WorldWideScience

Sample records for ceramic tile industry

  1. [Lead exposure in the ceramic tile industry: time trends and current exposure levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, S; Ferri, F; Olmi, M

    1998-01-01

    There is a high density of industries for the production of ceramic tiles in the District of Scandiano (province of Reggio Emilia, Emilia Romagna region). In this area, since the beginning of 1970s, the time trend of Pb exposure in ceramic tile plants has been evaluated by means of biological monitoring (BM) data collected at the Service of Prevention and Safety in the Work Environment and its associated Toxicology Laboratory. From these data, a clear decreasing time trend of exposure levels is documented, the reduction being more evident during the seventies and in 1985-88. During the seventies BM was introduced systematically in all ceramic tile plants with the determination of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA-U). As a consequence of the BM programme, hygienic measures for the abatement of pollution inside the plants were implemented, and a reduction, from 20.6% to 2%, of ALA-U values exceeding 10 mg/l, was observed. In 1985, the determination of lead in blood (PbB) replaced that of ALA-U in the BM programmes and highlighted the persistence of high level of exposure to Pb, which could not be outlined by means of ALA-U because of its lower sensitivity. PbB levels were 36.1 micrograms/100 ml and 25.7 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. These results required the implementation, within the plants, of additional hygienic measures and a significant reduction of PbB was obtained in the following three years. In 1988 PbB levels were 26.0 +/- 10.7 and 21.6 +/- 10.3 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. In 1993-95 Pb levels were obtained from 1328 male and 771 female workers of 56 plants, accounting for about 40% of the total number of workers in the ceramic industry, in the zones of Sassuolo and Scandiano. Exposure levels are not different from those observed in the preceding years, with PbB levels of 25.3 +/- 11.1 and 19.1 +/- 9.2 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively.

  2. Ceramic tile glazes: design, trends and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredini, T. [Modena Univ. (Italy). Faculty of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this lecture is to describe the state of the art of glazes for applications in ceramic tile industry. A glaze for application in ceramic tile industry must satisfy certain requirements, which may be divided into two large groups, one in relation to its preparation and industrial utilisation and the other specific of the product utilisation. In order to design glaze compositions certain aspects must be taken into account. Viscosity and surface tension of the melt matching the body requirements, linear thermal expansion, nucleation and crystal growth processes occurring during firing, durability and optical properties must be designed and adjusted in the industrial practice. Glass-ceramic systems are the more suitable compositions for innovative glazes for fast firing of wall and floor tiles. (orig.)

  3. PREPARATION OF RECYCLING CERAMIC TILES USING CERAMIC INDUSTRIAL WASTE%利用陶瓷工业废料制备再生陶瓷墙地砖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王功勋

    2011-01-01

    Recycling ceramic tile was made from raw materials using waste ceramic polishing powder(PP),and waste tiles,and using borax was added as a supplementary flux.Effects of PP sintering property on the strength of recycling ceramic tiles were investigated.Effects of PP on microstructure were detected by SEM tests.Results show that PP is beneficial to improve the sintering property because of its fine particle and glass phase.Strength of recycling ceramic tiles is increased by adding PP and borax compound.In the experimental,borax mass fraction of 0.5%,PP mass fraction of 2% and ceramic tile granule mass fraction of 25%,the strength of recycling ceramic tiles is the highest.This treatment technology features large integrated utilization efficiency for ceramic industrial waste and high strength of recycle ceramic tiles.%以废弃陶瓷抛光砖粉、陶瓷墙地砖烧成废料为原材料,硼砂作辅助熔剂制备再生陶瓷墙地砖,研究陶瓷抛光砖粉的高温烧结性能及其对再生墙地砖强度的影响,采用SEM测试分析陶瓷抛光砖粉对再生陶瓷制品微观结构的影响。结果表明:抛光砖粉含玻璃相、颗粒细小,有利坯体烧结密实;复掺少量抛光砖粉和硼砂,可提高制品强度。在硼砂掺量为0.5%,陶瓷抛光砖粉为2%、烧成废料为25%的实验条件下,所得再生陶瓷制品强度最高。该方法具有陶瓷工业废料的综合利用率高,制得的再生陶瓷制品强度高等特点。

  4. Repairing ceramic insulating tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

  5. Production Process for Strong, Light Ceramic Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, G. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Tomer, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Proportions of ingredients and sintering time/temperature schedule changed. Production process for lightweight, high-strength ceramic insulating tiles for Space Shuttle more than just scaled-up version of laboratory process for making small tiles. Boron in aluminum borosilicate fibers allows fusion at points where fibers contact each other during sintering, thereby greatly strengthening tiles structure.

  6. Preparation of high performance ceramic tiles using waste tile granules and ceramic polishing powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gong-xun; SU Da-gen

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to reusing waste tile granules (TG) and ceramic polishing powder (PP) to produce high performance ceramic tiles. We studied formulations each with a TG mass fraction of 25.0% and a different PP mass fraction between 1.0% and 7.0%. The formulations included a small amount of borax additive of a mass fracton between 0.2%and 1.2%. The effects of these industrial by-products on compressive strength, water absorption and microstructure of the new ceramic tiles were investigated. The results indicate that the compressive strength decreases and water absorption increases when TG with a mass fraction of 25.0% are added. Improvement of the compressive strength may be achieved when TG (up to 25.0%)and PP (up to 2.0%) are both used at the same time. In particular, the compressive strength improvement can be maximized and water absorption reduced when a borax additive of up to 0.5% is used as a flux. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that a certain amount of fine PP granules and a high content of fluxing oxides from borax avail the formation of glassy phase that fills up the pores in the new ceramic tiles, resulting in a dense product with high compressive strength and low water absorption.

  7. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  8. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-01-02

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  9. Automatic Defect Detection and Classification Technique from Image: A Special Case Using Ceramic Tiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaman, G. M. Atiqur; Hossain, Md. Mobarak

    2009-01-01

    Quality control is an important issue in the ceramic tile industry. On the other hand maintaining the rate of production with respect to time is also a major issue in ceramic tile manufacturing. Again, price of ceramic tiles also depends on purity of texture, accuracy of color, shape etc. Considering this criteria, an automated defect detection and classification technique has been proposed in this report that can have ensured the better quality of tiles in manufacturing process as well as pr...

  10. Fibrous-Ceramic/Aerogel Composite Insulating Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan M.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous-ceramic/aerogel composite tiles have been invented to afford combinations of thermal-insulation and mechanical properties superior to those attainable by making tiles of fibrous ceramics alone or aerogels alone. These lightweight tiles can be tailored to a variety of applications that range from insulating cryogenic tanks to protecting spacecraft against re-entry heating. The advantages and disadvantages of fibrous ceramics and aerogels can be summarized as follows: Tiles made of ceramic fibers are known for mechanical strength, toughness, and machinability. Fibrous ceramic tiles are highly effective as thermal insulators in a vacuum. However, undesirably, the porosity of these materials makes them permeable by gases, so that in the presence of air or other gases, convection and gas-phase conduction contribute to the effective thermal conductivity of the tiles. Other disadvantages of the porosity and permeability of fibrous ceramic tiles arise because gases (e.g., water vapor or cryogenic gases) can condense in pores. This condensation contributes to weight, and in the case of cryogenic systems, the heat of condensation undesirably adds to the heat flowing to the objects that one seeks to keep cold. Moreover, there is a risk of explosion associated with vaporization of previously condensed gas upon reheating. Aerogels offer low permeability, low density, and low thermal conductivity, but are mechanically fragile. The basic idea of the present invention is to exploit the best features of fibrous ceramic tiles and aerogels. In a composite tile according to the invention, the fibrous ceramic serves as a matrix that mechanically supports the aerogel, while the aerogel serves as a low-conductivity, low-permeability filling that closes what would otherwise be the open pores of the fibrous ceramic. Because the aerogel eliminates or at least suppresses permeation by gas, gas-phase conduction, and convection, the thermal conductivity of such a composite even at

  11. Automatic Defect Detection and Classification Technique from Image: A Special Case Using Ceramic Tiles

    CERN Document Server

    Rahaman, G M Atiqur

    2009-01-01

    Quality control is an important issue in the ceramic tile industry. On the other hand maintaining the rate of production with respect to time is also a major issue in ceramic tile manufacturing. Again, price of ceramic tiles also depends on purity of texture, accuracy of color, shape etc. Considering this criteria, an automated defect detection and classification technique has been proposed in this report that can have ensured the better quality of tiles in manufacturing process as well as production rate. Our proposed method plays an important role in ceramic tiles industries to detect the defects and to control the quality of ceramic tiles. This automated classification method helps us to acquire knowledge about the pattern of defect within a very short period of time and also to decide about the recovery process so that the defected tiles may not be mixed with the fresh tiles.

  12. Preparation and characterization of photo chromic effect for ceramic tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atay, B.; Goktas, A.; Dogan, A.

    2011-07-01

    Ceramic tile industry is developing due to the technological researches in scientific area and new tiles which are not only a traditional ceramic also have many multiple functionalities have been marketed nowadays. These tiles like photo catalytic, photovoltaic, antibacterial and etc. improve the quality of life and provide lots of benefits such as self cleaning, energy production, climate control. The goal of this study was to enhance the photo chromic function on ceramic tiles which is the attitude of changing color in a reversible way by electromagnetic radiation and widely used in many areas because of its aesthetic and also functional properties. High response time of photo chromic features of ceramic tiles have been achieved by employing of polymeric gel with additives of photoactive dye onto the ceramic surface. Photo chromic layer with a thickness of approximately 45- 50 {mu}m was performed by using spray coating technique which provided homogeneous deposition on surface. Photo chromic ceramic tiles with high photo chromic activity such as reversibly color change between {delta}E= 0.29 and 26.31 were obtained successfully. The photo chromic performance properties and coloring-bleaching mechanisms were analyzed by spectrophotometer. The microstructures of coatings were investigated both by stereo microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (Author) 13 refs.

  13. Shaving Ceramic Tiles To Final Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ernest

    1992-01-01

    Combination of template and routing tool cuts ceramic tiles to final dimensions. Template guides router along precisely defined planes to accurately and uniformly shave chamfers on edge of tiles. Legs of template temporarily bonded to workpiece by double-backed adhesive tape. Adaptable to in-situ final machining of other nominally flat, narrow surfaces.

  14. Testing method for ceramic armor and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the standard Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armor are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  15. Testing method for ceramic armour and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    TNO developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this alternative test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armour are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  16. Testing method for ceramic armor and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the standard Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armor are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  17. Testing method for ceramic armour and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    TNO developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this alternative test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armour are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  18. Ceramic tiles: above and beyond traditional applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno, A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available At present ceramic tiles are already being marketed with characteristics and performance features that make them products whose applications go far beyond traditional tile uses. These are not just future possibilities: their industrial and commercial reality already makes them immediately serviceable in multiple environments. And this is precisely the key concept in these new tile applications: their features make them useable for wholly different functions – functions till now reserved for other products – or, in certain cases, for entirely novel functions. In addition, the functionalities involved are destined to improve aspects directly related to the quality of life, conditions of habitability or, for instance, to using such a vital natural source of energy as solar radiation. It should, therefore, be stressed that these new generations of ceramic tiles are to be considered part of the range of architectural elements for both external and internal uses, since, as the following will show, they provide the surfaces they clad with a broad spectrum of properties and functions without detriment to the aesthetic qualities, always so characteristic, of ceramic tile. To illustrate the above, the present paper describes three new families of ceramic products. These groups of products are conceptually different and many-sided, which makes them serviceable as functional elements in different contexts.

    En estos momentos, ya hay en el mercado baldosas cerámicas dotadas de características y prestaciones que hacen de ellas productos con aplicaciones que van mucho más allá de los usos a que tradicionalmente han estado asociadas. No se trata tan sólo de posibilidades futuras, sino de productos con una realidad industrial y comercial, que permite su implantación inmediata en los diferentes ámbitos en los que pueden desarrollar su funcionalidad. Y este es precisamente el concepto clave de estas nuevas aplicaciones de las baldosas cer

  19. Synthetic flux as a whitening agent for ceramic tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Geocris, E-mail: geocris.rodrigues@gmail.com [INNOVARE Inteligência Em Cerâmica, 13566-420 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento De Engenharia Dos Materiais, Universidade Federal De São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Salvetti, Alfredo Roque [Departamento De Física, Universidade Federal De Mato Grosso Do Sul (Brazil); Cabrelon, Marcelo Dezena [INNOVARE Inteligência Em Cerâmica, 13566-420 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento De Engenharia Dos Materiais, Universidade Federal De São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Morelli, Márcio Raymundo [Departamento De Engenharia Dos Materiais, Universidade Federal De São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The synthetic flux acts as a whitening agent of firing color in raw material ceramics. • The raw material ceramics have high levels of the iron oxides and red color. • The different process obtained red color clays with hematite and illite phases. • The whiteness ceramic obtained herein can be used in a porcelain tile industry. - Abstract: A synthetic flux is proposed as a whitening agent of firing color in tile ceramic paste during the sinterization process, thus turning the red firing color into whiteness. By using this mechanism in the ceramic substrates, the stoneware tiles can be manufactured using low cost clays with high levels of iron oxides. This method proved to be an economical as well as commercial strategy for the ceramic tile industries because, in Brazil, the deposits have iron compounds as mineral component (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in most of the raw materials. Therefore, several compositions of tile ceramic paste make use of natural raw materials, and a synthetic flux in order to understand how the interaction of the iron element, in the mechanism of firing color ceramic, occurs in this system. The bodies obtained were fired at 1100 °C for 5 min in air atmosphere to promote the color change. After the heating, the samples were submitted to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analyses. The results showed that the change of firing color occurs because the iron element, which is initially in the crystal structure of the hematite phase, is transformed into a new crystal (clinopyroxenes phase) formed during the firing, so as to make the final firing color lighter.

  20. Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

    1989-01-01

    Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

  1. Electrokinetic desalination of glazed ceramic tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ferreira, Celia; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination is a method where an applied electric DC field is the driving force for removal of salts from porous building materials. In the present paper, the method is tested in laboratory scale for desalination of single ceramic tiles. In a model system, where a tile...... was contaminated with NaCl during submersion and subsequently desalinated by the method, the desalination was completed in that the high and problematic initial Cl(-) concentration was reduced to an unproblematic concentration. Further conductivity measurements showed a very low conductivity in the tile after...... renovation due to damage of the glazing from the presence of salts. These tiles were severely contaminated with both chlorides and nitrates, and one of the tiles also contained sulphates though at a low concentration. The charge transfer was too low in the experiments to obtain full desalination...

  2. Combustion gas cleaning in the ceramic tile industry: technical guide; Nettoyage des fumees de combustion dans l'industrie ceramique: guide technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezaun, F.J. [ENAGAS-Grupo Gas Natural (Spain); Mallol, G.; Monfort, E. [instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC (Spain); Busani, G. [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e l' Amiente, ARPA (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This document presents a summary of a technical guide drawn up on combustion gas cleaning systems in ceramic frit and tile production. The guide describes the method to be followed for selecting the best possible solutions for reducing pollutant concentrations in different emission sources, in accordance with current regulatory requirements and the CET recommendation. There are three sources of combustion gas air emissions that need to be cleaned in ceramic tile and frit production and they are usually related to the following process stages: slip spray drying, tile firing and frit melting. The different nature of the emissions means that different substances will need to be cleaned in each emission. Thus, in spray drying and frit melting, the only species to be cleaned are suspended particles, while in tile firing, it is also necessary to reduce the fluorine concentration. The systems analysed in this guide are mainly wet cleaning systems, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. In the study, the efficiency of these cleaning systems is compared at each emission source from a technical and economic point of view, and concrete solutions are put forward in each case, together with a list of suppliers of the technologies involved. (authors)

  3. Radioactivity level in Chinese building ceramic tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinwei, L

    2004-01-01

    The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K have been determined by gamma ray spectrometry. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 158.3 to 1087.6, 91.7 to 1218.4, and 473.8 to 1031.3 Bq kg(-1) for glaze, and from 63.5 to 131.4, 55.4 to 106.5, and 386.7 to 866.8 Bq kg(-1) for ceramic tile, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the typical world values. The radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)) and internal hazard index (H(in)) associated with the radionuclides were calculated. The Ra(eq) values of all ceramic tiles are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). The values of H(ex) and H(in) calculated according to the Chinese criterion for ceramic tiles are less than unity. The Ra(eq) value for the glaze of glazed tile collected from some areas are >370 Bq kg(-1).

  4. Penetration dynamics of AP8 in thin ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, E.; Khoe, Y.S.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of thin ceramic tiles with AP8 (WC core, 7,62 mm) at 1000 m/s velocity has been studied experimentally and numerically. “Thin” ceramic tiles refers here to ratio of the tile thickness (t) to the projectile diameter, (d), t/d@ 1, as they are both in the same order. The method applied

  5. Chemical Composition of Ceramic Tile Glazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufrik, S. S.; Kurian, N. N.; Zhukova, I. I.; Znosko, K. F.; Belkov, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out laser emission and x-ray fluorescence spectral analysis of glaze before and after its application to ceramic tile produced by Keramin JSC (Belarus). We have studied the internal microstructure of the ceramic samples. It was established that on the surface and within the bulk interior of all the samples, there are micropores of sizes ranging from a few micrometers to tens of micrometers and microcracks as long as several hundred micrometers. The presence of micropores on the surface of the ceramic tile leads to an increase in the water absorption level and a decrease in frost resistance. It was found that a decrease in the surface tension of ceramic tile coatings is promoted by substitution of sodium by potassium, silica by boric anhydride, magnesium and barium by calcium, CaO by sodium oxide, and SiO2 by chromium oxide. We carried out a comparative analysis of the chemical composition of glaze samples using S4 Pioneer and ElvaX x-ray fluorescence spectrometers and also an LIBS laser emission analyzer.

  6. Air quality comparison between two European ceramic tile clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Guerra, L.; Busani, G.; Sterni, A.; Querol, X.

    2013-08-01

    The European ceramic tile industry is mostly concentrated in two clusters, one in Castelló (Spain) and another one in Modena (Italy). Industrial clusters may have problems to accomplish the EU air quality regulations because of the concentration of some specific pollutants and, hence, the feasibility of the industrial clusters can be jeopardised. The present work assesses the air quality in these ceramic clusters in 2008, when the new EU emission regulations where put into force. PM10 samples were collected at two sampling sites in the Modena ceramic cluster and one sampling site in the Castelló ceramic cluster. PM10 annual average concentrations were 12-14 μg m-3 higher in Modena than in Castelló, and were close to or exceeded the European limit. Air quality in Modena was mainly influenced by road traffic and, in a lower degree, the metalmechanical industry, as evidenced by the high concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, Sn and Sb registered. The stagnant weather conditions from Modena hindering dispersion of pollutants also contributed to the relatively high pollution levels. In Castelló, the influence of the ceramic industry is evidenced by the high concentrations of Ti, Se, Tl and Pb, whereas this influence is not seen in Modena. The difference in the impact of the ceramic industry on the air quality in the two areas was attributed to: better abatement systems in the spray-drier facilities in Modena, higher coverage of the areas for storage and handling of dusty raw materials in Modena, presence of two open air quarries in the Castelló region, low degree of abatement systems in the ceramic tile kilns in Castelló, and abundance of ceramic frit, glaze and pigment manufacture in Castelló as opposed to scarce manufacture of these products in Modena. The necessity of additional measures to fulfil the EU air quality requirements in the Modena region is evidenced, despite the high degree of environmental measures implemented in the ceramic industry. The Principal

  7. Characterization of ceramic roof tile wastes as pozzolanic admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavat, Araceli E; Trezza, Monica A; Poggi, Mónica

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work is to study the recycling of tile wastes in the manufacture of blended cements. Cracked or broken ceramic bodies are not accepted as commercial products and, therefore, the unsold waste of the ceramic industry becomes an environment problem. The use of powdered roof tile in cement production, as pozzolanic addition, is reported. The wastes were classified as nonglazed, natural and black glazed tiles. The mineralogy of the powders was controlled by SEM-EDX microscopy, XRD analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Particle size was checked by laser granulometry. Once the materials were fully characterized, pozzolanic lime consumption tests and Fratini tests were carried out. Different formulations of cement-tile blends were prepared by incorporation of up to 30% weight ratios of recycled waste. The compressive strength of the resulting specimens was measured. The evolution of hydration of the cement-tile blends was analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Vibrational spectroscopy presented accurate evidence of pozzolanic activity. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of these waste materials to produce pozzolanic cement.

  8. Two Views of Islam: Ceramic Tile Design and Miniatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project focusing on Islamic art that consists of two parts: (1) ceramic tile design; and (2) Islamic miniatures. Provides background information on Islamic art and step-by-step instructions for designing the Islamic tile and miniature. Includes learning objectives and resources on Islamic tile miniatures. (CMK)

  9. Evaluation of the thermal comfort of ceramic floor tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmeane Effting

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In places where people are bare feet, the thermal sensation of cold or hot depends on the environmental conditions and material properties including its microstructure and crustiness surface. The uncomforting can be characterized by heated floor surfaces in external environments which are exposed to sun radiation (swimming polls areas or by cold floor surfaces in internal environments (bed rooms, path rooms. The property named thermal effusivity which defines the interface temperature when two semi-infinite solids are putted in perfect contact. The introduction of the crustiness surface on the ceramic tiles interferes in the contact temperature and also it can be a strategy to obtain ceramic tiles more comfortable. Materials with low conductivities and densities can be obtained by porous inclusion are due particularly to the processing conditions usually employed. However, the presence of pores generally involves low mechanical strength. This work has the objective to evaluate the thermal comfort of ceramics floor obtained by incorporation of refractory raw materials (residue of the polishing of the porcelanato in industrial atomized ceramic powder, through the thermal and mechanical properties. The theoretical and experimental results show that the porosity and crustiness surface increases; there is sensitive improvement in the comfort by contact.

  10. Natural radioactivity in imported ceramic tiles used in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija M. Janković

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic tiles are one of the commonly used decorative building materials. Body of ceramic tiles is a mixture of different raw materials including clays, quartz materials and feldspat, and may be glazed or left unglazed. Due to the presence of zircon in the glaze, ceramic tiles can show natural radioactivity concentration significantly higher than the average values for building materials. This study presents a summary of results obtained by a survey which was consisted of measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in imported ceramic tile samples used in Serbia using a gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector. Based on the obtained concentrations, gamma index, radium equivalent activity, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials.

  11. Preparation and characterization of photochromic effect for ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atay, B.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic tile industry is developing due to the technological researches in scientific area and new tiles which are not only a traditional ceramic also have many multiple functionalities have been marketed nowadays. These tiles like photocatalytic, photovoltaic, antibacterial and etc. improve the quality of life and provide lots of benefits such as self cleaning, energy production, climate control. The goal of this study was to enhance the photochromic function on ceramic tiles which is the attitude of changing color in a reversible way by electromagnetic radiation and widely used in many areas because of its aesthetic and also functional properties. High response time of photochromic features of ceramic tiles have been achieved by employing of polymeric gel with additives of photoactive dye onto the ceramic surface. Photochromic layer with a thickness of approximately 45- 50 µm was performed by using spray coating technique which provided homogeneous deposition on surface. Photochromic ceramic tiles with high photochromic activity such as reversibly color change between ΔE= 0.29 and 26.31 were obtained successfully. The photochromic performance properties and coloring-bleaching mechanisms were analyzed by spectrophotometer. The microstructures of coatings were investigated both by stereo microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

    La industria de baldosa cerámica se está desarrollando debido a las investigaciones tecnológicas en el área científica y los nuevos azulejos no son sólo de cerámica tradicional, sino que también tienen múltiples funcionalidades que son valiosas en el mercado hoy en día. Estos azulejos tipo fotocatalítico, fotovoltáico, anti-bacteriano, entre otros, mejoran la calidad de vida y proporcionan muchos beneficios como la limpieza fácil o de uno mismo, la producción energética y el control del clima. La meta de este estudio es realzar la función fotocrómatica en las baldosas cerámicas y la

  12. Functionalization of ceramic tile surface by sol-gel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondioli, F; Taurino, R; Ferrari, A M

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this investigation was the surface functionalization of industrial ceramic tiles by sol-gel technique to improve at the same time the cleanability of unglazed surfaces. This objective was pursued through the design and preparation of nanostructured coating that was deposited on polished unglazed tiles by air-brushing. In particular TiO(2)-SiO(2) binary film with 1, 2 or 5wt% of titania were prepared by using tetraethoxysilane and titania nanoparticles as precursors. The obtained films were characterized by scratch tests to verify the adhesion of the coatings to the polished tiles. To mainly evaluate the effect of the thermal treatment (temperature range 100-600 degrees C) on the photocatalicity of the coatings, the films were studied under UV exposure by contact angle measurements and cleanability test. Particular attention has been paid to preserve the aesthetical aspect of the final product and the obtained hue variation was evaluated by means of UV-visible spectroscopy and colorimetric analysis.

  13. Installation of Ceramic Tile: Residential Thin-Set Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Sam

    This curriculum guide contains materials for use in teaching a course on residential thin-set methods of tile installation. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: the tile industry; basic math; tools; measurement; safety in tile setting; installation materials and guidelines for their use; floors; counter tops and backsplashes;…

  14. Ceramic-ceramic shell tile thermal protection system and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Smith, Marnell (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Zimmerman, Norman B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A ceramic reusable, externally applied composite thermal protection system (TPS) is proposed. The system functions by utilizing a ceramic/ceramic upper shell structure which effectively separates its primary functions as a thermal insulator and as a load carrier to transmit loads to the cold structure. The composite tile system also prevents impact damage to the atmospheric entry vehicle thermal protection system. The composite tile comprises a structurally strong upper ceramic/ceramic shell manufactured from ceramic fibers and ceramic matrix meeting the thermal and structural requirements of a tile used on a re-entry aerospace vehicle. In addition, a lightweight high temperature ceramic lower temperature base tile is used. The upper shell and lower tile are attached by means effective to withstand the extreme temperatures (3000 to 3200F) and stress conditions. The composite tile may include one or more layers of variable density rigid or flexible thermal insulation. The assembly of the overall tile is facilitated by two or more locking mechanisms on opposing sides of the overall tile assembly. The assembly may occur subsequent to the installation of the lower shell tile on the spacecraft structural skin.

  15. Effect of Workplace Noise on Hearing Ability in Tile and Ceramic Industry Workers in Iran: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mostaghaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Results. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%, 49 (8.83%, 22 (3.96%, and 63 (11.35% subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. Conclusions. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices.

  16. Fragment and particle size distribution of impacted ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Weerheijm, J.; Ditzhuijzen, C.; Tuinman, I.

    2014-01-01

    The fragmentation of ceramic tiles under ballistic impact has been studied. Fragments and aerosol (respirable) particles were collected and analyzed to determine the total surface area generated by fracturing (macro-cracking and comminution) of armor grade ceramics. The larger fragments were collect

  17. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes from industry such as glass waste, fly ash, sewage sludge and slag have been recycled into various value-added products such as ceramic tile. The conventional solutions of dumping the wastes in landfills or incineration, including in Malaysia are getting obsolete as the annual huge amount of the solid wastes would boost-up disposal cost and may cause permanent damage to the flora and fauna. This recent waste recycling approach is much better and greener as it can resolve problems associated with over-limit storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for ceramic tile to continuously sustain the nature. Therefore, in this project, an attempt was made to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste, obtained from Malaysia's steel making industry, into ceramic tile via conventional powder compaction method. The research work was divided into two stages. The first stage was to evaluate the suitability of EAF slag in ceramic tile by varying weight percentage of EAF slag (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%) and ball clay (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%), with no addition of silica and potash feldspar. In the second stage, the weight percentage of EAF slag was fixed at 40 wt.% and the percentage of ball clay (30 wt.% and 40 wt.%), feldspar (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) and silica (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) added was varied accordingly. Results obtained show that as weight percentage of EAF slag increased up to 60 wt.%, the percentage of apparent porosity and water absorption also rose, with a reduction in tile flexural strength and increased porosity. On the other hand, limiting the weight percentage of EAF slag to 40 wt.% while increasing the weight percentage of ball clay led to a higher total percentage of anorthite and wollastonite minerals, resulting in higher flexural strength. It was found that introduction of silica and feldspar further improved the flexural strength due to optimization of densification process. The highest

  18. Comparing Titanium Release from Ceramic Tiles using a waste material characterization test - Influence of Calcium and Organic Matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are beneficial in the building industry to enhance or add certain features to commonly used materials. One example is the use of nano-titanium dioxide in the surface coating of ceramic tiles, to make the tiles surface self-cleaning. At the end of life stage, ceramic tiles might...... to assess if nano-titanium dioxide coated ceramic tiles are suitable for depositing in a landfill or not. Specifically, we used compliance batch test method, which is a simple test evaluating the release from a solid material to an aqueous media during 24 hrs. If nano-Ti particles are released from solid...... of the organic matter to fully cover the surface of the particles. We evaluated the titanium release from identical ceramic tiles - with and without a nano-titanium dioxide coating - and varied the concentrations of calcium chloride (100-500 mg/l) and humic acid (25-100 mg/l). The titanium release was quantified...

  19. Contact pressure distribution during the polishing process of ceramic tiles: A laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A. S. A.; Sousa, F. J. P.; Hamedon, Z.; Azhari, A.

    2016-02-01

    During the polishing process of porcelain tiles the difference in scratching speed between innermost and peripheral abrasives leads to pressure gradients linearly distributed along the radial direction of the abrasive tool. The aim of this paper is to investigate such pressure gradient in laboratory scale. For this purpose polishing tests were performed on ceramic tiles according to the industrial practices using a custom-made CNC tribometer. Gradual wear on both abrasives and machined surface of the floor tile were measured. The experimental results suggested that the pressure gradient tends to cause an inclination of the abraded surfaces, which becomes stable after a given polishing period. In addition to the wear depth of the machined surface, the highest value of gloss and finest surface finish were observed at the lowest point of the worn out surface of the ceramic floor tile corresponding to the point of highest pressure and lowest scratching speed.

  20. Modeling and simulation of the atomization process in the ceramic tile industry; Modelagem e simulacao do processo de atomizacao na industria de revestimento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, Renata Cristina

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to numerically simulate the behaviour of the drying system for several sets of operating conditions in order to improve and optimize this process. However, the mathematical modeling adopted here can be employed to simulate other systems such as the processes that occur in liquid-fueled engines with direct spray injection and ceramic spraying for hard surfacing. Then, mathematical and physical models were established to simulate the interaction of continuous and disperse phases in drying processes of ceramic slurries. Solving the set of governing coupled partial differential equations, it is possible to study the influence of drying air on the atomized droplets of alumina slurry, and vice-versa. The materials used as continuous and disperse phase, air and alumina slurry respectively, are representative since any kind of gas and slurry can be used if its thermodynamic and transport properties are known. Several experimental tests were carried out in a spray dryer in the 'Laboratorio de Insumos', at IPEN - Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares for different sets of operating conditions: initial temperature of the drying air, the gas flow rate, the slurry feed rate and atomiser configuration among others. Measurements of the wet and the dry bulb temperatures were made in some experimental tests to allow the calculations of the air humidity. The dynamic pressure were also measured in order to determine the gas flow rate. Some samples of the material used in the tile industry and of the one produced at IPEN were analysed to determine: the morphology of the atomized material and the range of granules diameter through scanning electron microscopy; the amount of pores and the bulk density through porosimetry; the residual moisture of the material through thermogravimetry; and the granulometric distribution of granules and particles through laser diffraction. Important information about the process and the final material are

  1. Correlation and principal component analysis in ceramic tiles characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the analysis of the characteristics of ceramic wall and floor tiles on the basis of their quality parameters: breaking force, flexural strenght, absorption and shrinking. Principal component analysis was applied in order to detect potential similarities and dissimilarities among the analyzed tile samples, as well as the firing regimes. Correlation analysis was applied in order to find correlations among the studied quality parameters of the tiles. The obtained results indicate particular differences between the samples on the basis of the firing regimes. However, the correlation analysis points out that there is no statistically significant correlation among the quality parameters of the studied samples of the wall and floor ceramic tiles.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172012 i br. III 45008

  2. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  3. Influence of Polymer Restraint on Ballistic Performanceof Alumina Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.S. Reddy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study has been carried out to evaluate the influence of confinement ofalumina ceramic tiles through polymer restraint, on its ballistic performance. Tiles of 99.5 per centpurity alumina were subjected to ballistic impact against 7.62 mm armour piercing projectiles atvelocities of about 820 m/s. The tiles of size 75 mm x 75 mm x 7 mm were confined on both facesby effectively bonding varying numbers of layers of polymer fabrics. These were then bondedto a 10 mm thick fibre glass laminate as a backing using epoxy resin. High performance polyethyleneand aramid polymer fabrics were used in the current set of experiments for restraining the tiles.Comparative effects of confinement on energy absorption of tiles with varied number of layersof fabrics were evaluated. It was observed that by providing effective confinement to the tile,energy absorption could be doubled with increase in areal density by about 13 per cent.Photographs of the damage and the effects of restraint on improvement in energy absorptionof ceramic tiles are presented and discussed.

  4. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Builders School, Ceramic Tile Setting 3-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, for individualized or group instruction on ceramic tile setting, was developed from military sources for use in vocational education. The course provides students with skills in mortar preparation, surface preparation, tile layout planning, tile setting, tile cutting, and the grouting of tile joints. Both theory and shop assignments…

  5. Ancient Wall Tiles – The Importance of the Glaze/Ceramic Interface in Glaze Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa COSTA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe pathologies suffered by early industrially produced tiles in Portugal in late nineteenth century is glaze detachment in wall tiles placed in the lower part of the façade. It is known that salts crystallize provoking the glaze detachment, destroying the waterproofing and the beauty of the wall tile and this is one of the crucial factors towards this occurrence. The present work questions the importance of the thickness of glaze/ceramic body interface, in what concerns glaze detachment provoked by salt crystallization. SEM-EDS was used to perform all the observations that lead to the conclusion that the exuberance of the interface between glaze and ceramic body has no influence in the resistance of the glaze to salt crystallization though time, being the porous network more determinant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3815

  6. Composite definition features using the eastern ornament in ceramic tiles

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper was asked a series of questions for the study of composition of the artistic shaping of ceramic tile with oriental ornaments and how to use in interior design. Particular attention is paid to individual elements of ornament and use them in areas such as kitchens, bathrooms, hookah area, cafe and more.

  7. Model Based Ceramic tile inspection using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Euclidean Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim El-Henawy; Samir Elmougy; Ahmed El-Azab

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of industrial products is used to determine the control quality for these products. This paper deals with the problem of visual inspection of ceramic tiles industry using Wavelet Transform. The third level the coefficients of two dimensions Haar Discrete Wavelet Transform (HDWT) is used in this paper to process the images and feature extraction. The proposed algorithm consists of two main phases. The first phase is to compute the wavelet transform for an image free of defect...

  8. 影响瓷质砖粘结力的因素%Factors Affecting the Ceramic Tile Adhesive Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光岩; 郑树龙

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic tiles is an important decorative material,widely used in building decoration,but with extensive use of porcelain ceramic tiles,tiles off phenomena have occurred,how to fix ceramic tiles to avoid tiles falling off easily become urgently problem before the ceramics industry.Through experiments,we determine the different factors that affect the size of strength between the tile and mortar layer,providing assistance for ceramic enterprises to solve weak connection between the porcelain tile and mortar layer.%陶瓷砖是一种重要的建筑装饰材料,广泛应用于建筑装修中。但是,随着瓷质陶瓷砖的广泛应用,瓷质砖脱落的现象时有发生,如何解决瓷质砖容易脱落的问题已成为陶瓷行业中亟待解决的问题。笔者通过研究砖底粉、砖底防污剂、砖底纹和粘结剂对瓷砖粘结力的影响,为陶瓷企业解决瓷质砖脱落问题提供依据。

  9. Modelling the viscoelasticity of ceramic tiles by finite element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Ana; Fragassa, Cristiano

    2016-05-01

    This research details a numerical method aiming at investigating the viscoelastic behaviour of a specific family of ceramic material, the Grès Porcelain, during an uncommon transformation, known as pyroplasticity, which occurs when a ceramic tile bends under a combination of thermal stress and own weight. In general, the theory of viscoelasticity can be considered extremely large and precise, but its application on real cases is particularly delicate. A time-depending problem, as viscoelasticity naturally is, has to be merged with a temperature-depending situation. This paper investigates how the viscoelastic response of bending ceramic materials can be modelled by commercial Finite Elements codes.

  10. Thermal energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in ceramic tile manufacture - Analysis of the Spanish and Brazilian industries; Consumo de energia termica y emisiones de dioxido de carbono en la fabricacion de baldosas ceramicas Analisis de las industrias Espanola y Brasilena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Vaquer, E.; Mallol, G.; Alves, H. J.; Boschi, A. O.

    2012-11-01

    Spain and Brazil are two of the world's biggest ceramic tile producers. The tile manufacturing process consumes a great quantity of thermal energy that, in these two countries, is mainly obtained from natural gas combustion, which entails CO{sub 2} emission, a greenhouse gas. This study presents a comparative analysis of the thermal energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in the ceramic tile manufacturing process in Spain and Brazil, in terms of the different production technologies and different products made. The energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in ceramic tile manufacture by the wet process are very similar in both countries. In the dry process used in Brazil, less thermal energy is consumed and less CO{sub 2} is emitted than in the wet process, but it is a process that is only used in manufacturing one particular type of product, which exhibits certain technical limitations. While in Spain the use of cogeneration systems in spray-dryers improves significantly the global energy efficiency. The average energy consumption in the different process stages, in both countries, lies within the range indicated in the Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Ceramic Manufacturing Industry (BREF of the Ceramic Manufacturing Industry) of the European Union. (Author) 14 refs.

  11. Water saving techniques in the spanish tile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique, J. E.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the use of water in the ceramic tile manufacturing process, focussing on water requirements in body and glaze preparation and in washing production equipment and facilities. Water consumption and wastewater reuse systems in ceramic tile manufacture were reviewed. An in-depth, industrial scale study was performed of wastewater reuse in the manufacturing process, examining how wastewater reuse affected pollutant contents in gas emissions and solid waste.

    Se ha estudiado el uso del agua en el proceso de fabricación de baldosas cerámicas y en particular, en las etapas de preparación de la pasta de los esmaltes y limpieza del equipo industrial y de la propia planta.Se ha realizado una revisión del consumo de agua y de los sistemas de reutilización de la misma en el proceso de fabricación de baldosas cerámicas y se ha estudiado con profundidad, a escala industrial, la reutilización del agua residual en el proceso y en particular el efecto de su reutilización sobre la emisión de contaminantes en las emisiones gaseosas y en los residuos sólidos.

  12. Study of the effect of nano surface morphology on the stain-resistant property of ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, S. P.; Hung, J. K.; Liu, Y. T.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, six types of commercially available ceramic tiles, including nano-structured ceramic tiles and regular ceramic tiles, were selected to investigate the effect of surface morphology on their stain-resistant property. The stain-resistant efficiencies of various ceramic tiles with nano-size surface were measured in order to determine the appropriate method for testing ceramic tiles with nano-structure surface.

  13. Industrial ceramics in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regueiro, M.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish ceramic industry has experienced a amazing growth in the last four years. Such expansion has affected all sector, but has been particularly noteworthy in those directly related to construction: tiles. glazes, bricks and roof tiles. A combination of an extraordinary exporting effort, together with a record figure in new housing projects (415 000 houses in 1999, are responsible for such outburst. Other sectors, such as refractories have undergone significant growths due to the high rate of steel production increase, also in historical record figures (15m t in 1999. All this sectors doubled altogether the growing rate of their main European competitors. Raw material production has had an even more effervescent trend, almost doubling 1995 production. Such dynamic growth has been associated to a remarkable quality increase and to an unparalleled technological innovation process.

    La industria española de la cerámica ha experimentado un notable crecimiento en los últimos cuatro años; expansión que ha alcanzado a todos los sectores, pero que ha sido especialmente notable en los mas directamente asociados a la construcción: revestimientos, esmaltes, tejas y ladrillos. La combinación de un extraordinario esfuerzo exportador unido a las cifras récord en la viviendas iniciadas, 415 000 en 1999, justifican este auge. Otros sectores como refractarios han experimentado crecimientos significativos ante el ritmo elevado en la producción de acero, que alcanzó asimismo un récord histórico, 15 Mt en 1999. Para el conjunto de estos sectores el ritmo de crecimiento ha duplicado el de los principales competidores europeos. La producción de materias primas han experimentado un dinamismo aún mas elevado duplicándose prácticamente las cifras respecto a 1995. Este crecimiento ha estado asociado a un notable incremento en la calidad y en los procesos de innovación tecnológica.

  14. Industrial Ceramics: Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The expanding use of ceramic products in today's world can be seen in the areas of communications, construction, aerospace, textiles, metallurgy, atomic energy, and electronics. The demands of science have brought ceramics from an art to an industry using mass production and automated processes which requires the services of great numbers as the…

  15. Process-generated nanoparticles from ceramic tile sintering: Emissions, exposure and environmental release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, A S; Maragkidou, A; Viana, M; Querol, X; Hämeri, K; de Francisco, I; Estepa, C; Borrell, C; Lennikov, V; de la Fuente, G F

    2016-09-15

    The ceramic industry is an industrial sector in need of significant process changes, which may benefit from innovative technologies such as laser sintering of ceramic tiles. Such innovations result in a considerable research gap within exposure assessment studies for process-generated ultrafine and nanoparticles. This study addresses this issue aiming to characterise particle formation, release mechanisms and their impact on personal exposure during a tile sintering activity in an industrial-scale pilot plant, as a follow-up of a previous study in a laboratory-scale plant. In addition, possible particle transformations in the exhaust system, the potential for particle release to the outdoor environment, and the effectiveness of the filtration system were also assessed. For this purpose, a tiered measurement strategy was conducted. The main findings evidence that nanoparticle emission patterns were strongly linked to temperature and tile chemical composition, and mainly independent of the laser treatment. Also, new particle formation (from gaseous precursors) events were detected, with nanoparticles tile sintering activity since workers would be exposed to concentrations above the nano reference value (NRV; 4×10(4)cm(-3)), with 8-hour time weighted average concentrations in the range of 1.4×10(5)cm(-3) and 5.3×10(5)cm(-3). A potential risk for nanoparticle and ultrafine particle release to the environment was also identified, despite the fact that the efficiency of the filtration system was successfully tested and evidenced a >87% efficiency in particle number concentrations removal.

  16. Analysis of Thick Sandwich Shells with Embedded Ceramic Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Smith, C.; Lumban-Tobing, F.

    1996-01-01

    The Composite Armored Vehicle (CAV) is an advanced technology demonstrator of an all-composite ground combat vehicle. The CAV upper hull is made of a tough light-weight S2-glass/epoxy laminate with embedded ceramic tiles that serve as armor. The tiles are bonded to a rubber mat with a carefully selected, highly viscoelastic adhesive. The integration of armor and structure offers an efficient combination of ballistic protection and structural performance. The analysis of this anisotropic construction, with its inherent discontinuous and periodic nature, however, poses several challenges. The present paper describes a shell-based 'element-layering' technique that properly accounts for these effects and for the concentrated transverse shear flexibility in the rubber mat. One of the most important advantages of the element-layering technique over advanced higher-order elements is that it is based on conventional elements. This advantage allows the models to be portable to other structural analysis codes, a prerequisite in a program that involves the computational facilities of several manufacturers and government laboratories. The element-layering technique was implemented into an auto-layering program that automatically transforms a conventional shell model into a multi-layered model. The effects of tile layer homogenization, tile placement patterns, and tile gap size on the analysis results are described.

  17. Kaolin processing waste applied in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles and mullite bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Farias, Felipe F; Oliveira, Maurício F; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2009-02-01

    In the last few years, mineral extraction and processing industries have been identified as sources of environmental contamination and pollution. The kaolin processing industry around the world generates large amounts of waste materials. The present study evaluated the suitability of kaolin processing waste as an alternative source of ceramic raw material for the production of ceramic tiles and dense mullite bodies. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. The fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that ceramic tile formulations containing up to 60% of waste could be used for the production of tiles with low water absorption (approximately 0.5%) and low sintering temperature (1150 degrees C). Mullite formulations with more than 40% of kaolin waste could be used in the production of bodies with high strength, of about 75 MPa, which can be used as refractory materials.

  18. Consolidation treatments applied to ceramic tiles: are they homogeneous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass consolidation treatment of azulejos is necessary when ceramic biscuits show signs of disaggregation. Such treatment is often used as a complementary conservation technique to the reestablishment of weakened glaze-ceramic bonds. In this research, two commonly used consolidants (ethyl silicate and acrylic resin were tested on artisanal ceramic tiles via mass consolidation and the resulting impregnation profiles were evaluated. The results indicated that after consolidation, hard zones frequently formed due to localized consolidant concentration after the polymerization and curing processes. These inhomogeneous hard zones subsequently influenced the results obtained through conventional mechanical strength testing (i.e. flexural and compression, creating a false impression of success. This research demonstrated that by using the Drilling Resistance Measuring System, impregnation characteristics such as penetration depth and distribution of consolidant could be observed that otherwise could not be discerned through the more common testing methods. As such, a more extensive evaluation of consolidation effects was achieved.

  19. Study on use of MSWI fly ash in ceramic tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiying, Zhang; Youcai, Zhao; Jingyu, Qi

    2007-03-06

    In this work, MSWI (municipal solid waste incineration) fly ash is used as a blending in production of ceramic tile by taking advantage of its high contents of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and CaO. Besides, macro-performance and microstructure of the product as well as its leaching toxicity in practical application were studied by means of XRD, IR and SEM analysis, and leaching toxicity and sequential chemical extraction analysis of the product. It is found that when 20% fly ash is added, the product registers a high compressive strength of 18.6MPa/cm(2) and a low water absorption of 7.4% after being sintered at 960 degrees C. It is found that the glazed tile shows excellent resistance against leaching, in accordance with HVEP stand, of heavy metals with Cdproduct and can hardly be extracted. Leaching toxicity of heavy metals in the product, especially Hg, Pb, Zn and Cd, is substantially reduced to less than one-tenth of that in fly ash. In addition, specifications of Hg, Pb, Zn and Cd are largely changed and only a small portion of these heavy metals exists in soluble phases. These results as a whole suggest that the use of MSWI fly ash in ceramic tile constitutes a potential means of adding value.

  20. Study of The Technological Profile of The Red Ceramic Industry of Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Pinto de Cerqueira Pedrosa de Oliveira; Luciana Peixoto Santa Rita

    2015-01-01

    The red ceramic industry in Brazil is a sector that is growing every year, characterized by the production of ceramic tiles as brick, tile, ceramic blocks, which basically uses, as main raw material, the clay. Due to the constant evolution of mechanization and production increase, plus the emergence of new companies, it is clear that processing techniques as well as technological modernization are key to achieving a higher performance segment of red ceramic process thus winning, t...

  1. Slipping properties of ceramic tiles / Quantification of slip resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjek, Anita

    2013-12-01

    Regarding the research and application of ceramic tiles there is a great importance of defining precisely the interaction and friction between surfaces. Measuring slip resistance of floor coverings is a complex problem; slipperiness is always interpreted relatively. In the lack of a consistent and clear EU standard, it is practical to use more method in combination. It is necessary to examine the structure of materials in order to get adequate correlation. That is why measuring techniques of surface roughness, an important contributor to slip resistance and cleaning, is fundamental in the research. By comparing the obtained test results, relationship between individual methods of analysis and values may be determined and based on these information recommendations shall be prepared concerning the selection and application of tiles.

  2. Effects of body formulation and firing temperature to properties of ceramic tile incorporated with electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Nurulakmal Mohd; Lim, Chi Yang; Teo, Pao Ter; Seman, Anasyida Abu

    2017-07-01

    Significant quantities of sludge and slag are generated as waste materials or by-products from steel industries. One of the by-products is Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steel slag which consists of oxides such as CaO, Al2O3 and FeO. This makes it possible for slag to partially replace the raw materials in ceramic tile production. In our preliminary assessment of incorporating the EAF slag into ceramic tile, it was revealed that at fixed firing temperature of 1150°C, the tile of composition 40 wt.% EAF slag - 60 wt.% ball clay has comparable properties with commercial ceramic tile. Thus, this current study would focus on effects of body formulation (different weight percentages of K-feldspar and silica) and different firing temperatures to properties of EAF slag added ceramic tile. EAF slag from Southern Steel Berhad (SSB) was crushed into micron size (EAF slag content was 40 wt.%) and milled with ball clay, K-feldspar and silica before compacted and fired at 1125°C and 1150°C. The EAF slag added tile was characterized in terms of water absorption, apparent porosity, bulk density, modulus of rupture (MOR) and phase analysis via X-ray diffraction (XRD). The composition of 40 wt.% EAF slag - 30 wt.% ball clay - 10 wt.% K-feldspar - 20 wt.% silica (10F_20S), fired at 1150°C showed the lowest water absorption, apparent porosity and highest bulk density due to enhancement of densification process during firing. However, the same composition of ceramic tile (10F_20S) had the highest MOR at lower firing temperature of 1125°C, contributed by presence of the highest total amount of anorthite and wollastonite reinforcement crystalline phases (78.40 wt.%) in the tile. Overall, both the water absorption and MOR of all ceramic tiles surpassed the requirement regulated by MS ISO 13006:2014 Standard (Annex G: Dry-pressed ceramic tile with low water absorption, Eb ≤ 0.50 % and minimum MOR of 35 MPa).

  3. Analysis of the impact of ISO 14001 in the economic variables of the Spanish ceramic tile industry's companies; ISO 14001 y variables economicas, hay alguna relacion? Analisis de las empresas certificadas del sector ceramico espanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiro-Signes, A.; Segarra-Ona, M.; Mondejar-Jimenez, J.; Vargas-Vargas, M.

    2013-02-01

    The increased in the adoption of formally environmental certified practices through environmental management systems is a provable fact. Its implementation, which has a high cost for the companies, is expected to generate benefits, although the relation between the implementation of ISO 14001 and its influence on the improvement of economic indicators over time has not been documented. This paper analyzes the relation between the implementation of an environmental management system, the ISO 14001, and economic performance in the short, medium and long term for the companies of the Spanish ceramic tile industry. It explores the economic indicators for each of the 66 manufacturing companies which have implemented the aforementioned standard from 1996 until 2009 through a comparison with a control group. Results show that ISO 14001 does not affect the economic results of the studied companies. We have not found significant differences in the operating income values, neither in the increase in revenues in the long term in any of the three analyzed periods, contrary to the expected results. (Author) 60 refs.

  4. Biofilm formation on the surface of ceramic tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, R; Di Pietro, M; Zamparelli, M; Schiavoni, G; Del Piano, M

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the formation of biofilm on the surface of ceramic tiles, widely present in public and private buildings, using six parallel flow chambers. Our flow system was conceived and made to compare biofilm results by parallel distributed rectangular tiles. The tiles, divided into two identical A and B sections, were placed within the flow chambers. Biofilm formation was performed after 72 h and was quantified by viable counts of bacteria. Average viable counts ranged from 1.1x10(7) to 7.3x10(7) cfu cm(-2) and from 1.1x10(7) to 5.8x10(7) cfu cm(-2) respectively for biofilm A and B sections. As statistical analysis does not show significant differences, we can conclude that biofilms obtained were so similar to each other that they confirmed the system reproducibility. Our next step will be to use our system to study Legionella pneumophila and to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial agents.

  5. Laser ultrasonics for bulk-density distribution measurement on green ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, G. M.; Cavuto, A.; Pandarese, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper a Laser Ultrasonics (LUT) system is developed and applied to measure bulk density distribution of green ceramic tiles, which are porous materials with low heat conductivity. Bulk density of green ceramic bodies is a fundamental parameter to be kept under control in the industrial production of ceramic tiles. The LUT system proposed is based on a Nd:YAG pulsed laser for excitation and an air-coupled electro-capacitive transducer for detection. The paper reports experimental apparent bulk-density measurements on white ceramic bodies after a calibration procedures. The performances observed are better than those previously achieved by authors using air-coupled ultrasonic probes for both emission and detection, allowing to reduce average uncertainty down to about ±6 kg/m3 (±0.3%), thanks to the increase in excitation efficiency and lateral resolution, while maintaining potential flexibility for on-line application. The laser ultrasonic procedure proposed is available for both on-line and off-line application. In this last case it is possible to obtain bulk density maps with high spatial resolution by a 2D scan without interrupting the production process.

  6. 抛光废渣在陶瓷砖中的应用及现状%Application of Polishing Tile Waste in Ceramic Tile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠宁; 柯善军; 张国涛; 戴永刚; 李家斌

    2012-01-01

    瓷质抛光砖生产所产生的废料日益增多,不仅对环境造成巨大的压力,还影响了陶瓷工业的可持续发展,因此抛光砖废渣的处理与利用显得非常的重要。抛光砖废渣是目前陶瓷行业最难利用,也是利用得最少的废料;对抛光砖废渣进行再利用将有着广阔的前景。本文主要对抛光废渣的组成及烧结特性进行了分析,并对抛光砖废渣在陶瓷砖中的应用研究进行了综述,重点阐述了抛光砖废渣在陶瓷砖中的发泡机理。%The increasing poreelain polishing tile waste not only polluted city environment but also affectd the sustainable development of ce- ramic industries. So, it is very indispensable to dispose and make use of ceramic waste. Polishing ceramic tile waste is the most difficult to be used, as well as the least to be used in porcelain industry. And recycle of polishing tile waste has an extensive prospect. In this paper, the composition and sintering characteristics of polishing tile waste are analyzed and its application study is reviewed in ceramic tile. Meanwhile, it was emphatically introduced the foaming mechanism the polishing waste during sintering.

  7. Model Based Ceramic tile inspection using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Euclidean Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Elmougy, Samir; El-Azab, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of industrial products is used to determine the control quality for these products. This paper deals with the problem of visual inspection of ceramic tiles industry using Wavelet Transform. The third level the coefficients of two dimensions Haar Discrete Wavelet Transform (HDWT) is used in this paper to process the images and feature extraction. The proposed algorithm consists of two main phases. The first phase is to compute the wavelet transform for an image free of defects which known as reference image, and the image to be inspected which known as test image. The second phase is used to decide whether the tested image is defected or not using the Euclidean distance similarity measure. The experimentation results of the proposed algorithm give 97% for correct detection of ceramic defects.

  8. Parametric Weight Comparison of Advanced Metallic, Ceramic Tile, and Ceramic Blanket Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David E.; Martin, Carl J.; Blosser, Max L.

    2000-01-01

    A parametric weight assessment of advanced metallic panel, ceramic blanket, and ceramic tile thermal protection systems (TPS) was conducted using an implicit, one-dimensional (I-D) finite element sizing code. This sizing code contained models to account for coatings fasteners, adhesives, and strain isolation pads. Atmospheric entry heating profiles for two vehicles, the Access to Space (ATS) vehicle and a proposed Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), were used to ensure that the trends were not unique to a certain trajectory. Ten TPS concepts were compared for a range of applied heat loads and substructural heat capacities to identify general trends. This study found the blanket TPS concepts have the lightest weights over the majority of their applicable ranges, and current technology ceramic tiles and metallic TPS concepts have similar weights. A proposed, state-of-the-art metallic system which uses a higher temperature alloy and efficient multilayer insulation was predicted to be significantly lighter than the ceramic tile stems and approaches blanket TPS weights for higher integrated heat loads.

