争分析%Analysis of Jingdezhen Ceramic Creative Culture Industry Base Based on the Potter's Five Powers Model of Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许剑雄; 余慧

    2014-01-01

    景德镇陶瓷文化创意产业基地在发展的过程中虽然取得了一定的成绩,但也面临着来自各方的竞争压力,笔者立足景德镇陶瓷文化创意产业基地的竞争现状,借助波特五力模型对其竞争压力进行分析,进而提出其提升竞争力的对策及建议。%Jingdezhen ceramic cultural and creative industry base in the development process has made some achievements, but also faces the competition pressure from all sides,competition situation based on the Jingdezhen ceramic cultural and creative industry base,with the help of Potter's five forces model to analyze the pressure of competition,and puts forward the countermeasures and suggestions to enhance the competitiveness of the.

  1. Preliminary analysis of the regolithic clay covers from the region of Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to evaluate its use in the traditional ceramic industry; Analise preliminar das coberturas regoliticas argilosas da regiao de Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brasil, visando sua utilizacao na industria de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar Junior, L.A.; Varajao, A.F.D.C. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia; Moreno, M.M.T. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia

    2009-07-01

    The region of Alfenas, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is predominantly constituted of Pre-Cambrian rocks with well developed alteration profiles in association with colluvial and alluvial sediments. No study to date has examined in detail its potential use in the ceramic industry. The scarce knowledge of its mineralogical and technological properties limits its value and consequently its industrial use. Until now, these clay materials have been used in a rudimental manner, in small scale in the fabrication of red tiles. The present study aimed at analyzing these clays mineralogically (X-ray diffraction), chemically (major and minor elements by X-ray fluorescence and organic carbon analysis) and technologically (pressing granulometric distribution; mechanical resistance; water absorption, apparent porosity; linear firing shrinkage; color of firing and others) in order to better understand the raw material and develop adequate technological applications. The best results of ceramic properties were the samples with higher organic content (more plastic clays) and higher values of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (kaolinite and gibbsite) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well lower SiO{sub 2} content and finer grain size which contribute to a better sintering. (author)

  2. Advanced manufacturing of ceramics for biomedical applications: Subjection methods for biocompatible materials

    OpenAIRE

    Minguella Canela, Joaquim; Cuiñas, D; Uceda, Roger; Rodríguez, J. V.; Vivancos Calvet, Joan

    2013-01-01

    The continuously growing utilization of ceramic compounds in the field of medicine, industry and aerospace, among others, imply a high degree of specialization in terms of the material properties and functionalization due to the diversity of the requirements of the ceramic parts. The necessity of lightweight final parts with suitable surface properties oriented to biomedic applications demands innovative ceramic compounds whose machining is, in many cases, considerably difficult due to the fr...

  3. High pressure ceramic joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael E.; Harkins, Bruce D.

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  4. Ultra High Temperature Ceramics for aerospace applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowiak, A.; Justin, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Après relecture une erreur est apparue dans le document et doit être retiré; International audience; The Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are of great interest for different engineering sectors and notably the aerospace industry. Indeed, hypersonic flights, re-entry vehicles, propulsion applications and so on, require new materials that can perform in oxidizing or corrosive atmospheres at temperatures higher than 2000°C and sometimes, for long life-time. To fulfil these requirements, U...

  5. THERMAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON CERAMIC FIBRES

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, S.; Lundberg, R.; Carlsson, R.

    1986-01-01

    Fibre insulations in kilns in the ceramic industry were investigated. Cristobalite and mullite are the main crystalline phases found in Al2O3-SiO2 fibres. The amount of the crystalline phases formed depends on the chemical composition and firing temperature. Condensation of ZnO-vapours from the glaze and formation of ZnAl2O4 were found in a Saffil fibre at a temperature of 930°C.

  6. The APS ceramic chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, S.; Warner, D.

    1994-07-01

    Ceramics chambers are used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) machines at the locations of the pulsed kicker and bumper magnets. The ceramic will be coated internally with a resistive paste. The resistance is chosen to allow the low frequency pulsed magnet field to penetrate but not the high frequency components of the circulating beam. Another design goal was to keep the power density experienced by the resistive coating to a minimum. These ceramics, their associated hardware, the coating process, and our recent experiences with them are described.

  7. Ceramic Technology Project, semiannual progress report for October 1993 through March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1994-09-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was originally developed by the Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990, the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The original objective of the project was to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. During the course of the Ceramic Technology Project, remarkable progress has been made in the development of reliable structural ceramics. The direction of the Ceramic Technology Project is now shifting toward reducing the cost of ceramics to facilitate commercial introduction of ceramic components for near-term engine applications. In response to extensive input from industry, the plan is to extend the engine types which were previously supported (advanced gas turbine and low-heat-rejection diesel engines) to include near-term (5-10 years) applications in conventional automobile and diesel truck engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to U.S. industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. A systematic approach to reducing the cost of components is envisioned.

  8. Making Ceramic Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squibb, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make a clay camera. This idea of creating functional cameras from clay allows students to experience ceramics, photography, and painting all in one unit. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  9. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  10. Advanced Ceramics Property Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the "what, how, how not, and why" for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of standards in one volume.

  11. "China" Says Goodbye to Low Prices——Ceramics Exhibitors Lift Prices on Canton Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Raising price, an important consensus From the reduction of export tax rebate rate by 5%~7% to the rising threshold of the ceramics importers, and from the restrictions on energy consumption to the price hike of raw materials and fuels... Since this year China's ceramics industry has been facing increasing pressure.

  12. Current Issues with Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramics and Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental barrier coating (EBC) for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites and Si3N4 ceramics is an emerging field as the application of silicon-based ceramics in the gas turbine engine hot section is on the horizon, both for aero and industrial gas turbines. EBC is an enabling technology for silicon-based ceramics because these materials without an EBC cannot be used in combustion environments due to rapid surface recession. Significant progress in EBC development has been made during the last decade through various government-sponsored programs. Current EBCs are based on silicon, mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and BSAS (barium strontium aluminum silicate with celsian structure). Volatility of BSAS, BSAS-silica chemical reaction, and low melting point of silicon limit temperature capability of current EBCs to about 1350 C for long-term applications. There is a need for higher temperature EBCs as the temperature capability of silicon-based ceramics continue to increase. Therefore, research is underway to develop EBCs with improved temperature capability compared to current EBCs. The current status and issues with the advanced EBC development efforts will be discussed.

  13. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste.

  14. Standardisation of ceramic matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The standardisation on ceramic matrix composite (CMCs test methods occurred in the 1980's as these materials began to display interesting properties for aeronautical applications. Since the French Office of standardisation B43C has participated in establishing more than 40 standards and guides dealing with their thermal mechanical properties, their reinforcement and their fibre/matrix interface. As their maturity has been demonstrated through several technological development programmes (plugs, flaps, blades …, the air framers and engine manufacturers are now thinking of develop industrial parts which require a certification from airworthiness authorities. Now the standardisation of CMCs has to turn toward documents completing the certification requirement for civil and military applications. The news standards will allow being more confident with CMCs in taking into account their specificity.

  15. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  16. International Engineering Foundation Conference on the Plastic Deformation of Ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Brookes, Chris; Routbort, Jules

    1995-01-01

    This proceedings volume, "Plastic Deformation of Ceramics," constitutes the papers of an international symposium held at Snowbird, Utah from August 7-12, 1994. It was attended by nearly 100 scientists and engineers from more than a dozen countries representing academia, national laboratories, and industry. Two previous conferences on this topic were held at The Pennsylvania State University in 1974 and 1983. Therefore, the last major international conference focusing on the deformation of ceramic materials was held more than a decade ago. Since the early 1980s, ceramic materials have progressed through an evolutionary period of development and advancement. They are now under consideration for applications in engineering structures. The contents of the previous conferences indicate that considerable effort was directed towards a basic understanding of deformation processes in covalently bonded or simple oxide ceramics. However, now, more than a decade later, the focus has completely shifted. In particular, the...

  17. Surface modification of ceramic matrix composites induced by laser treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costil, S.; Lukat, S.; Langlade, C.; Coddet, C.

    2008-12-01

    Ceramics or ceramic composites present many advantages (hardness, chemical resistance, low density, etc.) which induce some more and more important applications particularly from the industrial point of view. The evolution of technology can also be beneficial to enlarge their global application areas. This is particularly the aim of this work which consists in applying a laser beam on the ceramic in order to clean its surface. A Nd:YAG laser has been used to study the basic mechanism roughening the surface of silicon carbide composite (ceramic matrix composite (CMC)). Investigations on different surfaces (two chemical compositions) show a strong influence of the nature of the material on the development of a characteristic conic structure. Microscopic studies (SEM) and elementary analyses (EDS and RMS) demonstrated the formation of a regular cone-like structure with a kinetic and a chemical modification specific to each material.

  18. Synthetic flux as a whitening agent for ceramic tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Geocris, E-mail: geocris.rodrigues@gmail.com [INNOVARE Inteligência Em Cerâmica, 13566-420 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento De Engenharia Dos Materiais, Universidade Federal De São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Salvetti, Alfredo Roque [Departamento De Física, Universidade Federal De Mato Grosso Do Sul (Brazil); Cabrelon, Marcelo Dezena [INNOVARE Inteligência Em Cerâmica, 13566-420 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento De Engenharia Dos Materiais, Universidade Federal De São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Morelli, Márcio Raymundo [Departamento De Engenharia Dos Materiais, Universidade Federal De São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The synthetic flux acts as a whitening agent of firing color in raw material ceramics. • The raw material ceramics have high levels of the iron oxides and red color. • The different process obtained red color clays with hematite and illite phases. • The whiteness ceramic obtained herein can be used in a porcelain tile industry. - Abstract: A synthetic flux is proposed as a whitening agent of firing color in tile ceramic paste during the sinterization process, thus turning the red firing color into whiteness. By using this mechanism in the ceramic substrates, the stoneware tiles can be manufactured using low cost clays with high levels of iron oxides. This method proved to be an economical as well as commercial strategy for the ceramic tile industries because, in Brazil, the deposits have iron compounds as mineral component (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in most of the raw materials. Therefore, several compositions of tile ceramic paste make use of natural raw materials, and a synthetic flux in order to understand how the interaction of the iron element, in the mechanism of firing color ceramic, occurs in this system. The bodies obtained were fired at 1100 °C for 5 min in air atmosphere to promote the color change. After the heating, the samples were submitted to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analyses. The results showed that the change of firing color occurs because the iron element, which is initially in the crystal structure of the hematite phase, is transformed into a new crystal (clinopyroxenes phase) formed during the firing, so as to make the final firing color lighter.

  19. An 8-year evaluation of sintered ceramic and glass ceramic inlays processed by the Cerec CAD/CAM system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, U.; Dijken van, J.W.V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Cerec CAD/CAM inlays processed of two industrially made machinable ceramics during an 8-yr follow-up period. Each of 16 patients received two similar ceramic inlays. Half the number of the inlays were made of a feldspathic (Vita Mark II) and the other...... of a glass ceramic (Dicor MGC) block. The inlays were luted with a dual resin composite and evaluated clinically using modified USPHS criteria at baseline, 8 months, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8 yr, and indirectly using models. At baseline, 84% of the inlays were estimated as optimal and 16% as acceptable. Postoperative...... sensitivity was reported by one patient for 8 months. Of the 32 inlays evaluated during the 8 yr, 3 failed due to fracture of the material. No secondary caries was found adjacent to the inlays. No significant differences in the clinical performance were found between inlays made of the two ceramics. It can...

  20. Testing method for ceramic armor and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the standard Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armor are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  1. Testing method for ceramic armour and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    TNO developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this alternative test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armour are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  2. 陶瓷行业生产管理及成本核算信息化的曙光%The First Light of the Morning Shining on Cost Control and Application of Information Technology on Production Management in Ceramic Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦穗生; 张仁云

    2011-01-01

    This article is mainly about the ceramics industry production management and cost control management information system which is developed by Alpha Bluetech (Guangzhou) ,Inc..The system use advanced thinking about management on architectural ceramics enterprises, at the same time it use information management tools to strengthen the management of production costs, procurement, inventories, sales market and production planning balance.So you can use it to reduce the cost of ceramic enterprise internal production, management and external market transaction, and improve the overall operation and management level, and increasing the profitability of enterprises.In the ceramic enterprise, it can improve the overall operation and management level, core competitiveness, and profit.Further more, it can help managers with learning more about production process, becoming more scientific and rational in command and the decision-making, teducing poor decisions and avoiding operational risks.%介绍了我公司为广东某陶瓷公司开发的陶瓷行业生产管理及成本核算管理信息系统.对建筑陶瓷企业利用先进的管理思想,信息管理手段对陶瓷企业加强生产成本、采购、仓储、销售市场、生产计划平衡等方面的管理.旨在降低陶瓷企业的内部生产、管理成本和外部市场交易成本,从而提高陶瓷企业的整体经营管理水平,增强陶瓷企业的核心竞争力,增加企业的盈利;使企业管理者对生产过程了解更透彻,指挥、决策更科学合理,减少决策失误,规避经营风险.

  3. Cooled Ceramic Turbine Vane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — N&R Engineering will investigate the feasibility of cooled ceramics, such as ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine blade concepts that can decrease specific...

  4. FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-10-01

    Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices

  5. Progress on Porous Ceramic Membrane Reactors for Heterogeneous Catalysis over Ultrafine and Nano-sized Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong; MENG Lie; CHEN Rizhi; JIN Wanqin; XING Weihong; XU Nanping

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts with ultrafine or nano particle size have currently attracted considerable attentions in the chemical and petrochemical production processes,but their large-scale applications remain challenging because of difficulties associated with their efficient separation from the reaction slurry.A porous ceramic membrane reactor has emerged as a promising method to solve the problem concerning catalysts separation in situ from the reaction mixture and make the production process continuous in heterogeneous catalysis.This article presents a review of the present progress on porous ceramic membrane reactors for heterogeneous catalysis,which covers classification of configurations of porous ceramic membrane reactor,major considerations and some important industrial applications.A special emphasis is paid to major considerations in term of application-oriented ceramic membrane design,optimization of ceramic membrane reactor performance and membrane fouling mechanism.Finally,brief concluding remarks on porous ceramic membrane reactors are given and possible future research interests are also outlined.

  6. Ceramic clays from the western part of the Tamnava Tertiary Basin, Serbia: Deposits and clay types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on geological, mineralogical, physical, chemical and technological investigations in the Tamnava Tertiary Basin near Šabac town (western Serbia, deposits of ceramic clays were studied. These ceramic clays are composed of kaolin-illite with a variable content of quartz, feldspars, mica, iron oxides and hydroxides, and organic matter. Four main types of commercial clays were identified: i red-yellow sandy-gravely (brick clays; ii grey-white poor sandy (ceramic clays; iii dark-carbonaceous (ceramic clays; and iv lamellar (“interspersed” fatty, poor sandy (highly aluminous and ferrous clays. Ceramic clays are defined as medium to high plastic with different ranges of sintering temperatures, which makes them suitable for the production of various kinds of materials in the ceramic industry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-176016

  7. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  8. Diffusion in ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelleg, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to changes that occur in solids such as ceramics, mainly at high temperatures, which are diffusion controlled, as well as presenting research data. Such changes are related to the kinetics of various reactions such as precipitation, oxidation and phase transformations, but are also related to some mechanical changes, such as creep. The book is composed of two parts, beginning with a look at the basics of diffusion according to Fick's Laws. Solutions of Fick’s second law for constant D, diffusion in grain boundaries and dislocations are presented along with a look at the atomistic approach for the random motion of atoms. In the second part, the author discusses diffusion in several technologically important ceramics. The ceramics selected are monolithic single phase ones, including: A12O3, SiC, MgO, ZrO2 and Si3N4. Of these, three refer to oxide ceramics (alumina, magnesia and zirconia). Carbide based ceramics are represented by the technologically very important Si-ca...

  9. Mechanical properties of ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelleg, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the mechanical properties of ceramics and aims to provide both a solid background for undergraduate students, as well as serving as a text to bring practicing engineers up to date with the latest developments in this topic so they can use and apply these to their actual engineering work.  Generally, ceramics are made by moistening a mixture of clays, casting it into desired shapes and then firing it to a high temperature, a process known as 'vitrification'. The relatively late development of metallurgy was contingent on the availability of ceramics and the know-how to mold them into the appropriate forms. Because of the characteristics of ceramics, they offer great advantages over metals in specific applications in which hardness, wear resistance and chemical stability at high temperatures are essential. Clearly, modern ceramics manufacturing has come a long way from the early clay-processing fabrication method, and the last two decades have seen the development of sophisticated technique...

  10. Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

    2009-04-30

    Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section

  11. Automatic Defect Detection and Classification Technique from Image: A Special Case Using Ceramic Tiles

    CERN Document Server

    Rahaman, G M Atiqur

    2009-01-01

    Quality control is an important issue in the ceramic tile industry. On the other hand maintaining the rate of production with respect to time is also a major issue in ceramic tile manufacturing. Again, price of ceramic tiles also depends on purity of texture, accuracy of color, shape etc. Considering this criteria, an automated defect detection and classification technique has been proposed in this report that can have ensured the better quality of tiles in manufacturing process as well as production rate. Our proposed method plays an important role in ceramic tiles industries to detect the defects and to control the quality of ceramic tiles. This automated classification method helps us to acquire knowledge about the pattern of defect within a very short period of time and also to decide about the recovery process so that the defected tiles may not be mixed with the fresh tiles.

  12. Assessment of ceramic membrane filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Geyer, H.K.; Im, K.H. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this project include the development of analytical models for evaluating the fluid mechanics of membrane coated, dead-end ceramic filters, and to determine the effects of thermal and thermo-chemical aging on the material properties of emerging ceramic hot gas filters. A honeycomb cordierite monolith with a thin ceramic coating and a rigid candle filter were evaluated.

  13. Ceramic composites: Enabling aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) have the potential for significant impact on the performance of aerospace propulsion and power systems. In this paper, the potential benefits are discussed in broad qualitative terms and are illustrated by some specific application case studies. The key issues in need of resolution for the potential of ceramics to be realized are discussed.

  14. Radionuclide contents and radiological risk to the population due to raw minerals and soil samples from the mining sites of quality ceramic and pottery industries in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria; Contenu en radionucleides et risque radiologique aux populations d'echantillons de sols et de mineraux bruts issus de sites miniers des industries de la poterie et de la ceramique de qualite a Akwa Ibom, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibiri, N.N.; Esen, N.U. [Radiation and Health Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2011-01-15

    Samples of domestically produced industrial raw minerals and soil samples from three mining sites of quality ceramic/smelting and pottery industries in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria, were collected and analyzed for their {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K contents using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The range of activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the industrial raw minerals were 17.55 {+-} 1.63 to 80.99 {+-} 2.61 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 7.64 {+-} 0.77 to 23.94 {+-} 0.92 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 63.22 {+-} 3.43 to 503.90 {+-} 5.69 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, while in the soil samples they varied from 2.87 to 34.78 Bq.kg{sup -1}, 7.02 to 24.47 Bq.kg{sup -1} and 7.05 to 162.81 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. These results, along with the estimated absorbed dose rates, annual effective dose rates, radium equivalent (Ra{sub eq}), external hazard index (H{sub ex}), internal hazard index (H{sub in}) and representative of the gamma index (I{gamma}r) are presented. The results obtained were below the internationally accepted safe limits. Therefore, the analyzed samples could be used in the local industries in the area as component raw materials and/or as building materials. Also, the mining activities of these minerals in the area have not significantly affected the natural radiation dose levels in the area, hence the resulting dose to the population is therefore considered generally low. (authors)

  15. Displacive Transformation in Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    single cycle[21]. In zirconia , ferroelastic domains appeared during the cubic to tetragonal transformation at -2200’C, where [c] axes were elongated...Mechanism in Tetragonal Zirconia ( TZP ) Ceramics," Adv. in Ceramics 24 (1986) 653-662. 26. K. Mehta, J. F. Jue and A. V. Virkar, "Grinding-Liduced...barium copper oxide (YBa2Cu306+x) and dicalcium silicate (Ca 2 SiO4 ). The cubic to tetragonal transformation in PbTiO3 40 was proven to be

  16. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composite (CFCC) Program: Gaseous Nitridation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Suplinskas G. DiBona; W. Grant

    2001-10-29

    Textron has developed a mature process for the fabrication of continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) tubes for application in the aluminum processing and casting industry. The major milestones in this project are System Composition; Matrix Formulation; Preform Fabrication; Nitridation; Material Characterization; Component Evaluation

  17. Preparation and characterization of photo chromic effect for ceramic tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atay, B.; Goktas, A.; Dogan, A.

    2011-07-01

    Ceramic tile industry is developing due to the technological researches in scientific area and new tiles which are not only a traditional ceramic also have many multiple functionalities have been marketed nowadays. These tiles like photo catalytic, photovoltaic, antibacterial and etc. improve the quality of life and provide lots of benefits such as self cleaning, energy production, climate control. The goal of this study was to enhance the photo chromic function on ceramic tiles which is the attitude of changing color in a reversible way by electromagnetic radiation and widely used in many areas because of its aesthetic and also functional properties. High response time of photo chromic features of ceramic tiles have been achieved by employing of polymeric gel with additives of photoactive dye onto the ceramic surface. Photo chromic layer with a thickness of approximately 45- 50 {mu}m was performed by using spray coating technique which provided homogeneous deposition on surface. Photo chromic ceramic tiles with high photo chromic activity such as reversibly color change between {delta}E= 0.29 and 26.31 were obtained successfully. The photo chromic performance properties and coloring-bleaching mechanisms were analyzed by spectrophotometer. The microstructures of coatings were investigated both by stereo microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (Author) 13 refs.

  18. Refractory ceramic fibers activate alveolar macrophage eicosanoid and cytokine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikauf, G D; Fink, S P; Miller, M L; Lockey, J E; Driscoll, K E

    1995-01-01

    Refractory ceramic fiber has been developed for industrial processes requiring materials with high thermal and mechanical stability. To evaluate the biological activity of this fiber, rat alveolar macrophages were exposed for < or = 24 h to 0-1,000 micrograms/ml of refractory ceramic fiber, crocidolite asbestos, silica (fibrogenic particles), or titanium dioxide (a nonfibrogenic particle), and eicosanoid, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and lactate dehydrogenase release were measured. Particle dimensions were determined by electron microscopy. Radioactivity coeluting with leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and immunoreactive LTB4 and TNF release increased after refractory ceramic fiber and were similar in magnitude after asbestos but less than after silica. For example, the total [3H]eicosanoid release increased 3.9-fold after refractory ceramic fiber, 4.6-fold after asbestos, and 8.7-fold after silica. Refractory ceramic fiber and asbestos also have similar particle dimensions (diameter, length, and surface area). Inasmuch as macrophage-derived LTB4 and TNF are potent mediators in inflammatory events, including migration and activation of neutrophils, these findings suggest that refractory ceramic fiber can activate macrophages in vitro to release mediators relevant to in vivo findings of inflammation and fibrotic lung disease in laboratory animals.

  19. Alkaline resistant ceramics; Alkalimotstaandskraftiga keramer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westberg, Stig-Bjoern [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Despite durability in several environments, ceramics and refractories can not endure alkaline environments at high temperature. An example of such an environment is when burning biofuel in modern heat and power plants in which the demand for increasing efficiency results in higher combustion temperatures and content of alkaline substances in the flue gas. Some experiences of these environments has been gained from such vastly different equipment as regenerator chambers in the glass industry and MHD-generators. The grains of a ceramic material are usually bonded together by a glassy phase which despite it frequently being a minor constituent render the materials properties and limits its use at elevated temperature. The damage is usually caused by alkaline containing low-melting phases and the decrease of the viscosity of the bonding glass phase which is caused by the alkaline. The surfaces which are exposed to the flue gas in a modern power plant are not only exposed to the high temperature but also a corroding and eroding, particle containing, gas flow of high velocity. The use of conventional refractory products is limited to 1300-1350 deg C. Higher strength and fracture toughness as well as durability against gases, slag and melts at temperatures exceeding 1700 deg C are expected of the materials of the future. Continuous transport of corrosive compounds to the surface and corrosion products from the surface as well as a suitable environment for the corrosion to occur in are prerequisites for extensive corrosion to come about. The highest corrosion rate is therefore found in a temperature interval between the dew point and the melting point of the alkaline-constituent containing compound. It is therefore important that the corrosion resistance is sufficient in the environment in which alkaline containing melts or slag may appear. In environments such as these, even under normal circumstances durable ceramics, such as alumina and silicon carbide, are attacked

  20. Statistic><Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2008-01-01

    Co-organizer for and participant at the exhibition: Statistic><Ceramics The Röhsska Museum of Design and Decorative Arts; Gothenborg 5/2-16/3 2008 Museum fur Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg 3/4-27/4 2008...

  1. Nanocrystalline and Nanoporous Ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Henk

    1996-01-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanoporous ceramics, renowned for their special transport properties, have typical applications in the fields of energy, the environment, and separation technology. One example is a solid oxide fuel cell, where an anode with improved characteristics was obtained by an optimized n

  2. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-05-01

    The mechanical properties of model systems were analyzed. A reasonably accurate finite element model was implemented and a rational metric to predict the strength of ceramic/metal concentrical joints was developed. The mode of failure of the ceramic/metal joints was determined and the importance of the mechanical properties of the braze material was assessed. Thermal cycling experiments were performed on the model systems and the results were discussed. Additionally, experiments using the concept of placing diffusion barriers on the ceramic surface to limit the extent of the reaction with the braze were performed. It was also observed that the nature and morphology of the reaction zone depends greatly on the nature of the perovskite structure being used. From the experiments, it is observed that the presence of Cr in the Fe-occupied sites decreases the tendency of Fe to segregate and to precipitate out of the lattice. In these new experiments, Ni was observed to play a major role in the decomposition of the ceramic substrate.

  3. Transformation Toughening of Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    chanical twing of ualaneeting Ceramica at High Temperatures. ILondo, Patigue-crack growth in overaged and partially stabi- U.K., 198.""IS. Itoribe... Ceramica " Chapter 18 In Mechanical Prop- ŗR. M. !AcMeeding and A. 0. Evans, ’Mechanics of Transformation ertles of Engineering Ceramics. Edited by W.W

  4. Preparation of high performance ceramic tiles using waste tile granules and ceramic polishing powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gong-xun; SU Da-gen

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to reusing waste tile granules (TG) and ceramic polishing powder (PP) to produce high performance ceramic tiles. We studied formulations each with a TG mass fraction of 25.0% and a different PP mass fraction between 1.0% and 7.0%. The formulations included a small amount of borax additive of a mass fracton between 0.2%and 1.2%. The effects of these industrial by-products on compressive strength, water absorption and microstructure of the new ceramic tiles were investigated. The results indicate that the compressive strength decreases and water absorption increases when TG with a mass fraction of 25.0% are added. Improvement of the compressive strength may be achieved when TG (up to 25.0%)and PP (up to 2.0%) are both used at the same time. In particular, the compressive strength improvement can be maximized and water absorption reduced when a borax additive of up to 0.5% is used as a flux. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that a certain amount of fine PP granules and a high content of fluxing oxides from borax avail the formation of glassy phase that fills up the pores in the new ceramic tiles, resulting in a dense product with high compressive strength and low water absorption.

  5. Determination of structural geometric parameters of industrial ceramic foams by gamma rays transmission and X-rays microtomography; Determinacao de parametros geometricos estruturais de espumas ceramicas industriais por transmissao de raios gama e microtomografia de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Wilson Roberto Dejato da

    2005-07-01

    In this work, the gamma rays transmission and X-rays microtomography techniques are used for the evaluation of the porosity and the pore size distribution of SiC ceramic foams. It was also accomplished the three-dimensional images after the determination of samples geometric parameters. The geometric parameters were obtained by two-dimensional images analyses, generated by a Microfocus system, with a CCD camera, an images intensifier, a X-rays tube and an automatic system for rotation of the sample. The spatial resolution of the images was about 32 {mu}m. In the gamma rays transmission methodology, a Nal(Tl) scintillation detector, an {sup 241}Am (59.53 keV, 100 mCi) radioactive source and an automatic X-Z micrometric table was used. The analyzed samples had pores density of 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 ppi (pores per inch). The gamma rays transmission technique was accurate to supply the porosity of the samples, which ranged about 90% and was in agreement with the values supplied by manufacturer of the foams. The 30 and 45 ppi samples analyzed by X-rays microtomography showed porosity results that agree with the average porosity supplied by the manufacturer. In other hand, the 60, 80 and 100 ppi samples systematically showed average porosity about 4%, lower than the average of the manufacturer. The pore size distributions found through the software IMAGO show the presence of smaller pores than those nominated by the manufacturer. The 30 ppi samples had voids inside the solid material of the ceramic foams structure. Gaussian truncated method, used in the three-dimensional reconstruction, was not able to take into the account the voids inside the solid matrix. (author)

  6. Silica exposure and lung cancer in ceramic workers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, J M; Swaen, G M; Volovics, A; Slangen, J J; Van Vliet, K

    1990-03-01

    The results are presented from a case-control study, concerning the possible relation between silica exposure in the Dutch fine ceramic industry and lung cancer. For this purpose 381 male, age-matched pairs of primary lung cancer cases and controls were selected from the pathology department of the University Hospital in the region, where two large ceramic companies are located. Information about employment in the ceramic industry was obtained from the personnel and financial administration departments of the two companies. On the basis of job titles a panel of occupational hygiene experts reached consensus about the qualitative exposures of each individual worker. Twenty one per cent of the cases were employed in the ceramic industry, compared with 19% of the controls (odds ratio 1.11; 95% Cl: 0.77-1.61). Although the average employment period of cases and their relative silica exposure surpassed those of controls, odds ratios for long duration of employment and considerable exposure to respirable silica dust did not reach statistical significance. After constructing a qualitative exposure index, based on the amount and duration of exposure, a tendency towards a positive correlation with lung cancer emerged. No relation between specific histological tumour cell types and working in the ceramic industry emerged. Although the study does not suggest a consistent cause-effect relation between silica exposure in the regional, Dutch fine ceramic industry and lung cancer, an increased risk for the high exposure group in the past can not be totally excluded.

  7. Ceramic Laser Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soules, T F; Clapsaddle, B J; Landingham, R L; Schaffers, K I

    2005-02-15

    Transparent ceramic materials have several major advantages over single crystals in laser applications, not the least of which is the ability to make large aperture parts in a robust manufacturing process. After more than a decade of working on making transparent YAG:Nd, Japanese workers have recently succeeded in demonstrating samples that performed as laser gain media as well as their single crystal counterparts. Since then several laser materials have been made and evaluated. For these reasons, developing ceramic laser materials is the most exciting and futuristic materials topic in today's major solid-state laser conferences. We have established a good working relationship with Konoshima Ltd., the Japanese producer of the best ceramic laser materials, and have procured and evaluated slabs designed by us for use in our high-powered SSHCL. Our measurements indicate that these materials will work in the SSHCL, and we have nearly completed retrofitting the SSHCL with four of the largest transparent ceramic YAG:Nd slabs in existence. We have also begun our own effort to make this material and have produced samples with various degrees of transparency/translucency. We are in the process of carrying out an extensive design-of-experiments to establish the significant process variables for making transparent YAG. Finally because transparent ceramics afford much greater flexibility in the design of lasers, we have been exploring the potential for much larger apertures, new materials, for example for the Mercury laser, other designs for SSHL, such as, edge pumping designs, slabs with built in ASE suppression, etc. This work has just beginning.