  9. Online Detection Approach for Rectangle Ceramic Tile Based on Sequenced Scenery Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Image based ceramic tile detection is a way to labor liberation in the production process of ceramic tile. Shapes of ceramic tiles studied in this study are rectangle with different sizes. Many existed researches are based on a situation that only a piece of tile goes through special rail one time, resulting in one or less piece of tile hold in the image from CCD sensor. But in fact, multiple tiles with the same sizes run in a row simultaneously at most factories’ rails, and a 'scenery' image is obtained from CCD sensor. And the image processing method based on close-up images is not satisfied in such cases. To detect different rectangle ceramic tiles online according to a sequence of scenery images, this study provide a vector corner method to decide the rectangle tiles with known size information, and a valley detection method via key-image-frames strategy to distinguish the first row in images. Finally, our Online Approach for Rectangle Tile Detection (OARTD was embedded into a detection system and applied to a factory; testing results validated its good performance. Indeed, the use of such an automatic system, to control a tile plant for shape classifying has a good prospect.

  10. Porosity Detection in Ceramic Armor Tiles via Ultrasonic Time-Of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nathaniel; Jensen, Terrence

    2011-06-01

    Some multilayer armor panels contain ceramic tiles as one constituent, and porosity in the tiles can affect armor performance. It is well known that porosity in ceramic materials leads to a decrease in ultrasonic velocity. We report on a feasibility study exploring the use of ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) to locate and characterize porous regions in armor tiles. The tiles in question typically have well-controlled thickness, thus simplifying the translation of TOF data into velocity data. By combining UT velocity measurements and X-ray absorption measurements on selected specimens, one can construct a calibration curve relating velocity to porosity. That relationship can then be used to translate typical ultrasonic C-scans of TOF-versus-position into C-scans of porosity-versus-position. This procedure is demonstrated for pulse/echo, focused-transducer inspections of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic tiles.

  11. High-Strength, Low-Shrinkage Ceramic Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, W. H.; Creedon, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of refractory fibers and whiskers to insulating tiles composed primarily of fibrous silica, such as those used on the skin of Space Shuttle orbiter, greatly improves properties. New composition suitable for lightweight, thermally-stable mirror blanks and as furnace and kiln insulation. Improved tiles made with current tile-fabrication processes. For given density, tiles containing silicon carbide and boron additives stronger in flexure than tiles made from silica alone. In addition, tiles with additives nearly immune to heat distortion, whereas pure-silica tiles shrink and become severely distorted.

  12. Chemical functionalization of ceramic tile surfaces by silane coupling agents: polymer modified mortar adhesion mechanism implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli Mansur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion between tiles and mortars are crucial to the stability of ceramic tile systems. From the chemical point of view, weak forces such as van der Waals forces and hydrophilic interactions are expected to be developed preferably at the tiles and polymer modified Portland cement mortar interface. The main goal of this paper was to use organosilanes as primers to modify ceramic tile hydrophilic properties to improve adhesion between ceramic tiles and polymer modified mortars. Glass tile surfaces were treated with several silane derivatives bearing specific functionalities. Contact angle measurements and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR were used for evaluating the chemical changes on the tile surface. In addition, pull-off tests were conducted to assess the effect on adhesion properties between tile and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate, EVA, modified mortar. The bond strength results have clearly shown the improvement of adherence at the tile-polymer modified mortar interface, reflecting the overall balance of silane, cement and polymer interactions.

  13. Synthesis, deposition and crystal growth of CZTS nanoparticles onto ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Calvet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a simple solvothermal method for CZTS nanoparticles preparation using hexadecylamine (HDA as a capping agent. The as-prepared CZTS powder was deposited as ink using Doctor Blade technique onto ceramic tile, as a substrate substituting the typical soda-lime glass. The as-prepared film was thermal treated at different temperatures in order to enhance the thin film crystallinity. CZTS crystal growth onto ceramic tile was obtained successfully for the first time.

  14. Optimal Non-Invasive Fault Classification Model for Packaged Ceramic Tile Quality Monitoring Using MMW Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smriti; Singh, Dharmendra

    2016-04-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) frequency has emerged as an efficient tool for different stand-off imaging applications. In this paper, we have dealt with a novel MMW imaging application, i.e., non-invasive packaged goods quality estimation for industrial quality monitoring applications. An active MMW imaging radar operating at 60 GHz has been ingeniously designed for concealed fault estimation. Ceramic tiles covered with commonly used packaging cardboard were used as concealed targets for undercover fault classification. A comparison of computer vision-based state-of-the-art feature extraction techniques, viz, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA), gray level co-occurrence texture (GLCM), and histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) has been done with respect to their efficient and differentiable feature vector generation capability for undercover target fault classification. An extensive number of experiments were performed with different ceramic tile fault configurations, viz., vertical crack, horizontal crack, random crack, diagonal crack along with the non-faulty tiles. Further, an independent algorithm validation was done demonstrating classification accuracy: 80, 86.67, 73.33, and 93.33 % for DFT, WT, PCA, GLCM, and HOG feature-based artificial neural network (ANN) classifier models, respectively. Classification results show good capability for HOG feature extraction technique towards non-destructive quality inspection with appreciably low false alarm as compared to other techniques. Thereby, a robust and optimal image feature-based neural network classification model has been proposed for non-invasive, automatic fault monitoring for a financially and commercially competent industrial growth.

  15. Thermal insulation attaching means. [adhesive bonding of felt vibration insulators under ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved isolation system is provided for attaching ceramic tiles of insulating material to the surface of a structure to be protected against extreme temperatures of the nature expected to be encountered by the space shuttle orbiter. This system isolates the fragile ceramic tiles from thermally and mechanically induced vehicle structural strains. The insulating tiles are affixed to a felt isolation pad formed of closely arranged and randomly oriented fibers by means of a flexible adhesive and in turn the felt pad is affixed to the metallic vehicle structure by an additional layer of flexible adhesive.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF CERAMIC TILE FROST RESISTANCE BY MEANS OF THE FREQUENCY INSPECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAL MATYSÍK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results of our experimental analysis of ceramic cladding element frost resistance, particular attention being paid to the application of the frequency inspection method. Three different sets of ceramic tiles of the Ia class to EN 14 411 B standard made by various manufacturers have been analyzed. The ceramic tiles under investigation have been subjected to freeze-thaw-cycle-based degradation in compliance with the relevant ČSN EN ISO 10545-12 standard. Furthermore, accelerated degradation procedure has been applied to selected test specimens, consisting in reducing the temperature of water soaked ceramic tiles in the course of the degradation cycles down –70°C. To verify the correctness of the frequency inspection results, additional physical properties of the ceramic tiles under test have been measured, such as, the ceramic tile strength limit, modulus of elasticity and modulus of deformability, resulting from the flexural tensile strength tests, integrity defect and surface micro-geometry tracking. It has been proved that the acoustic method of frequency inspection is a sensitive indicator of the structure condition and can be applied to the ceramic cladding element frost resistance and service life prediction assessment.

  17. Utilisation of different types of coal fly ash in the production of ceramic tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kockal, N. U.

    2012-11-01

    The influence of varying proportions of different types of fly ash (used in place of feldspar) and different sintering temperatures on the sintered properties of ceramic tile bodies was evaluated. The results indicated that sintering ceramic tiles with a high fly ash content at a high temperature caused a decrease in the properties because of bloating. The ceramic samples containing a higher amount of fly ash that were sintered at low temperature exhibited lower water absorption, larger shrinkage and strength because of the densification observed also in microstructural investigation. (Author) 25 refs.

  18. Sewage sludge ash characteristics and potential for use in bricks, tiles and glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Ciarán J; Dhir, Ravindra K; Ghataora, Gurmel S

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of sewage sludge ash (SSA) and its use in ceramic applications pertaining to bricks, tiles and glass ceramics have been assessed using the globally published literature in the English medium. It is shown that SSA possesses similar chemical characteristics to established ceramic materials and under heat treatment achieves the targeted densification, strength increases and absorption reductions. In brick and tile applications, technical requirements relating to strength, absorption and durability are achievable, with merely manageable performance reductions with SSA as a partial clay replacement. Fluxing properties of SSA facilitate lower firing temperatures during ceramics production, although reductions in mix plasticity leads to higher forming water requirements. SSA glass ceramics attained strengths in excess of natural materials such as granite and marble and displayed strong durability properties. The thermal treatment and nature of ceramic products also effectively restricted heavy metal leaching to low levels. Case studies, predominantly in bricks applications, reinforce confidence in the material with suitable technical performances achieved in practical conditions.

  19. Eco-innovation an evolution of innovation? Empirical analysis at the Spanish tile ceramic industry; Eco-innovacion, una evolucion de la innovacion? Analisis empirico en la industria ceramica espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segarra-Ona, M.; Peiro-Signes, A.; Miret-Pastor, L.; Albors-Garrigos, J.

    2011-07-01

    Innovation and sustainable development are considered to be economic drivers and crucial in fixing competitive position of companies. Eco-innovation, known as a synergic relation among both concepts must be an element to consider when designing the company's strategy. The objective of this paper is to analyze which are the variables that determine that innovative companies go beyond and consider the improvement of their environmental impact as an output when developing innovating activities. This research considers firms belonging to the Spanish tile industry. Data has been provided by PITEC Database. The paper identifies the moderating factors that influence the eco-innovative behavior of firms. (Author)

  20. Industrial redesign of traditional valencian tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas, F.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The idea behind this project was to recover a type of Traditional Valencian Ceramics, by adapting its own particular production technology to present-day systems, installations and materials.

    Se ha pretendido recuperar una tipología de Cerámica tradicional Valenciana, adaptando su tecnología productiva a los sistemas , instalaciones y materiales actuales.

  1. Standard Test Method for Bond Strength of Ceramic Tile to Portland Cement Paste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the ability of glazed ceramic wall tile, ceramic mosaic tile, quarry tile, and pavers to be bonded to portland cement paste. This test method includes both face-mounted and back-mounted tile. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Path-dependency and path-making in the energy system in the spanish ceramic tile cluster; La evolucion energetica del sector espanol de baldosas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Vaquer, E.; Mallol, G.; Gabaldon-Estevan, D.

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyses how energy consumption and energy efficiency evolved in the Spanish ceramic tile industry in the 20th century and explores the emerging possibilities in the 21st century. In the last century, the tile industry undertook three radical transitions by switching from traditional biomass fuels to liquid hydrocarbon fuels (fuel oil and gas oil), and subsequently to gas fuels, mainly involving natural gas. Although it is difficult to obtain the information that enable the real energy efficiency in manufacturing plants to be reliably evaluated, the available data indicate that a high degree of efficiency has been achieved with current manufacturing technologies. Consequently, significant developments in this sense are not expected, even though efforts are still being made to reduce energy consumption in the production process. However, environmental regulations and impacts, and the emerging new energy sources based on agricultural biomass could open up new avenues for energy supply in the Spanish ceramic tile cluster. (Author)

  3. Electrospun SiO2 "necklaces" on unglazed ceramic tiles: a planarizing strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, Alessandro; Fragalà, Maria Elena

    2015-05-01

    Silica based nanofibres have been deposited on unglazed ceramic tiles by combining electrospinning and sol-gel processes. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) alcoholic solutions and commercial spin on glass (Accuglass) mixtures have been used to obtain composite fibrous non-woven mats totally converted, after thermal annealing at 600 °C, to SiO2 microsphere "necklaces". The possibility to get an uniform fibres coverage onto the tile surface confirms the validity of electrospinning (easily scalable to large surface samples) as coating strategy to cover the macroscopic defects typical of the polished unglazed tile surface and improve surface planarization.

  4. Use of solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the ceramic tile industry and its influence on the physical properties of the ceramic products; Uso do residuo solido proveniente do processo de beneficiamento de areia na industria de revestimentos ceramicos e sua influencia nas propriedades fisicas dos produtos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biff, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.biff@sc.senai.br [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Criciuma, SC (Brazil); Silva, Manoel Ribeiro da, E-mail: mrsilva@unifei.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    The current paper had as main aim characterize and assess the use viability of a solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the production of ceramic tiles. To determine the main components the solid waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence and the main crystalline phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. To evaluate the addition effects of the solid waste over the solid waste was introduced into a ceramic composition in proportions of 5% and 10%. The ceramics materials obtained were subjected to the linear retraction, water absorption and flexural strength analysis according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). Additionally, the solid waste and the ceramic materials obtained in this study were classified according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004) to assess the potential environmental impact. The main solid waste constituents identified were silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide, respectively 50.2% e 19.2%, distributed in the crystal forms of quartz and kaolinite. The ceramic materials obtained after firing at 1100 deg C, without and with 10% of solid waste presented respectively flexural strength of 13.86 MPa and 14,52Mpa. The results of water absorption without and with addition of 10% of solid waste were respectively 16.96% and 16.63%, both appropriate performances for use in ceramic tiles according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). On the other hand, the ceramic materials obtained with the addition of 10% of solid waste were classified as inert materials according to Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004), showing the capability of incorporating solid waste in ceramic materials. (author)

  5. Utilization of red mud in the manufacture of ceramic tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, N.F.; Shater, M.O. [Housing and Building Research Center, Cairo (Egypt); Abadir, M.F.; Ibrahim, O.A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Red mud, which is a pollutant residue from the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore, was utilized as an additive to a well blended mixture of three Egyptian clays, feldspar, quartz and grog. This was added in gradual proportions to study its effect on the vitrification properties of fired samples. Samples were moulded under a pressure of 20.7 MPa and fired at temperatures ranging from 950 C to 1100 C for soaking periods up to three hours. Compressive strength was determined as function of percent red mud added and firing temperature. A semi-exponential relation was established between strength and apparent porosity. 50 x 50 mm tiles containing 70% red mud addition and fired at 1100 C for one hour were tested. They were found to match the standards required for glazed wall tiles bodies. Tiles fired at 1100 C for 3 hours were compatible with the standards for glazed floor tiles. (orig.)

  6. Neutron activation analysis of ceramic tiles and its component and radon exhalation rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. El-Shershaby; A. Sroor; F. Ahmed; A.S. Abdel-Haleem; Z. Abdel

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of 20 trace elements in several ceramics tiles and ceramic composites used in Egypt were elementally analyzed by neutron activation analysis(NAA) technique. The samples and standard were irradiated with reactor for 4 h( in the Second The gamma-ray spectra obtained were measured for several times by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system( HPGe).Also a solid state nuclear track detector(SSNTD) CR-39, was used to measure the emanation rate of radon for these samples. The radium concentrations were found to vary from 0.39-3.59 ppm and the emanation rates were found to vary from (0.728-5.688) x 10-4The elemental analysis of the ceramic tiles and ceramic composites have a great importance in assigning the physical properties and in turn the quality of the material.

  7. Thermo Physical Characteristics of Vitrified Tile Polishing Waste for Use in Traditional Ceramics-An Initiative of Cgcri, Naroda Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Machhoya, B. B.; Savsani, R. M.

    This paper reports the thermo physical characteristics of Vitrified tile polishing waste materials. As such growing production of vitrified tiles in the country generate large volume of this waste obtained during processing, polishing and cutting of the vitrified tiles to the tune of nearly 10-15 tonnes per day from each plant. The characteristic features of these materials are being studied and investigated to develop suitable technology for finding its gainful use especially in the traditional ceramics. It is known that ceramic as such building materials industry could be a large raw materials consumer and being heterogeneous and thus could utilize this vast quantity as the raw materials. However, the main problem would be it's firing nature as it showed thermal deformation after a particular temperature. Interestingly, the production process of most of the traditional ceramics follows a similar pattern starting from the raw materials processing up to a level of firing. Hence, to suggest suitable utility in the traditional ceramics as raw materials, it was the prime requisite that these waste must be thoroughly studied w. r. t various thermo physical characteristics to make use in this sectors. Hence, the present paper interestingly gone up to various study such as raw materials nature, particle size distribution, chemistry, XRD and DTA study for understanding typical physico chemical properties, and finally thermal properties to make it suitable for use in traditional ceramic industries. The higher fineness of the waste materials indicates its usefulness without extra grinding. The chemistry of typical sludge shows contamination from abrasive particles, sorrel cement bonding materials etc. originated from the polishing wheel and needs special precaution while suggesting use in the ceramic sectors. The firing characteristics of the sludge materials produces a foamy and spongy shapes and this could be the main guiding parameters in selecting the end use of the

  8. Water reservoir as resource of raw material for ceramic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-04-01

    The industries related to the ceramics such as construction bricks, pottery and tile are the important sectors that cover the large part of the working population in Tunisia. The raw materials, clay or silt are excavated from opencast site of limestone clay stratum. The opencast site give the negative impact on landscape and environment, risks of landslide, soil erosion etc. On the other hand, a most serious problem in water resource management, especially in arid land such as Tunisia, is sedimentation in reservoirs. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs reduces the water storage capacity. The authors proposed the exploitation of the sediment as raw material for the ceramics industries in the previous studies because the sediment in Tunisia is fine silt. In this study, the potential of the water reservoirs in Tunisia as the resource of the raw material for the ceramics industries is estimated from the sedimentation ratio in the water reservoirs.

  9. Solar Photocatalytic Removal of Chemical and Bacterial Pollutants from Water Using Pt/TiO2-Coated Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Devipriya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor photocatalysis has become an increasingly promising technology in environmental wastewater treatment. The present work reports a simple technique for the preparation of platinum-deposited TiO2 catalysts and its immobilization on ordinary ceramic tiles. The Pt/TiO2 is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS. Deposition of Pt on TiO2 extends the optical absorption of the latter to the visible region which makes it attractive for solar energy application. Optimum loading of Pt on TiO2 was found to be 0.5%. The Pt/TiO2 is coated on ceramic tiles and immobilized. This catalyst was found effective for the solar photocatalytic removal of chemical and bacterial pollutants from water. Once the parameters are optimized, the Pt/TiO2/tile can find application in swimming pools, hospitals, water theme parks, and even industries for the decontamination of water.

  10. Evaluation of angle dependence in spectral emissivity of ceramic tiles measured by FT-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, C.; Ogasawara, N.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, S.; Kikuchi, T.

    2015-05-01

    Ceramic tiles are widely used for building walls. False detections are caused in inspections by infrared thermography because of the infrared reflection and angle dependence of emissivity. As the first problem, ceramic tile walls are influenced from backgrounds reflection. As the second problem, in inspection for tall buildings, the camera angles are changed against the height. Thus, to reveal the relation between the emissivity and angles is needed. However, there is very little data about it. It is impossible to decrease the false detection on ceramic tile walls without resolving these problems; background reflection and angle dependence of emissivity. In this study, the angle problem was investigated. The purpose is to establish a revision method in the angle dependence of the emissivity for infrared thermography. To reveal the relation between the emissivity and angles, the spectral emissivity of a ceramic tile at various angles was measured by FT-IR and infrared thermographic instrument. These two experimental results were compared with the emissivity-angle curves from the theoretical formula. In short wavelength range, the two experimental results showed similar behavior, but they did not agree with the theoretical curve. This will be the subject of further study. In long wavelength range, the both experimental results almost obeyed the theoretical curve. This means that it is possible to revise the angle dependence of spectral emissivity, for long wavelength range.

  11. Characterisation of acid pollutant emissions in ceramic tile manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monfort, E.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the environmental impacts associated with ceramics manufacture is the air emission of acid compounds stem from the presence of impurities in the raw materials and/or fuels. The present study was undertaken to identify the significant gaseous pollutants of an acid nature, to determine their concentrations, and to obtain the characteristic emission factors in spray dryers and firing kilns. The results show that, in spray dryers, the emission levels of the different acid pollutants are far below the current emission limit values applied in the European Union (EU. In firing kilns, the most significant acid pollutant emissions, compared with the recommended EU emission limit values (ELV-BAT, correspond to HF and HCl emissions, indicating that these emissions need to be corrected by appropriate cleaning systems before such emissions are released into the air. On the other hand, the results indicate that SO2 and NOx emissions in the Castellón industrial ceramic sector lie below the ELV–BAT proposed in the European ceramic industry BREF, owing to the widespread use of natural gas as fuel and of raw materials with reduced sulphur contents.

    Uno de los impactos medioambientales asociado a la fabricación de productos cerámicos es la emisión a la atmósfera de compuestos ácidos debido a la presencia de impurezas en las materias primas y/o combustibles. Los objetivos del presente estudio son: identificar los contaminantes gaseosos de naturaleza ácida significativos, determinar su concentración y obtener factores de emisión de los secaderos por atomización y los hornos de cocción. Los resultados obtenidos, en el caso de los secaderos por atomización, muestran que los niveles de emisión de los diferentes contaminantes ácidos se encuentran alejados de los valores límite de emisiones aplicados actualmente en la Unión Europea (UE. En cuanto a los hornos de cocción, la emisión más significativa de

  12. Evaluation of the effect of lichens on ceramic roofing tiles by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiurski, Jelena S; Ranogajec, Jonjaua G; Ujhelji, Agnes L; Radeka, Miroslava M; Bokorov, Milos T

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the actions of some lichens on the quality of ceramic roofing tiles was investigated in view of textural and microstructural changes considering their biocorrosion resistance. Two types (extruded and pressed) of the real ceramic roofing tiles aged 6 to 10 years, as well as the ceramic model systems formed with the additives of the specific chemical composition Cu-slag powder (10 wt%) and CuO powder (1 wt%), treated with various concentrations of oxalic acid (0.01 wt%, 0.1 wt%, and 4 wt%) were investigated. The thalli of lichen (Verrucaria nigrescens) growth on ceramic roofing tile were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Investigation by SEM and EDS gave information regarding the ultrastructure characteristics of the thallus and the lichen-ceramic tile contact zone, allowing the observation of the hyphal penetration and filling up of the fissures and cracks by the lichens' hyphae. The CuO as the raw mixture additive changed the quality of the surface of the ceramic model systems as it has increased resistance to oxalic acid actions. The textural changes in the ceramic model systems and the formation of the identified destructive crystal phase, whewellite, were slowed down. The fundamental interactions between lichens and ceramic materials of the model systems have been identified as physico-chemical processes based on oxalic acid actions, which could cause ceramic matrix deterioration and consequently aging of ceramic roofing tile systems.

  13. Influence of gypsum on efflorescence in ceramic tiles; Influence da gipsita no surgimento de eflorescencia em telhas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.M.O.L. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Nascimento, R.M.; Martinelli, A.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPgCEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The red ceramic industry is recognized as of major importance in Piaui State. The State capital, Teresina, is the greatest producer of this material, which is used mainly for masonry sealing blocks. One of the most frequent problems in this kind of products is the efflorescence.This paper has the main objective of studying the influence of gypsum on tiles, using the local industry production standards. The raw materials were characterized by FRX, DRX, thermal analysis and sulfates. Extruded test specimens were made with the addition of 1%, 3% and 5% of gypsum in the ceramic paste, burned at 850 deg C, 950 deg C and 1050 deg C and submitted to further technological and analysis for MEV. The reference ceramic paste did not show tendency to efflorescence formation after burning for samples with 1% gypsum added to the paste. The reference ceramic paste showed tendency to efflorescence formation after drying and consolidated efflorescence after burning for samples with 5% gypsum added to the paste. (author)

  14. Characterization of low-temperature cofired ceramic tiles as platforms for gas chromatographic separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Ernest; Thurbide, Kevin B; Gerhardt, Geoff C; Michienzi, Joseph

    2013-06-04

    A gas chromatography (GC) column is fabricated within a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) tile, and its analytical properties are characterized. By using a dual-spiral design, a 100 μm wide square channel up to 15 m in length is produced within an 11 cm × 5.5 cm LTCC tile. The channel is dynamically coated with an OV-101 stationary phase that is cross-linked with dicumyl peroxide. While the uncoated LTCC tiles were able to separate a mixture of n-alkanes, the peak shapes were broad (base width of ~2 min) and tailing. In contrast to this, the coated LTCC tiles produced sharp (base width of ~8-10 s), symmetrical, well-resolved peaks for the same analytes. By using a 7.5 m long channel, about 15,000 plates were obtained for a dodecane test analyte. Further, the coated LTCC tiles were found to produce plate heights that were about 3-fold smaller than those obtained from a conventional capillary GC column of similar length, dimension, and coating operated under the same conditions. As a result, test analyte separations were slightly improved in the LTCC tiles, and their overall performance fared well. In terms of temperature programming, it was found that a series of n-alkanes separated on the LTCC tile provided a cumulative peak capacity of around 54 peaks when using C₈ to C₁₃ as analyte markers. Results indicate that LTCC tiles provide a viable and useful alternative platform for performing good quality GC separations.

  15. The lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP) in the ceramic tile industry and its impact on the reallocation of inventories; La falta de homogeneidad del producto (FHP) en las empresas ceramicas y su impacto en la reasignacion del inventario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, F.; Alemany, M. M. E.; Lario, F. C.; Oltra, R. F.

    2011-07-01

    The allocation of the product available- to-promise (ATP) in make-to-stock (MTS) contexts is of the utmost importance as it can influence customer satisfaction and profits of the company. However, a proper initial allocation may become inadequate for several reasons. In these case, it is necessary the reallocation of inventory, which will be more complex the more ambitious goals to achieve with it and increased the amount of information to use. In this regard, it is noteworthy that the lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP), present in different industrial sectors, causes the atomization of the inventory and increases the complexity of the reallocation, difficult to obtain optimal solutions. This paper describes the problems of the LHP, first under a generic perspective and then, particularized to MTS ceramic companies. Subsequently, situations in which a specific allocation of ATP can no longer be appropriate in this context are identified and the reassignment, as a way to search for new valid assignments, is proposed. Finally, through a case study of a ceramic company, the impact of the LHP in each of the situations identified is analyzed, noting that the LHP causes some of these situations and in all of them, complicates the reallocation of inventory to orders. (Authors) 31 refs.

  16. Characterization of photocatalytically active coatings based on TiO2/Zn-Al layered double hydroxide on ceramic tiles

    OpenAIRE

    Vulić Tatjana J.; Rudić Ognjen Lj.; Ranogajec Jonjaua G.

    2013-01-01

    The self-cleaning function (photocatalytic activity and surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity) is of great importance for ceramic tiles from both economic and environmental point of view. This research is focused on the preparation of suitable photocatalytic suspensions studying the influence of the photocatalyst powder amount and the molecular mass of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the self-cleaning properties of the suspensions deposited on the ceramic tile...

  17. Laser Treatment of Nanoparticulated Metal Thin Films for Ceramic Tile Decoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, V J; Lahoz, R; Rey-García, F; Yubero, F; Espinós, J P; de la Fuente, G F; González-Elipe, A R

    2016-09-21

    This paper presents a new method for the fabrication of metal-like decorative layers on glazed ceramic tiles. It consists of the laser treatment of Cu thin films prepared by electron-beam evaporation at glancing angles. A thin film of discontinuous Cu nanoparticles was electron-beam-evaporated in an oblique angle configuration onto ceramic tiles and an ample palette of colors obtained by laser treatment both in air and in vacuum. Scanning electron microscopy along with UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis were used to characterize the differently colored layers. On the basis of these analyses, color development has been accounted for by a simple model considering surface melting phenomena and different microstructural and chemical transformations of the outmost surface layers of the samples.

  18. Study of the curvature of green pieces in stoneware ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Pablos, A.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic tiles undergo some deformations on the production line. After pressing, tiles are flat but, in subsequent stages of the production line, surfaces are wetted producing temperature and water gradients across their thickness. These gradients generate curvature in the tiles and therefore deformations in the pieces. The aim of the present work has been to measure the curvature and the mechanical properties of the tiles as a function of the water absorption for two types of ceramic pastes.

    Las baldosas cerámicas sufren deformaciones durante su proceso en línea de producción. Cuando las baldosas salen de la prensa presentan una superficie plana, pero en las siguientes etapas de la línea de producción la superficie de las muestras se humedece, produciéndose gradientes de temperatura y humedad que dan lugar a una deformación por curvatura de la pieza. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar dicha curvatura y las propiedades mecánicas de las baldosas en función de la humedad absorbida en dos tipos de pastas cerámicas.

  19. Detection of ionizing radiations by studying ceramic tiles materials using thermoluminescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, H. C.; Murthy, K. V. R.; Purohit, R. U.

    2017-05-01

    Natural background radiation comes from two primary sources: cosmic radiation and terrestrial sources. Our natural environment has both livings and non-livings like - Sun, Moon, Sky, Air, Water, Soil, Rivers, Mountains, Forests, besides plants and animals. The worldwide average background dose for a human being is about 2.4 millisievert (mSv) per year. This exposure is mostly from cosmic radiation and natural radionuclides in the environment. The Earth, and all living things on it, are constantly bombarded by radiation from outer space. This radiation primarily consists of positively charged ions from protons to iron and larger nuclei derived sources outside our solar system. This radiation interacts with atoms in the atmosphere to create secondary radiation, including X-rays, muons, protons, alpha particles, pions, electrons, and neutrons. The present study discusses the utility of ceramic tiles as radiation dosimeters in case of nuclear fallout. Many flooring materials most of them are in natural form are used to manufacture floor tiles for household flooring purpose. Many natural minerals are used as the raw materials required for the manufacturing ceramic ware. The following minerals are used to manufacturing the ceramic tiles i.e. Quartz, Feldspar, Zircon, Talc, Grog, Alumina oxide, etc. Most of the minerals are from Indian mines of Gujarat and Rajasthan states, some of are imported from Russian subcontinent. The present paper reports the thermoluminescence dosimetry Study of Feldspar and Quartz minerals collected from the ceramic tiles manufacturing unit, Morbi. The main basis in the Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) is that TL output is directly proportional to the radiation dose received by the phosphor and hence provides the means of estimating unknown radiations from environment.

  20. Managing mechanisms for collaborative new-product development in the ceramic tile design chain

    OpenAIRE

    Agost Torres, María Jesús; Company, Pedro; Romero Subirón, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on improving the management of New-Product Development (NPD) processes within the particular context of a cluster of enterprises that cooperate through a network of intra- and inter-firm relations. Ceramic tile design chains have certain singularities that condition the NPD process, such as the lack of a strong hierarchy, fashion pressure or the existence of different origins for NPD projects. We have studied these particular circumstances in order to tailor ...

  1. Standard test method for determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Analysis of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in ceramic tile manufacture; Analisis de consumos energeticos y emisiones de dioxido de carbono en la fabricacion de baldosas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Granel, R.; Vaquer, E.; Escrig, A.; Miralles, A.; Zaera, V.

    2010-07-01

    The ceramic tile manufacturing process is energy intensive since it contains several stages in which the product is subject to thermal treatment. The thermal energy used in the process is usually obtained by combustion of natural gas, which is a fossil fuel whose oxidation produces emissions of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. Energy costs account for 15% of the average direct manufacturing costs, and are strongly influenced by the price of natural gas, which has increased significantly in the last few years. Carbon dioxide emissions are internationally monitored and controlled in the frame of the Kyoto Protocol. Applicable Spanish law is based on the European Directive on emissions trading, and the assignment of emissions rights is based on historical values in the sectors involved. Legislation is scheduled to change in 2013, and the resulting changes will directly affect the Spanish ceramic tile manufacturing industry, since many facilities will become part of the emissions trading system. The purpose of this study is to determine current thermal energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the ceramic tile manufacturing process. A comprehensive sectoral study has been carried out for this purpose on several levels: the first analyses energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the entire industry; the second determines energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in industrial facilities over a long period of time (several months); while the third level breaks down these values, determining energy consumption and emissions in terms of the product made and the manufacturing stage. (Author) 8 refs.

  3. Relationship between meanings, emotions, product preferences and personal values. Application to ceramic tile floorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agost, María-Jesús; Vergara, Margarita

    2014-07-01

    This work aims to validate a conceptual framework which establishes the main relationships between subjective elements in human-product interaction, such as meanings, emotions, product preferences, and personal values. The study analyzes the relationships between meanings and emotions, and between these and preferences, as well as the influence of personal values on such relationships. The study was applied to ceramic tile floorings. A questionnaire with images of a neutral room with different ceramic tile floorings was designed and distributed via the web. Results from the study suggest that both meanings and emotions must be taken into account in the generation of product preferences. The meanings given to the product can cause the generation of emotions, and both types of subjective impressions give rise to product preferences. Personal reference values influence these relationships between subjective impressions and product preferences. As a consequence, not only target customers' demographic data but specifically their values and criteria must be taken into account from the beginning of the development process. The specific results of this paper can be used directly by ceramic tile designers, who can better adjust product design (and the subjective impressions elicited) to the target market. Consequently, the chance of product success is reinforced.

  4. Simulation of the Evolution of Floor Covering Ceramic Tiles During the Firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Defez, Beatriz; Serrano, Ricardo; Ruiz, Oscar E.

    2013-04-01

    Finding the geometry and properties of a ceramic tile after its firing using simulations, is relevant because several defects can occur and the tile can be rejected if the conditions of the firing are inadequate for the geometry and materials of the tile. Previous works present limitations because they do not use a model characteristic of ceramics at high temperatures and they oversimplify the simulations. As a response to such shortcomings, this article presents a simulation with a three-dimensional Norton's model, which is characteristic of ceramics at high temperatures. The results of our simulated experiments show advantages with respect to the identification of the mechanisms that contribute to the final shape of the body. Our work is able to divide the history of temperatures in stages where the evolution of the thermal, elastic, and creep deformations is simplified and meaningful. That is achieved because our work found that curvature is the most descriptive parameter of the simulation. Future work is to be realized in the creation of a model that takes into account that the shrinkage is dependent on the history of temperatures.

  5. Radon exhalation rates and gamma doses from ceramic tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, R S; Aral, H; Peggie, J R

    1998-12-01

    This study was carried out to assess the possible radiological hazard resulting from the use of zircon in glaze applied to tiles used in buildings. The 226Ra content of various stains and glazing compounds was measured using gamma spectroscopy and the 222Rn exhalation rates for these materials were measured using adsorption on activated charcoal. The radon exhalation rates were found to be close to or less than the minimum detectable values for the equipment used. This limit was much lower than the estimated exhalation rates, which were calculated assuming that the parameters controlling the emanation and diffusion of 222Rn in the materials studied were similar to those of soil. This implied that the 222Rn emanation coefficients and/or diffusion coefficients for most of the materials studied were very much lower than expected. Measurements on zircon powders showed that the 222Rn emanation coefficient for zircon was much lower than that for soil, indicating that only a small fraction of the 222Rn produced by the decay of 226Ra was able to escape from the zircon grains. The estimated increase in radon concentration in room air and the estimated external gamma radiation dose resulting from the use of zircon glaze are both much lower than the relevant action level and dose limit.

  6. Neutron activation analysis of ceramic tiles and its component and radon exhalation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shershaby, A; Sroor, A; Ahmed, F; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Abdel, Z

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of 20 trace elements in several ceramics tiles and ceramic composites used in Egypt were elementally analyzed by neutron activation analysis(NAA) technique. The samples and standard were irradiated with reactor for 4 h (in the Second Research Egyptian Reactor(Et-RR-2)) with thermal neutron flux 5.9 x 10(13) n/(cm2 x s). The gamma-ray spectra obtained were measured for several times by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system(HPGe). Also a solid state nuclear track detector(SSNTD) CR-39, was used to measure the emanation rate of radon for these samples. The radium concentrations were found to vary from 0.39-3.59 ppm and the emanation rates were found to vary from (0.728-5.688) x 10(-4) kg/(m2 x s). The elemental analysis of the ceramic tiles and ceramic composites have a great importance in assigning the physical properties and in turn the quality of the material.

  7. Decorative design of ceramic tiles adapted to inkjet printing employing digital image processing; Diseno decorativo de pavimentos ceramicos adaptado a inyeccion de tinta mediante tratamiento digital de imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defez, B.; Santiago-Praderas, V.; Lluna, E.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Dunai, E.

    2013-09-01

    The ceramic tile sector is a very competitive industry. The designer's proficiency to offer new models of the decorated surface, adapted to the production means, plays a very important role in the competitiveness. In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the design process in the ceramic sector, as much as the changes experimented in parallel by the printing equipment. Afterwards, we present a new concept of ceramic design, based on digital image processing. This technique allows the generation of homogeneous and non-repetitive designs for large surfaces, especially thought for inkjet printing. With the programmed algorithms we have compiled a prototype software for the assistance of the ceramic design. This tool allows creating continuous designs for large surfaces saving developing time. (Author)

  8. Surface defect detection in tiling Industries using digital image processing methods: analysis and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad H; Asemani, Davud

    2014-05-01

    Ceramic and tile industries should indispensably include a grading stage to quantify the quality of products. Actually, human control systems are often used for grading purposes. An automatic grading system is essential to enhance the quality control and marketing of the products. Since there generally exist six different types of defects originating from various stages of tile manufacturing lines with distinct textures and morphologies, many image processing techniques have been proposed for defect detection. In this paper, a survey has been made on the pattern recognition and image processing algorithms which have been used to detect surface defects. Each method appears to be limited for detecting some subgroup of defects. The detection techniques may be divided into three main groups: statistical pattern recognition, feature vector extraction and texture/image classification. The methods such as wavelet transform, filtering, morphology and contourlet transform are more effective for pre-processing tasks. Others including statistical methods, neural networks and model-based algorithms can be applied to extract the surface defects. Although, statistical methods are often appropriate for identification of large defects such as Spots, but techniques such as wavelet processing provide an acceptable response for detection of small defects such as Pinhole. A thorough survey is made in this paper on the existing algorithms in each subgroup. Also, the evaluation parameters are discussed including supervised and unsupervised parameters. Using various performance parameters, different defect detection algorithms are compared and evaluated.

  9. How Does the Innovation System in the Spanish Ceramic Tile Sector Function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we apply the functions of innovation systems framework to assess its appropriateness to characterise the innovation activity of the tile industry in Castellón. This framework is based on idea that a well functioning innovation system requires that a number of key activities take plac

  10. Lower energy costs in the ceramics industry - via ceramic fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zander, H.P.

    1983-04-01

    Ceramic fibres, due to their high thermal and chemical resistance, receive increasing attention as insulating material for industrial purposes. After a short characterisation, examples of furnace wall lining are given, and a tunnel-kiln car for baking of sanitation ceramics is investigated with a view to possibilities of supplementary insulation.

  11. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and exposure to zirconium silicate in a young ceramic tile worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liippo, K K; Anttila, S L; Taikina-Aho, O; Ruokonen, E L; Toivonen, S T; Tuomi, T

    1993-10-01

    We describe a nonsmoking ceramic tile worker 25 yr of age who developed a worsening dry cough and dyspnea after 3.5 yr as a sorter and glazer of tiles. Open lung biopsy revealed an intense granulomatous interstitial pneumonia with mild fibrosis, compatible with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and numerous very small birefringent crystals around the terminal airways and occasionally in granulomas. Pulmonary particle analysis revealed an inhaled dust burden nearly 100-fold the normal background level, mainly consisting of clay minerals and zirconium silicate. The patient had no history or clinical or laboratory findings suggesting any organic etiologic agent. A sarcoid granulomatosis type of chronic pulmonary hypersensitivity reaction is known after long-term exposure to zirconium, but this case demonstrates that zirconium can also cause an acute and fulminant allergic alveolitislike hypersensitivity reaction.

  12. Utilization of steel melting electric arc furnace slag for development of vitreous ceramic tiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritwik Sarkar; Nar Singh; Swapan Kumar Das

    2010-06-01

    Steel melting through electric arc furnace route is gaining popularity due to its many advantages, but generates a new waste, electric arc furnace slag, which is getting accumulated and land/mine filling and road construction are the only utilization. This slag has been tried to be value added and utilized to develop vitreous ceramic tiles. Slag, to the extent of 30–40 wt% with other conventional raw materials, were used for the development in the temperature range 1100–1150°C. The fired products showed relatively higher density with shorter firing range and good strength properties. Microstructural and EDAX studies were also done to evaluate the developed products.

  13. Research of utilization of a screen cullet in production of a glass-ceramic tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Ігорівна Завгородня

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the directions of utilization of screen cullet of cathode ray tubes that came into disuse as inorganic valuable secondary raw materials is shown in the article. It was chosen as the aim: determine the optimal cullet content in the charge for making glass-ceramic tile. The basic method is the testing physical and chemical properties of experimental prototypes in conditions as close to real. It will be projected resource economy of inorganic secondary raw materials, reduction of harmful environmental impact of solid waste

  14. Whiteness process of tile ceramics: using a synthetic flow as a modifier agent of color firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, G. R.; Pereira, M. C.; Olzon-Dionysio, M.; de Souza, S. D.; Morelli, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic flow is proposed as a modifier agent of color firing in tile ceramic mass during the sinterization process, turning the red color firing into whiteness. Therefore, the 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to understand how the interaction of the iron element in the mechanism of color firing mass occurs in this system. The results suggest that the change of color firing can be alternatively due to two main factors: (i) diluting the hematite content in the sample because of the use of synthetic flow and (ii) part of the hematite is converted in other uncolored crystal structures, which makes the final color firing lighter.

  15. 陶瓷砖安全性能评价%ASSESSING THE SAFETY PERFORMANCE OF CERAMIC TILES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖景红; 梁柏清; 罗喆; 刘亚民; 袁芳丽

    2011-01-01

    陶瓷砖应用领域的不断扩展,使其安全性能成为关注的焦点。本文分析比较了欧盟和中国对陶瓷砖安全性能的要求,提出可借鉴欧盟的先进经验,完善我国的陶瓷砖安全标准体系。%Along with the expanding in the construction field, the safety of ceramic tiles becomes the focus of attention. This paper analyses and compares the requirements of safety performance for ceramic tiles between European Union and China, at the same time, propose to use the advanced experience of European Union for reference, perfect the domestic safety standard system for ceramic tiles.

  16. Photocatalytic Removal of Azo Dye and Anthraquinone DyeUsing TiO2 Immobilised on Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Palanisamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 immobilized on different supports; cement and ceramic tile, was studied to decolorize two commercial dyes. The catalyst was immobilised by two different techniques, namely, slurry method on ceramic tile and powder scattering on cement. The degradation of the dyes was carried out using UV and solar irradiation. The comparative efficiency of the catalyst immobilised on two different supports was determined. The photodegradation process was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The catalyst immobilised on ceramic tile was found to be better than the catalyst immobilised on cement. Experimental results showed that both illumination and the catalyst were necessary for the degradation of the dyes and UV irradiation is more efficient compared to solar irradiation.

  17. How Does the Innovation System in the Spanish Ceramic Tile Sector Function?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.; Hekkert, M. P.

    2013-06-01

    In this article we apply the functions of innovation systems framework to assess its appropriateness to characterise the innovation activity of the tile industry in Castellon. This framework is based on idea that a well functioning innovation system requires that a number of key activities take place. If this occurs innovative output is higher. Our analysis provides a deeper understanding of the role of innovation as a strategic option in a mature industry in the context of globalisation. By applying this new theoretical approach to study innovation and highlighting the functions that the system requires, we shown the constraints, inertias, challenges and opportunities that the innovation system of the tile industry in Castellon faces. The results also show that the functional approach allows higher flexibility in order to recognise and analyse the opportunities and constraints that a given innovation system presents. (Author) 20 refs.

  18. 墙地砖胶粘剂的研制%Preparation of ceramic tile adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫国; 俞永涵; 钱翠英; 蒋中南

    2001-01-01

    A fine water resisting styrene-acrylic emulsion was synthesized by adding silane coupling agent in the polymerization.By using this emulsion,a waterproof and weather fastness ceramic tile adhesive was produced successfully.The experimental results show that the silane dosage and its adding method have great effects on the product,and the property of the ceramic tile was good when using propylene-glycol butyl ether and methyl hydroxypropyl cellulose as film-forming agent and thickener respectively.%通过在聚合过程中加入硅烷偶联剂,制得一种耐水性优良的苯丙乳液,并用该乳液制得耐水、耐候性优良的即用型墙地砖胶粘剂。实验表明,硅烷偶联剂的加入量和加入方式对产品耐水性的影响较大,同时,以丙二醇丁醚和甲基羟丙基纤维素分别作为产品的成膜助剂及增稠剂,产品的综合性能较佳。

  19. Standard test method for measurement of light reflectance value and small color differences between pieces of ceramic tile

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of Light Reflectance Value (LRV) and visually small color difference between pieces of glazed or unglazed ceramic tile, using any spectrophotometer that meets the requirements specified in the test method. LRV and the magnitude and direction of the color difference are expressed numerically, with sufficient accuracy for use in product specification. 1.2 LRV may be measured for either solid-colored tile or tile having a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface. For tile that are not solid-colored, an average reading should be obtained from multiple measurements taken in a pattern representative of the overall sample as described in 9.2 of this test method. Small color difference between tiles should only be measured for solid-color tiles. Small color difference between tile that have a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface, are not valid. 1.3 For solid colored tile, a comparison of the test specimen and reference specimen should be made under incandescent, f...

  20. Study of dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer using CFD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriaa, Wassim; Bejaoui, Salma; Mhiri, Hatem; Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we developed a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to simulate dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer (EVA 702). The carrier's motion imposed the choice of a dynamic mesh based on two methods: "spring based smoothing" and "local remeshing". The dryer airflow is considered as turbulent ( Re = 1.09 × 105 at the dryer inlet), therefore the Re-Normalization Group model with Enhanced Wall Treatment was used as a turbulence model. The resolution of the governing equation was performed with Fluent 6.3 whose capacities do not allow the direct resolution of drying problems. Thus, a user defined scalar equation was inserted in the CFD code to model moisture content diffusion into tiles. User-defined functions were implemented to define carriers' motion, thermo-physical properties… etc. We adopted also a "two-step" simulation method: in the first step, we follow the heat transfer coefficient evolution (Hc). In the second step, we determine the mass transfer coefficient (Hm) and the features fields of drying air and ceramic tiles. The found results in mixed convection mode (Fr = 5.39 at the dryer inlet) were used to describe dynamic and thermal fields of airflow and heat and mass transfer close to the ceramic tiles. The response of ceramic tiles to heat and mass transfer was studied based on Biot numbers. The evolutions of averages temperature and moisture content of ceramic tiles were analyzed. Lastly, comparison between experimental and numerical results showed a good agreement.

  1. Ceramic dyes for the chemical industry; Colorantes ceramicos para la industria Quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negre, P.

    1998-10-01

    In this article, after having carried an introduction of the importance of the chemical industry in the Castellon area, and specifically of the ceramic industry, we present a profile of the company ITACA. It includes the definition, essential characteristics and a basic classification of the ceramic Colorants. The basic criterion of selection of the appropriate Colorants are aimed for a certain use. In this case, we present, the availability of the palette for the coloration of the Porcelain Tile, material of ceramic covering with some excellent technical characteristics. In conclusion, the ceramic Colorants have a decisive importance on many transformed and/or manufactured materials of construction, and it is possible to extend the field of use of these types of Colorants to the processes of production in the chemical industry in general, due to their high stability and inalterability when are exposed to physical and/or chemical agents. (Author) 13 refs.

  2. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus exposed to UV radiation on the surface of ceramic tiles coated with TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawiński, J; Tomaszewski, H; Jackowska-Tracz, A; Szczawińska, M E

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antimicrobial activity of UV radiation of wavelength 253.7 nm (used in typical germicidal lamps) against Staphylococcus aureus on the surfaces of conventionally produced white ceramic wall tiles (matt and shiny) and the same tiles coated with TiO2 using three different methods: RF diode sputtering, atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) and spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD). Results clearly indicate that the bactericidal action of UV radiation is much stronger on the surfaces of tiles coated with TiO2 than on the tiles uncovered. The strongest bactericidal effect of UV radiation was found for film prepared by APCVD. Results of experiments for shiny and matt tiles did not differ statistically. The use of ceramic wall tiles coated with TiO2 films in hospitals, veterinary clinics, laboratories, food processing plants and other places where UV radiation is applied for disinfection should greatly improve the efficiency of this treatment.

  3. FLEXURAL TESTING MACHINE AS AN OFF-LINE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR QUALITY MONITORING IN THE PRODUCTION OF BENDED CERAMIC TILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The capability to bend in a controlled manner Gres Porcelain stoneware tiles passing by a very exclusive process of pyroplastic deformation opens up entirely new opportunities in utilisation of this important family of ceramics. A bended tile can be exploited in innovative applications, such as stairs, shelves, benches and even radiators, turning this element from a simple piece of furnishing in a modern functional component. But this change in functionality also requires a different approach in the quality control, both at the product and process levels, that can no longer be limited to the use of tests specified in the regulations for traditional ceramics (e.g. colour, porosity, hygroscopic .... This article describes the first device so far devised for the verification of resistance to bending of curved tiles, discussing the correct way of use. The adoption of this particular equipment as an off-line control device can represent a valid strategy for monitoring the product and process quality.

  4. Characterization of photocatalytically active coatings based on TiO2/Zn-Al layered double hydroxide on ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulić Tatjana J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-cleaning function (photocatalytic activity and surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity is of great importance for ceramic tiles from both economic and environmental point of view. This research is focused on the preparation of suitable photocatalytic suspensions studying the influence of the photocatalyst powder amount and the molecular mass of polyethylene glycol (PEG on the self-cleaning properties of the suspensions deposited on the ceramic tile surface. Photocatalysts based on Zn-Al double layered hydroxides with TiO2 as active component, were synthesized and used for the preparation of the suspensions. The coated tiles prepared using smaller photocatalyst amount and the highest investigated molecular mass of PEG (PEG 4000 showed the highest photocatalytic activity in the Rhodamine B degradation reaction, as well as the appropriate surface properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45008

  5. Use the Polishing Tile Waste to Prepare Thermal Insulation Ceramic Tile%抛光废料制备隔热保温陶瓷砖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华锋; 曾令可; 王慧; 冼志勇

    2014-01-01

    抛光废渣产生量大,回收利用率低,研究大量利用抛光废渣的新途径不仅能解决抛光废渣的处理问题,也将带来巨大的经济效益。本文分析了利用抛光废渣制备隔热保温陶瓷砖的背景、废弃原料处理、抛光渣发泡原理、制备工艺、性能影响因素等。%The production of polishing tile waste is so huge ,while with a low Recovery utilization rate. Research a new way that consuming a huge mass of polishing tile waste can not only solve the problem of waste processing ,but also produce huge economic benefits. This paper analyzed the back-ground ,the waste raw material processing ,the foaming principle ,the preparation technology ,the properties affecting factors of Preparation of Thermal Insulation ceramic tile with Polishing tile Waste.

  6. Study of The Technological Profile of The Red Ceramic Industry of Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Pinto de Cerqueira Pedrosa de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The red ceramic industry in Brazil is a sector that is growing every year, characterized by the production of ceramic tiles as brick, tile, ceramic blocks, which basically uses, as main raw material, the clay. Due to the constant evolution of mechanization and production increase, plus the emergence of new companies, it is clear that processing techniques as well as technological modernization are key to achieving a higher performance segment of red ceramic process thus winning, this way, the market, about terms of competitiveness and productivity. This time, watching these aspects, the present study aims to analyze the technological landscape of the production process of the Red Ceramic Industry in Alagoas State, with regard to equipment used in the manufacturing steps, checking for the possibility of existing technological levels these industries in Alagoas in its production process, analyzing these, aiming thus conduct a study of the technological profile of the Red Ceramic Industry. The methodology will support the field research through questionnaires with entrepreneurs as well as qualitative bibliographic nature, with content analysis. Thus, the data surveys have indicated the existence of technological levels for this segment, mapping the characteristics of the productive process and its technological profile in the State of Alagoas and can verify in a few steps a possible disharmony. Therefore, by the the analysis of the data allowed the highlight of four steps to the red ceramic production process, these being the extraction of raw materials, the conformation of parts by molding and extrusion, and thermal processes through the final stages of drying and burning, considering the existence of technological levels by analyzing the study of technological profile, with regard to equipment used in the production process of state Red Ceramic Industries.

  7. [Description of several cases of preclinical lead poisoning in decorators of ceramic tiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelio, G; De Zotti, R

    1983-05-01

    Tha AA report 10 cases of subclinical lead poisoning in a small ceramic factory for artistic painting of building tiles . The decoration was done by hand, using lead glazes . In spite of the extremely low lead air level, the decorators , whose time of exposure was 6-18 months had on average 1868 (SD: 810) micrograms Pbu EDTA/24h and 18,2 (SD: 14,8) mg ALAu /l. Hematochemical data were within the normal range, all but serum iron (144 +/- 33 micrograms %). The cases are presented as a clear example of working conditions where lead intake occurs mainly by gastrointestinal absorption. The AA emphasize the importance of biological monitoring as essential to complete the data of environmental pollution. Moreover the prevention of lead poisoning, especially in small factories, requires the implementation of those general hygienic measures recommended in the recent EEC directive.

  8. Micro-XRF for characterization of Moroccan glazed ceramics and Portuguese tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, A.; Manso, M.; Pessanha, S.; Zegzouti, A.; Elaatmani, M.; Bendaoud, R.; Coroado, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2013-02-01

    A set of enamelled terracotta samples (Zellij) collected from five different monuments in Morocco were object of study. With the aim of characterizing these typically Moroccan artistic objects, X-ray spectroscopic techniques were used as analytical tool to provide elemental and compound information. A lack of information about these types of artistic ceramics is found by the research through international scientific journals, so this investigation is an opportunity to fulfill this gap. For this purpose, micro-Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and wavelength dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were the chosen methods. As complementary information, a comparison with other sort of artistic pottery objects is given, more precisely with Portuguese glazed wall tiles (Azulejos), based in the Islamic pottery traditions. Differences between these two types of decorative pottery were found and presented in this manuscript.

  9. Modelling runoff on ceramic tile roofs using the kinematic wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Alexandre; Abrantes, João; de Lima, João; Lira, Lincoln

    2016-04-01

    Rainwater harvesting is a water saving alternative strategy that presents many advantages and can provide solutions to address major water resources problems, such as fresh water scarcity, urban stream degradation and flooding. In recent years, these problems have become global challenges, due to climatic change, population growth and increasing urbanisation. Generally, roofs are the first to come into contact with rainwater; thus, they are the best candidates for rainwater harvesting. In this context, the correct evaluation of roof runoff quantity and quality is essential to effectively design rainwater harvesting systems. Despite this, many studies usually focus on the qualitative aspects in detriment of the quantitative aspects. Laboratory studies using rainfall simulators have been widely used to investigate rainfall-runoff processes. These studies enabled a detailed exploration and systematic replication of a large range of hydrologic conditions, such as rainfall spatial and temporal characteristics, providing for a fast way to obtain precise and consistent data that can be used to calibrate and validate numerical models. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a kinematic wave based numerical model in simulating runoff on sloping roofs, by comparing the numerical results with the ones obtained from laboratory rainfall simulations on a real-scale ceramic tile roof (Lusa tiles). For all studied slopes, simulated discharge hydrographs had a good adjust to observed ones. Coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values were close to 1.0. Particularly, peak discharges, times to peak and peak durations were very well simulated.

  10. Conditioning film and initial biofilm formation on ceramics tiles in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siboni, Nachshon; Lidor, Michal; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Kushmaro, Ariel

    2007-09-01

    The formation of biofilm on surfaces in the marine environment is believed to be an important factor driving colonization and recruitment of some sessile invertebrate communities. The present study follows the process of biofilm buildup on unglazed ceramic tiles deployed into the marine environment in the northern Gulf of Eilat. PCR-DGGE of film eluted from the tile surface indicated the presence of bacteria as early as 2 h after deployment. The makeup of the biofilm bacterial community was dynamic. Bacterial presence was apparent microscopically 6 h after deployment, though a developed biofilm was not observed until 24 h following deployment. Total organic carbon (TOC) data suggest that a conditioning film was built within the first four hours following deployment. During this time period TOC reached the highest level possibly due to adhesion of organics (e.g., sugars, proteins and humic substances) from the water column. We suggest that the primary adhering bacteria, whilst still in the reversible stage of adhesion, utilize the conditioning film as food causing the decrease in TOC. Understanding the dynamics between these primary bacterial settlers is of importance, since they may play a role on the succession of invertebrate species settlement onto artificial surfaces.

  11. Investigation by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction of the chemical composition of white clay ceramic tiles from Veliki Preslav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagoev, K., E-mail: kblagoev@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Grozeva, M., E-mail: margo@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Malcheva, G., E-mail: bobcheva@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Neykova, S., E-mail: sevdalinaneikova@abv.bg [National Institute of Archaeology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Saborna, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and X-ray powder diffraction in assessing the chemical and phase composition of white clay decorative ceramic tiles from the medieval archaeological site of Veliki Preslav, a Bulgarian capital in the period 893–972 AC, well-known for its original ceramic production. Numerous white clay ceramic tiles with highly varied decoration, produced for wall decoration of city's churches and palaces, were found during the archaeological excavations in the old capital. The examination of fourteen ceramic tiles discovered in one of the city's monasteries is aimed at characterization of the chemical profile of the white-clay decorative ceramics produced in Veliki Preslav. Combining different methods and comparing the obtained results provides complementary information regarding the white-clay ceramic production in Veliki Preslav and complete chemical characterization of the examined artefacts. - Highlights: ► LIBS, XRF and XRD analyses of medieval white-clay ceramic tiles fragments are done. ► Different elements and phases, presented in the ceramics fragments were determined. ► Differences in the tiles' raw material mineral composition are found. ► Information of the tiles' production process and the raw clay deposits is obtained.

  12. Basaltic scorias from Romania - complex building material us for concrete, glazing tiles, ceramic glazes, glass ceramics, mineral wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marica, S.; Cetean, V. [PROCEMA S.A., Bucharest (Romania)

    2002-07-01

    The most spectacular deposit of basaltic scoria from Romania is the Heghes Hill from Racos, locality situated in the central part of country. This deposit emerged as grains of various dimensions, as volcanic ash with specific porosity up to 30% and vacuolar basaltic rocks. All types of basaltic scorias have specific vacuolar appearance, red- brick or blackish - grey coloured, scoria textures and similar chemical composition with others basalts of the world. The physical and mechanical characteristics determined included the scorias in the Heghes Hill in the following categories : light rocks (2,98 g/ dmc), porous(11,04%), similar to expanded slag, slightly absorbing rocks (3,86%), with low compression strengths (1700 daN/cmp). Basaltic scoria from Heghes is a very good row material for the manufacture of concrete, for obtain decorative cutting tiles glazing with ceramic and basaltic glazes (up to 40%) varied the range of colours and for obtaining glass ceramic, mineral wool, crushing sand for road maintenance, heat -insulating bricks and shid -proof material. (orig.)

  13. Use of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass in the production of ceramic tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long

    2007-09-05

    In this study, we employ the following operating conditions: varied pressure (25 kgf/cm(2)), sintering temperature (900-1200 degrees C), sintering time (6h), percentage of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass by weight (0-50%) and temperature rising at a rate of 5 degrees C/min, to fabricate clay tiles. The sintering characteristics of the clay blended with TFT-LCD waste glass tiles are examined to evaluate the feasibility of the reuse of TFT-LCD waste glass. TFT-LCD waste glass contains large amounts of glass. The TCLP leaching concentrations all met the ROC EPAs current regulatory thresholds. The addition of TFT-LCD waste glass to the mixture, increased the apparent weight loss. The incorporation of 50% TFT-LCD waste glass resulted in a significant increase in the porosity ratio of the specimens compared to the porosity ratio of the ceramic tile containing TFT-LCD waste glass. The main constituent in both the clay tile and the clay with TFT-LCD waste glass samples is quartz. Increasing the temperature resulted in an increase in the flexural strength and resistance to abrasion in the tiles. The porosity ratio decreases as shrinkage increases. The relation between the porosity ratio and the hardness of the tiles used in the study is also shown.

  14. Investigation by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction of the chemical composition of white clay ceramic tiles from Veliki Preslav

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoev, K.; Grozeva, M.; Malcheva, G.; Neykova, S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and X-ray powder diffraction in assessing the chemical and phase composition of white clay decorative ceramic tiles from the medieval archaeological site of Veliki Preslav, a Bulgarian capital in the period 893-972 AC, well-known for its original ceramic production. Numerous white clay ceramic tiles with highly varied decoration, produced for wall decoration of city's churches and palaces, were found during the archaeological excavations in the old capital. The examination of fourteen ceramic tiles discovered in one of the city's monasteries is aimed at characterization of the chemical profile of the white-clay decorative ceramics produced in Veliki Preslav. Combining different methods and comparing the obtained results provides complementary information regarding the white-clay ceramic production in Veliki Preslav and complete chemical characterization of the examined artefacts.

  15. Possible production of ceramic tiles from marine dredging spoils alone and mixed with other waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruzzo, Daniela; Minichelli, Dino; Bruckner, Sergio; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Bachiorrini, Alessandro; Maschio, Stefano

    2006-06-30

    Dredging spoils, due to their composition could be considered a new potential source for the production of monolithic ceramics. Nevertheless, abundance of coloured oxides in these materials preclude the possibility of obtaining white products, but not that of producing ceramics with a good mechanical behaviour. As goal of the present research we have produced and studied samples using not only dredging spoils alone, but also mixtures with other waste materials such as bottom ashes from an incinerator of municipal solid waste, incinerated seawage sludge from a municipal seawage treatment plant and steelworks slag. Blending of different components was done by attrition milling. Powders were pressed into specimens which were air sintered in a muffle furnace and their shrinkage on firing was determined. Water absorption, density, strength, hardness, fracture toughness, thermal expansion coefficient of the fired bodies were measured; XRD and SEM images were also examined. The fired samples were finally tested in acidic environment in order to evaluate their elution behaviour and consequently their environmental compatibility. It is observed that, although the shrinkage on firing is too high for the production of tiles, in all the compositions studied the sintering procedure leads to fine microstructures, good mechanical properties and to a limitation of the release of many of the most hazardous metals contained in the starting powders.

  16. Use of the extraction residue of emeralds in a formulation mass of ceramic tiles; Utilizacao do residuo da extracao de esmeraldas em uma formulacao de massa de revestimento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, R. F., E-mail: ronaldofcavalcante@gmail.com [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica - PPgEM - UFRN, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil); Nascimento, R.M.; Paskocimas, C.A., E-mail: rmaribondo@ufrnet.br, E-mail: paskocimas_ca@hotmail.com [Departamento de Engenharia Materiais - DEMAT - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil); Dutra, R.P.S., E-mail: ricardodutra@ct.ufpb.br [Departamento de Engenharia Materiais - DEMAT - UFPB - Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Companies involved in mining and beneficiation of emerald represent an important area of industrial development in Brazil, with a significant contribution to world production of this ore. As a result, large volumes of waste generated and emerald are constantly abandoned in the environment, contributing negatively to their preservation. On the other hand the interest in the use of mining waste as an additive in production of ceramic materials has grown among researchers in recent years. The ceramic industry is constantly seeking to expand the market for the sector and trying to improve product quality and increase the variety of applications. The technology of obtaining ceramic coating that uses waste from mining is still a largely unexplored market. Thus, the purpose of this study was to characterize the waste generated from mining emerald as well as to evaluate its potential use as raw material for production melting of ceramic tiles. Ceramic mixtures were prepared from raw materials characterized by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Five compositions were prepared using the waste codes of emeralds from 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Samples were prepared by pressing, sintered at 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C and characterized to establish their mineralogical composition, water absorption, linear shrinkage and modulus of rupture. The results showed that the residue of emeralds studied can be embedded in the mass of ceramic tiles up to 20% in replacement of feldspar without compromising the end product properties. (author)

  17. Characterization of double face adhesive sheets for ceramic tile installation; Caracterizacao de sistema de colagem dupla-face para assentamento de revestimento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Otavio L.; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Mansur, Herman S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The main goal of this work was the characterization of an innovative ceramic tile installation product based on double face adhesive sheets. Density, hardness, tensile strength, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with spectroscopy of dispersive energy assays were conducted. The results are in agreement with some manufacture specifications and the obtained information will be crucial in the analysis of durability and stability of the ceramic tile system installed with this new product. (author)

  18. 高硬度全抛釉的研究%Development of High Hardness Glaze for Fully Polished Ceramic Tiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况学成; 殷敏; 张明珠

    2015-01-01

    At present, the problems with fully polished glazed ceramic tiles are mainly low hardness and poor wear resistance. On the basis of the existing body and surface glaze formulas, the composition of surface glaze was optimized, and then through test and trial the glaze for fully polished glazed ceramic tiles with good wear resistance and high hardness was developed, which could effectively improve the quality of the products.%针对目前全抛釉砖产品存在的硬度低、耐磨性差问题,在已知工厂坯体和底釉配方的基础上优化面釉的配方组成,并进行归纳分析,研制出耐磨性好、硬度高的全抛釉。

  19. Decorative Patterns on Tangshan Building Ceramic Tiles%唐山建筑瓷砖装饰纹样分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉玲; 程红璞

    2012-01-01

    Firstly,decorative patterns on Tangshan building ceramic tiles were collected and arranged in accordance with their time.The results of analysis show the decorative patterns on Tangshan building ceramic tiles developed with the time,mirroring the taste and aesthetics of in different periods of time.%对不同时代的唐山建筑瓷砖装饰纹样进行了搜集与整理,通过分析比较,发现唐山的建筑瓷砖装饰纹样是随时代而嬗变的,纹样折射出了不同时期人们的审美意识和审美观念。

  20. Compressive Strength and Water Absorption of Pervious Concrete that Using the Fragments of Ceramics and Roof Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahara E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pervious concrete was introduced in America in 2003, popularized by Dan Brown and used as a rigid pavement in the open parking lot. Rigid pavement using pervious concrete can absorb water in the surface to go straight through the concrete to the ground below.This water flow is one of the benefit of using the pervious concrete. Using of wastes such as broken roof and ceramics tiles are not commonly used in Indonesia. Utilization these kind of wastes is predicted lower the compressive strength of pervious concrete as they are used as a substitute for coarse aggregate.In this research, pervious concrete is made using a mixture of the fragment of ceramics and roof tiles.This research using broken ceramics and roof tiles with a grain size that loose from 38 mm sieve, retained on 19 mm sieve and the coarse aggregate from crushed stone that loose 12.5 mm sieve, retained on 9.5 mm sieve. The water cement ratio is 0.3 and to assist the mixing process, the addition of addictive in pervious concrete is used.The size of coarse aggregate used in the mixture affects the strength of pervious concrete. The larger the size of aggregate, the obtained compressive strength becomes smaller. It also affects the density of pervious concrete. The using of mixture of ceramics and roof tiles only reduce 2 MPa of pervious concrete compressive strength so this mixture can be used as a substitute for coarse aggregate with a maximum portion of 30 %. The high porosity of the specimens causes the reduction of pervious concrete density that affect the compressive strength. This high level of porosity can be seen from the high level of water absorption that exceed the required limit of water infiltration.

  1. Compressive Strength and Water Absorption of Pervious Concrete that Using the Fragments of Ceramics and Roof Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahara, E.; Meilani

    2014-03-01

    Pervious concrete was introduced in America in 2003, popularized by Dan Brown and used as a rigid pavement in the open parking lot. Rigid pavement using pervious concrete can absorb water in the surface to go straight through the concrete to the ground below.This water flow is one of the benefit of using the pervious concrete. Using of wastes such as broken roof and ceramics tiles are not commonly used in Indonesia. Utilization these kind of wastes is predicted lower the compressive strength of pervious concrete as they are used as a substitute for coarse aggregate.In this research, pervious concrete is made using a mixture of the fragment of ceramics and roof tiles.This research using broken ceramics and roof tiles with a grain size that loose from 38 mm sieve, retained on 19 mm sieve and the coarse aggregate from crushed stone that loose 12.5 mm sieve, retained on 9.5 mm sieve. The water cement ratio is 0.3 and to assist the mixing process, the addition of addictive in pervious concrete is used.The size of coarse aggregate used in the mixture affects the strength of pervious concrete. The larger the size of aggregate, the obtained compressive strength becomes smaller. It also affects the density of pervious concrete. The using of mixture of ceramics and roof tiles only reduce 2 MPa of pervious concrete compressive strength so this mixture can be used as a substitute for coarse aggregate with a maximum portion of 30 %. The high porosity of the specimens causes the reduction of pervious concrete density that affect the compressive strength. This high level of porosity can be seen from the high level of water absorption that exceed the required limit of water infiltration.

  2. Energy optimization in ceramic tile manufacture by using thermal oil; Optimizacion energetica en la fabricacion de baldosas ceramicas mediante el uso de aceite termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezquita, A.; Monfort, E.; Vaquer, E.; Ferrer, S.; Aranal, M. A.; Toledo, J.; Cuesta, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    The ceramic tile manufacturing process consumes a great amount of energy, mainly thermal energy, which is obtained from natural gas combustion. The increased cost of this fuel and the current economic situation make cost a critical issue that can hurt company competitiveness. The ceramic tile firing process in roller kilns does not exactly stand out for its energy efficiency, because about 50% of the energy input is lost through the kiln combustion flue gas and cooling gas stacks. With a view to improving the reuse of the energy consumed in the firing operation, two heat exchangers were installed in the stacks of a kiln. In these heat exchangers, the kiln gases transfer their sensible heat to a thermal oil that then passes this on, through two other exchangers, to the drying gases in the recirculation ducts of a vertical dryer. This study presents an experimental industrial plant in a fine-tuning test phase, in which the preliminary results indicate an energy efficiency improvement in a range of 60-90%, depending on the operating conditions and processed materials. (Author) 11 refs.

  3. Comparative study of ceramic tiles produced in the Town of Goytacazes / RJ (Brazil); Estudo comparativo de telhas ceramicas produzidas no municipio de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, L.L.P. de; Pacheco, A.T.; Carreiro, R.S; Petrucci, L.J.T., E-mail: lezira@ig.com.br [Fundacao de Apoio a Escola Tecnica (FAETEC), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro Vocacional Tecnologico - Ceramica

    2011-07-01

    The city of the Campos dos Goytacazes, situated in the region north of the state of Rio de Janeiro, presents characteristics place that it enter the producing greater of blocks and ceramic roofing tiles for the domestic market. This work makes a study enters four manufacturers of ceramic roofing tiles of the city of the Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ, to analysis comparatively its results according to in agreement the characterization submitted to dilatometry, Thermogravimetry, Differential Thermal Analysis and X-ray diffraction for the physical tests the tiles were collected after burning and the tests under Bylaw NBR 15310. The results had indicated a significant variation in the values of water absorption of each manufacturer. The same ones demonstrate that the ceramic roofing tiles of Campos of the Goytacazes present a uniformity in the results, being that it needs technological accompaniment during the manufacture process, to improve its properties and its quality for adequacy to the normative parameters of the ABNT. (author)

  4. Environmental development of the Spanish ceramic tile manufacturing sector over the period 1992–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaera, V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish tile manufacturing sector has grown steadily over the years covered by the three benchmark studies, carried out in 1992, 2001, and 2007, from which data are compared in this paper. In that period, production output doubled, although since the last study was published, the situation has undergone a radical change and current production output stands at a level similar to that of 1995. Nevertheless, despite the world economic crisis, which has also severely impacted the ceramic wall and floor tile sector, it is worth noting that the sector’s environmental parameters have demonstrated a constant and positive trend, both in companies’ individual environmental performance and in the actual manufacturing processes itself. To a large extent, this situation was forced upon the sector as it had to adapt to numerous environmental regulations, which in general terms call for harsher and more stringent conditions than before. In this sense, the adoption of IPPC regulations, which affect practically the entire ceramic tile sector, and the approval of EU Directive 2003/87 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading were significant factors.

    El sector de fabricación de baldosas cerámicas ha crecido de forma continuada durante los años que abarcan los tres estudios cuyos datos son comparados en este informe, 1992-2001-2007, ya que la producción se ha duplicado desde el primer al último estudio, aunque si se considera el periodo del último estudio hasta la actualidad, la situación ha sufrido un cambio radical estando ahora mismo en niveles de producción similares al año 1995. No obstante, a pesar de esta crisis económica mundial en la que se ha visto arrastrado el sector cerámico, merece la pena destacar una constante evolución positiva en todos los aspectos relacionados con los temas medioambientales, tanto en aquellos aspectos relacionados con el comportamiento ambiental de las empresas como en los

  5. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6~8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5~6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO2-Al2O3, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  6. Maintenance of Vinyl Asbestos and Asphalt Tile Floors in Institutional, Industrial and Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt and Vinyl Asbestos Tile Inst., New York, NY.

    The claim is made that proper planning and modest outlays of time, labor, and material costs can provide and maintain a high appearance level for floors in institutional, commercial, and industrial buildings. Instructions for four basic steps in maintaining the good looks of vinyl asbestos and asphalt tile floors are treated in the booklet--(1)…

  7. Preparation and characterization of novel glass–ceramic tile with microwave absorption properties from iron ore tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Rui; Liao, SongYi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Dai, ChangLu [Guangdong Bode Fine Building Material Co. Ltd., Foshan 528000 (China); Liu, YuChen; Chen, XiaoYu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zheng, Feng, E-mail: fzheng@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Phase diagrams and materials design center, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2015-03-15

    A novel glass–ceramic tile consisting of one glass–ceramic layer (GC) attaining microwave absorption properties atop ceramic substrate was prepared through quench-heat treatment route derived from iron ore tailings (IOTs) and commercial raw materials (purity range 73–99%). X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Physical property measurement system (PPMS) and Vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements were carried out to investigate phase, microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorption aspects of the glass–ceramic layer. Roughly 80.6±1.7 wt% borosilicate glass and 19.4±1.7 wt% spinel ferrite with chemical formula of (Zn{sup 2+}{sub 0.17}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 0.83})[Fe{sup 3+}{sub 1.17}Fe{sup 2+}{sub 0.06}Ni{sup 2+}{sub 0.77}]O{sub 4} were found among the tested samples. Absorption of Electromagnetic wave by 3 mm thick glass–ceramic layer at frequency of 2–18 GHz reached peak reflection loss (RL) of −17.61 dB (98.27% microwave absorption) at 10.31 GHz. Altering the thickness of the glass–ceramic layer can meet the requirements of different level of microwave absorption. - Highlights: • Iron ore tailings (IOTs) have been used as one of the main raw materials. • Glass–ceramic tile contains spinel ferrite has been prepared. • The cation distribution of the spinel ferrite has been calculated. • The intrinsic complex permeability and permittivity have been evaluated.

  8. Apparent density measurement of the ceramic tiles in a quick, harmless and non-destructive way; Medida de la densidad aparente de baldosas ceramicas de forma rapida, inocua y no destructiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallol, G.; Llorens, D.; Boix, J.; Aguilella, M.; Foucard, L.; Arnau, J.M.

    2010-07-01

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of using a new method of determining the bulk density distribution in ceramic tiles of all possible sizes. This new technique is based on the measurement of pressure distribution inside the press die cavity, using paper that is sensitive to the applied pressure, in addition to the composition compaction diagram. The measurement procedure and methodology have been fine-tuned, studying how this measurement, together with its precision and reproducibility, is influenced by certain external factors. After the capability of the method had been confirmed, it was used to obtain the bulk density distributions of industrially processed ceramic tiles. This new measuring method is rapid, simple to use, and neither destructive nor toxic. The developed computer application enables a bulk density map to be obtained, defective areas to be readily detected, and allows complete data analysis. (Author).

  9. Dolomite addition effects on the thermal expansion of ceramic tiles; Efeitos da adicao de dolomita sobre a expansao termica de revestimentos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Luis Fernando Bruno; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    1997-12-31

    The thermal expansion of ceramic tiles is of greater importance in engineering applications because the ceramics are relatively brittle and cannot tolerate large internal strain imposed by thermal expansion. When ceramic bodies are produced for glazed ties the compatibility of this property of the components should be considered to avoid damage in the final products. Carbonates are an important constituent of ceramic wall-title bodies and its presence in formulations and the reactions that occur between them and other components modify body properties. The influence in expansivity by additions of calcium magnesium carbonate in a composition of wall tile bodies has been investigated. The relative content of mineralogical components was determined by X-ray diffraction and thermal expansion by dilatometric measurements. The results was indicated that with the effect of calcium-magnesium phases and porosity on thermal expansion of wall tile bodies. (author) 9 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Preparation and characterization of novel glass-ceramic tile with microwave absorption properties from iron ore tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Rui; Liao, SongYi; Dai, ChangLu; Liu, YuChen; Chen, XiaoYu; Zheng, Feng

    2015-03-01

    A novel glass-ceramic tile consisting of one glass-ceramic layer (GC) attaining microwave absorption properties atop ceramic substrate was prepared through quench-heat treatment route derived from iron ore tailings (IOTs) and commercial raw materials (purity range 73-99%). X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Physical property measurement system (PPMS) and Vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements were carried out to investigate phase, microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorption aspects of the glass-ceramic layer. Roughly 80.6±1.7 wt% borosilicate glass and 19.4±1.7 wt% spinel ferrite with chemical formula of (Zn2+0.17Fe3+0.83)[Fe3+1.17Fe2+0.06Ni2+0.77]O4 were found among the tested samples. Absorption of Electromagnetic wave by 3 mm thick glass-ceramic layer at frequency of 2-18 GHz reached peak reflection loss (RL) of -17.61 dB (98.27% microwave absorption) at 10.31 GHz. Altering the thickness of the glass-ceramic layer can meet the requirements of different level of microwave absorption.

  11. How Does the Innovation System in the Spanish Ceramic Tile Sector Function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabaldón-Estevan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we apply the functions of innovation systems framework to assess its appropriateness to characterise the innovation activity of the tile industry in Castellón. This framework is based on idea that a well functioning innovation system requires that a number of key activities take place. If this occurs innovative output is higher. Our analysis provides a deeper understanding of the role of innovation as a strategic option in a mature industry in the context of globalisation. By applying this new theoretical approach to study innovation and highlighting the functions that the system requires, we shown the constraints, inertias, challenges and opportunities that the innovation system of the tile industry in Castellón faces. The results also show that the functional approach allows higher flexibility in order to recognise and analyse the opportunities and constraints that a given innovation system presents.En este artículo utilizamos el análisis funcional de los sistemas de innovación para estimar su utilidad en la caracterización de la actividad innovadora en el sector cerámico de Castellón. El análisis funcional parte de la premisa de que para que un sistema de innovación funcione se requiere que ciertas actividades clave tengan lugar, cuando esto ocurre, el resultado de las innovaciones será mayor. Nuestro análisis proporciona un mejor entendimiento del papel de las innovaciones como opción estratégica en el caso de una industria consolidada y en el contexto de la globalización. Al utilizar esta nueva perspectiva teórica al estudio de la innovación, subrayando las funciones que el sistema requiere que sean cubiertas, mostramos las limitaciones, inercias, retos y oportunidades que se le plantean al sistema de innovación de la cerámica de Castellón. Los resultados también muestran que la perspectiva funcional permite una mayor flexibilidad a la hora de reconocer y analizar las oportunidades y limitaciones que se

  12. Mechanical and tribological behavior of red clay ceramic tiles coated with fly ash powders by thermal spraying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rodríguez, G.; Dulce-Moreno, H.; Daza-Ramírez, J.; Orozco-Hernández, S.; Vargas-Galvis, F.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical and tribological performance of red clay ceramic tiles uncoated and coated by oxy-fuel thermal spraying process from fly ash powders was evaluated. The ceramic tile substrates were manufactured by uniaxial pressing at 26.17 bar pressure, and sintered at 1100 °C. The coating thickness was determined based on the number of projection-cycles oxyacetylene flame over substrate. Coal fly ash coatings were deposited, with average thickness of 56.18±12.18 μm, 180.42±20.32 μm, and 258.26±25.88μm. The mechanical resistance to bending and wear by abrasion deep, were studied using ISO 10545-4 standards and ISO 10545-6 respectively; adhesion was measured using Elcometer equipment Type III according to ASTM D-4541-02 and the average roughness (Ra) was found according to ASTM standard D7127-13, using the profilometer Mitutoyo SJ 201. The surface morphology presented the heterogeneous molten or semi molten splats with average size of 35.262±3.48 micrometers with good adhesion, justifying increased mechanical resistance to bending by 5%, as well as wear by abrasion deep. These results contribute to the development of ceramic products with added value, to be used in various technological applications.

  13. Drying operation of ceramic tile bodies n vertical dryers (first part); Le sechage des carreaux ceramiques dans les sechoirs verticaux (1. partie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallol, G.; Mezquita, A.; Llorens, D.; Jarque, J.C. [Universitat Jaume I., Istituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC, Association de Investigacion de las Industrias Ceramicas, Castellon (Spain); Sahun, J.; Valle, F. [Gas Natural SDF, S.A., Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-05-01

    Using different types of sensors, the operation in a steady and non-steady state of a vertical dryer used for drying ceramic tile bodies was studied. The evolution of tile body characteristics at the dryer exists is analysed in the first part of this article; Actions performed and optimising efficiency in the use of co-generation system output in vertical dryers will be handled in IC and V next issue. (authors)

  14. Moisture expansion of ceramic tiles produced using kaolin and granite wastes; Expansao por umidade de revestimentos ceramicos incorporados com residuos de granito e caulim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, A.M.G.D.; Cartaxo, J.M.; Santana, L.N.L; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C., E-mail: ana.duartemendonca@gmail.com, E-mail: gelmires@dema.ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: lisiane@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande,Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R.R. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Moisture expansion (ME) is the term used to describe the expansion of ceramic materials due to the adsorption of water. ME usually occurs slowly and is relatively small, but, it can damage the ceramic tiles adhesion to the underlayment, craze the glaze and lead to the development of cracks on ceramics bricks. In this work kaolin and granite wastes were incorporated in ceramic compositions aiming study their influence on the ME of ceramic tiles. Raw materials were processed and submitted to characterization: physical and mineralogical by laser diffraction particle size analysis, chemical analysis, thermo differential and thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that kaolin and granite wastes can be incorporated in ceramic composition because display characteristics similar to conventional not plastic ceramic materials, providing satisfactory ME results when compared to the ME limit value of 0.6 mm/m (0.06%) indicated by the ABNT for ceramic tiles. Compositions containing up to 20% of waste can be produced when firing above 1000 deg C. (author)

  15. 陶瓷砖产品质量分析与对策探讨%Ceramic Tile Product Quality Analysis and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江曾杰

    2014-01-01

    针对当前市场上销售的陶瓷砖存在的主要质量问题,对江苏地区陶瓷砖进行了针对性的抽样检测,并对检测结果进行了分析,提出了解决问题的方法和建议,期望能给普通消费者对于陶瓷砖的购买与选用起到一定的帮助作用。%In order to solve the problem of ceramic tiles saled in current market, the ceramic tiles saled in Jiangsu had been sampling inspected, and the inspecting result had been analyzed. As a result, suggestions were given to consumers, and that would be helpful to choose ceramic tiles.

  16. 纳米液对瓷砖表面光洁度影响的实验研究%Experimental Study on Effect of Nanodroplets on Surface Glossiness of Ceramics Tile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵俊鹏; 徐斌

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the surface quality of ceramics tile, structure and principle of film coating machine were analyzed. The mechanism of nanodroplets coating ceramics tile was derived. A series of comparative SEM experiments with no coating nanodroplets ceramics tile and coating nanodroplets ceramics tile were performed, the surface glossiness of coating nanodroplets ceramics tile is better than that no coating nanodroplets ceramics tile. Cracks and concave pit after refilling nanodroplets are formed the film. It is concluded that stains can be removed on the surface of coating nanodroplets ceramics tile, by a series of cleaning the stain experiments of ceramic tiles, the ability of protection is very effective.%为了研究瓷砖表面质量,分析瓷砖涂覆制膜机的结构和运行原理,提出了纳米液涂覆瓷砖机理.一系列未涂覆纳米液和涂覆纳米液瓷砖SEM对比实验表明,涂覆纳米液瓷砖表面光洁度优于未涂覆纳米液瓷砖,涂覆纳米波瓷砖的裂纹、凹坑被纳米液填充并固化成膜.实验结果表明,涂覆纳米液瓷砖不易附着污渍,有显著的防护作用.

  17. 提高陶瓷砖釉面硬度的途径%Study on Approaches to Increase the Hardness of Glazed Ceramic Tile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡琨; 区卓琨

    2012-01-01

    有釉砖具有良好的装饰效果,但是釉面硬度较低,容易出现划痕。本文概述了有釉砖的釉面硬度、耐磨性的检测方法。并通过分析影响有釉砖釉面硬度的因素.提出了通过调整配方组成、引入微晶玻璃、改进工艺制度、进行表面处理等途径可提高有釉砖的釉面硬度。%Glazed ceramic tile had good decorative effect, but its low hardness leaded to surface wear in floor tile. This paper introduced the testing method of hardness and resistance to surface abrasion for glazed tiles. According to the analysis of the relation between hardness and glazed ceramic tile, this paper proposed four countermeasures: choosing suitable composition, preparing glass-ceramics, improving technique process and using sat'face treatment to increase the hardness of glazed ceramic tile.

  18. Quality and seasonal variation of rainwater harvested from concrete, asphalt, ceramic tile and green roofs in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Xiaoke; Hou, Peiqiang; Wan, Wuxing; Li, Ruida; Ren, Yufen; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent requirement to examine the quality of harvested rainwater for potable and non-potable purposes, based on the type of roofing material. In this study, we examined the effect on the quality of harvested rainwater of conventional roofing materials (concrete, asphalt and ceramic tile roofs) compared with alternative roofing materials (green roof). The results showed that the ceramic tile roof was the most suitable for rainwater-harvesting applications because of the lower concentrations of leachable pollutants. However, in this study, the green roof was not suitable for rainwater harvesting applications. In addition, seasonal trends in water quality parameters showed that pollutants in roof runoff in summer and autumn were lower than those in winter and spring. This study revealed that the quality of harvested rainwater was significantly affected by the roofing material; therefore, local government and urban planners should develop stricter testing programs and produce more weathering resistant roofing materials to allow the harvesting of rainwater for domestic and public uses.

  19. Photocatalytic decolouration of Orange II by ZnO active layers screen-printed on ceramic tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, J; São Marcos, P; Trindade, T; Labrincha, J A

    2009-04-15

    In this work ZnO layers have been deposited by screen-printing in common ceramic tiles. These layers were characterized and tested for the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye Orange II in aqueous solutions, using a batch photoreactor either under visible light provided by a Philips ML-160 W lamp or under direct exposure to sunlight. For sake of comparison, ZnO suspensions have also been evaluated for similar reacting conditions. The influence of experimental parameters such as (i) firing temperature of the printed layer; (ii) layer thickness; and (iii) operation time have been investigated. Screen-printed ZnO layers obtained in optimal processing conditions showed photocatalytic activity comparable to aqueous ZnO suspensions. The maximal attenuation degree is over 70% and decolourisation rate, assuming that reaction kinetics follows a pseudo-first order rate law, is over 0.015 min(-1). Thus these ZnO-layered ceramic tiles can be regarded as an alternative to photocatalytic suspensions of the same material with the advantage of avoiding the removal of the photocatalyst.

  20. Physical-optical effects obtention for the ceramic tiles decoration; Obtencion de efectos fisico-opticos para la decoracion de baldosas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, M. J.; Montins, V.; Solsona, D.; Sala, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a range of products for the ceramic tiles decoration, characterized for a microcracks structure after its application on a ceramic substrate and subsequent firing. This structure origins a multicoloured iridescent effect that confers to the ceramic tile differential aesthetics characteristics, with a final aspect similar to the rainbow quartz or iris quartz. An analysis of the state of the art is made as well as a deepening in the study and characterization of the physical optical phenomena responsible of that kind of effects in these minerals, with the aim of determining and modelling the multicoloured effect or iridescent effect, the cause of this effect, the physical-optical phenomenon that produces it, and the analysis and knowledge of the phenomenological mechanisms that origins it, so that we can try the extrapolation of that effects wit our ceramic materials. (Author)

  1. STUDY OF CERAMIC TILE PREPARATION WITH HIGH CONTENT OF CINDER%高掺量煤渣制备陶瓷釉面砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小苏; 陈倩

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic glazed tile was prepared by low temperature biscuit fire and high temperature glost fire using cinder from a ceramic factory' coal gasifier as the ceramic raw material. The phase composition and microstructure of ceramic glazed tile were analyzed by testing strength, water absorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of Albite and Black Talc to strength of ceramic body were discussed. When the content of cinder was 50%, the strength of ceramic tile was more than 35Mpa.%以煤气发生炉的煤渣为主要原料,辅以钠长石和黑滑石等其他原料,经低温素烧、高温釉烧的二次烧结工艺在辊道窑烧制成陶瓷釉面砖.测试其强度和吸水率,并采用X射线衍射(XRD)仪和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)分析了煤渣陶瓷釉面砖的物相组成及微观结构,探讨了配方中钠长石和黑滑石含量对陶瓷坯体强度的影响,制备出的陶瓷釉面砖强度大于35Mpa,且煤渣利用量可达50%.

  2. 利用石墨尾矿制备建筑陶瓷%Preparation of Building Ceramic Tiles from Graphite Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝海; 杜高翔; 廖立兵; 杨敏

    2011-01-01

    Sintered ceramic tiles were prepared from the graphite tailings from Heilongjiang province, China. A proper amount of quartz and kaolin were added to the raw material to improve the properties of the ceramic tiles which were formed by pressing method. The influence of sintering temperature on properties of ceramic tiles was investigated. The results showed that the ceramic tiles possessed good color consistency and higher strength when the tiles were made with the raw materials containing 6%~8% of water, through pressing forming under 25 Mpa and sintering at 1060 -1080 ℃. The tiles are well conformed to the requirements of the national standard GB/T 4100-2006. The ceramic tiles have the highest strength when the firing temperature is 1060 ℃. Its bending strength and water absorptivity are 68.90 Mpa and 0.306%, respectively. The investigations with scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the anorthite begins to crystallize at about 950 °C and liquid appears at about 1050 ℃. The anorthite and glass phase are important to the sintering and strengthening of the ceramic tiles.%以黑龙江石墨尾矿为主要原料,辅以适量的石英和高岭土,采用压制成型法,制备烧结陶瓷砖.研究了烧成温度对陶瓷砖性能的影响.结果表明,当原料含水率为6%~8%、成型压力为25 MPa,烧成温度1060~1080℃时,制得的陶瓷砖为暗红色,颜色一致性好,强度较高,符合国家标准GB/T 4100-2006.当烧成温度为1060℃时,抗折强度最大,高达68.90 MPa,吸水率为0.306%.扫描电子显微镜、热重-差热和X射线衍射等方法分析结果表明,烧成温度为950℃左右时开始析出钙长石,1050℃左右时有大量的液相产生,钙长石和玻璃相对其成瓷及强度的提高起到了重要作用.

  3. Interactive Industrial Robot Programming for the Ceramic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Veiga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interactive programming method for programming industrial robots in ceramic applications. The main purpose was to develop a simple but flexible programming system that empowers the user with product driven programming without compromising flexibility. To achieve this flexibility, a two step hybrid programming model was designed: first the user sketches the desired trajectory in a spatial augmented reality programming table using the final product and then relies on an advanced 3D graphical system to tune the robot trajectory in the final workcell. The results measured by the end-user feedback show that a new level of flexibility was reached for this type of application.

  4. 论功能型建筑陶瓷的作用及其应用%Functionalized Building Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税安泽; 覃东; 张勇林; 朱雯莉; 吴诚; 方桂金

    2012-01-01

    The functionalization of building ceramics is one of the main development directions for ceramic industry. The present paper summa-rizes the functionalized ceramics, including self-cleaning ceramic tiles, antibacterial ceramic tiles, solar ceramic tile, far-infrared ceramic tiles, anti-static ceramic, photoluminescence ceramic, humidity-controlling ceramic, electronegative ceramic tiles, porous heat insulation ce- ramic, water permeable brick, sound absorption ceramic, radar absorption ceramic tiles and dioxide absorption ceramic tiles and so on. The principle, process and the application of each functionalized ceramic tile are also given here.%将建筑陶瓷功能化是陶瓷行业的主要发展方向之一。本文对功能型建筑陶瓷,如自洁陶瓷、抗菌陶瓷、太阳能陶瓷、远红外辐射陶瓷、防静电陶瓷、发光陶瓷、调湿陶瓷、负离子陶瓷、多孔隔热陶瓷、透水砖、吸声陶瓷、吸收电磁波陶瓷和吸收二氧化碳陶瓷等方面进行了归纳,并阐述了各种功能型瓷砖的原理、工艺和应用。

  5. Effect of ceramic industrial particulate emission control on key components of ambient PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Monfort, Eliseo; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Celades, Irina; Miró, José Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM(10) components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits are produced. The PM(10) emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000-2006, taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/EC, leading to a marked decrease in PM(10) emissions. By contrast, emissions from tile manufacture remained relatively constant because of the few changes in the implementation of corrective measures. On the other hand, ambient PM(10) levels and composition measurements were carried out from 2002 to 2006. A high correlation between PM(10) emissions from frit manufacture and ambient levels of Zn, As, Pb and Cs (R(2) from 0.61 to 0.98) was observed. On the basis of these results, the potential impact of the implementation of corrective measures to reduce emissions from tile manufacture was quantified, resulting in a possible decrease of 3-5 microg/m(3) and 2 microg/m(3) in ambient mineral PM(10) (on an annual basis) in urban and suburban areas, respectively. This relatively simple methodology allows us to estimate the direct effect of a reduction in primary particulate emissions on ambient levels of key particulate components, and to make a preliminary quantification of the possibilities of air quality improvement by means of further emission reduction. Therefore, it is a useful tool for developing future air quality plans in the study area and in other industrialised areas.

  6. Monitoring and evaluation of duct emission and stationary sources of ceramic industries by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Fonseca, Roney Jose, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de, E-mail: aesvives@unimep.b [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor and evaluate the emission of metals from ducts and stationary sources in ceramic industries in the region of the ceramic centre of Santa Gertrudes in the state of Sao Paulo. There has been a growth of this industrial sector in recent years. This reflected upon the environment in this region which is responsible for 60% of ceramic tile floor production. From 2005 to 2006, samples of gases emitted by several ceramic companies in that region were collected. Metal concentration was determined through X-ray Fluorescence by Total Reflection with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF) technique. The analyses were carried out in the National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (NLSL) and used a polychromatic beam of light to stimulate the samples and a hyper pure Germanic detector for the characteristic X-ray detection. The following elements were detected: Al, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. High concentrations of elements such as Chromium, Nickel and Lead were observed in the samples analyzed which presented values of concentrations higher than the ones permitted by legislation. (author)

  7. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  8. Research on Variable Structure Parametric Design System of Ceramic Tile Mould Based on Modular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xiao-bo; DONG Yu-de; QIN Lei

    2014-01-01

    To solve the existing problems during the ceramic mold enterprises product design and development process, the variable structure parametric design system based on modular of ceramic mold has been developed. The system uses the object-oriented technology and top-down design concept as a guide, establishes a ceramic mold parametric design process, divides the process of ceramic mold design into modules of different levels and creates a component model library based on the functional analysis. Expanding modular thinking to parts structure design level is an effective solution to the difficulty of changing the structure during the product design process. Examples show that the system can achieve a ceramic mold product design, improve design efficiency.

  9. Characterization of clays used in the red ceramics industry at Itabaianinha-SE (Brazil); Caracterizacao das argilas utilizadas na industria de ceramica vermelha em Itabaianinha-SE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, T.F.; Andrade, C.E.C. de; Santos, C.R. dos; Barreto, L.S., E-mail: thiago_figueiredo91@yahoo.com.br [Nucleo de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Local Cluster of red ceramic industry in the state of Sergipe comprises Itabaianinha-SE, Itabaiana and Baixo Sao Francisco municipalities (Propria and Santana do Sao Francisco). The city of Itabaianinha concentrates a large number of ceramics and potteries producing ceramic bricks and tiles. The study was conducted in a red ceramic industry of the region. The focus of this work was an incremental innovation in the process and product. It was analyzed three types of clays used for manufacturing of ceramic bricks (barro preto, diamante and jardim). The samples were prepared by pressing and heat treated between 600 ° C - 1100 C °. The samples characterization was by thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and physical tests (water absorption, linear retraction and three points flection). The clays are composed mainly of kaolinite, illite-muscovite and quartz. The results showed that the Barro Preto clay showed better results in retraction, absorption and mechanical strain. (author)

  10. Use of sodium carbonate as a binder in ceramic tile compositions; Uso del carbonato sodico como ligante en composiciones de baldosas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quereda, F.; Sanchez, E.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Gozalbo, A.; Beltran, V.; Sanchez, J.; Sales, J.

    2010-07-01

    This study analyses, first, the influence of sodium carbonate content on the behaviour of the ceramic tile body composition during the different manufacturing process stages (preparation of the suspension, pressing, and firing), as well as on unfired tile mechanical strength. It has been verified that sodium carbonate can be used as a binder in ceramic tile compositions, since small percentages considerably enhance dry tile mechanical strength. It has furthermore been determined that for each composition there is an optimum addition content, with high increased mechanical strength (up to 70%), without this noticeably affecting the rheological behaviour of the suspension to be spray dried. These results are currently being patented (patent application P200930148). Once the binding effect of sodium carbonate had been verified, it was sought to establish its action mechanism. For this purpose, drops of mixtures of a standard ceramic composition and increasing quantities of sodium carbonate were prepared. The drops were rapidly dried and the granules were characterised by scanning electron microscopy. It was thus verified that the most likely sodium carbonate action mechanism was formation of solid bridges by crystallisation. (Author)

  11. Drying operation of ceramic tile bodies in vertical dryers (second part); Le sechage des carreaux ceramiques dans les sechoirs verticaux (2. partie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallol, G.; Mezquita, A.; Llorens, D.; Jarque, J.C.; Sahun, J.; Valle, F. [Universitat Jaume I., Istituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC, Association de Investigacion de las Industrias Ceramicas, Castellon (Spain); Gas Natural SDF, S.A., Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    The operation in a steady and non-steady state of a vertical dryer used for drying ceramic tile bodies and the evolution of tile body characteristics at the dryer exists were studied in the first part of this article. This second part deals with the adjustments of the burner temperature settings during stoppage, gas flow rate in the stack and recirculating gas flow rate. In addition, in some drying facilities co-generation systems are used with internal gas combustion motors. In the present study a series of modifications is proposed regarding existing facilities in order to optimise current dryer use. (authors)

  12. Back relief geometry of ceramic tiles: historic evolution, current considerations and new design approaches.; Geometria al dorso de baldosa ceramica: evolucion historica, consideraciones actuales y nuevos enfoques de diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defez, B.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Santiago, V. M.; Brusola simo, F.

    2010-07-01

    Abstract Bibliography related to the design of ceramic floorings, their historic progression and current background is extensive. The investment in the research of new materials formulations, both for ceramic supports, glazes and dyes has been intensive in the last decades, in order to maximize industrial productivity. Nevertheless, there are very few works engaged with the peculiarities of the geometric and structural configuration of ceramic products, where the back relief of the tile could have an essential role. In this article, we report the development of back relief's along time, according to the technological determinants of the sector. Then, we analyze the current situation of ceramic back relief's, as well as their development opportunities with regard to new design factors, namely, the new sales market, the new environmental requirements, and the accomplishment of the international regulations in the matter of quality production and building safety. Finally, we report the new approaches undertaken in the ceramic cluster of Castellon (Spain), with the collaboration of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, based on computer aided design. (Author)

  13. Application Progress of Inkjet Printing Technology in the Area of Ceramic Tile in China%浅析附着式振动器的技术特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋章方; 邓堪谊

    2012-01-01

    Inkjet printing technology was developing rapidly in the area of China's ceramic tile companies. It can be predicted, there will more than 1000 inkjet printing machines to be came into use in the near future. The decorative technology of the ceramic tiles are happening a 'revolution'. Standardized ceramic ink will have 7.5-16 billion RMB market each year and the inkjet printing equipment will have 3-6 bil-lion RMB market each year. Inkjet printing technology was changing traditional 'format and coloring match' development and production's mode, which will bring 4-64 billion RMB added value to the China's ceramic tile enterprise.%附着式振动器由于偏心块、附着重量、物料属性等的存在,将其电机设计问题复杂化。笔者结合多年的工作体会,就激振力与电机额定功率的关系、附着式振动器总体设计特点、温升计算要点、滚动轴承可靠性计算等问题进行了介绍。

  14. 高分子材料在陶瓷砖及其相关产品中的应用及进展%The advances and applications of high polymer material used in ceramic tile and related product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡阿满

    2011-01-01

    随着新型瓷砖的发展,高分子材料在陶瓷砖中的应用越来越广泛。本文介绍了高分子材料在陶瓷砖及其相关产品中的应用,并展望了高分子材料在新型陶瓷砖中的应用发展前景。%With the development of new ceramic tile, the application of polymer materials used in ceramic tile more and more widely. This paper introduced the application of high polymer materials used in ceramic tile and related products, and prospected the development prospect of polymer materials used in new ceramic tile.

  15. Substituição de areia de quartzo por finos de gnaisse em massa cerâmica para telhas: teste industrial Replacing quartz sand for gnaisse fines waste into roofing tile body: industrial test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. F. Vieira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da substituição de areia por um resíduo de beneficiamento de rocha ornamental, finos de gnaisse, em uma massa de cerâmica vermelha utilizada para fabricação de telhas. Foram preparadas telhas prensadas, do tipo "portuguesa", para queima a 900 ºC em forno industrial. As seguintes propriedades foram determinadas: retração linear, absorção de água e carga de ruptura na flexão. Além disso, avaliaram-se as características das matérias-primas e a plasticidade das composições por meio dos limites de Atterberg. Os resultados indicaram que a utilização de finos de gnaisse em substituição à areia possibilitou uma melhoria na trabalhabilidade/plasticidade da massa cerâmica e acarretou uma pequena redução na absorção de água das telhas. A resistência mecânica não se alterou, dentro da precisão estatística das medidas.The effect of replacing sand for gnaisse sawing waste into a red ceramic body used for roofing tile fabrication was evaluated. Pressed roofing tiles, "portuguese" style, were prepared before firing at 900 ºC in an industrial furnace. The following properties were evaluated: linear shrinkage, water absorption and load rupture strength. The plasticity of the elaborated compositions was determined by the Atterberg limits. The results show that the use of gnaisse fines replacing the sand, improved the workability of the ceramic body and promoted a slight decrease on the water absorption of the roofing tiles. The mechanical strength was not changed within the statistical error.

  16. Almetax and industrial technology total center Shigaraki ceramic industry technology test field in Shiga Prefecture; Arumetakkusu to Shiga-ken kogyo gijutsu sogo senta sigaraki yogyo gijutsu gijutsu shikenjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Almetax and industrial technology total center Shigaraki ceramic industry technology test field in Shiga Prefecture. Almetax of the aluminum building material and industrial technology total center Shigaraki ceramic industry technology test field in Shiga Prefecture developed the light thermal insulation foaming tile in the cooperation. This is a tile using the ash which arises by the renewal process of the aluminum. The aluminum ash was mixed with the feldspar of the Shigaraki-made, and it was burnt at the low temperature. In the lightness under the half of usual tile, it has the heat retaining property over 3 times. almetax was being planned a waste loss thermal insulation a stone two bird environmental consideration type goods begin to. The aluminum ash is mixed with the feldspar, and by the process burnt at 1200-1250 degrees C, it decomposes, the aluminum nitride in the ash foams. Therefore, the stoma which was homogeneously independent in burnt tile is possible. It is lightly easy to be handled, and it is a feature that the heat retaining property is high. There is the strength from the foaming concrete, and the water absorption rate is low. The aluminum reconstruction technique of almetax was made to fuse with the technology of the ceramic industry technology test field of the pottery lightening. almetax studies the cost reduction of the decontamination processing of the ash. It aims at cost of product of 3 thousand yen /m{sup 2} of usual tile level. The commercialization as partition between two rooms of external wall and life space of the building has been planned. The gross discharge of the domestic aluminum ash has been estimated with annual about 192 thousand tons. Though the part is utilized as a secondary material of the iron and steel refining, it deals with the excess minute as an industrial waste. (translated by NEDO)

  17. 一种仿微晶玻璃面瓷质砖的研制%DEVELOPMENT OF A KIND OF CERAMIC TILE WITH SIMHAR DEVITRIFIED GLASS PLANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇民; 薛志刚

    2001-01-01

    通过大量实验探讨,确定了坯体配方和相对应的溶液釉配比,利用溶液釉的渗透作用在坯体上获得了良好的釉层,为研制仿微晶玻璃面的瓷质砖提供了可能,并获得了效果较好的样品。%Making sure ceramic tile' s composition and a kind of solution glaze' s composition of furnish which adapts to it by means of a large scale of experiment and approach. Having got favourable layer on the tile by utilizing solution pervasive glaze and it provides a possibility of developing eeramic tile which with devitrified glass plane. Now we have got some samples with favourable effectiveness.

  18. Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Using Data Envelopment Analysis (A case study of tile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Rezaei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The competition increscent urgency in the global economy causes many organizations focus more on novel management ideas in constructing, delivery services and their productions. In current conditions, supply chain and the importance of a suitable performance evaluating system in order to understand the current condition and program for its improvement, has a very special importance in creating surplus value for clients. In this research, the performance of 7 active supply chains in tile industry which have similar supply chain construction, including providers, producers, distributors and clients, by evaluating producers who perform a key role in chains and by using data envelopment analysis method are considered. According to effectiveness of inputs on outputs of organizations, outputs are considered as functions of inputs and finally the relative performance amounts of decision making units, the key companies of chain supply are computed.

  19. Radon exhalation rates corrected for leakage and back diffusion – Evaluation of radon chambers and radon sources with application to ceramic tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abo-Elmagd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural radon decay, leakage and back diffusion are the main removal processes of radon from its container. Ignoring these processes leads to underestimate the measured value of radon related parameters like exhalation rate and radium content. This work is aimed to evaluate two different radon chambers through determining their leakage rate λv and evaluation of radon source by determine its back diffusion rate λb inside the evaluated radon chambers as well as a small sealed cup. Two different methods are adapted for measuring both the leakage rate and the back diffusion rate. The leakage rate can be determined from the initial slope of the radon decay curve or from the exponential fitting of the whole decay curve. This can be achieved if a continuous monitoring of radon concentration inside the chamber is available. Also, the back diffusion rate is measured by sealing the radon source in the chamber and used the initial slope of the buildup curve to determine λb and therefore the exhalation rate of the source. This method was compared with simple equation for λb based on the ratio of the source to the chamber volume. The obtained results are applied to ceramic tile as an important radon source in homes. The measurement is targeted the ceramic glaze before and after firing as well as the obtained tile after adhere the glaze on the tile main body. Also, six different tile brands from Egyptian market are subjected to the study for comparison.

  20. 自动液压压砖机液压油的选用%The Selection of Hydraulic Oil of Automatic Hydraulic Press for Ceramic Tiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任小平; 汪建晓

    2001-01-01

    The types and characteristics of hydraulic oil are briefly introduced, and the selection methods of hydraulic oil of automatic hydraulic ress for ceramic tiles are presented.%本文简要介绍了液压油的类型和性能指标,阐述了全自动液压压砖机液压油的选用方法。

  1. Foundry waste recycling in moulding operations and in the ceramic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Fiore, Silvia

    2003-06-01

    An industrial treatment was performed by the Sasil plant of Brusnengo (Biella, Northern Italy), which is part of the Gruppo Minerali S.p.A. (Novara, Northern Italy), to consider the reclamation of bentonite bonded moulding sands obtained from the Teksid Italia S.p.A. cast iron foundry plant in Crescentino (Vercelli, Northern Italy). An evaluation of the fine particles produced by the wet-mechanical regeneration treatment was made with the purpose of proposing their recycling as binding agents in moulding operations in the cast iron foundry and for the production of tiles in the ceramic industry. The pre-mixed product sold by bentonite suppliers (35% coal dust and 65% bentonite, 0.15 Euro/kg) could be made from the recovered fine fraction below 0.025 mm with the addition of active clay and coal dust, thus obtaining a product that will have physico-chemical properties similar to those of calcic bentonite. The improvements due to the addition of the fine particles to the usually employed clay for tile production were also underlined from the results of several baking tests. The recovery and recycling of sands and fine particles obtained from the reclamation of bentonite moulding sands will lead to a saving of raw materials and landfill space, with economic and environmental advantages.

  2. Analysis and Monitoring Results of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic Façade Using PV Ceramic Tiles in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal silicon-based solar cells laminated with tempered-glass and ceramic tiles for use in a building’s façade have been developed. The optical, thermal, and electrical properties of the proposed PV module are first evaluated, and then a wind-resistance test is carried out to evaluate the feasibility of installing it in Taiwan. The electrical and deflection characteristics of the proposed PV module did not change significantly after a 50 thermal cycling test and a 200-hour humidity-freeze test, based on IEC 61215 and a wind-resistance test. Finally, the electrical power generation ability of the proposed BIPV system with 1 kWp electrical power capacity was examined. Building information modeling software tools were used to simulate the BIPV system and carry out the energy analysis. The simulation results show a very consistent trend with regard to the actual monthly electricity production of the BIPV system designed in this work. The BIPV system was able to produce an accumulative electrical power of 185 kWh during the 6-month experimental period. In addition, the exterior temperature of the demonstration house was about 10°C lower than the surface of the BIPV system, which could reduce indoor temperature.