  8. Toxicidade de flúor em cultivares de milho em área próxima a uma indústria cerâmica, Araras (SP Fluorine toxicity in corn plants nearby a ceramic industry, Araras, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Fortes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Indústrias que submetem material terroso a altas temperaturas como a de cerâmicas, emitem fluoretos para a atmosfera na forma de gás, particulado ou ácido fluorídrico. Em experimentos de milho (Zea mays L., do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Araras (SP, as plantas apresentaram sintomas que evoluíam de uma descoloração do limbo foliar até o secamento marginal das folhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores foliares de flúor (F na cultura do milho com sintomas de toxicidade causados por fluoretos atmosféricos emitidos por uma indústria cerâmica vizinha, e possíveis diferenças entre as cultivares de milho quanto à severidade desses sintomas. Em um experimento atribuíram-se notas relativas ao grau de injúria das folhas de 22 cultivares e, em outro, foi feita determinação de F em três cultivares de milho semeadas a 350 e 1.000 metros de distância daquela indústria. Os teores foliares de F nas folhas de milho estavam altos nas duas distâncias. Para o milho "safrinha" os teores chegaram até quatro vezes acima do teor crítico, variando entre 126 e 160 mg.kg-1. Constataram-se diferenças entre as cultivares de milho quanto à severidade de sintomas, mas não foi possível estabelecer correlação com danos na produtividade.The emission of fluoride gases, particles or fluoridric acid is commonly observed in industries that submit terrigenous materials to high temperatures, such as in the ceramic industry. Unusual abnormalities in leaves of adult plants that have been suspected to be fluorine toxicity have been observed in corn experiments carried out in the Center of Agricultural Sciences of the Federal University of São Carlos, Araras, SP, Brazil. The symptoms in the corn leaves started as discolouring of internerval cells of completed developed leaves followed by marginal burning of its tips. The objectives of this work was to evaluate the amount of fluorine (F in corn leaves

  9. Advances in resonance based NDT for ceramic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, L. J.; Jauriqui, L. M.; Gatewood, G. D.; Sisneros, R.

    2012-05-01

    The application of resonance based non-destructive testing methods has been providing benefit to manufacturers of metal components in the automotive and aerospace industries for many years. Recent developments in resonance based technologies are now allowing the application of resonance NDT to ceramic components including turbine engine components, armor, and hybrid bearing rolling elements. Application of higher frequencies and advanced signal interpretation are now allowing Process Compensated Resonance Testing to detect both internal material defects and surface breaking cracks in a variety of ceramic components. Resonance techniques can also be applied to determine material properties of coupons and to evaluate process capability for new manufacturing methods.

  10. Preparation and Application of New Porous Environmental Ceramics Filter Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; WU Jianfeng; JIN Jianhua; LIU Xinming

    2005-01-01

    A new kind of environmental ceramics medium which was made of industrial solid wastes discharged by Shandong Alum Corporation has been used in the process of drinking water treatment. New techniques were introduced to ensure its remarkable advantages such as high porosity and strength. The results of practical application show that this sort of filter medium has shorter filtration run, shorter mature period and higher filter deposit capability compared with traditional sand filter medium. Moreover, up to 25%- 30% of the daily running costs are expected to be reduced by using this ceramics medium.

  11. FIBROUS CERAMIC-CERAMIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS PROCESSING AND PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The introduction of continuous fibers in a ceramic matrix can improve its toughness, if the fiber-matrix bonding is weak enough, due to matrix microcracking and fiber pull-out. Ceramic-ceramic composite materials are processed according to liquid or gas phase techniques. The most important are made of glass, carbide, nitride or oxide matrices reinforced with carbon, SiC or Al2O3 fibers.

  12. Ceramic Stereolithography: Additive Manufacturing for Ceramics by Photopolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic stereolithography and related additive manufacturing methods involving photopolymerization of ceramic powder suspensions are reviewed in terms of the capabilities of current devices. The practical fundamentals of the cure depth, cure width, and cure profile are related to the optical properties of the monomer, ceramic, and photo-active components. Postpolymerization steps, including harvesting and cleaning the objects, binder burnout, and sintering, are discussed and compared with conventional methods. The prospects for practical manufacturing are discussed.

  13. Integrally cored ceramic investment casting mold fabricated by ceramic stereolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chang-Jun

    Superalloy airfoils are produced by investment casting (IC), which uses ceramic cores and wax patterns with ceramic shell molds. Hollow cored superalloy airfoils in a gas turbine engine are an example of complex IC parts. The complex internal hollow cavities of the airfoil are designed to conduct cooling air through one or more passageways. These complex internal passageways have been fabricated by a lost wax process requiring several processing steps; core preparation, injection molding for wax pattern, and dipping process for ceramic shell molds. Several steps generate problems such as high cost and decreased accuracy of the ceramic mold. For example, costly tooling and production delay are required to produce mold dies for complex cores and wax patterns used in injection molding, resulting in a big obstacle for prototypes and smaller production runs. Rather than using separate cores, patterns, and shell molds, it would be advantageous to directly produce a mold that has the casting cavity and the ceramic core by one process. Ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA) can be used to directly fabricate the integrally cored ceramic casting mold (ICCM). CerSLA builds ceramic green objects from CAD files from many thin liquid layers of powder in monomer, which are solidified by polymerization with a UV laser, thereby "writing" the design for each slice. This dissertation addresses the integrally cored casting ceramic mold (ICCM), the ceramic core with a ceramic mold shell in a single patternless construction, fabricated by ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA). CerSLA is considered as an alternative method to replace lost wax processes, for small production runs or designs too complex for conventional cores and patterns. The main topic is the development of methods to successfully fabricate an ICCM by CerSLA from refractory silica, as well as related issues. The related issues are the segregation of coarse fused silica powders in a layer, the degree of segregation parameter to

  14. Integration Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics for Energy and Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new and innovative materials has been known to culminate in major turning points in human history. The transformative impact and functional manifestation of new materials have been demonstrated in every historical era by their integration into new products, systems, assemblies, and devices. In modern times, the integration of new materials into usable products has a special relevance for the technological development and economic competitiveness of industrial societies. Advanced ceramic technologies dramatically impact the energy and environmental landscape due to potential wide scale applications in all aspects of energy production, storage, distribution, conservation, and efficiency. Examples include gas turbine propulsion systems, fuel cells, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, distribution and transmission systems based on superconductors, nuclear power generation, and waste disposal. Robust ceramic integration technologies enable hierarchical design and manufacturing of intricate ceramic components starting with geometrically simpler units that are subsequently joined to themselves and/or to metals to create components with progressively higher levels of complexity and functionality. However, for the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance under different operating conditions, the detailed understanding of various thermochemical and thermomechanical factors is critical. Different approaches are required for the integration of ceramic-metal and ceramic-ceramic systems across length scales (macro to nano). In this presentation, a few examples of integration of ceramic to metals and ceramic to ceramic systems will be presented. Various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar (ceramic-ceramic) and dissimilar (ceramic-metal) material systems will be discussed. Potential opportunities and need for the development of innovative design philosophies, approaches, and

  15. Ion Exchange in Glass-Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, George; Comte, Monique; Deneka, Matthew; Marques, Paulo; Pradeau, Philippe; Smith, Charlene

    2016-08-01

    In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque) and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness). There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass). The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change). This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  16. Characterization of a red ceramic body used in the manufacture of ceramic bricks in the region of Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil; Caracterizacao de massa ceramica vermelha utilizada na fabricacao de blocos ceramicos na regiao de Campos dos Goytacazes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, L.L.P. de; Petrucci, L.J.T.; Pessanha, E.M.; Paixao, L.P.; Maia, F.S. [Faetec, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro Vocacional Tecnologico. Ceramica

    2010-07-01

    This work aims at the physical and mineralogical characterization of a ceramic body, used industrially in the manufacture of ceramic bricks in the region of Campos dos Goytacazes. The clay was characterized by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, dilatometry, differential thermal analysis and gravimetric. We test specimens were obtained by extrusion. The bodies were burned from 750 to 1000 deg C and then it was determined water absorption, linear shrinkage, loss on ignition and modulus of rupture. The results showed that the ceramic body consists mainly of kaolinite, quartz and feldspar is thus suitable for mass production of ceramic bricks in accordance with technical standards. (author)

  17. Ceramics for High Power Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ICP-MS) on 25 elements ranging from transition metals, rare earths , alkali, alkaline earths and silicon on a set of selected YAG ceramics and...our knowledge of the origin of optical losses in ceramic laser host materials while initiating a program of research on 2-micron, thulium- doped fiber...During Year 1 of this program, we produced and characterized laser grade Nd:YAG and low optical loss Gd3+ doped YAG and Tm:YAG ceramics . Laser

  18. Sol-gel derived ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of ceramic raw materials has become an important factor in ceramic technologies. The increasing demands to the performance of ceramic compounds has caused increased activities for the preparation of tailor-made raw materials. Amongst a variety of new syntheses like flame pyrolysis, reactive spray drying, plasma or laser assisted techniques, the sol-gel process plays an important and increasing role. The process describes the building up of an inorganic (in general an oxide) netw...

  19. Tailored Ceramics for Laser Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Joel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2007-12-10

    Transparent ceramics match or exceed the performance of single-crystal materials in laser applications, with a more-robust fabrication process. Controlling the distribution of optical dopants in transparent ceramics would allow qualitative improvements in amplifier slab design by allowing gain and loss to be varied within the material. My work aims to achieve a controlled pattern or gradient of dopant prior to sintering, in order to produce tailored ceramics.

  20. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  1. Preparation and characteristics of porous ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei SHAO; Peiping ZHANG; Liyan MA; Juanjuan LIU

    2007-01-01

    Pyrophyllite is always used for making porous ceramics. In order to design the preparation technics of porous ceramics with pyrophyllite reasonably we must know the classifications, characteristics, properties and applications of porous ceramics. The classification and characteristics of porous ceramics are reviewed in this article; and several common preparations with their advantages and disadvantages are also introduced. The authors discussed the problems existing in researching and developing process for porous ceramics, and forecasted the development prospect of porous ceramics.

  2. Ceramic Piezoelectric Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    more det led paper delineating the dielectric, electrostrictive., and thermoelastic behavior has been prepared for submission to Journal of Applied...material was demonstrated using an adaptation of the replamineform ceramic technol- ogy which had been evolved earlier in MRL for prosthetic bone implant...esti- mates made by Henning (4.1). It should be realized that the phenomenological analysis which has 11 I I I » I been completed essentially

  3. Rheology of Superplastic Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Constitutive equation of rheglogy describing a phenomenological level of superplastic deformation as functional correlation between tensor components of stress and strain rate has been analyzed for the case of superplastic ceramic flow. Rheological properties of material are taken into account by means of scalar rheological coefficients of shear and volume viscosity, which are functions of temperature, effective stress (or strain rate) and density of material.

  4. Ceramic technology report. Semi-annual progress report, April 1994--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1995-06-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was originally developed by the Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS`s Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS`s automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. In response to extensive input from industry, the plan is to extend the engine types which were previously supported (advanced gas turbine and low-heat-rejection diesel engines) to include near-term (5-10 years) applications in conventional automobile and diesel truck engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to U.S. industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. A systematic approach to reducing the cost of components is envisioned. The work elements are as follows: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, low-expansion ceramics, and testing and data base development.

  5. Dental ceramics: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2014-03-01

    Ceramics are used for many dental applications and are characterized in various ways, including by their hardness, brittleness, thermal and electrical insulation, and biocompatibility. The ceramics most commonly used in dentistry are oxides, particularly silicon dioxide (SiO2), or silica; aluminum oxide (Al2O3), or alumina; and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), or zirconia. This article reviews the microstructure of current dental ceramic materials and how it relates to their mechanical properties, clinical techniques, and optical properties. Typical ceramics currently in use are described, and their clinically relevant properties such as strength, fracture, polishability, and wear are compared. Cementation methods are also discussed.

  6. Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Noncransforming Ceramics" S.J. Bennison and B.R. Lawn Acca Hetall., in press. 12. "Fatigue Limits in Noncyclic Loading of Ceramics With Crack-Resiscance Curves" S...notched-beam (SENB) and specimens with small-scale flaws with theoretically-predicted curve from present analysis. 40 (a) -A’K - - - -- - -- - - - -- p1 ...and B.R. Lawn , Acca Mevall., submitted. 16. H. Sakai and R.C. Bradt, J. Ceram. Soc. Japan 2k 801 (1988). 17. B.R. Lawn, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 6j 83

  7. Robust Joining and Assembly of Ceramic Matrix Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2003-01-01

    Advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are under active consideration for use in a wide variety of high temperature applications within the aerospace, energy, and nuclear industries. The engineering designs of CMC components require fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts of various thicknesses. In many instances, it is more economical to build up complex shapes by joining simple geometrical shapes. Thus, joining and attachment have been recognized as enabling technologies for successful utilization of ceramic components in various demanding applications. In this presentation, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of high temperature joints in ceramic matrix composites will be presented. A wide variety of ceramic composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT). Microstructure and mechanical properties of joints in melt infiltrated and CVI Sic matrix composites will be reported. Various joint design philosophies and design issues in joining of composites will be discussed.

  8. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès M. M. M. Ponsot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low temperatures (900–1000 °C, whereas glass/slag interactions resulted in the formation of magnetite crystals, providing ferrimagnetism. Such behavior could be exploited for applying the obtained glass ceramics as induction heating plates, according to preliminary tests (showing the rapid heating of selected samples, even above 200 °C. The chemical durability and safety of the obtained glass ceramics were assessed by both leaching tests and cytotoxicity tests.

  9. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the R and D of industrial scientific technology. R and D of synergistic ceramics (R and D of corrosion prevention technology for the petroleum production system); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Synergy ceramics no kenkyu kaihatsu (sekiyu seisan system fushoku boshi gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To heighten durability and safety of materials/parts for undersea oil drilling, the development of ceramic base materials was made by developing function harmony type process technology which harmonizes on a high grade contrary characteristics and various functions. The paper summed up the fiscal 1997 results. In the design of system formation, computational simulation technology was developed to the composite process and the diploid system. The development of multifunction simultaneous manifestation materials was trially made by the higher nano structure process. A study was made of control of microstructures of porous materials and matrix filling by the gas phase precipitation control. Proposed were selective control of grain growth from species crystals and the columnar particle orientation laminated structure of simultaneous manifestation of strength and toughness. By composite precipitation reaction control, studied were simultaneous dispersion of whisker and increase in density of matrixes, and harmonization with long fibers. Silicon nitride was trially made with low lubrication/friction coefficients and high strength. A simulation method for crack progress behavior evaluation was developed using a testing notched specimen heterogeneous microstructures. Analyses were made of brittle fracture mechanics and reliability evaluation. 273 refs., 344 figs., 29 tabs.

  10. Proof test of hybrid shrink fits with ceramic hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Binz, H.

    2011-10-01

    Advanced ceramic machine components are required in many applications because of their specific material properties like high hardness, resistance to chemicals, corrosion and wear, low specific weight etc. The most suitable shaft-hub connection to ceramics is an interference fit assembly because it is free of geometrical notches and transmission of forces takes place in a large area. Such a shrink fit is rated for endurance strength when the stress intensity factor is below the specific value KI0 where no crack growth occurs. The total component suddenly fails, when the stress intensity factor exceeds the KIC value. The load to the press fit during the joining process, caused by the interference of the assembly, could be regulated by ambient conditions. In case of undetected material defects or microcracks in the ceramic and if the stress intensity is below KIC, the ceramic will not fail but a crack could grow. Thus, the joining process only seems to be a proof test. When the load during operation leads to a stress intensity that remains higher than KI0 the crack grows until the whole ceramic component fails. This effect was verified in tests at the Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design.

  11. Proof test of hybrid shrink fits with ceramic hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M; Binz, H, E-mail: markus.wagner@iktd.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-10-29

    Advanced ceramic machine components are required in many applications because of their specific material properties like high hardness, resistance to chemicals, corrosion and wear, low specific weight etc. The most suitable shaft-hub connection to ceramics is an interference fit assembly because it is free of geometrical notches and transmission of forces takes place in a large area. Such a shrink fit is rated for endurance strength when the stress intensity factor is below the specific value K{sub I0} where no crack growth occurs. The total component suddenly fails, when the stress intensity factor exceeds the K{sub IC} value. The load to the press fit during the joining process, caused by the interference of the assembly, could be regulated by ambient conditions. In case of undetected material defects or microcracks in the ceramic and if the stress intensity is below K{sub IC}, the ceramic will not fail but a crack could grow. Thus, the joining process only seems to be a proof test. When the load during operation leads to a stress intensity that remains higher than K{sub I0} the crack grows until the whole ceramic component fails. This effect was verified in tests at the Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design.

  12. Polymer - Ceramic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    characteristic properties of our composite films are then compared with those of Piezel, a commercially available composite, manufactured by the Daikin Industry...S obtained on PIEZEL (composite of PZT and PVDF copolymer, supplied by Daikin Industries Limited of Japan) are also presented. 1% % .... . ,,, ,,,,~m

  13. Research and Industrialization of High Temperature Pizeo-Electric Ceramic Materials for Deep Oil and Gas Exploration Application%深部油气勘探用高温压电陶瓷材料研制及产业化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董显林; 范晓荣; 梁瑞虹

    2015-01-01

    深部油气资源的勘探与开发已成为当今解决石油资源短缺的一个重要途径。多极子阵列声波测井仪(MPAL)是新一代声波测井仪器。但目前国内多极子阵列声波测井仪一般只能用到150℃左右的环境温度,远远不能满足深部(大于5000米)油气勘探的需要。多年来,高温高稳定压电陶瓷材料难以取得实质性突破一直是制约我国高端声波测井仪器发展的主要技术瓶颈。中国科学院上海硅酸盐研究所针对锆钛酸铅〔Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3,PZT〕和偏铌酸铅(PbNb2O6)两类压电陶瓷在高温应用中急需突破的技术难题,开展了压电陶瓷组成设计新方法研究和制备技术创新研究,经过多年的持续攻关,成功研制出了具有完全自主知识产权的高温高稳定PZT和 PbNb2O6压电陶瓷,满足了声波测井仪器深部油气勘探的需求,并取得了一系列创新性成果,推动了我国声波测井的技术进步。%For many years the main technical bottleneck to restrict the development of China's high-end acoustic logging tool is that high temperature and stable piezoelectric materials have not made substantive breakthrough. The researchers of Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences aimed at the main technical problems existed in the high temperature applications of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lead niobate (PbNb2O6) and made researches on composition design method and preparation technology innovation. After hard work of many years, they successfully developed high temperature and very stable PZT and PbNb2O6 piezoelectric ceramics with completely independent intellectual property which meet the needs of acoustic logging instrument of deep oil and gas exploration, achieved a series of innovative achievements and promoted the technological progress of sonic logging in our country.

  14. Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihóková, E; Mareš, J A; Beitlerová, A; Vedda, A; Nejezchleb, K; Blažek, K; D’Ambrosio, C

    2007-01-01

    We use various techniques to study optical and scintillation properties of Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, Y3Al5O12 (YAG:Ce), in the form of a high-quality industrial single crystal. This was compared to optical ceramics prepared from YAG:Ce nanopowders. We present experimental data in the areas of optical absorption, radioluminescence, scintillation decay, photoelectron yield, thermally stimulated luminescence and radiation-induced absorption. The results point to an interesting feature—the absence of antisite (YAl, i.e. Y at the Al site) defects in optical ceramics. The scintillation decay of the ceramics is faster than that of the single crystal, but its photoelectron yield (measured with 1 μs integration time) is about 30–40% lower. Apart from the photoelectron yield value the YAG:Ce optical ceramic is fully comparable to a high quality industrial YAG:Ce single crystal and can become a competitive scintillator material.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of ceramic coatings for diesel exhaust valves. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharnweber, D H; Vukovich, D T

    1980-11-01

    Diesel engine exhaust valves coated with zirconia and calcium silicate ceramic coating systems, developed by the Central Institute for Industrial Research, Oslo, Norway, were laboratory fixture tested to assess bond strength and structural integrity under representative mechanical and thermal stress conditions. The results indicate the zirconia coating systems are worthy of additional evaluation in a medium or high speed industrial/utility diesel engine.

  16. Composites (CFCCs) for low cost energy and cleaner environment. Continuous fiber ceramic composites program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    For many industrial applications, materials are desired which combine light weight, high temperature strength, and stability in corrosive environments. Among competing materials, ceramics are noteworthy candidates for such applications. The use of ceramics is often constrained, however, by brittleness; i.e., low toughness. Ceramic composites are being developed to overcome this limitation. With recent advances in ceramic fiber technology, it is possible to design a composite material based on continuous ceramic fibers embedded in a ceramic matrix. The use of ceramic composites in industrial applications will result in reduced fuel consumption, but will also prevent airborne pollution (principally NO, SO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, and particulates), and economically benefit the end user through energy and environmental savings and increased competitiveness. Industry will also benefit through increased productivity and consumers will benefit through lower energy and environmental costs and a cleaner environment. The development and use of CFCCs could become an important factor in the international competitiveness of U.S. industry. CFCCs will be a critical enabling material in the design and engineering of advanced components, systems, and processes. If CFCC technology is developed outside the United States, domestic users of these materials may be forced to rely on foreign suppliers of the products fabricated from CFCCs, as well as the materials themselves. Foreign countries, including Japan and France, have embarked on government-supported CFCC development efforts. With the market for CFCC products expected to be a $10 billion dollar market by 2010, CFCC development will be important for the competitiveness of U.S. industry and for retaining and creating jobs for U.S. citizens. This document summarizes the potential energy, environmental, and economic benefits that CFCCs will have for the U.S. economy and particularly for the industrial sector.

  17. Investigation of the surface generation mechanism of mechanical polishing engineering ceramics using discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesong

    2014-09-01

    Machining technology about ceramics has been developed very fast over recent years due to the growing industrial demand of higher machining accuracy and better surface quality of ceramic elements, while the nature of hard and brittle ceramics makes it difficult to acquire damage-free and ultra-smooth surface. Ceramic bulk can be treated as an assemblage of discrete particles bonded together randomly as the micro-structure of ceramics consists of crystal particles and pores, and the inter-granular fracture of the ceramics can be naturally represented by the separation of particles due to breakage of bonds. Discrete element method (DEM) provides a promising approach for constructing an effective model to describe the tool-workpiece interaction and can serve as a predicting simulation tool in analyzing the complicated surface generation mechanism and is employed in this research to simulate the mechanical polishing process of ceramics and surface integrity. In this work, a densely packed particle assembly system of the polycrystalline Si3N4 has been generated using bonded-particle model to represent the ceramic workpiece numerically. The simulation results justify that the common critical depth of cut cannot be used as the effective parameters for evaluating brittle to ductile transformation in ceramic polishing process. Therefore, a generalized criterion of defining the range of ductile regime machining has been developed based on the numerical results. Furthermore, different distribution of pressure chain is observed with different depth of cut which ought to have intense relationship with special structure of ceramics. This study also justified the advantage of DEM model in its capability of revealing the mechanical behaviors of ceramics at micro-scale.

  18. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  19. Ceramic Integration Technologies for Aerospace and Energy Systems: Technical Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic integration technology has been recognized as an enabling technology for the implementation of advanced ceramic systems in a number of high-temperature applications in aerospace, power generation, nuclear, chemical, and electronic industries. Various ceramic integration technologies (joining, brazing, attachments, repair, etc.) play a role in fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts of various functionalities. However, the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance requires the understanding of many thermochemical and thermomechanical factors, particularly for high temperature applications. In this presentation, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar (ceramic-ceramic) and dissimilar (ceramic-metal) material systems will be discussed. Experimental results for bonding and integration of SiC based LDI fuel injector, high conductivity C/C composite based heat rejection system, solid oxide fuel cells system, ultra high temperature ceramics for leading edges, and ceramic composites for thermostructural applications will be presented. Potential opportunities and need for the development of innovative design philosophies, approaches, and integrated system testing under simulated application conditions will also be discussed.

  20. High temperature electrical behaviour and failure mechanisms of glass-ceramic dielectrics in thick film multilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Glass-ceramics are polycrystalline materials obtained from glasses after an appropriate thermal treatment. They are of importance because they offer combinations of physical properties not available with other classes of materials. Glass-ceramics have become established as commercially important materials in fields such as consumer products, applications for the aerospace industry and protective coatings for metals. Recently, their technological importance has also been recognized in the fiel...

  1. Advanced Ceramics for NASA's Current and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    2006-01-01

    Ceramic composites and monolithics are widely recognized by NASA as enabling materials for a variety of aerospace applications. Compared to traditional materials, ceramic materials offer higher specific strength which can enable lighter weight vehicle and engine concepts, increased payloads, and increased operational margins. Additionally, the higher temperature capabilities of these materials allows for increased operating temperatures within the engine and on the vehicle surfaces which can lead to improved engine efficiency and vehicle performance. To meet the requirements of the next generation of both rocket and air-breathing engines, NASA is actively pursuing the development and maturation of a variety of ceramic materials. Anticipated applications for carbide, nitride and oxide-based ceramics will be presented. The current status of these materials and needs for future goals will be outlined. NASA also understands the importance of teaming with other government agencies and industry to optimize these materials and advance them to the level of maturation needed for eventual vehicle and engine demonstrations. A number of successful partnering efforts with NASA and industry will be highlighted.

  2. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible.

  3. Preparation of Bauxite Ceramic Microsphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiaosu; LIU Pingan; LI Xiuyan; SHUI Anze; ZENG Lingke

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic microspheres were prepared by using Chinese bauxite as raw materials through the centrifugal spray drying method. The control technology of microsphere size, degree of sphericity was researched. The ceramic microspheres were sintered by a double sintering process. The microstructure and composition of ceramic microsphere were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy spectroscopy. The results show that the degree of sphericity of the ceramic microsphere was good and the particle size was 10-100 μm. The XRD analysis reveals that the main crystalline phase of the ceramic microsphere was α- Al2O3 and mullite (3Al2O3·2SiO2). The product can be used as reinforced material for composite material, especially for antiskid and hard wearing aluminum alloy coating.

  4. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Mineralogical characterization of clays used in the structural ceramic industry in west of S. Paulo State, Brazil Caracterização mineralógica de argilas usadas na indústria de cerâmica estrutural no oeste do estado de S. Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Teixeira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity and the grain-size distribution of the raw material used to make structural bricks and roof tiles are very important to the production process. These two parameters and the mineral composition will define the quality and properties of the final product: color, mechanical resistance, water absorption, cracks, swell and shrink during drying and firing the ceramic pieces etc. In the Brazilian ceramic industry it is very common to mix together two or more different kinds of raw material to achieve the ceramic mass with the desired grain-size distribution. The objective of this work was to characterize the raw material collected at the floodplains of the Paraná and Paranapanema Rivers and the ceramic mass used by the ceramic industry in western São Paulo State, Brazil. Particle size distribution, organic matter and X-ray diffraction were used to study this material. The textural analysis indicates that the raw materials have the clay fraction ranging from 38.2% to 66.3%, the silt from 22.2% to 49.7% and the sand from 3.1% to 34.1%. The results indicate that all mixed raw materials have more clay in its composition than would be necessary. The organic matter ranges from 5 to 7%. All samples have kaolinite and many of them have smectites, HIV and mica. Gibbsite, iron and titanium oxides, and quartz are also identified. One of the samples (yellow is rich in goethite.A plasticidade e a granulometria da massa cerâmica são dois parâmetros importantes para o processo de produção de tijolos e telhas. Estes dois parâmetros e a composição mineralógica definirão a qualidade e propriedades (cor, resistência mecânica, absorção de água, trincas, mudanças nas dimensões durante a secagem e queima, etc. do produto final. Na indústria cerâmica brasileira é comum misturar dois ou mais tipos de "barro" para se obter a massa cerâmica com a granulometria e plasticidade desejada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a matéria prima

  6. High-temperature corrosion resistance of ceramics and ceramic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, P.F.

    1996-06-01

    Ceramics and ceramic composites offer the potential to operate fossil energy systems at the higher temperatures necessary for improved energy efficiency and better environmental control. However, because many fossil fuel-derived processes contain sulfur, chlorine, and carbon, as well as oxygen, degradation from high-temperature corrosion and environmental effects arising from reactions of solids with gases and condensable products is a common life-determining factor in operating systems. Ceramic-based products are not immune to such degradation; adequate corrosion resistance must be assured to exploit the technical and economic potential of such materials. This is normally accomplished by using stable, sound oxides that exist in their bulk form, that naturally grow as surface layers upon exposure to an oxidizing environment, or that are deposited as a coating on a susceptible material. It is therefore important to examine the critical issues with respect to more environmental stability of ceramics that have the potential to be corrosion resistant in particular fossil environments. Key aspects include not only chemical compatibility, but the influence of the environment on the mechanical behavior of the ceramic materials. In addition, for coatings, the mechanical reliability of the ceramic is a key issue in that an otherwise corrosion-resistant surface layer must remain sound and adherent in order to provide protection to the underlying substrate. The purpose of this work is to support the development of advanced ceramics and ceramic composites for applications in fossil environments by examining critical issues related to high-temperature corrosion resistance. More specifically, the overall objective of this task is to examine the chemical compatibility and reliability of potentially corrosion-resistant ceramics being developed as protective overcoats and/or structural materials as parts of other work elements funded by the AR&TD Program.

  7. Processing and Material Characterization of Continuous Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Polymer Derived Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.

    2014-01-01

    The need for high performance vehicles in the aerospace industry requires materials which can withstand high loads and high temperatures. New developments in launch pads and infrastructure must also be made to handle this intense environment with lightweight, reusable, structural materials. By using more functional materials, better performance can be seen in the launch environment, and launch vehicle designs which have not been previously used can be considered. The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Polymer matrix composites can be used for temperatures up to 260C. Ceramics can take much higher temperatures, but they are difficult to produce and form in bulk volumes. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, allowing a shape to be formed and cured and then to be pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in the composites. In this study, continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material. The oxyacetylene torch testing and three point bend testing have been performed on test panels and the test results are presented.

  8. Eco-innovation an evolution of innovation? Empirical analysis at the Spanish tile ceramic industry; Eco-innovacion, una evolucion de la innovacion? Analisis empirico en la industria ceramica espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segarra-Ona, M.; Peiro-Signes, A.; Miret-Pastor, L.; Albors-Garrigos, J.

    2011-07-01

    Innovation and sustainable development are considered to be economic drivers and crucial in fixing competitive position of companies. Eco-innovation, known as a synergic relation among both concepts must be an element to consider when designing the company's strategy. The objective of this paper is to analyze which are the variables that determine that innovative companies go beyond and consider the improvement of their environmental impact as an output when developing innovating activities. This research considers firms belonging to the Spanish tile industry. Data has been provided by PITEC Database. The paper identifies the moderating factors that influence the eco-innovative behavior of firms. (Author)

  9. CCCloud Casalgrande Ceramic Cloud. From production to project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Alini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the industrial sectors in which our Country is still a worldwide leader is ceramics.The analysts in the business rely on this industry since it managed to turn a time of slump into the opportunity to innovate. Casalgrande Padana stands for an exemplary case in that over the last decade it consolidated its worldwide leadership by achieved the much-sought convergence between manufacturers, professionals, research and academia. A testimony of this effort is the recent work entitled CCCloud, the first Italian effort by Kengo Kuma, resulting from a research study on ceramic materials assigned by Casalgrande to the Department of Architecture of the Universities of Ferrara and Siracusa.

  10. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkins, Bruce D.; Ward, Michael E.

    1998-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  11. Ceramics in Environmental Catalysis:Applications and Possibilities%Ceramics in Environmental Catalysis: Applications and Possibilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitin LABHSETWAR; P.DOGGALI; S.RAYALU; R.YADAV; T.MISTUHASHI; H.HANEDA

    2012-01-01

    Environmental catalysis has been steadily growing because of the advances in its scientific and engineering aspects,as well as due to the new environmental challenges in the industrial era.The development of new catalysts and materials is essential for new technologies for various environmental applications.Ceramics play important roles in various environmental applications including the identification,monitoring,and quantification of pollutants and their control.Ceramics have important applications as sensors and photocatalysts,and they are extensively used as catalyst carriers and supports.Many ceramics are being explored as catalysts for pollution control applications.Their low cost,thermal and chemical stability,and capability of being tailored make them especially attractive for pollution control applications.Although a wide variety of materials have been developed as catalyst supports,this area is still of interest with new or modified catalyst supports being frequently reported.It is of equal importance to develop new or modified processes for the loading of catalysts on specific supports.Applications like chemical looping combustion (CLC) and other catalytic combustion processes are raising the demands to a new scale.We have been working on the development of both new and modified support materials,including mesoporous materials without structural order for possible applications in CLC and other catalytic reactions.Successful attempts have been made in the modification of conventional γ-Al2O3 and improved synthesis processes for supporting perovskite type catalysts.Our research on environmental catalysis applications of ceramic materials and processes are also briefly discussed.

  12. Evaluation of Saudi pegmatite and its use in porcelain industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M.H. Al-Marzouki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pegmatite is the main source of feldspar for ceramics industry. Usage of pegmatite in ceramic industry causes some problems due to the presence of mica and iron oxides. These materials reduce tile strength, hardness and density of the final product leading to low quality ceramic products. Southern Saudi pegmatite separation treatment was carried out in two phases in order to improve the ceramic quality of the feldspar obtained from this pegmatite. The first phase consists of gravitational separation to remove the heavy impurities and in the second phase magnetic separation was carried out to further minimize iron content. Porcelain ceramic batches were prepared by wet-mixing, drying, pressing (semi-dry press and fired at temperatures from 1000 to 1350 °C. The porcelain ceramic bodies were prepared and examined by DTA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and tested for bulk density, linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural strength. These results indicated that, after treatment (gravity and magnetic separation, the pegmatite can be considered as a good source of potash feldspar. The present study provides a positive indication for using of Southern Saudi pegmatite after treatment in ceramic industries.

  13. Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    34 microplasticity " stage in crack initiation from the flaw’ " for alumina ceramics has been carried out. Results of (from literal adaptations of the original...us to identify frontal-zone microcracking or even microplasticity . However. bridge degradation as a cause of the fatigue process. "Wear" direct...Ceramics", J. Aust. Ceram. Soc. 16 4-9. [24] A.W. Ruff and S.M. Wiederhorn (1979) "Erosion by Solid Particle Impact ", in Treatise on Materials Science and

  14. Obtention of ceramic pigments with residue from electroplating; Obtencao de pigmentos ceramicos a partir de residuo de galvanoplastia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, A. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Tijucas, SC (Brazil); Kniess, C.T. [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), SP (Brazil); Aguiar, B.M. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Prates, P.B.; Milanez, K., E-mail: kniesscl@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (EMC/UFSC), SC (Brazil). Depto de Engenharia Mecanica

    2011-07-01

    The incorporation of industrial residues in industrial processes opens up new business opportunities and reduces the volume of extraction of raw materials, preserving natural resources, which are limited. An important residue is the mud from galvanic industry, consisting of alkali and transition metals. According to NBR 10004/2004, this residue can be classified as Class I (hazardous), depending on the concentration of metals present in the mud. This paper proposes a method for reusing the residue from electroplating in ceramic pigments. The characterization of residual plating was obtained by chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis and pH measurements. The electroplating waste was incorporated in different percentages on a standard pigment formula of industrial ceramic, consisting mainly of Zn, Fe and Cr. The obtained pigments were applied in ceramic glazes to colorimetric and visual analysis, which showed good results with the addition of up to 15% of industrial waste. (author)

  15. Creep in electronic ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routbort, J. L.; Goretta, K. C.; Arellano-Lopez, A. R.

    2000-04-27

    High-temperature creep measurements combined with microstructural investigations can be used to elucidate deformation mechanisms that can be related to the diffusion kinetics and defect chemistry of the minority species. This paper will review the theoretical basis for this correlation and illustrate it with examples from some important electronic ceramics having a perovskite structure. Recent results on BaTiO{sub 3}, (La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr){sub 1{minus}y}MnO{sub 3+{delta}}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x}, (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and Sr(Fe,Co){sub 1.5}O{sub x} will be presented.

  16. Recent progress in ceramic joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehman, R.E.

    1998-09-01

    Both fundamental and practical aspects of ceramic joining are understood well enough for many, if not most, applications requiring moderate strengths at room temperature. This paper argues that the two greatest needs in ceramic joining are for techniques to join buried interfaces by selective heating, and methods for joining ceramics for use at temperatures of 800 to 1,200 C. Heating with microwave radiation or with high-energy electron beams has been used to join buried ceramic interfaces, for example SiC to SiC. Joints with varying levels of strength at temperatures of 600 to 1,000 C have been made using four techniques: (1) transient liquid phase bonding; (2) joining with refractory braze alloys; (3) joining with refractory glass compositions; and (4) joining using preceramic polymers. Joint strengths as high as 550 MPa at 1,000 C have been reported for silicon nitride-silicon nitride bonds tested in four-point flexure.

  17. Bringing Ceramic Parts to Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1995-01-01

    The benefits of using ceramic engine components are well known:They are tougher than metal parts, weigh less, and can withstand hotter operating temperatures.So why aren’t they being used now? High cost.

  18. Recycling of residual IGCC slags and their benefits as degreasers in ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Martín, I; Acosta Echeverría, A; García-Romero, E

    2013-11-15

    This work studies the evolution of IGCC slag grains within a ceramic matrix fired at different temperatures to investigate the effect of using IGCC slag as a degreaser. Pressed ceramic specimens from two clay mixtures are used in this study. The M1 mixture is composed of standard clays, whereas the M2 mixture is composed of the same clay mixture as M1 mixture but contains 15% by weight IGCC slag. The amount of IGCC slag added coincides with the amount of slag typically used as a degreaser in the ceramic industry. Specimens are fired at 950 °C, 1000 °C, 1050 °C, 1100 °C and 1150 °C. The mineralogical composition and the IGCC slag grain shape within the ceramic matrix are determined by X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that the surface of the slag grains is welded to the ceramic matrix while the quartz grains are separated, which causes increased water absorption and reduces the mechanical strength. IGCC slag, however, reduces water absorption. This behaviour is due to the softening temperature of the slag. This property is quite important from an industrial viewpoint because IGCC slag can serve as an alternative to traditional degreasing agents in the ceramic building industry. Additionally, using IGCC slag allows for the transformation of waste into a secondary raw material, thereby avoiding disposal at landfills; moreover, these industrial wastes are made inert and improve the properties of ceramics.

  19. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  20. Ceramic Forum International yearbook 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reh, H. (ed.)

    2004-12-01

    This is the second English-language edition of our 'ceramic forum international Yearbook'. In this year's 'Ceramics World', the perpetually updated textbook section, you will find papers surveying the already in technical ceramics established fields of 'bioceramics' and 'ceramic armouring'. From the traditional ceramics sector, from which news of more and more innovations have been reaching us in recent months, we have picked out 'decorating processes for ceramic tiles' as these are currently enjoying an undreamt-of boom thanks to the development of completely new shaping processes. A soundly researched study on 'rheology in ceramics' completes this section of the yearbook. Interested ceramists will again find everything they need for their day-to-day work - the index will help them to find the information they need fast. This information is available under the following headings: (A) Product News: Short notes on outstanding new machines, kilns, plants and equipment as well as new raw materials on the market, supplied by both European and overseas suppliers. (B) Abstracts: A compilation of abridged articles, all of which published during the last 12 months, discussing interesting processes and products or new directions in research. (C) ESD - European Suppliers Directory: Who supplies what? In English, German, Spanish, Italian and French with about 220 company entries. (D) Appendix: Listing ceramics laboratories in Europe; the periodic system; the most important physical units and the conversion of older ones to SI units (and vice versa); essential formulas for use in the ceramist's daily practice. (orig.)

  1. Microwave sintering of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the potential of microwave irradiation as an innovative energy- efficient alternative to conventional heating technologies in ceramic manufacturing is reviewed, addressing the advantages/disadvantages, while also commenting on future applications of possible commercial interest. Ceramic materials have been extensively studied and used due to several advantages they exhibit. Sintering ceramics using microwave radiation, a novel technology widely employed in various fields, can be an efficient, economic and environmentally-friendlier approach, to improve the consolidation efficiency and reduce the processing cycle-time, in order to attain substantial energy and cost savings. Microwave sintering provides efficient internal heating, as energy is supplied directly and penetrates the material. Since energy transfer occurs at a molecular level, heat is generated throughout the material, thus avoiding significant temperature gradients between the surface and the interior, which are frequently encountered at high heating rates upon conventional sintering. Thus, rapid, volumetric and uniform heating of various raw materials and secondary resources for ceramic production is possible, with limited grain coarsening, leading to accelerated densification, and uniform and fine-grained microstructures, with enhanced mechanical performance. This is particularly important for manufacturing large-size ceramic products of quality, and also for specialty ceramic materials such as bioceramics and electroceramics. Critical parameters for the process optimization, including the electromagnetic field distribution, microwave-material interaction, heat transfer mechanisms and material transformations, should be taken into consideration.

  2. Ceramic materials and growth factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohgushi, H.; Yoshikawa, T.; Okumura, M.; Nakajima, H.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Orhtopaedic Surgery; Dohi, Y. [Nara Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Public Health; Noshi, T.; Ikeuchi, M. [Nara Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

    2001-07-01

    Recently, many types of growth factors have been purified and used for promoting cell differentiation cascade. The activity of growth factors can be detected in vitro such as culture condition. However, the activity is difficult to detect when these factors are locally administered in vivo, because these dissipate soon after the administration. In order to retain growth factors in local milieu, these can be incorporated with biocompatible porous ceramic materials. Such ceramic/factors composites when implanted in vivo, can trigger certain types of cell differentiation cascade resulted in new tissue formation and tissue regeneration. The paper describes the ceramic / growth factors composites especially hydroxyapatite ceramic (HA) / bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) composite to induce osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. The HA/BMP composite supported the osteoblastic differentiation on the HA surface and finally resulted in bone bonding to the HA. When the marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were impregnated in pore areas of HA ceramics, the composites showed more and rapid bone formation than the HA/BMP and HA/MSCs composite, indicating the synergistic effect of BMP and MSCs. These findings indicate the importance of ceramic surface to evoke osteoblastic differentiation as well as to capture the molecules of growth factors for the cell differentiation. (orig.)

  3. Development of tailored ceramic microstructures using recycled marble processing residue as pore-former

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domopoulou, A.; Spiliotis, X.; Charalampides, G.; Baklavaridis, A.; Papapolymerou, G.; Karayannis, V.

    2016-06-01

    Recycling of marble processing residue is significant since marble processing constitutes an important industrial sector. Therefore, the sustainable management and the valorisation, in an economically profitable manner, of this industrial by-product should be considered. In this work, the potential use of marble residue as pore-former into clayey mixtures for the production of lightweight, porous and thermal insulating ceramics is investigated. Four samples consisting of clayey ceramic body incorporating up to 50 wt.% fine marble residue powder were produced. The final ceramic products were produced upon firing (sintering) at 950oC. Porosity and thermal conductivity measurements were carried out in order to assess the thermal insulating behavior of the produced sintered ceramics. The porosity of the sintered ceramics increases substantially by increasing the marble residue admixture loading. This, in turn, leads to a decrease in thermal conductivity. Consequently, the marble residue can be successfully employed as pore-forming agent, in order to improve the insulating behavior of the ceramic materials.

  4. Incipient flocculation molding: A new ceramic-forming technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrasmith, Steven Reade

    . Densities and microstructures were quite similar to those obtained by dry pressing and sintering these powders. Dried green samples with densities of ca. 57% of theoretical sintered to >96% of theoretical density. This research has demonstrated IFM as a viable ceramic forming process which has potential to be developed into an industrial process. Further research is needed to determine preferred molding parameters, other possible polymer-solvent systems, and investigate the use of other ceramic powders. The concepts developed for IFM may have potential applications in other ceramic forming processes, such as extrusion and rapid prototyping.

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Structures by Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Fangyong; WU Dongjiang; MA Guangyi; ZHANG Bi

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic is an important material with outstanding physical properties whereas impurities and porosities generated by traditional manufacturing methods limits its further industrial applications. In order to solve this problem, direct fabrication of Al2O3 ceramic structures is conducted by laser engineered net shaping system and pure ceramic powders. Grain refinement strengthening method by doping ZrO2 and dispersion strengthening method by doping SiC are proposed to suppress cracks in fabricating Al2O3 structure. Phase compositions, microstructures as well as mechanical properties of fabricated specimens are then analyzed. The results show that the proposed two methods are effective in suppressing cracks and structures of single-bead wall, arc and cylinder ring are successfully deposited. Stable phase ofα-Al2O3 and t-ZrO2 are obtained in the fabricated specimens. Micro-hardness higher than 1700 HV are also achieved for both Al2O3 and Al2O3/ZrO2, which are resulted from fine directional crystals generated by the melting-solidification process. Results presented indicate that additive manufacturing is a very attractive technique for the production of high-performance ceramic structures in a single step.

  6. Recent developments in transparent spinel ceramic and composite windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jas; Chin, Geoff; Hunt, Michael; Sadowski, Bryan; Miklos, Fritz; Aggarwal, Ishwar

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has pioneered the development of sintering processes for making highly transparent optical ceramics. For example, we have demonstrated the fabrication of record low absorption loss spinel as an exit window for High Energy Laser systems and rare earth doped Y2O3 and Lu2O3 for solid-state ceramic lasers. We have also developed thick spinel windows for submarine photonic masts and predicted the performance of an imaging system using testing and modeling. More recently, we have developed a novel approach of hot pressing where a transparent ceramic is produced in the net shape without requiring post polishing. This technology will result in significant cost savings associated with polishing the final optical element. We are also developing motheye structures on spinel surface to provide rugged anti-reflective solutions. We had earlier identified a Barium GalloGermanate (BGG) glass with matching index and expansion coefficient to spinel. We had demonstrated fabrication of a laminated dome for the Joint Air to Ground Missile (JAGM) program and the technology was transitioned to industry. We have pushed this technology further by developing a BGG glass - spinel ceramic transparent micro-composite, which can be processed well below spinel sintering temperatures. To address the relatively lower strength of BGG glass compared with spinel, we developed an ion-exchange process and achieved strengths up to 450 MPa. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  7. Evaluation of the thermal comfort of ceramic floor tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmeane Effting

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In places where people are bare feet, the thermal sensation of cold or hot depends on the environmental conditions and material properties including its microstructure and crustiness surface. The uncomforting can be characterized by heated floor surfaces in external environments which are exposed to sun radiation (swimming polls areas or by cold floor surfaces in internal environments (bed rooms, path rooms. The property named thermal effusivity which defines the interface temperature when two semi-infinite solids are putted in perfect contact. The introduction of the crustiness surface on the ceramic tiles interferes in the contact temperature and also it can be a strategy to obtain ceramic tiles more comfortable. Materials with low conductivities and densities can be obtained by porous inclusion are due particularly to the processing conditions usually employed. However, the presence of pores generally involves low mechanical strength. This work has the objective to evaluate the thermal comfort of ceramics floor obtained by incorporation of refractory raw materials (residue of the polishing of the porcelanato in industrial atomized ceramic powder, through the thermal and mechanical properties. The theoretical and experimental results show that the porosity and crustiness surface increases; there is sensitive improvement in the comfort by contact.

  8. Key Issues for Aerospace Applications of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Levine, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) offer significant advantages for future aerospace applications including turbine engine and liquid rocket engine components, thermal protection systems, and "hot structures". Key characteristics which establish ceramic matrix composites as attractive and often enabling choices are strength retention at high temperatures and reduced weight relative to currently used metallics. However, due to the immaturity of this class of materials which is further compounded by the lack of experience with CMC's in the aerospace industry, there are significant challenges involved in the development and implementation of ceramic matrix composites into aerospace systems. Some of the more critical challenges are attachment and load transfer methodologies; manufacturing techniques, particularly scale up to large and thick section components; operational environment resistance; damage tolerance; durability; repair techniques; reproducibility; database availability; and the lack of validated design and analysis tools. The presentation will examine the technical issues confronting the application of ceramic matrix composites to aerospace systems and identify the key material systems having potential for substantial payoff relative to the primary requirements of light weight and reduced cost for future systems. Current programs and future research opportunities will be described in the presentation which will focus on materials and processes issues.

  9. Exposure to ceramic man-made mineral fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friar, J J; Phillips, A M

    1989-01-01

    Ceramic fibres (also known as refractory fibres) are regarded here as man-made mineral fibres (MMMF) capable of withstanding temperatures of 1000-1600 degrees C without appreciable distortion or softening. Ceramic fibres are manufactured largely from the aluminosilicate group of minerals but some contain only alumina, zirconia or silica. Simultaneous personal gravimetric and optical fibre count samples were taken throughout the industry. It has not been possible to correlate gravimetric results with fibre counts in any meaningful way. The general conclusions are as follows: (a) gravimetrically, exposures ranged from less than 1 mg/m3 for light tasks to over 10 mg/m3 for some insulation workers. Exposures above 10 mg/m3 were not necessarily associated with correspondingly high fibre counts; (b) fibre counts rarely exceeded 1 f/ml, and it appears that ceramic fibre materials, in company with other MMMF, do not readily produce high airborne fibre counts; (c) control of dust from mineral wools to 5 mg/m3 achieves control to below 1 f/ml. This relationship does not hold for superfine MMMF and does not always hold for ceramic fibres.

  10. Teaching methods to explore ceramics museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于程杨

    2015-01-01

    As early as 8000 years ago the period of primitive society, our ancestors had invented pottery making technology, pottery has been widely used, with the development of The Times, the birth of China greatly improve human quality of life, one by one through the porcelain making porcelain craftsmen sublime skill and wisdom to this, give the modern with the material of inheritance and explore the porcelain making industry. Museum is not only a place full of ideas and wisdom, and knowledge transfer medium, it not only has the cultural relics collection, collection, preservation, display function, but also has guiding, activates the creative role. Modern ceramic in colleges and universities to establish the teaching course of contact is also a museum and museum is a very worth exploring topic.

  11. Ferroelectric ceramics in a pyroelectric accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchagin, A. V., E-mail: shchagin@kipt.kharkov.ua [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation); Miroshnik, V. S.; Volkov, V. I. [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Oleinik, A. N. [Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-07

    The applicability of polarized ferroelectric ceramics as a pyroelectric in a pyroelectric accelerator is shown by experiments. The spectra of X-ray radiation of energy up to tens of keV, generated by accelerated electrons, have been measured on heating and cooling of the ceramics in vacuum. It is suggested that curved layers of polarized ferroelectric ceramics be used as elements of ceramic pyroelectric accelerators. Besides, nanotubes and nanowires manufactured from ferroelectric ceramics are proposed for the use in nanometer-scale ceramic pyroelectric nanoaccelerators for future applications in nanotechnologies.

  12. Evaluation of the reuse of glass and ceramic blocks in the development of a ceramic products; Avaliacao do reaproveitamento de blocos ceramicos e de vidro no desenvolvimento de um produto ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.A.; Silva, L.A.; Martins, B.E.D.B.S.; Felippe, C.E.C.; Almeida, V.C., E-mail: valeria@eq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The ceramic industry has enormous potential to absorb wastes. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing leftovers ceramic blocks, from construction and, with shards of glass in the development of a ceramic product. The ceramic pieces were prepared with different compositions of glass by the method of pressing conformation and heating at 1000 and 1100 deg C. The conformed pieces were tested for linear shrinkage, water absorption, porosity, and tensile strength. The techniques for characterization were X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, the results show that the ceramic material produced has a high flexural strength and low values of water absorption. (author)

  13. The teaching of all-ceramic restorations in Scandinavian dental schools: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokstad, A; Mjör, I A; Frazier, K B

    1996-06-01

    The study was designed to survey the curricular requirements, types of clinical experience, and materials/ techniques used in teaching programs for all-ceramic restorations in Scandinavian dental schools. All 13 dental schools responded. Ten offered some clinical experience to pre-doctoral students, but only one required one all-ceramic restoration. The departments of fixed prosthodontics had the main teaching responsibility. All-ceramic crowns were taught at 9, veneers at 7, and inlays/onlays at 10 dental schools. A wide range of different teaching concepts, materials, and views on indications and contraindications was reported. It appears as if all-ceramic restorations are regarded as experimental by the teaching institutions, although the dental industry and some practitioners strongly recommend these types of restorations.

  14. Evaluation of an all-ceramic tubesheet assembly for a hot gas filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitner, J.L. [Mallett Technology, Inc., Canonsburg, PA (United States); Mallett, R.H. [Mallett Technology, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Eggerstedt, P.M. [Industrial Filter and Pump Mfg. Co., Cicero, IL (United States); Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A 10-inch thick, all-ceramic tubesheet design is evaluated for differential pressure and thermal conditions. Primary stresses from differential pressure are well within a safe allowable. The calculated peak thermal stresses at local discontinuities approach the modules of rupture for the ceramic material. Kiln tests were performed to demonstrate differential temperatures between hot center and cooler rim do not cause failures or visible tensile cracks. There appear to be mitigating mechanisms and design features in the Industrial Filter and Pump (IF and P) Mfg. Co. all-ceramic tubesheet design concept that add forgiveness in accommodating differential pressure and thermal loading stresses. A material characterization program on the ceramic materials is recommended.

  15. Utilization of kaolin processing waste for the production of porous ceramic bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Brasileiro, Maria I; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2008-08-01

    The kaolin processing industry generates large amounts of waste in producing countries such as Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize kaolin processing waste and evaluate its suitability as an alternative ceramic raw material for the production of porous technical ceramic bodies. The waste material was physically and chemically characterized and its thermal behaviour is described. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. Fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the waste consisted of quartz, kaolinite, and mica, and that ceramic formulations containing up to 66% of waste can be used for the production of ceramics with porosities higher than 40% and strength of about 70 MPa.

  16. Storing Waste in Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W L; Sickafus, K

    2004-07-20

    Not all the nuclear waste destined for Yucca Mountain is in the form of spent fuel. Some of it will be radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons. This so-called defense waste exists mainly as corrosive liquids and sludge in underground tanks. An essential task of the U.S. high-level radioactive waste program is to process these defense wastes into a solid material--called a waste form. An ideal waste form would be extremely durable and unreactive with other repository materials. It would be simple to fabricate remotely so that it could be safely transported to a repository for permanent storage. What's more, the material should be able to tolerate exposure to intense radiation without degradation. And to minimize waste volume, the material must be able to contain high concentrations of radionuclides. The material most likely to be used for immobilization of radioactive waste is glass. Glasses are produced by rapid cooling of high-temperature liquids such that the liquid-like non-periodic structure is preserved at lower temperatures. This rapid cooling does not allow enough time for thermodynamically stable crystalline phases (mineral species) to form. In spite of their thermodynamic instability, glasses can persist for millions of years. An alternate to glass is a ceramic waste form--an assemblage of mineral-like crystalline solids that incorporate radionuclides into their structures. The crystalline phases are thermodynamically stable at the temperature of their synthesis; ceramics therefore tend to be more durable than glasses. Ceramic waste forms are fabricated at temperatures below their melting points and so avoid the danger of handling molten radioactive liquid--a danger that exists with incorporation of waste in glasses. The waste form provides a repository's first line of defense against release of radionuclides. It, along with the canister, is the barrier in the repository over which we have the most control. When a waste

  17. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  18. [Exposure to ceramic fibers in the occupational environment. I. Production, kinds of ceramic fibers, changes in structure of these fibers, preliminary studies in the working environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczak, J

    1994-01-01

    The production of fireproof SiO2/Al2O3 ceramic fibres started in the late forties. Primarily, the production was designed entirely for the aircraft industry. In the sixties the application of ceramic fibres became more wider. The first ceramic fibrous materials were characterised by thermal resistance reaching 1200 degrees C. Certain kinds of materials produced currently can be used in the temperature accounting for 1600 degrees C. Aluminosiliceous ceramic fibres recrystallise at high temperature (above 1000 degrees C) and produce mullite and crostobalite. Ceramic fibrous material may become hazardous to workers as a source of respirable fibres. Studies, carried out in plants which manufacture products from aluminosiliceous ceramic fibres, indicated that mean concentrations of respirable fibres ranged from 0.14 to 1.13 f/cm3 while the levels of mean concentrations of total dust accounted for 0.4-13.6 mg/m3. At working posts of plants producing china, where heat-insulating materials were changed mean level of respirable fibre concentration was 0.28-1.65 f/cm3 and concentration of total dust ranged from 7.0 to 17.7 mg/m3.

  19. Performance of Ceramics in Severe Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Fox, Dennis S.; Smialek, James L.; Deliacorte, Christopher; Lee, Kang N.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramics are generally stable to higher temperatures than most metals and alloys. Thus the development of high temperature structural ceramics has been an area of active research for many years. While the dream of a ceramic heat engine still faces many challenges, niche markets are developing for these materials at high temperatures. In these applications, ceramics are exposed not only to high temperatures but also aggressive gases and deposits. In this chapter we review the response of ceramic materials to these environments. We discuss corrosion mechanisms, the relative importance of a particular corrodent, and, where available, corrosion rates. Most of the available corrosion information is on silicon carbide (SIC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) monolithic ceramics. These materials form a stable film of silica (SO2) in an oxidizing environment. We begin with a discussion of oxidation of these materials and proceed to the effects of other corrodents such as water vapor and salt deposits. We also discuss oxidation and corrosion of other ceramics: precurser derived ceramics, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), ceramics which form oxide scales other than silica, and oxide ceramics. Many of the corrosion issues discussed can be mitigated with refractory oxide coatings and we discuss the current status of this active area of research. Ultimately, the concern of corrosion is loss of load bearing capability. We discuss the effects of corrosive environments on the strength of ceramics, both monolithic and composite. We conclude with a discussion of high temperature wear of ceramics, another important form of degradation at high temperatures.

  20. Production and characterization of Ca2AlZrO5,5 ceramic components for application in the petroleum industry; Producao e caracterizacao de componentes ceramicos de Ca2AlZrO5,5 para a aplicacao na indusria petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, F.M.; Lima, M.M.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Yadava, Y.P., E-mail: felipe.mariz@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2011-07-01

    The complex cubic perovskite ceramics Ca2AlZrO5,5 is used for the encapsulation of temperature sensors. Through solid state reaction the stoichiometric quantities of the constituent chemicals, with a high degree of purity, were homogenized in a high energy ball mill, compacted by uniaxial pressing and calcined at 1200 ° C for 24 hours. The crushed tablet with the aid of a pistil set and agate mortar to obtain the ceramic powder was analysed by the X-Ray diffractometry. From the behavior of the ceramic powder sintering, Ca2AlZrO5.5, microstructure and homogeneity are being studied through Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results will be presented in terms of the potentials of this ceramic for applications as components of temperature sensors.

  1. Incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as an alternative raw material for red ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. P. Faria

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry generates huge amounts of sugarcane bagasse ashes (SCBA. This work investigates the incorporation of a SCBA waste as an alternative raw material into a clay body, replacing natural clay material by up to 20 wt.%. Clay ceramic pieces were produced by uniaxial pressing and fired at temperatures varying from 700 to 1100 ºC. The technological properties of the clay ceramic pieces (linear shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption, and tensile strength as function of the firing temperature and waste addition are investigated. The phase evolution during firing was followed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the SCBA waste could be incorporated into red ceramics (bricks and roofing tiles in partial replacement for natural clay material. These results confirm the feasibility of valorisation of SCBA waste to produce red ceramic. This use of SCBA can also contribute greatly to reducing the environmental problems of the sugarcane industry, and also save the sources of natural raw materials used in the ceramic industry.

  2. Panel report on high temperature ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolet, T C [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Fundamental research is reported concerning high temperature ceramics for application in turbines, engines, batteries, gasifiers, MHD, fuel cells, heat exchangers, and hot wall combustors. Ceramics microstructure and behavior are included. (FS)

  3. III Advanced Ceramics and Applications Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Gadow, Rainer; Mitic, Vojislav; Obradovic, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This is the Proceedings of III Advanced Ceramics and Applications conference, held in Belgrade, Serbia in 2014. It contains 25 papers on various subjects regarding preparation, characterization and application of advanced ceramic materials.

  4. Origin and Development of Chinese Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CERAMICS is animportant partof traditionalChinese culture and re-flects the wisdomand creativity of theCinese people.Kilnsfrom many differentdynasties have fired anumber of ceramic arti-cles of high artistic val-

  5. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  6. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  7. Antiferroelectric Shape Memory Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Uchino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiferroelectrics (AFE can exhibit a “shape memory function controllable by electric field”, with huge isotropic volumetric expansion (0.26% associated with the AFE to Ferroelectric (FE phase transformation. Small inverse electric field application can realize the original AFE phase. The response speed is quick (2.5 ms. In the Pb0.99Nb0.02[(Zr0.6Sn0.41-yTiy]0.98O3 (PNZST system, the shape memory function is observed in the intermediate range between high temperature AFE and low temperature FE, or low Ti-concentration AFE and high Ti-concentration FE in the composition. In the AFE multilayer actuators (MLAs, the crack is initiated in the center of a pair of internal electrodes under cyclic electric field, rather than the edge area of the internal electrodes in normal piezoelectric MLAs. The two-sublattice polarization coupling model is proposed to explain: (1 isotropic volume expansion during the AFE-FE transformation; and (2 piezoelectric anisotropy. We introduce latching relays and mechanical clampers as possible unique applications of shape memory ceramics.