  3. Use of OVH residue in the ceramics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grellier, S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal oxidation (OVH: “Oxydation par Voie Humide” is an innovative technology used for waste water treatment, which is presented as an alternative to sewage sludge spreading and incineration. This process generates a fine-grain (D50 = 2 μm mineral by-product, which is very useful for the ceramics industry due to its high content in argillaceous elements, quartz, phosphate and calcium carbonate. Therefore, this work describes the recycling of this OVH residue in the ceramics industry, and more particularly in the manufacture of calcareous earthenware wall tiles. The residue can be combined with a white calcareous earthenware body up to a level of 7% without significant colorimetric deterioration, and if this is raised to 15%, it is possible to completely replace the crushed chalk, some of the quartz and reduce costly imported tight-burning clays by 6%. The developed body exceeds standardised requirements (modulus of rupture: + 40%; moisture swelling and glaze quality, which means that a 20°C reduction in firing temperature might be envisaged. An industrial pilot test of 1500 kg conducted by the DESVRES site managers with 100 m2 of tiles (format: 15 x 20 cm confirmed these laboratory results, in particular validating the absence of rheological disturbance of the slip and the harmlessness of the addition on the maturing glaze quality. Furthermore, the nature of the fumes emitted in the test complied with current regulations, and the finished product did not exceed the thresholds defined by European regulations for inert waste classification.

    La oxidación hidrotérmica (OVH: “Oxydation par Voie Humide” u oxidación por vía húmeda es una tecnología innovadora usada en la depuración de las aguas residuales, que se presenta como alternativa al esparcimiento y a la incineración de los lodos de aguas negras. Este proceso genera un producto derivado de mineral de grano fino (D50 = 2 μm que es muy útil para la

  4. Studies on Various Functional Properties of Titania Thin Film Developed on Glazed Ceramic Wall Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Asha; Darshana R, Bangoria; Misra, S. N.

    A sol-gel based TiO2 thin film was applied on glazed wall tiles for studying its various functional properties. Thin film was deposited by spin coating on the substrate and subjected to curing at different temperatures such as 600°C, 650, 700°C, 750°C and 800°C with 10 minutes soaking. The gel powder was characterized by FTIR, DTA/TG and XRD. Microstructure of thin film was analyzed by FESEM and EDX. Surface properties of the coatings such as gloss, colour difference, stain resistance, mineral hardness and wettability were extensively studied. The antibacterial activity of the surface of coated substrate against E. coli was also examined. The durability of the coated substrate in comparison to the uncoated was tested against alkali in accordance with ISO: 10545 (Part 13):1995 standard. FESEM images showed that thin films are dense and homogeneous. Coated substrates after firing results in lustre with high gloss, which increased from 330 to 420 GU as the curing temperature increases compared to that of uncoated one (72 GU). Coated substrate cured at 800°C shows higher mineral hardness (5 Mohs’) compared to uncoated one (4 Mohs’) and films cured at all temperatures showed stain resistance. The experimental results showed that the resistance towards alkali attack increase with increase in curing temperature and alkali resistance of sample cured at 800 °C was found to be superior compared to uncoated substrate. Contact angle of water on coated surface of substrates decreased with increase in temperature. Bacterial reduction percentages of the coated surface was 97% for sample cured at 700°C and it decreased from 97% to 87% as the curing temperature increased to 800 °C when treated with E. coli bacteria.

  5. Aerodynamic Heating in Gaps among Ceramic Insulating Tiles Array%陶瓷防热瓦间缝隙气动加热规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦强; 马建军

    2013-01-01

    Parametric analysis of aerodynamic heating in gaps among ceramic insulating tiles array was carried out by using CFD based on analyzing gap flow characteristic. Effects of Mach number, attack angle, gap width, tile edge radius, and steps among tiles on heating rate distribution in gaps were studied. Results showed that internal heat flux in gaps is U shape distribution, and decreases with increase of Mach number, but increases as increase of attack angle, gap width, tile edge radius, and steps.%在分析缝隙内部流动特征的基础上,利用CFD技术对瓦间缝隙气动加热的参数影响规律进行了研究,着重探讨了来流马赫数、攻角、缝隙宽度、倒角半径及瓦间台阶因素对缝隙内部热流分布的影响。研究结果表明,缝隙内部热流呈U形分布,缝隙内部热流随着马赫数的增大而减小,随着攻角、缝隙宽度、倒角半径、瓦间台阶的增大而增大。

  6. The Role of Ceramics in a Resurgent Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J

    2006-02-28

    With fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs and worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, there is growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Ceramic materials have long played a very important part in the commercial nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, ceramic materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, ceramic processes are also being applied to fuel reprocessing operations. Ceramic materials continue to provide a vital contribution in ''closing the fuel cycle'' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable grout, ceramics, and glass. In the next five years, programs that are currently in the conceptual phase will begin laboratory- and engineering-scale demonstrations. This will require production-scale demonstrations of several ceramic technologies from fuel form development to advanced stabilization methods. Within the next five to ten years, these demonstrations will move to even larger scales and will also include radioactive demonstrations of these advanced technologies. These radioactive demonstrations are critical to program success and will require advances in ceramic materials associated with nuclear energy applications.

  7. THE UTILIZATION OF Fe(III WASTE OF ETCHING INDUSTRY AS QUALITY ENHANCHEMENT MATERIAL IN CERAMIC ROOFTILE SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vaulina Yulistia Delsy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste is produced from various industrial activities. FeCl3 used in this study as an addition to the material quality in synthesis of ceramic rooftile from Kalijaran village clay, Purbalingga. Etching industrial waste FeCl3 contacted with clay. Waste being varied waste as diluted and undiluted while clay grain size varied as 60, 80, 100, 140, and 230 mesh. Both clay and waste are contacted at 30-100 minutes. The results showed that the optimum of time and grain size variation is clay with 80 mesh grain size within 70 minutes. While physical properties of the rooftile contained Fe meet all ISO standards and are known to tile, the best quality is to use clay that has been in contact with the waste that is created 1000 times dilution. The stripping test of Fe (III by rain water and sea water showed that the average rate of Fe-striped of the tile body that is made with soaked with diluted waste are 0.068 ppm/day and 0.055 ppm/day while for tile bodies soaked with waste is not diluted are 0.0722 ppm/day and 0.0560 ppm/day.

  8. 等静压瓷砖模具新工艺%A New Technology for Ceramic Tile Die with Isostatic Pressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 张伟阁

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a new technology for upperpunch in ceramic tile die with isostatic pressing is introduced,static-pressure area ratio and bonding area ratio are changed into independent technological parameters and can be separately designed.%本文介绍了等静压瓷砖模具中上模芯的一种新型工艺结构, 它使静压比和粘贴比成为两个互相独立的参数, 可以分开进行设计。

  9. Ceramic fibres for the automotive industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryatt, J.

    1985-01-01

    The outstanding thermal, physical and chemical properties of ceramic fibres make them a noticeable contender for inclusion in engineered systems to satisfy such performance demands. A wide range of fibres and fibre-based products are available which exhibit such characteristics as high temperature continuous service ability (1600/sup 0/C if required), low thermal conductivity, excellent resistance to chemical attack (including reducing conditions), good acoustic performance at all temperatures and good resistance to vibration. They are also lightweight, fireproof and incombustible. Ceramic fibres should really be referred to as refractory fibres as they are based on combinations of high purity alumina and silica. Two groups of products exist. The most common have a continuous-use temperature of 1260/sup 0/C. These fibres are characterized by an alumina content of 40-50% but refractoriness and temperature use limit can be increased to about 1400/sup 0/C by modifying the basic chemistry. This generally involves increasing the alumina content to as much as 62% or adding chromia or zirconia to the basic mix. The second and less common group of fibres is characterized by both chemistry and crystal morphology. Chemistry is biased towards a high alumina content (over 70%), while production routes are designed to yield as high a crystal phase (and so enhanced high temperature stability) as possible.

  10. Portfolio: Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

  11. Portfolio: Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

  12. 某市跳水馆工程标准跳水池专用瓷砖镶贴施工%The special ceramic tile cover construction of a diving hall engineering standard diving pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅

    2015-01-01

    通过阐述某市跳水馆工程跳水池建设中专用瓷砖面层镶贴项目,从技术和质量角度分析了施工过程中的施工工艺与需要注意的问题,以提高跳水池专用瓷砖的镶贴质量,为专用瓷砖镶贴积累一定的知识和经验。%Through the elaboration of special ceramic tile cover layer project in a city diving hall engineering diving pool construction,from the point of view of technology and quality analyzed the construction process and matters need to pay attention to in construction technology,in order to improve the cover quality of diving pool special ceramic tile,accumulated some experience and knowledge for special ceramic tile cover.

  13. 基于机器视觉瓷砖尺寸在线检测系统设计%System design of ceramic tile dimension online detection based on machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭峰林; 管庶安; 胡尧俊; 田魁

    2013-01-01

    Proposed a novelty ceramic tile dimension detection method based on machine vision using overhead light source with inclined installation,uses this method to carry on the ceramic tile image acquisition,then,according to the image characteristics designs ceramic tile vertex recognition algorithm and extracts the ceramic tile vertex position,then,adjusts the vertex position using the camera calibration parameter,finally,according to standard ceramic tile vertex position and relative deviation of testing ceramic tile vertex position indirectly computes ceramic tile size.Experiments show that the error of device online detection value and artificial measuring value of ceramic tile size is small and the repeated test precision of system is accuracy,which show that the online detection result is reliable.Meanwhile,the overall system can conveniently integrate with other detection facility,which is able to save the equipment cost,the manpower cost as well as the equipment occupying space for the equipment user.%提出一种上光源侧射式的机器视觉瓷砖尺寸检测新方法,利用该方法进行瓷砖图像获取,然后,根据图像特征设计瓷砖角点识别算法,提取瓷砖角点位置,接着,利用相机标定参数对角点位置进行校正,最后,根据标准瓷砖角点位置与待测瓷砖角点位置的相对偏差间接计算瓷砖尺寸.实验表明,瓷砖尺寸的在线检测值与人工测量值误差小,系统的.重复检测精度高,检测结果可信.同时,整个系统能够方便地与其他检测设备整合,能为设备使用者节省设备成本、人力成本以及设备占地空间.

  14. SURFACE QUALITY INSPECTION OF CERAMIC TILES BY MACHINE VISION%陶瓷砖表面质量视觉检测系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆利; 郭彩玲; 张向红

    2011-01-01

    重点介绍了机器视觉技术在陶瓷砖表面质量检测中的应用.系统采用面阵摄象机作为测量工具,应用方向算子进行对目标边缘的定位和跟踪,以便获得完整、精确、封闭的目标边缘.实现了对陶瓷砖的边直度、直角度、缺边和缺角等项目的非接触检测.%In this paper, an on-line machine vision system for surface quality inspection of ceramic tiles is introduced, which grabs the images scanned by area-array cameras. The image processing algorithm which uses direction masks is used to locate the edge points exactly. The surface quality of ceramic tiles is measured by the real-time, high precision and non-contact method, which can detect straightness of sides, deviation from rectangularity, rough edge, chip and so on.

  15. STUDY ON SURFACE QUALITY OF CERAMIC TILES BY MACHINE VISION%陶瓷砖表面质量视觉检测系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆利; 郭彩玲; 张向红

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an on-line machine vision system for surface quality of ceramic tiles is introduced, which grabs the images scanned by area-array camera.The image processing algorithm which uses direction masks is used to locate the edge points exactly.The surface quality of ceramic tiles is measured with the real-time, high precision and non-contact method, which includes straightness of sides,deviation from rectangularity, rough edge,chip and so on.%重点介绍了机器视觉技术在陶瓷砖表面质量检测中的应用.系统采用面阵摄像机作为测量工具,应用方向算子进行对目标边缘的定位和跟踪,以便获得完整、精确、封闭的目标边缘.实现了对陶瓷砖的边直度、直角度、缺边和缺角等项目的非接触检测.

  16. Industrial operating experience of the GTE ceramic recuperator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.M.; Ferri, J.L. (GTE Products Corp., Towanda, PA (USA)); Rebello, W.J. (PAR Enterprises, Inc., Fairfax, VA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    GTE Products Corporation, under a jointly funded program with the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed a compact ceramic high temperature recuperator that could recover heat from a relatively clean exhaust gases at temperatures up to of 2500{degree}F. The DOE program was very successful in that it allowed GTE to improve the technical and economic characteristics of the recuperator and stimulate industrial acceptance of the recuperator as an energy- saving technology. The success of the DOE Program was measured by the fact that from January 1981 to December 1984, 561 recuperators were installed by GTE on new or retrofitted furnaces. One objective of this contract was to conduct a telephone survey of the industrial plants that use the recuperator to determine their operating experience, present status, and common problems, and thus to complete the historical picture. Additionally, recuperators were returned to GTE after operating on industrial furnaces, and a post mortem'' analysis was undertaken with a goal of identifying the potential reason(s) for premature failure of the ceramic matrix. When contamination of the matrix was evident, historical data and spectrographic analysis were used to identify the type of contaminant, and its source. This effort has shown the type of degradation that occurs and has identified system design techniques that can be used to maximize the ceramic recuperator life cycle. 12 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Planejamento estatístico de experimentos aplicado ao desenvolvimento de formulações para revestimentos cerâmicos Statistical design of experiments applied to the development of formulations for ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Zauberas

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a utilização de técnicas de planejamento estatístico de experimentos com misturas envolvendo variáveis de processo no estudo de formulações para a produção de revestimentos cerâmicos, buscando minimizar o caráter empírico encontrado industrialmente nesta etapa do processamento. Misturas de três matérias-primas (argila, feldspato e areia, utilizadas industrialmente para a produção de revestimentos, foram ensaiadas sob condições padronizadas visando à quantificação da influência de cada matéria-prima na resistência mecânica e na absorção de água das peças após a queima. As influências de duas variáveis de processo, pressão de compactação e temperatura de queima, também foram avaliadas. Os resultados obtidos demonstram o potencial de utilização das técnicas de planejamento estatístico de experimentos no estudo e desenvolvimento de formulações para revestimentos cerâmicos.This work evaluates the use of statistical design of experiment on the development of formulations for ceramic tiles production, trying to minimise the empirical character industrially found on this processing step. Mixtures of three raw materials used in tile production (clay, feldspar and quartz sand, were processed under standardised conditions, aiming at the quantification of the contribution of each raw material influence on mechanical strength and water absorption of the bodies after sintering. The influences of two process variables, pressing and sintering temperature, were also evaluated. Results obtained show the potential on utilising statistical design of experiments with mixtures and process variables techniques on the study and development of formulations for ceramic tiles.

  18. Radiological characterization of ceramic tiles made in the community of Valencia and its use as a construction material; Caracterizacion radiologica de baldosas ceramicas fabricas en la comunidad Valenciana y su uso como material de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, J.; Ballesteros, L.; Gallardo, S.; Martorell, S.

    2014-07-01

    In this presentation, radiological characterization is done by gamma spectrometry various types of ceramic tiles and use as building material in relation to the potential radiological risk deriving from this use are discussed. The discussion includes both the rules of the countries being targeted as the new basic security policy (BSS) issued by the EU 2014. (Author)

  19. RADIATION-HYGIENIC EVALUATION OF MODERN CERAMIC INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Lisachenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic industry widely uses zirconium materials with an increased amount of natural radionuclides. The external irradiation gives a major contribution to the dose of exposure of workers in this branch of industry. The contribution of dust radiation factor at various stages of the production technology is mainly given by a dispersiveness of used materials. The contribution of radon isotopes to the exposure of workers is about 0.1 mSv/year. When traditional zirconium raw materials are used, the doze of natural exposure of workers in the modern industry usually does not exceed 1 mSv/year. The necessity of the industrial radiation control is caused by a wide range of natural radionuclides content in zirconium materials, the peculiarities in the production technology etc.

  20. Los Sistemas Productivos, el Aprendizaje Interno y los Resultados del Área de Producción de Baldosas-Cerámicas Production Systems, Internal Learning and Results of the Manufacturing Area of Ceramic Tile Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Marin-Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es comprobar la validez del modelo universal de gestión en la estrategia de producción en el sector de fabricantes de pavimentos y baldosas cerámicas españoles. El trabajo se centra en las decisiones de infraestructura, y pretende resaltar el efecto de los recursos internos y externos sobre la ventaja competitiva del área de producción de las empresas. Los datos utilizados corresponden a 76 empresas españolas fabricantes de pavimentos cerámicos. Los resultados obtenidos permiten comprobar que en este sector los recursos implantados guardan poca relación con las prioridades manifestadas. Además, se demuestra que la ventaja competitiva está más explicada por el aprendizaje interno que por las prácticas de producción implantadas.The objective of this research is to check the validity of a universal management model in the production strategy in the Spanish ceramic tile industry. The work focuses on infrastructure decisions, and seeks to highlight the effect of internal and external resources on the competitive advantage of the area of production of the industry. The data used were collected from 76 Spanish tile manufacturers companies and the results show that in this sector the resources that have been implanted have little association to the manufacturing priorities. In addition, it is shown that the competitive advantage is better explained by the internal learning variables than by the manufacturing practices.

  1. Planejamento experimental no estudo da maximização do teor de resíduos em blocos e revestimentos cerâmicos Experimental design to maximize the waste content in ceramic bricks and tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. A. Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de planejamentos experimentais para o estudo de misturas encontra uma grande gama de aplicações tanto em pesquisas laboratoriais como em trabalhos de desenvolvimento industrial. Assim, este trabalho tem por objetivo utilizar o planejamento experimental aplicado ao estudo de misturas para avaliar a potencialidade do uso conjunto dos resíduos do beneficiamento do caulim e da serragem do granito para a produção de blocos e revestimentos cerâmicos. Utilizando o planejamento experimental foram formuladas determinadas composições com as matérias-primas. As matérias-primas foram misturadas em determinadas proporções e confeccionados corpos de prova por extrusão e por prensagem uniaxial. Os corpos de prova foram queimados e, em seguida, determinou-se sua absorção de água e módulo de ruptura à flexão. Foram ajustados modelos matemáticos de regressão relacionando a absorção de água e o módulo de ruptura com as proporções das matérias-primas. Os resultados mostraram que o procedimento de planejamento experimental utilizado permite maximizar a quantidade de resíduo incorporado às formulações para blocos e revestimentos cerâmicos, sendo possível a incorporação de teores de resíduos de até 50% em formulações para a produção de blocos cerâmicos e de ate 40% em composições para a produção de revestimentos cerâmicos.The use of experimental design to the study of mixtures has found a wide range of applications, even in laboratory scale or in industrial development works. Thus, this work has as aim apply the experimental design used in the study of mixtures to evaluate the suitability of use kaolin processing waste and granite sawing waste together for the production of ceramic bricks and tiles. Based on the raw materials, specific formulations were developed using the experimental design. The raw materials were mixed and sample bodies were produced using extrusion and uniaxial pressing. The sample

  2. Study on Technology of the Ceramic Tiles from Ruined City of Shang Dynasty in Zhengzhou%郑州商城遗址出土商代陶板瓦的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃胜; 李清临; 曾晓敏; 宋国定

    2012-01-01

    分析了郑州商城遗址出土的一批距今约3 500 a,时代为商代早期的陶质板瓦,讨论了这些板瓦的制作工艺和性能.对板瓦尺寸的测量表明,虽然板瓦的大小差异很大,其弦长和弧长却呈正相关.结合板瓦的外部特征,推断这些板瓦先由泥条盘筑法筑成泥圈,并经慢轮修整制成圆筒状坯体,然后经切割而成瓦坯,最后入窑焙烧而成.吸水率、抗折强度和烧成温度的分析表明,这些板瓦具有良好的工艺性能,完全符合一般意义上瓦的标准,表明我国在商代早期已经可以制作工艺性能较好的建筑用瓦.%Some flat ceramic tiles from ruined city of Shang dynasty in Zhengzhou were analyzed, and the making technique and technical quality of these tiles were discussed. The analysis of dimensions of these tiles reveals that there is a positive relation between the length of arc and the length of chord, though the dimensions of tiles are different. Considering the outer characters of these tiles, it is concluded that these tiles had complex production process. Firstly, the clay was made to a cylinder. Secondly, this clay cylinder was cut to several clay tiles. Finally, clay tiles were put into kiln and baked to earthen tiles. The analysis of water absorptivity, flexural strength and baking temperature of tiles reveal that these tiles have better technical quality than those of lots of bricks and tiles in other later historical and modern periods, and that the quality of these tiles were in accordance with the standard of tile absolutely.

  3. KROME Ceramics: color management system for the ceramics industry; KROME: Ceramics Sistema de gestion del color para la industra ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Luque, J.; Pla, O.; Selvi, S.

    2013-05-01

    Digital Decoration Systems, SL (DIGIT-S) with Unicer, SL, has implemented a system to improve and optimize the process of decorating by inkjet printing for ceramic industry. It provides a comprehensive solution, KROME Ceramics, to improve the cost effectiveness of product and process through the implementation of a working system based on the control of digital decoration process and the synchronization of all elements that make up the decorative modules, including the creation of a work flow, management of files that are generated during the process, a correct color management system, and of course, optimizing and evaluating ink jet inks integrating all elements involved: Lighting, Computer, Software, Monitor, Plotter, Paper, Ink, Ink jet, Body's, Enamels and Oven. (Author)

  4. Characterization of color texture: color texture based sorting of tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourada, Y.; Lafon, Dominique; Eterradossi, O.

    1998-09-01

    Many materials used by the building industry show a color texture which affects the product commercial value. This texture can be seen as the spatial arrangement of regions of acceptable color differences. This work describes an appearance based automated sorting via color texture analysis, using ceramic tiles as example. Textural analysis of the tiles digital images expressed in CIEL*a*b* color system is performed through the analysis of intrinsic features of each region and relationships between regions. Results obtained through the automated process are compared to a visual sorting which leads to calculation of application dependant color and texture tolerances.

  5. Evaluation of Saudi pegmatite and its use in porcelain industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan M.H. Al-Marzouki; Christopher Jeffery; Gamal A. Khater

    2012-01-01

    Pegmatite is the main source of feldspar for ceramics industry. Usage of pegmatite in ceramic industry causes some problems due to the presence of mica and iron oxides. These materials reduce tile strength, hardness and density of the final product leading to low quality ceramic products. Southern Saudi pegmatite separation treatment was carried out in two phases in order to improve the ceramic quality of the feldspar obtained from this pegmatite. The first phase consists of gravitational sep...

  6. Preparation of Ceramic Tiles with Electrolytic Manganese and Waste Glass Admicture%利用电解锰渣-废玻璃制备陶瓷砖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉岚; 刘少友; 杨红芸; 张扬

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the pollution of electrolytic manganese residue, the environment and improve the utilization of manganese slag, the preparation of ceramic tiles was studied by using electrolytic manganese and waste glass as the main raw material. The basic formulas were obtained in terms of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 termary system phase diagram, then they were optimized through a lot of experiments and the text of crystallization. The results indicated that the calcining temperature was 950℃electrolysis manganese when adding 32%electrolytic manganese and 10 g waste glass, the main crystals composition were quartz, cristobalite, mullite and anorthite, the shrinkage is 0.27%, it complied with the standard of GB/T 4100-2006 ceramic tiles.%为了解决电解锰渣对环境的污染,提高锰渣的利用率,研究了以电解锰渣-废玻璃为主要原料制备陶瓷砖。首先利用CaO-Al2O3-SiO2三相图获得初始配方,然后进行了大量的实验,并对产品的晶相进行分析,确定陶瓷砖的最优配方。结果证明,锰渣的添加量为32%,废玻璃含量为25%,煅烧温度为950℃,煅烧时间为30 min时,陶瓷坯的主晶相为石英、钙长石、莫来石和方石英,收缩率为0.27%,符合GB/T 4100-2006陶瓷砖的标准。

  7. Massas cerâmicas para telhas: características e comportamento de queima Ceramic bodies for roofing tiles: characteristics and firing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. F. Vieira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo estudar comparativamente as características e propriedades tecnológicas de uma típica massa cerâmica para telhas do município de Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ com outras três massas cerâmicas de reconhecida qualidade técnica, provenientes dos Estados de Santa Catarina e Piauí, e de Portugal. As massas cerâmicas foram submetidas a ensaios de difração de raios X, composição química, ATD/TG, distribuição de tamanho de partícula e plasticidade. Foram confeccionados corpos de prova por prensagem uniaxial a 20 MPa para queima em temperaturas variando de 825 a 1025 ºC. As propriedades tecnológicas de queima avaliadas foram: retração linear, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão (3 pontos. Os resultados indicaram que a massa cerâmica proveniente de Campos apresenta significativas diferenças nas características avaliadas em comparação com as demais massas cerâmicas. Consequentemente, a massa cerâmica de Campos apresentou um comportamento de queima diferente, com maiores valores de absorção de água, de resistência mecânica e de retração linear.This work has for objective to study the characteristics and technological properties of a typical roofing tile ceramic body from the county of Campos of Goytacazes-RJ with other three ceramic bodies of recognized technical quality, coming from States of Santa Catarina and Piauí and of Portugal. The ceramic bodies were submitted to analysis of X-ray diffraction, chemical composition, DTA/TGA, particle size distribution and plasticity. Samples were made by uniaxial pressure at 20 MPa for firing in temperatures varying from 825 to 1075 ºC. The firing technological properties evaluated were: lineal shrinkage, water absorption and flexural strength (3 points. The results indicated that the ceramic body from Campos presents significant differences in the evaluated characteristics in comparison with the other ceramic bodies. Consequently, the

  8. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF THE EFFECT OF THE FIRING CURVE ON THE LINEAR SHRINKAGE OF CERAMIC MATERIALS: LABORATORY SCALE AND INDUSTRIAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cargnin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSingle-cycle firing is currently the most widespread method used for the production of ceramic tile. The productivity is directly related to the performance of the constituent materials of the ceramic piece during thermal cycling. Numerical tools which allow the prediction of the material behavior may be of great help in the optimization of this stage. This study addressed the mathematical modeling of the temperature profile within a ceramic tile, together with the sintering kinetics, to simulate the effect of the thermal cycle on the final size. On the laboratory scale, 80 mm x 20 mm specimens with thicknesses of 2.3 mm and 7.8 mm were prepared in order to determine the kinetic constants and validate the model. The application was carried out on an industrial scale, with 450 mm x 450 mm pieces that were 8.0 mm thick. These results show that the model was capable of predicting the experimental results satisfactorily.

  9. A new manufacturing plant for fired color tile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoZhoumin

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the new manufacturing plant for fired colour tile designed by Xian Research and Design Institute for Nei Mongolia Yinshan Ceramic Ltd. Company. The plant with an annual capacity of 10million fired color tiles.

  10. 粉煤灰制备陶瓷地砖的研究%Study on ceramic floor tiles prepared from fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可桢; 王维

    2016-01-01

    本文目的在于研究原料粉末粒径大小对粉煤灰质陶瓷砖性能的影响。利用粉煤灰和滑石等普通陶瓷原料,经过模压成型成功制备了粉煤灰质陶瓷地砖。通过高倍电镜分析,研究了粒径大小对粉煤灰陶瓷地砖结晶和性能的影响规律。结果表明,粉煤灰质陶瓷坯体最佳烧成温度为1150℃,陶瓷原料粉末粒径小于250目,粉煤灰质陶瓷的性能最佳。粉煤灰中K2 O和Na2 O促进陶瓷晶化形核时生成透辉石相和降低烧成温度。本工作为粉煤灰大规模资源化及综合利用提出了新思路。%The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of grain sizes on ceramic floor tiles prepared from fly ash .Green body of buildings ceramic can be produced from fly ash and talc by compression molding .The effect of grain sizes on crystal growth of fly ash -ceramic was studied by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) .The result showed that when the optimal firing temperature is 1150℃.The particle size of the raw material powder being smaller than 250 mesh, the performance of the fly ash-ceramic is best .Sodium oxide and potassium oxide can improve the combining solid phase with liq-uid phase in the fly ash -ceramic successfully while crystallizing .This work is useful for the resourcing and comprehensive utilization of the red mud .

  11. Requirements analysis and data model design for the development of vertical ERP solutions for the ceramic industry; Analisis de requerimientos y diseno de modelo de datos para el desarrollo de una solucion ERP vertical adaptada al sector ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra-Bandenes, R. F.; Gil-gomez, H.; Belver-Lopez, R.; Asensio-Cuesta, S.

    2013-05-01

    Currently, the existing information systems, and specifically the ERP, can not give adequate support to the management of manufacturing companies of ceramic tile, because, among other reasons, not to contemplate the existence of tone, size and quality within the same product. This feature, caused by the lack of homogeneity of the product (LHP), generates various problems in managing the product through the different business processes, such as, stocks management, order management, the production management, etc. Thus, it is necessary to develop an ERP solution that is able to manage adequately the ceramic product, including tone, size and quality. In this paper we analyze the requirements of the ceramic sector, in terms of product identification, and propose a data model to meet these requirements. The model arises as a basic guide for the development of vertical ERP solutions tailored to the ceramic industry. (Author) 30 refs.

  12. Requirements analysis and data model design for the development of vertical ERP solutions for the ceramic industry; Analisis de requerimientos y diseno de modelo de datos para el desarrollo de una solucion ERP vertical adaptada al sector ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra-Badenes, R. F.; Gil-Gomez, H.; Bellver-Lopez, R.; Asensio-Cuenta, S.

    2013-06-01

    Currently, the existing information systems, and specifically the ERP, can not give adequate support to the management of manufacturing companies of ceramic tile, because, among other reasons, not to contemplate the existence of tone, size and quality within the same product. This feature, caused by the lack of homogeneity of the product (LHP), generates various problems in managing the product through the different business processes, such as, stocks management, order management, the production management, etc. Thus, it is necessary to develop an ERP solution that is able to manage adequately the ceramic product, including tone, size and quality. In this paper we analyze the requirements of the ceramic sector, in terms of product identification, and propose a data model to meet these requirements. The model arises as a basic guide for the development of vertical ERP solutions tailored to the ceramic industry. (Author)

  13. Cellular ceramics made from porcelain tile polishing wastes: influence of sintering time; Ceramicas cellulares obtidas a partir de residuo de polimento de porcelanato: influencia do tempo de sinterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.F.; Zanelatto, C.C.; Uggioni, E. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Bernardin, A.M., E-mail: amb@unesc.ne [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial, Tijucas, SC (Brazil). Tecnologia em Ceramica

    2009-07-01

    This paper deals with the physical, microstructural and mechanical characterization of cellular ceramics made from porcelain polishing wastes, which were expanded by the bubble formation technique during the sintering process. The microstructure, linear expansion, bulk density (mercury immersion) and mechanical behavior (compressive strength) were determined to characterize the glass foam obtained. Moreover, the porcellaneous residue was characterized by chemical and phase analyses, particle size (laser diffraction) and thermal behavior. As a result, the higher the soaking time during heat treatment at 1200 deg C the lower the density obtained for the cellular ceramic due to CO{sub 2} expansion, and lower the mechanical strength of the samples. The microstructure shows spherical cells and completely closed pores, resulting in a cheap way to obtain low density material with adequate mechanical strength, avoiding the disposal of wastes from the ceramic industry. (author)

  14. Exposure to refractory ceramic fibres in the metal industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnainmaa, Markku; Kangas, Juhani; Mäkinen, Milja; Metsärinne, Sirpa; Tossavainen, Antti; Säntti, Jaakko; Veteli, Marika; Savolainen, Heikki; Kalliokoski, Pentti

    2007-08-01

    Refractory ceramic fibres (RCF) are used in thermal isolation in the metal industry where high temperatures are regularly employed. Asbestos materials were earlier commonly used for these purposes. In this work, two Finnish steel plants, three foundries and a repair shop were studied for the ceramic fibre exposure of their workers under normal production and during the replacement of oven insulation. Personal and stationary sampling was used together with a novel nasal lavage sampling for the evaluation of personal exposure. Fibres were counted with optical and electron microscopy and they were identified using an energy-dispersive X-ray analyser. Ceramic fibres were found in most production phases [range <0.01-0.29 fibres per cubic centimetre (f cm(-3))]. Considerably higher fibre counts were obtained during the maintenance work (range <0.01-14.2 f cm(-3)). Nasal sampling was found to correlate with the airborne fibre concentrations at the group level. The mean fibre concentrations varied from 34 to 6680 f ml(-1) of lavage liquid. Use of personal respiratory protectors diminished the exposure on the average as analysed in the lavage specimens, but the effect of respirator use did not appear clearly in the results. Because of the heat conditions, the workers used the respirators for a strict minimum period. A considerable exposure to RCF occurs in the studied plants. Its risk should be evaluated and managed more closely in view that the material is carcinogenic. Use of personal respiratory protectors should be encouraged. Their effective use could be verified by the nasal sampling for fibres after the work shift.

  15. Evaluation of borax solid wastes in production of frits suitable for fast single-fired wall tile opaque glass–ceramic glazes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Pekkan; B Karasu

    2010-04-01

    Zircon (zirconium silicate, ZrSiO4) is the main opacifier of glossy, opaque, white-coloured, fritbased wall tile glazes. However, zirconia containing frits employed in the preparation of these glazes raise the production cost limiting zircon usage as a raw material at an industrial scale. Therefore, there have been several searches on seeking for alternative frit compositions with lower or without zirconia content. Consequently, positive outcomes were recently reported. With the present study, 1.5–5% of borax concentrator waste replaced certain level of acid boric for B2O3 content in a low zircon containing frit recipe. It is confirmed that waste contribution did not distort the surface properties of the fast single-fired wall tile opaque glazes. Zircon was found to be the main crystal phase of the glazes in laboratory trials. Industrial applications revealed that shorter firing cycles lead to zircon and petedunnite (CaZnSi2O6) formation in the CW-4 glaze.

  16. Empresas de revestimento cerâmico e suas estratégias competitivas e de produção Firms of ceramic tiles and its competitive and manufacturing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edemilson Nogueira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho identificamos e discutimos as estratégias competitivas e de produção adotadas por doze empresas da indústria brasileira de cerâmica para revestimento. Realizamos entrevistas em empresas nos Estados de São Paulo e Santa Catarina e identificamos cinco grupos estratégicos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que existem muitas combinações possíveis de estratégias competitivas e de produção. Mesmo dentro de cada grupo estratégico, encontramos estruturas de manufatura e sistemas administrativos muito diferenciados.This paper addresses the competitive and manufacturing strategies implemented in twelve firms of Brazilian ceramic tiles industry. We have carried out interviews in the States of São Paulo and Santa Catarina and we have identified five strategic groups. It was possible to collect evidences that there are many possible combinations of competitive and manufacturing strategies. Even within each strategic group we have found very different manufacturing structures and management systems.

  17. 基于机器视觉的随机纹理瓷砖的分选系统%Classification System of Random Texture Ceramic Tiles Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦亮; 胡国清; Jahangir Alam SM

    2016-01-01

    针对日益加快的瓷砖生产速度与缓慢的人工分选速度之间不协调导致的瓷砖出产效率低下的问题,提出了以机器视觉软件HALCON 11.0为软件开发平台的结合瓷砖颜色、纹理特征提取的算法,以及针对多分类问题的改进多层感知器神经网络算法(MLPNN).首先对拍摄到的瓷砖图像进行去噪预处理,在HSI颜色空间中提取瓷砖的色调(Hue)特征并计算反映瓷砖的纹理特征的灰度共生矩阵(GLCM)和灰度幅值分布特征,再将得到的特征作为多层感知器的神经网络输入层神经元,然后设计以softmax为激活函数的多层感知器神经网络来进行模式匹配,并与BP神经网络模式匹配方法进行对比,最终搭建出具有简单人机交互界面的随机纹理瓷砖的分选实验样机.实验结果表明:本系统对实验的各类随机纹理瓷砖的分选准确率都在90%以上,具有较高的分选准确率,能应用于瓷砖生产实践.%Aiming at the problem of poor efficiency of ceramic tile production caused by the mismatch between higher and higher speed of production and slow speed of artificial classification, the paper presented an algorithm about extracting the features of color and texture of ceramic tiles and an algorithm about improved multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) aiming at the problem of multi-classification based on machine vision software, HALCON 11.0, as the development platform. Firstly, the images of ceramic tiles were denoised as pretreatment. Then the system extracted the hue features of ceramic tiles in HSI color space, calculated the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and gray level characteristics of amplitude distribution to reflect the texture feature of ceramic tiles, and put the features as input layer neurons of multilayer perceptron neural network. Next, the paper designed the multilayer perceptron neural network with putting softmax function as the activation for pattern matching, and

  18. Study on the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry; Estudo sobre a utilizacao do gas natural na industria ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The production, principal applications, characteristics and properties, advantages of the gas natural is showed. A sectorial overview of the ceramic industry and the utilization of the natural gas in the ceramic industry is presented. The expectations are systematized and the impact of the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry is evaluated. Some conclusions are withdrawn and recommendations suggested.

  19. An Territorial Analysis Of The Industrial Sector Of Tableware Ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Roberto Alves Teixeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic industry of tableware is characterized by the production of products such as dinner sets, tea and coffee, and decorative products. This sector has a great importance to the Brazilian economy (responsible for more than 20 thousand jobs. Thus this paper aims to conduct a brief analysis of the key characteristics of the sector which has been struggling against the highly competitive with large corporations and with other countries leading many Brazilian companies to bankruptcy. The methodology is based on the reading of books, theses and articles, written by authors such as Raffestin (1994, Coutinho and Ferraz (1994, Presnell (2006, Belingeri (2005 and others. The analyzes were collected in organs like IBGE, CNAE, ALICEWEB and RAIS.

  20. Application and Development of Ink Jet Printing on Ceramic Tile%喷墨打印技术在墙地砖行业的应用现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柏清; 王德良; 钟树铭

    2011-01-01

    This paper gave a brief account of application developments of ink jet printing technology for ceramic tile decoration, describing in detail the history and principles of inkjet printing, types of print heads and requirements of jet printing ink for ceramics.%本文概述了陶瓷砖装饰应用喷墨打印技术的进展状况.着重介绍了喷墨打印技术的历史,工作原理,喷头和陶瓷墨水性能要求等问题.

  1. Exterior wall rock wool insulation construction technology of ceramic tile facing%外墙岩棉保温磁砖饰面施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石海平

    2015-01-01

    the rock is basalt and other natural mineral as the main raw materials by high temperature melting into the fiber,adding proper amount of binder, good insulation, sound insulation,fire prevention effect. Rock wool construction and installation convenience,remarkable energy saving effect,has a very high price. In the construction process,we explored and summed up the wall rock wool insulation construction technology of ceramic tile facing,through the engineering practice,and achieved good economic and social benefits, and has broad application prospects.%岩棉是以玄武岩及其它天然矿石为主要原料经高温熔融成纤,加入适量粘接剂而成,具有良好的绝热、隔音、防火效果。岩棉施工及安装便利、节能效果显著,具有很高的性价比。在施工过程中,我们探索和总结出了外墙岩棉保温磁砖饰面施工技术,通过工程实践,取得了良好的经济效益和社会效益,具有广阔的应用前景。

  2. Use of industrial wastes as opacifiers in porcelain tile bodies; Utilizacion de Residuos industriales como opacificantes en pastas de gres porcelanico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, S.; Palacios, M. D.; Soriano, M.; Sanchez, E.; Rodriguez, L.; Nunez, J. F.; Rivera, P.

    2010-07-01

    The present research was conducted to assess the feasibility of using two kinds of industrial wastes as opacifiers in porcelain tile bodies, as well as to define what pre-treatment would be required to prepare the wastes for such use. The characteristics of the wastes were analysed, first, to determine their chemical and mineralogical composition, as well as their behaviour when subjected to heat, in order to identify any undesirable substances and to establish suitable conditions for removing these with simple methods. This allowed suitable materials to be obtained for use in porcelain tile compositions. The effects were then studied of the incorporation of these pre-treated waste materials on porcelain tile characteristics. The results obtained indicate that the two waste materials used in this research have a significant opacifying capability, which makes them of great interest as possible raw materials for products that are not required to have maximum whiteness values. The only drawback detected in one of these wastes was that the porcelain tile composition needed to be slightly adjusted in order to ensure that its behaviour during firing did not change. (Author) 6 refs.

  3. Ceramic Polishing Slag as Foaming Material for Preparation of Light Glazed Tile%以陶瓷抛光废渣为发泡原料制备轻质釉面砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许林峰; 曾德朝; 钟保民

    2016-01-01

    A light ceramic tile body with outstanding non-deformability was produced by using ceramic polishing slag as foaming material and clay,silica sand,potash feldspar as raw materials.And a high temperature glaze and a low tempera-ture glaze with coefficient of thermal expansion adapting to the body were also produced.Light ceramic glazed tiles with ex-cellentglaze surface were prepared by a method of double-layer glazing.The test results indicate that the light ceramic glazed tiles show excellentantifouling property,and the flexural strength of 8.47 MPa and heat conductivity coefficient of 0. 39 W/m·K were reached.%以抛光废渣为发泡原料,结合粘土、石英、钾长石等陶瓷原料,制备出抗变形能力好的轻质陶瓷砖坯;并研制出热膨胀系数与轻质砖坯适配的高温釉料和低温釉料;采用双层布釉的方法,制备出釉面质量良好的轻质釉面砖。测试结果表明:轻质陶瓷砖釉面具有优异的防污性能,抗折强度达到8.47 MPa,导热系数为0.39 W/m·K。

  4. Conhecimento e inovação em sistemas locais de produção de revestimentos cerâmicos e os novos desafios da concorrência internacional Knowledge and innovation in local production systems of ceramic tiles and the new challenges of the international competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Scur

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo contribuir para a compreensão das novas dinâmicas de geração de conhecimento e inovação em sistemas locais de produção a partir dos desafios da concorrência internacional, por meio da realização de estudos em dois sistemas locais da indústria de cerâmica de revestimento no Brasil, um localizado em Santa Gertrudes/SP e outro em Criciúma/SC. O estudo mostrou que os principais movimentos que caracterizaram o cenário competitivo global no período recente foram a expansão da China no mercado internacional; a expansão da indústria espanhola, fortemente calcada na interação com seus fornecedores de colorifícios; e a perda de participação da indústria italiana, a despeito da forte presença da indústria de máquinas e equipamentos. Mesmo com esse contexto de acirramento da concorrência internacional, a indústria brasileira atravessou um período de expansão, com o crescimento concomitante do mercado doméstico e das exportações. Esse crescimento traduziu-se em um elevado dinamismo da indústria, que contou tanto com a expansão da oferta de revestimentos cerâmicos como com mudanças expressivas nos parâmetros técnico-produtivos das empresas, motivadas em grande parte por um conjunto de benefícios decorrentes da aglomeração das empresas.This paper aims to contribute for the understanding of the new dynamics of knowledge and innovation in local production systems from the strengthening of the international rivalry in the ceramic tile industry, by studying two local systems in the Brazilian ceramic tile industry, one located in Santa Gertrudes/SP and the other in Criciuma/SC. The research shows that the current international competitive scenario is being characterized by the China's expansion in the world market; the Spanish expansion embedded in the interaction among their glaze suppliers; and the Italian decreasing market share, despite the strong presence of machinery goods industry

  5. Development of New Ecological Ceramic Tiles by Recycling of Waste Glass and Ceramic Materials; Incorporacion de residuos derivados de la fabricacion ceramica y del vidrio reciclado en el proceso ceramico integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, C.; Ramon Trilles, V.; Gomez, F.; Allepuz, S.; Fraga, D.; Carda, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    The following research work shows the results of the introduction of waste generated by the ceramic industry, such as the calcined clay from fired porcelain of stoneware and raw biscuit, sludge and cleaning water, as well as waste from other sectors like the recycling glass. In this way, it can be obtained a stoneware porcelain slab, engobe-glaze and satin glaze that contains high percentage of recyclable raw materials. (Author)

  6. Association of soil cadmium contamination with ceramic industry: A case study in a Chinese town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Q. Lin [Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210018 (China); Liu, Cong [Jiangsu Provincial Department of Land Resources, Nanjing 210017 (China); Wu, H. Yun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Xianlin Campus, Box 624, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Zhu, B. Wan [Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210018 (China); Chen, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Xianlin Campus, Box 624, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China); Huang, Lei, E-mail: huanglei@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Xianlin Campus, Box 624, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination is attributable to many sources, among which the ceramic industry is probably an important contributor whose relationship will be explored in this study. Upon studying a town in southeastern China that is quite famous for its ceramics, we observed that the soil Cd distribution agreed with the local ceramic industry's distribution in space and time from 2004 to 2014. Ceramic and pigment samples from a typical factory were selected in a case study, and a sediment core from a nearby river was collected. First, an application of the geo-accumulation index suggested that the sediment was very strongly polluted by Cd (mean 1874 mg/kg). Second, sediment dating indicated that the Cd concentration surge and the establishment of the factory were proximate in time (2002–2004). Third, principal component analysis showed high loading of Cd (0.947) solely, suggesting that the factory was most likely responsible for the Cd pollution found in the sediments of a nearby river. Finally, we infer that the soil cadmium pollution in the whole area may be related to the region's prosperous ceramic industry. Local government should reinforce controls of the ceramic industry and implement effective countermeasures. - Highlights: • The sediment is strongly polluted by Cd in a Chinese town. • Cd concentration surged when the nearby ceramic factory was established. • Cd is solely loaded in a principal component and abundant in the ceramic pigments. • The local ceramic industry may be responsible for the soil Cd contamination.

  7. Incorporation of Waste Ceramic Blocks in Structural Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Orley Magalhães; das Graças da Silva-Valenzuela, Maria; Andrade, Christiano Gianesi Bastos; Junior, Antonio Hortêncio Munhoz; Valenzuela-Díaz, Francisco Rolando

    In Brazil, Ceramics Industries produce bricks and ceramic tiles in practically all the country. In the southwestern region of Bahia are located some of these industries. A considerable proportion of the material produced do not pass the quality control for not having a uniform visual appearance or have cracks. These burned pieces are generally discarded, resulting in a big quantity of waste. The objective of this work is the characterization of this industrial waste and thus consign them to other industrial applications. Our results demonstrate that the burned waste have potential to be used for incorporation in common clay for structural ceramics, thereby avoiding its disposal in nature and reducing this environmental liability. Experimental bodies were tested with different quantities of waste. The common clay and the burned waste were characterized by XRD, TG/DTA, and SEM. The burned specimens were tested for mechanical strength, water absorption, bulk density, and apparent porosity. An incorporation of 10% of waste furnished the best results.

  8. Effects of waste glass and waste foundry sand additions on reclaimed tiles containing sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Luo, Huan-Lin; Lin, Kuo-Liang; Liu, Zhe-Kun

    2017-07-01

    Applying sewage sludge ash (SSA) to produce reclaimed tiles is a promising recycling technology in resolving the increasing sludge wastes from wastewater treatment. However, performance of such reclaimed tiles is inferior to that of original ceramic tiles. Many researchers have therefore tried adding various industrial by-products to improve reclaimed tile properties. In this study, multiple materials including waste glass and waste foundry sand (WFS) were added in an attempt to improve physical and mechanical properties of reclaimed tiles with SSA. Samples with various combinations of clay, WFS, waste glass and SSA were made with three kiln temperatures of 1000°C, 1050°C, and 1100°C. A series of tests on the samples were next conducted. Test results showed that waste glass had positive effects on bending strength, water absorption and weight loss on ignition, while WFS contributed the most in reducing shrinkage, but could decrease the tile bending strength when large amount was added at a high kiln temperature. This study suggested that a combination of WFS from 10% to 15%, waste glass from 15% to 20%, SSA at 10% at a kiln temperature between 1000°C and 1050°C could result in quality reclaimed tiles with a balanced performance.

  9. Self Cleanable Tile Grout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet CANBAZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, In this study, self-cleaning tile grout and white cement specimens are produced and the effect of self-cleaning mechanism of TiO2 is tested. Effects of TiO2 amount and TiO2 type are tested and compared. Anatase form and rutile TiO2 additive are used in the study. In addition, effects of silicate additives on the self-cleaning mechanism is determined. Studies are conducted with respect to Italian UNI code. This study presents a method for solving rust between the tiles of ceramic wet floor coverings with photocatalysis method and then removing the dirt with secondary effects such as water, wind etc.

  10. [Evaluation of long-term occupational exposure to dust and its effect on health during production of ceramic tiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielec, L; Izycki, J; Woźniak, H

    1992-01-01

    A medical examination has been carried out of 500 workers (290 men and 210 women) of a ceramic plates plant. Also, the measurements of dust concentrations were made at some standard work places . In the materials used for manufacturing the plates crystalline phases and the content of free crystalline silica were determined using the X-ray diffraction method. In the animal experiments the fibrogenic activity of all materials used in the plant was examined and compared to the fibrogenic activity of standard quartz. As a result of the medical examination 64 cases of pneumoconiosis were diagnosed (13% of the subjects). The incidence rate of pneumoconiosis was similar for men and women. The radiological changes characteristic of pneumoconiosis took approximately 24 years of the workers tenure to develop. Type q changes were most frequent (69%), types p and r were observed in 14% of workers (mostly women). In 31% of workers tuberous changes of size B were observed. In 43.8% of the subjects restrictive disorders of ventilation were found. In 30% of workers chronic bronchitis was diagnosed. Dust concentrations at 11 work places were measured using the individual dosimetry method. Total dust concentrations ranged from 0.6 mg/m3 at the electricians posts to 60.1 mg/m3 at the workposts where the furnace truck restorers worked. Dust concentrations exceeded the MACs at 7 workposts. The respirable fraction concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/m3 to 8.4 mg/m3. During the replacement of asbestos ropes and asbestos board used for insulating the furnace trucks mineral fibres (0.1-0.5 fibre/cm3) were found in the air. The following crystalline phases were determined in the materials: kaolinite, illite, quartz, orthoclase and microline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. RESEARCH IN EXPERT CONSULTING SYSTEM FOR FIRING FLAWS OF BUILDING CERAMIC TILES%建筑砖烧成缺陷咨询专家系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈功备; 张海荣; 胡国林

    2011-01-01

    An expert consulting system for solving firing flaws of building Ceramic tiles was set up by using forward reasoning and uncertainty reasoning with weighting. A user of the system may find suggested solutions to a firing flaw by the name of a defect and the phenomenon.%将专家系统的知识应用于建筑砖烧成缺陷领域中,通过正向推理和加权的不确定推理,开发了一个建筑砖烧成缺陷咨询专家系统,方便用户查询.

  12. Ceramic colorant from untreated iron ore residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Oscar Costa; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-09-30

    This work deals with the development of a ceramic colorant for glazes from an untreated iron ore residue. 6 mass% of the residue was added in suspensions (1.80 g/cm(3) density and 30s viscosity) of white, transparent and matte glazes, which were applied as thin layers (0.5mm) on engobeb and not fired ceramic tiles. The tiles were fired in laboratory roller kiln in a cycle of 35 min and maximum temperatures between 1050 and 1180°C. The residue and glazes were characterized by chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA and optical dilatometry) analyses, and the glazed tiles by colorimetric and XRD analyses. The results showed that the colorant embedded in the transparent glaze results in a reddish glaze (like pine nut) suitable for the ceramic roof tile industry. For the matte and white glazes, the residue has changed the color of the tiles with temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study and automatic control of the ceramic tile extrusion operation; Estudio y control automatico de la operacion de extrusion de baldosas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilella, M.; Foucard, L.; Mallol, G.; Sanchez, M. J.; Lopez, M.; Benasges, R.

    2012-07-01

    The ever-larger tile sizes demanded by the market, the higher quality requirements, and the increasingly similar installation to that of pressed products make it necessary to narrow the tolerance limits of final extruded tile size in order to maintain the products competitiveness. The results of this study show that, though mixing water has a great influence on drying shrinkage, it hardly affects extruded tile firing shrinkage. This indicates that control of the water added in the extrusion process is indispensable in order avoid variations in drying shrinkage and, thus, to assure good dimensional stability of the end product. (Author)

  14. Effect of Firing Schedule on Preparation of Lightweight Foamed Ceramic Tile by Dry Granulation Process%烧成制度对干法造粒制备轻质陶瓷砖性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博烨; 黄剑锋; 陶晓文; 李康; 汪庆刚; 李转; 费杰; 闫开放; 刘纯

    2015-01-01

    以抛光废渣、高铝泥、恒峰砂、力鸿砂、黑滑石为原料,采用干法造粒工艺,在1100℃~1200℃,保温时间为10~30 min 条件下,制备轻质陶瓷砖,并研究了烧成制度对轻质陶瓷砖性能的影响。结果表明:随着烧成温度的升高,轻质陶瓷砖线膨胀率逐渐升高;吸水率呈先升高再降低而后升高的趋势,在1170℃时达到最低值;抗折强度和容重随着烧成温度的升高逐渐降低。随着保温时间的延长,试样容重和抗折强度逐渐降低,但变化不明显。烧成温度为1160℃,保温时间为15 min 时,制备的轻质陶瓷砖抗折强度为6.3 MPa,吸水率为2.3%,闭气孔率为71.2%,容重为0.64 g/cm3。%Lightweight ceramic tile was sintered at 1100~1200 ℃ with 10~30 min holding time after granulation process using polishing tile waste,high alumina clay,Hengfeng quartz,Lihong quartz and black talc.Influence of properties of lightweight ceramic tile with different firing schedule was discussed.The results showed:linear expansion ratio of was increased with the increasing sintering temperature,water absorption was increased firstly and then increased again after decreased, reached its minimum value at 1170 ℃.Bending strength and bulk density were decreased with the increase of sintering temperature.Bulk density and bending strength were decreased not obviously with the prolong of holding time.The lightweight ceramic tile was prepared at 1160 ℃,15 min,which properties were as follows:bending strength 6.3 MPa, water absorption 2.3%,closed porosity 71.2%,bulk density 0.64 g/cm3 .

  15. Use of nanofiltration membrane technology for ceramic industry wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moliner-Salvador, R.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A study has been undertaken of an advanced wastewater treatment approach using polymer nanofiltration membranes, in an attempt to obtain water of sufficient quality to allow it to be reused in the same production process or, alternatively, to be discharged without any problems. The study has initially focused on the removal of organic matter (reduction of COD and the most representative ions present in the wastewater, such as Na+, Mg2+, Cl- y SO42-. In a first part of the study, with a view to optimising the experimental phase, a simulation has been performed of the nanofiltration process using the NanoFlux software. Among other things, the simulation allows the most suitable membranes to be selected as a function of the permeate flow rate and desired level of retention in the substances to be removed. The subsequent experimentation was carried out in a laboratory tangential filtration system that works with flat membranes. It was found that retention values of about 90% were obtained for the studied substances, with a good permeate flow rate, using low operating pressures. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the studied technology and its potential as a treatment for improving ceramic industry wastewater quality.

    Este estudio ha sido emprendido con el fin de acercar la nanofiltración a través de membranas poliméricas al tratamiento de las aguas residuales industriales de la industria cerámica, esperando obtener un agua con la suficiente calidad como para ser reutilizada en el propio proceso productivo o, alternativamente, poder verterla. El estudio se ha centrado en la eliminación de materia orgánica (reducción de D.Q.O y algunos iones presentes en las aguas residuales, tales como Na+, Mg2+, Cl- y SO42-. En primer lugar, se ha realizado una simulación del proceso de nanofiltración usando el software Nano

  16. Avaliação das propriedades físico-mecânicas de uma massa cerâmica para revestimento poroso (BIII Evaluation of physical-mechanical properties of a ceramic paste for porous wall tile (BIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. G. Sousa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as propriedades físico-mecânicas de uma massa para revestimento cerâmico poroso base vermelha a partir de matérias-primas da região Norte Fluminense. A massa cerâmica preparada pelo processo via seca foi caracterizada quanto a composição química, análise de tamanho de partícula, difração de raios X e comportamento térmico. Os corpos cerâmicos foram prensados sob 35 MPa e sinterizados entre 1080 e 1200 ºC usando um ciclo de queima rápido. A microestrutura sinterizada foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os corpos cerâmicos sinterizados exibiram baixos valores de retração linear, resultando em boa estabilidade dimensional. A microestrutura é caracterizada por alta porosidade. Além disso, foram atingidas as especificações para revestimento poroso (NBR 13818 em termos da tensão de ruptura à flexão e da absorção de água dos corpos cerâmicos sinterizados, indicando o potencial das matérias-primas cerâmicas do Norte Fluminense para este tipo de aplicação.The present work aimed at studying the physical-mechanical properties of a ceramic paste for red porous wall tile using raw materials from the Northern Fluminense region. The ceramic paste was prepared by dry process and characterized regarding chemical composition, particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction and thermal behavior. The ceramic bodies were pressed under 35 MPa and sintered from 1080 to 1200 ºC in a fast-firing cycle. The sintered microstructure was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the sintered ceramic bodies exhibited low values of linear shrinkage, resulting in good dimensional stability. The microstructure was characterized by high porosity. In addition, the specifications for porous wall tiles (NBR 13818 were achieved in terms of the flexural strength and water absorption of the sintered ceramic bodies, indicating the potential of the ceramic raw

  17. A mature industrial solution for ITER divertor plasma facing components: hypervapotron cooling concept adapted to Tore Supra flat tile technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escourbiac, F.; Missirlian, M.; Schlosser, J. [Association EURATOM-CEA Cadarache, Departement de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bobin-Vastra, I. [AREVA Centre Technique de Framatome, 71 - Le Creusot (France); Kuznetsov, V. [Efremov Institute, Doroga na Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schedler, B. [Plansee AG, Reutte (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    The use of flat tile technology to handle heat fluxes in the range of 20 MW/m{sup 2} with components relevant for fusion experiment applications is technically possible with the hypervapotron cooling concept. This paper deals with recent high heat flux performances operated with success on 2 identical mock-ups, based on this concept, that were tested in 2 different electron gun facilities. Each mock-up consisted of a CuCrZr heat sink armored with 25 flat tiles of the 3D carbon fibre composite material SEPcarb NS31 assembled with pure copper by active metal casting (AMC). The AMC tiles were electron beam welded on the CuCrZr bar, fins and slots on the neutral beam JET design were machined into the bar, then the bar was closed with a thick CuCrZr rear plug including hydraulic connections then the bar was electron beam welded onto the sidewalls. The testing results show that full ITER design specifications were achieved with margins, the critical heat flux limit was even higher than 30 MW/m{sup 2}. These results highlight the high potential of this technology for ITER divertor application.

  18. CO 2 laser photoacoustic detection of ammonia emitted by ceramic industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthel, M. S.; Schramm, D. U.; Lima, G. R.; Carneiro, L.; Faria, R. T., Jr.; Castro, M. P. P.; Alexandre, J.; Toledo, R.; Silva, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2011-01-01

    A homemade photoacoustic spectrometer has been constructed for monitoring gas emission from several sources. Numerous air pollutant gases are emitted exhaust of industries, vehicles and power plants. The photoacoustic technique is extremely sensitive and selective in detecting various gases. This work focuses on the gas emitted by the ceramic industry in northern Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil, the ceramic industry plays a remarkable role in the economy activity of this region, in recent years, this region developed into a significant red ceramic complex. The potential impact on the atmospheric environment of the region due to gaseous pollutant emissions from these anthropogenic sources needs to be evaluated. In this work we identified NH 3 present in the samples collected in the kiln of a ceramic plant, in the concentration range of 33-52 ppmV. The ammonia gas present in our collected samples might come from the excess nitrogen in the manure soil from where the ceramic material was extracted. This soil was used for the sugarcane culture which is another important economic activity of this region.

  19. CO2 laser photoacoustic detection of ammonia emitted by ceramic industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthel, M S; Schramm, D U; Lima, G R; Carneiro, L; Faria, R T; Castro, M P P; Alexandre, J; Toledo, R; Silva, M G; Vargas, H

    2011-01-01

    A homemade photoacoustic spectrometer has been constructed for monitoring gas emission from several sources. Numerous air pollutant gases are emitted exhaust of industries, vehicles and power plants. The photoacoustic technique is extremely sensitive and selective in detecting various gases. This work focuses on the gas emitted by the ceramic industry in northern Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil, the ceramic industry plays a remarkable role in the economy activity of this region, in recent years, this region developed into a significant red ceramic complex. The potential impact on the atmospheric environment of the region due to gaseous pollutant emissions from these anthropogenic sources needs to be evaluated. In this work we identified NH3 present in the samples collected in the kiln of a ceramic plant, in the concentration range of 33-52 ppmV. The ammonia gas present in our collected samples might come from the excess nitrogen in the manure soil from where the ceramic material was extracted. This soil was used for the sugarcane culture which is another important economic activity of this region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of ceramics used in mass ceramic industry Goianinha/RN; Caracterizacao de massa ceramica utilizada em industria ceramica de Goianinha/RN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales Junior, J.C.C.; Nascimento, R.M. do; Andrade, J.C.S.; Saldanha, K.M., E-mail: jccalado@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Dutra, R.P.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Ceramicos

    2011-07-01

    The preparation of the the ceramic mass is one of the most important steps in the manufacture of ceramic products, since the characteristics of the raw materials used, and the proportions that they are added, directly influence the final properties of ceramic products and the operational conditions of processing. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the characterization of a ceramic mass used in the manufacture of sealing blocks by a red ceramic industry of the city of Goianinha / RN. We analyzed the chemical and mineralogical composition; thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis; granulometric analysis; evaluation of plasticity; and determining the technological properties of specimens used in test firing at 700, 900 and 1100 ° C. The results show that the ceramic body studied has characteristics that allow use in the manufacture of sealing blocks when burned at a temperature of 900 ° C. (author)

  1. Talk about Han eaves tile art in our country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽艺

    2015-01-01

    The Han Dynasty is the first in the history of the unified and powerful country. It is a huge momentum has also affected the development of art, especially the art of eaves tile. Pattern of Han eaves tile is the art of the Chinese nation in the classic, rich artistic value for tile study of traditional ceramic art is very necessary in China. Through the research on Eave Tile Art, can be in-jected into the power of ceramic art in China's new development.

  2. Utilização do resíduo da extração de esmeraldas em uma formulação de massa de revestimento cerâmico Use of the extraction residue of emeralds in a formulation mass of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Cavalcante

    2012-06-01

    volumes of waste generated and emerald are constantly abandoned in the environment, contributing negatively to their preservation. On the other hand the interest in the use of mining waste as an additive in production of ceramic materials has grown among researchers in recent years. The ceramic industry is constantly seeking to expand the market for the sector and trying to improve product quality and increase the variety of applications. The technology of obtaining ceramic coating that uses waste from mining is still a largely unexplored market. Thus, the purpose of this study was to characterize the waste generated from mining emerald as well as to evaluate its potential use as raw material for production melting of ceramic tiles. Ceramic mixtures were prepared from raw materials characterized by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Five compositions were prepared using the waste codes of emeralds from 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Samples were prepared by pressing, sintered at 1000, 1100 and 1200 ºC and characterized to establish their mineralogical composition, water absorption, linear shrinkage and modulus of rupture. The results showed that the residue of emeralds studied can be embedded in the mass of ceramic tiles up to 20% in replacement of feldspar without compromising the end product properties.

  3. HOW TO USE SOLID WASTE OF OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN CERAMIC BRICKS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinovа T. A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the recycling problem of solid waste of oil and gas industry is observed. We have developed the bases of resource saving technology for minimizing exhausted sorbents and catalysts pollution with their using as silica-containing additives in raw mix for production of ceramic bricks of standard quality

  4. Development of UHTC- Ultra-high-temperature ceramics for aerospace and industrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bellosi, Alida

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium and Hafnium diborides and carbides belong to the class of Ultra-High-Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) for their high melting point (2700-3900?C). The interest on these materials is due to the unique combination of properties 8High hardness, high electrical and thermal conductivity, chemical inertness). They constitute a clss of promising materials for HT applications in industrial secors like foundry, refractory or nuclear plants. Applications are also found in aerospace industry: leadin...

  5. Influence of residual stresses on the cutting behavior of porcelain stoneware tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga Gomes Delavi, D.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Saburit, A.; Escrig, A.; Nonic, A. de; Hotza, D.

    2016-07-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the influence of residual stresses on porcelain tile behaviour under cutting. To do so, two samples of glazed industrial porcelain tiles that exhibited different behaviour under cutting were selected. Using these industrial tiles, cutting tests were performed and the macroscopic residual stresses were determined by the strain relaxation incremental slotting method. The influence of the cooling rate on the arising residual stresses and their effect on tile cutting were also studied. For the porcelain tile with appropriate cutting behaviour, the residual stress profile in the body was symmetrical and could be fitted by just using the second- degree Legendre polynomial. This was the expected behaviour for homogenously cooled ceramic materials (same cooling rate at the proper surface as at the rib). For pieces with inappropriate cutting behaviour, it was necessary to use more terms of the series, which suggested that cooling had not been homogeneous. With regard to the influence of cooling, the temperature range in which residual stresses were generated was determined and it was verified that pieces with a greater level of stresses exhibited worse cutting behaviour. (Author)

  6. Influência da distribuição granulométrica na estabilidade dimensional de placas cerâmicas de base vermelha Influence of particle size distribution on the dimensional stability of red ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. A. Prado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades do revestimento cerâmico queimado estão intrinsecamente ligadas às características da massa, dentre estas se encontram o tamanho, a distribuição, o formato e o arranjo das partículas. O efeito da distribuição granulométrica de partículas sobre a estabilidade dimensional de placas cerâmicas para revestimentos de base vermelha foi estudado em três massas, todas continham no mínimo 57% de material advindo da Formação Corumbataí. Foram estudadas duas distribuições granulométricas - uma parecida com aquelas usadas no Pólo Cerâmico de Santa Gertrudes e, outra, com uma massa de grés. De uma maneira geral, granulações mais grossas, semelhantes à massa de Santa Gertrudes, variaram menos dimensionalmente quando as placas apresentaram médias e altas porosidades (absorção de água entre 3,0 e 10,0%. Já, granulações mais finas, similares a massas de grés, foram necessárias para a produção de placas de baixa absorção (menor que 3,0%.The properties of final ceramic tiles are related with the mass characteristics, among them the size, shape, distribution and arrange of particles. The effect of particle size distribution on dimensional stability of red ceramic tiles was studied in three masses; all of them composed with, at minimum, 57% of Corumbataí Formation's materials. Two particle size distributions were investigated: the first was similar to the masses that are used in the Santa Gertrudes Ceramic Pole's factories and the other was similar to the stoneware mass. In general, masses with larger particle sizes, similar to that of Santa Gertrudes, had greater dimensional stability in the products with 3 to 10% of water absorption. On the other hand, in the manufacture of low porosity tiles (water absorption capacity < 3% it is recommended the use of smaller grain size.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY OF CERAMICS TILE ON VIBRATION AND NOISE OF CALIBRATING MACHINEE%瓷砖形貌对瓷砖刮平机振动及噪声影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵俊鹏; 徐斌

    2012-01-01

    为了研究瓷砖刮平机加工机理,分析刮平机的结构和运行原理,对粗、中、精刮瓷砖进行了SEM实验,同时对刮平机进行了振动和噪音实验。通过SEM实验得出粗刮后的瓷砖表面轨迹平行,轨迹由冲击坑组成;中刮后的瓷砖表面轨迹交叉贯通;精刮后的瓷砖表面平整,少见刮痕。通过振动和噪声实验得出:粗刮阶段,平行轨迹处振动大;中、精刮阶段,交叉轨迹处振动小;空载和工作状态噪音值相差很小。%In order to investigate the polishing mechanism of calibrating machine.Structure and principle of calibrating machine was analyzed.A SEM experiment of ceramics tile was done at the rough calibrating and at the semi finish calibrating and at the finish calibrating.Vibration and noise experiment of grinding head were done.It is concluded that polishing track of ceramics tile is parallel track with consisting of funnel pit at the rough calibrating and polishing track of ceramics tile is intercrossing track at the semi finish calibrating and not many scratch tracks and smoothness on the surface of the ceramic tile at the finish calibrating,by a series of SEM experiments of ceramic tiles.A series of vibration and noise experiments of grinding head is performed,vibration increased in parallel track and vibration reduced in intercrossing track at the rough calibrating;noise value of idling and operation on calibrating machine were small enough.

  8. Glass and glass–ceramic coatings, versatile materials for industrial and engineering applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitava Majumdar; Sunirmal Jana

    2001-02-01

    Among various coating systems for industrial and engineering applications, glass and glass–ceramic coatings have advantages of chemical inertness, high temperature stability and superior mechanical properties such as abrasion, impact etc as compared to other coating materials applied by thermal spraying in its different forms viz. PVD, CVD, plasma, etc. Besides imparting required functional properties such as heat, abrasion and corrosion resistance to suit particular end use requirements, the glass and glass–ceramic coatings in general also provide good adherence, defect free surface and refractoriness. Systematic studies covering the basic science of glass and glass–ceramic coatings, the functional properties required for a particular end-use along with the various fields of application have been reviewed in this paper.

  9. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  10. An industry-wide pulmonary study of men and women manufacturing refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasters, G K; Lockey, J E; Levin, L S; McKay, R T; Rice, C H; Horvath, E P; Papes, D M; Lu, J W; Feldman, D J

    1998-11-01

    An industry-wide pulmonary morbidity study was undertaken to evaluate the respiratory health of employees manufacturing refractory ceramic fibers at five US sites between 1987 and 1989. Refractory ceramic fibers are man-made vitreous fibers used for high temperature insulation. Of the 753 eligible current employees, 742 provided occupational histories and also completed the American Thoracic Society respiratory symptom questionnaire; 736 also performed pulmonary function tests. Exposure to refractory ceramic fibers was characterized by classifying workers as production or nonproduction employees and calculating the duration of time spent in production employment. The risk of working in the production of refractory ceramic fibers and having one or more respiratory symptoms was estimated by adjusted odds ratios and found to be 2.9 (95 percent confidence interval 1.4-6.2) for men and 2.4 (95 percent confidence interval 1.1-5.3) for women. The effect of exposure to refractory ceramic fibers on forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), the ratio of the two (FEV1/FVC), and forced expiratory flow (liters/second) between 25 percent and 75 percent of the FVC curve (FEF(25-75)) was evaluated by multiple regression analysis using transformed values adjusted for height, by dividing by the square of each individual's height. For men, there was a significant decline in FVC for current and past smokers of 165.4 ml (p ceramic fibers. For FEV1, the decline was significant (p ceramic fibers. These findings indicate that there may be important sex differences in response to occupational and/or environmental exposure.

  11. Design of self-cleaning TiO2 coating on clay roofing tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadnadjev, Milica; Ranogajec, Jonjaua; Petrovic, Snezana; Markov, Sinisa; Ducman, Vilma; Marinkovic-Neducin, Radmila

    2010-07-01

    The phenomenon of heterogeneous photocatalysis takes place in the degradation process of many organic contaminants on solid surfaces. Photocatalysis is based on the excitation of the semiconductor by irradiation with supraband gap photons and the migration of electron-hole pairs to the surface of the photocatalysts, leading to the reaction of the holes with adsorbed H2O and OH- to form hydroxyl radicals. Due to the stability and photosensitivity of TiO2 semiconductors, this system is well studied and is of great interest from an ecological and industrial point of view for use in the field of building materials. Clay roofing tiles, due to their long-term exploitation, are subject to physical, chemical and biological degradation that leads to deterioration. Ceramic systems have a high percentage of total porosity and considering their non-tolerance of organic coating, the use of surface active materials (SAM) that induce porosity in TiO2 coatings is of vital significance. Photocatalytic coatings applied on clay roofing tiles under industrial conditions were designed by varying the quantity of TiO2 (mass/cm2) on the tile surface (thin and thick TiO2 layer). The positive changes in specific surface area and mesopore structure of the designed coatings were made by the addition of PEG 600 as a surface active material. It was shown that a thin photocatalytic layer (0.399 mg suspension/cm2 tile surface), applied onto ceramic tiles under industrial conditions, had better photocatalytic activity in methylene blue decomposition, hydrophilicity and antimicrobial activity than a thick photocatalytic coating (0.885 mg suspension/cm2).

  12. Advanced ceramic coating development for industrial/utility gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogan, J. W.; Stetson, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    A program was conducted with the objective of developing advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Coating application was by plasma spray. Duplex, triplex and graded coatings were tested. Coating systems incorporated both NiCrAly and CoCrAly bond coats. Four ceramic overlays were tested: ZrO2.82O3; CaO.TiO2; 2CaO.SiO2; and MgO.Al2O3. The best overall results were obtained with a CaO.TiO2 coating applied to a NiCrAly bond coat. This coating was less sensitive than the ZrO2.8Y2O3 coating to process variables and part geometry. Testing with fuels contaminated with compounds containing sulfur, phosphorus and alkali metals showed the zirconia coatings were destabilized. The calcium titanate coatings were not affected by these contaminants. However, when fuels were used containing 50 ppm of vanadium and 150 ppm of magnesium, heavy deposits were formed on the test specimens and combustor components that required frequent cleaning of the test rig. During the program Mars engine first-stage turbine blades were coated and installed for an engine cyclic endurance run with the zirconia, calcium titanate, and calcium silicate coatings. Heavy spalling developed with the calcium silicate system. The zirconia and calcium titanate systems survived the full test duration. It was concluded that these two TBC's showed potential for application in gas turbines.

  13. Optimal inventory reallocation to customer orders in ceramic tile companies characterized by the lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP); Reasignacion optima del inventario a pedidos en empresas ceramicas caracterizadas por la falta de homogeneidad en el producto (FHP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemany, M. M. E.; Alarcon, F.; Oltra, R. F.; Lario, B. C.

    2013-02-01

    The lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP) is defined as the lack of uniformity required by the customer in the products. The LHP appears in companies where the final products obtained are not homogeneous, leading to the existence of different references (subtypes) of the same product. This lack of homogeneity is a problem when the client needs to be served through homogeneous units of a product and commit orders are based on planned quantities, whose final homogeneity characteristics are unknown at the time of acquiring the customer commitments. The frequent discrepancies caused by the LHP between planned homogeneous amounts and those actually obtained and available, can prevent the delivery of committed orders. To solve this problem, we propose a mathematical programming model for the reallocation of inventory in Make to Stock (MTS) ceramic tile companies characterized by the LHP that combines multiple objectives. The proposed mathematical model has been validated by its application to a real case of a ceramic company. The analysis of the obtained results indicates significant improvements in the number of orders completed on time and in sales revenue achieved. (Author) 33 refs.

  14. Material of Burned Coal Wastes Spoil Heaps As Source of Mullite for Ceramic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daněk Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning or burnt out mine spoil heaps may be potential sources of materials not only for building purposes, but they may also be used in the ceramic industry. Decay of the coal mass contained in the mine spoil heaps often leads to self-ignition. As a consequence of spontaneous mine fire, which may approach 1600 °C, the surrounding waste rock undergoes thermal conversion. The temperature conditions inside the burning spoil heaps are analogous to the production conditions of refractory opening materials and fillers in rotary furnaces. The article deals with an analysis of anthropogenic porcelanites in terms of their phase composition and their possible application in the ceramic industry. The material under analysis underwent X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence to identify its chemistry and mineralogy. The article also proposes an enrichment method for the given material, through which a higher proportion of its useful component, mullite, may be obtained. Applying this method, approximately 60 % relatively pure separated raw material suitable for the ceramic industry may be obtained from the original material.

  15. Pilot study for a quantification of lead exposure in the ceramics and glass industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, K.H.; Weltle, D.; Schiele, R.; Weissflog, S.; Mayer, P.; Valentin, H.

    1981-11-01

    The lead level in the blood of 2706 workers was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. delta-ALA concentrations in 400 urine samples were measured by photometry. The statistical analysis shows that lead concentrations are higher in the blood of glass workers (median: 51 ..mu..g/dl) than in workers of the ceramics industry (median: 44 ..mu..g/dl). In the ceramics industry, lead exposure is highest during glazing preparation and shaping. In the glass industry, foundrymen, furnace men, glass makers and mixers are most exposed. Of the glass workers, 21% exceeded the maximum permissible value of 70 ..mu..g/dl as compared with 14% of the ceramics workers. The difference was less pronounced in female workers. The maximum permissible concentration was exceeded in 18% of all cases. In the two years of observation, blood lead concentrations of 216 persons with at least three control examination was reduced by 20%. 53 other workers with three control examinations were transferred to other working places because of their high blood lead levels. Blood lead concentrations were reduced by 17% per month (median: 5 ..mu..g/dl per month). Reasons for this very slow reduction may be found in further lead exposure at the new place of work and in redistribution of lead from the soft tissues. The study shows that working conditions have been improved in the period of observation. Further reduction of lead levels requires information on the dangers of lead and technical measures to reduce lead exposure at the place of work.

  16. Study of the pressing operation of large-sized tiles using X-ray absorption; Estudio de la operacion de prensado de baldosas de gran formato utilizando la absorcion de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoros, J. L.; Mallol, G.; Llorens, D.; Boix, J.; Arnau, J. M.; Feliu, C.; Cerisuelo, J. A.; Gargallo, J. J.

    2010-07-01

    An apparatus for X-Ray non destructive inspection of bulk density distribution in large ceramic tiles has been designed, built and patented. This technique has many advantages compared with other methods: it allows tile bulk density distribution to be mapped and is neither destructive nor toxic, provided the X-ray tube and detector area are shielded to prevent leakage. In the present study, this technique, whose technical feasibility and accuracy had been verified in previous studies, has been used to scan ceramic tiles formed under different industrial conditions, modifying press working parameters. The use of high-precision laser telemeters allows tile thicknesses to be mapped, facilitating the interpretation of manufacturing defects produced in pressing, which cannot be interpreted by just measuring bulk density. The bulk density distributions obtained in the same unfired and fired tiles are also compared, a possibility afforded only by this measurement method, since it is non-destructive. The comparison of both unfired and fired tile bulk density distributions allows the influence of the pressing and firing stages on tile end porosity to be individually identified. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. LSA glass-ceramic tiles made by powder pressing; Obtencao de placas vitroceramicas do sistema LSA utilizando a prensagem de pos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, F.C.; Bertan, F.M. [Colorminas Colorificio e Mineracao, Icara, SC (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduaco em Engenharia Quimica; Uggioni, E. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Materiais; Bernardin, A.M., E-mail: amb@unesc.ne [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Tijucas, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia em Ceramica

    2009-07-01

    A low cost alternative for the production of glass-ceramic materials is the pressing of the matrix glass powders and its consolidation simultaneously with crystallization in a single stage of sintering. The main objective of this work was to obtain LSA glass ceramics with low thermal expansion, processed by pressing and sintering a ceramic frit powder. The raw materials were homogenized and melted (1480 deg C, 80min), and the melt was poured in water. The glass was chemically (XRF and AAS) and thermally (DTA, 10 deg C/min, air) characterized, and then ground (60min and 120min). The ground powders were characterized (laser diffraction) and compressed (35MPa and 45MPa), thus forming four systems. The compacts were dried (150 deg C, 24h) and sintered (1175 deg C and 1185 deg C, 10 deg C/min). Finally, the glass-ceramics were characterized by microstructural analysis (SEM and XRD), mechanical behavior ({sigma}bending) and thermal analysis ({alpha}). The best results for thermal expansion were those for the glass-ceramics processed with smaller particle size and greater compaction pressure. (author)

  18. Ceramic Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  19. Efeito da adição de resíduo de rocha ornamental nas propriedades tecnológicas e microestrutura de piso cerâmico vitrificado Effect of the addition of ornamental rock waste on the technological properties and microstructure of vitrified ceramic floor tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de rochas ornamentais gera grandes quantidades de resíduos sólidos na forma de pós finos. Estes resíduos, quando descartados no ambiente, provocam impacto ambiental negativo. Foi feito um estudo sobre a influência de um resíduo de rocha ornamental nas propriedades e microestrutura de piso cerâmico vitrificado. Foi preparada uma série de massas cerâmicas contendo até 30% em peso de resíduo de rocha ornamental. Peças cerâmicas foram preparadas por prensagem uniaxial e sinterizadas entre 1190 e 1250 ºC em um ciclo de queima rápida. As seguintes propriedades tecnológicas foram determinadas: retração linear, absorção de água, massa específica aparente, e tensão de ruptura a flexão. A evolução da microestrutura e a análise de fases foram acompanhadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e difração de raios X. Os resultados mostraram que adições de até 30% em peso de resíduo de rocha ornamental causaram variações significativas na generalidade das propriedades tecnológicas da massa cerâmica de referência. A microestrutura das peças cerâmicas também foi influenciada com a incorporação do resíduo estudado. Os resultados também mostram que a substituição de feldspato sódico por resíduo de rocha ornamental nas massas cerâmicas tende a melhorar a qualidade do piso cerâmico.The ornamental rock industries generate huge amounts of solid wastes (fine powders. These wastes as disposed in the environment generate negative environmental impacts. In this work a study was done on the influence of an ornamental rock waste in the technological properties and microstructure of vitrified floor tile. A series of ceramic pastes were prepared with additions of up to 30 wt% of waste. Ceramic pieces were prepared by uniaxial pressing and sintered between 1190 and 1250 ºC using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density

  20. Exploring high-strength glass-ceramic materials for upcycling of industrial wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Gu-Seul; Park, Hyun Seo; Seo, Sung Mo; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2015-11-01

    To promote the recycling of industrial waste and to develop value-added products using these resources, the possibility of manufacturing glass-ceramic materials of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3 system has been investigated by various heat treatment processes. Glass-ceramic materials with six different chemical compositions were prepared using steel industry slags and power plant waste by melting, casting and heat treatment. The X-ray diffraction results indicated that diopside and anorthite were the primary phases in the samples. The anorthite phase was formed in SiO2-rich material (at least 43 wt%). In CaO-rich material, the gehlenite phase was formed. By the differential scanning calorimetry analyses, it was found that the glass transition point was in the range of 973-1023 K, and the crystallization temperature was in the range of 1123-1223 K. The crystallization temperature increased as the content of Fe2O3 decreased. By the multi-step heat treatment process, the formation of the anorthite phase was enhanced. Using FactSage, the ratio of various phases was calculated as a function of temperature. The viscosities and the latent heats for the samples with various compositions were also calculated by FactSage. The optimal compositions for glass-ceramics materials were discussed in terms of their compressive strength, and micro-hardness.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of an industrial dryer in a ceramic production: an application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utlu, Zafer [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Istanbul Aydin University (Turkey)], E-mail: zaferutlu@aydin.edu.tr, email: zafer_utlu@yahoo.com; Hepbasli, Arif [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)], email: ahepbasli.c@ksu.edu.sa, email: arifhepbasli@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    The drying industry always aims to reduce the amount of moisture from production and to reach this goal using the minimum amount of energy and at minimum cost. The purpose of this paper is to give the energy and exergy analysis of a ceramic plant and to determine the energy and exergy utilization efficiencies of this plant's drying process. Exergy analysis has been widely used for various thermal systems and drying is a significant element of these systems and is an energy intensive operation. In this study, the exergy analysis method was applied to a drying system on a ceramic production line. This process was divided into three stages with the aim of calculating the values for exergy destruction and efficiency of the system in reference (dead state) temperature. Mass, elemental, and heat losses were also studied by means of the actual plant operational data and conclusions were drawn from this that are listed in this paper.

  2. Geopolymers as potential repair material in tiles conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Catarina F. M.; Lima, Augusta M.; Delgado-Rodrigues, José; Mimoso, João Manuel; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-03-01

    The restoration materials currently used to fill gaps in historical architectural tiles (e.g. lime or organic resin pastes) usually show serious drawbacks in terms of compatibility, effectiveness or durability. The existing solutions do not fully protect Portuguese faïence tiles ( azulejos) in outdoor conditions and frequently result in further deterioration. Geopolymers can be a potential solution for tile lacunae infill, given the chemical-mineralogical similitude to the ceramic body, and also the durability and versatile range of physical properties that can be obtained through the manipulation of their formulation and curing conditions. This work presents and discusses the viability of the use of geopolymeric pastes to fill lacunae in tiles or to act as "cold" cast ceramic tile surrogates reproducing missing tile fragments. The formulation of geopolymers, namely the type of activators, the alumino-silicate source, the quantity of water required for adequate workability and curing conditions, was studied. The need for post-curing desalination was also considered envisaging their application in the restoration of outdoor historical architectural tiles frequently exposed to adverse environmental conditions. The possible advantages and disadvantages of the use of geopolymers in the conservation of tiles are also discussed. The results obtained reveal that geopolymers pastes are a promising material for the restoration of tiles, when compared to other solutions currently in use.

  3. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domopoulou, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore-former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  4. The ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Louis Rose-Dulcina, a technician from the ATLAS collaboration, works on the ATLAS tile calorimeter. Special manufacturing techniques were developed to mass produce the thousands of elements in this detector. Tile detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  5. Isoperimetric Pentagonal Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Ping Ngai; Li, Yifei; Mara, Michael; Morgan, Frank; Plata, Isamar Rosa; Shah, Niralee; Vieira, Luis Sordo; Wikner, Elena

    2011-01-01

    We identify least-perimeter unit-area tilings of the plane by convex pentagons, namely tilings by Cairo and Prismatic pentagons, find infinitely many, and prove that they minimize perimeter among tilings by convex polygons with at most five sides.

  6. Influence de la nature chimique et minéralogique des argiles et du processus de fabrication sur la qualité des carreaux céramiques Influence of chemical and mineralogical nature of clay and manufacturing process on the quality of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik C.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude correspond à une approche pluridisciplinaire menée en étroite collaboration entre des géologues, des chimistes et des industriels de la céramique. Les résultats confirment l’étroite relation existante entre la composition des argiles et la qualité du produit céramique final. Les briquettes obtenues, dans les mêmes conditions, à partir de deux argiles marocaines assez différentes du point de vue chimique et minéralogique, présentent des caractéristiques technologiques bien distinctes. l’utilisation d’adjuvants minéraux, bien sélectionnés, contribue à l’équilibrage des argiles brutes et conduit à une nette amélioration de la qualité du produit céramique, notamment une réduction de leur retrait à la cuisson et une augmentation de leur résistance à la flexion. Concernant l’effet du processus de fabrication, l’application de l’engobe et de l’émail, s’avère être à l’origine de bombement des carreaux lors de la cuisson, en raison vraisemblablement de la différence des coefficients de dilatation des deux milieux argile et émail. This study is conducted in a multidisciplinary collaboration between geologists, chemists and industrial ceramics. The results confirm the close ralatioship existing between the composition of clays and quality of the finished ceramic pieces. The obtained specimens, under the same conditions, from two moroccan clays that are different on the chimico-mineralogical point of view, present distinct technological characteristics. The use of well selected mineral adjuvants, contributes to the balancing of raw clays and leads to a marked improvement in the quality of the ceramic product, including a reduction on their firing shrinkage and an increase of flexural strength. Concerning the effect of the manufacturing process, the application of the glaze, turns out to be the cause of bulging tiles during firing, probably because of the difference in thermal

  7. Raw-materials mixtures from waste of the coal industry for production of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpern, E.I. [Scientific-Manufacturing Enterprise ``Ceramics``, Donetsk (Ukraine); Pashchenko, L.V. [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry of NASU, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    The liquidation of waste dumps on the surface of mining enterprises and realization of measures by environment protection of air and aquatic basins are connected to the complex processing of mining mass. The main directions of utilization of mining rocks and coal wastes realized in Ukraine industry are: - filling of mines worked-out area by grouting solutions; - ceramic brick, porous filling materials and binding materials production; - road-making, construction of hydrostructures and industrial objects; - output of concrete items predominantly for using in mining conditions. The peculiarity of wastes using in above-mentioned fields is the possibility of their mass application in quantities commensurable with valumes of their yields. The experience of enterprises work which process mining rocks into building materials by burning method (ceramic brick, porous aggregates of concretes as aggloporite, expanded clay aggregate) has shown that unconstant and, as the rule, exceeding norms content of carbon and sulphur in the rock results to deterioration of products quality and technological factors of production. Unstability of carbon content in raw material makes the burning process hardly operated. Obtained products having residual carbon in the view of coke residue are often characterized by lower physical-mechanical characteristics. (orig./SR)

  8. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes;

    of the water load coming from the tile drainage system is therefore essential. This work aims at predicting tile drainage discharge using dynamic as well as a statistical predictive models. A large dataset of historical tile drain discharge data, daily discharge values as well as yearly average values were......More than 50 % of Danish agricultural areas are expected to be artificial tile drained. Transport of water and nutrients through the tile drain system to the aquatic environment is expected to be significant. For different mitigation strategies such as constructed wetlands an exact knowledge...... used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...

  9. Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Fiber Glass Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Haun

    2005-07-15

    The U.S. fiber glass industry disposes of more than 260,000 tons of industrial fiber glass waste in landfills annually. New technology is needed to reprocess this industrial waste into useful products. A low-cost energy-saving method of manufacturing ceramic tile from fiber glass waste was developed. The technology is based on sintering fiber glass waste at 700-900 degrees C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 degrees C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 degrees C. The process also eliminates other energy intensive processing steps, including mining and transportation of raw materials, spray-drying to produce granulated powder, drying pressed tile, and glazing. The technology completely transforms fiber glass waste into a dense ceramic product, so that all future environmental problems in the handling and disposal of the fibers is eliminated. The processing steps were developed and optimized to produce glossy and matte surface finishes for wall and floor tile applications. High-quality prototype tile samples were processed for demonstration and tile standards testing. A Market Assessment confirmed the market potential for tile products produced by the technology. Manufacturing equipment trials were successfully conducted for each step of the process. An industrial demonstration plant was designed, including equipment and operating cost analysis. A fiber glass manufacturer was selected as an industrial partner to commercialize the technology. A technology development and licensing agreement was completed with the industrial partner. Haun labs will continue working to transfer the technology and assist the industrial partner with commercialization beyond the DOE project.

  10. Utilization of inorganic industrial wastes in producing construction ceramics. Review of Russian experience for the years 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltakova, N V; Faseeva, G R; Kabirov, R R; Nafikov, R M; Zakharov, Yu A

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyzes the significant scientific publications worldwide for the last 15years concerning construction ceramics (predominantly brick) made with various inorganic industrial wastes added to the ceramic raw material for the improvement of properties and for eco-friendly disposal. The information gap resulting from the lack of mentions of the Russian publications on this subject in English-language reviews is filled. The paper includes brief summaries of 34 dissertations and 29 patents issued in Russia since 2000. The waste additives described in these summaries are grouped by origin type (mining industry waste, ore enrichment waste, metallurgical waste, sludge, ashes, cullet, large-capacity building wastes and waste from various chemical production processes) with the ceramic mixture compositions, molding and firing conditions, final strength, water absorption and other parameters of the final ceramic samples reported. Russian scientists have expanded the nomenclature of each group of wastes significantly upon addition to the list described in English-language reviews for 2000-2015. References to the recent Russian developments in the field of ecological management in ceramic industry are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy saving options by means of addition of burned-up biomass materials in the ceramics industry; Energiebesparingsmogelijkheden door toevoeging van biomassa-uitbrandstoffen in de keramische industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walda, E.

    2013-06-01

    In 2011/2012 is an exploratory study has been executed on the availability of biomass and the potential applicability in the building ceramics industry. The study consisted of (1) a literature and desk study, in which an overview is made of available and ceramic applicable (renewable) burned-up materials, and (2), laboratory tests in which ultimately potentially applicable burned-up material (sawdust) is examined for its coarse ceramic applicability. In this article the results of the two-pronged research are presented [Dutch] In 2011/2012 is een orienterend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de beschikbaarheid van biomassa en de mogelijke toepasbaarheid in de bouwkeramische industrie. Het onderzoek bestond uit (1) een literatuur- en deskstudie, waarbij een overzicht is gemaakt van verkrijgbare en keramisch toe te passen (hernieuwbare) uitbrandstoffen, en (2) een laboratoriumonderzoek, waarbij uiteindelijk een potentieel toepasbare uitbrandstof (zaagsel) is onderzocht op zijn grofkeramische toepasbaarheid. In dit artikel worden de resultaten van het tweeledige onderzoek gepresenteerd.

  12. Development of value-added products from alumina industry mineral wastes using low-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; Singh, D.

    1996-01-01

    A room-temperature process for stabilizing mineral waste streams has been developed, based on acid-base reaction between MgO and H3PO4 or acid phosphate solution. The resulting waste form sets into a hard ceramic in a few hours. In this way, various alumina industry wastes, such as red mud and treated potliner waste, can be solidified into ceramics which can be used as structural materials in waste management and construction industry. Red mud ceramics made by this process were low-porosity materials ({approx}2 vol%) with a compression strength equal to portland cement concrete (4944 psi). Bonding mechanism appears to be result of reactions of boehmite, goethite, and bayerite with the acid solution, and also encapsulation of red mud particles in Mg phosphate matrix. Possible applications include liners for ponds and thickned tailings disposal, dikes for waste ponds, and grouts. Compatability problems arising at the interface of the liner and the waste are avoided.

  13. Recycling of porcelain tile polishing residue in portland cement: hydration efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelisser, Fernando; Steiner, Luiz Renato; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-02-21

    Ceramic tiles are widely used by the construction industry, and the manufacturing process of ceramic tiles generates as a major residue mud derived from the polishing step. This residue is too impure to be reused in the ceramic process and is usually discarded as waste in landfills. But the analysis of the particle size and concentration of silica of this residue shows a potential use in the manufacture of building materials based on portland cement. Tests were conducted on cement pastes and mortars using the addition of 10% and 20% (mass) of the residue. The results of compressive strength in mortars made up to 56 days showed a significant increase in compressive strength greater than 50%. The result of thermogravimetry shows that portlandite is consumed by the cement formed by the silica present in the residue in order to form calcium silicate hydrate and featuring a pozzolanic reaction. This effect improves the performance of cement, contributes to research and application of supplementary cementitious materials, and optimizes the use of portland cement, reducing the environmental impacts of carbon dioxide emissions from its production.

  14. Ceramic membrane filters for fine particulate removal in coal-fired industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Wincek, R.T.; Glick, D.C.; Scaroni, A.W.; Makris, P.; Krecker, J.; Jung, G.; Stubblefield, D.J.

    1998-07-01

    Strategies are being developed at Penn Sate to produce ultralow emissions when firing coal-based fuel, i.e., micronized coal and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF), in industrial boilers. The research is being conducted at the bench, pilot, and demonstration scale, and the emissions being addressed are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine particulate matter (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), and air toxics (trace elements and volatile organic compounds). Specific activities are identifying/developing a low-temperature NO{sub x} reduction catalyst, studying the occurrence of nitrogen in coal and the fundamental mechanisms of NO{sub x} production, characterizing air toxic emissions, investigating the use of BioLime{trademark} for simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} reduction, and evaluating a ceramic filter for fine particulate control. Results from trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions testing when firing coal-based fuels are reported elsewhere in these proceedings. This paper discusses the preliminary results obtained using ceramic membrane filters for fine particulate removal when firing micronized coal in a package boiler.

  15. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composites for Shrouds and Combustor Liners of Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra; Jill Jonkowski; Joseph Mavec; Paul Bakke; Debbie Haught; Merrill Smith

    2011-01-07

    This report covers work performed under the Advanced Materials for Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines (AMAIGT) program by GE Global Research and its collaborators from 2000 through 2010. A first stage shroud for a 7FA-class gas turbine engine utilizing HiPerComp{reg_sign}* ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material was developed. The design, fabrication, rig testing and engine testing of this shroud system are described. Through two field engine tests, the latter of which is still in progress at a Jacksonville Electric Authority generating station, the robustness of the CMC material and the shroud system in general were demonstrated, with shrouds having accumulated nearly 7,000 hours of field engine testing at the conclusion of the program. During the latter test the engine performance benefits from utilizing CMC shrouds were verified. Similar development of a CMC combustor liner design for a 7FA-class engine is also described. The feasibility of using the HiPerComp{reg_sign} CMC material for combustor liner applications was demonstrated in a Solar Turbines Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine (CSGT) engine test where the liner performed without incident for 12,822 hours. The deposition processes for applying environmental barrier coatings to the CMC components were also developed, and the performance of the coatings in the rig and engine tests is described.

  16. Tilings in topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Arenas

    1999-01-01

    pairwise-disjoint interiors. Tilings of ℝ2 have received considerable attention (see [2] for a wealth of interesting examples and results as well as an extensive bibliography. On the other hand, the study of tilings of general topological spaces is just beginning (see [1, 3, 4, 6]. We give some generalizations for topological spaces of some results known for certain classes of tilings of topological vector spaces.

  17. Generalized quasiperiodic Rauzy tilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Julien; Mosseri, Rémy

    2001-05-01

    We present a geometrical description of new canonical d-dimensional codimension one quasiperiodic tilings based on generalized Fibonacci sequences. These tilings are made up of rhombi in 2d and rhombohedra in 3d as the usual Penrose and icosahedral tilings. Thanks to a natural indexing of the sites according to their local environment, we easily write down, for any approximant, the sites coordinates, the connectivity matrix and we compute the structure factor.

  18. Cyclotomic Aperiodic Substitution Tilings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pautze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The class of Cyclotomic Aperiodic Substitution Tilings (CASTs is introduced. Its vertices are supported on the 2 n -th cyclotomic field. It covers a wide range of known aperiodic substitution tilings of the plane with finite rotations. Substitution matrices and minimal inflation multipliers of CASTs are discussed as well as practical use cases to identify specimen with individual dihedral symmetry D n or D 2 n , i.e., the tiling contains an infinite number of patches of any size with dihedral symmetry D n or D 2 n only by iteration of substitution rules on a single tile.

  19. Biological monitoring of glazers exposed to lead in the ceramics industry in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouroki, Fatemeh Kargar; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Golbabaei, Farideh; Barkhordari, Abolfazle; Rahimi-Froushani, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to heavy metals, particularly lead, takes place in the ceramics industry. Lead is used in glaze to produce smooth and brilliant surfaces; thus, there is a likelihood of occupational adverse effects on humans. Urine samples were collected from 49 glazers at the start and end of the work shifts (98 samples). Solid phase extraction was used for separation and pre-concentration of the analyte. Samples were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Lung function tests were performed on both control and lead exposed subjects. Statistical analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the data obtained. The concentration of lead in glazers was 6.37 times higher than in the control group. Lung functions were significantly lower in the glazers compared to the control group (p determinants of high exposure levels.

  20. Environmental aspects of the production process of ceramic tiles (wet process), with emphasis in liquid effluents; Aspectos ambientais do processo de fabricacao de placas de revestimentos ceramicos (via umida), com enfase nos efluentes liquidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Katia Regina

    2000-07-01

    Present study developed a simplified methodology to evaluate the environmental impacts of the wet process of production of ceramic tiles. In order to subsidize the development of the model of environmental evaluation and to achieve a better understanding of the productive process, there were elaborated matrices in which was correlated the stages of the productive system with the respective types and volumes of residues generated. To these matrices there were related the technical norms of the Brazilian Association of Norms and Techniques (ABNT), which determines the sampling methodologies, characterizations, monitoring and treatment of the solid residues and liquid and gaseous effluents; and the pertinent Federal and State Legislations which dispose on the control of the environmental pollution. The evaluation of the environmental impact model here proposed was developed fram the Interaction Matrix of Leopold and from the Risk Matrix proposed by Moura, in which identified the pollutant effects (critical, significant, reduced, marginal) of the stages of this productive process. The validation of these results was obtained through the accomplishment of analytic assays in the used raw materials and in the residues generated in the productive process. The results of the chemical analyses reinforce that the positive toxicity in the liquid effluent is related with the chemical composition of the synthetic raw material used in the decoration. It was concluded that the solid residues that more damage cause to the environment are those coming from the enamel and dying preparation and application sections. Concomitantly, it was performed a study of characterization of the natural raw materials and of the product, using different techniques as fluorescence X ray, differential thermal analysis with thermogravimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction, in order to understand the interactions of the components of the mass of the ceramic body, during the stage of

  1. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  2. Interface porcelain tile/PVA modified mortar: a novel nanostructure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli; Mansur, Herman Sander

    2009-02-01

    In ceramic tile systems, the overall result of adherence between porcelain tiles and polymer modified mortars could be explained based on the nano-order structure that is developed at the interface. Based on pull-off tests, Scanning Electron Microscopy images, and Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments a nanostructured approach for interface tile/PVA modified mortar was built. The increase of adhesion between tile and mortar due to poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, addition can be explained by the formation of a hybrid ceramic-polymer-ceramic interface by hydrogen bonds between PVA hydroxyl groups and silanol from tile surface and water from nanostructured C-S-H gel interlayer.

  3. Uso de resíduo da produção de alumina eletrofundida na produção de blocos e telhas cerâmicos Use of electro-fused alumina production waste for the production of ceramic bricks and roof tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Menezes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de produção de alumina eletrofundida gera atualmente um resíduo durante o seu processamento, entretanto, a inclusão do resíduo em um ciclo produtivo representa uma alternativa de reciclagem importante tanto econômica como ambientalmente. Assim, esse trabalho tem por objetivo a caracterização do resíduo da produção de alumina eletrofundida e a avaliação de sua aplicabilidade como matéria-prima cerâmica alternativa para a produção de blocos e telhas cerâmicos. O resíduo foi caracterizado através da determinação de sua composição química e mineralógica, por difração de raios X e determinação de sua distribuição de tamanho de partículas. Foram formuladas composições de massa cerâmica incorporadas com o resíduo e confeccionados corpos-de-prova por prensagem uniaxial. Os corpos-de-prova foram queimados e em seguida foram determinados a absorção de água, a retração de queima e o módulo de ruptura à flexão. Pode-se concluir que o resíduo apresenta elevada finura e constituído basicamente por alumina e pequenos teores de metais e óxidos fundentes e que é possível a incorporação de até 20% de resíduo em formulações para a produção de blocos e telhas cerâmicosThe industry of electro-fused alumina production actually generates a waste during its processing, however, the inclusion of wastes into productive cycles represents an alternative form of restoration, which is interesting from both environmental and economic standpoints. This work has as aim the characterization of the electro-fused alumina production waste and the evaluation of its suitability a alternative ceramic raw material for the production of bricks and roof tiles. The waste was characterized by chemical composition determination, X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution determination. Several formulations were prepared and samples bodies were prepared by uniaxial pressing. The sample bodies were fired at

  4. Wang Tiles in Computer Graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Lagae, Ares

    2009-01-01

    Many complex signals in computer graphics, such as point distributions and textures, cannot be efficiently synthesized and stored. This book presents tile-based methods based on Wang tiles and corner tiles to solve both these problems. Instead of synthesizing a complex signal when needed, the signal is synthesized beforehand over a small set of Wang tiles or corner tiles. Arbitrary large amounts of that signal can then efficiently be generated when needed by generating a stochastic tiling, and storing only a small set of tiles reduces storage requirements. A tile-based method for generating a

  5. The energy efficiency and environmental impacts in the ceramic industry: the case of ceramic coatings segment; A eficiencia energetica e os impactos na industria ceramica: o caso do segmento de revestimentos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], email: mauro_berni@yahoo.com.br; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian ceramic industry has great importance for the country, with a stake of more than 1.0% of GDP, or approximately $ 6 billion. The segment of ceramic coatings due to the higher revenues, production, employment, value of manufacturing and penetration in foreign markets, has been the highlight of the ceramic sector. Besides most representative in economic terms, the ceramic coatings segment presents with the largest final energy consumption and volume of emissions. This work shows the evolution of the final energy consumption of the ceramic sector, showing that the segment of ceramic coatings can be successful harnessing of potential energy conservation with reflections on the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, the study evaluates: the process and energy sources; reducing impacts along the entire life cycle of products and the management actions providing a new corporate culture and social and environmental responsibility.

  6. Use of mud from metallic surface treatment industries as additive to ceramic matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corpas Iglesias, F. A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic processing is one of the most efficient and environmentally friendly solutions to the enormous amounts of industrial mud produced in metal surface treatments. Moreover, ceramized products may represent an important secondary source to replace clay materials and cut down manufacturing costs. After characterization, in order to prepare specimens by uniaxial die pressing, mud was incorporated into a clay matrix at rates between 1 and 5 wt %. Compression strength, linear contraction, suction capacity and water absorption of the moulded materials were evaluated. Finally, metal leakage was characterized through chemical analysis of lixiviates. The results showed an improvement in mechanical properties following the incorporation of mud into the ceramic materials. The resulting materials meet health and safety regulations regarding dangerous waste recycling.

    La ceramización es una de las soluciones más eficientes y medioambientalmente más ecológicas para las enormes cantidades de lodos industriales que se producen en el tratamiento de superficies metálicas. Además estos lodos convenientemente ceramizados pueden representar una fuente de materia prima que sustituya en parte el consumo de arcilla, lo que se traduce en una disminución de los costes de fabricación. Tras caracterizarse, los lodos fueron incorporados en la matriz cerámica en proporciones desde el 1% hasta el 5%, fabricándose así piezas cerámicas por compresión uniaxial en seco. A las piezas conformadas se les midieron una serie de características tecnológicas tales como la resistencia a la compresión, la contracción lineal, capacidad de succión y la absorción de agua. Finalmente se realizaron análisis químicos de lixiviados para evaluar la liberación al medio de metales. Los resultados conseguidos muestran una mejora de las propiedades mecánicas tras la inclusión de los lodos en matrices cerámicas. Los materiales así fabricados satisfacen la normativa

  7. Binary Non-tiles

    CERN Document Server

    Coppersmith, Don

    2009-01-01

    A subset V of GF(2)^n is a tile if GF(2)^n can be covered by disjoint translates of V. In other words, V is a tile if and only if there is a subset A of GF(2)^n such that V+A = GF(2)^n uniquely (i.e., v + a = v' + a' implies that v=v' and a=a' where v,v' in V and a,a' in A). In some problems in coding theory and hashing we are given a putative tile V, and wish to know whether or not it is a tile. In this paper we give two computational criteria for certifying that V is not a tile. The first involves impossibility of a bin-packing problem, and the second involves infeasibility of a linear program. We apply both criteria to a list of putative tiles given by Gordon, Miller, and Ostapenko in that none of them are, in fact, tiles.

  8. Contribution to the sustainable management of resources by novel combination of industrial solid residues into red ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, V; Spiliotis, X; Papastergiadis, E; Ntampegliotis, K; Papapolymerou, G; Samaras, P

    2015-03-01

    Limited amounts of industrial residues are recycled while the remaining huge quantities are stockpiled or disposed of, thus frequently leading to soil contamination. The utilization of industrial residues as valuable secondary resources into ceramics can contribute to efficient waste management and substitution for massive amounts of natural resources (clayey minerals) demanded for ceramic production. The low cost of these residues and even possible energy savings during mixture firing may also be beneficial. In the present study, the innovative combination of lignite fly ash with steel-making dust into clay-based red ceramics is undertaken, to contribute both to sustainable use of resources and prevention of soil contamination. Brick specimens were shaped by extrusion and fired, their microstructure was examined and the effect of the mixture composition and firing temperature on physico-mechanical properties was determined. Ceramic microstructures were successfully obtained by a suitable combination of fly ash with steel dust (5 + 5 wt%) into clays. Properties can be predicted and tailored to meet the needs for specific applications by appropriately adjusting the mixture composition and sintering temperature.

  9. Characterization of avian eggshell waste aiming its use in a ceramic wall tile paste Caracterização de resíduo de casca de ovo visando seu aproveitamento em revestimento cerâmico poroso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Freire

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the food industry generates every year huge amounts of avian eggshell waste, and a critical question is to find an adequate use for this waste. The aim of this work is to determine the chemical, mineralogical and physical characteristics of a nonprocessed avian eggshell waste sample, as well as to investigate its use in wall tile paste. The sample was analyzed regarding to chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, morphology, particle size analysis, density, organic matter, soluble salts, and thermal analysis. The results indicated that the eggshell waste sample rich in CaCO3 can be used as an alternative raw material in the production of wall tile materials.No Brasil a indústria alimentícia gera enormes quantidades de resíduo de casca de ovo galináceo todo ano, e uma questão crítica é estabelecer um uso adequado para este resíduo. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar as características química, mineralógica e física de uma amostra de resíduo de casca de ovo natural, bem como avaliar sua utilização em revestimento cerâmico poroso. A amostra de resíduo de casca de ovo foi caracterizada com relação à composição química, difração de raios X, morfologia, análise de tamanho de partícula, massa específica, matéria orgânica, sais solúveis e análise térmica. Os resultados mostraram que o resíduo de casca de ovo rico em CaCO3 pode ser usado como uma matéria-prima alternativa na produção de revestimento cerâmico poroso (azulejo.

  10. Distances on Lozenge Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Bodini, Olivier; Fernique, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a structural property of the set of lozenge tilings of a 2n-gon is highlighted. We introduce a simple combinatorial value called Hamming-distance, which is a lower bound for the flipdistance (i.e. the number of necessary local transformations involving three lozenges) between two given tilings. It is here proven that, for n5, We show that there is some deficient pairs of tilings for which the flip connection needs more flips than the combinatorial lower bound indicates.