  8. Ordered ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.A.; Hill, C.G. Jr.; Zeltner, W.A.

    1991-10-01

    Ceramic membranes have been formed from colloidal sols coated on porous clay supports. These supported membranes have been characterized in terms of their permeabilities and permselectivities to various aqueous test solutions. The thermal stabilities and pore structures of these membranes have been characterized by preparing unsupported membranes of the correpsonding material and performing N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and X-ray diffraction studies on these membranes. To date, membranes have been prepared from a variety of oxides, including TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as well as Zr-, Fe-, and Nb-doped TiO{sub 2}. In many of these membranes pore diameters are less than 2 nm, while in others the pore diameters are between 3 and 5 nm. Procedures for fabricating porous clay supports with reproducible permeabilities for pure water are also discussed. 30 refs., 59 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Emerging Ceramic-based Materials for Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denry, I.; Kelly, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to give an overview of a selection of emerging ceramics and issues for dental or biomedical applications, with emphasis on specific challenges associated with full-contour zirconia ceramics, and a brief synopsis on new machinable glass-ceramics and ceramic-based interpenetrating phase composites. Selected fabrication techniques relevant to dental or biomedical applications such as microwave sintering, spark plasma sintering, and additive manufacturing are also reviewed. Where appropriate, the authors have added their opinions and guidance. PMID:25274751

  10. Micromechanical Evaluation of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Materials Sciences Corporation AD-A236 756 M.hM. 9 1 0513 IEIN HIfINU IIl- DTIC JUN 06 1991 MICROMECHANICAL EVALUATION OF S 0 CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES C...Classification) \\() Micromechanical Evaluation of Ceramic Matrix Composites ) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) C-F. Yen, Z. Hashin, C. Laird, B.W. Rosen, Z. Wang 13a. TYPE...and strengthen the ceramic composites. In this task, various possibilities of crack propagation in unidirectional ceramic matrix composites under

  11. Joining of SiC ceramics and SiC/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabin, B.H. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This project has successfully developed a practical and reliable method for fabricating SiC ceramic-ceramic joints. This joining method has the potential to facilitate the use of SiC-based ceramics in a variety of elevated temperature fossil energy applications. The technique is based on a reaction bonding approach that provides joint interlayers compatible with SiC, and excellent joint mechanical properties at temperatures exceeding 1000{degrees}C. Recent efforts have focused on transferring the joining technology to industry. Several industrial partners have been identified and collaborative research projects are in progress. Investigations are focusing on applying the joining method to sintered a-SiC and fiber-reinforced SiC/SiC composites for use in applications such as heat exchangers, radiant burners and gas turbine components.

  12. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively.

  13. Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites - Aerospace potential and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stanley R.

    1992-01-01

    Thermostructural ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites are attractive in numerous aerospace applications; the noncatastrophic fracture behavior and flaw-insensitivity of continuous fiber-reinforced CMCs renders them especially desirable. The present development status evaluation notes that, for most highly-loaded high-temperature applications, the requisite fiber-technology base is at present insufficient. In addition to materials processing techniques, the life prediction and NDE methods are immature and require a projection of 15-20 years for the maturity of CMC turbine rotors. More lightly loaded, moderate temperature aircraft engine applications are approaching maturity.

  14. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  15. Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    ISSN 2095-7645CN 10-1189/TQAims and Scope The Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society is a premier archival journal devoted to publishing top quality original research that advances the fundamental and applied science of ceramic materials.Today’s ceramic science is an interdisciplinary field that has expanded beyond its

  16. The behavior of multilayer ceramic protections at quick thermal shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru MIHAILESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Protective layers of “hot parts” of the turbo engines as well as co-generative systems of energy industry are exposed to a combination of wear factors which may act together at high values.The main goal of the paper is the behavior of some advanced layers, duplex and triplex, multifunctional, ceramics in relation to the most complex wear factor and disturbing as well, the quick thermal shock.The quick thermal shock test installation designed and constructed by the INCAS covers the domain of some high gradients of heating/cooling and is currently integrated in a network of European infrastructure that evaluates the properties of functional layers for turbo engines.Micro-structure inter- and intra- facial changes gradually induced in ceramic structures are highlighted and on this basis their ranking and selection for application on physical parts are established.

  17. Development of Cordierite Honeycomb Ceramics Using Cordierite Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongkolkachit, C; Aungkavattana, P [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 Thailand (Thailand); Gosuphan, W; Wasanapiarnpong, T, E-mail: charuspm@mtec.or.t [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramics, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2011-10-29

    Cordierite ceramics (2MgO{center_dot}2Al{sub 2}O{sub 3{center_dot}}5SiO{sub 2}) were prepared from cordierite waste from refractory industry. The composition of the mixture composed of 70 wt% cordierite waste powder, 23 wt% talc and 7 wt% alumina mixing with binders, plasticizer, lubricant and water to form ceramic dough. The cordierite samples were sintered at 1250-1350 deg. C for 2 h. All samples were investigated in terms of phase composition, microstructure, bending strength and thermal expansion coefficient. It was found that the sample sintered at 1300 deg. C achieved the single phase of cordierite with the bending strength of 21.70 MPa and the lowest thermal expansion coefficient of 2.94x10{sup -6} deg. C{sup -1} observed in this study.

  18. Dynamic properties of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Impact Physics Dept.

    1995-02-01

    The present study offers new data and analysis on the transient shock strength and equation-of-state properties of ceramics. Various dynamic data on nine high strength ceramics are provided with wave profile measurements, through velocity interferometry techniques, the principal observable. Compressive failure in the shock wave front, with emphasis on brittle versus ductile mechanisms of deformation, is examined in some detail. Extensive spall strength data are provided and related to the theoretical spall strength, and to energy-based theories of the spall process. Failure waves, as a mechanism of deformation in the transient shock process, are examined. Strength and equation-of-state analysis of shock data on silicon carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, silicon dioxide and aluminum nitride is presented with particular emphasis on phase transition properties for the latter two. Wave profile measurements on selected ceramics are investigated for evidence of rate sensitive elastic precursor decay in the shock front failure process.

  19. Ceramic materials testing and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfinger, K. R., LLNL

    1998-04-30

    Certain refractory ceramics (notably oxides) have desirable properties suitable for the construction of ceramic waste containers for long term use in nuclear waste disposal applications. In particular, they are far less prone to environmental corrosion than metals under realistic repository conditions. The aqueous corrosion rates of oxides such as magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl{sub 2}0{sub 4}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}0{sub 4}) fall in the range of a few millimeters per million years. Oxide ceramics are also not likely to be subject to microbiologically influenced corrosion, which apparently can attack most, if not all, of the available engineering metals. Ceramics have a reputation for poor mechanical performance and large, impermeable objects are not easily fabricated by most current fabrication methods. As a result, the most promising approach for incorporating ceramics in large waste packages appears to be to apply a high density ceramic coating to a supporting metallic structure. Ceramic coatings 2048 applied by a thermal spray technique can be made effectively seamless and provide a method for final closure of the waste package while maintaining low average temperatures for the entire assembly. The corrosion resistance of the ceramic should prevent or delay water penetration to the underlying metal, which will in turn provide most of the mechanical strength and toughness required by the application. In this way, the major concerns regarding the ceramic coating become ensuring it is impervious to moisture, its adherence and its resistance to mechanical stresses during handling or resulting from rock fall in the repository. Without water, electrochemical corrosion and microbiologically influenced corrosion processes are considered impossible, so a complete coating should protect the metal vessels for far longer than the current design requirements. Even an imperfect coating should extend the life of the package, delaying the onset and reducing the severity of

  20. Classification of refractory ceramic fibres and repercussions on high temperature insulation; La classification des fibres ceramiques refractaires et ses consequences sur l'isolation haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Class, Ph. [Thermal Ceramics de France (France)

    2000-09-01

    1999 saw the implementation of the European directive 97/69/CE on the classification of man made vitreous (silicate) fibres. This major change and its extent may be difficult to understand but is of great importance to all industries using such materials. The author, expert in Health, Safety and Environment at Thermal Ceramics Europe and representative of the European Ceramic Fibre Industry Association (ECFIA), develops this classification here, giving emphasis to the repercussions it will have on refractory ceramic fibres and high temperature insulating wools. (author)

  1. Ceramic catalyst materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sault, A.G.; Gardner, T.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanprasopwattanna, A.; Reardon, J.; Datye, A.K. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) ion-exchange materials show great potential as ceramic catalyst supports due to an inherently high ion-exchange capacity which allows facile loading of catalytically active transition metal ions, and an ability to be cast as thin films on virtually any substrate. By coating titania and HTO materials onto inexpensive, high surface area substrates such as silica and alumina, the economics of using these materials is greatly improved, particularly for the HTO materials, which are substantially more expensive in the bulk form than other oxide supports. In addition, the development of thin film forms of these materials allows the catalytic and mechanical properties of the final catalyst formulation to be separately engineered. In order to fully realize the potential of thin film forms of titania and HTO, improved methods for the deposition and characterization of titania and HTO films on high surface area substrates are being developed. By varying deposition procedures, titania film thickness and substrate coverage can be varied from the submonolayer range to multilayer thicknesses on both silica and alumina. HTO films can also be formed, but the quality and reproducibility of these films is not nearly as good as for pure titania films. The films are characterized using a combination of isopropanol dehydration rate measurements, point of zero charge (PZC) measurements, BET surface area, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and elemental analysis. In order to assess the effects of changes in film morphology on catalytic activity, the films are being loaded with MoO{sub 3} using either incipient wetness impregnation or ion-exchange of heptamolybdate anions followed by calcining. The MoO{sub 3} is then sulfided to form MOS{sub 2}, and tested for catalytic activity using pyrene hydrogenation and dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization, model reactions that simulate reactions occurring during coal liquefaction.

  2. Proton conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Cerate perovskites of the general formula AM{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where A = Sr or Ba and where M = Gd, Nd, Y, Yb or other rare earth dopant, are known to conduct a protonic current. Such materials may be useful as the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures, as an electrochemical hydrogen separation membrane, or as a hydrogen sensor. Conduction mechanisms in these materials were evaluated using dc cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry, allowing currents and activation energies for proton, electron, and oxygen ion contributions to the total current to be determined. For SrYb{sub 0.05}Ce{sub 0.95}O{sub 3-{delta}}, one of the best and most environmentally stable compositions, proton conduction followed two different mechanisms: a low temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 0.42{+-}0.04 eV, and a high temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 1.38{+-}0.13 eV. It is believed that the low temperature process is dominated by grain boundary conduction while bulk conduction is responsible for the high temperature process. The activation energy for oxygen ion conduction (0.97{+-}0.10 eV) agrees well with other oxygen conductors, while that for electronic conduction, 0.90{+-}0.09 eV, is affected by a temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Evaluated by direct measurement of mass flux through a dense ceramic with an applied dc field, oxygen ions were determined to be the majority charge carrier except at the lowest temperatures, followed by electrons and then protons.

  3. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-08-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

  4. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure.

  5. Ceramics in fission and fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    The role of ceramic components in fission and fusion reactors is described. Almost all of the functions normally performed by ceramics, except mechanical, are required of nuclear ceramics. The oxides of uranium and plutonium are of predominant importance in nuclear applications, but a number of other ceramics play peripheral roles. The unique service conditions under which nuclear ceramics must operate include intense radiation fields, high temperatures and large temperature gradients, and aggressive chemical environments. Examples of laboratory research designed to broaden understanding of the behavior of uranium dioxide in such conditions are given. The programs described include high temperature vaporization, diffusional processes, and interaction with hydrogen.

  6. Ceramic susceptor for induction bonding of metals, ceramics, and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert L.; Buckley, John D.

    1991-01-01

    A thin (.005) flexible ceramic susceptor (carbon) was discovered. It was developed to join ceramics, plastics, metals, and combinations of these materials using a unique induction heating process. Bonding times for laboratory specimens comparing state of the art technology to induction bonding were cut by a factor of 10 to 100 times. This novel type of carbon susceptor allows for applying heat directly and only to the bondline without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. The ceramic (carbon film) susceptor produces molten adhesive or matrix material at the bond interface. This molten material flows through the perforated susceptor producing a fusion between the two parts to be joined, which in many instances has proven to be stronger than the parent material. Bonding can be accomplished in 2 minutes on areas submitted to the inductive heating. Because a carbon susceptor is used in bonding carbon fiber reinforced plastics and ceramics, there is no radar signature or return making it an ideal process for joining advanced aerospace composite structures.

  7. Potential contribution of microbial communities in technical ceramics for the improvement of rheological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Bernardino; Miller, Ana Z.; Santos, Ricardo; Monteiro, Sílvia; Dias, Diamantino; Neves, Orquídia; Dionísio, Amélia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2014-05-01

    Several bacterial and fungal species naturally occurring in ceramic raw materials used in construction, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Aureobasidium, are known to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS). These polymers excreted by the cells are of widespread occurrence and may confer unique and potentially interesting properties with potential industrial uses, such as viscosity control, gelation, and flocculation, during ceramic manufacturing. In this study, the microbial communities present in clay raw materials were identified by both cultural methods and DNA-based molecular techniques in order to appraise their potential contribution to enhance the performance of technical ceramics through the use of EPS. Mineralogical identification by X- Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the clay raw materials, as well as characterization of rheological properties of ceramic slips were also performed. Microbial EPS production and its introduction into ceramic slips will be then carried out in order to evaluate their effects on the rheological properties of the ceramic slips, powders and conformed bodies. Some positive aspects related to the use of EPS are: reduction of the environmental impact caused by synthetic organic additives, reduction of production costs, as well as the costs related with operator protection systems, gaseous effluent treatments, complex landfill, among others.

  8. An Overview on the Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Ceramics Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Silvestre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their prominent properties (mechanical, stiffness, strength, thermal stability, ceramic composite materials (CMC have been widely applied in automotive, industrial and aerospace engineering, as well as in biomedical and electronic devices. Because monolithic ceramics exhibit brittle behaviour and low electrical conductivity, CMCs have been greatly improved in the last decade. CMCs are produced from ceramic fibres embedded in a ceramic matrix, for which several ceramic materials (oxide or non-oxide are used for the fibres and the matrix. Due to the large diversity of available fibres, the properties of CMCs can be adapted to achieve structural targets. They are especially valuable for structural components with demanding mechanical and thermal requirements. However, with the advent of nanoparticles in this century, the research interests in CMCs are now changing from classical reinforcement (e.g., microscale fibres to new types of reinforcement at nanoscale. This review paper presents the current state of knowledge on processing and mechanical properties of a new generation of CMCs: Ceramics Nanocomposites (CNCs.

  9. Microwave heating: Industrial applications. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial uses and design of microwave heating equipment. Citations discuss applications in food processing, industrial heating, vulcanization, textile finishing, metallurgical sintering, ceramic manufacturing, paper industries, and curing of polymers. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. A new classification system for all-ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracis, Stefano; Thompson, Van P; Ferencz, Jonathan L; Silva, Nelson R F A; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2015-01-01

    Classification systems for all-ceramic materials are useful for communication and educational purposes and warrant continuous revisions and updates to incorporate new materials. This article proposes a classification system for ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials in an attempt to systematize and include a new class of materials. This new classification system categorizes ceramic restorative materials into three families: (1) glass-matrix ceramics, (2) polycrystalline ceramics, and (3) resin-matrix ceramics. Subfamilies are described in each group along with their composition, allowing for newly developed materials to be placed into the already existing main families. The criteria used to differentiate ceramic materials are based on the phase or phases present in their chemical composition. Thus, an all-ceramic material is classified according to whether a glass-matrix phase is present (glass-matrix ceramics) or absent (polycrystalline ceramics) or whether the material contains an organic matrix highly filled with ceramic particles (resin-matrix ceramics). Also presented are the manufacturers' clinical indications for the different materials and an overview of the different fabrication methods and whether they are used as framework materials or monolithic solutions. Current developments in ceramic materials not yet available to the dental market are discussed.

  11. Caracterização dos argilominerais usados em matéria-prima cerâmica, da formação Rio do Rasto, Bacia do Paraná, no município de Turvo, SC Characterization of clay minerals used in the ceramic industry, from Rio do Rasto formation, Paraná basin, exploitation in Turvo, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No sudeste de Santa Catarina existem inúmeras minas de exploração de argilas destinadas à indústria cerâmica da região. Para o conhecimento desta matéria prima foi realizada a caracterização em detalhe de uma frente de lavra em atividade. A exploração é realizada em terrenos sedimentares da Formação Rio do Rasto (Permiano Superior na Bacia do Paraná que afloram como morros testemunho. Foram coletadas quatorze amostras representativas dos níveis desta mina composta de argilitos com intercalação de siltitos de pequena espessura. As amostras foram analisadas por difratometria de raios X pelo método do pó na rocha total e na fração In the southeastern part of Santa Catarina state, Brazil, many mines of clays used as raw material for the ceramic industry are found. A detail study of this material was developed in a mine in activity. The exploitation of clays is held in sedimentary rocks of Rio do Rasto Formation (Upper Permian in the Paraná Basin. The outcrops are in hills testimonies. Fourteen samples were collected and represent the levels of this mine which consisted of argillites with intercalation of slim siltite layer. These samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction using the powder method and in the fraction < 4 µm. The chemical composition was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Petrographic observations in thin section were also performed. Scanning electron microscope images was obtained in samples fragments by secondary electron method. Electron microprobe microanalysis was performed in one thin section. The results showed large vertical variation in the mineralogy and it has been identified three different levels. Up to 2.00 m there is a predominance of smectite. Between 5.50 m 2.00 m the smectite is the main clay mineral, but with significant amounts of illite/mica and above 5.50 m occurs large increase in K-feldspar and detrital mica. Studies in detail by X-ray diffraction (determination of the b

  12. Industrial Chain: Industrial Vertical Definition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YifeiDu; GuojunJiang; ShimingLi

    2004-01-01

    Like value chain and supply chain, “industrial chain” becomes the focus of attention. The implication of “industrial chain” has gained a large range of extension. It not only expresses the industrial “chain” structure and relationship of “back and forward”in order or “up and down” in direction, but also it represents a cluster of large scale of firms in an area or colony. It is a network, or a community. Consequently, we conclude that “industrial chain” is a synthesis of industrial chain, industrial cluster, or industrial network.In this article, firstly we will distinguish industry chain from industry. An industry is the collection of firms that have the same attribute, so an industry can be defined by firm collection of certain attribute. We indicate that industrial chain is a kind of vertical and orderly industrial link. It is defined according to a series of specific product or service created. Secondly we analyze the vertical orderly defiinition process from the aspects of social division of labor and requirement division, self-organization system, and value analysis.Non-symmetry and depending on system or community of large scale of industrial units lead to entire industry to “orderly” structure. On the other hand, the draught of diversity and complexity of requirement simultaneously lead to entire industry to be more “orderly”. Along with processes of self-organization, industrial will appi'oach the state of more orderly and steady, and constantly make industrial chain upgrade. Each firm or unit, who will gain the value, has to establish channels of value, which we called “industrial value chain”. Lastly,we discuss the consequence of vertical and orderly definition, which is exhibited by a certain relationship body. The typical forms of industrial chain include industrial cluster, strategy alliance and vertical integration etc.

  13. Reuse of the red brick waste and dust waste of blasting chamber (glass micro spheres) in the red ceramic industry; Reaproveitamento dos residuos de tijolos vermelhos e do residuo de poeira da camara de jateamento (micro esferas de vidro) na industria de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.A.; Felippe, C.E.C.; Guimaraes, C.S.; Almeida, V.C., E-mail: valeria@eq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Escola de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The search for alternative environmentally less aggressive disposal of solid waste has been adopted to reverse the negative scenario established by the improper disposal of these materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reuse of waste: leftover red brick from the civil construction and glass micro spheres, obtained from the blasting chamber, aiming to develop a ceramic product. Mixtures containing various amounts of waste were prepared. The ceramic pieces were burned at 1000 and 1200 deg C being tested for water absorption and tensile strength and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The analysis of volatile organic compounds released during the burning process was performed. The results indicate that the ceramic material produced has a high resistance although the analysis of gases from the burning point to a negative environmental impact. (author)

  14. Art Education: Creative Ceramic Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Nora; Marinaccio, Louis

    A course in forming, decorating, glazing, and firing pottery is presented. Upon completion of the course, the student will be expected to be familiar with all terms and characteristics connected with pottery and ceramics, and he will be expected to be able to properly handle and form clay. Course content includes the history of clay handling,…

  15. Properties Research of Ceramic Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Żółkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the method of full mould the polystyrene model, which fills the mould cavity in the course of filling by the liquid metal is subjected tothe influence of high temperature and passes from the solid, through the liquid, to the gaseous state. During this process solid and gaseousproducts of thermal decomposition of polystyrene patterns occur. The kinetics of this process is significantly influenced by the gasificationtemperature, density and mass of the polystyrene patterns. One of the basic parameters is the amount and rate of gas from the polystyrenemodel during its thermal decomposition. Specific properties of ceramic layer used for lost foam castings are required. To ensure optimalprocess flow of metal in the form proper permeability of the ceramic layer is needed.To ensure optimal conditions for technological casting method EPS patterns are tested and determined are the technological parametersand physical-chemical process in: material properties of the pattern, properties of the ceramic layer applied to the pattern, pattern gasification kinetics pouring processIn the course of the research the characteristics of polystyrene and ceramic layer were determined.

  16. Direct foaming porous alumina ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvini, V.R.; Sandurkov, B.A.; Klein-Gunnewiek, R.F.; Pandolfelli, V.C. [Federal Univ. of Sao Carlos, Materials Engineering Dept., FIRE Associate Lab., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the work carried out in order to improve the properties of these porous alumina ceramics, concerning their application as thermal insulating. Changes in solid content of ceramic suspension, variations of pore forming agents and other additives were carried out and their effects on the green and the sintered mechanical strength are also shown. According to the literature, several starch types seem to be attractive pore forming agents as well as binders for porous ceramics. Most of them consist of a mixture of two polysaccharide types, amylose (linear) and amylopectin (highly branched). Corn, potato and rice starches were used in the present study because of their difference in size and shape. In order to increase the mechanical strength of the sintered porous ceramics a part of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the composition was replaced by Al(OH){sub 3}. Due to the changes of the composition and additives, porosities up to 81% and a mechanical strength of 15 MPa were obtained. (orig.)

  17. Doubled-ended ceramic thyratron

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The double-ended ceramic thyratron CX 1171 B, with its coaxial voltage divider for the SPS. Such a switch, paralleled by three ignitrons in series forms the "thyragnitron" arrangement, and can switch 10 kA, 25 ms pulses, with very fast rise times.

  18. Optical scattering in glass ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattarelli, M.; Montagna, M.; Verrocchio, P.

    2008-01-01

    The transparency of glass ceramics with nanocrystals is generally higher than that expected from the theory of Rayleigh scattering. We attribute this ultra-transparency to the spatial correlation of the nanoparticles. The structure factor is calculated for a simple model system, the random sequentia

  19. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2016-01-12

    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  20. Ceramic tape fabrication: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-04-01

    The production flow for green tapes can be roughly divided into the production of slip and the tape casting/tape calendering process. A slip usually consists of ceramic powder, solvents, binders, plasticizers and dispersants. The preparation of the slip is a critical step in the fabrication of ceramic tapes. To obtain a homogeneous slip, the organic additives must first be weighed and dissolved in the solvent. The ceramic powder is then dispersed and existing agglomerates destroyed. A dispersant is added to prevent the reformation of agglomerates. If necessary, the viscosity is then adjusted, and the slip filtered. The exact sequence depends on the type of slip and the equipment used. To destroy the agglomerates, a wide range of mills is employed, from ball mills through attritor mills to ultrasonic devices (mainly on laboratory scale). A wide variety of grinding media, with different sizes, geometries and materials, is also used. The selection depends largely on the characteristics of the slip (e.g.: viscosity, wettability, drying behaviour), the required properties of the ceramic tapes (permitted content of impurities, sintering behaviour) and the quantities to be processed. In most cases, an actual grinding effect, i.e. size reduction of the particles, is avoided. Some of the most commonly used devices are described. At present, tapes with a thickness of 5 {mu}m can be fabricated - in the next years, thicknesses of around 1{mu}m must be reached. To enable this, slip preparation must be further improved and production performed in an absolutely clean environment (for specific products clean rooms are already standard, but even higher clean room standards will be needed in the future). Moreover, new, finer ceramic powders are necessary with particle sizes on the nanometer scale (nanopowders). (orig.)

  1. A multiyear workplace-monitoring program for refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, L D; Kelly, W P; Walters, T; Waugh, R

    1994-12-01

    This paper summarizes interim results of a 5-year workplace monitoring program conducted by firms belonging to the Refractory Ceramic Fibers Coalition (RCFC) pursuant to a Consent Agreement with the U.S. EPA. The exposure monitoring program is part of a model Product Stewardship Program (PSP) developed by RCFC. This paper reviews the refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) industry, findings of animal bioassay and epidemiological investigations, and the regulatory approach used by EPA. The scope, protocols, sample collection budgets, and experimental design of the monitoring program are summarized. In brief, the program will gather 720 time-weighted average (TWA) workplace concentration measurements annually, partitioned among 8 functional job classifications, both from plants that manufacture and from those that process or use RCF. Statistical analyses reveal that: workplace airborne RCF concentration data are approximately log-normally distributed, 93% of workplace TWAs are beneath the industry's recommended exposure guideline of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc), there are significant differences in average workplace RCF concentrations among job types, and PSP activities are effective in lowering workplace exposure. Results of this effort provide an interesting illustration of a successful cooperative effort between a responsible industry and regulatory agencies.

  2. Preparation and Microstructure of Glass-ceramics and Ceramic Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Feng; XIE Junlin; HAN Da

    2008-01-01

    The technology and microstructure of glass-ceramics and ceramic composite materials were studied.A suitable ceramic body was chosen on the basis of the sintering temperature of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system glass-ceramics.According to the expansion coefficient of the ceramic body,that of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system glass-ceramics was adjusted.a-wollastonite was found present as the major crystalline phase in glass-ceramic.The CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system glass-ceramic layer and ceramic body could be sintered together by adjusting the sintering period.The compositions of glass-ceramic layer and ceramic body diffuse mutually at 1100℃.resulting in an interface between them.To achieve good sintered properties of glass-ceramics and the chosen ceramic body,at least a four-hour sintering time is used.

  3. Refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs) induce germline aneuploidy in Drosophila oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, C J

    1994-06-01

    Mineral fibers are ubiquitous in the natural environment and are widely used in industry in such applications as insulators. We have previously shown that asbestos fibers induce aneuploidy in oocytes of Drosophila melanogaster; here we extend those studies by testing refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs) for their mutagenicity to germ cells. The results establish that the tested RCFs are inducers of aneuploidy following feeding of adult females. A subset of the RCFs were also effective following larval feeding. Our results suggest that RCFs, like certain asbestos fibers, may pose a hazard to germ cells.

  4. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients

  5. Novel sintered ceramic materials incorporated with EAF carbon steel slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, V.; Ntampegliotis, K.; Lamprakopoulos, S.; Papapolymerou, G.; Spiliotis, X.

    2017-01-01

    In the present research, novel sintered clay-based ceramic materials containing electric arc furnace carbon steel slag (EAFC) as a useful admixture were developed and characterized. The environmentally safe management of steel industry waste by-products and their valorization as secondary resources into value-added materials towards circular economy have attracted much attention in the last years. EAF Carbon steel slag in particular, is generated during the manufacture of carbon steel. It is a solid residue mainly composed of rich-in- Fe, Ca and Si compounds. The experimental results show that the beneficial incorporation of lower percentages of EAFC up to 6%wt. into ceramics sintered at 950 °C is attained without significant variations in sintering behavior and physico-mechanical properties. Further heating up to 1100 °C strongly enhances the densification of the ceramic microstructures, thus reducing the porosity and strengthening their mechanical performance. On the other side, in terms of thermal insulation behavior as well as energy consumption savings and production cost alleviation, the optimum sintering temperature appears to be 950 °C.

  6. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  7. Assessment of the State of the Art of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Gasch, Matt; Stackpoole, Mairead

    2009-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are a family of materials that includes the borides, carbides and nitrides of hafnium-, zirconium- and titanium-based systems. UHTCs are famous for possessing some of the highest melting points of known materials. In addition, they are very hard, have good wear resistance, mechanical strength, and relatively high thermal conductivities (compared to other ceramic materials). Because of these attributes, UHTCs are ideal for thermal protection systems, especially those that require chemical and structural stability at extremely high operating temperatures. UHTCs have the potential to revolutionize the aerospace industry by enabling the development of sharp hypersonic vehicles or atmospheric entry probes capable of the most extreme entry conditions.

  8. Fabrication and study of stability of Ca{sub 2}AlWO{sub 5,5} ceramic in crude petroleum for applications in petroleum industry; Fabricacao e estudo da estabilidade em petroleo cru da ceramica Ca{sub 2}AlWO{sub 5,5} para aplicacao em industria petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Silva, N.D.G.; Sousa, A.G. de; Sanguinetti Ferreira, R.A., E-mail: dea.a@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    Perovskite-type ceramic oxides or their derivatives are used for applications in high technology because of their enormous range of physic-chemical properties with little change in structural characteristics. In this paper we report manufacture ceramic components of a new ceramic Ca{sub 2}AlWO{sub 5,5} by thermo-mechanical process. Stoichiometric amounts of chemical constituents with high degree of purity, were homogenized using a ball mill and high purity alumina balls, compacted by uniaxial pressing and annealed at 1200 deg C for 48 hours. The structural characterization studied by x-ray diffraction that this material has a typical complex ordered cubic perovskite structure. For the study the stability of these ceramics in crude petroleum circular discs of 20 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness were produced and sintering. These discs were submerged in crude petroleum for 15, 30 and 45 days and were examined at each stage by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and hardness testing and these results show that Ca{sub 2}AlWO{sub 5,5} are stable in crude petroleum environment. (author)

  9. Modeling coupled heat and mass transfer during drying in tape casting with a simple ceramics-water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    In many industrial processes such as in tape casting for electronics or in the food industry, drying is one of the determining physical phenomena. In this study, the evaporation of water from a ceramic-water mixture is investigated with the purpose of understanding the drying rate in the drying...... process of thin sheets produced by the tape casting process. The rate of mass loss in the drying process is a key factor that often is of interest, as it affects the final properties of the tapes. The 1D heat conduction equation is solved numerically to obtain the temperature field in a ceramic sheet...

  10. Ceramics as biomaterials for dental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Watzke, Ronny; Peschke, Arnd; Kappert, Heinrich

    2008-11-01

    Sintered ceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used as biomaterials for dental restoration, especially as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Biomaterials were developed either to veneer metal frameworks or to produce metal-free dental restorations. Different types of glass-ceramics and ceramics are available and necessary today to fulfill customers' needs (patients, dentists and dental technicians) regarding the properties of the biomaterials and the processing of the products. All of these different types of biomaterials already cover the entire range of indications of dental restorations. Today, patients are increasingly interested in metal-free restoration. Glass-ceramics are particularly suitable for fabricating inlays, crowns and small bridges, as these materials achieve very strong, esthetic results. High-strength ceramics are preferred in situations where the material is exposed to high masticatory forces.

  11. Ceramic membranes applied in separation of hot gases; Membranas Ceramicas para Separacion de Gases en Caliente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this project is to develop and evaluate inorganic membranes of a ceramic type, with nanometric pore size, applied in separation of contaminants and fuel enrichment, gas mixture in coal gasification . etc. Using ceramic materials have the advantage of being highly physical and chemical resistance, which makes these membranes more adequate then metal equivalent for these applications. A support manufacture and the development of natricum membranes technology to estimate the potential fields of applications and industrial viability of ceramic membranes are the intermediate goals so that the project could be considered successful one. The project has been carried out jointly by the following entities: TGI, S. A. (Tecnologia y Gestion de la Innovacion, Spain). CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Spain) and CSIC-UAM (Centro mixto Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas-Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales, Spain). The range of activities proposed in this project is to get the sufficient knowledge of preparation and behaviour of separation membranes to be able to procede to the desing and manufacture of an industrial filter. The project phases include; the ameiloration of ceramic support processing methods, the fluid dynamic evaluation, technology for membrane desing and manufacturing, the mounting (setting up) of an experimental installation for testing and evaluation. As a previous step a state of the art review about the following topics was made: high temperature inorganic membranes, technology separation mechanisms, gasifications process and its previous experience applications of membranes and determination of membranes specifications and characteristics of testing conditions. At the end a new inorganic ceramic membrane, with nanometric pore size and useful in several industrial processes (filtration, separation of contaminants, fuel enrichment, purification of gas mixtures

  12. Evaluation of bond strength of various margin ceramics to a zirconia ceramic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comlekoglu, M. Erhan; Dundar, Mine; Ozcan, Mutlu; Gungor, M. Ali; Gokce, Bulent; Artunc, Celal

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the bond strengths of four different margin ceramics based on fluoroapatite and feldspath to a zirconia ceramic. Methods: Zirconia cores (Zirconzahn) (N = 28, n = 7/margin ceramic group) were fabricated according to the manufacturers' instructions (diameter: 4 mm; thi

  13. Properties of Ceramic Fiber and Ceramic Shot in Wet-laid Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Long-di

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the different sinking properties of ceramic fiber and the ceramic shot in wetlaid nonwoven processes. The difference between the sinking properties of the fiber and the shot is very great according to theory analysis and the test. From results of calculating and practical testing, the method of removing ceramic shots during manufacturing is put forward.

  14. Study on Ceramic Cutting by Plasma Arc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Engineering ceramics are typical difficult-to-machine materials because of high hardness and brittleness. PAC (Plasma Arc Cutting) is a very important thermal cutting process and has been successfully used in cutting stainless steel and other difficult-to-machine alloys. PAC's application in cutting ceramics, however, is still limited because the most ceramics are not good electronic conducts, and transferred plasma arc cannot be produced between cathode and work-piece. So we presented a method of plasma ...

  15. Experiences with Voice to Design Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2013-01-01

    This article presents SoundShaping, a system to create ceramics from the human voice and thus how digital technology makes new possibilities in ceramic craft. The article is about how experiential knowledge that the craftsmen gains in a direct physical and tactile interaction with a responding....... The shape is output to a 3D printer to make ceramic results. The system demonstrates the close connection between digital technology and craft practice. Several experiments and reflections demonstrate the validity of this work....

  16. Experiences with voice to design ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    This article presents SoundShaping, a system to create ceramics from the human voice and thus how digital technology makes new possibilities in ceramic craft. The article is about how experiential knowledge that the craftsmen gains in a direct physical and tactile interaction with a responding....... The shape is output to a 3D printer to make ceramic results. The system demonstrates the close connection between digital technology and craft practice. Several experiments and reflections demonstrate the validity of this work....

  17. Reticulated porous silicon nitride-based ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzocchi, Mauro; Medri, Valentina; Guicciardi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The interest towards the production of porous silicon nitride originates from the unique combination of light weight, of mechanical and physical properties typical of this class of ceramics that make them attractive for many engineering applications. Although pores are generally believed to deteriorate the mechanical properties of ceramics (the strength of porous ceramics decreases exponentially with an increase of porosity), the recent literature reports that porous silicon nitride can exhib...

  18. Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    ISSN 2095-7645CN 10-1189/TQ Aims and Scope The Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society is a premier archival journal devoted to publishing top quality original research that advances the fundamental and applied science of ceramic materials.Today’S ceramic science is an interdisciplinary field that has expanded beyond its traditional core to areas as diverse as electronics and energy materials,and bio-and

  19. Using a ceramic chamber in kicker magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S.

    1993-05-01

    A ceramic chamber inside kicker magnets can provide the relevant field risetime. On the other hand, some metallic coating inside has to prevent static charge buildup and shield the beam from ceramic and ferrite at high frequencies to avoid possible resonances. The issues concerning the metallized ceramic chamber, such as coupling impedances and requirements on the coating, are studied to find a compromise solution for kickers of the Medium Energy Booster at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  20. Silsesquioxane-derived ceramic fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, F. I.; Farmer, S. C.; Terepka, F. M.; Leonhardt, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    Fibers formed from blends of silsesquioxane polymers were characterized to study the pyrolytic conversion of these precursors to ceramics. The morphology of fibers pyrolyzed to 1400 C revealed primarily amorphous glasses whose conversion to beta-SiC is a function of both blend composition and pyrolysis conditions. Formation of beta-SiC crystallites within the glassy phase is favored by higher than stoichiometric C/Si ratios, while carbothermal reduction of Si-O bonds to form SiC with loss of SiO and CO occurs at higher methyl/phenylpropyl silsesquioxane (lower C/Si) ratios. As the carbothermal reduction is assumed to be diffusion controlled, the fibers can serve as model systems to gain understanding of the silsesquioxane pyrolysis behavior, and therefore are useful in the development of polysilsesquioxane-derived ceramic matrices and coatings as well.

  1. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  2. Ceramics: Durability and radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (1) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (2) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass {open_quotes}logs{close_quotes}; (3) deep borehole disposal. The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, zirconolite, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

  3. Comparing Titanium Release from Ceramic Tiles using a waste material characterization test - Influence of Calcium and Organic Matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are beneficial in the building industry to enhance or add certain features to commonly used materials. One example is the use of nano-titanium dioxide in the surface coating of ceramic tiles, to make the tiles surface self-cleaning. At the end of life stage, ceramic tiles might...... to assess if nano-titanium dioxide coated ceramic tiles are suitable for depositing in a landfill or not. Specifically, we used compliance batch test method, which is a simple test evaluating the release from a solid material to an aqueous media during 24 hrs. If nano-Ti particles are released from solid...... of the organic matter to fully cover the surface of the particles. We evaluated the titanium release from identical ceramic tiles - with and without a nano-titanium dioxide coating - and varied the concentrations of calcium chloride (100-500 mg/l) and humic acid (25-100 mg/l). The titanium release was quantified...

  4. Flash sintering of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, C. E. J.

    2016-10-01

    During flash sintering, ceramic materials can sinter to high density in a matter of seconds while subjected to electric field and elevated temperature. This process, which occurs at lower furnace temperatures and in shorter times than both conventional ceramic sintering and field-assisted methods such as spark plasma sintering, has the potential to radically reduce the power consumption required for the densification of ceramic materials. This paper reviews the experimental work on flash sintering methods carried out to date, and compares the properties of the materials obtained to those produced by conventional sintering. The flash sintering process is described for oxides of zirconium, yttrium, aluminium, tin, zinc, and titanium; silicon and boron carbide, zirconium diboride, materials for solid oxide fuel applications, ferroelectric materials, and composite materials. While experimental observations have been made on a wide range of materials, understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the onset and latter stages of flash sintering is still elusive. Elements of the proposed theories to explain the observed behaviour include extensive Joule heating throughout the material causing thermal runaway, arrested by the current limitation in the power supply, and the formation of defect avalanches which rapidly and dramatically increase the sample conductivity. Undoubtedly, the flash sintering process is affected by the electric field strength, furnace temperature and current density limit, but also by microstructural features such as the presence of second phase particles or dopants and the particle size in the starting material. While further experimental work and modelling is still required to attain a full understanding capable of predicting the success of the flash sintering process in different materials, the technique non-etheless holds great potential for exceptional control of the ceramic sintering process.

  5. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation

    OpenAIRE

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; de CARVALHO, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative t...

  6. Ceramic dentures manufactured with ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werelius, Kristian; Weigl, Paul

    2004-06-01

    Conventional manufacturing of individual ceramic dental prosthesis implies a handmade metallic framework, which is then veneered with ceramic layers. In order to manufacture all-ceramic dental prosthesis a CAD/CAM system is necessary due to the three dimensional shaping of high strength ceramics. Most CAD/CAM systems presently grind blocks of ceramic after the construction process in order to create the prosthesis. Using high-strength ceramics, such as Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIP)-zirconia, this is limited to copings. Anatomically shaped fixed dentures have a sculptured surface with small details, which can't be created by existing grinding tools. This procedure is also time consuming and subject to significant loss in mechanical strength and thus reduced survival rate once inserted. Ultra-short laser pulses offer a possibility in machining highly complex sculptured surfaces out of high-strength ceramic with negligible damage to the surface and bulk of the ceramic. In order to determine efficiency, quality and damage, several laser ablation parameters such as pulse duration, pulse energy and ablation strategies were studied. The maximum ablation rate was found using 400 fs at high pulse energies. High pulse energies such as 200μJ were used with low damage in mechanical strength compared to grinding. Due to the limitation of available laser systems in pulse repetition rates and power, the use of special ablation strategies provide a possibility to manufacture fully ceramic dental prosthesis efficiently.

  7. Carbon nanofillers for machining insulating ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Malek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of ceramics in emerging applications is principally limited by the final machining process necessary for producing microcomponents with complex geometries. The addition of carbon nanotubes greatly enhances the electrical properties of insulating ceramics allowing electrical discharge machining to be used to manufacture intricate parts. Meanwhile other properties of the ceramic may be either preserved or even improved. For the first time, a silicon nitride/carbon nanotubes microgear is electrically discharge machined with a remarkably high material removal rate, low surface roughness, and low tool wear. This offers unprecedented opportunities for the manufacture of complicated ceramic parts by adding carbon nanotubes for new engineering and biomedical applications.

  8. REVIEW OF STATUS OF CERAMIC TOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CERAMIC MATERIALS, CUTTING TOOLS , ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, OXIDES, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, FAILURE(MECHANICS), FRICTION, TEMPERATURE, SURFACE PROPERTIES, CUTTING FLUIDS, MACHINING, LATHE TOOLS, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING).

  9. Performances of multi-channel ceramic photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comby, G.; Karolak, M.; Piret, Y.; Mouly, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Kuzmin, E. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    Ceramic electron multipliers with real metal dynodes and independent channels ware constructed using multilayer ceramic technology. Tests of these prototypes show their capability to form sensitive detectors such as photomultipliers or light intensifiers. Here, we present results for the photocathode sensitivity, dynode activation, gain, linearity range and dynamic characteristics as well as the effect of 3-year aging of the main operational functions. The advantages provided by the ceramic components are discussed. These results motivate the development of a compact 256 pixel ceramic photomultiplier. (author).

  10. Glass-ceramics as building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, J. María

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics are materials composed as any ceramic material by several crystalline phases embedded in an amorphous or vitreous matrix, but their manufacture process implies the controlled devitrification or nucleation and growth of phases from an original glass. The original shape of the original glass molded by conventional methods is carried out by using pressing and sintering followed by crystallization steps. By both processing routes are obtained transparent and/or opaque materials, with or without colours, which after adequate control and design of composition and microstructure have numerous domestic and architectonic applications. They can be used as pavements or wall coatings and in various decorative elements. In fact, their use is very extensive in east-European, American and Asian (Japan countries in constructions for covering large surfaces. The greater advantage of the glass-ceramic process is that due to the own process of vitrification allows the incorporation in their structure of a wide range of compositions from mining and industrial residues, such as red muds, ashes, fangos, scraps... which they can in this way not only be inertizated, but furthermore it be converted without risk for the environment into products useful in construction applications, offering to the architect and to the decorator a new range of "eco-materials" with multiple complementary possibilities of the already existing architectural materials in the market.

    Los productos o materiales vitrocerámicos se componen, como cualquier material de tipo cerámico, de una o varias fases cristalinas embebidas en una matriz amorfa o vítrea, pero cuyo proceso de fabricación implica la desvitrificación o nucleación y cristalización controlada de un vidrio original o de partida. En el proceso de obtención de estos materiales se puede conservar la forma original conferida al vidrio de partida por los métodos convencionales de moldeado de vidrios

  11. The future of bioactive ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hench, Larry L

    2015-02-01

    Two important worldwide needs must be satisfied in the future; (1) treatment of the deteriorating health of an aging population and, (2) decreasing healthcare costs to meet the needs of an increased population. The ethical and economic dilemma is how to achieve equality in quality of care while at the same time decreasing cost of care for an ever-expanding number of people. The limited lifetime of prosthetic devices made from first-generation nearly inert biomaterials requires new approaches to meet these two large needs. This paper advises an expanded emphasis on: (1) regeneration of tissues and (2) prevention of tissue deterioration to meet this growing need. Innovative use of bioactive ceramics with genetic control of in situ tissue responses offers the potential to achieve both tissue regeneration and prevention. Clinical success of use of bioactive glass for bone regeneration is evidence that this concept works. Likewise the use of micron sized bioactive glass powders in a dentifrice for re-mineralization of teeth provides evidence that prevention of tissue deterioration is also possible. This opinion paper outlines clinical needs that could be met by innovative use of bioactive glasses and ceramics in the near future; including: regeneration of skeletal tissues that is patient specific and genetic based, load-bearing bioactive glass-ceramics for skeletal and ligament and tendon repair, repair and regeneration of soft tissues, and rapid low-cost analysis of human cell-biomaterial interactions leading to patient specific diagnoses and treatments using molecularly tailored bioceramics.

  12. Fracture Rates and Lifetime Estimations of CAD/CAM All-ceramic Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, R; Petschelt, A; Hofner, B; Hajtó, J; Scherrer, S S; Lohbauer, U

    2016-01-01

    The gathering of clinical data on fractures of dental restorations through prospective clinical trials is a labor- and time-consuming enterprise. Here, we propose an unconventional approach for collecting large datasets, from which clinical information on indirect restorations can be retrospectively analyzed. The authors accessed the database of an industry-scale machining center in Germany and obtained information on 34,911 computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) all-ceramic posterior restorations. The fractures of bridges, crowns, onlays, and inlays fabricated from different all-ceramic systems over a period of 3.5 y were reported by dentists and entered in the database. Survival analyses and estimations of future life revealed differences in performance among ZrO2-based restorations and lithium disilicate and leucite-reinforced glass-ceramics.

  13. Characteristics of Anorthite-Pyroxene Ceramics Made from Hot-Poured Steelmaking Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bowen; He, Mingsheng; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Gan, Wangui

    2017-02-01

    Steelmaking slag is an alkaline byproduct generated from the steelmaking process. It consists mainly of oxides of calcium, iron, silicon, magnesium, and aluminum. It has a volumetric production in the steelmaking industry which has made a great impact on environment remediation. In this study, anorthite-pyroxene ceramic was prepared with hot-poured steelmaking slag, kaolin, and quartz with a sintering process. The ceramic products can be well sintered by heating at 1200°C, but they melted at 1300°C. The major mineral phases were anorthite, pyroxene, and spinel when sintering at 1150°C, while the characteristic peaks of belite, alite, and quartz in raw materials disappeared. The major mineral components of the ceramic become anorthite and pyroxene at 1200°C. The additional mixed wollastonite was involved in a sintering reaction when the temperature increased to 1200°C. The newly crystalized grains were uniformly formed and distributed.

  14. Proceedings of the AD HOC Workshop on Ceramics for Li/FeS{sub 2} batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Representatives from industry, the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), DOE, national laboratories, and other govt agencies met to develop recommendations and actions for accelerating the development of ceramic components critical to the successful introduction of the Li/FeS{sub 2} bipolar battery for electric vehicles. Most of the workshop is devoted to electrode materials, bipolar designs, separators, and bipolar plates. The bulk of this document is viewographs and is divided into: ceramics, USABC overview, SAFT`s Li/FeS{sub 2} USABC program, bipolar Li/FeS{sub 2} component development, design requirements for bipolar plates, separator design requirements, compatibility of ceramic insulators with lithium, characterization of MgO for use in separators, resistivity measurements of separators, sintered AlN separators for LiMS batteries, etc.

  15. Application of exopolysaccharides to improve the performance of ceramic bodies in the unidirectional dry pressing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneira, Inês; Machado-Moreira, Bernardino; Dionísio, Amélia; Godinho, Vasco; Neves, Orquídia; Dias, Diamantino; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Miller, Ana Z.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramic industry represents an important sector of economic activity in the European countries and involves complex and numerous manufacturing processes. The unidirectional dry pressing process includes milling and stirring of raw materials (mainly clay and talc minerals) in aqueous suspensions, followed by spray drying to remove excess water obtaining spray-dried powders further subjected to dry pressing process (conformation). However, spray-dried ceramic powders exhibit an important variability in their performance when subjected to the dry pressing process, particularly in the adhesion to the mold and mechanical strength, affecting the quality of the final conformed ceramic products. Therefore, several synthetic additives (deflocculants, antifoams, binders, lubricants and plasticizers) are introduced in the ceramic slips to achieve uniform and homogeneous pastes, conditioning their rheological properties. However, an important variability associated with the performance of the conformed products is still reported. Exopolysaccharides or Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) are polymers excreted by living organisms, such as bacteria, fungi and algae, which may confer unique and potentially interesting properties with potential industrial uses, such as viscosity control, gelation, and flocculation. Polysaccharides, such as pullulan, gellan, carrageenan and xanthan have found a wide range of applications in food, pharmaceutical, petroleum, and in other industries. The aim of this study was the assessment of exopolysaccharides as natural additives to optimize the performance of spray-dried ceramic powders during the unidirectional dry pressing process, replacing the synthetic additives used in the ceramic production process. Six exopolysaccharides, namely pullulan, gellan, xanthan gum, κappa- and iota-carrageenan, and guar gum were tested in steatite-based spray-dried ceramic powders at different concentrations. Subsequently, these ceramic powders were

  16. Validation of new ceramic materials from tungsten mining wastes. Mechanical properties; Validacion de nuevos materiales ceramicos a partir de rocas de desecho de mineria. Propiedades mecanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Suarez, J. A.; Montoya Herrera, J.; Silva, A. P.; Peralbo Cano, R.; Castro-Gomes, J. P.

    2014-07-01

    New ceramic materials obtained from tungsten mining wastes, from region of Beira Interior in Portugal, with no commercial use, responsible for landscape and environmental problems are presented. These preshaped new ceramic products, prepared in a wide thermal range (800 degree centigrade to 1300 degree centigrade) was evaluated by mechanical test, but also was characterized the starting raw materials: tungsten wastes mining and industrial kaolin. Results, which also include a mineralogical characterization of ceramic products and morphologic evaluation of neoformed by scanning electron microscopy, show firstly, the feasibility of converting a large number of these wastes in marketable ceramics. Thanks to the experimentation carried out, the ability to generate ceramic materials is emphasized, without the presence of mineral clay, due to the particular composition of these waste of mining with content of acid, neutral and basic oxides. (Author)

  17. High-deposition-rate ceramics synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Osterheld, T.H.; Outka, D.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Parallel experimental and computational investigations are conducted in this project to develop validated numerical models of ceramic synthesis processes. Experiments are conducted in the High-Temperature Materials Synthesis Laboratory in Sandia`s Combustion Research Facility. A high-temperature flow reactor that can accommodate small preforms (1-3 cm diameter) generates conditions under which deposition can be observed, with flexibility to vary both deposition temperature (up to 1500 K) and pressure (as low as 10 torr). Both mass spectrometric and laser diagnostic probes are available to provide measurements of gas-phase compositions. Experiments using surface analytical techniques are also applied to characterize important processes occuring on the deposit surface. Computational tools developed through extensive research in the combustion field are employed to simulate the chemically reacting flows present in typical industrial reactors. These include the CHEMKIN and Surface-CHEMKIN suites of codes, which permit facile development of complex reaction mechanisms and vastly simplify the implementation of multi-component transport and thermodynamics. Quantum chemistry codes are also used to estimate thermodynamic and kinetic data for species and reactions for which this information is unavailable.

  18. Electron microscopy study of refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, P A; Lentz, T J; Rice, C H; Lockey, J E; Lemasters, G K; Gartside, P S

    2001-10-01

    In epidemiological studies designed to identify potential health risks of exposures to synthetic vitreous fibers, the characterization of airborne fiber dimensions may be essential for assessing mechanisms of fiber toxicity. Toward this end, air sampling was conducted as part of an industry-wide study of workers potentially exposed to airborne fibrous dusts during the manufacture of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) and RCF products. Analyses of a subset of samples obtained on the sample filter as well as on the conductive sampling cowl were performed using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize dimensions of airborne fibers. Comparison was made of bivariate fiber size distributions (length and diameter) from air samples analyzed by SEM and by TEM techniques. Results of the analyses indicate that RCF size distributions include fibers small enough in diameter ( 60 microm) may go undetected by TEM, as evidenced by the proportion of fibers in this category for TEM and SEM analyses (1% and 5%, respectively). Limitations of the microscopic techniques and differences in fiber-sizing rules for each method are believed to have contributed to the variation among fiber-sizing results. It was concluded from these data that further attempts to characterize RCF exposure in manufacturing and related operations should include analysis by TEM and SEM, since the smallest diameter fibers are not resolved with SEM and the fibers of longer length are not sized by TEM.

  19. Coarse-pored ceramic supports for pyrolysis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapova, L.L.; Cherches, B.Kh.; Egiazarov, Yu.G.

    1988-03-20

    One promising trend in improvement of pyrolysis of hydrocarbon feedstocks is the use of heterogeneous catalysts in the process. The industrial use of highly effective catalysts would result in substantially increased product yields and in decrease of energy consumption in comparison with the requirements of drastic thermal processes. The aims of the present work were to obtain a mechanically strong coarse-pored ceramic support for pyrolysis catalysts and to study the influence of various factors on formation of its structure. The support material was made from an industrial ceramic mass of the following composition (%): koalin 30, plastic refractory clay 21, quartz 32, pegmatite 17. Various additives were used for formation of a porous structure: noncombustible highly porous (pumice, claydite), partially combustible (shungite), and completely combustible (SKT) activated carbon). The authors results show that 15 mass % of SKT carbon (particle size 0.1-0.2 mm) and 1-2 mass % of sodium trimetaphosphate should be added to the ceramic mass. The crushing strength of the resultant support samples reaches 550-630 kg/cm/sup 2/, with 34-35% porosity. Under the optimal conditions of pyrolysis of a straight-run gasoline fraction the catalyst obtained by deposition of 12 mass % of In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 4% K/sub 2/O on the synthesized support gives a yield of 39-41 mass % of ethylene and 61-62 mass % of unsaturated C/sub 2/-C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, with 88-90 mass % gasification.

  20. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  1. Recrystallization behaviour of CaO-MgO-SiO{sub 2} system ceramic fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xitang; Zhang Baoguo [Hubei Province Key Lab. of Ceramics and Refractories, Wuhan Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2007-07-01

    Various kinds of ceramic fibers are used in industries for thermal insulation. Traditional Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} refractory ceramic fibers have potential health hazard when they come into the lung of human beings. The bio-soluble ceramic fibers in CaO-MgO-SiO{sub 2} system, as a new group of synthetic glass fibers, have been developed recently for high-temperature insulation applications. The fibers were specially designed to have high solubility and hence low bio-durability in human body lung solution. Various calcium magnesium silicate bio-soluble glass fibers are produced at present to replace aluminium silicate ceramic fibers. In practical applications such as fiber lining of various kinds of high temperature furnace or kiln, devitrification of the fibers take place and consequently fiber surface become rougher. Formation and growth of crystal phases could cause the destruction and pulverization of the fibers after a long exposure at high temperature. For traditional Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} refractory ceramic fibers the recrystallization temperature of the fibers starts at 980 C with the formation of mullite and cristobalite phases. Comparing with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} ceramic fibers, the relatively lower application temperature of CaO-MgO-SiO{sub 2} system bio-soluble fibers is considered. In this paper, the studies were focused on recrystallization behaviour of CaO-MgO-SiO{sub 2} system soluble ceramic fibers. (orig.)

  2. Alternative movement : collaborative project has researchers looking to ceramic membranes to improve produced water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.

    2009-10-15

    Ceramic membranes have high chemical and thermal stability coupled with mechanical strength and are therefore used in a range of microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration applications. This article described a new technology that involves the use of ceramic membranes in the treatment of produced water in thermal heavy oil recovery operations. The efficacy of advanced ceramic nano-membrane technology (CMT) is being examined in bench-scale experiments at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) in collaboration with the department of chemical and petroleum engineering at the University of Calgary. In one project, next-generation ceramic membrane technology is being used as part of the overall treatment process of produced water. The project is funded through a Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers fund and the Alberta Department of Energy. It is facilitated by the Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada in an effort to find cost-effective treatment solutions for recycling produced water for the conventional oil and gas industry. The key objective is to increase the amount of produced water that can be reused rather than disposed into deep saline aquifers. The research focuses on the pre-treatment of produced water and related salt impacted water by using ceramic membranes for the removal of organic compounds for beneficial reuse downstream. Ceramic membranes consist of a multilayer system and their performance depends on the separation and permeation properties of the membrane as well as its mechanical integrity. It was concluded that the CMT findings will be beneficial to the oil and gas industry in providing practical solutions for the challenging issues associated with de-oiling and produced water treatment. 2 figs.

  3. Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge

  4. Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjie Ji

    Full Text Available Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR, electrode wear ratio (EWR, and surface roughness (SR. The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical

  5. Ceramic Fiber as a New Material%新型纤维材料——陶瓷纤维

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小雅; 曹云峰

    2012-01-01

    陶瓷纤维以其质轻,耐火,耐腐蚀等性能,目前已经在机械、冶金、石油和化工等行业得到了广泛的应用,随着各种其他技术的应用,各种陶瓷纤维基复合材料得到了快速的发展。根据使用功能,陶瓷纤维可以分为高温陶瓷纤维和功能陶瓷纤维,用作绝热材料,过滤材料,高温超导材料等,此外陶瓷纤维还被用于生产耐高温陶瓷纤维纸和箱板纸。文章简述了陶瓷纤维的发展,列举了陶瓷纤维的种类、制备方法、应用及发展趋势。%Ceramic fiber as a new material was widely used in all fields,because of its light weight and fire-resistant,now ceramic fiber was widely used in machinery,metallurgy,petroleum,chemical industry.With a variety of other technology,all kinds of ceramic fiber composite has been developed rapidly.According to the function,ceramic fibers can be divided into high-temperature ceramic fibers and functional ceramic fibers.It can be used as insulation materials,filter materials,high-temperature superconducting materials,etc.In addition,ceramic fiber was also used in the production of high-temperature paper and cardboard paper.This paper is a brief overview of the development of ceramic fiber,the types of ceramic fiber,the preparation methods,applications and its developing trends.

  6. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...... available about industrial waste – maybe also influenced by the policy of the industry as to making information publicly available. The data presented in this chapter is scarce and maybe not fully representative for the industrial sectors and hence should be used with caution only....

  7. Longshoring Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    a)(1). (5) ANSI Z-89.1-1986, Personnel Protection-Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements; IBR approved for 1917.93(b). (6) ANSI Z-41... Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements.” (c) Protective hats previously worn shall be cleaned and disinfected before issuance by the employer to... Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements; IBR approved for §1918.103(b). (6) ANSI Z-41-1991, American National Standard for Personal Protection

  8. Biotechnology Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Countries Growing GMO , 2007). Herbicide and insect resistance traits will continue to be pursued since 25% of food crops are lost each year to insect...daily lives from the clothing we wear, the fuel we use, the food we eat, and the medicines we take. From the earliest days, humans have used the...industry is very broad and includes health care, food , agriculture, industrial, and environmental industries. It is one of the fastest growing sciences

  9. Evaluating the sustainability of ceramic filters for point-of-use drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dianjun; Colosi, Lisa M; Smith, James A

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluates the social, economic, and environmental sustainability of ceramic filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles for point-of-use (POU) drinking water treatment in developing countries. The functional unit for this analysis was the amount of water consumed by a typical household over ten years (37,960 L), as delivered by either the POU technology or a centralized water treatment and distribution system. Results indicate that the ceramic filters are 3-6 times more cost-effective than the centralized water system for reduction of waterborne diarrheal illness among the general population and children under five. The ceramic filters also exhibit better environmental performance for four of five evaluated life cycle impacts: energy use, water use, global warming potential, and particulate matter emissions (PM10). For smog formation potential, the centralized system is preferable to the ceramic filter POU technology. This convergence of social, economic, and environmental criteria offers clear indication that the ceramic filter POU technology is a more sustainable choice for drinking water treatment in developing countries than the centralized treatment systems that have been widely adopted in industrialized countries.

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the drilling of alumina ceramic using Nd:YAG pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, M. M.; Akman, E.; Genc Oztoprak, B.; Gunes, M.; Taha, Z. A.; Hajim, K. I.; Kacar, E.; Gundogdu, O.; Demir, A.

    2012-06-01

    Alumina ceramics have found wide range of applications from semiconductors, communication technologies, medical devices, automotive to aerospace industries. Processing of alumina ceramics is rather difficult due to its high degree of brittleness, hardness, low thermal diffusivity and conductivity. Rapid improvements in laser technologies in recent years make the laser among the most convenient processing tools for difficult-to-machine materials such as hardened metals, ceramics and composites. This is particularly evident as lasers have become an inexpensive and controllable alternative to conventional hole drilling methods. This paper reports theoretical and experimental results of drilling the alumina ceramic with thicknesses of 5 mm and 10.5 mm using milisecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Effects of the laser peak power, pulse duration, repetition rate and focal plane position have been determined using optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images taken from cross-sections of the drilled alumina ceramic samples. In addition to dimensional analysis of the samples, microstructural investigations have also been examined. It has been observed that, the depth of the crater can be controlled as a function of the peak power and the pulse duration for a single laser pulse application without any defect. Crater depth can be increased by increasing the number of laser pulses with some defects. In addition to experimental work, conditions have been simulated using ANYS FLUENT package providing results, which are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. DSC and TG Analysis of a Blended Binder Based on Waste Ceramic Powder and Portland Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Kulovaná, Tereza; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Rahhal, Viviana; Irassar, Edgardo; Černý, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Cement industry belongs to the business sectors characteristic by high energy consumption and high {CO}2 generation. Therefore, any replacement of cement in concrete by waste materials can lead to immediate environmental benefits. In this paper, a possible use of waste ceramic powder in blended binders is studied. At first, the chemical composition of Portland cement and ceramic powder is analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence method. Then, thermal and mechanical characterization of hydrated blended binders containing up to 24 % ceramic is carried out within the time period of 2 days to 28 days. The differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry measurements are performed in the temperature range of 25°C to 1000°C in an argon atmosphere. The measurement of compressive strength is done according to the European standards for cement mortars. The thermal analysis results in the identification of temperature and quantification of enthalpy and mass changes related to the liberation of physically bound water, calcium-silicate-hydrates dehydration and portlandite, vaterite and calcite decomposition. The portlandite content is found to decrease with time for all blends which provides the evidence of the pozzolanic activity of ceramic powder even within the limited monitoring time of 28 days. Taking into account the favorable results obtained in the measurement of compressive strength, it can be concluded that the applied waste ceramic powder can be successfully used as a supplementary cementing material to Portland cement in an amount of up to 24 mass%.