  11. Compacidade do suporte cerâmico cru versus propriedades do revestimento cerâmico cozido Compactness of the raw artifacts versus the proprieties of sintered ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Candida de Almeida Prado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A compacidade é definida como a razão entre a densidade a seco e a densidade real, propriedade importante no processo cerâmico, pois, quanto maior a compacidade, menor é a necessidade de fechamento dos poros durante a sinterização. Os principais fatores que influenciam a compacidade são: distribuição granulométrica das partículas, tamanho e formato do grânulo, preenchimento do molde, pressão e umidade de prensagem. Com o objetivo de variar a compacidade de corpos de prova compostos, primordialmente, por argilas vermelhas da Formação Corumbataí da região de Rio Claro (SP - Brasil, foram aplicadas diferentes pressões durante a confecção de peças. Foram determinadas as propriedades físicas (absorção de água, retração linear, porosidades aberta, fechada e total, densidade aparente e módulo de ruptura à flexão das referidas peças. Conclui-se que, para essas massas compostas por argilas illíticas, albita e teores relativamente elevados de hematita (± 4,5%, quanto maior é a compacidade, menor é a temperatura de queima, para se obterem produtos com um determinado padrão de absorção de água, sendo que as compacidades entre 0,66 e 0,69 apresentaram menor risco de atingir a superqueima.Compactness is the ratio between the dry and real density of the ceramic artifact. This is an important property in the ceramic process, since the greater the compactness, the less need for pore closure in the sinter stage. The main factors that influence compactness are: particle size distribution, granule size and shape, mold filling method, humidity, and compacting pressure. The compacting pressure was modified in order to vary the compactness of the samples, which consisted primarily of red clay from the Rio Claro (SP-Brazil region in the sedimentary deposit of the Corumbataí Formation. To understand the initial compacting influence, the physical properties of water absorption, linear shrinkage, open porosity, closed porosity

  12. Preparation of ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers and application for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment in electrobath reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Gao, Yue; Xu, Yunyun; Gao, Fan; Yu, Huan; Lu, Yue [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China); Yue, Qinyan, E-mail: qyyue58@yahoo.com.cn [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China); Li, Jinze [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dried sewage sludge and scrap iron used as raw materials for sintering ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new media ceramics used as fillers in electrobath of micro-electrolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified micro-electrolysis used in cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This modified micro-electrolysis could avoid failure of the electrobath reactor. - Abstract: As new media, ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers (Cathode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - CCF, and Anode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - ACF) employed in electrobath were investigated for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment. 60.0 wt% of dried sewage sludge and 40.0 wt% of clay, 40.0 wt% of scrap iron and 60.0 wt% of clay were utilized as raw materials for the preparation of raw CCF and ACF, respectively. The raw CCF and ACF were respectively sintered at 400 Degree-Sign C for 20 min in anoxic conditions. The physical properties (bulk density, grain density and water absorption), structural and morphological characters and toxic metal leaching contents were tested. The influences of pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the media height on removal of COD{sub Cr} and cyclohexanone were studied. The results showed that the bulk density and grain density of CCF and ACF were 869.0 kg m{sup -3} and 936.3 kg m{sup -3}, 1245.0 kg m{sup -3} and 1420.0 kg m{sup -3}, respectively. The contents of toxic metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ba, Ni and As) were all below the detection limit. When pH of 3-4, HRT of 6 h and the media height of 60 cm were applied, about 90% of COD{sub cr} and cyclohexanone were removed.

  13. Tiled Multicore Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael B.; Lee, Walter; Miller, Jason E.; Wentzlaff, David; Bratt, Ian; Greenwald, Ben; Hoffmann, Henry; Johnson, Paul R.; Kim, Jason S.; Psota, James; Saraf, Arvind; Shnidman, Nathan; Strumpen, Volker; Frank, Matthew I.; Amarasinghe, Saman; Agarwal, Anant

    For the last few decades Moore’s Law has continually provided exponential growth in the number of transistors on a single chip. This chapter describes a class of architectures, called tiled multicore architectures, that are designed to exploit massive quantities of on-chip resources in an efficient, scalable manner. Tiled multicore architectures combine each processor core with a switch to create a modular element called a tile. Tiles are replicated on a chip as needed to create multicores with any number of tiles. The Raw processor, a pioneering example of a tiled multicore processor, is examined in detail to explain the philosophy, design, and strengths of such architectures. Raw addresses the challenge of building a general-purpose architecture that performs well on a larger class of stream and embedded computing applications than existing microprocessors, while still running existing ILP-based sequential programs with reasonable performance. Central to achieving this goal is Raw’s ability to exploit all forms of parallelism, including ILP, DLP, TLP, and Stream parallelism. Raw approaches this challenge by implementing plenty of on-chip resources - including logic, wires, and pins - in a tiled arrangement, and exposing them through a new ISA, so that the software can take advantage of these resources for parallel applications. Compared to a traditional superscalar processor, Raw performs within a factor of 2x for sequential applications with a very low degree of ILP, about 2x-9x better for higher levels of ILP, and 10x-100x better when highly parallel applications are coded in a stream language or optimized by hand.

  14. Tiling Lattices with Sublattices, II

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, David; Robins, Sinai

    2010-01-01

    Our earlier article proved that if $n > 1$ translates of sublattices of $Z^d$ tile $Z^d$, and all the sublattices are Cartesian products of arithmetic progressions, then two of the tiles must be translates of each other. We re-prove this Theorem, this time using generating functions. We also show that for $d > 1$, not every finite tiling of $Z^d$ by lattices can be obtained from the trivial tiling by the process of repeatedly subdividing a tile into sub-tiles that are translates of one another.

  15. Análise do comportamento de queima de argilas e formulações para revestimento cerâmico Analysis of the firing behavior of clays and formulations for ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. T. Moreno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O uso de argilas de queima vermelha para a fabricação de placas cerâmicas para revestimentos tornou-se importante devido aos avanços tecnológicos e à qualidade da matéria-prima. Neste processo a moagem é feita por via seca e as temperaturas máximas de queima são maiores que 1000 ºC, ocorrendo reações de sinterização via fase líquida. Este trabalho aborda diversos aspectos que envolvem a queima deste tipo de argilas e suas misturas visando obter as melhores condições de sinterização. As argilas individuais foram analisadas usando os seguintes parâmetros: % em peso na composição, temperatura máxima de queima e absorção de água. Corpos-de-prova foram queimados em laboratório, em temperaturas de 800 a 1100 ºC, sendo que depois da caracterização das propriedades individuais, combinações binárias e ternárias foram processadas nas mesmas condições e analisadas. Os resultados obtidos permitiram elaborar uma proposta para preparar misturas com base nas características das matérias-primas. Devido a que as combinações apresentam variações, que dependem principalmente da distribuição do tamanho das partículas e conteúdo de fundentes, é necessário fazer correções na composição para alcançar as propriedades desejadas, o que é facilitado com a metodologia proposta.The use of red fired clays for the production of ceramic tiles has become important due to the technological progress and the improvement of raw material quality. In this processing, dry milling is used and the maximum firing temperatures are larger than 1000 ºC with the occurrence of sintering reactions through liquid phase. In this work, the behavior of red clays and their mixtures to obtain the best sintering conditions was studied. Individual types of clay were analyzed using the following parameters: wt.% in the composition, maximum firing temperature and absorption of water of the individual raw materials. Test specimens were fired in

  16. Fusion and Development of Jingdezhen Ceramic Cultural Tourism with Ceramic Creative Industry%关于景德镇陶瓷文化旅游与陶瓷创意产业融合发展的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何裕宁; 邱其霖

    2015-01-01

    Jingdezhen known as “the porcelain city of one thousand years” has a long history and rich ceramic culture. In this great age of tourism, Jingdezhen has made full use of its resources and advantages and blazed a distinctive path on which the tours of ceramic culture promote the development of the local economy. The booming ceramic cultural tourism has played a positive role industry in the emergence of creative ceramic industry, which in turn encourages cultural tours around the city. Facing the resource exhaustion and ceramic industrial transformation, the city must seek a new road to better fuse ceramic cultural tourism with ceramic creative industry.%景德镇被誉为“千年瓷都”,具有悠久的陶瓷历史和丰厚的陶瓷文化底蕴。在“大旅游时代”的背景下,景德镇充分利用自身资源和优势,走出了一条以陶瓷文化旅游推动地方经济发展的特色道路。而陶瓷创意产业作为新兴产业,陶瓷文化旅游产业的蓬勃发展对其有着积极的推动作用。同时,陶瓷创意产业的发展又在助推文化旅游。在面临资源枯竭、陶瓷产业转型发展的双向压力下,景德镇需要积极探索陶瓷文化旅游产业与陶瓷创意产业融合发展的新道路。

  17. Light element ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, KJ; Varma, KBR; Raju, AR

    1988-01-01

    An overview of a few structually important light element ceramics is presented. Included in the overview are silicon nitide, sialon, aluminium nitride, boron carbide and silicon carbide. Methods of preparation, characterization and industrial applications of these ceramics are summarized. Mechanical properties, industrial production techniques and principal uses of these ceramics are emphasized.

  18. Alumina polymorphs affect the metal immobilization effect when beneficially using copper-bearing industrial sludge for ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Xiuqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of recycling copper-bearing industrial sludge as a part of ceramic raw materials was evaluated through thermal interaction of sludge with aluminum-rich precursors. To observe copper incorporation mechanism, mixtures of copper-bearing sludge with alumina polymorphs (γ-Al2O3 and α-Al2O3) were fired between 750 and 1250°C. Different copper-hosting phases were identified by X-ray diffraction, and CuAl2O4 was found to be the predominant phase throughout the reactions. The experimental results indicate different CuAl2O4 initiating temperatures for two alumina materials, and the optimal temperature for CuAl2O4 formation is around 1100°C. To monitor the stabilization effect, prolonged leaching tests were carried out to leach sintered products for up to 20d. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in copper leachability for products with higher CuAl2O4 content formed from both alumina precursors despite their different sintering behavior. Meanwhile, the leachability of aluminum was much lower than that of copper, and it decreased by more than fourfold through the formation of CuAl2O4 spinel in γ-Al2O3 system. This study clearly indicates spinel formation as the most crucial metal stabilization mechanism when sintering multiphase copper-bearing industrial sludge with aluminum-rich ceramic raw materials, and suggests a promising and reliable technique for reusing industrial sludge.

  19. ESEEM of industrial silica-bearing powders: reactivity of defects during wet processing in the ceramics production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Maurizio; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Pardi, Luca A.; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    A study is undertaken to ascertain whether changes in the speciation of inorganic radicals are occurring during the ceramic industrial production that involves abundant silica powders as raw material. Industrial dusts were sampled in two ceramic firms, immediately after the wet mixing stage, performed with the aid of a relevant pressure. The dusts were then characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, analysis of the trace elements through chemical methods, granulometry, continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and pulsed electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies. The results of the characterisation point to a relevant change in the speciation of the two samples; namely, a prevailing contribution due to an inorganic radical different from that pertaining to pure quartz is pointed out. The combined interpretation of EPR and ESEEM data suggests the attribution of the main paramagnetic contribution to the A-centre in kaolinite, a constituent that is added to pure quartz at the initial stage of the ceramic production. In one of the two samples, a second weak EPR signal is attributed to the quartz's hAl species. By taking into account the relative quantities of quartz and kaolinite mixed in the two samples, and the relative abundances of the two radical species, we propose that the partial or complete suppression of the hAl species in favour of the A-centre of kaolinite has occurred. Although this change is apparently fostered by the mixture between quartz and another radical-bearing raw material, kaolinite, the suppression of the hAl centre of quartz is ascribed to the role played by the pressure and the wet environment during the industrial mixing procedure. This suppression provides a net change of radical speciation associated with quartz, when this phase is in contact with workers' respiratory system.

  20. Preparation of ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers and application for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment in electrobath reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Gao, Yue; Xu, Yunyun; Gao, Fan; Yu, Huan; Lu, Yue; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Jinze

    2011-11-30

    As new media, ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers (Cathode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - CCF, and Anode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - ACF) employed in electrobath were investigated for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment. 60.0 wt% of dried sewage sludge and 40.0 wt% of clay, 40.0 wt% of scrap iron and 60.0 wt% of clay were utilized as raw materials for the preparation of raw CCF and ACF, respectively. The raw CCF and ACF were respectively sintered at 400°C for 20 min in anoxic conditions. The physical properties (bulk density, grain density and water absorption), structural and morphological characters and toxic metal leaching contents were tested. The influences of pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the media height on removal of COD(Cr) and cyclohexanone were studied. The results showed that the bulk density and grain density of CCF and ACF were 869.0 kg m(-3) and 936.3 kg m(-3), 1245.0 kg m(-3) and 1420.0 kg m(-3), respectively. The contents of toxic metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ba, Ni and As) were all below the detection limit. When pH of 3-4, HRT of 6h and the media height of 60 cm were applied, about 90% of COD(cr) and cyclohexanone were removed.

  1. Extended DNA Tile Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Martin; Kryger, Mille; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic linear DNA tile actuator is expanded to three new structures of higher complexity. The original DNA actuator was constructed from a central roller strand which hybridizes with two piston strands by forming two half-crossover junctions. A linear expansion of the actuator is obtained...

  2. Development and sintering of alumina based mixed oxide ceramic products for sensor applications in petroleum industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Muniz, L.B.; Aguiar, L.A.R.; Sanguinetti Ferreira, R.A. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, CEP 50741-530, Recife-PE (Brazil); Albino Aguiar, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, CEP 50670-901 Recife-PE (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In petroleum production, different types of sensors are required to monitor temperature, pressure, leakage of inflammable gases, etc. These sensors work in very hostile environmental conditions and frequently suffer from abrasion and corrosion problems. Presently perovskite oxide based ceramic materials are increasingly being used for such purposes, due to their highly inert behavior in hostile environment. In the present work, we have developed and characterized alumina based complex perovskite oxide ceramics, Ba{sub 2}AlSnO{sub 5.5}. These ceramics were prepared by solid state reaction process and produced in the form of circular discs by uniaxial pressure compaction technique. Green ceramic bodies were sintered at different sintering temperatures (1200 to 1500 deg. C) in air atmosphere. Structural and microstructural characteristics of sintered Ba{sub 2}AlMO{sub 5.5} were studied by XRD and SEM techniques. Mechanical properties were tested by Vickers microhardness tests. Ceramics sintered in the temperature range 1300 deg. C 1400 deg. C presented best results in terms of microstructural characteristics and mechanical performance. (authors)

  3. The effect of manufacturing variables on radiation doses from porcelain tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, J H; Strydom, R

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the radiological properties of glazed ceramic tiles. This study was conducted to describe the radiological properties of porcelain tiles and how they were affected by variations in the manufacturing parameters. The data showed that the majority of the uranium in the tiles was attributable to the addition of zircon while less than half of the thorium in the tile was attributable to the added zircon, and the remainder came from other minerals in the formulation. The effects of firing temperatures and compressive strengths of the tiles are presented and show that higher firing temperatures increase radon emanation, while higher compressive strengths reduce radon emanation. The study also described how the addition of zircon to the tile formulation affected the radiological exposures that could be received by a member of the public from the use of such porcelain tiles. A dose assessment was conducted based on 23 different types of tile formulation. Screening procedures for building materials have been described in European Commission documents, and these limit the addition of zircon in a porcelain tile to approximately 9% by mass. The dose assessment reported in this study showed that 20% zircon could be added to a porcelain tile without exceeding the prescribed dose limits.

  4. Energy saving by optimization of wall construction of industrial furnaces using ceramics and mullite fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zander, H.

    1984-01-01

    A change to better insulation, using ceramic fibre, not only reduces energy consumption but can raise productivity to levels higher than ever before. To design ceramic fibre into a furnace, calculations are made based on VDI standard 2055, in unsteady and constant conditions for different refractory materials. The results show the difference in wall to wall temperature drop and energy requirements, depending on the process conditions. A newly developed mullite fibre has recently been introduced. This material has all the well-known ceramic fibre advantages of light weight, good insulating properties and excellent thermal shock resistance. As a mullite fibre it also has higher refractoriness, negligible shrinkage and much improved resistance to chemical attack.

  5. Fixed Point and Aperiodic Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Bruno; Shen, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    An aperiodic tile set was first constructed by R.Berger while proving the undecidability of the domino problem. It turned out that aperiodic tile sets appear in many topics ranging from logic (the Entscheidungsproblem) to physics (quasicrystals) We present a new construction of an aperiodic tile set that is based on Kleene's fixed-point construction instead of geometric arguments. This construction is similar to J. von Neumann self-reproducing automata; similar ideas were also used by P. Gacs in the context of error-correcting computations. The flexibility of this construction allows us to construct a ``robust'' aperiodic tile set that does not have periodic (or close to periodic) tilings even if we allow some (sparse enough) tiling errors. This property was not known for any of the existing aperiodic tile sets.

  6. Demonstration of a full-scale plant using an UASB followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation of industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Terutake; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takase, Osamu; Kekre, Kiran A; Ang, Wui Seng; Tao, Guihe; Seah, Harry; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    This study comprehensively evaluated the performance of a full-scale plant (4550m(3)d(-1)) using a UASB reactor followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation and reuse of mixed industrial wastewater containing many inorganics, chemical, oil and greases. This plant was demonstrated as the first full-scale system to reclaim the mixed industrial wastewater in the world. During 395days of operation, influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) fluctuated widely, but this system achieved COD removal rate of 91% and the ceramic MBR have operated flux of 21-25LMH stably. This means that this system adsorbed the feed water fluctuation and properly treated the water. Energy consumption of this plant was achieved 0.76kWhmm(-3) and this value is same range of domestic sewage MBR system. The combination of an UASB reactor and ceramic MBR is the most economical and feasible solution for water reclamation of mixed industrial wastewater.

  7. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Thermal energy storage application to the brick/ceramic industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, D.R.

    1976-10-01

    An initial project to study the technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in the three major consumer markets, namely, the residential, commercial and industrial sectors is described. A major objective of the study was to identify viable TES applications from which a more concise study could be launched, leading to a conceptual design and in-depth validation of the TES energy impacts. This report documents one such program. The brick/ceramic industries commonly use periodic kilns which by their operating cycle require time-variant energy supply and consequently variable heat rejection. This application was one of the numerous TES opportunities that emerged from the first study, now available from the ERDA Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identified as Report No. COO-2558-1.

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, Fine Ceramics Industry Basic Issues Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    substrate material, and phosphates for use as bioceramic materials; and such structural materials as zirconia, silicon 26 carbide, and silicon nitride. R&D...communications equipment, and for bioceramics materials in the medical equipment field. And while R&D has yet to get underway, it is hoped that fine ceramics...Lion Corporation Bioceramic dental crowns Ishihara Pharmaceuticals Aluminum titanate machinable

  9. Fibre-reinforced ceramics for industrial applications; Faserverstaerkte Keramik in industriellen Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuchs, M.; Spoerer, J.; Zechmeister, H. [MAN Technologie AG, Karlsfeld (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    High-performance composites now include also materials with a ceramic matrix. By means of the long-fibre reinforcement of ceramics, using carbon (C) or silicium carbide (SiC) fibres embedded in SiC matrix material, a breakthrough has been achieved regarding enhanced embrittlement behaviour of ceramics. The basic mechanism of the reinforcement, as well as different fabrication methods which are now ready for transfer to market, are described. Exemplary results of applications are reported, which demonstrate the high fracture toughness, thermo-shock resistance and tribological stress tolerance of the ceramic composite. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zu den Hochleistungsverbundwerkstoffen gehoeren inzwischen auch die Werkstoffe mit keramischer Matrix. Mit der Langfaserverstaerkung von Keramik ist unter Verwendung von Kohlenstoff (C)- oder Siliciumcarbid (SiC)-Fasern, die in SiC-Matrixmaterial eingebettet werden, ein Durchbruch bei der Verbesserung des Sproedbruchverhaltens keramischer Werkstoffe gelungen. Der Grundmechanismus der Verstaerkung und verschiedene, inzwischen anwendungsreife Herstellverfahren werden beschrieben. Beispielhafte Ergebnisse von Anwendungsentwicklungen werden vorgestellt, in denen die hohe Bruchzaehigkeit, Thermoschockbestaendigkeit und tribologische Belastbarkeit von Verbundkeramik demonstriert wird. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of Saudi pegmatite and its use in porcelain industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M.H. Al-Marzouki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pegmatite is the main source of feldspar for ceramics industry. Usage of pegmatite in ceramic industry causes some problems due to the presence of mica and iron oxides. These materials reduce tile strength, hardness and density of the final product leading to low quality ceramic products. Southern Saudi pegmatite separation treatment was carried out in two phases in order to improve the ceramic quality of the feldspar obtained from this pegmatite. The first phase consists of gravitational separation to remove the heavy impurities and in the second phase magnetic separation was carried out to further minimize iron content. Porcelain ceramic batches were prepared by wet-mixing, drying, pressing (semi-dry press and fired at temperatures from 1000 to 1350 °C. The porcelain ceramic bodies were prepared and examined by DTA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and tested for bulk density, linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural strength. These results indicated that, after treatment (gravity and magnetic separation, the pegmatite can be considered as a good source of potash feldspar. The present study provides a positive indication for using of Southern Saudi pegmatite after treatment in ceramic industries.

  11. Preliminary analysis of the regolithic clay covers from the region of Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to evaluate its use in the traditional ceramic industry; Analise preliminar das coberturas regoliticas argilosas da regiao de Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brasil, visando sua utilizacao na industria de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar Junior, L.A.; Varajao, A.F.D.C. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia; Moreno, M.M.T. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia

    2009-07-01

    The region of Alfenas, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is predominantly constituted of Pre-Cambrian rocks with well developed alteration profiles in association with colluvial and alluvial sediments. No study to date has examined in detail its potential use in the ceramic industry. The scarce knowledge of its mineralogical and technological properties limits its value and consequently its industrial use. Until now, these clay materials have been used in a rudimental manner, in small scale in the fabrication of red tiles. The present study aimed at analyzing these clays mineralogically (X-ray diffraction), chemically (major and minor elements by X-ray fluorescence and organic carbon analysis) and technologically (pressing granulometric distribution; mechanical resistance; water absorption, apparent porosity; linear firing shrinkage; color of firing and others) in order to better understand the raw material and develop adequate technological applications. The best results of ceramic properties were the samples with higher organic content (more plastic clays) and higher values of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (kaolinite and gibbsite) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well lower SiO{sub 2} content and finer grain size which contribute to a better sintering. (author)

  12. Mapping Signal Processing Kernels to Tiled Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    attractive alternatives to monolithic computer architecture designs because they allow a larger design to be built from smaller modules and limit the...Computer Architectures. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 2(4):289–308, November 1984. [12] Steven Swanson, Ken Michelson , Andrew Schwerin, and...Program MIT Lincoln LaboratoryHPEC 2004-3 JML 28 Sep 2004 Tiled Architectures • Monolithic single-chip architectures are becoming rare in the industry

  13. Study on Preparation of Porous Thermal Insulation Materials by Comprehensive Utilization of Tile Industry Waste%建陶厂废料综合利用制备多孔保温材料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王前; 杜庆洋; 姚奇恒; 李成峰; 刘俊成

    2015-01-01

    利用建陶厂抛光砖废渣、废熟料和废生料为原料,通过添加高岭土、煤粉和发泡剂制备多孔保温材料。研究了高岭土和煤粉的用量、烧成温度对样品气孔率、抗压强度和微观结构的影响。利用阿基米德法测量样品的气孔率,万能试验机测试样品的抗压强度,体视显微镜分析样品的微观结构。结果表明:添加20%高岭土和15%煤粉,在1100℃烧结可制备气孔率为59.70%,抗压强度为4.12 MPa,发泡均匀的多孔保温材料。%The porous thermal insulation materials was prepared using tile ceramic waste, kaolin, pulverized coal and blowing agent as raw materials in the thesis. The inlfuence of addition amount of kaolin, pulverized coal and sintering temperature on porosity, compressive strength and microstructure of sample were studied. The porosity of sample was measured by archimedes law. The compressive strength was tested using universal testing machine and the microstructure was observed with the stereo microscope. The experimental results showed that the porous thermal insulation materials with porosity of 59.70%, compressive strength of 4.12 MPa and uniformity of bubbles was prepared when the addition amount of kaolin and pulverized coal was 20% and 15%, and the sintering temperature was 1100℃.

  14. Influência da cinética de oxidação no controle da atmosfera de fornos de revestimentos cerâmicos Influence of the oxidation kinetics for control of the atmosphere of kilns for production of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cava

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available No processo de monoqueima para produção de revestimentos cerâmicos, o aparecimento do "coração negro" ocorre sob determinadas condições de matérias-primas utilizadas e parâmetros do processo industrial. Neste sentido, decidimos pesquisar os efeitos de uma atmosfera enriquecida com oxigênio para minimizar defeitos como o "coração negro", com o objetivo de reduzir o ciclo de queima. Foram realizadas uma completa caracterização física e química das matérias-primas utilizadas. Os corpos de prova foram queimados em um forno de laboratório tipo câmara, eletricamente aquecido, com controle de atmosfera, e simulação do processo de queima rápida. Fluxos de uma mistura de oxigênio e/ou misturas de oxigênio foram continuamente adicionados no forno por dois diferentes métodos. A tendência da eliminação do coração negro em função da atmosfera do forno foi avaliada pela medida da relação de volumes de coração negro e volume total da amostra. Os resultados, conforme o modelo proposto, mostram que o efeito da atmosfera enriquecida com oxigênio segue as equações determinadas pelos modelos cinéticos de reação de oxi-redução, que neste caso, determina a evolução da eliminação do defeito "coração negro" em função da atmosfera modificada com oxigênio introduzida no forno. Isto indica que além de melhorar a qualidade do produto final, pode-se aumentar a produtividade, reduzindo o ciclo de queima.In the single firing process for the production of ceramic tiles, the appearance of the "black core" defect occurs under determined conditions of raw materials and parameters of the industrial process. It was then decided to investigate the effects of an oxygen enriched atmosphere for minimizing the occurrence of defects such as "black core", with the goal of reducing the firing cycle. A complete physical and chemical characterization of the used raw materials was carried out. Raw material samples were fired in an

  15. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  16. Characterization of clay from northern of Morocco for their industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouahabi, Meriam; Fagel, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Clays are a natural resource used for millennia. Currently applications such as industrial minerals are diversified. In this context, our goal is to estimate the potential of the many clay deposits in northern of Morocco. The choice of this region is justified by the particular abundance of clay deposits used to manufacture building materials (brick, ceramic and refractories) and pottery. This study focuses on the mineralogical, chemical and geotechnical characterization tests carried out on Tangier-Tetouan and Meknes clays from northern of Morocco. The suitability of raw clay material from those regions in order to produce ceramic and brick has not been tested yet. The results revealed that the studied samples are diversified, kaolinite and illite (Tetouan clay) and kaolinite and illite and smectite and vermiculite (Tangier and Meknes clay) based materials. There were no major differences in grain-size distribution, whereas Meknes clay was more plastic than Tetouan-Tangier clay. The cation exchange capacity show that Meknes and Tangier clay were more important than Tetouan clay. Specific surface area and thermal analaysis complete this caracterization. It was found that almost all technological properties of the Meknes clay deposit are led to the manufacture of ceramic floor tile, and Tetouan-Tangier clay provide opportunities to making brick and ceramic floor. The Tetouan-Tangier and Meknes clay are a potential ceramic raw material for growing Morrocan ceramic tile and brick industries.

  17. Advanced ceramic coating development for industrial/utility gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, C. A.; Lau, S. K.; Bratton, R. J.; Lee, S. Y.; Rieke, K. L.; Allen, J.; Munson, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of ceramic coatings on the lifetimes of metal turbine components and on the performance of a utility turbine, as well as of the turbine operational cycle on the ceramic coatings were determined. When operating the turbine under conditions of constant cooling flow, the first row blades run 55K cooler, and as a result, have 10 times the creep rupture life, 10 times the low cycle fatigue life and twice the corrosion life with only slight decreases in both specific power and efficiency. When operating the turbine at constant metal temperature and reduced cooling flow, both specific power and efficiency increases, with no change in component lifetime. The most severe thermal transient of the turbine causes the coating bond stresses to approach 60% of the bond strengths. Ceramic coating failures was studied. Analytic models based on fracture mechanics theories, combined with measured properties quantitatively assessed both single and multiple thermal cycle failures which allowed the prediction of coating lifetime. Qualitative models for corrosion failures are also presented.

  18. Ceramic MEMS Designed for Wireless Pressure Monitoring in the Industrial Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Pavlin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless pressure-monitoring system for harsh-environment applications. Two types of ceramic pressure sensors made with a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC were considered. The first type is a piezoresistive strain gauge pressure sensor. The second type is a capacitive pressure sensor, which is based on changes of the capacitance values between two electrodes: one electrode is fixed and the other is movable under an applied pressure. The design was primarily focused on low power consumption. Reliable operation in the presence of disturbances, like electromagnetic interference, parasitic capacitances, etc., proved to be contradictory constraints. A piezoresistive ceramic pressure sensor with a high bridge impedance was chosen for use in a wireless pressure-monitoring system and an acceptable solution using energy-harvesting techniques has been achieved. The described solution allows for the integration of a sensor element with an energy harvester that has a printed thick-film battery and complete electronics in a single substrate packaged inside a compact housing.

  19. Geochemical and technological characterization of clays of Corumbataí Formation, Paraná Basin, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil for the application in the ceramic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofoletti, Sergio Ricardo; Torres Moreno, Maria Margarita; Batezelli, Alessandro; Zanardo, Antenor

    2014-05-01

    The Corumbataí Formation is a geological unit of the Paraná Basin comprises a range of predominantly argillaceous facies. These clays are important from an economic point of view, because they represent important mineral deposits suppliers of raw materials for the ceramic industry in the production of ceramic tiles.The study presents preliminary results of a research that aims to study the clays municipalities Tambaú, Ferreira and Santa Rosa of Viterbo in the State of São Paulo for their application and diversification of ceramic products. The methodology used was based on a detailed description of facies using the methodology in principles of analysis of Basin Miall (1984), followed by mineralogical identification by X-ray Diffraction, chemical analysis of major elements by X-ray Fluorescence and technological tests ceramic. According to the geological surveys of mines studied through columnar sections were identified the following lithofacies from base to top: Massive, Laminated, Intercalated and Altered. The mineralogy present on these lithofacies is composed by minerals: quartz, microclineo, albite, calcite, dolomite and hematite and by clay minerals illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The quartz represents the mineral more present in diffraction and occurs with d001 of 3.33Å in all lithofacies studied. The illite clay mineral represents the most frequent in studied samples presenting d 001 10Å in three conditions (natural, heated and treated with ethylene glycol) in which the blade was subjected to the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the presence of kaolinite or montmorillonite occurs or not in samples. It was observed a increased frequency of some minerals in the lithofacies studied, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), hematite and feldspar occurring in the intermediate portions of the profile with a predominance in lithofacies Intercalated. The illita clay mineral occurs throughout the profile, but with greater frequency in the lithofacies Massive and

  20. Análise da co-utilização do resíduo do beneficiamento do caulim e serragem de granito para produção de blocos e telhas cerâmicos Analysis of the use of kaolin processing waste and granite sawing waste together for the production of ceramic bricks and roof tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Menezes

    2007-06-01

    high amounts of wastes. This work has as aim the characterization of the kaolin processing waste and granite sawing waste and the evaluation of their use together for the production of bricks and roof tiles. The wastes were characterized by chemical composition determination, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and gravimetric analyses, particle size distribution determination, and morphological analysis by electronic scanning microscopy. Several formulations were prepared and samples bodies were prepared by extrusion. The sample bodies were fired at 800, 900 and 1000 ºC. Fired samples were characterized in terms of water absorption and mechanical strength. The results showed that the kaolin waste is composed by kaolinite, mica and quartz and that the granite waste is composed by quartz, mica, albite and calcite, and that, the wastes have significantly distinct particles size distributions. It could also be concluded that are possible incorporations of up to 50% of wastes in formulation for the production of ceramic bricks and roof tiles, and that, the use of the kaolin waste and granite waste together provide better physical properties than those observed in samples bodies with incorporations of only kaolin waste.

  1. INDUSTRIAL CLUSTER EFFECT STIMULATES THE SCALE ECONOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Problems of China Building & Sanitary Ceramics industrial clusters,Current status and development of building ceramics industry at home and abroad,The formation and development of Jiajiang's building ceramics industrial clusters,Resource is momentum for industrial clusters' development

  2. Synthesis and characterization of black ceramic pigments by recycling of two hazardous wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Minxing; Du, Yi; Chen, Zhongtao; Li, Zhongfu; Yang, Kai; Lv, Xingjie; Feng, Yibing

    2017-09-01

    In this study, two different industrial wastes, namely vanadium tailing and leather sludge, were used as less expensive alternative raw materials for the synthesis of black ceramic pigments to be used in commercial glazes. The pigments were based on hematite structure (FexCr1-x)2O3 and prepared by the common solid-state reaction method, under optimal formulation and processing conditions. The synthesized pigments were characterized in typical ceramic glazes and ceramic tile bodies. Optimal color development was achieved when the Fe/Cr mole ratios were 2.0 with 40 wt% content of vanadium tailing at 1200 °C. The coloring properties were similar to those imparted by a commercial black pigment.

  3. 一辊多色多图立体胶辊印刷技术及产品开发%Development of One-Rubber Roller Printer for 3D Multicolor Multi- Image Solution in New Ceramic Tile Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余国明; 赖丽红; 梁泽荣; 王勇

    2012-01-01

    在高清三维胶辊印刷技术的基础上,通过对胶辊印刷装备进行重大改进和花釉配方组成优化,研究开发一辊多色多图立体胶辊印刷技术及凹凸拼图釉面砖产品。试验表明,采用本工作开发的一辊多色多图立体胶辊印刷技术可成功实现凹凸拼图釉面砖产品生产,大大减少印花装饰过程胶辊数量和明显提高了产品质量稳定性。%By improving the printer and optimizing the recipes of decorative glazes, 3D Multicolor multi-image printing with a single rubber roller was developed from the existing 3D high definition rubber roller printing, by which concave and convex glazed tiles for a collage image were produced. Experimental results show that the one roller printing technique can be used to produce concave and convex glazed tiles of more guaranteed quality for collage images with fewer rubber rollers.

  4. Treatment of copper industry waste and production of sintered glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri; Cheng, Ta-Wui

    2006-06-01

    Copper waste is iron-rich hazardous waste containing heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Co, Pb. The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the Turkish and EPA regulatory limits. Consequently, this waste cannot be disposed of in its present form and therefore requires treatment to stabilize it or make it inert prior to disposal. Vitrification was selected as the technology for the treatment of the toxic waste under investigation. During the vitrification process significant amounts of the toxic organic and inorganic chemical compounds could be destroyed, and at the same time, the metal species are immobilized as they become an integral part of the glass matrix. The copper flotation waste samples used in this research were obtained from the Black Sea Copper Works of Samsun, Turkey. The samples were vitrified after being mixed with other inorganic waste and materials. The copper flotation waste and their glass-ceramic products were characterized by X-ray analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test. The products showed very good chemical durability. The glass-ceramics fabricated at 850 degrees C/2 h have a large application potential especially as construction and building materials.

  5. Kinetics of DNA tile dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuoxing; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2014-06-24

    Investigating how individual molecular components interact with one another within DNA nanoarchitectures, both in terms of their spatial and temporal interactions, is fundamentally important for a better understanding of their physical behaviors. This will provide researchers with valuable insight for designing more complex higher-order structures that can be assembled more efficiently. In this report, we examined several spatial factors that affect the kinetics of bivalent, double-helical (DH) tile dimerization, including the orientation and number of sticky ends (SEs), the flexibility of the double helical domains, and the size of the tiles. The rate constants we obtained confirm our hypothesis that increased nucleation opportunities and well-aligned SEs accelerate tile-tile dimerization. Increased flexibility in the tiles causes slower dimerization rates, an effect that can be reversed by introducing restrictions to the tile flexibility. The higher dimerization rates of more rigid tiles results from the opposing effects of higher activation energies and higher pre-exponential factors from the Arrhenius equation, where the pre-exponential factor dominates. We believe that the results presented here will assist in improved implementation of DNA tile based algorithmic self-assembly, DNA based molecular robotics, and other specific nucleic acid systems, and will provide guidance to design and assembly processes to improve overall yield and efficiency.

  6. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible.

  7. Incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as an alternative raw material for red ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. P. Faria

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry generates huge amounts of sugarcane bagasse ashes (SCBA. This work investigates the incorporation of a SCBA waste as an alternative raw material into a clay body, replacing natural clay material by up to 20 wt.%. Clay ceramic pieces were produced by uniaxial pressing and fired at temperatures varying from 700 to 1100 ºC. The technological properties of the clay ceramic pieces (linear shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption, and tensile strength as function of the firing temperature and waste addition are investigated. The phase evolution during firing was followed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the SCBA waste could be incorporated into red ceramics (bricks and roofing tiles in partial replacement for natural clay material. These results confirm the feasibility of valorisation of SCBA waste to produce red ceramic. This use of SCBA can also contribute greatly to reducing the environmental problems of the sugarcane industry, and also save the sources of natural raw materials used in the ceramic industry.

  8. Real options theory: financial-economic assessment of projects in the ceramics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léony Luis Lopes Negrão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate economically the implementation of Clean Development Mechanism in the substitution of non-renewable biomass to renewable biomass in the production process of a red ceramics enterprise. The evaluation intended to show the value of management flexibility, according to adaptations made in the methodology proposed by Copeland & Antikarov (2001, adding to the traditional discounted cash flow the evaluation the Real Options. This procedure follows a routine of essential steps for the analysis of variables that comprises the model and enabled the ordination of the results based both on the Real Options and the present values, including management flexibility evaluation.  It could be concluded that Real Options Theory, and the Option to Delay or Postponement contributed with information that might assist and improve projects investment decisions, since several real-world inherent uncertainties are considered.

  9. Valorization of rice straw waste: production of porcelain tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Guzmán A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice industry generates huge amounts of rice straw ashes (RSA. This paper presents the results of an experimental research work about the incorporation of RSA waste as a new alternative raw material for production of porcelain tiles. The RSA replaces, partially or completely, the non-plastic raw materials (quartz (feldspathic sand in this research and feldspar, that together with the clays, constitute the major constituents of formulations of porcelain tiles. A standard industrial composition (0% RSA and two more compositions in which feldspar and feldspathic sand were replaced with two percentages of RSA (12.5% RSA and 60% RSA were formulated, keeping the clay content constant. The mixtures were processed, reproducing industrial porcelain tile manufacturing conditions by the dry route and fired at peak temperatures varying from 1140-1260 ºC. The results showed that additions of 12.5% RSA in replacement of feldspar and feldspathic sand allowed producing porcelain tiles that did not display marked changes in processing behaviour, in addition to obtain a microstructure and the typical mineralogical phases of porcelain tile. Thus, an alternative use of an agricultural waste material is proposed, which can be translated into economic and environmental benefits.

  10. Evaluation of clayey masses compositions starting from the residue incorporation of the red ceramic industry to obtain tubular ceramic membranes; Avaliacao das composicoes de massas argilosas a partir da incorporacao de residuo da industria de ceramica vermelha na obtencao de membranas ceramicas tubulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriano Lima da; Chaves, Alexsandra Cristina; Luna, Carlos Bruno Barreto; Neves, Gelmires de Araujo; Lira, Helio de Lucena, E-mail: adrianolimadasilva@hotmail.com, E-mail: alexsandra.chaves@ifap.edu.br, E-mail: brunobarretodemaufcg@hotmail.com, E-mail: gelmires@ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: helio@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-01-15

    The inappropriate residue disposal of red ceramic industry is very high. Nowadays, one of the major challenges is the investigation of processes to obtain alternative materials, enabling the use of these residues to manufacture new materials. This work's objective is to study clayey masses' compositions starting from the residue incorporation of the red ceramic industry to be used in tubular ceramic membranes. Two compositions of ceramic masses were established, composition A (50% of residue) and composition B (70% of residue). Granulometric analysis of the ceramic masses presented an average size of particles, what indicates membranes in the microfiltration scale. Another observed factor is related to the increase of residue amount, what favored a decrease in the ceramic mass' plasticity. A rise in the apparent porosity was also observed, probably because of a possible growing in the bigger pores numbers, due to the sintering high temperature and the elevation of residue quantity itself. (author)

  11. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschi, A. O.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality.

    En Brasil, en este momento segundo productor mundial, el 70% de los pavimentos cerámicos se obtiene por vía seca. Una de las razones fundamentales se debe a que esta vía supone un consumo energético inferior, en un 30%, a la via húmeda tradicional. La creciente preocupación mundial sobre los problemas medioambientales y el reconocimiento del papel central que juega el agua en este proceso han favorecido el desarrollo de la vía seca. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar la viabilidad de la producción de pavimentos porcelánicos de alta calidad por vía seca. Una breve comparación entre ambas vías, en las condiciones standard de producción vigentes para producciones que no son de porcelánico, indican que existen dos diferencias substanciales; el tamaño de

  12. Tiled QR factorization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwmeester, Henricus; Langou, Julien; Robert, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work revisits existing algorithms for the QR factorization of rectangular matrices composed of p-by-q tiles, where p >= q. Within this framework, we study the critical paths and performance of algorithms such as Sameh and Kuck, Modi and Clarke, Greedy, and those found within PLASMA. Although neither Modi and Clarke nor Greedy is optimal, both are shown to be asymptotically optimal for all matrices of size p = q^2 f(q), where f is any function such that \\lim_{+\\infty} f= 0. This novel and important complexity result applies to all matrices where p and q are proportional, p = \\lambda q, with \\lambda >= 1, thereby encompassing many important situations in practice (least squares). We provide an extensive set of experiments that show the superiority of the new algorithms for tall matrices.

  13. A new Energy Saving method of manufacturing ceramic products from waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haun Labs

    2002-07-05

    This final report summarizes the activities of the DOE Inventions and Innovations sponsored project, ''A New Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Waste Glass.'' The project involved an innovative method of lowering energy costs of manufacturing ceramic products by substituting traditional raw materials with waste glass. The processing method is based on sintering of glass powder at {approx}750 C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 C. The key to the new method is the elimination of previous processing problems, which have greatly limited the use of recycled glass as a ceramic raw material. The technology is aligned with the DOE-OIT Glass Industry Vision and Roadmap, and offers significant energy savings and environmental benefits compared to current technologies. A U.S. patent (No. 6,340,650) covering the technology was issued on January 22, 2002. An international PCT Patent Application is pending with designations made for all PCT regions and countries. The goal of the project was to provide the basis for the design and construction of an energy-efficient manufacturing plant that can convert large volumes of waste glass into high-quality ceramic tile. The main objectives of the project were to complete process development and optimization; construct and test prototype samples; and conduct market analysis and commercialization planning. Two types of ceramic tile products were targeted by the project. The first type was developed during the first year (Phase I) to have a glazed-like finish for applications where slip resistance is not critical, such as wall tile. The processing method optimized in Phase I produces a glossy surface with a translucent appearance, without the extra glazing steps required in traditional tile manufacturing. The second type of product was developed during the second year (Phase II). This product was designed to have an

  14. 大规格瓷质全抛釉面砖试制及生产%Development and Production of Large-Sized Fully-Polished Glazed Porcelain Tile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祥勇

    2011-01-01

    简述了大规格瓷质全抛釉面砖在的试制过程、生产工艺和技术上的主要特点,同时对实际生产过程中应注意的配方问题以及具体的操作应用方法进行了分析。%This paper has briefly introduced the research and development of large-sized fully-polished glazed porcelain tile, its fabrication process and its main technical characteristics. In the while, the body and glaze formulas for the ceramic tile and their application methods have also been analyzed. The study will provide some reference for the industrial production of the products.

  15. Life cycle assessment and product category rules for the construction sector. The floor and wall tiles sector case study; Analisis de ciclo de vida y reglas de categoria de producto en la construccion. El caso de las baldosas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benveniste, G.; Gazulla, C.; Fullana, P.; Celades, I.; Ros, T.; Zaera, V.; Godes, B.

    2011-07-01

    This paper illustrates the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) activities performed during the preparation of the Spanish Product Category Rules (PCR) relative to the construction sector. Specifically, the study presents the results obtained from the life cycle analysis of the floor and wall tile sector, which served as the basis for the drafting of the PCR required for the definition of Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). More than 50 Spanish companies in the ceramic tile sector participated in the study, providing inventory data on the manufacture of their products. Additionally, bibliographic information and the GaBi 4 software database by PE International were used to complete background and generic data, such as those related to energy and transportation processes. EPDs are voluntary declarations based on LCA studies that permit the disclosure and dissemination of environmental information quantified over the life cycle of a product. The definition of PCRs for ceramic tiles was performed in accordance to the UNE EN ISO 14025 and ISO 21930 standards and they have been submitted to industries and professional association public consultations. PCRs have been developed in the context of the DAPc program (promoted by the Catalan Government and CAATEEB) and represents the first eco labelling activity for building products in Spain. (Author) 18 refs.

  16. Tiling a Rectangle with Polyominoes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A polycube in dimension $d$ is a finite union of unit $d$-cubes whose vertices are on knots of the lattice $\\mathbb{Z}^d$. We show that, for each family of polycubes $E$, there exists a finite set $F$ of bricks (parallelepiped rectangles) such that the bricks which can be tiled by $E$ are exactly the bricks which can be tiled by $F$. Consequently, if we know the set $F$, then we have an algorithm to decide in polynomial time if a brick is tilable or not by the tiles of...

  17. Technological State and Industrial Development of Engineering Ceramics%工程陶瓷的技术现状与产业发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖汉宁; 刘井雄; 郭文明; 高朋召

    2016-01-01

    The main properties, new preparation processes and key technique difficulties of the main engineering ceramics including Al2 O3 , ZrO2 , SiC and Si3 N4 are reviewed.The applications and industrial development of engineering ceramics in new fields of aerospace and aviation,electronics and information,new energy,energy saving and environmental protection are expected.The engineering ceramics tend to develop in the direction of structure refinement, compound composition and integration of structure and function in future. Moreover,the efforts should be made to lower the preparation costs and improve the industrial scale production of engineering ceramics,and let the engineering ceramics play a better role in the transformation and upgrading of some traditional industries.%针对氧化铝、氧化锆、碳化硅和氮化硅等主要工程陶瓷的主要性能、最新制备技术、关键技术难点等进行了综述,对工程陶瓷在航天航空、电子信息、新能源和节能环保等新兴领域的应用和产业发展进行了展望。工程陶瓷今后应朝着结构微细化、组成复合化和结构-功能一体化的方向发展,同时应努力降低其制备成本,扩大产业规模,更好地发挥工程陶瓷对相关传统产业转型升级的作用。

  18. Separation of Mercury Resistant Bacteria from Wastewater of Milk, Detergent and Ceramic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moghbeli , F. Shakeri and H. Hashemi-Moghaddam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of microorganisms for removing mercury is an effective technology for the treatment of industrial wastewaters and can become an effective tool for the remediation of man-impacted coastal ecosystems with this metal. In this study, seven types of mercury resistant bacteria were separated from industrial waste and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, were determined for these bacteria. Results showed that two strains of bacteria, which isolated from waste water detergent plants, are more resistant to mercury and able to grow at the presence of 52 ppm of mercuric chloride. These bacteria could be used for biological treatment of mercury in contaminated wastewater.

  19. Build up the Ceramics Platform, Enhance the Brand Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ To promote the export trade of China ceramics industry, to develop the overseas marking channel for domestic architecture sanitary ceramics industry ,China Ceramics City ,jointly with China's Foreign Trade magazine,start to publicize on the overseas market.

  20. Use of glazed ceramic waste as additive in mortar and the mathematical modelling of its strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altin, Zehra Gulten; Erturan, Seyfettin; Tepecik, Abdulkadir

    2008-04-01

    This study investigated the reusability of waste material from the tile manufacturing industry as an alternative material to natural pozzolan trass. Yield strength values of mortar made from Portland cement (CEM 142.5), were measured by adding glazed ceramic waste and trass at various weight ratios (5 to 40%). The test results proved that the strength values at 2, 7, and 28 days gave good results for concentrations of waste materials less than 5-10% in the cement. A decrease in strength was observed at higher concentrations. Mathematical modelling results showed a logarithmic correlation between the mortar strength and weight fraction of cement.

  1. Talk the Jingdezhen ceramic art creation group norms and ceramics culture industry development%论景德镇陶瓷艺术创作群体的规范与陶瓷文化产业的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁乐辉; 齐霞

    2012-01-01

    农耕文明背景下的景德镇制瓷历史,传统的个体性手工作坊式陶瓷艺术创作群体。延续散乱管理的个体意识下陶瓷艺术市场,致使景德镇陶瓷文化产业发展区域多样雷同化,失去特色性、鲜明性。本文从精英群体的健全机制、传统手工艺人的规范与传承、地域品牌意识的认知与提升三方面阐述景德镇陶瓷艺术创作群体规范的重要性与现实性,并促使景德镇陶瓷文化产业朝秩序化、特色化发展。%under the background of farming civilization of Jingdezhen porcelain history, traditional individual workshop type ceramic art groups, extended scattered management individual consciousness in ceramic art market, cause Jingdezhen ceramics culture industry development of regional diversity of similarity, their char- acteristics, bright sex. This article from the elite group of perfect mechanism, normative and inheritance of traditional craftsmen, regional brand awareness of cognition and improvement of three respects, elaborated the Jingdezhen ceramic art groups normative importance and reality, and make Jingdezhen ceramics culture indus- try in order to change, specialization development.

  2. Evaluation and Beneficiation of Feldspar from Arkosic Sandstone in South Jordan for Application in the Ceramic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Gougazeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the beneficiation and upgrading processes of a Jordanian feldspar ores to be finally implemented in the ceramic industry. The experimental work was conducted to evaluate the role of particle size distribution, chemical composition, mineral content and the magnetic impurities (Fe2O3 +TiO2 contents. The beneficiation of the 500-45 μm fractions, which constitutes about 30% of the ore, assaying 10.9% Al2O3, equivalent to approximately ca 56% feldspar, with a mean of magnetic content of 0.95 % iron and titanium oxides. The relationship of potassic-to-sodic feldspar amounts to approximately 18:1 in the feldspar fraction. High intensity magnetic separation and froth flotation test work was carried out, in order to decrease the iron contamination and increase the feldspar content. Magnetic separation alone decreased the iron contents of the feed to a range between 0.10 and 0. 12% iron oxides with an average yield greater than 85%. Flotation with HF provided a feldspar recovery by 45-55% with a concentrates assaying 17-17.35 % Al2O3. Iron contents were decreased from 0.46-0.68% to 0.17-0.23 %.

  3. Fluorescence of ceramic color standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Annette; Clare, John F; Nield, Kathryn M; Deadman, Andrew; Usadi, Eric

    2010-04-20

    Fluorescence has been found in color standards available for use in calibration and verification of color measuring instruments. The fluorescence is excited at wavelengths below about 600?nm and emitted above 700?nm, within the response range of silicon photodiodes, but at the edge of the response of most photomultipliers and outside the range commonly scanned in commercial colorimeters. The degree of fluorescence on two of a set of 12 glossy ceramic tiles is enough to introduce significant error when those tiles have been calibrated in one mode of measurement and are used in another. We report the nature of the fluorescence and the implications for color measurement.

  4. Natural gas perspectives of diffusion on the brazilian structural ceramics industry; Perspectivas de difusao do gas natural na industria brasileira de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwob, Marcelo Rousseau Valenca

    2007-03-15

    This study evaluates the perspectives of the natural gas (NG) used by the Brazilian structural ceramics industry (BSCI), according to technological, economic and environmental aspects. It identifies the advantages of using NG, as well as the barriers faced by this energy source. Considering the amount of NG required by the thermal demand of the BSCI processes and the average energy specific use of the furnaces in operation in Brazil, the total consumption of NG will be nearly 12.06 Mm{sup 3/}day. However, the existence of few technical and economical adequate conversion conditions for ceramics furnaces (4% of continuous furnaces) limits the previous potential to only 0.67 Mm{sup 3/}day. In addition, considering the geographic intersection of the ceramics production clusters with the natural gas distribution grid of the Brazilian states, the estimated potential is lowered to 0.28 Mm{sup 3/}day. Yet, the perspective of the NG diffusion in the BSCI in the medium to the long term is more positive, owning to the increasing implementation of large scale production furnaces and cogeneration systems. Also worthwhile to this positive perspective are: the improving demand for certified structural ceramic products, with more quality and value added, and the expanding investment in low income classes dwelling programs. (author)

  5. Suitability of the Betic Cordillera marly materials for the manufacture of pressed tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Millán, J.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the aptness of Carbonero Formation (in the Spanish province of Jaén marls for the manufacture of high added value ceramic construction materials. Lithologically speaking, the Carbonero Formation comprises three members: a a marly lower member; b a radiolaritic middle member; and c a turbiditic upper member. The samples studied were rich in phyllosilicates (> 39% and calcite. The quartz and feldspar contents were low ( 20 µm fraction was absent. Due to their low plasticity, most Carbonero Formation marls can only be pressure moulded. Their high linear shrinkage and water absorption values when fired at 800 to 1 000 ºC make them poorly suited for use in the ceramic industry. Blends of these marls with different proportions of supplementary materials may be apt for manufacturing light shades of pressed ceramic tile.Este trabajo evalúa las posibilidades cerámicas de las margas de la Formación Carbonero para fabricar materiales cerámicos de construcción de alto valor añadido. Litológicamente, la Formación Carbonero está formada por tres miembros: a Inferior Margoso, b Intermedio Radiolarítico y c Superior Turbidítico. Las muestras estudiadas son ricas en filosilicatos (> 39% y calcita. Los contenidos en cuarzo y feldespatos son bajos ( 20 µm está ausente. La plasticidad de las margas es baja, condicionando que su moldeo deba ser exclusivamente por presión. Los altos valores de contracción lineal y absorción de agua entre 800 y 1.000 ºC son poco apropiados para la industria cerámica. Las mezclas de estos materiales con diferentes proporciones de materiales complementarios permitirían la fabricación de baldosas cerámicas de color claro por prensado.

  6. Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was developed by the USDOE Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the USDOE and NASA advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990 the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities.

  7. Preparation of porcelain tile granulates by more environmentally sustainable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, C.; Silvestre, D.; Piquer, J.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Quereda, E.; Vicente, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the feasibility of manufacturing glazed porcelain tiles with a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process, by reducing water and thermal energy consumption. The process studied in this paper is dry milling in a pendulum mill, with subsequent granulation (in order to obtain a press powder with similar flow ability to that of spray dried powders). The different morphology of the new granulate with respect to the standard spray-dried granulate modifies the microstructure of the green compacts and thus, their behaviour and fired tile properties. In order to obtain porcelain tiles with the required properties (water absorption, mechanical strength,) changes have been made in the raw materials mixture and in the processing variables. Finally, porcelain tiles measuring 50x50 cm have been manufactured at industrial scale with the new granulate using a conventional firing cycle, obtaining quality levels identical to those provided by the spray-dried granulate. These results open the possibility of preparing porcelain tile body compositions through a manufacturing process alternative to the standard one, more environmentally friendly and with lower costs. (Author)

  8. Penetration of natural gas in industrial processes for direct burning: the case of ceramics, cement and glass industries; Penetracao do gas natural em processos industriais de queima direta: caso das industrias ceramica, cimento e vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti; Leite, Alvaro A. Furtado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Industrial sector can use the natural gas (NG) as raw material, as fuel and in co-generation. The NG as fuel is used, predominantly, to produce heat in the Brazilian industries. That rate, both main forms of industrial use of the NG are its direct burning in kilns - when the direct contact is had with the product - and the supply of process heat through boilers, for instance. Direct burning is used in the ceramic, cement and glass industries. This work discuss the penetration opportunity of the NG in the direct burning regarding the fuel oil and other energy that it can substitute, the environmental effects and the co-generation possibilities in each one of the analyzed industrial blanches in this work. (author)

  9. Decorative 18th Century Blue-and-White Portuguese Tile Panels: A Type-Case of Environmental Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa P. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decorated glazed ceramic tiles are used as an ornamental art, constituting an important cultural heritage whose preservation is mandatory. Environmental conditions are responsible for the degradation of exposed ancient tile panels originating various pathologies, related to the development of microorganisms. This is the case of a valuable 18th century blue-and-white Portuguese tile panel called “Cura do Cego,” belonging to the collection of the National Tile Museum (MNAz, where green stains are nowadays observable in the glaze. A prospective diagnosis of this green tarnishing was the aim of the present work. Small tile fragments were directly irradiated using nondestructive techniques: X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with a wavelength-dispersive system (WDXRF for chemical characterization of the tile glaze and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD to assess the phase constitution of both the glaze and the ceramic body. A destructive technique (scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive system (SEM/EDS was applied to tentatively infer the chemical changes induced in the glaze by the green staining and also to characterize the morphology of the microorganisms associated to this staining. The obtained results are reported and discussed, as a preliminary step for testing an innovative nondestructive decontamination technique applying gamma radiation, particularly suitable for overcoming such tile pathologies.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of High Temperature Resistant and High Emissivity Multi-Component Coating for Ceramic Insulation Tile%陶瓷隔热瓦耐高温高辐射率涂层的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伶; 张文苑; 隋学叶; 杨杰; 王开宇; 周长灵

    2016-01-01

    A chopped mullite fiber reinforcedMoSi2-SiC-B2O3·SiO2/MoSi2-SiC-B2O3·SiO2- SiB6 multi-component coating was prepared on the surface of .mullite insulation tile by the slurry method. The composition, microstructure and formation mechanism of the multi- component coating were studied by using XRD, XPS, SEM and EDS analysis. The results show that the main phases in the coating are MoSi2, borosilicate glass and Mo4.8Si3C0.6. The coating shows a dense structure in the surface and a porous structure close to the matrix. Such a microstructure is expected to be of benefit to the improvement of the adhesion strength between the coating and the matrix.%在短切莫来石纤维隔热瓦表面采用浆料喷涂法制备了短切莫来石纤维增韧MoSi2-SiC-B2O3-SiO2/MoSi2-SiC-B2O3-SiO2-SiB6梯度涂层,并利用XRD、XPS、SEM和EDS对涂层的组成、结构及形貌进行了分析,探讨了涂层的形成机理。分析表明涂层主要由MoSi2、硼硅玻璃及少量的Mo4.8Si3C0.6组成。涂层表面及截面的SEM照片表明涂层表层致密,靠近基体部分疏松多孔,部分涂层深入多孔的基体,提高了涂层与基体的结合力。

  11. Análise microestrutural de misturas cerâmicas de grês porcelanato com adição de chamote de telhas cerâmicas Microstructural analysis of porcelain stoneware tile mixture with the addition of roof tile residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. de Melo

    2009-12-01

    tradicionais, como feldspato e talco, exigidas na fabricação de grês porcelanato.Aiming at reducing environmental impacts, ceramic industries have worked towards adapting their production methods as well as looking into reusing and recycling their own products. The roof tile industry, despite constant development, still produces large volumes of rejected material, as a consequence of faulty processing, especially during firing. Units depicting signs of overfiring, cracking and distortion, as well as geometry and colour non-uniformities are often discarded with no environmental concern. In addition to that, discarded products have negative economic effects considering the energy, raw materials and working hours used in the fabrication of products that do not go to market. Often, defective roof tiles account for 20% of the monthly production of the ceramic industries. On the other hand, such discarded roof tiles can be reused in the production of new ceramic products, including those with higher added value, such as stoneware tiles. To that end, it is essential to assess the effect of the addition of these ceramic residues in the ceramic mixtures traditionally used to produce stoneware tiles. The present study aimed at investigating the microstructural development of stoneware tile mixtures containing roof tile residues. Contents of 10%, 20% and 30% of residue were added to two different ceramic mixtures. Three firing temperatures were studied, i.e., 1150 ºC, 1200 ºC and 1250 ºC. The heating rate was set to 10 ºC/min. Samples with or without residue were sintered and had their microstructure, water absorption and apparent porosity characterized. The addition of tile roof residue reduced the water absorption of both mixtures studied. By adding 30% residue to mixture 2 and firing at 1250 ºC, it was possible to reduce its water absorption below 0,5%, typical of stoneware tiles. Due to its mineralogical composition, the residue studied can be useful in reducing the large

  12. Ceramic Prototypes – Design, Computation, and Digital Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bechthold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in ceramic material systems at Harvard University has introduced a range of novel applications which combine digital manufacturing technologies and robotics with imaginative design and engineering methods. Prototypes showcase the new performative qualities of ceramics and the integration of this material in today’s construction culture. Work ranges from daylight control systems to structural applications and a robotic tile placement system. Emphasis is on integrating novel technologies with tried and true manufacturing methods. The paper describes two distinct studies – one on 3D print-ing of ceramics, the other on structural use of large format thin tiles.

  13. Brane Tilings and Specular Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay

    2012-01-01

    We study a new duality which pairs 4d N=1 supersymmetric quiver gauge theories. They are represented by brane tilings and are worldvolume theories of D3 branes at Calabi-Yau 3-fold singularities. The new duality identifies theories which have the same combined mesonic and baryonic moduli space, otherwise called the master space. We obtain the associated Hilbert series which encodes both the generators and defining relations of the moduli space. We illustrate our findings with a set of brane tilings that have reflexive toric diagrams.

  14. Verification of ceramic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behar-Lafenetre, S.; Cornillon, L.; Rancurel, M.; Graaf, D. de; Hartmann, P.; Coe, G.; Laine, B.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the "Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures" contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and instr

  15. Duality properties between spectra and tilings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Spectra and tilings play an important role in analysis and geometry respectively.The relations between spectra and tilings have bafied the mathematicians for a long time.Many conjectures,such as the Fuglede conjecture,are placed on the establishment of relations between spectra and tilings,although there are no desired results.In the present paper we derive some characteristic properties of spectra and tilings which highlight certain duality properties between them.

  16. FIBONACCI TILINGS IN FASHION DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAZLACHEVA Zlatina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Fibonacci sequence is a symbol of beauty and harmony and by this reason geometrical objects in its proportions are used in the design. There are some versions of Fibonacci series tiling, which are constructed with equilateral geometrical figures – squares or triangles, as the sides’ lengths are equal to the numbers of the Fibonacci series, or the lengths of the sides of the squares or equilateral triangles are each to other in proportions, which are equal to Fibonacci sequence. The paper presents design of ladies’ dresses with the both ways of constructing of Fibonacci tilings with squares, the variants in a spiral pattern and the variant with squares which are put side by side, and the version of Fibonacci tiling with triangles in form of double spiral named Fibonacci rose. Nine models of ladies’ dresses are shown. As a result of the use of Fibonacci tilings for designing of aesthetic, beautiful and harmonic clothing, it can be concluded that in fashion design Fibonacci squares and Fibonacci rose can be used in different ways of color combinations, proportions toward the clothing sizes, and as a frame of creations of design elements. The different position, proportions and color combinations of use of Fibonacci squares and Fibonacci rose in fashion design according to the body type and size can cover some bodily defects and enhance the beautiful forms.

  17. PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN FLOOR TILES FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. Hittle

    2002-10-01

    Passive solar systems integrated into residential structures significantly reduce heating energy consumption. Taking advantage of latent heat storage has further increased energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change materials into building materials used in passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. Increasing the thermal storage of floor tile by the addition of encapsulated paraffin wax is the proposed topic of research. Latent heat storage of a phase change material (PCM) is obtained during a change in phase. Typical materials use the latent heat released when the material changes from a liquid to a solid. Paraffin wax and salt hydrates are examples of such materials. Other PCMs that have been recently investigated undergo a phase transition from one solid form to another. During this process they will release heat. These are known as solid-state phase change materials. All have large latent heats, which makes them ideal for passive solar applications. Easy incorporation into various building materials is must for these materials. This proposal will address the advantages and disadvantages of using these materials in floor tile. Prototype tile will be made from a mixture of quartz, binder and phase change material. The thermal and structural properties of the prototype tiles will be tested fully. It is expected that with the addition of the phase change material the structural properties will be compromised to some extent. The ratio of phase change material in the tile will have to be varied to determine the best mixture to provide significant thermal storage, while maintaining structural properties that meet the industry standards for floor tile.

  18. Evolution of reuse of sludge from water treatment plant in the red ceramic industry; Avaliacao do reaproveitamento do lodo de estacao de tratamento de agua (ETA) na industria ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.A.; Martins, B.E.D.B.S.; Couto, V.M.P.; Campos, J.C.; Almeida, V.C., E-mail: valeria@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Escola de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The ceramic industry has enormous potential to absorb wastes. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the use of a sludge (WTP) in the physical and mechanical properties of the burning of a red ceramic body. Compositions were prepared with different percentages of mud by the method of forming the pressed and sintered at 900 deg C, 1000 deg C and 1100 ° C. The specimens were tested for linear shrinkage, water absorption, porosity and stress rupture flexion. Were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results show that the incorporation of sludge WTP changes the quality of ceramics. (author)

  19. A comparison between ceramic membrane filters and conventional fabric filters for fine particulate removal from a coal-fired industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Wincek, R.T.; Glick, D.C.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Drury, K. [Corning Inc., Painted Post, NY (United States); Makris [Corning Inc., Acton, MA (United States); Stubblefield, D.J. [Corning Inc., Corning, NY (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Penn State is developing technologies for ultralow emissions when firing coal-based fuels, i.e., micronized coal and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) in industrial boilers. Emissions being addressed are SO{sub 2}, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), and air toxics (trace elements and volatile organic compounds). Results from trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions testing, when firing coal-based fuels, are reported elsewhere in these proceedings. This paper discusses the evaluation of ceramic membrane filters for fine particulate removal in a package boiler when firing micronized coal and CWSF.

  20. Organosilane-Based Coating of Quartz Species from the Traditional Ceramics Industry: Evidence of Hazard Reduction Using In Vitro and In Vivo Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Christina; Escrig, Alberto; Bonvicini, Giuliana; Ibáñez, Maria Jesús; Monfort, Eliseo; Salomoni, Arturo; Creutzenberg, Otto

    2017-02-28

    The exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS), e.g. quartz, in industrial settings can induce silicosis and may cause tumours in chronic periods. Consequently, RCS in the form of quartz and cristobalite has been classified as human lung carcinogen category 1 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1997, acknowledging differences in hazardous potential depending on source as well as chemical, thermal, and mechanical history. The physico-chemical determinants of quartz toxicity are well understood and are linked to density and abundance of surface silanol groups/radicals. Hence, poly-2-vinylpyridine-N-oxide and aluminium lactate, which effectively block highly reactive silanol groups at the quartz surface, have formerly been introduced as therapeutic approaches in the occupational field. In the traditional ceramics industry, quartz-containing raw materials are indispensable for the manufacturing process, and workers are potentially at risk of developing quartz-related lung diseases. Therefore, in the present study, two organosilanes, i.e. Dynasylan® PTMO and Dynasylan® SIVO 160, were tested as preventive, covalent quartz-coating agents to render ceramics production safer without loss in product quality. Coating effectiveness and coating stability (up to 1 week) in artificial alveolar and lysosomal fluids were first analysed in vitro, using the industrially relevant quartz Q1 as RCS model, quartz DQ12 as a positive control, primary rat alveolar macrophages as cellular model system (75 µg cm-2; 4 h of incubation ± aluminium lactate to verify quartz-related effects), and lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA strand break induction (alkaline comet assay) as biological endpoints. In vitro results with coated quartz were confirmed in a 90-day intratracheal instillation study in rats with inflammatory parameters as most relevant readouts. The results of the present study indicate that in particular Dynasylan® SIVO 160 (0.2% w/w of quartz) was able

  1. Preparation of Cathode-Anode Integrated Ceramic Filler and Application in a Coupled ME-EGSB-SBR System for Chlortetracycline Industrial Wastewater Systematic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanfeng Qi; Suqing Wu; Fei Xi; Shengbing He; Chunzhen Fan; Bibo Dai; Jungchen Huang; Meng Meng; Xiangguo Zhu; Lei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Chlortetracycline (CTC) contamination of aquatic systems has seriously threatened the environmental and human health throughout the world. Conventional biological treatments could not effectively treat the CTC industrial wastewater and few studies have been focused on the wastewater systematic treatment. Firstly, 40.0 wt% of clay, 30.0 wt% of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS), and 30.0 wt% of scrap iron (SI) were added to sinter the new media (cathode-anode integrated ceramic filler, CAICF). Subs...

  2. Summer and Winter Effect of Innovative Cool Roof Tiles on the Dynamic Thermal Behavior of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cool roofs represent an acknowledged passive cooling technique to reduce building energy consumption for cooling and to mitigate urban heat island effects. This paper concerns the evaluation of the dynamic effect of new cool roof clay tiles on building thermal performance in summer and winter conditions. To this end, these properties have been analyzed on traditional roof brick tiles through an indoor and outdoor two-year long continuous monitoring campaign set up in a residential building located in central Italy. The analysis and the cooperation with industrial companies producing brick tiles and reflective coatings allowed the production of a new tile with notable “cool roof” properties through the traditional industrial manufacturing path of such tiles. Notable results show that during summer the high reflection tiles are able to decrease the average external roof surface temperature by more than 10 °C and the indoor operative temperature by more than 3 °C. During winter the average external surface temperature is lower with high reflection tiles by about 1 °C. Singular optic-thermal phenomena are registered while evaluating the dynamics of the cool roof effect. Interesting findings show how the sloped cool roof application could suggest further considerations about the dynamic effect of cool roofs.

  3. 近代中国陶瓷业发展轨迹——以景德镇陶瓷工业发展为视角%MODERN CHINESE CERAMICS IN DEVELOPMENT TRAJECTORY-TO INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IS THE PERSPECTIVE OF JINGDEZHEN CERAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练崇潮

    2011-01-01

    传统中国陶瓷业是世界发展的奇迹,在几千年的发展历程中,中国陶瓷业发展遥遥领先于世界.但到了近代,中国陶瓷业的发展慢慢落后于世界.面对这种局面,许多有识之士创办近代陶瓷企业来促进近代中国陶瓷业的转型.通过陶瓷企业的创办,带动了近代中国陶瓷业的发展.本文以景德镇近代陶瓷工业发展为视角,来探讨近代中国陶瓷业的发展.%Traditional Chinese ceramics in the development of a miracle, thousands of years of the developing history, Chinese ceramics in development is well ahead of the world. but in modern china, the development of ceramics in slowly to the world, facing this situation, many people of insight establishment of modern ceramic enterprises to promote Chinese ceramics in the transformation of china, through the establishment of modern china, has led to the development of ceramics. In Jingdezhen ceramics in the modern industrial development, to the development of ceramics in modern China.

  4. Characterisation of the sintering behaviour of Waelz slag from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust recycling for use in the clay ceramics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijorna, N; de Pedro, M; Romero, M; Andrés, A

    2014-01-01

    Waelz slag is an industrial by-product from the recovery of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust which is mainly sent to landfills. Despite the different chemical and mineralogical compositions of Waelz slag compared to traditional clays, previous experiments have demonstrated its potential use as a clay substitute in ceramic processes. Indeed, clayey products containing Waelz slag could improve mechanical and environmental performance, fixing most of the metallic species and moreover decreasing the release of some potential pollutants during firing. However, a deeper understanding of the complex phase transformations during its thermal treatment and the connection of this behaviour with the end properties is desirable in order to explain the role that is played by the Waelz slag and its potential contribution to the ceramic process. For this purpose, in the present study, the chemical, mineralogical, thermal and environmental behaviour of both (i) unfired powdered samples, and (ii) pressed specimen of Waelz slag fired up to different temperatures within the typical range of clay based ceramic production, has been studied. The effect of the heating temperature on the end properties of the fired samples has been assessed. In general, an increase of the firing temperature promotes sintering and densification of the products and decreases the open porosity and water absorption which also contributes to the fixation of heavy metals. On the contrary, an increase in the leaching of Pb, Cr and Mo from the fired specimens is observed. This can be attributed to the creation of Fe and Ca molybdates and chromates that are weakly retained in the alkali matrix. On the other side, at temperature above 950 °C a weight gain related to the emission of evolved gases is observed. In conclusion, the firing temperature of the ceramic process is a key parameter that affects not only the technical properties but also strongly affects the leaching behaviour and the process emissions.

  5. Ceramic industries of Dwarka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_1_110.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_1_110.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Ceramic industries of Poompuhar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name 4_Indian_Conf_Mar_Archaeol_Proc_1997_127.pdf.txt stream_source_info 4_Indian_Conf_Mar_Archaeol_Proc_1997_127.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  7. Bio deterioration behaviour in different colour roofing tiles (red and straw coloured); Comportamiento de tejas de diferente color (rojo y paja) frente al biodeterioro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzulla, M. F.; Sanchez, E.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Orduna, M.

    2014-07-01

    Bio colonization of building materials is a critical problem for the durability of constructions. Industrial experience shows that straw coloured roofing tiles are more prone to colonization than red roofing tiles, even having similar characteristics. The aim of this work is to explain the difference of bio colonization between different colour roofing tiles. The chemical composition of the surface of straw coloured and red roofing tiles, the phase composition and the microstructure of the roofing tiles were determined by WD-XRF, XRD and SEM-EDX, respectively. The pore size distribution was carried out by Hg porosimetry. The solubility was studied by determining the soluble salts (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl and SO{sub 4} 2-) by ICP-OES and ionic chromatography. Roofing tile bio receptivity was evaluated by determining fluorescence intensity using a pulse amplitude- modulated (PAM) fluoro meter, and cyanobacteria Oscillator sp. The results obtained show higher concentration of calcium and sulphur in straw coloured roofing tiles surface, and higher solubility than red roofing tiles. Moreover, according to the results obtained in bio receptivity assays, straw coloured roofing tiles are more prone to colonization than red roofing tiles, so, there is a relationship between surface properties of roofing tiles and bio colonization, as it is observed in industrial products. (Author)

  8. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter upgrade program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's outermost radial layer can assist in muon tagging in the Level-1 Muon Trigger by rejecting fake muon triggers due to slow charged particles (typically protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The main activity of the Tile-Muon Trigger in the ATLAS Phase-0 upgrade program was to install and to activate the TileCal signal processor module for providing trigger inputs to the Level-1 Muon Trigger. This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger, focusing on the new detector electronics such as the Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) that receives, digitizes and then provides the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon endcap Sector-Logic Boards.

  9. Performance of the Tile PreProcessor Demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio Argos, Fernando; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter PreProcessor (TilePPr) demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Demonstrator Project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the back-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived for receiving and processing the data coming from the front-end electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as for configuring it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the front-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator represents 1/8 of the final TilePPr that will be designed and installed into the detector for the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade.

  10. Shuttle Upgrade Program: Tile TPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; DiFiore, Robert; Irby, Ed; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the areas where the thermal protection system on the Space Shuttle Orbiter could be improved is the RSI (Reusable Surface Insulation) tile. The improvement would be in damage resistance that would reduce the resultant maintenance and inspection required. It has performed very well in every other aspect. Improving the system's damage resistance has been the subject of much research over the past several years. One of the results of that research was a new system developed for damage prone areas on the orbiter (i.e., base heat shield). That system, designated as TUFI, Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation, was successfully demonstrated as an experiment on the Orbiter and is now baselined for the base heat shield. This paper describes the results of a current research program to further improve the TUFI tile system, thus making it applicable to more areas on the orbiter. The way to remove the current limitations of the TUFI system (i.e., weight or thermal conductivity differences between it and the baseline tile (LI-900)) is to improve the characteristics of LI-900 or AETB-8. Specifically this paper describes the results of two efforts. The first shows performance data of an improved LI-900 system involving the application of TUFI and the second describes data that shows a reduced difference in thermal conductivity between the advanced TUFI substrate (AETB-8) now used on the orbiter and LI-900.

  11. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  12. Study of the adherence between polymer-modified mortars and porcelain stoneware tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Etuko Feuzicana de Souza Almeida

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the excellent characteristics of porcelain tiles, their application on building facades requires special attention, since this material differs from conventional ceramics and because facades are exposed to weathering that can damage ceramic revetments. The combination of polymer and silica fume to produce mortars results in excellent properties, which are ideal for repairs and revetments requiring high performance. Such improvements justify its study for the installation of porcelain tiles. This article presents bond strength results for mortars containing different amounts of polymer and silica indicating the applicability of these mortars as a construction material. To complement this study, the interface between the porcelain and the mortars was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  13. Analysis of gap heating due to stepped tiles in the shuttle thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, D. H.; Smith, D. M.; Edwards, C. L. W.; Carlson, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical methods used to investigate entry gap heating in the Shuttle orbiter thermal protection system are described. Analytical results are given for a fuselage lower-surface location and a wing lower-surface location. These are locations where excessive gap heating occurred on the first flight of the Shuttle. The results of a study to determine the effectiveness of a half-height ceramic fiber gap filler in preventing hot-gas flow in the tile gaps are also given.

  14. Optical properties of the new TileCal scintillating tiles. Comparison with 1999 production.

    CERN Document Server

    Zenine, A

    2000-01-01

    A few samples of the scintillating tiles made of BASF polystyrol for ATLAS Tile Calorimeter have been measured with a radioactive source. The results are represented in comparison with the first 1999 year batch produced of PSM-115 polystyrene.

  15. Tetromino tilings and the Tutte polynomial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke Jacobsen, Jesper

    2007-02-01

    We consider tiling rectangles of size 4m × 4n by T-shaped tetrominoes. Each tile is assigned a weight that depends on its orientation and position on the lattice. For a particular choice of the weights, the generating function of tilings is shown to be the evaluation of the multivariate Tutte polynomial ZG(Q, v) (known also to physicists as the partition function of the Q-state Potts model) on an (m - 1) × (n - 1) rectangle G, where the parameter Q and the edge weights v can take arbitrary values depending on the tile weights.

  16. Tetromino tilings and the Tutte polynomial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 100, 91405 Orsay (France); Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2007-02-16

    We consider tiling rectangles of size 4m x 4n by T-shaped tetrominoes. Each tile is assigned a weight that depends on its orientation and position on the lattice. For a particular choice of the weights, the generating function of tilings is shown to be the evaluation of the multivariate Tutte polynomial Z{sub G}(Q, v) (known also to physicists as the partition function of the Q-state Potts model) on an (m - 1) x (n - 1) rectangle G, where the parameter Q and the edge weights v can take arbitrary values depending on the tile weights.

  17. Glass ceramic of high hardness and fracture toughness developed from iron-rich wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weixin HAN

    2009-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the feasibility of using high iron content wastes, gen-erated during steel making, as a raw material for the production of glass ceramic. The iron-rich wastes were mixed and melted in different proportions with soda-lime glass cullet and sand. The devitrification of the parent glasses produced from the different mixtures was investigated using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the glass-ceramic were assessed by hardness and indentation fracture toughness measurement. A glass ce-ramic with mixture of 60 wt pct iron-rich wastes, 25 wt pct sand, and 15 wt pct glass cullet exhibited the best combination of properties, namely, hardness 7.9 GPa and fracture toughness 3.75 MPa.m1/2, for the sake of containing magnetite in marked dendritic morphology. These new hard glass ceramics are candidate materials for wear resistant tiles and paving for heavy industrial floors.

  18. Use of new raw materials and industrial wastes to improve the possibilities of using ceramic materials from Bailén (Jaén, southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán-Arboledas, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials used by the ceramic industry in Jaén (southern Spain consist of mixtures of carbonated clays from the Guadalquivir Basin and red clays from the Iberian Massif. The mixtures formulation usually obeys empirical experience developed by this industry for many generations. This work evaluates different possibilities of using these raw materials to manufacture new ceramic products on the basis of clay physical-chemical properties and analyzes limitations to produce high added value products. As an alternative to overcome these limitations, the mixture of these clays with raw materials from near regions (pyrophyllite clay and with different industrial wastes is proposed. These wastes are screen glass from monitors and oil impregnated diatomaceous earth. The study of the technological properties shows that the new mixtures are suitable for the processing of ceramic products in which structural and thermal insulating properties are improved or kept.La materia prima empleada por la industria cerámica de Jaén consiste en mezclas de margas de la Depresión del Guadalquivir con arcillas rojas del Macizo Ibérico. La formulación de estas mezclas responde generalmente a la experiencia empírica desarrollada por esta industria durante generaciones. El presente trabajo evalúa las posibilidades de utilización de estas materias primas para fabricar nuevos productos cerámicos de construcción basándose en sus propiedades físico-químicas y analiza las limitaciones que presentan para la fabricación de productos de mayor valor añadido. Como alternativa para superar estas limitaciones se propone la mezcla con arcillas pirofilíticas de áreas geográficamente cercanas y con diferentes residuos industriales. Estos residuos son vidrio de pantalla descontaminado y tierras diatomeas impregnadas con aceites vegetales. El estudio de caracterización tecnológica muestra que las nuevas mezclas permiten el procesamiento de piezas cerámicas y que en

  19. Using mixture design of experiments to assess the environmental impact of clay-based structural ceramics containing foundry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronado, M. [Department of Chemistry and Process and Resources Engineering, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering (CICECO), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Segadães, A.M. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering (CICECO), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Andrés, A., E-mail: andresa@unican.es [Department of Chemistry and Process and Resources Engineering, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Modelling of the environmental risk in terms of clay and by-products contents. • M-DoE and response surface plots enable quick comparison of three ceramic processes. • Basicity of the mixture increases the leaching, especially at low firing temperatures. • Liquid phase content plays a major role decreasing the leaching of Cr and Mo. • Together, M-DoE and phase diagrams enable better prediction of pollutants leaching. - Abstract: This work describes the leaching behavior of potentially hazardous metals from three different clay-based industrial ceramic products (wall bricks, roof tiles, and face bricks) containing foundry sand dust and Waelz slag as alternative raw materials. For each product, ten mixtures were defined by mixture design of experiments and the leaching of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn was evaluated in pressed specimens fired simulating the three industrial ceramic processes. The results showed that, despite the chemical, mineralogical and processing differences, only chrome and molybdenum were not fully immobilized during ceramic processing. Their leaching was modeled as polynomial equations, functions of the raw materials contents, and plotted as response surfaces. This brought to evidence that Cr and Mo leaching from the fired products is not only dependent on the corresponding contents and the basicity of the initial mixtures, but is also clearly related with the mineralogical composition of the fired products, namely the amount of the glassy phase, which depends on both the major oxides contents and the firing temperature.

  20. Beryllium coating on Inconel tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailescu, V.; Burcea, G.; Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Lungu, A.M. [Association EURATOM-MEC Romania, National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Rubel, M. [Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Coad, J.P. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon, OX, Oxon (United Kingdom); Matthews, G.; Pedrick, L.; Handley, R. [UKAEA Fusion, Association Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science and Engineering Centre, OX 3DB ABINGDON, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large experimental nuclear fusion device. Its aim is to confine and study the behaviour of plasma in conditions and dimensions approaching those required for a fusion reactor. The plasma is created in the toroidal shaped vacuum vessel of the machine in which it is confined by magnetic fields. In preparation for ITER a new ITER-like Wall (ILW) will be installed on Joint European Torus (JET), a wall not having any carbon facing the plasma [1]. In places Inconel tiles are to be installed, these tiles shall be coated with Beryllium. MEdC represented by the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest and in direct cooperation with Nuclear Fuel Plant Pitesti started to coat Inconel tiles with 8 {mu}m of Beryllium in accordance with the requirements of technical specification and fit for installation in the JET machine. This contribution provides an overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using thermal evaporation method in vacuum and the properties of the prepared coatings. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on Inconel substrates (polished and sand blasted) The results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference [1] Takeshi Hirai, H. Maier, M. Rubel, Ph. Mertens, R. Neu, O. Neubauer, E. Gauthier, J. Likonen, C. Lungu, G. Maddaluno, G. F. Matthews, R. Mitteau, G. Piazza, V. Philipps, B. Riccardi, C. Ruset, I. Uytdenhouwen, R and D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET TIER-like Wall Project, 24. Symposium on Fusion Technology - 11-15 September 2006 -Warsaw, Poland. (authors)

  1. Uniform tiling with electrical resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cserti, Jozsef; Szechenyi, Gabor [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary); David, Gyula, E-mail: cserti@elte.hu [Department of Atomic Physics, Eoetvoes University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary)

    2011-05-27

    The electric resistance between two arbitrary nodes on any infinite lattice structure of resistors that is a periodic tiling of space is obtained. Our general approach is based on the lattice Green's function of the Laplacian matrix associated with the network. We present several non-trivial examples to show how efficient our method is. Deriving explicit resistance formulas it is shown that the Kagome, diced and decorated lattice can be mapped to the triangular and square lattice of resistors. Our work can be extended to the random walk problem or to electron dynamics in condensed matter physics.

  2. Uniform tiling with electrical resistors

    CERN Document Server

    Cserti, Jozsef; David, Gyula

    2011-01-01

    Electric resistances between two arbitrary nodes on any infinite lattice structure of resistor networks that is a periodic tiling of the space is obtained. Our general approach is based on the lattice Green's function of the Laplacian matrix associated with the network. We present several and non-trivial examples to show how efficient our method is. Deriving explicit resistance formulas it is shown that the Kagom\\'e, the diced and the decorated lattice can be mapped to the triangular and square lattice of resistors. Our work can be extended to random walk problem or electron dynamics in condensed matter physics.

  3. TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

  4. Technological characterization of new clay deposits in the south region of Amapa, Brazil aiming applications in the ceramic industry; Caracterizacao tecnologica de novos depositos de argilas da regiao sul do Amapa visando aplicacoes na industriav ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriano Lima da; Luna, Carlos Bruno Barreto; Chaves, Alexsandra Cristina; Neves, Gelmires de Araujo, E-mail: adrianolimadasilva@hotmail.com, E-mail: brunobarretodemaufcg@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-01-15

    The objective of the present work was to characterize two new Clay deposits (A and B) from the south region of Amapa state, aiming to establish their adequate uses as ceramic raw materials and to promote the potential of the ceramic industry in the region. Were prepared specimens by uniaxial pressing, being applied a two phase pressing of 13,4 MPa and 20 MPa, respectively. The samples were dried in an oven at 110 deg C, and submitted to burning at 850, 1000 and 1200 deg C. Were determined linear firing shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity and modulus of flexural modulus of rupture, as well as mineralogical evolution after burning. Finishing, the microstructure of the sintered clay at 1200 deg C was evaluated in a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the clay A presented a better mechanical development, having a red coloration and, therefore, potential to the red ceramic industry. On the other hand, the clay B presented a light color, due to a low content of iron oxide and, therefore, having potential as refractory raw material. In general, one clay is suitable to be used in white ceramic and the other in red ceramic. (author)

  5. Preparation of Cathode-Anode Integrated Ceramic Filler and Application in a Coupled ME-EGSB-SBR System for Chlortetracycline Industrial Wastewater Systematic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfeng Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlortetracycline (CTC contamination of aquatic systems has seriously threatened the environmental and human health throughout the world. Conventional biological treatments could not effectively treat the CTC industrial wastewater and few studies have been focused on the wastewater systematic treatment. Firstly, 40.0 wt% of clay, 30.0 wt% of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS, and 30.0 wt% of scrap iron (SI were added to sinter the new media (cathode-anode integrated ceramic filler, CAICF. Subsequently, the nontoxic CAICF with rough surface and porous interior packed into ME reactor, severing as a pretreatment step, was effective in removing CTC residue and improving the wastewater biodegradability. Secondly, expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB and sequencing batch reactor (SBR, serving as the secondary biological treatment, were mainly focusing on chemical oxygen demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N removal. The coupled ME-EGSB-SBR system removed about 98.0% of CODcr and 95.0% of NH3-N and the final effluent met the national discharged standard (C standard of CJ 343-2010, China. Therefore, the CTC industrial wastewater could be effectively treated by the coupled ME-EGSB-SBR system, which has significant implications for a cost-efficient system in CTC industrial systematic treatment and solid wastes (DSS and SI treatment.

  6. Latest news from the Tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Costanzo, D

    The Tile hadronic calorimeter will be installed in the central region of ATLAS with an inner radius of 2.28 m, an outer radius of 4.25 m, a total length of about 12 m and a weight of about 2300 tons. The calorimeter is mechanically divided in one central barrel and two extended barrels, with a gap in between for the services of the internal part of ATLAS. The construction of the calorimeter is advanced, and installation in the ATLAS pit is foreseen to start in December 2003. After mechanical assembly the modules are instrumented with all the optical components. Scintillating tiles are inserted into the slots, and the read-out Wave Length Shifting fibers are coupled to scintillators and bundled to achieve the quasi-projective cell geometry of the calorimeter. The final modules are stored in bldg 185, shown in the first photo, and in bldg 175 at CERN. The barrel modules are mechanically assembled in Dubna and then transported to CERN to be optically instrumented, while the extended barrels are constructed in t...

  7. Mounting LHCb hadron calorimeter scintillating tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Scintillating tiles are carefully mounted in the hadronic calorimeter for the LHCb detector. These calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  8. Tiling Problems on Baumslag-Solitar groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Aubrun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We exhibit a weakly aperiodic tile set for Baumslag-Solitar groups, and prove that the domino problem is undecidable on these groups. A consequence of our construction is the existence of an arecursive tile set on Baumslag-Solitar groups.

  9. Optimal Partial Tiling of Manhattan Polyominoes

    CERN Document Server

    Bodini, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Finding an efficient optimal partial tiling algorithm is still an open problem. We have worked on a special case, the tiling of Manhattan polyominoes with dominoes, for which we give an algorithm linear in the number of columns. Some techniques are borrowed from traditional graph optimisation problems.

  10. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Program

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhov, Andrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's last radial layer can assist in muon tagging using Level-1 muon trigger. It can help in the rejection of fake muon triggers arising from background radiation (slow charged particles - protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The TileCal main activity for Phase-0 upgrade ATLAS program (2013-2014) was the activation of the TileCal third layer signal for assisting the muon trigger at 1.0<|η|<1.3 (Tile-Muon Trigger). This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger at TileCal upgrade activities, focusing on the new on-detector electronics such as Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) to provide (receive and digitize) the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon endcap sector logic blocks.

  11. Performance of the TilePPr demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio Argos, Fernando; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter Pre-processor (TilePPr) demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Demonstrator Project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the off-detector electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived for receiving and processing the data coming from the on-detector electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as for configuring it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the on-detector electronics.

  12. [First results of an epidemiological survey on abortion in the "Ceramic District" and in other areas of Emilia (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltrinieri, R

    1981-01-01

    This research sought to determine whether a connection exists between atmospheric pollution and abortion frequency in a particular situation created in the Ceramic District. Industries specializing in the production of ceramic tiles have proliferated since 1950 in an area comprising 15 urban areas in northeast Italy. The use of pollutant raw materials (clay, lead, and dusts transported by smoke) as well as the heavy concentration of industry have caused an intense and harmful atmospheric pollution inside and outside the factories. In particular, the longstanding and widespread use of lead, which gives the tiles the technical and aesthetic properties which render them highly competitive in international markets, has been suspected of causing chromosomal alterations and abortion; this despite contradictions present in the literature. The epidemiological survey includes all women entering hospital for abortion and delivery with stillbirths and livebirths in the Ceramic District from October 24, 1968-October 24, 1975. The survey has been extended to other areas subject to normal pollutants with similar or different socioeconomic structures with respect to the Ceramic District; this 2nd survey considers all hospitalizations for abortion and a systematic sample of delivery in the 3 communal hospitals. A total of 20,925 cases were examined. The issue of each pregnancy was classified according to the woman's area of residence. 4 groups corresponding to the areas taken into consideration were examined: the 1st comprises the Ceramic District; the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th comprise the areas of Carpi, Vignola, and Pavullo. The following assumptions were made: 1) that women opt for local hospital care, 2) that hospital care may have been sought in the case of induced abortion, and 3) that the frequency of induced abortion corresponded with the condition of proportional parity in each group. A comparison of the abortion rate (i.e., the number of abortions/100 pregnancies) in the 4

  13. Consistency and Derangements in Brane Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2015-01-01

    Brane tilings describe Lagrangians (vector multiplets, chiral multiplets, and the superpotential) of four dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric gauge theories. These theories, written in terms of a bipartite graph on a torus, correspond to worldvolume theories on $N$ D$3$-branes probing a toric Calabi-Yau threefold singularity. A pair of permutations compactly encapsulates the data necessary to specify a brane tiling. We show that geometric consistency for brane tilings, which ensures that the corresponding quantum field theories are well behaved, imposes constraints on the pair of permutations, restricting certain products constructed from the pair to have no one-cycles. Permutations without one-cycles are known as derangements. We illustrate this formulation of consistency with known brane tilings. Counting formulas for consistent brane tilings with an arbitrary number of chiral bifundamental fields are written down in terms of delta functions over symmetric groups.

  14. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00304670; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  15. An Analysis of the Competitiveness of Chaozhou Ceramic Industry Cluster%潮州陶瓷产业集群竞争力探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑銮娟

    2014-01-01

    产业集群是产业组织结构的重要形式,是提高区域产业经济竞争力的有效途径。陶瓷产业作为潮州首要支柱产业,产业总体规模、集聚规模及出口贸易规模都较为强大,且产业链完整和区域品牌厚实,产业集群竞争力比较优势明显。但受宏观环境影响,产业出口贸易增长率放缓,企业产品品牌建设滞后,自主创新能力弱,产业劣势显现。通过对潮州陶瓷产业比较优势的发挥,产业结构的优化升级,企业品牌的建设,产品科技含量的增加,出口增长方式的转变,多元市场的开拓等多种途径的综合运用,可以进一步提升集群竞争力。%Industrial cluster is an important form of industrial organization and construction.It is an effec⁃tive way to upgrade economic competitiveness in regional industrial development. As the pillar industry in Cha⁃ozhou, ceramics industry is strong in general, clustering and exporting scales, having an integrated industrial chain with rich brands, with outstanding advantages in clusterization competitiveness. Impacted by macro envi⁃ronment, however, the industry suffers from a slowdown in export business growth, and is delayed in its brands establishment, and also weakened in creativity. Its competitive strengths can be further exalted by overall com⁃bination of various approaches including advantages exertion, upgrading of industrial construction, brand estab⁃lishment, increasing applications of scientific technology, changes in export increase mode, and strategy imple⁃mentation of market diversification, etc.

  16. Recycling and utilisation of industrial solid waste: an explorative study on gold deposit tailings of ductile shear zone type in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Huang, Fei; Du, Runxiang; Zhao, Chunming; Li, Yongli; Yu, Haoran

    2015-06-01

    Tailings are solid waste arising from mineral processing. This type of waste can cause severe damage to the environment during stockpiling as a result of the leaching of something harmful into the ecosystem. Gold deposit of ductile shear zone type is an important type of gold deposit, and the recycling of its tailings has been challenging researchers for a long time. In this article, the characteristics of this type of tailings were systematically studied by using modern technical means. Considering the characteristics of the tailings, clay was selected to make up for the shortcomings of the tailings and improve their performance. Water and raw materials were mixed to produce green bodies, which are subsequently sintered into ceramic bodies at 980 °C~1020 °C (sintering temperature). The results showed that some new kinds of mineral phases, such as mullite, anorthite and orthoclase, appear in ceramic bodies. Furthermore, the ceramic bodies have a surface hardness of 5 to 6 (Mohs scale), and their water absorption and modulus of rupture can meet some technical requirements of ceramic materials described in ISO 13006-2012 and GB 5001-1985. These gold mine tailings can be made into ceramic tiles, domestic ceramic bodies, and other kinds of ceramic bodies for commercial and industrial purposes after further improvements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Análise de coberturas com telhas de barro e alumínio, utilizadas em instalações animais para duas distintas alturas de pé-direito The analysis of ceramic tile and aluminum covers, used in animal facilities for two different foot-right heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Santos

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a análise de coberturas com telhas de barro e alumínio, comumente utilizadas em instalações animais, para duas distintas alturas de pé-direito, em condições de inverno no Brasil. O experimento foi realizado com modelos reduzidos de galpões avícolas, escala 1:10, e a análise foi feita quantificando-se a Carga Térmica de Radiação (CTR e o Índice de Temperatura de Globo Negro e Umidade (ITGU em diferentes horários, ao longo do período experimental. O experimento foi montado segundo um esquema de parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento em blocos casualizados. A interpretação estatística dos dados experimentais foi feita por meio da análise de variância e regressão. Para os fatores qualitativos (tipos de cobertura e pé-direito as médias foram comparadas utilizando-se o teste de Tukey e/ou F, adotando-se o nível de 5% de probabilidade; já para o fator quantitativo, os modelos foram escolhidos com base na significância dos coeficientes de regressão, utilizando-se o teste t em nível de 5% de probabilidade, o coeficiente de determinação e o fenômeno em estudo. Verificou-se, através deste experimento, que nas horas de frio mais intenso todas as coberturas causaram desconforto térmico e todos os protótipos tiveram UR acima do máximo tolerável para o conforto animal.This research had as objective the analysis of ceramic tiles and aluminum roof, commonly used in animal facilities, for two different heights, under Brazilian Winter conditions. The experiment used reduced models of poultry houses (scale 1:10 and the analysis was made by the values of Thermal Load of Radiation (TLR and of Black Globe and Humidity Index (BGHI, at different times along the experiment. The trial was conducted in randomized complete block design. The statistical interpretation of the experimental data was made through the variance and regression analysis. For the qualitative factors (roof types and height, the

  18. Microbial deterioration of artistic tiles from the façade of the Grande Albergo Ausonia & Hungaria (Venice, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomucci, Lucia; Bertoncello, Renzo; Salvadori, Ornella; Martini, Ilaria; Favaro, Monica; Villa, Federica; Sorlini, Claudia; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    The Grande Albergo Ausonia & Hungaria (Venice Lido, Italy) has an Art Nouveau polychrome ceramic coating on its façade, which was restored in 2007. Soon after the conservation treatment, many tiles of the façade decoration showed coloured alterations putatively attributed to the presence of microbial communities. To confirm the presence of the biological deposit and the stratigraphy of the Hungaria tiles, stereomicroscope, optical and environmental scanning electron microscope observations were made. The characterisation of the microbial community was performed using a PCR-DGGE approach. This study reported the first use of a culture-independent approach to identify the total community present in biodeteriorated artistic tiles. The case study examined here reveals that the coloured alterations on the tiles were mainly due to the presence of cryptoendolithic cyanobacteria. In addition, we proved that the microflora present on the tiles was generally greatly influenced by the environment of the Hungaria hotel. We found several microorganisms related to the alkaline environment, which is in the range of the tile pH, and related to the aquatic environment, the presence of the acrylic resin Paraloid B72® used during the 2007 treatment and the pollutants of the Venice lagoon.

  19. Glazed porcelain tiles produced by the dry route: fluxing raw; Gres porcelanico esmaltado producido por via seca: materias primas fundentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchiades, B. G.; Dos Santos, L. R.; Nastri, S.; Boschi, A. O.

    2012-07-01

    Fluxing agents are particularly important in porcelain tile compositions because this type of ceramic tile requires high volumes of vitreous phases during firing to eliminate open porosity. The volume and viscosity of the vitreous phases formed during firing control the densification process and thus determine the firing temperature and pyro plastic deformation. The fluxing agents commonly employed in porcelain tile compositions are feldspars, pettishly (used in Brazil) and nepheline. These raw materials are water-insoluble, which makes them particularly suitable for compositions of traditional porcelain tile produced by the wet route. However, a large group of water-soluble raw materials also have a good potential to act as fluxing agents and could be used in dry route processes. In this context, the purpose of this work was to determine the fluxing potential of water-soluble or partially water-soluble raw materials in a porcelain tile composition. The effectiveness of several borates, i.e., colemanite, ulexine, hydroboracite, as well as sodium carbonate, was tested in a comparative study. The results of this study indicate that small additions of these fluxing agents suffice to greatly reduce the firing temperature without causing high pyro plastic deformation of the bodies. The best results were obtained in compositions containing hydroboracite. This finding is especially relevant for the creation of alternative compositions of porcelain tiles produced by the dry route. Dry route processing is currently the focus of a great deal of interest due to environmental and economic issues. (Author)

  20. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Program

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00414625; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's outermost radial layer can assist in muon tagging in the Level-1 Muon Trigger by rejecting fake muon triggers arising from background radiation (slow charged particles - protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The TileCal main activity for the ATLAS Phase-0 upgrade program (2013-2014) was the activation of the TileCal outermost D-layer signal for assisting the Level-1 Muon Trigger at 1.0<|η|<1.3. This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger within the TileCal upgrade activities, focusing on the new on-detector electronics such as the Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) providing (receive and digitize) the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon end-cap sector logic blocks.

  1. Application of Ceramic Filter in Tailings and Treatment of Other Industrial Waste Residue%陶瓷过滤机在选矿尾矿及其它工业废渣处理的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德平; 贾彪

    2009-01-01

    介绍了陶瓷过滤机与其他过滤机相比具有生产率高、节能降耗、清洁环保等方面的优点,列举了陶瓷过滤机在国内几大矿山的使用情况,指出陶瓷过滤机在矿山、冶金、化工、建材等行业中废渣、废水处理方面的广泛应用前景.%Ceramic filter has advantages over other filters in high productivity, energy saving and consumption reducing, and environmental protection. The service conditions of the ceramic filter in domestic large mines are cited. It considers that the ceramic filter has extensive use in treatment of waste residue and waste water of mine, metallurgy, chemical industry and building materials.

  2. Ancient Technologies: The Egyptian Sintered-Quartz Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    To physicists and engineers, ceramics represent materials demonstrating excellent strength and hardness, materials that can serve as electrical insulators or conductors, some of them being able of a high-temperature superconductivity. To researchers working in archaeology and art history, ceramics mean objects such as figurines, tiles and tableware helping understanding cultures and technologies of the past. They are among the most common artifacts to be found in archaeological sites, because...

  3. Evaluation of Ceramic Honeycomb Core Compression Behavior at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Richard K.; Lapointe, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature flatwise compression tests were conducted on two varieties of ceramic honeycomb core specimens that have potential for high-temperature structural applications. One set of specimens was fabricated using strips of a commercially-available thin-gage "ceramic paper" sheet molded into a hexagonal core configuration. The other set was fabricated by machining honeycomb core directly from a commercially available rigid insulation tile material. This paper summarizes the results from these tests.

  4. Seamless stitching of tile scan microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, F B; Chernavskaia, O; Heuke, S; Bocklitz, T; Meyer, T; Popp, J; Heintzmann, R

    2015-06-01

    For diagnostic purposes, optical imaging techniques need to obtain high-resolution images of extended biological specimens in reasonable time. The field of view of an objective lens, however, is often smaller than the sample size. To image the whole sample, laser scanning microscopes acquire tile scans that are stitched into larger mosaics. The appearance of such image mosaics is affected by visible edge artefacts that arise from various optical aberrations which manifest in grey level jumps across tile boundaries. In this contribution, a technique for stitching tiles into a seamless mosaic is presented. The stitching algorithm operates by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at corners to a common value. The corrected image mosaics appear to be free from stitching artefacts and are, therefore, suited for further image analysis procedures. The contribution presents a novel method to seamlessly stitch tiles captured by a laser scanning microscope into a large mosaic. The motivation for the work is the failure of currently existing methods for stitching nonlinear, multimodal images captured by our microscopic setups. Our method eliminates the visible edge artefacts that appear between neighbouring tiles by taking into account the overall illumination differences among tiles in such mosaics. The algorithm first corrects the nonuniform brightness that exists within each of the tiles. It then compensates for grey level differences across tile boundaries by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at the corners to a common value. After these artefacts have been removed further image analysis procedures can be applied on the microscopic images. Even though the solution presented here is tailored for the aforementioned specific case, it could be easily adapted to other contexts where image tiles are assembled into mosaics such as in astronomical or satellite photos.

  5. Ceramic Forum International yearbook 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reh, H. (ed.)

    2004-12-01

    This is the second English-language edition of our 'ceramic forum international Yearbook'. In this year's 'Ceramics World', the perpetually updated textbook section, you will find papers surveying the already in technical ceramics established fields of 'bioceramics' and 'ceramic armouring'. From the traditional ceramics sector, from which news of more and more innovations have been reaching us in recent months, we have picked out 'decorating processes for ceramic tiles' as these are currently enjoying an undreamt-of boom thanks to the development of completely new shaping processes. A soundly researched study on 'rheology in ceramics' completes this section of the yearbook. Interested ceramists will again find everything they need for their day-to-day work - the index will help them to find the information they need fast. This information is available under the following headings: (A) Product News: Short notes on outstanding new machines, kilns, plants and equipment as well as new raw materials on the market, supplied by both European and overseas suppliers. (B) Abstracts: A compilation of abridged articles, all of which published during the last 12 months, discussing interesting processes and products or new directions in research. (C) ESD - European Suppliers Directory: Who supplies what? In English, German, Spanish, Italian and French with about 220 company entries. (D) Appendix: Listing ceramics laboratories in Europe; the periodic system; the most important physical units and the conversion of older ones to SI units (and vice versa); essential formulas for use in the ceramist's daily practice. (orig.)

  6. Work force retention: Role of work environment, organization commitment, supervisor support and training & development in ceramic sanitary ware industries in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umamaheswari S, Jayasree Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Although retention of employees has become hot topic in this career turbulent era, practically no empirical research is carried out in the fast growing ceramic sector till now and this research fills the gap in the literature. The literatures surveys reported that organization commitment is an important determinant of retention and work environment, supervisor support and training and development are the most relevant antecedents increasing commitment towards organization. This paper examines the impact of the above factors over organization commitment and explores the effects of organization commitment on retention, and verifies the mediating effect of organization commitment on the relationship between proposed factors and retention. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was completed by 416 employees working in five ceramic sanitary ware factories located at different places in India. Questionnaire consisting of items adopted from previous researches were used to collect data. The selection of respondents was based on the simple random sampling. Findings: Findings reveals that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhances it. Moreover organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. However multiple regression analysis indicated that training and development did not have any notable influence on retention. Limitations: This study was conducted in a particular country and also in a particular sector of manufacturing industry, which limits generalization .Possibility of bias towards their organization and assumption that respondents know about their organization are other limitations. Implications: This paper offers recommendations to HR(Human resource) managers that they should extend their support to work environment, supervisor support and training and development in order to generate better relationship with employees and to reduce their likelihood of leaving the company

  7. Work force retention: Role of work environment, organization commitment, supervisor support and training & development in ceramic sanitary ware industries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umamaheswari S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although retention of employees has become hot topic in this career turbulent era, practically no empirical research is carried out in the fast growing ceramic sector till now and this research fills the gap in the literature. The literatures surveys reported that organization commitment is an important determinant of retention and work environment, supervisor support and training and development are the most relevant antecedents increasing commitment towards organization. This paper examines the impact of the above factors over organization commitment and explores the effects of organization commitment on retention, and verifies the mediating effect of organization commitment on the relationship between proposed factors and retention. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was completed by 416 employees working in five ceramic sanitary ware factories located at different places in India. Questionnaire consisting of items adopted from previous researches were used to collect data. The selection of respondents was based on the simple random sampling. Findings: Findings reveals that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhances it. Moreover organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. However multiple regression analysis indicated that training and development did not have any notable   influence on retention. Limitations: This study was conducted in a particular country and also in a particular sector of manufacturing industry, which limits generalization .Possibility of bias towards their organization and assumption that respondents know about their organization are other limitations. Implications: This paper offers recommendations to HR(Human resource managers that they should extend their support to work environment, supervisor support and training and development in order to generate better relationship with employees and to reduce their

  8. Influence of milling process in the surface energy of glass tile frits; Influencia de la molienda en la energia superficial de fritas para esmaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamayo, A.; Rubio, F.; Oteo, J. L.; Rubio, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this work has been studied the influence of the milling process of two ceramic frits used in the ceramic tile industry. Both glass frits were of similar chemical composition changing SiO{sub 2} by 5% of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and both of them were water or dry milled. Glass frit surfaces were characterized by FT-IR, Karl-Fischer (K-F) titration and Inverse Gas Chromatography at Infinite Dilution (IGC-ID). By K-F titration it was observed that water milled frits presented 28 and 26 OH groups for 100 A{sup 2} if they do not contain or contain boron, respectively. These surface changes are also observed by IGC-ID. Thus, the glass frit without boron and dry milled presented the highest dispersive surface energy (44 mJ.m{sup -}2) and the less acidic constant (0.13 kJ.mol{sup -}1). Both glass frits are amphoteric with acidic and base surface active sites, and that frit without boron presents the higher basicity. Milling process influences in the acid-base surface characteristics of both frits by increasing the basicity for the one without boron and increasing for the other one. This has been assigned to the different location of hydroxyl groups where the higher interaction is the one that does not contain boron and dry milled as K-F results. (Author) 30 refs.

  9. Influence of milling process in the surface energy of glass tile frits; Influencia de la molienda en la energia superficial de fritas para esmaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamayo, A.; Rubio, F.; Otero, J. L.; Rubio, J.