  12. A comparison of the abrasiveness of six ceramic surfaces and gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, R; Shillingburg, H T; Duncanson, M G

    1991-09-01

    A type III gold alloy and six different ceramic surfaces were secured in an abrasion machine opposing extracted teeth to determine their relative abrasiveness and resistance to wear. The rankings of restorative materials from least abrasive to most abrasive were: gold alloy, polished; cast ceramic, polished; porcelain, polished; cast ceramic, polished and shaded; porcelain, polished and glazed; cast ceramic, cerammed skin shaded; and cast ceramic, cerammed skin unshaded. The ranking of materials from most wear-resistant to least wear-resistant was: gold alloy, cast ceramic cerammed, cast ceramic cerammed and shaded, porcelain polished, porcelain glazed, cast ceramic polished and shaded, and cast ceramic polished.

  13. Improving the strength of ceramics by controlling the interparticle forces and rheology of the ceramic suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Y P

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the modification of the interparticle forces of colloidal ceramic particles in aqueous suspensions in order to improve the microstructural homogeneity, and hence the reliability and mechanical performances, of subsequently formed ceramic compacts. A concentrated stable fine ceramic powder suspension has been shown to be able to generate a higher density of a ceramic product with better mechanical, and also electrical, electrochemical and optical, properties of the ceramic body. This is because in a colloidally stable suspension there are no aggregates and so defect formation, which is responsible for the ceramic body performance below its theoretical maximum, is reduced. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to form a well dispersed ceramic suspension by ensuring the interparticle forces between the particles are repulsive, with as a high a loading with particles as possible. By examining the rheological behaviour and the results of Atomic Force Microscope, the dispersion ...

  14. Colour variations in graffiti-proofed ceramic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Santos, A.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation analyses the variation of superficial properties, COLOUR and LUMINOSITY, hat the ceramic support protected by the incorporation of a protection with transparent painting undergoes, antigraffiti. The test pieces were analysed by digital procedures, obtaining quantifiable values of each ceramic sample by means of computer programs (modifications of colour taking itself as it bases the same type of ceramics without protection. In the surface of the pieces ceramics dealt with painting antigraffiti, tones different from the original ones were observed from the piece without painting. The type of painting and the material of base, obtaining itself the following results, determine this variation: - The rustic ceramics is much more susceptible to modify its characteristics of colour that the industrialists. - In both types of analysed industrial ceramics in the investigation, the variation of the tone independently took place with the same characteristics or parameters of quantification of the type of painting. - In all the analysed types of ceramics dealt with painting antigraffiti, the colour modifies its tonality tending towards the called tones «cold», violates, by the presence of blue and the loss of the red one. Before a same painting, it was observed a greater alteration of tones and luminosity in the rustic ceramics in comparison with the industrialists.

    Se analiza la variación de propiedades superficiales, COLOR Y LUMINOSIDAD, que sufre el soporte cerámico protegido por la incorporación de una protección con pintura transparente, antigraffiti. Las probetas fueron analizadas por procedimientos digitales, obteniéndose valores cuantificables de cada muestra cerámica mediante programas de ordenador (modificaciones de color, tomándose como base el mismo tipo de cerámica sin protección. En la superficie de las piezas cerámicas tratadas con pintura antigraffiti, se observaron tonos distintos a los originales de la

  15. Shock wave fabricated ceramic-metal nozzles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Stuivinga, M.E.C.; Keizers, H.L.J.; Verbeek, H.J.; Put, P.J. van der

    1999-01-01

    Shock compaction was used in the fabrication of high temperature ceramic-based materials. The materials' development was geared towards the fabrication of nozzles for rocket engines using solid propellants, for which the following metal-ceramic (cermet) materials were fabricated and tested: B4C-Ti (

  16. Marginal adaptation of ceramic inserts after cementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Pfeiffer, P; Nergiz, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    The advantage of using ceramic inserts is to prevent major drawbacks of composite resins such as polymerization shrinkage, wear and microleakage. This in vitro study evaluated the marginal adaptation of two approximal ceramic insert systems after cementation to the cavities opened with ultrasonic ti

  17. Dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, Henny J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Dense ceramic membranes made from mixed oxygen-ionic and electronic conducting perovskite-related oxides allow separation of oxygen from an air supply at elevated temperatures (>700 °C). By combining air separation and catalytic partial oxidation of methane to syngas into a ceramic membrane reactor,

  18. Prestresses in bilayered all-ceramic restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboushelib, M.N.; Feilzer, A.J.; de Jager, N.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: A general trend in all ceramic systems is to use veneering ceramics of slightly lower thermal expansion coefficients compared with that of the framework resulting in a positive mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient (+ΔTEC). The concept behind this TEC mismatch is to generate compre

  19. New ceramic materials; Nuevos materiales ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, R.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.

    2010-07-01

    This article is to provide a new ceramic materials in which, with a control of their processing and thus their microstructural properties, you can get ceramic approaching ever closer to a metal, both in its structural behavior at low as at high temperatures. (Author) 30 refs.

  20. Progress in Joining Ceramics to Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The research and development of joining methods of ceramics to metals, especially brazing, diffusion bonding and partial transition liquid phase bonding, were introduced. Some opinions were put forward. For new composites emerging, it is necessary to develop new joining methods, particularly in the field of high temperature technique for joining ceramics to superalloys.

  1. Wastes based glasses and glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Actually, the inertization, recovery and valorisation of the wastes coming from municipal and industrial processes are the most important goals from the environmental and economical point of view. An alternative technology capable to overcome the problem of the dishomogeneity of the raw material chemical composition is the vitrification process that is able to increase the homogeneity and the constancy of the chemical composition of the system and to modulate the properties in order to address the reutilization of the waste. Moreover, the glasses obtained subjected to different controlled thermal treatments, can be transformed in semy-cristalline material (named glass-ceramics with improved properties with respect to the parent amorphous materials. In this review the tailoring, preparation and characterization of glasses and glass-ceramics obtained starting from municipal incinerator grate ash, coal and steel fly ashes and glass cullet are described.

    Realmente la inertización, recuperación y valorización de residuos que proceden de los procesos de incineración de residuos municipales y de residuos industriales son metas importantes desde el punto de vista ambiental y económico. Una tecnología alternativa capaz de superar el problema de la heterogeneidad de la composición química de los materiales de partida es el proceso de la vitrificación que es capaz de aumentar la homogeneidad y la constancia de la composición química del sistema y modular las propiedades a fin de la reutilización del residuo. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de vitrificación en que los vidrios fueron sometidos a tratamientos térmicos controlados diferentes, de manera que se transforman en materiales semicristalinos (también denominados vitrocerámicos con mejores propiedades respecto a los materiales amorfos originales. En esta revisión se muestra el diseño, preparación y caracterización de vidrios y vitrocerámicos partiendo de

  2. Non-destructive testing of ceramic balls using high frequency ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, S; Duquennoy, M; Ouaftouh, M; Deneuville, F; Ourak, M; Desvaux, S

    2005-12-01

    Although ceramic balls are used more and more for bearings in the aerospace and space industries, defects in this type of ceramic material could be dangerous, particularly if such defects are located close to the surface. In this paper, we propose a non-destructive testing method for silicon nitride balls, based on ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy. Through the theoretical study of their elastic vibrations, it is possible to characterize the balls using a vibration mode that is similar to surface wave propagation. The proposed methodology can both excite spheroidal vibrations in the ceramic balls and detect such vibrations over a large frequency range. Studying their resonance spectrums allows the balls' elastic parameters be characterized. Ours is an original method that can quickly estimate the velocity of surface waves using high frequency resonances, which permits surface and sub-surface areas to be tested specifically. Two applications are described in this paper. Both use velocity measurements to achieve their different goals, the first to differentiate between flawless balls from different manufacturing processes, and the second to detect small defects, such as cracks. Our method is rapid and permits the entire ceramic ball to be tested in an industrial context.

  3. The Bigourdane technical ceramic nomad and sedentary between heritage and transactional areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence BARNECHE-MIQUEU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This chapter introduces the technical ceramic sector in the Hautes Pyrenees county. It aims at presenting the dynamics of recomposition of an industry historically linked to the presence of a local resource: electricity, hydroelectricity which was reconstructed around innovative small and average size industries.We first dwell on the process of decomposition, recomposition of the sector thanks to the perennial reconstitution of the sector we show, starting from the characteristics of the companies which appeared during the decomposition phase of the central actor CERAVER, the intensity of the transformation of the local productive system. The setting inherited from a century long presence of the technical ceramic in the Tarbes region – heritage area – is now linked to a transactional space built through the exchanges taking place within the framework of the pole of competitiveness of ceramic of Limoges, where new actors take part, the Ecole Superieure of the Art of Ceramics and Research Centre on the arts of Fire and Earth.

  4. Industrial Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Dan

    Intended for seniors planning a career in industry as skilled laborers, this specialized course in Industrial Communications offers the student basic communications skills which he will need in his work and in his daily life. Since class activities center around short, factual oral reports, class size will be limited to 20, providing a maximum of…

  5. Low Voltage Power Supply Incorporating Ceramic Transformer

    CERN Document Server

    Imori, M

    2007-01-01

    A low voltage power supply provides the regulated output voltage of 1 V from the supply voltage around 48 V. The low voltage power supply incorporates a ceramic transformer which utilizes piezoelectric effect to convert voltage. The ceramic transformer isolates the secondary from the primary, thus providing the ground isolation between the supply and the output voltages. The ceramic transformer takes the place of the conventional magnetic transformer. The ceramic transformer is constructed from a ceramic bar and does not include any magnetic material. So the low voltage power supply can operate under a magnetic field. The output voltage is stabilized by feedback. A feedback loop consists of an error amplifier, a voltage controlled oscillator and a driver circuit. The amplitude ratio of the transformer has dependence on the frequency, which is utilized to stabilize the output voltage. The low voltage power supply is investigated on the analogy of the high voltage power supply similarly incorporating the cerami...

  6. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Knitter; W Bauer

    2003-02-01

    Fabrication of micropatterned ceramics or ceramic microparts make high demands on the precision and resolution of the moulding process. As finishing of miniaturised or micropatterned ceramic components is nearly impossible, shaping has to be done by a replication step in the green, unfired state. To avoid high tooling costs in product development, a rapid prototyping process chain has been established that enables rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to small lot series within a short time. This process chain combines the fast and inexpensive supply of master models by rapid prototyping with accurate and flexible ceramic manufacturing by low-pressure injection moulding. Besides proper feedstock preparation and sufficient small grain size, the quality of the final components is mainly influenced by the quality of the master model. Hence, the rapid prototyping method must be carefully selected to meet the requirements of the component to be fabricated.

  7. FY2016 Ceramic Fuels Development Annual Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcclellan, Kenneth James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Key challenges for the Advanced Fuels Campaign are the development of fuel technologies to enable major increases in fuel performance (safety, reliability, power and burnup) beyond current technologies, and development of characterization methods and predictive fuel performance models to enable more efficient development and licensing of advanced fuels. Ceramic fuel development activities for fiscal year 2016 fell within the areas of 1) National and International Technical Integration, 2) Advanced Accident Tolerant Ceramic Fuel Development, 3) Advanced Techniques and Reference Materials Development, and 4) Fabrication of Enriched Ceramic Fuels. High uranium density fuels were the focus of the ceramic fuels efforts. Accomplishments for FY16 primarily reflect the prioritization of identification and assessment of new ceramic fuels for light water reactors which have enhanced accident tolerance while also maintaining or improving normal operation performance, and exploration of advanced post irradiation examination techniques which will support more efficient testing and qualification of new fuel systems.

  8. Modelling of Tape Casting for Ceramic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud

    Functional ceramics find use in many different applications of great interest, e.g. thermal barrier coatings, piezoactuators, capacitors, solid oxide fuel cells and electrolysis cells, membranes, and filters. It is often the case that the performance of a ceramic component can be increased markedly...... if it is possible to vary the relevant properties (e.g. electrical, electrochemical, or magnetic) in a controlled manner along the extent of the component. Such composites in which ceramic layers of different composition and/or microstructure are combined provide a new and intriguing dimension to the field...... of functional ceramics research. Advances in ceramic forming have enabled low cost shaping techniques such as tape casting and extrusion to be used in some of the most challenging technologies. These advances allow the design of complex components adapted to desired specific properties and applications. However...

  9. FY2015 ceramic fuels development annual highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcclellan, Kenneth James [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-22

    Key challenges for the Advanced Fuels Campaign are the development of fuel technologies to enable major increases in fuel performance (safety, reliability, power and burnup) beyond current technologies, and development of characterization methods and predictive fuel performance models to enable more efficient development and licensing of advanced fuels. Ceramic fuel development activities for fiscal year 2015 fell within the areas of 1) National and International Technical Integration, 2) Advanced Accident Tolerant Ceramic Fuel Development, 3) Advanced Techniques and Reference Materials Development, and 4) Fabrication of Enriched Ceramic Fuels. High uranium density fuels were the focus of the ceramic fuels efforts. Accomplishments for FY15 primarily reflect the prioritization of identification and assessment of new ceramic fuels for light water reactors which have enhanced accident tolerance while also maintaining or improving normal operation performance, and exploration of advanced post irradiation examination techniques which will support more efficient testing and qualification of new fuel systems.

  10. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  11. Advanced Industrial Materials Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stooksbury, F. [comp.

    1994-06-01

    Mission of the AIM program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDAs. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

  12. Fibrous-Ceramic/Aerogel Composite Insulating Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan M.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous-ceramic/aerogel composite tiles have been invented to afford combinations of thermal-insulation and mechanical properties superior to those attainable by making tiles of fibrous ceramics alone or aerogels alone. These lightweight tiles can be tailored to a variety of applications that range from insulating cryogenic tanks to protecting spacecraft against re-entry heating. The advantages and disadvantages of fibrous ceramics and aerogels can be summarized as follows: Tiles made of ceramic fibers are known for mechanical strength, toughness, and machinability. Fibrous ceramic tiles are highly effective as thermal insulators in a vacuum. However, undesirably, the porosity of these materials makes them permeable by gases, so that in the presence of air or other gases, convection and gas-phase conduction contribute to the effective thermal conductivity of the tiles. Other disadvantages of the porosity and permeability of fibrous ceramic tiles arise because gases (e.g., water vapor or cryogenic gases) can condense in pores. This condensation contributes to weight, and in the case of cryogenic systems, the heat of condensation undesirably adds to the heat flowing to the objects that one seeks to keep cold. Moreover, there is a risk of explosion associated with vaporization of previously condensed gas upon reheating. Aerogels offer low permeability, low density, and low thermal conductivity, but are mechanically fragile. The basic idea of the present invention is to exploit the best features of fibrous ceramic tiles and aerogels. In a composite tile according to the invention, the fibrous ceramic serves as a matrix that mechanically supports the aerogel, while the aerogel serves as a low-conductivity, low-permeability filling that closes what would otherwise be the open pores of the fibrous ceramic. Because the aerogel eliminates or at least suppresses permeation by gas, gas-phase conduction, and convection, the thermal conductivity of such a composite even at

  13. Directional Solidification of Eutectic Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayir, Ali

    2001-01-01

    Two major problems associated with structural ceramics are lack of damage tolerance and insufficient strength and creep resistance at very high temperatures of interest for aerospace application. This work demonstrated that the directionally solidified eutectics can have unique poly-phase microstructures and mechanical properties superior to either constituent alone. The constraining effect of unique eutectic microstructures result in higher resistance to slow crack growth and creep. Prospect of achieving superior properties through controlled solidification are presented and this technology can also be beneficial to produce new class of materials.

  14. High Technology Ceramics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-14

    of evolutionary charoge T’LE i a Markt She of tlh-T o Japan. 1m (in 4min t4 dolkla)" Japaman Percer""g Sector Appkhi DoamiC Sale" of Total Etcvo... segments populated by buyers willing to acquire products embodying the new technology, even though the cost ma, he somewhat grcmterthan that of...looking for new ways to segment the market in order ,o rekindle consumer interest. New technology like ceramics may well be onewa, to do this. for there is

  15. Fluorescence of ceramic color standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Annette; Clare, John F; Nield, Kathryn M; Deadman, Andrew; Usadi, Eric

    2010-04-20

    Fluorescence has been found in color standards available for use in calibration and verification of color measuring instruments. The fluorescence is excited at wavelengths below about 600?nm and emitted above 700?nm, within the response range of silicon photodiodes, but at the edge of the response of most photomultipliers and outside the range commonly scanned in commercial colorimeters. The degree of fluorescence on two of a set of 12 glossy ceramic tiles is enough to introduce significant error when those tiles have been calibrated in one mode of measurement and are used in another. We report the nature of the fluorescence and the implications for color measurement.

  16. Properties of ceramic candle filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.

    1995-06-01

    The mechanical integrity of ceramic filter elements is a key issue for hot gas cleanup systems. To meet the demands of the advanced power systems, the filter components must sustain the thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down conditions, and of unanticipated process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. They must also survive the various mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. For near-term filter systems, these elements must survive at operating temperatures of 1650{degrees}F for three years.

  17. [Key points in anterior esthetic restorations with all ceramic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoping; Qian, Dongdong; Yuan, Yu; Meng, Xiangfeng

    2013-04-01

    This paper introduced the key points in fabricating anterior esthetic restorations with all ceramic materials, including pre-operative smile design, standard tooth preparation, provisional restoration fabrication, all ceramic materials selection, all ceramic restoration bonding, ceramic crack and fracture prevention. And then, the authors summarized and reviewed the clinical common problems in anterior esthetic restorations.

  18. Educational Construction for Training Ceramic Experts Needs to be optimized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Higher education is a very critical link in cultivating ceramic experts.What is the current situation with the ceramic discipline in the institutions of higher education? Is the arrangement of the ceramic discipline in line with the demand for talent? What are the difficulties facing ceramic talent cultivation? Let's take a closer look at these issues.

  19. Radiopaque strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram eHöland

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals, was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2 – Al2O3 – Y2O3 – SrO – Na2O – K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O – P2O5 – F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: a Sr5(PO43F – leucite, KAlSi2O6 , b Sr5(PO43F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4 c Sr5(PO43F – pollucite, CsAlSiO4 , and nano-sized NaSrPO4, d Sr5(PO43F – Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4.The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needlelike morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needlelike Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism.The formation of leucite, pollucite and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite – pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal

  20. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... of the experienc e achieved during the project is provided. The project is industrial oriented. An essential part of the project has been focused on the possi-bilities for immediate use of the results. A full implemented application doing vision ba sed positioning is described. It is concluded that visionbased...

  1. Ceramic-on-ceramic versus ceramic-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongcai; Yang, Xiao; Tan, Yang; Alaidaros, Mohammed; Chen, Liaobin

    2015-04-01

    The choice between ceramic-on-ceramic (COC) and ceramic-on-polyethylene (COP) in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and durability of COC vs COP bearing surfaces in THA. Based on published randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) identified in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the authors performed a meta-analysis comparing the clinical and radiographic outcomes of COC with those of COP. Two investigators independently selected the studies and extracted the data. The methodological quality of each RCT was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals from each trial were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Nine RCTs involving 1575 patients (1747 hips) met the predetermined inclusion criteria. Eight of 9 included RCTs had high methodological quality. The heterogeneity was not significant, and all the results were pooled using a fixed-effects model. The results demonstrated that COC significantly increased the risks of squeaking and total implant fracture compared with COP. No significant differences with respect to revision, osteolysis and radiolucent lines, loosening, dislocation, and deep infection were observed between the COC and COP bearing surfaces. This meta-analysis resulted in no sufficient evidence to identify any clinical or radiographic advantage of COC vs COP bearing surfaces in the short- to mid-term follow-up period. Long-term follow-up is required for further evaluation.

  2. Model Based Ceramic tile inspection using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Euclidean Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Elmougy, Samir; El-Azab, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of industrial products is used to determine the control quality for these products. This paper deals with the problem of visual inspection of ceramic tiles industry using Wavelet Transform. The third level the coefficients of two dimensions Haar Discrete Wavelet Transform (HDWT) is used in this paper to process the images and feature extraction. The proposed algorithm consists of two main phases. The first phase is to compute the wavelet transform for an image free of defects which known as reference image, and the image to be inspected which known as test image. The second phase is used to decide whether the tested image is defected or not using the Euclidean distance similarity measure. The experimentation results of the proposed algorithm give 97% for correct detection of ceramic defects.

  3. Concept and construction process of the ceramic curtain of Vila-real Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peñín Llobell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the Library of Vila-real, selected in 2012 in the VIII Latin American Biennial of Architecture and Urbanism, highlights the importance of collaboration with industry for the development and application of its outer membrane. The analysis of the construction process of the ceramic cylindrical curtain that defines it, performed by white glazed ceramic, 5 cm diameter and 7.5 m height, reveals this fact. The system builds an interstitial space, essential for its use and environmental integration. At the same time it links the building to both local industrial fabric, which aims to establish itself as one of its exponents, and to the Mediterranean culture of filters. The procedure followed is ascribed to the postartesanal and pragmatic perspective that beyond the modern heroes, introduced characters like Jean Prouvé and that today, we state, should find natural and legal channels for its development, on behalf of the progress of the construction sector.

  4. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes from industry such as glass waste, fly ash, sewage sludge and slag have been recycled into various value-added products such as ceramic tile. The conventional solutions of dumping the wastes in landfills or incineration, including in Malaysia are getting obsolete as the annual huge amount of the solid wastes would boost-up disposal cost and may cause permanent damage to the flora and fauna. This recent waste recycling approach is much better and greener as it can resolve problems associated with over-limit storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for ceramic tile to continuously sustain the nature. Therefore, in this project, an attempt was made to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste, obtained from Malaysia's steel making industry, into ceramic tile via conventional powder compaction method. The research work was divided into two stages. The first stage was to evaluate the suitability of EAF slag in ceramic tile by varying weight percentage of EAF slag (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%) and ball clay (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%), with no addition of silica and potash feldspar. In the second stage, the weight percentage of EAF slag was fixed at 40 wt.% and the percentage of ball clay (30 wt.% and 40 wt.%), feldspar (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) and silica (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) added was varied accordingly. Results obtained show that as weight percentage of EAF slag increased up to 60 wt.%, the percentage of apparent porosity and water absorption also rose, with a reduction in tile flexural strength and increased porosity. On the other hand, limiting the weight percentage of EAF slag to 40 wt.% while increasing the weight percentage of ball clay led to a higher total percentage of anorthite and wollastonite minerals, resulting in higher flexural strength. It was found that introduction of silica and feldspar further improved the flexural strength due to optimization of densification process. The highest

  5. Industrial pioneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2014-01-01

    With their knowledge of metallurgy, mechanics and thermodynamics, mechanical engineers had to give shape to the industrial revolution in the Netherlands 150 years ago. This revolution only slowly gathered momentum, however, especially in comparison with England.

  6. Porosity and mechanical properties of zirconium ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buyakova, S., E-mail: sbuyakova@ispms.tsc.ru; Kulkov, S. [Tomsk State University (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science RAS (Russian Federation); Sablina, T. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science RAS (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    Has been studied a porous ceramics obtained from ultra-fine powders. Porous ceramic ZrO{sub 2}(MgO), ZrO{sub 2}(Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder was prepared by pressing and subsequent sintering of compacts homologous temperatures ranging from 0.63 to 0.56 during the isothermal holding duration of 1 to 5 hours. The porosity of ceramic samples was from 15 to 80%. The structure of the ceramic materials produced from plasma-sprayed ZrO{sub 2} powder was represented as a system of cell and rod structure elements. Cellular structure formed by stacking hollow powder particles can be easily seen at the images of fracture surfaces of obtained ceramics. There were three types of pores in ceramics: large cellular hollow spaces, small interparticle pores which are not filled with powder particles and the smallest pores in the shells of cells. The cells generally did not have regular shapes. The size of the interior of the cells many times exceeded the thickness of the walls which was a single-layer packing of ZrO{sub 2} grains. A distinctive feature of all deformation diagrams obtained in the experiment was their nonlinearity at low deformations which was described by the parabolic law. It was shown that the observed nonlinear elasticity for low deformation on deformation diagrams is due to mechanical instability of the cellular elements in the ceramic carcass.

  7. Ceramic restoration repair: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Araújo Raposo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The esthetic and functional rehabilitation of patients with multiple missing teeth can be performed with several techniques and materials. Ceramic restorations provide reliable masticatory function and good esthetics. However, fracture can occur in some cases due to their brittle behavior. In some cases, the replacement of an extensive prosthesis is a problem due to the high treatment cost. In this paper, two cases are presented, in which fractures occurred in extensive metal-ceramic fixed partial dentures, and their replacement was not possible. Ceramic repair was chosen and the sequences of treatment with and without presence of the ceramic fragment are also discussed. The cases illustrate that, in some situations, fractured metal-ceramic partial dentures can be successfully repaired when prosthetic replacement is not a choice. Prosthodontists must use alternatives that allow a reliable repair to extensive metal-ceramic fixed partial dentures. Surface preparation of the ceramic with hydrofluoric acid in conjunction with a silane coupling agent is essential for a predictable bonding of composite resin. The repair performed with composite resin is an esthetic and functional alternative when extensive fixed partial dentures cannot be replaced.

  8. Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    companies to begin listing stock options as expenses on financial reports (Chappell, 2005). The industry had used stock options extensively to help... stock options (Chappell, 2005). Industry representatives interviewed by the group argued against the requirement since they predict U.S. companies...may be less inclined now to offer stock options , and subsequently talent may be lost to aggressive foreign competition (Anonymous interviews, 2006

  9. Tribology of ceramics: Report of the Committee on Tribology of Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The current state of knowledge of ceramic surface structures, composition, and reactivity is reviewed. The tribological requirements of advanced mechanical systems now being deployed (in particular, heat engines) exceed the capabilities of traditional metallic-based materials because of the high temperatures encountered. Advanced ceramic materials for such applications are receiving intense scrutiny, but there is a lack of understanding of the properties and behavior of ceramic surfaces and the influence of processing on the properties of ceramics is described. The adequacy of models, ranging form atomic to macro, to describe and to predict ceramic friction and wear are discussed, as well as what is known about lubrication at elevated temperatures. From this analysis, recommendations are made for coordination, research, and development that will lead to better performance of ceramic materials in tribological systems.

  10. Flight-vehicle materials, structures, and dynamics - Assessment and future directions. Vol. 3 - Ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stanley R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume discusses ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites in prospective aerospace systems, monolithic ceramics, transformation-toughened and whisker-reinforced ceramic composites, glass-ceramic matrix composites, reaction-bonded Si3N4 and SiC composites, and chemical vapor-infiltrated composites. Also discussed are the sol-gel-processing of ceramic composites, the fabrication and properties of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites with directed metal oxidation, the fracture behavior of ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs), the fatigue of fiber-reinforced CMCs, creep and rupture of CMCs, structural design methodologies for ceramic-based materials systems, the joining of ceramics and CMCs, and carbon-carbon composites.

  11. Sintering and properties of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics for aerospace applications

    OpenAIRE

    Justin, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) represent a very interesting family of materials and therefore they are the subject of increasing attention from different engineering sectors and notably the aerospace industry. Indeed, hypersonic flights, re-entry vehicles, propulsion applications and so on, require new materials that can perform in oxidizing or corrosive atmospheres at temperatures higher than 2000°C and sometimes, for long life-time. To fulfil these requirements, UHTCs seems to ...

  12. Metals and Ceramics Division progress report for period ending December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.F.; Weir, J.R. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the activities and accomplishments of the division, whose purpose is to provide technical support, primarily in the area of high-temperature materials, for the various technologies being developed by US DOE. Activities range from basic research to industrial research and technology transfer. The division (and the report) is divided into the following: Engineering materials, high-temperature materials, materials science, ceramics, nuclear fuel materials, program activities, collaborative research facilities and technology transfer, and educational programs.

  13. [Preparation of porous ceramics based on waste ceramics and its Ni2+ adsorption characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Li; Wang, Cheng-Zhi; Shi, Ce; Shang, Ling-Ling; Ma, Rui; Dong, Wan-Li

    2013-07-01

    The preparation conditions of porous ceramics were determined by SEM, XRD and FT-IR characterizations as well as the nickel removal ability of porous ceramics to be: the mass fraction w of sesbania powder doped was 4%, and the calcination temperature was 800 degrees C. SEM and pore structure characterization illustrated that calcination caused changes in the structure and morphology of waste ceramics. With the increase of calcination temperature, the specific surface area and pore volume decreased, while the aperture increased. EDS analyses showed that the main elements of both the original waste porcelain powder and the porous ceramics were Si, Al and O. The SEM, XRD and FT-IR characterization of porous ceramics illustrated that the structure of porous ceramics was stable before and after adsorption. The series of experiments of Ni2+ adsorption using these porous ceramics showed that when the dosage of porous ceramics was 10 g x L(-1), the adsorption time was 60 min, the pH value was 6.32, and the concentration of nickel-containing wastewater was below 100 mg x L(-1), the Ni2+ removal of wastewater reached 89.7%. Besides, the porous ceramics showed higher removal efficiency on nickel in the wastewater. The Ni(2+)-containing wastewater was processed by the porous ceramics prepared, and the adsorption dynamics and adsorption isotherms of Ni2+ in wastewater by porous ceramics were investigated. The research results showed that the Ni2+ adsorption process of porous ceramics was in accordance with the quasi second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.999 9), with Q(e) of 9.09 mg x g(-1). The adsorption process can be described by the Freundlich equation and Langmuir equation, and when the temperature increased from 20 degrees C to 40 degrees C, the maximum adsorption capacity Q(m) increased from 14.49 mg x g(-1) to 15.38 mg x g(-1).