    2013-06-01

    In this work has been studied the influence of the milling process of two ceramic frits used in the ceramic tile industry. Both glass frits were of similar chemical composition changing SiO{sub 2} by 5% of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and both of them were water or dry milled. Glass frit surfaces were characterized by FT-IR, Karl-Fischer (K-F) titration and Inverse Gas Chromatography at Infinite Dilution (IGC-ID). By K-F titration it was observed that water milled frits presented 28 and 26 OH groups for 100 A{sup 2} if they do not contain or contain boron, respectively. These surface changes are also observed by IGC-ID. Thus, the glass frit without boron and dry milled presented the highest dispersive surface energy (44 mJ.m{sup -}2) and the less acidic constant (0.13 kJ.mol{sup -}1). Both glass frits are amphoteric with acidic and base surface active sites, and that frit without boron presents the higher basicity. Milling process influences in the acid-base surface characteristics of both frits by increasing the basicity for the one without boron and increasing for the other one. This has been assigned to the different location of hydroxyl groups where the higher interaction is the one that does not contain boron and dry milled as K-F results. (Author)

  10. Introductory Tiling Theory for Computer Graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Tiling theory is an elegant branch of mathematics that has applications in several areas of computer science. The most immediate application area is graphics, where tiling theory has been used in the contexts of texture generation, sampling theory, remeshing, and of course the generation of decorative patterns. The combination of a solid theoretical base (complete with tantalizing open problems), practical algorithmic techniques, and exciting applications make tiling theory a worthwhile area of study for practitioners and students in computer science. This synthesis lecture introduces the math

  11. Blue Model of Ceramic Bearing Application Strong of Industry Competition%陶瓷轴承应用开启蓝海产业竞争发展风头正劲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic material with low density ,high elastic modulus ,thermal expansion coeffi‐cient ,wear resistance ,high temperature resistant ,corrosion resistance and other excellent proper‐ties ,become the ideal material of manufacturing high speed precision bearings ,and has been widely used .According to the function of the ceramic bearing and its application field ,this paper introduces the main types and performance characteristics of ceramic bearing ,this paper discusses the ceramic bearing industry and the market prospect at home and abroad ,points out the developing trend of the technology of ceramic bearing .%陶瓷材料具有密度小、弹性模量高、线胀系数小、耐磨、耐高温、耐腐蚀等优良性能,成为制造高速精密轴承的理想材料,并且受到了越来越广泛的应用。根据陶瓷轴承的功能及其应用领域,介绍了陶瓷轴承的主要类型及性能特点,论述了国内外陶瓷轴承的产业及市场前景,指出了陶瓷轴承技术的发展趋势。

  12. The usage of ceramics in the manufacture of the lining of temperature sensors for the oil industry; Utilizacao de ceramica para encapsulamento de sensores de temperatura na industria petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, R.O.; Yadava, Y.P.; Sanguinetti Ferreira, R.A., E-mail: rebeka.oliveira@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: yadava@ufpe.br, E-mail: ricardo.sanguinetti@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2014-07-01

    In the oil production, many types of sensors are used in order to monitor some important parameters such as temperature, pressure and flow. These sensors are subjected to harsh operating conditions. Therefore they must present an inert and stable behavior in these conditions. The temperature sensors that are more suited to the oil industry are the Temperature Detectors by Resistance (TDR), because they have high accuracy and wide temperature range. Usually these devices are built with metals as detectors of temperature by encapsulated resistance in inert ceramics. The main objective of this research is to produce new ceramics of a Ca{sub 2}AlZrO{sub 5,5} cubic complex perovskite structure for the encapsulation of temperature sensors. The stoichiometric amounts of the constituent chemicals, with a high degree of purity, are homogenized, through a solid state reaction in a high energy ball mill. They are then compacted by uniaxial pressing and calcined at 1200°C for 24 hours. Soon after, the tablet is crushed giving place to a ceramic powder and the analysis of X-ray diffraction is performed. According to the sintering behavior of the ceramic powder, the microstructure and the homogeneity are studied by the Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results are presented in terms of the potential of this ceramic for applications as components of temperature sensors. (author)

  13. Study of the behavior of the consistency rates of a clay with the incorporation of waste of burned ceramic blocks; Estudo do comportamento dos indices de consistencia de uma argila com a incorporacao de residuos de blocos ceramicos queimados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Orley Magalhaes de, E-mail: orleye10estudo@yahoo.cpm.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil); Crivelari, Rubem Mateus; Munhoz Junior, Antonio Hortencio [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo,SP (Brazil); Silva-Valenzuela, Maria das Gracas da; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco Rolando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2016-07-01

    One of the important parts in the process of manufacturing a structural ceramic product is its conformation. The clay which is the basis for these products need to have an appropriate plasticity. In Ceramics Industries that produce ceramic blocks and tiles plasticity clay and a key property for this production. This Industries are a lot of pieces that do not pass the quality control for not having a uniform visual appearance or have small cracks, these lots are usually discarded, which leads to material waste and produces a lot of waste. The objective of this work is the study of the behavior of consistency indexes, plastic limit (LP); the liquid limit (LL) and plasticity index (PI) of a clay from Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, with the addition of several waste percentages of burnt and ground ceramic blocks. Our results demonstrate that the addition of the reject only affect the plasticity of clay from an increase of over 100%, which makes possible its incorporation in ceramic paste. (author)

  14. Modular robotic tiles: experiments for children with autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Dam Pedersen, Martin; Beck, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We developed a modular robotic tile and a system composed of a number of these modular robotic tiles. The system composed of the modular robotic tiles engages the user in physical activities, e.g., physiotherapy, sports, fitness, and entertainment. The modular robotic tiles motivate the user to p...

  15. Tile-Packing Tomography Is NP-hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrobak, Marek; Dürr, Christoph; Guíñez, Flavio;

    2010-01-01

    Discrete tomography deals with reconstructing finite spatial objects from their projections. The objects we study in this paper are called tilings or tile-packings, and they consist of a number of disjoint copies of a fixed tile, where a tile is defined as a connected set of grid points. A row pr...

  16. Gneiss wastes as secondary raw material for the ceramic industry: an example from the Verbano Cusio Ossola district (Piedmont, north-western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The Verbano Cusio Ossola province (VCO, Piedmont, north-western Italy) is one of the most important Italian quarrying districts, due to the peculiarity and variety of its exploited rock types, mainly orthogneisses such as Serizzo and Beola, and subordinately granites, marbles and other rocks. The most important and extensively exploited ornamental stone from the VCO province is surely the Serizzo, commercialized in four main varieties, and representing about 70% of all the stone production from the VCO area. The protholith of the Serizzo is a Permian granite - granodiorite metamorphosed during the alpine events, and the rock-forming minerals are mainly quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase (andesine), biotite, with variable amounts of muscovite and epidote (allanite). The other important ornamental stone of the VCO province is the Beola, a series of heterogeneous materials (mainly orthogneisses) with marked (mylonitic) foliation and strong mineralogical lineation, occurring in the median Ossola Valley; its production (15% of the whole stones of the VCO) is subordinated with respect to that of Serizzo. The mineralogical composition of the Beola varieties is similar to Serizzo, consisting of quite homogeneous quartz, K-feldspar (orthoclase or microcline), plagioclase, biotite and muscovite. The main differences relate to the grain size, the rock fabric (generally mylonitic) and to the presence of accessory/secondary minerals. Recent regulatory developments and the growing environmental awareness, require an increasing reuse of wastes deriving from the extraction and processing of dimension stones (up to 50 % of the extracted gross volume). Granite wastes from the VCO (Baveno pink granite and Montorfano white granite), after specific industrial treatments (crushing, sieving, drying, magnetic separation of biotite and hornblende), are used successfully as quartz-feldspars mix in the ceramic industry, with very low FeOtot content. On the other hand, other quartzose

  17. Incorporação de lodo de lavanderia industrial na fabricação de tijolos cerâmicos Incorporation of industrial laundry mud in the production of ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. S. Herek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O lodo gerado em ETEs de lavanderias industriais é um material não inerte de Classe IIA, devido �� sua solubilidade em água. Este resíduo tem recebido atenção especial devido à grande quantidade produzida e, consequentemente, ao custo demandado para destino em aterros industriais. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a qualidade dos tijolos cerâmicos de vedação, fabricados com lodo de lavanderia industrial incorporado em massa cerâmica vermelha, pelo processo de extrusão, em escala de laboratório (73 x 35 x 55 mm, com os seguintes percentuais de lodo de lavanderia: 0 (modelo, 5, 10, 15 e 20% em peso. Após a queima, em indústria cerâmica, a qualidade dos tijolos foi analisada por meio de ensaios de resistência à compressão, absorção de água, lixiviação e solubilização. Nos resultados obtidos observou-se que a resistência à compressão é inversamente proporcional à quantidade de lodo adicionada, enquanto a absorção de água é diretamente proporcional à mesma quantidade de lodo adicionada na fabricação dos tijolos. No ensaio de lixiviação nenhum dos metais pesados analisados foi lixiviado; para o ensaio de solubilização nenhum dos metais analisados foi detectado, comprovando que o produto é inerte. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, é possível a fabricação de tijolos de vedação com até 20% de resíduo de lavanderias industriais incorporados em argila.The sludge from wastewater treatment in industrial laundries is a II-A class non-inert material, due to its solubility in water. This waste has been paid special attention, due to the large quantities that are produced and therefore the high cost of the final destination in landfills. This way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of sealing ceramic bricks manufactured with sludge from industrial laundry incorporated in red ceramic mass, by the extrusion process, in laboratory scale (73 x 35 x 55 mm, with the following weight

  18. Real-Time Texture Synthesis Using s-Tile Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xue; You-Sheng Zhang; Ju-Lang Jiang; Min Hu; Xin-Dong Wu; Rong-Gui Wang

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of generating a set of texture tiles from samples, which can be seamlessly tiled into arbitrary size textures in real-time. Compared to existing methods, our approach is simpler and more advantageous in eliminating visual seams that may exist in each tile of the existing methods, especially when the samples have elaborate features or distinct colors. Texture tiles generated by our approach can be regarded as single-colored tiles on each orthogonal direction border, which are easier for tiling and more suitable for sentence tiling. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach.

  19. Relevance of magnetic properties for the characterisation of burnt clays and archaeological tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrice, C.; Coïsson, M.; Ferrara, E.; Olivetti, E. S.

    The archaeomagnetism of pottery, bricks and tiles is typically employed for dating inferences, yet the magnetic properties of ancient ceramics can also be convenient for their characterisation, to evaluate the technological conditions applied for their production (temperature, atmosphere, and duration of firing), as well as to distinguish groups of sherds having different provenance. In this work, the measurement of hysteresis loops has been applied and combined with colour survey to characterise the magnetic properties of burnt clays and archaeological tiles. Four calcareous and non-calcareous clays, along with seventeen tile fragments excavated from the sites of the ancient Roman towns of Pompeii and Gravina di Puglia, in Southern Italy, are examined. The ferrimagnetic character of the clays, in general, enhances with increasing firing temperatures until vitrification processes occur (900-1000 °C) dissolving iron oxides and dispersing the colour and magnetic properties they provide. High values of saturation magnetization are observed in clays with relevant calcareous content after firing above 900 °C, which results in the formation of Ca-silicates able to delay the onset of the vitrification processes. Magnetic properties of the tiles have been evaluated in terms of the high coercivity (i.e. mainly ferrimagnetic) or low coercivity behaviour (i.e. including relevant paramagnetic and superparamagnetic contributions). Enhanced ferrimagnetic character, mostly depending on the growth in number and volume of iron oxide particles, is associated with the development of an intense reddish hue.

  20. LIMITS IN APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS TO INNOVATIVE CERAMIC SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gres Porcelain stoneware is a ceramic with a compact, hard, coloured and non-porous body. It is largely used as building materials, for a quality architecture, offering high resistance to impact, stress, wear, scratching, frost, chemical attach and stains. It is produced in flat tiles, billions of tons per year. A very prominent technology, based on a pyroclastic deformation, permits to obtain bended porcelain tiles as innovative solutions for a modern architecture. This technology is grounded on a proper combination of heavy machining by cutting tools and secondary firing in a kiln. This new element, the bended tile, can be used in several innovative applications (as steps, shelves, benches, radiators.... But, new functions require a better and in-depth knowledge of these materials, especially referring to the mechanical proprieties. This paper investigates the limits of applicability of ISO standards for the quality classification of ceramics and experimental measures of their mechanical proprieties.

  1. Instrumented module of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS tile calorimeter consists of steel absorber plates interspersed with plastic scintillator tiles. Interactions of high-energy hadrons in the plates transform the incident energy into a 'hadronic shower'. When shower particles traverse the scintillating tiles, the latter emit an amount of light proportional to the incident energy. This light is transmitted along readout fibres to a photomultiplier, where a detectable electrical signal is produced. These pictures show one of 64 modules or 'wedges' of the barrel part of the tile calorimeter, which are arranged to form a cylinder around the beam axis. The wedge has been instrumented with scintillators and readout fibres. Photos 03, 06: Checking the routing of the readout fibres into the girder that houses the photomultipliers. Photo 04: A view of the fibre bundles inside the girder.

  2. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chomont, Arthur Rene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin...

  3. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cuciuc, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the readout system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. The calorimeter performance and its stability has been evaluated with the rich sample of collision data in 2011 but also with calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons and splash events. Results on the absolute energy scale calibration precision, on the energy and timing uniformity, on the time resolution and on the synchronization precision are presented...

  4. 2011 Las Conchas Post Fire Tile Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set consists of an orthophotography tile index based on multi-spectral (red, green, blue, near-infrared) digital aerial imagery, collected and processed by...

  5. Electrochemical desalination of historic Portuguese tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble salts cause severe decay of historic Portuguese tiles. Treatment options for removal of the salts to stop the decay are few. The present paper deals with development of a method for electrochemical desalination, where an electric DC field is applied to the tiles. Laboratory experiments were...... and glaze, where salt crystals were clearly identified by SEM-EDX before desalination. The concentrations of chloride and especially nitrate were very high in the tiles (around 280 mmol Cl−/kg and 450 mmol NO3−/kg respectively). Both anions were successfully removed to below 6 mmol/kg during...... was initially very low, but nevertheless, sulfate removal started at the point where chloride and nitrate concentrations were very low in the tiles. Investigating the interface between biscuit and glaze after the treatment showed no signs of crystallized salts, so also in this important point, the desalination...

  6. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chomont, Arthur Rene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin...

  7. Applied physics: The virtues of tiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratzl, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A cracked metal film on an elastic substrate has been shown to provide ultrahigh sensitivity in detecting mechanical vibrations. The result draws inspiration from principles of tiling that apply to many biological systems. See Letter p.222

  8. GIBS Web Map Tile Service (WMTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The WMTS implementation standard provides a standards-based solution for serviing digital maps using predefined image tiles. Through the constructs of the...

  9. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Solodkov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5182 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1\\% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. The results demonstrate a very good understanding of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter that is well within the design expectations.

  10. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Solodkov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of muons and single hadrons from proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design requirements and it has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  11. Electrochemical desalination of historic Portuguese tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble salts cause severe decay of historic Portuguese tiles. Treatment options for removal of the salts to stop the decay are few. The present paper deals with development of a method for electrochemical desalination, where an electric DC field is applied to the tiles. Laboratory experiments were...... and glaze, where salt crystals were clearly identified by SEM-EDX before desalination. The concentrations of chloride and especially nitrate were very high in the tiles (around 280 mmol Cl−/kg and 450 mmol NO3−/kg respectively). Both anions were successfully removed to below 6 mmol/kg during...... was initially very low, but nevertheless, sulfate removal started at the point where chloride and nitrate concentrations were very low in the tiles. Investigating the interface between biscuit and glaze after the treatment showed no signs of crystallized salts, so also in this important point, the desalination...

  12. VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bristow, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Washington, DC.

  13. On reconfigurable tiled multi-core programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, Kenneth C.; Burgwal, van de Marcel D.; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2009-01-01

    For a generic flexible efficient array antenna receiver platform a hierarchical reconfigurable tiled architecture has been proposed. The architecture provides a flexible reconfigurable solution, but partitioning, mapping, modelling and programming such systems remains an issue. A semantic model has

  14. Notch sensitivity of space shuttle tile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted at room temperature to determine the notch sensitivity of the thermal protection tile for the space shuttle. Two types of RSI tile were studied: LI-900 and LI-2200. Three point bend specimens were cut from discarded tiles in the in-plane (ip) and through-the-thickness (ttt) directions. They were tested with or without a sharp notch. The LI-900 (ip and ttt) specimens were not very notch sensitive, but the LI-2200 (ip and ttt) specimens were. The LI-2200 material showed about a 35 percent reduction in strength due to the presence of the notch. This reduction in strength should be considered in the design of mechanically fastened tile concepts.

  15. On Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents four ceramics activities for secondary-level art classes. Included are directions for primitive kiln construction and glaze making. Two ceramics design activities are described in which students make bizarrely-shaped lidded jars, feet, and footwear. (AM)

  16. Beneficiation of feldspar ore for application in the ceramic industry: Influence of composition on the physical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Gaied

    2015-03-01

    Experimental studies indicate that an acceptable concentrate for industrial application can be obtained from these rocks. The feldspar yield was used to evaluate the process efficiency. Besides, the cone shrinkage, water absorption, degree of vitrification, mechanical properties (flexural strength and dielectric behaviour were used to monitor the quality of the recovered feldspars.

  17. Detector Control System of Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Arabidze, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this presentation is to describe the Detector Control System (DCS) implementation for Tile Calorimeter sub-detector. It describes hardware layout and software components for main, infrastructure related and sub-detector calibration systems. It discusses implementation of the top level software Finite State Machine (FSM)and discusses state models of FSM objects. Presentation shows usage of Configuration and Conditions Data Bases, for Tile Calorimeter DCS.

  18. On the structure of quadrilateral brane tilings

    CERN Document Server

    de Medeiros, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Brane tilings provide the most general framework in string and M-theory for matching toric Calabi-Yau singularities probed by branes with superconformal fixed points of quiver gauge theories. The brane tiling data consists of a bipartite tiling of the torus which encodes both the classical superpotential and gauge-matter couplings for the quiver gauge theory. We consider the class of tilings which contain only tiles bounded by exactly four edges and present a method for generating any tiling within this class by iterating combinations of certain graph-theoretic moves. In the context of D3-branes in IIB string theory, we consider the effect of these generating moves within the corresponding class of supersymmetric quiver gauge theories in four dimensions. Of particular interest are their effect on the superpotential, the vacuum moduli space and the conditions necessary for the theory to reach a superconformal fixed point in the infrared. We discuss the general structure of physically admissible quadrilateral b...

  19. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter have been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations o...

  20. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  1. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Fast – Fired Clinker Tiles Based on Wierzbka I Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajek M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research on microstructural and mechanical properties of floor tiles clinker manufactured on the basis of Wierzbka I raw material, which is part of the deposit Wierzbka, near Suchedniów. Wierzbka I clay was added in various volume fractions to the standard tile compositions used in industrial practice. The samples were pressed in a range of from 21 MPa to 42 MPa and fired in the laboratory furnace at 1130°C to 1190°C. Selected compositions were pressed at 28 MPa and fired in a standard industrial environment. The process of firing was conducted in an industrial kiln at temperature of 1160°C for 38 minutes, with holding for 4 minutes at maximum operating temperature. The samples, which were prepared in the laboratory and industrial conditions were evaluated for the effect of addition of the Wierzbka I clay on their microstructural and mechanical properties based on the measurement results of linear shrinkage, bulk density, open porosity, water absorption and flexural strength (Ϭ of the tiles. Microstructural changes were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results revealed that the tested tiles were characterized by a high degree of sintering, an apparent density of 2.5 g/cm3, an open porosity and water absorption below 0.5%. The measurement results of mechanical bending strength showed that the tested samples had a high strength of 50 MPa.

  2. Mass-deformed Brane Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Massimo; Hanany, Amihay; Morales, Jose Francisco; Pacifici, Daniel Ricci; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    We study renormalization group flows among N=1 SCFTs realized on the worldvolume of D3-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau singularities, thus admitting a brane tiling description. The flows are triggered by masses for adjoint or vector-like pairs of bifundamentals and are generalizations of the Klebanov-Witten construction of the N=1 theory for the conifold starting from the N=2 theory for the C^2/Z_2 orbifold. In order to preserve the toric condition pairs of masses with opposite signs have to be switched on. We offer a geometric interpretation of the flows as complex deformations of the Calabi-Yau singularity preserving the toric condition. For orbifolds, we support this interpretation by an explicit string amplitude computation of the gauge invariant mass terms generated by imaginary self-dual 3-form fluxes in the twisted sector. In agreement with the holographic a-theorem, the volume of the Sasaki-Einstein 5-base of the Calabi-Yau cone always increases along the flow.

  3. Properties of ceramics prepared using dry discharged waste to energy bottom ash dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Vandeperre, Luc; Grimes, Sue; Themelis, Nicolas; Koralewska, Ralf; Cheeseman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The fine dust of incinerator bottom ash generated from dry discharge systems can be transformed into an inert material suitable for the production of hard, dense ceramics. Processing involves the addition of glass, ball milling and calcining to remove volatile components from the incinerator bottom ash. This transforms the major crystalline phases present in fine incinerator bottom ash dust from quartz (SiO(2)), calcite (CaCO(3)), gehlenite (Ca(2)Al(2)SiO(7)) and hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), to the pyroxene group minerals diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6)), clinoenstatite (MgSi(2)O(6)), wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) together with some albite (NaAlSi(3)O(8)) and andradite (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)). Processed powders show minimal leaching and can be pressed and sintered to form dense (>2.5 g cm(-3)), hard ceramics that exhibit low firing shrinkage (ceramic tiles that have potential for use in a range of industrial applications.

  4. Numerical analysis of an entire ceramic kiln under actual operating conditions for the energy efficiency improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Stefani, Matteo; Saponelli, Roberto; Lizzano, Maurizio

    2017-04-05

    The paper focuses on the analysis of an industrial ceramic kiln in order to improve the energy efficiency and thus the fuel consumption and the corresponding carbon dioxide emissions. A lumped and distributed parameter model of the entire system is constructed to simulate the performance of the kiln under actual operating conditions. The model is able to predict accurately the temperature distribution along the different modules of the kiln and the operation of the many natural gas burners employed to provide the required thermal power. Furthermore, the temperature of the tiles is also simulated so that the quality of the final product can be addressed by the modelling. Numerical results are validated against experimental measurements carried out on a real ceramic kiln during regular production operations. The developed numerical model demonstrates to be an efficient tool for the investigation of different design solutions for the kiln's components. In addition, a number of control strategies for the system working conditions can be simulated and compared in order to define the best trade off in terms of fuel consumption and product quality. In particular, the paper analyzes the effect of a new burner type characterized by internal heat recovery capability aimed at improving the energy efficiency of the ceramic kiln. The fuel saving and the relating reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulted in the order of 10% when compared to the standard burner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using mixture design of experiments to assess the environmental impact of clay-based structural ceramics containing foundry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, M; Segadães, A M; Andrés, A

    2015-12-15

    This work describes the leaching behavior of potentially hazardous metals from three different clay-based industrial ceramic products (wall bricks, roof tiles, and face bricks) containing foundry sand dust and Waelz slag as alternative raw materials. For each product, ten mixtures were defined by mixture design of experiments and the leaching of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn was evaluated in pressed specimens fired simulating the three industrial ceramic processes. The results showed that, despite the chemical, mineralogical and processing differences, only chrome and molybdenum were not fully immobilized during ceramic processing. Their leaching was modeled as polynomial equations, functions of the raw materials contents, and plotted as response surfaces. This brought to evidence that Cr and Mo leaching from the fired products is not only dependent on the corresponding contents and the basicity of the initial mixtures, but is also clearly related with the mineralogical composition of the fired products, namely the amount of the glassy phase, which depends on both the major oxides contents and the firing temperature.

  6. Comparison among the mineralogic characteristics of Corumbatai formation and a mass for via humidity ceramic coating; Comparacao das caracteristicas mineralogicas da formacao Corumbatai com uma massa para revestimentos ceramicos via umida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, R.R.; Zanardo, A.; Moreno, M.M.T., E-mail: azanardo@rc.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia; Souza, E.M. [Colorminas Colorificio e Mineracao S.A., Icara, SC (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mineralogy of the raw materials used in the production of ceramic tiles is a matter of great importance considering the constant necessity of finding alternatives to reduce costs and to improve the product quality. The ceramic industry of Santa Gertrudes could see a dramatic growth due to reasons that include the natural characteristics of the raw materials found in the region which are suitable for the production of ceramic tiles through the dry grinding process. In order to understand the ease of use of such clays which are sedimentary rocks of Corumbatai Formation, their plastic components made up primarily of clay minerals such as illite and smectite, and non-plastic components, including quartz (inert), feldspars (fluxe) and some contaminants, were identified with the use of X-ray diffraction. When comparing the properties of the formulation made with clays from Corumbatai Formation with that made with raw materials for the wet process, it was possible to note the ease of use and the relative characteristics of both processes. (author)

  7. Vacating the Cage for Better Birds: Transformation in Foshan Building Ceramic Industry%论佛山建陶之“腾笼换鸟”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜蔚篮; 梁健彬

    2012-01-01

    改革开放以来,佛山建陶产业发展迅猛,取得了辉煌成就。随着佛山经济的进一步发展,佛山市政府做出了"腾笼换鸟"的战略决策。本文在介绍佛山建陶产业取得成就的基础上,对"腾笼换鸟"的原因进行了分析,并对"腾笼换鸟"具体举措进行了归纳。%Foshan ceramic industry has been developing rapidly and making brilliant achievements after China's reforms and opening-up. With the economy in a new phase of development, Foshan government decides on a plan to" vacate the cage for better birds." This paper explains why and how the city implements that plan.

  8. Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1991-07-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.

  9. ATLAS Rewards Russian Supplier for Scintillating Tile Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At a ceremony held at CERN on 30 July, the ATLAS collaboration awarded Russian firm SIA Luch from Podolsk in the Moscow region an ATLAS Suppliers Award. This follows delivery by the company of the final batch of scintillating tiles for the collaboration's Tile Calorimeter some six months ahead of schedule.   Representatives of Russian firm Luch Podolsk received the ATLAS Suppliers Award in the collaboration's Tile Calorimeter instrumentation plant at CERN on 30 July. In front of one Tile Calorimeter module instrumented by scintillating tiles are (left to right) IHEP physicists Evgueni Startchenko and Andrei Karioukhine, Luch Podolsk representatives Igor Karetnikov and Yuri Zaitsev, Tile Calorimeter Project Leader Rupert Leitner, ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and CERN Tile Calorimeter group leader Ana Henriques-Correia. Scintillating tiles form the active part of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter, which will measure the energy and direction of particles produced in LHC collisions. They are emb...

  10. 仿古瓷的做旧技术及其对仿古砖新产品研发的借鉴意义%The Aging Method of Ancient Ceramic and its Reference to the New Product Development of Rustic Tile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊

    2012-01-01

    本文介绍了古陶瓷的旧貌特征,并通过分析仿古瓷的做旧技术,为仿古砖的新产品研发提供参考。%Abstract: This paper introduced the essential characteristics of ancient ceramic. According to the analysis of the faking methods and aging methods of ancient ceramic, this paper provided reference to research and develops new products of rustic.

  11. Studies on the heat shield structure of ceramic gas turbine components, first report: heat shield properties of the ceramic combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, K.; Hisamatsu, T.; Yuri, I. (CRIEPI, Yokosuka-shi (Japan). Yokosuka Research Lab.)

    1993-04-01

    The ceramic gas turbine for power generation consists of ceramic parts and metal parts. In order to improve the performance and reliability of the ceramic gas turbine, it is important to develop a heat shield structure between ceramics and metal. CRIEPI proposed a heat shield structure for the ceramic combustor wall in which a small amount of air is introduced in a ceramic fibre layer in the ceramic combustor wall. It was confirmed that the heat shield structure has excellent performance in a high pressure combustion test. This report describes the heat transfer property of the heat shield structure in the ceramic combustor wall by numerical analysis. As a result of analysis, it was clarified that the ceramic fibre temperature changes rapidly near the ceramic tiles, and that the heat transfer property of the heat shield structure is as follows: heat shield performance is maintained by introducing a small amount of air; metal wall temperature is little affected by combustion gas temperature, thermophysical property of ceramic fibres and so on. 9 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The tile assembly model is intrinsically universal

    CERN Document Server

    Doty, David; Patitz, Matthew J; Schweller, Robert T; Summers, Scott M; Woods, Damien

    2011-01-01

    We prove that the abstract Tile Assembly Model (aTAM) of nanoscale self-assembly is intrinsically universal. This means that there is a single tile assembly system U that, with proper initialization, simulates any tile assembly system T. The simulation is "intrinsic" in the sense that the self-assembly process carried out by U is exactly that carried out by T, with each tile of T represented by an m x m "supertile" of U. Our construction works for the full aTAM at any temperature, and it faithfully simulates the deterministic or nondeterministic behavior of each T. Our construction succeeds by solving an analog of the cell differentiation problem in developmental biology: Each supertile of U, starting with those in the seed assembly, carries the "genome" of the simulated system T. At each location of a potential supertile in the self-assembly of U, a decision is made whether and how to express this genome, i.e., whether to generate a supertile and, if so, which tile of T it will represent. This decision must ...

  13. Tiled WMS/KML Server V2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2012-01-01

    This software is a higher-performance implementation of tiled WMS, with integral support for KML and time-varying data. This software is compliant with the Open Geospatial WMS standard, and supports KML natively as a WMS return type, including support for the time attribute. Regionated KML wrappers are generated that match the existing tiled WMS dataset. Ping and JPG formats are supported, and the software is implemented as an Apache 2.0 module that supports a threading execution model that is capable of supporting very high request rates. The module intercepts and responds to WMS requests that match certain patterns and returns the existing tiles. If a KML format that matches an existing pyramid and tile dataset is requested, regionated KML is generated and returned to the requesting application. In addition, KML requests that do not match the existing tile datasets generate a KML response that includes the corresponding JPG WMS request, effectively adding KML support to a backing WMS server.

  14. The Mu3e Tile Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Hans Patrick

    2015-05-06

    The Mu3e experiment is designed to search for the lepton flavour violating decay μ→e{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -} with a sensitivity of one in 10{sup 16} decays. An observation of such a decay would be a clear sign of physics beyond the Standard Model. Achieving the targeted sensitivity requires a high precision detector with excellent momentum, vertex and time resolution. The Mu3e Tile Detector is a highly granular sub-detector system based on scintillator tiles with Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) readout, and aims at measuring the timing of the muon decay products with a resolution of better than 100 ps. This thesis describes the development of the Tile Detector concept and demonstrates the feasibility of the elaborated design. In this context, a comprehensive simulation framework has been developed, in order to study and optimise the detector performance. The central component of this framework is a detailed simulation of the SiPM response. The simulation model has been validated in several measurements and shows good agreement with the data. Furthermore, a 16-channel prototype of a Tile Detector module has been constructed and operated in an electron beam. In the beam tests, a time resolution up to 56 ps has been achieved, which surpasses the design goal. The simulation and measurement results demonstrate the feasibility of the developed Tile Detector design and show that the required detector performance can be achieved.

  15. Performance of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoli, Gabriele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau­particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator­steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front­end electronics read out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. The read­out system is responsible for reconstructing the data in real­time. The digitized signals are reconstructed with the Optimal Filtering algorithm, which computes for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruc...

  16. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from elec...

  17. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum fro...

  18. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynevich, A.

    2017-06-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC . Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV . Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response and its modelling by the Monte Carlo simulations. The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  19. Characterization studies of late Ottoman ceramics recovered from Istanbul Tekfur Palace excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geckinli, A.E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemistry and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty; Goektas, A.A.; Sueer, A. [Canakkale Ceramic Factory, Research and Development Lab., Can- Canakkale (Turkey); Yenisehirlioglu, F. [Hacettepe Univ., Dept. of History of Art, Beytepe-Ankara (Turkey)

    2002-07-01

    Tekfur Palace in Istanbul was used as a royal factory for ceramic and glass production between 1719- 1730. Excavation was started at Tekfur Palace in 1995 and lots of ceramic fragments including tiles, European porcelains and, various red and white body pottery were recovered. In addition to those sherds, raw and painting materials, frit and slag were also found. In this paper, the first report on the characterization of ten selected excavated underglaze decorated and also undecorated Tekfur tiles are given. The results compared with the 16. Century high quality Iznik tiles in order to investigate the reasons of the decline of quality in Ottoman ceramic technology during the 18{sup th} Century. (orig.)

  20. Possibilities of rotary ultrasonic machining in order to give a boost to technical ceramics in the actual Spanish market; Posibilidades del mecanizado por ultrasonidos rotatorio para fomentar el uso de las ceramicas tecnicas en el mercado Espanol actual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, I.; Gonzalo, O.; Bengoetxea, I.

    2012-11-01

    The advanced properties of engineering ceramics are suitable to meet the requirements of several engineering applications such as medical (prosthesis), automotive (bearing...), aerospace (tiles,...), optics (lasers,) and so on, where high hardness, high wear resistance and thermo chemical stability are needed. However, the processing of these materials is difficult and costly, in some cases up to 90% of the price, which leads ceramics to limited applications. Rotary Ultrasonic Machining (RUM) is presented as a non conventional environmental-friendly and cost effective process that enables to obtain complex 3D shape ceramic products. A rotating tool with metal-bonded diamond abrasives is ultrasonically vibrated (typically 20KHz) and fed toward to the fixed work piece at a constant pressure or a constant feed rate This process combines conventional grinding and ultrasonic machining, offering the possibility of increased material removal rates while keeping the machining forces low. Thus, the limitations of actually used conventional processes are overcome introducing more accurate, flexible and cost effective process capabilities. On balance, RUM is a promising process for primary machining operations on structural ceramic components. Its features will lead to enhance the use of ceramics in more industrial applications by increasing product development/design capabilities, high added value products and sustainable process. (Author) 43 refs.

  1. Tile vaulting in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. López López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New interactive equilibrium methods for the design and analysis of masonry structures have facilitated the construction of masonry structures with a formal language well beyond what is typically associated with compression-only architecture. These developments have also rekindled interest in tile vaulting, and led to a rediscovery of this traditional building technique. To ensure that tile vaults with new, complex shapes can still be built economically, the construction processes involved in the realisation of these structures have adapted. For example, cheaper and simpler falsework systems have been introduced. In addition, a wide variety of materials have been experimented with to be able to build more sustainable vaulted structures with local resources. This paper presents a review of the latest innovations in tile vaulting, based on the most representative works of the past few years with respect to shape, construction method and the use of materials.

  2. Improved Tiled Bitmap Forensic Analysis Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Badgujar, G. N. Dhanokar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Computer network world, the needs for securityand proper systems of control are obvious and findout the intruders who do the modification andmodified data. Nowadays Frauds that occurs incompanies are not only by outsiders but also byinsiders. Insider may perform illegal activity & tryto hide illegal activity. Companies would like to beassured that such illegal activity i.e. tampering hasnot occurred, or if it does, it should be quicklydiscovered. Mechanisms now exist that detecttampering of a database, through the use ofcryptographically-strong hash functions. This papercontains a survey which explores the various beliefsupon database forensics through differentmethodologies using forensic algorithms and toolsfor investigations. Forensic analysis algorithms areused to determine who, when, and what data hadbeen tampered. Tiled Bitmap Algorithm introducesthe notion of a candidate set (all possible locationsof detected tampering(s and provides a completecharacterization of the candidate set and itscardinality. Improved tiled bitmap algorithm willcover come the drawbacks of existing tiled bitmapalgorithm.

  3. Crosslinking in viral capsids via tiling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarock, R; Hendrix, R W

    2006-06-07

    A vital part of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that encapsulates and hence protects the viral genome. It has been shown in Twarock [2004. A tiling approach to vius capsids assembly explaining a structural puzzle in virology. J. Theor. Biol. 226, 477-482] that the surface structures of viruses with icosahedrally symmetric capsids can be modelled in terms of tilings that encode the locations of the protein subunits. This theory is extended here to multi-level tilings in order to model crosslinking structures. The new framework is demonstrated for the case of bacteriophage HK97, and it is shown, how the theory can be used in general to decide if crosslinking, and what type of crosslinking, is compatible from a mathematical point of view with the geometrical surface structure of a virus.

  4. Ceramic joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehman, R.E. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the relation between reactions at ceramic-metal interfaces and the development of strong interfacial bonds in ceramic joining. Studies on a number of systems are described, including silicon nitrides, aluminium nitrides, mullite, and aluminium oxides. Joints can be weakened by stresses such as thermal expansion mismatch. Ceramic joining is used in a variety of applications such as solid oxide fuel cells.

  5. Low thermal expansion glass ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This book is one of a series reporting on international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies With the series, Schott aims to provide an overview of its activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide where glasses and glass ceramics are of interest Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated This volume describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization Thus glass ceramics with thermal c...

  6. Ceramic membrane development in NGK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    2011-05-01

    NGK Insulators, Ltd. was established in 1919 to manufacture the electric porcelain insulators for power transmission lines. Since then, our business has grown as one of the world-leading ceramics manufacturing companies and currently supply with the various environmentally-benign ceramic products to worldwide. In this paper, ceramic membrane development in NGK is described in detail. We have been selling ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes and ultra-filtration (UF) membranes for many years to be used for solid/liquid separation in various fields such as pharmaceutical, chemical, food and semiconductor industries. In Corporate R&D, new ceramic membranes with sub-nanometer sized pores, which are fabricated on top of the membrane filters as support, are under development for gas and liquid/liquid separation processes.

  7. Ceramic membrane development in NGK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi, E-mail: kinsakai@ngk.co.jp [Corporate R and D, NGK Insulators, Ltd., Nagoya 467-8530 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    NGK Insulators, Ltd. was established in 1919 to manufacture the electric porcelain insulators for power transmission lines. Since then, our business has grown as one of the world-leading ceramics manufacturing companies and currently supply with the various environmentally-benign ceramic products to worldwide. In this paper, ceramic membrane development in NGK is described in detail. We have been selling ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes and ultra-filtration (UF) membranes for many years to be used for solid/liquid separation in various fields such as pharmaceutical, chemical, food and semiconductor industries. In Corporate R and D, new ceramic membranes with sub-nanometer sized pores, which are fabricated on top of the membrane filters as support, are under development for gas and liquid/liquid separation processes.

  8. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  9. Degenerate polygonal tilings in simple animal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziherl, Primoz; Hocevar, Ana

    2009-03-01

    We study 2D polygonal tilings as models of the en-face structure of single-layer biological tissues. Using numerical simulations, we explore the phase diagram of equilibrium tilings of equal-area, equal-perimeter convex polygons whose energy is independent of their shape. We identify 3 distinct phases, which are all observed in simple epithelial tissues: The disordered phase of polygons with 4-9 sides, the hexatic phase, and the hexagonal phase with perfect 6-fold coordination. We quantify their structure using Edwards' statistical mechanics of cellular systems.

  10. Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Final Technical Status Report For DOTC 10-01-INIT-017 Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile Reporting Period: 13 May 2015 Ordnance...Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report: Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER OTA # W15QKN-09-9...1001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Herbst /Diana-Lynn 5d. PROJECT NUMBER DOTC-11-01-INIT017 5e. TASK NUMBER N

  11. Electro-desalination of glazed tile panels - discussion of possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Célia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Glaze is lost from tiles in tile panels due to presence of soluble salts and this means loss of important heritage. The present paper discusses the possibility to apply electro-desalination. An in-situ test has not been performed yet, but encouraging results have been obtained with different parts...... of the system. Single tiles, a variety of porous stones and the mortar on the back of a tile have all been electro-desalinated successfully in laboratory scale. Thus individually, all parts of the wall with tile panel can be electro-desalinated. The interface between mortar and tile can be problematic....... In the few experiments conducted on tiles with attached mortar, the mortar was desalinated to a higher degree than the biscuit and successful desalination of the biscuit through the mortar requires further research. In-situ pilot scale tests were performed on highly salt-contaminated walls without tiles...

  12. A model to enable indirect manufacturing options transactions between organisations: An application to the ceramic industry; Modelo de trasvase indirecto de opciones de fabricacion entre organizaciones: Una aplicacion a la industria ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, R.; Gomez-Gasquet, P.; Oltra-Badenes, R. F.

    2014-07-01

    In the current competitive contexts, it is widely accepted and proved that inter-enterprise collaboration lead in many occasions to better results. The Spanish ceramic industry must improve, dropping its manufacturing costs in order to be able to compete with low cost products coming from Asia. In this sense, this work presents the main results obtained from applying an innovative model, which facilitates the transfer of manufacturing options between two ceramic enterprises that share a common supplier in the scenario where one of them needs more manufacturing capacity than the one booked according to its demand forecast and the another need less. Then, some decisional mechanisms are applied, which output the values for certain parameters in order to augment the benefit of all the three participants. With the application of this model better organisational results both economic and of service level are achieved. (Author)

  13. Characterization of solid wastes from kraft pulp industry for ceramic materials development purposes; Caracterizacao de residuos solidos da industria de celulose tipo kraft visando sua aplicacao no desenvolvimento de materiais ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, L.R.; Francisco, M.A.C.O.; Sagrillo, V.P.D.; Louzada, D.M.; Entringer, J.M.S. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The Kraft pulp industry generates a large amount of solid wastes. Due this large quantity, the target of this study is characterize inorganic solid wastes, dregs, grits and lime mud, from the step of reagents recovery of Kraft process, aiming evaluate the potentiality of their use as alternative raw material on development of ceramic materials. Initially, the wastes were dried and ground, then they were subjected to the following characterization techniques: pH analysis, particle size analysis, X ray fluorescence, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, it may be concluded that these wastes could be used as raw material in production of red ceramic and luting materials. (author)

  14. Nondestructive Characterization of As-Fabricated Composite Ceramic Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

    2011-06-01

    Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

  15. Glass-ceramic frits from fly ash in terracotta production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanova, Emilia; Karamanov, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation into the possible use of glass-ceramic frits from fly ash and glass cullet in terracotta (stoneware) tile manufacture are reported. Two new ceramics were studied and compared with a plant composition, containing 45 wt.% sodium feldspar. In the first ceramic batch 20% of the feldspar was substituted by frits and in the second the whole amount of feldspar was eliminated and replaced by 35% frits and 10% refractory waste. It was found that the addition of low viscous glass-ceramic frits decreased the sintering temperature by 50-100 degrees C. At the same time, due to formation of an additional crystal phase (i.e. pyroxene or anorthite) the new ceramics showed an improvement of 25-50% in bending strength.

  16. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    Second World era international system (1945-1990) may not have done any good to ... wedge between the capitalist and socialist blocs, not only blurred Third World .... Politics and the Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge ... complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local.

  17. The Corona Limit of Penrose Tilings Is a Regular Decagon

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Shigeki; Imai, Katsunobu

    2016-01-01

    Part 2: Regular Papers; International audience; We define and study the corona limit of a tiling, by investigating the signal propagations on cellular automata (CA) on tilings employing the simple growth CA. In particular, the corona limit of Penrose tilings is the regular decagon.

  18. Fiscal 1996 report on the R and D result of industrial science and technology. R and D synergy ceramics (R and D on synergy ceramics); 1996 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Synergy ceramics no kenkyu kaihatsu (synergy ceramics no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper summarizes the general survey mainly conducted by FCRA (Fine Ceramics Research Association) in fiscal 1996, and the joint research results with some universities, from some R and D on synergy ceramics. Silicon nitride based ceramics expressed the same high thermal conductivity as metal by seed crystal addition, grain growth control and orientation control of sheet lamination. For its practical use, study was made on control factors of material, formation and sintering. Ca2Y2Si2O9 single crystal was prepared by float-zone method to determine its crystal structure. No volume change due to high-temperature phase transition as thermal expansion was found. In carbothermal reduction- nitridation of SiO2, addition of Si3N4 seed powder increased a reaction rate and formed uniform particles with an isotropic shape. An average particle size was dependent on the size and number of fine particles in seed powder. Addition of both Si3N4 and Fe compound could change a particle shape from a spherical grain to an elongated grain. A spherical Fe-Si metal grain was found on the tip of an elongated grain. 66 refs., 73 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Jagged Tiling for Intra-tile Parallelism and Fine-Grain Multithreading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Sunil; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.; Gao, Guang R.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we have developed a novel methodology that takes into consideration multithreaded many-core designs to better utilize memory/processing resources and improve memory residence on tileable applications. It takes advantage of polyhedral analysis and transformation in the form of PLUTO, combined with a highly optimized finegrain tile runtime to exploit parallelism at all levels. The main contributions of this paper include the introduction of multi-hierarchical tiling techniques that increases intra tile parallelism; and a data-flow inspired runtime library that allows the expression of parallel tiles with an efficient synchronization registry. Our current implementation shows performance improvements on an Intel Xeon Phi board up to 32.25% against instances produced by state-of-the-art compiler frameworks for selected stencil applications.

  20. [Ceramic posts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie; Legros, Caroline; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    As a result of ceramics and all-ceram technologies development esthetic inlay core and abutments flooded the market. Their tooth-colored appearance enhances restoration biomimetism principally on the marginal gingiva area. This article reviews indications and types of cores designed for natural teeth and implants.

  1. Influence of Material Properties on the Ballistic Performance of Ceramics for Personal Body Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kaufmann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In support of improved personal armour development, depth of penetration tests have been conducted on four different ceramic materials including alumina, modified alumina, silicon carbide and boron carbide. These experiments consisted of impacting ceramic tiles bonded to aluminum cylinders with 0.50 caliber armour piercing projectiles. The results are presented in terms of ballistic efficiency, and the validity of using ballistic efficiency as a measure of ceramic performance was examined. In addition, the correlation between ballistic performance and ceramic material properties, such as elastic modulus, hardness, spall strength and Hugoniot Elastic Limit, has been considered.

  2. Numerical Simulations of Tungsten Alloy Rods Penetration into Alumina Ceramic/Armor Steel Composite Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-zhu; HUANG Feng-lei; ZHANG Lian-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson-Holmquist constitutive ceramic model is re-implemented into the LS-DYNA3D program to simulate the penetration of long rod projectile into ceramic/armor steel composite targets.The damage evolution,fracture propagation,and spall damage in the ceramic/armor targets is represented during the simulation procedure and the accuracy of the penetration depth comparing between the simulating and experimental results is reliable with an error less than 8%.The relationship between the mass efficiency factor.differential factor and ceramic tiles thickness is given out for the penetration results with/without a cover plate.

  3. ATLAS: First rehearsal for the tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The dry run assembly of the first barrel of the ATLAS tile hadron calorimeter has been successfully completed. It is now being dismantled again so that it can be lowered into the ATLAS cavern where it will be reassembled in October 2004.

  4. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (P hase - II ) where the pea k luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expe cted to happen around 202 4 . The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on - and off - detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off - detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve th e required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investiga...

  5. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape!

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The last of the 64 modules for one of the ATLAS Hadron tile calorimeter barrels has just arrived at CERN. This arrival puts an end to two and a half years work assembling and testing all the modules in the Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), in Barcelona.

  6. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hrynevich, Aliaksei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadr...

  7. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC operation (Phase 2 around 2023) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims to replace the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals can be digitized and directly sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. This will reduce pile-up problems and allow more complex trigger algorithms. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to t...

  8. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2023. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 ...

  9. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5$\\times$ compared to the design luminosity ($10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, c...

  10. Lozenge Tilings, Glauber Dynamics and Macroscopic Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslier, Benoît; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2015-09-01

    We study the Glauber dynamics on the set of tilings of a finite domain of the plane with lozenges of side 1/ L. Under the invariant measure of the process (the uniform measure over all tilings), it is well known (Cohn et al. J Am Math Soc 14:297-346, 2001) that the random height function associated to the tiling converges in probability, in the scaling limit , to a non-trivial macroscopic shape minimizing a certain surface tension functional. According to the boundary conditions, the macroscopic shape can be either analytic or contain "frozen regions" (Arctic Circle phenomenon Cohn et al. N Y J Math 4:137-165, 1998; Jockusch et al. Random domino tilings and the arctic circle theorem, arXiv:math/9801068, 1998). It is widely conjectured, on the basis of theoretical considerations (Henley J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997; Spohn J Stat Phys 71:1081-1132, 1993), partial mathematical results (Caputo et al. Commun Math Phys 311:157-189, 2012; Wilson Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004) and numerical simulations for similar models (Destainville Phys Rev Lett 88:030601, 2002; cf. also the bibliography in Henley (J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997) and Wilson (Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004), that the Glauber dynamics approaches the equilibrium macroscopic shape in a time of order L 2+ o(1). In this work we prove this conjecture, under the assumption that the macroscopic equilibrium shape contains no "frozen region".

  11. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Simon

    2014-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Detector performances with respect to electronic noise and cell response are presented. In addition, an overview of the partially overlapping calibration systems is given.

  12. PCI Opens Tile Adhesives Plant in Foshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny Du

    2007-01-01

    @@ On October 22nd, 2007 BASF celebrated the inauguration of Asia's first PCI tilead hesives plant in Foshan, Guangdong Province. The plant is designed to provide a platform for the transfer of cutting-edge tiling systems technologies and solutions from Germany to China to benefit local construction chemicals sector.

  13. Brane Tilings, M2-branes and Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Davey, John

    2011-01-01

    Brane Tilings represent one of the largest classes of superconformal theories with known gravity duals in 3+1 and also 2+1 dimensions. They provide a useful link between a large class of quiver gauge theories and their moduli spaces, which are the toric Calabi-Yau (CY) singularities. This thesis includes a discussion of an algorithm that can be used to generate all brane tilings with any given number of superpotential terms. All tilings with at most 8 superpotential terms have been generated using an implementation of this method. Orbifolds are a subject of central importance in string theory. It is widely known that there may be two or more orbifolds of a space by a finite group. Abelian Calabi-Yau orbifolds of the form $\\BC^3 / \\Gamma$ can be counted according to the size of the group $|\\Gamma|$. Three methods of counting these orbifolds will be given. A brane tiling together with a set of Chern Simons levels is sufficient to define a quiver Chern-Simons theory which describes the worldvolume theory of the ...

  14. Split Tiling for GPUs: Automatic Parallelization Using Trapezoidal Tiles to Reconcile Parallelism and Locality, avoiding Divergence and Load Imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Albert; Grosser, Tobias; Kelly, Paul H. J.; Ramanujam, J.; Sadayappan, P.; Verdoolaege, Sven

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Tiling is a key technology to increase data reuse in computation kernels. For computations structured as one sequential outer "time" loop enclosing a set of parallel inner loops, the option of tiling only the parallel inner loops is generally not profitable because it does not enable enough data reuse. To combine parallelism and locality, several tiling algorithms propose to tile the time loop together with one or more of the parallel inner loops. However, all these al...

  15. Ceramic Methyltrioxorhenium

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, R; Eickerling, G; Helbig, C; Hauf, C; Miller, R; Mayr, F; Krug von Nidda, H A; Scheidt, E W; Scherer, W; Herrmann, Rudolf; Troester, Klaus; Eickerling, Georg; Helbig, Christian; Hauf, Christoph; Miller, Robert; Mayr, Franz; Nidda, Hans-Albrecht Krug von; Scheidt, Ernst-Wilhelm; Scherer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The metal oxide polymeric methyltrioxorhenium [(CH3)xReO3] is an unique epresentative of a layered inherent conducting organometallic polymer which adopts the structural motifs of classical perovskites in two dimensions (2D) in form of methyl-deficient, corner-sharing ReO5(CH3) octahedra. In order to improve the characteristics of polymeric methyltrioxorhenium with respect to its physical properties and potential usage as an inherentconducting polymer we tried to optimise the synthetic routes of polymeric modifications of 1 to obtain a sintered ceramic material, denoted ceramic MTO. Ceramic MTO formed in a solvent-free synthesis via auto-polymerisation and subsequent sintering processing displays clearly different mechanical and physical properties from polymeric MTO synthesised in aqueous solution. Ceramic MTO is shown to display activated Re-C and Re=O bonds relative to MTO. These electronic and structural characteristics of ceramic MTO are also reflected by a different chemical reactivity compared with its...

  16. An efficient pseudomedian filter for tiling microrrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerstein Mark B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tiling microarrays are becoming an essential technology in the functional genomics toolbox. They have been applied to the tasks of novel transcript identification, elucidation of transcription factor binding sites, detection of methylated DNA and several other applications in several model organisms. These experiments are being conducted at increasingly finer resolutions as the microarray technology enjoys increasingly greater feature densities. The increased densities naturally lead to increased data analysis requirements. Specifically, the most widely employed algorithm for tiling array analysis involves smoothing observed signals by computing pseudomedians within sliding windows, a O(n2logn calculation in each window. This poor time complexity is an issue for tiling array analysis and could prove to be a real bottleneck as tiling microarray experiments become grander in scope and finer in resolution. Results We therefore implemented Monahan's HLQEST algorithm that reduces the runtime complexity for computing the pseudomedian of n numbers to O(nlogn from O(n2logn. For a representative tiling microarray dataset, this modification reduced the smoothing procedure's runtime by nearly 90%. We then leveraged the fact that elements within sliding windows remain largely unchanged in overlapping windows (as one slides across genomic space to further reduce computation by an additional 43%. This was achieved by the application of skip lists to maintaining a sorted list of values from window to window. This sorted list could be maintained with simple O(log n inserts and deletes. We illustrate the favorable scaling properties of our algorithms with both time complexity analysis and benchmarking on synthetic datasets. Conclusion Tiling microarray analyses that rely upon a sliding window pseudomedian calculation can require many hours of computation. We have eased this requirement significantly by implementing efficient algorithms that

  17. First Reported Case of Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome in a Laborer Due to Porcelain Tile Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasleem Arif

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS is a type of non-immunologically mediated asthma-like disease. It usually occurs after a massive exposure to an irritating substance in the atmosphere in the form of smoke, fumes, gases, and vapor. Unlike bronchial asthma, there is no latency to the symptoms seen in RADS. A number of agents are known to cause RADS, but tile dust, as an etiological agent, has not been previously reported. We report a 45-year-old male laborer, who presented with an acute onset of cough, chest tightness, breathlessness, and audible wheeze after his first time exposure to porcelain tile dust within 5 hours of exposure. Lab tests, including, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, air blood gas analysis, and serum IgE, were unremarkable. Spirometry showed a mild obstruction [forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1=72% of predicted], while the bronchodilator reversibility test was significant(14% increase in FEV1 above the baseline.Bronchial biopsy revealed a chronic inflammatory reaction with lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltration and more importantly a striking absence of eosinophils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RADS as a result of exposure to tile dust (porcelain ceramics.

  18. Lacunae infills for in situ treatment of historic glazed tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Marta T.; Esteves, Lurdes; Ferreira, Teresa A.; Candeias, António; Tennent, Norman H.; Rodrigues, José Delgado; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of current conservation materials and methods together with those adopted in the past is essential to aid research and improve or develop better conservation options. The infill and painting of tile lacunae are subjected to special requirements mainly when used in outdoor settings. A selection of the most commonly used materials was undertaken and performed based on inquiries to practitioners working in the field. The infill pastes comprised organic (epoxy, polyester), inorganic (slaked lime, hydraulic lime and zinc hydroxychloride) and mixed organic-inorganic (slaked lime mixed with a vinylic resin) binders. The selected aggregates were those most commonly used or those already present in the commercially formulated products. The infill pastes were characterised by SEM, MIP, open porosity, water absorption by capillarity, water vapour permeability, thermal and hydric expansibilities and adhesion to the ceramic body. Their performance was assessed after curing, artificial ageing (salt ageing and UV-Temp-RH cycles) and natural ageing. The results were interpreted in terms of their significance as indicators of effectiveness, compatibility and durability.

  19. Sintering behavior of porous wall tile bodies during fast single-firing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei José Gomes Sousa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In ceramic wall tile processing, fast single-firing cycles have been widely used. In this investigation a fast single-firing porous wall tile mixture was prepared using raw materials from the North Fluminense region.Specimens were obtained by uniaxial pressing and sintered in air at various temperatures (1080 - 1200 °C using a fast-firing cycle (60 minutes. Evolution of the microstructure was followed by XRD and SEM. The results revealed that the main phases formed during the sintering step are anorthite, gehlenite and hematite. It appears that the sintering process is characterized by the presence of a small amount of a liquid phase below 1140 °C. As a result, the microstructure of the ceramic bodies showed a network of small dense zones interconnected with a porous phase. In addition, the strength of the material below 1140 °C appeared to be related to the type and quantity of crystalline phases in the sintered bodies.

  20. Quantitative measurement of natural radioactivity in some roofing tile materials used in upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uosif, M A M

    2013-09-01

    The quantitative measurement of radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in some roofing tile materials (granite, alabaster, marble, traditional and advanced ceramic) used in Upper Egypt is presented in this paper. Measurements were done by using gamma spectrometry (NaI (Tl) 3" × 3"). The values of concentration of natural radionuclides were in the following ranges: 12-78.9 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 8.4-113.1 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 94.9-509 Bq kg(-1)for (40)K. The activity concentration index (I), the specific dose rates indoors ( ) and the annual effective dose (DE) due to gamma radiation were calculated for each investigated sample. The lowest value of I is 0.19 for alabaster, while the highest one is 0.88 for traditional and advanced ceramic. The ranges of DE are between 0.03 and 0.13 mSv, it is below the maximal permitted values, so that the examined materials could be used as roofing tiles in the construction of new buildings.