  14. Multiscale Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Mital, Subodh K.; Pineda, Evan J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Results of multiscale modeling simulations of the nonlinear response of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites are reported, wherein the microstructure of the ceramic matrix is captured. This micro scale architecture, which contains free Si material as well as the SiC ceramic, is responsible for residual stresses that play an important role in the subsequent thermo-mechanical behavior of the SiC/SiC composite. Using the novel Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells recursive micromechanics theory, the microstructure of the matrix, as well as the microstructure of the composite (fiber and matrix) can be captured.

  15. Hybrid Ceramic Matrix Fibrous Composites: an Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naslain, R, E-mail: naslain@lcts.u-bordeaux1.fr [University of Bordeaux 3, Allee de La Boetie, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2011-10-29

    Ceramic-Matrix Composites (CMCs) consist of a ceramic fiber architecture in a ceramic matrix, bonded together through a thin interphase. The present contribution is limited to non-oxide CMCs. Their constituents being oxidation-prone, they are protected by external coatings. We state here that CMCs display a hybrid feature, when at least one of their components is not homogeneous from a chemical or microstructural standpoint. Hybrid fiber architectures are used to tailor the mechanical or thermal CMC-properties whereas hybrid interphases, matrices and coatings to improve CMC resistance to aggressive environments.

  16. Properties of oxide-hydroxide sintered ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkov, R. V.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by varying the aluminum hydroxide concentration and sintering temperature. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. Based on these results one can conclude that the obtained structure is very close to inorganic bone matrix and can be used as promising material for bone implants production.

  17. Simple Creep Test For Ceramic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicarlo, James A.; Morscher, Gregory N.

    1994-01-01

    Simple bend-stress-relaxation test yields information on creep-related properties of polycrystalline ceramic fibers. Determination of these properties important part of efforts to develop ceramic composite materials that retain mechanical strength and resistance to creep at high temperatures. Present test measures effects of time, temperature, and applied strain on creep-related relaxation of bend stress in ceramic fiber of almost any diameter in almost any environment, without need for contact sensors. Degree of relaxation of bend stress determined from radii of curvature.

  18. Properties of textile grade ceramic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudnos, Eric

    1992-01-01

    The availability of textile grade ceramic fibers has sparked great interest for applications in composite reinforcement and high temperature insulation. This paper summarizes the properties of various small diameter textile grade ceramic fibers currently available. Room temperature mechanical and electrical properties of the fibers are discussed for three cases: ambient conditions, after heat aging in argon, and after heat aging in wet air. Dow Corning (R) HPZ Ceramic Fiber, a silicon nitride type fiber, is shown to have improved retention of mechanical and electrical properties above 1200 C.

  19. Porous ceramic scaffolds with complex architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz, Eduardo; Munch, Etienne; Franco, Jaime; Deville, Sylvain; Hunger, Phillip; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2008-03-15

    This work compares two novel techniques for the fabrication of ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with complex porosity: robocasting and freeze casting. Both techniques are based on the preparation of concentrated ceramic suspensions with suitable properties for the process. In robocasting, the computer-guided deposition of the suspensions is used to build porous materials with designed three dimensional (3-D) geometries and microstructures. Freeze casting uses ice crystals as a template to form porous lamellar ceramic materials. Preliminary results on the compressive strengths of the materials are also reported.

  20. Tin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from slurries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, A.T.; Cochran, J.K.

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this effort was to develop a process for economically fabricating thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from conventional ceramic powders using dispersions. This process resulted in successful production of monosized spheres in the mm size range which were point contact bonded into foams. Thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres of small (one to five millimeter) diameter have novel applications as high-temperature insulation and light structural materials when bonded into monolithic foams. During Phase 1 of this program the objective as to develop a process for fabricating thin-wall hollow spheres from powder slurries using the coaxial nozzle fabrication method. Based on the success during Phase 1, Phase 2 was revised to emphasize the assessment of the potential structural and insulation applications for the spheres and modeling of the sphere formation process was initiated. As more understanding developed, it was clear that to achieve successful structural application, the spheres had to be bonded into monolithic foams and the effort was further expanded to include both bonding into structures and finite element mechanical modeling which became the basis of Phase 3. Successful bonding techniques and mechanical modeling resulted but thermal conductivities were higher than desired for insulating activities. In addition, considerable interest had been express by industry for the technology. Thus the final Phase 4 concentrated on methods to reduce thermal conductivity by a variety of techniques and technology transfer through individualized visits. This program resulted in three Ph.D. theses and 10 M.S. theses and they are listed in the appropriate technical sections.

  1. Mechanical properties of silver matrix composites reinfroced with ceramic particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Śleziona

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Silver, silver alloys, as well as silver matrix based composites have been well known and applied in the electrotechnical and electronics industry for several decades. For many applications in electrotechnology, including electric contacts and brushes, unreinforced sliver alloys do not meet the requirements concerning mainly durability and wear resistance, first of all to tribological and electroerosive wear. These wear processes may be prevented by introducing to silver reinforcement particles and alloys. The target of the research included basic mechanical properties determination of the silver matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles, manufactured with the use of suspension methods.Design/methodology/approach: In the presented paper the authors demonstrate possibilities of manufacturing of silver matrix composites on the way of casting technology utilization.Findings: The results of the research prove that applied suspension technology, based on introducing of agglomerated foundry alloy which is the carrier for reinforcement particles (SiC lub Al2O3 allows to produce in an effective and, what is important, in an economically attractive way, sliver alloys based composites.Research limitations/implications: The researches on the structure of manufactured composites and their mechanical properties that are presented in the paper prove the possibilities of mechanical mixing technology application for producing mechanical and stable connection between silver matrix and ceramic particles of aluminium oxide and silicon carbide.Originality/value: The manufacturing of this type of composites is based most of all on the utilization of powder metallurgy techniques. However the obtained results of the research prove that there is a possibility of silver matrix composites forming in the casting and plastic working processes. Extrusion process carried out in the hydraulic press KOBO has its favourably influence on ceramic reinforcement

  2. SHARPEN INDUSTRIAL COMPETITIVE EDGE MAINTAIN INDUSTRIAL SAFE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Since China's entrance into WTO on Nov.10th ,2001,the export of Chinese building ceramics and sanitary wares has both soared thanks to the enhancement of products quality and decrease of tariff.In 2002 and 2003,building ceramics have seen 135% and 66% increases respectively.The same situation to sanitary wares,89% and 56% increases respectively.However,three major problems still exist.

  3. Enhancing steel properties through in situ formation of ultrahard ceramic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevani, Farshid; Kumar, Rahul; Gorjizadeh, Narjes; Hossain, Rumana; Cholake, Sagar T; Privat, Karen; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2016-12-08

    Abrasion and corrosion resistant steel has attracted considerable interest for industrial application as a means of minimising the costs associated with product/component failures and/or short replacement cycles. These classes of steels contain alloying elements that increase their resistance to abrasion and corrosion. Their benefits, however, currently come at a potentially prohibitive cost; such high performance steel products are both more technically challenging and more expensive to produce. Although these methods have proven effective in improving the performance of more expensive, high-grade steel components, they are not economically viable for relatively low cost steel products. New options are needed. In this study, a complex industrial waste stream has been transformed in situ via precisely controlled high temperature reactions to produce an ultrahard ceramic surface on steel. This innovative ultrahard ceramic surface increases both the hardness and compressive strength of the steel. Furthermore, by modifying the composition of the waste input and the processing parameters, the ceramic surface can be effectively customised to match the intended application of the steel. This economical new approach marries industry demands for more cost-effective, durable steel products with global imperatives to address resource depletion and environmental degradation through the recovery of resources from waste.

  4. Enhancing steel properties through in situ formation of ultrahard ceramic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevani, Farshid; Kumar, Rahul; Gorjizadeh, Narjes; Hossain, Rumana; Cholake, Sagar T.; Privat, Karen; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2016-12-01

    Abrasion and corrosion resistant steel has attracted considerable interest for industrial application as a means of minimising the costs associated with product/component failures and/or short replacement cycles. These classes of steels contain alloying elements that increase their resistance to abrasion and corrosion. Their benefits, however, currently come at a potentially prohibitive cost; such high performance steel products are both more technically challenging and more expensive to produce. Although these methods have proven effective in improving the performance of more expensive, high-grade steel components, they are not economically viable for relatively low cost steel products. New options are needed. In this study, a complex industrial waste stream has been transformed in situ via precisely controlled high temperature reactions to produce an ultrahard ceramic surface on steel. This innovative ultrahard ceramic surface increases both the hardness and compressive strength of the steel. Furthermore, by modifying the composition of the waste input and the processing parameters, the ceramic surface can be effectively customised to match the intended application of the steel. This economical new approach marries industry demands for more cost-effective, durable steel products with global imperatives to address resource depletion and environmental degradation through the recovery of resources from waste.

  5. Enhancing steel properties through in situ formation of ultrahard ceramic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevani, Farshid; Kumar, Rahul; Gorjizadeh, Narjes; Hossain, Rumana; Cholake, Sagar T; Privat, Karen; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Abrasion and corrosion resistant steel has attracted considerable interest for industrial application as a means of minimising the costs associated with product/component failures and/or short replacement cycles. These classes of steels contain alloying elements that increase their resistance to abrasion and corrosion. Their benefits, however, currently come at a potentially prohibitive cost; such high performance steel products are both more technically challenging and more expensive to produce. Although these methods have proven effective in improving the performance of more expensive, high-grade steel components, they are not economically viable for relatively low cost steel products. New options are needed. In this study, a complex industrial waste stream has been transformed in situ via precisely controlled high temperature reactions to produce an ultrahard ceramic surface on steel. This innovative ultrahard ceramic surface increases both the hardness and compressive strength of the steel. Furthermore, by modifying the composition of the waste input and the processing parameters, the ceramic surface can be effectively customised to match the intended application of the steel. This economical new approach marries industry demands for more cost-effective, durable steel products with global imperatives to address resource depletion and environmental degradation through the recovery of resources from waste. PMID:27929096

  6. The History of Metals and Ceramics Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The division was formed in 1946 at the suggestion of Dr. Eugene P. Wigner to attack the problem of the distortion of graphite in the early reactors due to exposure to reactor neutrons, and the consequent radiation damage. It was called the Metallurgy Division and assembled the metallurgical and solid state physics activities of the time which were not directly related to nuclear weapons production. William A. Johnson, a Westinghouse employee, was named Division Director in 1946. In 1949 he was replaced by John H Frye Jr. when the Division consisted of 45 people. He was director during most of what is called the Reactor Project Years until 1973 and his retirement. During this period the Division evolved into three organizational areas: basic research, applied research in nuclear reactor materials, and reactor programs directly related to a specific reactor(s) being designed or built. The Division (Metals and Ceramics) consisted of 204 staff members in 1973 when James R. Weir, Jr., became Director. This was the period of the oil embargo, the formation of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by combining the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) with the Office of Coal Research, and subsequent formation of the Department of Energy (DOE). The diversification process continued when James O. Stiegler became Director in 1984, partially as a result of the pressure of legislation encouraging the national laboratories to work with U.S. industries on their problems. During that time the Division staff grew from 265 to 330. Douglas F. Craig became Director in 1992.

  7. Industrial diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  8. Nanocrystalline magnetic alloys and ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Pal; D Chakravorty

    2003-02-01

    Magnetic properties of materials in their nanocrystalline state have assumed significance in recent years because of their potential applications. A number of techniques have been used to prepare nanocrystalline magnetic phases. Melt spinning, high energy ball milling, sputtering, glassceramization and molecular beam epitaxy are some of the physical methods used so far. Among the chemical methods, sol-gel and co-precipitation routes have been found to be convenient. Ultrafine particles of both ferro- and ferrimagnetic systems show superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. Coercivity $(H_c)$ and maximum energy product $(BH)_{\\text{max}}$ of the magnetic particles can be changed by controlling their sizes. The present paper reviews all these aspects in the case of nanocrystalline magnetic systems — both metallic and ceramics.

  9. Intermetallic bonded ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N.; Alexander, K.B.; Becher, P.F.; Schneibel, J.H.; Waters, S.B.; Menchhofer, P.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1995-07-01

    A range of carbide and oxide-based cermets have been developed utilizing ductile nickel aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) alloy binder phases. Some of these, notably materials based upon tungsten and titanium carbides (WC and TiC respectively), offer potential as alternatives to the cermets which use cobalt binders (i.e. WC/Co). Samples have been prepared by blending commercially available Ni{sub 3}Al alloy powders with the desired ceramic phases, followed by hot-pressing. Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) matrix materials have also been prepared by pressurized molten alloy infiltration. The microstructure, flexure strength and fracture toughness of selected materials are discussed.

  10. Manufacturing of planar ceramic interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, B.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Meinhardt, K.D.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The fabrication of ceramic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and separator plates for electrochemical separation devices has been a perennial challenge facing developers. Electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD), plasma spraying, pressing, tape casting and tape calendering are processes that are typically utilized to fabricate separator plates or interconnects for the various SOFC designs and electrochemical separation devices. For sake of brevity and the selection of a planar fuel cell or gas separation device design, pressing will be the only fabrication technique discussed here. This paper reports on the effect of the characteristics of two doped lanthanum manganite powders used in the initial studies as a planar porous separator for a fuel cell cathode and as a dense interconnect for an oxygen generator.

  11. Characterization of ceramic roof tile wastes as pozzolanic admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavat, Araceli E; Trezza, Monica A; Poggi, Mónica

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work is to study the recycling of tile wastes in the manufacture of blended cements. Cracked or broken ceramic bodies are not accepted as commercial products and, therefore, the unsold waste of the ceramic industry becomes an environment problem. The use of powdered roof tile in cement production, as pozzolanic addition, is reported. The wastes were classified as nonglazed, natural and black glazed tiles. The mineralogy of the powders was controlled by SEM-EDX microscopy, XRD analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Particle size was checked by laser granulometry. Once the materials were fully characterized, pozzolanic lime consumption tests and Fratini tests were carried out. Different formulations of cement-tile blends were prepared by incorporation of up to 30% weight ratios of recycled waste. The compressive strength of the resulting specimens was measured. The evolution of hydration of the cement-tile blends was analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Vibrational spectroscopy presented accurate evidence of pozzolanic activity. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of these waste materials to produce pozzolanic cement.

  12. Simplified Method for Groundwater Treatment Using Dilution and Ceramic Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, S.; Ariff, N. A.; Kadir, M. N. Abdul; Denan, F.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is one of the natural resources that is not susceptible to pollutants. However, increasing activities of municipal, industrial, agricultural or extreme land use activities have resulted in groundwater contamination as occured at the Research Centre for Soft Soil Malaysia (RECESS), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). Thus, aims of this study is to treat groundwater by using rainwater and simple ceramic filter as a treatment agent. The treatment uses rain water dilution, ceramic filters and combined method of dilute and filtering as an alternate treatment which are simple and more practical compared to modern or chemical methods. The water went through dilution treatment processes able to get rid of 57% reduction compared to initial condition. Meanwhile, the water that passes through the filtering process successfully get rid of as much as 86% groundwater parameters where only chloride does not pass the standard. Favorable results for the combination methods of dilution and filtration methods that can succesfully eliminate 100% parameters that donot pass the standards of the Ministry of Health and the Interim National Drinking Water Quality Standard such as those found in groundwater in RECESS, UTHM especially sulfate and chloride. As a result, it allows the raw water that will use clean drinking water and safe. It also proves that the method used in this study is very effective in improving the quality of groundwater.

  13. Design Concepts for Cooled Ceramic Composite Turbine Vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Parikh, Ankur H.; Nagpal, VInod K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop design concepts for a cooled ceramic vane to be used in the first stage of the High Pressure Turbine(HPT). To insure that the design concepts were relevant to the gas turbine industry needs, Honeywell International Inc. was subcontracted to provide technical guidance for this work. The work performed under this contract can be divided into three broad categories. The first was an analysis of the cycle benefits arising from the higher temperature capability of Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) compared with conventional metallic vane materials. The second category was a series of structural analyses for variations in the internal configuration of first stage vane for the High Pressure Turbine(HPT) of a CF6 class commercial airline engine. The third category was analysis for a radial cooled turbine vanes for use in turboshaft engine applications. The size, shape and internal configuration of the turboshaft engine vanes were selected to investigate a cooling concept appropriate to small CMC vanes.

  14. Ceramic Conversion Treatment of Titanium Aluminide for Improved Tribological Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingXIA; ChenxiLI; HanshanDONG; TomBELL

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-based titanium aluminides have great potential in the automotive industries (e.g. valves in a car engine), but tribological property could be one of the crucial factors in determining the life and performance of a titanium aluminide part. A surface modification technique, namely ceramic conversion (CC) treatment has been developed to improve the tribological properties of a γ-based titanium aluminide (Ti-48A1-2Nb-2Cr-B), and the surface properties were fully characterised. The results indicate that ceramic conversion treatment can produce an oxide layer consisting of a top TiO2 surface followed by a mixture of TiO2 and Al2O3. Such hardened layer has significantly improved the load-bearing capacity and wear resistance of the intermetallics, as evidenced by an increase of scuffing load up to 4 times and a wear rate reduction of two orders of magnitude. The coefficient of friction has also been reduced from 0.5-0.7 for the untreated to an average of 0.22 for the CC-treated alloy under dry sliding contact conditions.

  15. Ceramic Conversion Treatment of Titanium Aluminide for Improved Tribological Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing XIA; Chenxi LI; Hanshan DONG; Tom BELL

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-based titanium aluminides have great potential in the automotive industries (e.g. valves in a car engine),but tribological property could be one of the crucial factors in determining the life and performance of a titanium aluminide part. A surface modification technique, namely ceramic conversion (CC) treatment has been developed to improve the tribological properties of a γ-based titanium aluminide (Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr-B), and the surface properties were fully characterised. The results indicate that ceramic conversion treatment can produce an oxide layer consisting of a top TiO2 surface followed by a mixture of TiO2 and Al2O3. Such hardened layer has significantly improved the load-bearing capacity and wear resistance of the intermetallics, as evidenced by an increase of scuffing load up to 4 times and a wear rate reduction of two orders of magnitude. The coefficient of friction has also been reduced from 0.5-0.7 for the untreated to an average of 0.22 for the CC-treated alloy under dry sliding contact conditions.

  16. Actively Cooled Ceramic Composite Nozzle Material Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I Project demonstrated the capability of the Pyrowave? manufacturing process to produce fiber-reinforced ceramics (FRCs) with integral metal features, such...

  17. CNT-reinforced ceramics and metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Curtin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on the incorporation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs into ceramic and metal matrices to form composite structures is briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on processing methods, mechanical performance, and prospects for successful applications.

  18. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  19. Lightweight ceramic filter components: Evaluation and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggerstedt, P.M.

    1995-11-01

    Ceramic candle filtration is an attractive technology for particulate removal at high temperatures. The primary objective of this SBIR research program is to increase the performance, durability, and corrosion resistance of lightweight filter candles and filter tubesheet components (Fibrosic{trademark}), fabricated from vacuum formed chopped ceramic fiber (VFCCF), for use in advanced coal utilization applications. Phase 1 results proved that significant gains in material strength and particle retentivity are possible by treatment of VFCCF materials with colloidal ceramic oxides. Phase 2 effort will show how these treated materials tolerate high temperature and vapor-phase alkali species, on a long-term basis. With good durability and corrosion resistance, high temperature capability, and a low installed and replacement cost, these novel materials will help promote commercial acceptance of ceramic candle filter technology, as well as increase the efficiency and reliability of coal utilization processes in general.

  20. Hydrophobicity of rare-earth oxide ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Gisele; Dhiman, Rajeev; Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Paxson, Adam T.; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2013-04-01

    Hydrophobic materials that are robust to harsh environments are needed in a broad range of applications. Although durable materials such as metals and ceramics, which are generally hydrophilic, can be rendered hydrophobic by polymeric modifiers, these deteriorate in harsh environments. Here we show that a class of ceramics comprising the entire lanthanide oxide series, ranging from ceria to lutecia, is intrinsically hydrophobic. We attribute their hydrophobicity to their unique electronic structure, which inhibits hydrogen bonding with interfacial water molecules. We also show with surface-energy measurements that polar interactions are minimized at these surfaces and with Fourier transform infrared/grazing-angle attenuated total reflection that interfacial water molecules are oriented in the hydrophobic hydration structure. Moreover, we demonstrate that these ceramic materials promote dropwise condensation, repel impinging water droplets, and sustain hydrophobicity even after exposure to harsh environments. Rare-earth oxide ceramics should find widespread applicability as robust hydrophobic surfaces.

  1. Preparation and properties of dental zirconia ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Y2O3-stabilized tetragonal zireonia polyerystalline (Y-TZP) ceramics with high-performance were prepared for dental application by use of the micro-emulsion and two-step sintering method.The crystal phase,morphology,and microstructure of the reaction products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).XRD results show that the ceramics mainly consist of tetragonal zirconia.Physical and mechanical properties test results show that the bending strength,fracture toughness,and the density of full sintered Y-TZP ceramics are llS0 MPa,5.53 crown machined with this material by CAD/CAM system exhibits a verisimilitude configuration and the material's expansion coefficient well matches that of the glaze.These results further indicate that the product can be used as a promising new ceramic material

  2. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  3. Metallic nut for use with ceramic threads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-01

    A nozzle guide vane assembly has ceramic components therein having a conventional thread thereon including a preestablished pitch and having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion. The nozzle guide vane assembly has a metallic components therein having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater that the rate of thermal expansion of the ceramic components is positioned in a gas turbine engine. The metallic component, a nut, has a thread therein including a plurality of crests being spaced on a pitch equal to that of the ceramic component and has a pair of contacting surfaces extending from the plurality of crests. A notch spirally extends intermediate adjacent ones of the plurality of crests and has a preestablished depth which is at least twice the size of the conventional pitch. Furthermore, the pair of contacting surfaces are in contact with only a portion of the threaded surface of the ceramic components.

  4. Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.; Agersnap Larsen, N.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow...... curve, emission spectrum, dose response, energy dependence, influence of heating rate and fading rate. The measured TL characteristics were compared with those of well-known, widely used TLDs, i.e. LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and Al2O3:C. It is concluded that AlN:Y2O3 ceramics showing a radiation sensitivity...

  5. Advanced Ceramics Property and Performance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael; Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the what, how, how not, and why for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committees inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of all of the standards in one volume.

  6. Heritage and development of China ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解振宇

    2012-01-01

    China is a country with a glorious history of pottery, it is completely different from Europe and America compared with their ceramic history. The inheritance and the development, combining the national culture are the criteria that we should keep to.

  7. Bioactivity of mica/apatite glass ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The bioactivity of mica/apatite glass ceramic composites, including the in vitro behavior in simulated body fluid and the histological appearance of the interface between the mica/apatite glass ceramics and the rabbit mandible defect in vivo under a dynamic condition. The results show that biological apatite layer forms on the surface of the mica/apatite glass ceramics after 1 d of immersion in the simulated body fluid, and becomes dense after 14 d. In vivo tests indicate that bone formation occurs after implantation for 14 d, and strong bonding of bone to the implant occurs after 42 d. No aseptic loosening occurs during 42 d of implantation. The finding shows that mica/apatite glass ceramics have good bioactivity and osteoconductivity for constructing bone graft, and can be promising for biomedical application.

  8. Transparent Ceramic Scintillator Fabrication, Properties and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherepy, N J; Kuntz, J D; Roberts, J J; Hurst, T A; Drury, O B; Sanner, R D; Tillotson, T M; Payne, S A

    2008-08-24

    Transparent ceramics offer an alternative to single crystals for scintillator applications such as gamma ray spectroscopy and radiography. We have developed a versatile, scaleable fabrication method, using Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) to produce feedstock which is readily converted into phase-pure transparent ceramics. We measure integral light yields in excess of 80,000 Ph/MeV with Cerium-doped Garnets, and excellent optical quality. Avalanche photodiode readout of Garnets provides resolution near 6%. For radiography applications, Lutetium Oxide offers a high performance metric and is formable by ceramics processing. Scatter in transparent ceramics due to secondary phases is the principal limitation to optical quality, and afterglow issues that affect the scintillation performance are presently being addressed.

  9. Synthesis and ceramization of polycarbosilane containing beryllium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小忠; 周珊; 程勇; 杜作娟; 段曦东; 王超英

    2014-01-01

    Polycarbosilane containing beryllium (BPCS) precursors was prepared by the reaction of polycarbosilane (PCS) with beryllium acetylacetone (Be (acac)2). The analysis of structures and components of BPCS demonstrates that their main structures are basically the same as PCS. Ceramization of BPCS precursors shows that BPCS precursors are organic below 600 °C and inorganic at 800 °C. At 1400 °C, BPCS precursors convert into silicon carbide ceramics. The ceramization of different beryllium content precursors were studied, which show that beryllium plays an important role in the inhibition of crystalline grain growth ofβ-SiC at high temperature and it can adjust the dielectric constant of silicon carbide ceramics.

  10. Polymer-Derived Ceramic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    SiC-based ceramic fibers are derived from polycarbosilane or polymetallocarbosilane precursors and are classified into three groups according to their chemical composition, oxygen content, and C/Si atomic ratio. The first-generation fibers are Si-C-O (Nicalon) fibers and Si-Ti-C-O (Tyranno Lox M) fibers. Both fibers contain more than 10-wt% oxygen owing to oxidation during curing and lead to degradation in strength at temperatures exceeding 1,300°C. The maximum use temperature is 1,100°C. The second-generation fibers are SiC (Hi-Nicalon) fibers and Si-Zr-C-O (Tyranno ZMI) fibers. The oxygen content of these fibers is reduced to less than 1 wt% by electron beam irradiation curing in He. The thermal stability of these fibers is improved (they are stable up to 1,500°C), but their creep resistance is limited to a maximum of 1,150°C because their C/Si atomic ratio results in excess carbon. The third-generation fibers are stoichiometric SiC fibers, i.e., Hi-Nicalon Type S (hereafter Type S), Tyranno SA, and Sylramic™ fibers. They exhibit improved thermal stability and creep resistance up to 1,400°C. Stoichiometric SiC fibers meet many of the requirements for the use of ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature structural application. SiBN3C fibers derived from polyborosilazane also show promise for structural applications, remain in the amorphous state up to 1,800°C, and have good high-temperature creep resistance.

  11. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  12. CERAMIC WASTE FORM DATA PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-06-13

    The purpose of this data package is to provide information about simulated crystalline waste forms that can be used to select an appropriate composition for a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) proof of principle demonstration. Melt processing, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and thermal analysis information was collected to assess the ability of two potential candidate ceramic compositions to be processed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CCIM and to guide processing parameters for the CCIM operation. Given uncertainties in the CCIM capabilities to reach certain temperatures throughout the system, one waste form designated 'Fe-MP' was designed towards enabling processing and another, designated 'CAF-5%TM-MP' was designed towards optimized microstructure. Melt processing studies confirmed both compositions could be poured from a crucible at 1600{degrees}C although the CAF-5%TM-MP composition froze before pouring was complete due to rapid crystallization (upon cooling). X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the crystalline nature and phase assemblages of the compositions. The kinetics of melting and crystallization appeared to vary significantly between the compositions. Impedance spectroscopy results indicated the electrical conductivity is acceptable with respect to processing in the CCIM. The success of processing either ceramic composition will depend on the thermal profiles throughout the CCIM. In particular, the working temperature of the pour spout relative to the bulk melter which can approach 1700{degrees}C. The Fe-MP composition is recommended to demonstrate proof of principle for crystalline simulated waste forms considering the current configuration of INL's CCIM. If proposed modifications to the CCIM can maintain a nominal temperature of 1600{degrees}C throughout the melter, drain, and pour spout, then the CAF-5%TM-MP composition should be considered for a proof of principle demonstration.

  13. Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ionel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of accommodation, as basic services offered to tourists, led to the creation of a genuine hospitality industry. Currently, the hospitality industry is no longer just the accommodation service itself but also requires an atmosphere that ensures leisure tourists in the hotel. Thus, hospitable unit manager offers its service in addition to accommodation and catering services, leisure services, treatment services, business services required.. The existence of factors such as revenue growth, increasing leisure time, the development of transport services, the emergence of new tourist attractions have caused increasing international flows of tourists, with consequent development of units hospitable, and therefore a strong hospitality industry. In Romania, after 1990, the tourism sector experienced a true expansion, both through the development of the hotel sector, but also by developing rural hospitality units.

  14. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  15. Fiabilidad industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Griful Ponsati, Eulàlia

    2001-01-01

    El presente libro ha sido escrito y editado para los estudios de segundo ciclo de Ingeniería de Organización Industrial que se imparten en la ETSEIT de la UPC. La materia de fiabilidad que se imparte en este texto es una introducción a las técnicas estadísticas para resolver cuestiones de fiabilidad industrial. Se estudian distintos modelos probabilísticos del tiempo de vida y se presentan distintas formas de recabar información y de estimar, en cada caso, la fiabilidad de los componentes y s...

  16. Low temperature synthesis of porous silicate ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Enríquez Y.; Vlasova M.; Leon I.; Kakazey M.G.; Dominguez-Patiño M.; Isaeva L.; Tomila T.

    2007-01-01

    Impregnation of a polyurethane sponge with kaolin, feldspar, silica, fusible glass slurry followed by temperature treatment in air in the temperature range 800-1000 0 C leads to the formation of aluminosilicate ceramics with a set pore size. The low-temperature synthesis of porous ceramics is based on the stage-by-stage formation of low-temperature eutectics and thermodestruction of polyurethane sponge.

  17. Low temperature synthesis of porous silicate ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez Enríquez Y.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Impregnation of a polyurethane sponge with kaolin, feldspar, silica, fusible glass slurry followed by temperature treatment in air in the temperature range 800-1000 0 C leads to the formation of aluminosilicate ceramics with a set pore size. The low-temperature synthesis of porous ceramics is based on the stage-by-stage formation of low-temperature eutectics and thermodestruction of polyurethane sponge.

  18. Ceramics for Dental Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Holloway

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past forty years, the technological evolution of ceramics for dental applications has been remarkable, as new materials and processing techniques are steadily being introduced. The improvement in both strength and toughness has made it possible to expand the range of indications to long-span fixed partial prostheses, implant abutments and implants. The present review provides a state of the art of ceramics for dental applications.

  19. A new ceramics approach for contact lens

    OpenAIRE

    Carpena DDS, MS, PhD, Guilherme; Ballarin DDS, Andressa; Aguiar, José

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the field of dentistry is focusing into a new aesthetic area in the light of an minimal invasive dentistry approach. Aesthetic treatments with dental porcelain veneers without any preparation (ceramic contact lenses) have gained popularity in recent years. Thus, the need for constant improvement and knowledge of innovative techniques and ceramics is fundamental.   This article point out about the essential criteria to promote a clinical succeed of the technique over the years.   A...

  20. Computer Modeling of Ceramic Boride Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0016 Computer Modeling of Ceramic Boride Composites Dr. Valeriy V. Kartuzov SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY...Research Laboratory Air Force Office of Scientific Research European Office of Aerospace Research and Development Unit 4515, APO AE 09421-4515...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Computer Modeling of Ceramic Boride Composites  5a. CONTRACT NUMBER STCU P-510 5b. GRANT NUMBER STCU 11-8003 5c

  1. Thermal expansion of ceramics around room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    橋本, 忍; 安達, 信泰; 太田, 敏孝; 宮崎, 英敏; ハシモト, シノブ; アダチ, ノブヤス; オオタ, トシタカ; Hashimoto, Shinobu; Adachi, Nobuyasu; Ota, Toshitaka

    2010-01-01

    Thermal expansion of some ceramics, polymers and metals was measured by dilatometer around room temperature (from -140℃to +200℃), and compared with thermal expansion in the high temperature region. The CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion)of almost ceramics changed drastically between room temperature and high temperature region. On the other hand, the CTE ofmetals did not change between room temperature and high temperature region. The difference on thermal expansion betweenceramics and met...

  2. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  3. Literature search for ceramic vacuum tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, W.

    1977-01-12

    The NTIS and Engineering Index files were searched for citations relating to Ceramic and/or Metal Electron Tubes and High Temperature Electronics. A total of 24 citations were found relating directly to ceramic tubes and 24 to high temperature electronics. A search for electron tubes in general was examined for high temperature applications and 39 were obtained. Computer printouts of the abstracts are included in appendices. (MHR)

  4. Expected radiation effects in plutonium immobilization ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A., LLNL

    1997-09-01

    The current formulation of the candidate ceramic for plutonium immobilization consists primarily of pyrochlore, with smaller amounts of hafnium-zirconolite, rutile, and brannerite or perovskite. At a plutonium loading of 10.5 weight %, this ceramic would be made metamict (amorphous) by radiation damage resulting from alpha decay in a time much less than 10,000 years, the actual time depending on the repository temperature as a function of time. Based on previous experimental radiation damage work by others, it seems clear that this process would also result in a bulk volume increase (swelling) of about 6% for ceramic that was mechanically unconfined. For the candidate ceramic, which is made by cold pressing and sintering and has porosity amounting to somewhat more than this amount, it seems likely that this swelling would be accommodated by filling in the porosity, if the material were tightly confined mechanically by the waste package. Some ceramics have been observed to undergo microcracking as a result of radiation-induced anisotropic or differential swelling. It is unlikely that the candidate ceramic will microcrack extensively, for three reasons: (1) its phase composition is dominated by a single matrix mineral phase, pyrochlore, which has a cubic crystal structure and is thus not subject to anisotropic swelling; (2) the proportion of minor phases is small, minimizing potential cracking due to differential swelling; and (3) there is some flexibility in sintering process parameters that will allow limitation of the grain size, which can further limit stresses resulting from either cause.

  5. Marginal Strength of Collarless Metal Ceramic Crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikka Swati

    2010-01-01

    fracture strength at margins of metal ceramic crowns cemented to metal tooth analogs. Crowns evaluated with different marginal configurations, shoulder and shoulder bevel with 0 mm, 0.5 mm, 1 mm, and 1.5 mm, were selected. Methods. Maxillary right canine typhodont tooth was prepared to receive a metal ceramic crown with shoulder margin. This was duplicated to get 20 metal teeth analogs. Then the same tooth was reprepared to get shoulder bevel configuration. These crowns were then cemented onmetal teeth analogs and tested for fracture strength atmargin on an Instron testing machine. A progressive compressive load was applied using 6.3 mm diameter rod with crosshead speed of 2.5 mm per minute. Statisticaly analysis was performed with ANOVA, Student's “t” test and “f” test. Results. The fracture strength of collarless metal ceramic crowns under study exceeded the normal biting force. Therefore it can be suggested that collarless metal ceramic crowns with shoulder or shoulder bevel margins up to 1.5 mm framework reduction may be indicated for anteriormetal ceramic restorations. Significance. k Collarless metal ceramic crowns have proved to be successful for anterior fixed restorations. Hence, it may be subjected to more clinical trials.

  6. TEM Investigations on Layered Ternary Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun LIN; Meishuan LI; Yanchun ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Layered ternary ceramics represent a new class of solids that combine the merits of both metals and ceramics.These unique properties are strongly related to their layered crystal structures and microstructures. The combination of atomic-resolution Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) represents a powerful method to link microstructures of materials to macroscopic properties, allowing layered ternary ceramics to be investigated in an unprecedented detail. Vicrostructural information obtained using TEM is useful in understanding the formation mechanism, layered stacking characteristics, and defect structures for layered ternary ceramics down to atomic-scale level; and thus provides insight into understanding the "Processing-Structure-Property" relationship of layered ternary ceramics. Transmission electron microscopic characterizations of layered ternary ceramics in Ti-Si-C, Ti-Al-C, Cr-Al-C, Zr-Al-C, Ta-Al-C and Ti-Al-N systems are reviewed.

  7. Lithography-based ceramic manufacture (LCM) of auxetic structures: present capabilities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Lantada, Andrés; de Blas Romero, Adrián; Schwentenwein, Martin; Jellinek, Christopher; Homa, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Auxetic metamaterials are known for having a negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) and for displaying the unexpected properties of lateral expansion when stretched and densification when compressed. Even though a wide set of micro-manufacturing resources have been used for the development of auxetic metamaterials and related devices, additional precision and an extension to other families of materials is needed for their industrial expansion. In addition, their manufacture using ceramic materials is still challenging. In this study we present a very promising approach for the development of auxetic metamaterials and devices based on the use of lithography-based ceramic manufacturing. The process stands out for its precision and complex three-dimensional geometries attainable, without the need of supporting structures, and for enabling the manufacture of ceramic auxetics with their geometry controlled from the design stage with micrometric precision. To our knowledge it represents the first example of application of this technology to the manufacture of auxetic geometries using ceramic materials. We have used a special three-dimensional auxetic design whose remarkable NPR has been previously highlighted.

  8. Laser ultrasonics for bulk-density distribution measurement on green ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, G. M.; Cavuto, A.; Pandarese, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper a Laser Ultrasonics (LUT) system is developed and applied to measure bulk density distribution of green ceramic tiles, which are porous materials with low heat conductivity. Bulk density of green ceramic bodies is a fundamental parameter to be kept under control in the industrial production of ceramic tiles. The LUT system proposed is based on a Nd:YAG pulsed laser for excitation and an air-coupled electro-capacitive transducer for detection. The paper reports experimental apparent bulk-density measurements on white ceramic bodies after a calibration procedures. The performances observed are better than those previously achieved by authors using air-coupled ultrasonic probes for both emission and detection, allowing to reduce average uncertainty down to about ±6 kg/m3 (±0.3%), thanks to the increase in excitation efficiency and lateral resolution, while maintaining potential flexibility for on-line application. The laser ultrasonic procedure proposed is available for both on-line and off-line application. In this last case it is possible to obtain bulk density maps with high spatial resolution by a 2D scan without interrupting the production process.

  9. Glass ceramic of high hardness and fracture toughness developed from iron-rich wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weixin HAN

    2009-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the feasibility of using high iron content wastes, gen-erated during steel making, as a raw material for the production of glass ceramic. The iron-rich wastes were mixed and melted in different proportions with soda-lime glass cullet and sand. The devitrification of the parent glasses produced from the different mixtures was investigated using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the glass-ceramic were assessed by hardness and indentation fracture toughness measurement. A glass ce-ramic with mixture of 60 wt pct iron-rich wastes, 25 wt pct sand, and 15 wt pct glass cullet exhibited the best combination of properties, namely, hardness 7.9 GPa and fracture toughness 3.75 MPa.m1/2, for the sake of containing magnetite in marked dendritic morphology. These new hard glass ceramics are candidate materials for wear resistant tiles and paving for heavy industrial floors.

  10. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Shifting Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Coastal city Beihai aspires to revive its economy by developing its electronic information industry Against a clear sky,the blue sea hums along a shining beach,with villas in the distance.This beautiful scene is in Beihai,in south China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  12. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuxuan

    Superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit superior water repellent properties, and they have remarkable potential to improve current energy infrastructure. Substantial research has been performed on the production of superhydrophobic coatings. However, superhydrophobic coatings have not yet been adopted in many industries where potential applications exist due to the limited durability of the coating materials and the complex and costly fabrication processes. Here presented a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature and strong mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured coating topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces in nature. Compared to smooth REO surfaces, the SPPS superhydrophobic coating improved the water contact angle by as much as 65° after vacuum treatment at 1 Pa for 48 hours.

  13. Heritage of ZERODUR® glass ceramic for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Hartmann, Peter; Lentes, Frank-Thomas; Jedamzik, Ralf; Davis, Mark J.

    2009-08-01

    The zero-expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT is widely used for ground-based astronomical mirrors and in industrial applications. This paper points out that it is also well suited for satellite applications, especially with respect to the space radiation environment. Recent developments show that highly lightweighted components can be manufactured and that such structures are strong enough to survive launch vibrations. A series of thirty reference applications, where ZERODUR® has been or is currently used (including METEOSAT, SPOT, ROSAT, CHANDRA, and HST), demonstrate the high and long lasting performance of ZERODUR® components in orbit. The ongoing successful missions and upcoming new satellites continue to enlarge the space heritage of this unique material.

  14. Evaluation of porous carbon and ceramic supports for hyperfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabellon, J.B.; Padia, A.K.; Whitesides, L.E. Jr.

    1971-03-24

    Porous carbon and ceramic tubes were evaluated as supports for dynamically formed zirconium (IV) hydrous oxide-polycarboxylic acid hyperfiltration membranes. The most promising membranes were formed on Union Carbide 6-C carbon tubes using a 150,000 molecular weight polyacrylic acid. Sodium chloride rejections as high as 97% were obtained at water fluxes of 80 gpd/ft{sup 2} compared with rejections of 90 to 95% and fluxes of 130 gpd/ft{sup 2} using the porous stainless steel-Acropor/Millipore supports. The effects of pressure, circulation velocity, and temperature on membrane flux and sodium chloride and Coalinga water rejections were studied. A small industrial module containing 6-C carbon supports with a 3.04 ft{sup 2} filtration surface gave a salt rejection of 86% and a product water flux of 60 gpd/ft{sup 2}.

  15. Solar energy based industrial applications at the "Politehnica" University of Timisoara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminosu Ioan V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A short overview of a more than 30 years long activity in industrial and home applications of solar energy at the "Politehnica" University of Timişoara, Romania is presented. A built "Solar House", an industrial system for preheating bitumen, a solution for waste water cleaning and an industrial hall for drying ceramic products are described. Some recent studies on solar concentrators are reported.

  16. Ceramic-ceramic shell tile thermal protection system and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Smith, Marnell (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Zimmerman, Norman B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A ceramic reusable, externally applied composite thermal protection system (TPS) is proposed. The system functions by utilizing a ceramic/ceramic upper shell structure which effectively separates its primary functions as a thermal insulator and as a load carrier to transmit loads to the cold structure. The composite tile system also prevents impact damage to the atmospheric entry vehicle thermal protection system. The composite tile comprises a structurally strong upper ceramic/ceramic shell manufactured from ceramic fibers and ceramic matrix meeting the thermal and structural requirements of a tile used on a re-entry aerospace vehicle. In addition, a lightweight high temperature ceramic lower temperature base tile is used. The upper shell and lower tile are attached by means effective to withstand the extreme temperatures (3000 to 3200F) and stress conditions. The composite tile may include one or more layers of variable density rigid or flexible thermal insulation. The assembly of the overall tile is facilitated by two or more locking mechanisms on opposing sides of the overall tile assembly. The assembly may occur subsequent to the installation of the lower shell tile on the spacecraft structural skin.

  17. Y-TZP ceramic processing from coprecipitated powders : A comparative study with three commercial dental ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, Dolores R. R.; Bottino, Marco C.; Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Ussui, Valter; Bressiani, Ana H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To synthesize 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) powders via coprecipitation route, (2) to obtain zirconia ceramic specimens, analyze surface characteristics, and mechanical properties, and (3) to compare the processed material with three reinforced dental ceramics. Methods.

  18. A Feasibility Study on the Application of Ultrasonic Method for Surface Crack Detection of SiC/SiC Composite Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ki Woo [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun Chan; Kohyma, Akira [National Research Council of Canada, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    Nondestructive evaluation(NDE) of ceramic matrix composites is essential for developing reliable ceramics for industrial applications. In the work, C-Scan image analysis has been used to characterize surface crack of SiC ceramics nondestructively. The possibility of detection of surface crack were carried out experimentally by two types of ultrasonic equipment of SDS-win and {mu}-SDS, and three types of transducer of 25, 50 and 125 MHz. A surface micro-crack of ceramics was not detected by transducer of 25 MHz and 50 MHz. Though the focus method was detected dimly the crack by transducer of 125 MHz, the defocus method could detect the shape of diamond indenter. As a whole, the focus method and the defocus method came to the conclusion that micro crack have a good possibility for detection

  19. Decorative design of ceramic tiles adapted to inkjet printing employing digital image processing; Diseno decorativo de pavimentos ceramicos adaptado a inyeccion de tinta mediante tratamiento digital de imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defez, B.; Santiago-Praderas, V.; Lluna, E.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Dunai, E.

    2013-09-01

    The ceramic tile sector is a very competitive industry. The designer's proficiency to offer new models of the decorated surface, adapted to the production means, plays a very important role in the competitiveness. In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the design process in the ceramic sector, as much as the changes experimented in parallel by the printing equipment. Afterwards, we present a new concept of ceramic design, based on digital image processing. This technique allows the generation of homogeneous and non-repetitive designs for large surfaces, especially thought for inkjet printing. With the programmed algorithms we have compiled a prototype software for the assistance of the ceramic design. This tool allows creating continuous designs for large surfaces saving developing time. (Author)

  20. Continuous fiber ceramic composites for energy related applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-07

    The US Department of Energy has established the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program to develop technology for the manufacture of CFCC`s for use in industrial applications where a reduction in energy usage or emissions could be realized. As part of this program, the Dow Chemical Company explored the manufacture of a fiber reinforced/self reinforced silicon nitride for use in industrial chemical processing. In Dow`s program, CFCC manufacturing technology was developed around traditional, cost effective, tape casting routes. Formulations were developed and coupled with unique processing procedures which enabled the manufacture of tubular green laminates of the dimension needed for the application. An evaluation of the effect of various fibers and fiber coatings on the properties of a fiber reinforced composites was also conducted. Results indicated that fiber coatings could provide composites exhibiting non-catastrophic failure and substantially improved toughness. However, an evaluation of these materials in industrial process environments showed that the material system chosen by Dow did not provide the required performance improvements to make replacement of current metallic components with CFCC components economically viable.

  1. Characterization of ceramic powders used in the inCeram systems to fixed dental Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Almeida Diego

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available InCeram (Vita Zahnfabrik- Germany is known as a high strength ceramic being used for core crowns and for fixed partial denture frameworks. InCeram system consists of slip-casting technique which is used for to build the framework, which is then pre-sintered obtaining an open-pore microstructure. The material gains its strength by infiltration of the lanthanum glass into the porous microstructure. In this work, commercial alumina (Al2O3, alumina-zirconia (Al2O3-ZrO2 and glasses lanthanum oxide-rich powders, used in InCeram system, were characterized, using x ray diffraction, dilatometry and scanning electron microscopy. The characteristics of these powders were related aiming to consider their substitution for new ceramic materials.

  2. Eighth Project book TIEC, Tenders Industrial Energy Conservation: Accepted Projects 1997; Achtste Projectenboek TIEB, Tenders Industriele Energiebesparing: Gehonoreerde projecten 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the title subsidy regulation is to stimulate industrial companies to invest in taking energy conservation measures. This brochure gives insight into newly applied techniques or developments in the industry. An overview is given of studies, demonstration projects and market introduction projects regarding energy conservation. Also, overall and indicative figures of the different projects are presented. The industries in which projects were carried out concern the food industry, paper industry, chemical industry, rubber and synthetic materials processing industry, petroleum and coal processing industry, ceramics industry, graphics industry, electrotechnical industry, furniture industry, transportation sector and the metal industry. The eighth Call for Tenders resulted in 83 subsidy agreements, worth 21.5 million Dutch guilders of commitments. The subsidies applied, not only concern energy conservation projects, but also knowledge transfer

  3. Ninth Project book TIEC, Tenders Industrial Energy Conservation. Accepted Projects 1998; Negende Projectenboek TIEB, Tenders Industriele Energiebesparing. Gehonoreerde projecten 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the title subsidy regulation is to stimulate industrial companies to invest in taking energy conservation measures. This brochure gives insight into newly applied techniques or developments in the industry. An overview is given of studies, demonstration projects and market introduction projects regarding energy conservation. Also, overall and indicative figures of the different projects are presented. The industries in which projects were carried out concern the food industry, paper industry, chemical industry, rubber and synthetic materials processing industry, petroleum and coal processing industry, ceramics industry, graphics industry, electrotechnical industry, furniture industry, transportation sector and the metal industry. The ninth Call for Tenders resulted in 78 subsidy agreements, worth 15.6 million Dutch guilders of commitments. The subsidies applied, not only concern energy conservation projects, but also knowledge transfer.

  4. Rare earth oxide reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} ceramics for inert coating of metallic parts for petroleum extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Yoggendra Prasad; Rego, Sheila Alves Bezerra da Costa; Ferreira, Ricardo Artur Sanguinetti [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    } reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20 wt% TiO{sub 2} ceramics for inert coating of metallic parts for petroleum extraction industry. (author)

  5. On the Application of Ceramic Culture to Tourism Development%简论景德镇陶瓷文化在旅游开发中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇华; 张庆勇; 舒利民

    2012-01-01

    The research into Jingdezhen ceramic culture and tourism are mainly reflected in two respects.One is the definition of ceramic culture,connecting material aspect to spiritual aspect.The other is the plan for ceramic culture in tourism operations.In the process of tourism operation,the ceramic culture relates to the study of city image shaping and the planning of ceramic cultural tourism products.While the ceramic cultural tourism products development includes the porcelain art and packaging design,handmade ceramic experience tourism,ceramic professional training trip,ceramic industrial tourism and so forth.Rested on the research into ceramic cultural tourism products,this paper deems that the academia should explore the development of micro ceramic cultural tourism product,and make researches into the innovative scheme of macro ceramic cultural tourism product.In this way,it can prop up the grand structure of researches into the application of ceramic cultural tourism,and work out a magnificent,perfect and elaborate vision image of tourism products.%景德镇陶瓷文化与旅游的研究主要体现在两个方面。一是陶瓷文化界定,从陶瓷文化的物质层面与精神层面结合起来讨论;二是陶瓷文化在旅游运作中的谋划。陶瓷文化在旅游运作过程中涉及旅游城市形象塑造的研究与陶瓷文化旅游产品规划的研究。陶瓷文化旅游产品规则包括旅游瓷的艺术设计与包装、手工制瓷体验旅游、陶瓷专业研修之旅、陶瓷工业旅游等。基于上述陶瓷文化旅游产品研究,本文认为学界既要进行微观的陶瓷文化旅游产品开发的探讨,更要进行宏观的陶瓷文化旅游产品的创意方案研究,这样才能架构起陶瓷文化旅游应用研究的宏大框架,由此才能勾画出一个宏阔、完善与详尽的陶瓷文化旅游产品远景图像。

  6. Electron beam joining of structural ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Helmich, D.R.; Loehman, R.E.

    1995-04-01

    Feasibility of ceramic joining using a high energy (10 MeV) electron beam. The experiments used refractory metals as bonding materials in buried interfaces between Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} pieces. Because the heat capacity of the metal bonding layer is much lower than the ceramic, the metal reaches much higher temperatures than the adjoining ceramic. Using the right combination of beam parameters allows the metal to be melted without causing the adjoining ceramics to melt or decompose. Beam energy deposition and thermal simulations were performed to guide the experiments. Joints were shear tested and interfaces between the metal and the ceramic were examined to identify the bonding mechanism. Specimens joined by electron beams were compared to specimens produced by hot-pressing. Similar reactions occurred using both processes. Reactions between the metal and ceramic produced silicides that bond the metal to the ceramic. The molybdenum silicide reaction products appeared to be more brittle than the platinum silicides. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was also joined to Si{sub 3} N{sub 4} directly. The bonding appears to have been produced by the flow of intergranular glass into the interface. Shear strength was similar to the metal bonded specimens. Bend specimens Of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were exposed to electron beams with similar parameters to those used in joining experiments to determine how beam exposure degrades the strength. Damage was macroscopic in nature with craters being tonned by material ablation, and cracking occurring due to excessive thermal stresses. Si was also observed on the surface indicating the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was decomposing. Bend strength after exposure was 62% of the asreceived strength. No obvious microstructural differences were observed in the material close to the damaged region compared to material in regions far away from the damage.

  7. Research & Development of Materials/Processing Methods for Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) Phase 2 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szweda, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) Initiative that begun in 1992 has led the way for Industry, Academia, and Government to carry out a 10 year R&D plan to develop CFCCs for these industrial applications. In Phase II of this program, Dow Corning has led a team of OEM's, composite fabricators, and Government Laboratories to develop polymer derived CFCC materials and processes for selected industrial applications. During this phase, Dow Corning carried extensive process development and representative component demonstration activities on gas turbine components, chemical pump components and heat treatment furnace components.

  8. Characterization of clay from northern of Morocco for their industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouahabi, Meriam; Fagel, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Clays are a natural resource used for millennia. Currently applications such as industrial minerals are diversified. In this context, our goal is to estimate the potential of the many clay deposits in northern of Morocco. The choice of this region is justified by the particular abundance of clay deposits used to manufacture building materials (brick, ceramic and refractories) and pottery. This study focuses on the mineralogical, chemical and geotechnical characterization tests carried out on Tangier-Tetouan and Meknes clays from northern of Morocco. The suitability of raw clay material from those regions in order to produce ceramic and brick has not been tested yet. The results revealed that the studied samples are diversified, kaolinite and illite (Tetouan clay) and kaolinite and illite and smectite and vermiculite (Tangier and Meknes clay) based materials. There were no major differences in grain-size distribution, whereas Meknes clay was more plastic than Tetouan-Tangier clay. The cation exchange capacity show that Meknes and Tangier clay were more important than Tetouan clay. Specific surface area and thermal analaysis complete this caracterization. It was found that almost all technological properties of the Meknes clay deposit are led to the manufacture of ceramic floor tile, and Tetouan-Tangier clay provide opportunities to making brick and ceramic floor. The Tetouan-Tangier and Meknes clay are a potential ceramic raw material for growing Morrocan ceramic tile and brick industries.

  9. Effect of acidic agents on surface roughness of dental ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonlert Kukiattrakoon

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Acidic agents used in this study negatively affected the surface of ceramic materials. This should be considered when restoring the eroded tooth with ceramic restorations in patients who have a high risk of erosive conditions.

  10. Element Partitioning in Glass-Ceramic Designed for Actinides Immobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Glass-ceramics were designed for immobilization of actinides. In order to immobilizing more wastes in the matrix and to develop the optimum formulation for the glass-ceramic, it is necessary to study the

  11. Kaolin processing waste applied in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles and mullite bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Farias, Felipe F; Oliveira, Maurício F; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2009-02-01

    In the last few years, mineral extraction and processing industries have been identified as sources of environmental contamination and pollution. The kaolin processing industry around the world generates large amounts of waste materials. The present study evaluated the suitability of kaolin processing waste as an alternative source of ceramic raw material for the production of ceramic tiles and dense mullite bodies. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. The fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that ceramic tile formulations containing up to 60% of waste could be used for the production of tiles with low water absorption (approximately 0.5%) and low sintering temperature (1150 degrees C). Mullite formulations with more than 40% of kaolin waste could be used in the production of bodies with high strength, of about 75 MPa, which can be used as refractory materials.

  12. Factors Controlling Bioindicators for Industrial Pollution Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAMILA H. ALI; NAGLAA F. ABD El-SAIAM

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the use of algae as potential bioindlieators of pollution eontaining industrial metals. Phytoplanktonie algae varied with waste type and with enviromnental and growth conditions.In water samples containing ceramic waste Euglenophyta speeies and Cyclotella sp. (Bacillariophyta) were determined as potential indicator species of pollution, while in sample containing metallic waste, Cyclotella sp. Was most dominant. Under laboratory growth conditions, phytoplankton collected from a major stream of the Nile River were eultivated by using Algal Growth Bottle Test (EPA, 1972). This revealed that Scenedesmus sp., Actinastrum hantzschii (Chlorophyta), Oscillatoria limnetica (Cyanophyta) and Nitzschia linearis (Bacillariophyta) were also potential indicators of pollution.

  13. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIAL R.A.; CHAUDHARY M.F.; ABBAS S.T.; LATIF M.I.; KHAN A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry.These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine ifthese effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH,electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher

  14. 影响瓷质砖粘结力的因素%Factors Affecting the Ceramic Tile Adhesive Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光岩; 郑树龙

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic tiles is an important decorative material,widely used in building decoration,but with extensive use of porcelain ceramic tiles,tiles off phenomena have occurred,how to fix ceramic tiles to avoid tiles falling off easily become urgently problem before the ceramics industry.Through experiments,we determine the different factors that affect the size of strength between the tile and mortar layer,providing assistance for ceramic enterprises to solve weak connection between the porcelain tile and mortar layer.%陶瓷砖是一种重要的建筑装饰材料,广泛应用于建筑装修中。但是,随着瓷质陶瓷砖的广泛应用,瓷质砖脱落的现象时有发生,如何解决瓷质砖容易脱落的问题已成为陶瓷行业中亟待解决的问题。笔者通过研究砖底粉、砖底防污剂、砖底纹和粘结剂对瓷砖粘结力的影响,为陶瓷企业解决瓷质砖脱落问题提供依据。

  15. 纳米陶瓷涂层的性能及应用%Properties and Applications of Nanostructured Ceramic Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武创; 郗雨林; 王其红; 王国阳

    2011-01-01

    纳米陶瓷涂层与微米级陶瓷涂层相比,晶粒更细化且分散均匀,晶界数量大幅度增加,其在硬度、韧性、耐磨性、结合强度、抗蚀性、致密度等方面有显著的提高,已在航空航天、船舶、化工等工业领域得到应用.本文针对纳米陶瓷涂层的性能及应用给予介绍.%Due to the considerable decrease in grain size of nanostructured ceramic coatings, the grains disperse more uniformly, and the number of grain boundary also increase significantly. As a result, the properties of nanostructured ceramic coatings,including hardness, toughness, wear resistance, bonding strength, corrosion resistance and density may be improved obviously as compared with microstructured ceramic coatings. The nanostructured ceramic coatings have thus been widely used in many fields such as aerospace, shipbuilding, chemical industries and so on. This paper will introduce the properties and application of nanostructured ceramic coating in detail.

  16. Moisture in multilayer ceramic capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, Daniel Noel

    When both precious metal electrode and base metal electrode (BME) capacitors were subjected to autoclave (120°C/100% RH) testing, it was found that the precious metal capacitors aged according to a well known aging mechanism (less than 3% from their starting values), but the BME capacitors degraded to below the -30% criterion at 500 hours of exposure. The reasons for this new failure mechanism are complex, and there were two theories that were hypothesized. The first was that there could be oxidation or corrosion of the nickel plates. The other hypothesis was that the loss of capacitance was due to molecular changes in the barium titanate. This thesis presents the evaluation of these hypotheses and the physics of the degradation mechanism. It is concluded by proof by elimination that there are molecular changes in the barium titanate. Furthermore, the continuous reduction in capacitor size makes the newer base metal electrode capacitors more vulnerable to moisture degradation than the older generation precious metal capacitors. In addition, standard humidity life testing, such as JESD-22 THB and HAST, will likely not uncover this problem. Therefore, poor reliability due to degradation of base metal electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors may catch manufacturers and consumers by surprise.

  17. Proton-conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Coffey, G.W.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Single-cell solid oxide fuel cells were constructed using strontium cerate as the electrolyte and their performance tested. Like certain zirconates, hafnates, and tantalates, the cerate perovskites are among a class of solid electrolytes that conduct protons at elevated temperatures. Depending on the temperature and chemical environment, these ceramics also support electronic and oxygen ion currents. A maximum power output of {approx}100 mW per cm{sup 2} electrolyte surface area was obtained at 900{degrees}C using 4% hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. A series of rare earth/ceria/zirconia were prepared and their electrical properties characterized. Rare earth dopants included ytterbia, yttria, terbia, and europia. Ionic conductivities were highest for rare earth/ceria and rare earth zirconia compositions; a minimum in ionic conductivity for all series were found for equimolar mixtures of ceria and zirconia. Cerium oxysulfide is of interest in fossil energy applications because of its high chemical stability and refractory nature. An alternative synthesis route to preparing cerium oxysulfide powders has been developed using combustion techniques.

  18. Radiopaque Strontium Fluoroapatite Glass-Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2–Al2O3–Y2O3–SrO–Na2O–K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O–P2O5–F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: (a) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, (b) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, (c) Sr5(PO4)3F – pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, and (d) Sr5(PO4)3F – Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4. The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needle-like morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needle-like Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The formation of leucite, pollucite, and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite – pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal

  19. Radiopaque Strontium Fluoroapatite Glass-Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2-Al2O3-Y2O3-SrO-Na2O-K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O-P2O5-F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: (a) Sr5(PO4)3F - leucite, KAlSi2O6, (b) Sr5(PO4)3F - leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, (c) Sr5(PO4)3F - pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, and (d) Sr5(PO4)3F - Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4. The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needle-like morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needle-like Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The formation of leucite, pollucite, and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite - pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). These

  20. Crystallization Kinetics in Fluorochloroziroconate Glass-Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carlos J.

    Annealing fluorochlorozirconate (FCZ) glasses nucleates BaCl2 nanocrystals in the glass matrix, resulting in a nanocomposite glass-ceramic that has optical properties suitable for use as a medical X-ray imaging plate. Understanding the way in which the BaCl¬2 nanocrystal nucleation, growth and phase transformation processes proceed is critical to controlling the optical behavior. However, there is a very limited amount of information about the formation, morphology, and distribution of the nanocrystalline particles in FCZ glass-ceramics. In this thesis, the correlation between the microstructure and the crystallization kinetics of FCZ glass-ceramics, are studied in detail. In situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy annealing experiments are used to analyze the crystal structure, size and distribution of BaCl 2 nanocrystals in FCZ glass-ceramics as a function of annealing rate and temperature. Microstructural analysis of the early stages on nucleation identified the formation of both BaCl2 and BaF2 nanocrystals. Annealing FCZ glass-ceramics above 280°C can cause the formation of additional glass matrix phase crystals, their microstructure and the annealing parameters required for their growth are identified. As the crystalline phases grow directly from the glass, small variations in processing of the glass can have a profound influence on the crystallization process. The information obtained from these experiments improves the understanding of the nucleation, growth and phase transformation process of the BaCl¬2 nanocrystals and additional crystalline phases that form in FCZ glass-ceramics, and may help expedite the implementation of FCZ glass-ceramics as next-generation X-ray detectors. Lastly, as these glass-ceramics may one day be commercialized, an investigation into their degradation in different environmental conditions was also performed. The effects of direct contact with water or prolonged exposure to humid environments on the