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Sample records for ceramic layer-by-layer infrared

  1. Improved performance of diatomite-based dental nanocomposite ceramics using layer-by-layer assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu X

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Lu1,2, Yang Xia1, Mei Liu1, Yunzhu Qian3, Xuefeng Zhou4, Ning Gu4, Feimin Zhang1,41Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 2Nantong Stomatological Hospital, Nantong, 3Center of Stomatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University, Suzhou, 4Suzhou Institute, Southeast University, Suzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: To fabricate high-strength diatomite-based ceramics for dental applications, the layer-by-layer technique was used to coat diatomite particles with cationic [poly(allylamine hydrochloride] and anionic [poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate] polymers to improve the dispersion and adsorption of positively charged nano-ZrO2 (zirconia as a reinforcing agent. The modified diatomite particles had reduced particle size, narrower size distribution, and were well dispersed, with good adsorption of nano-ZrO2. To determine the optimum addition levels for nano-ZrO2, ceramics containing 0, 20, 25, 30, and 35 wt% nano-ZrO2 were sintered and characterized by the three-point bending test and microhardness test. In addition to scanning electron microscopy, propagation phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to examine the internal structure of the ceramics. The addition of 30 wt% nano-ZrO2 resulted in the highest flexural strength and fracture toughness with reduced porosity. Shear bond strength between the core and veneer of our diatomite ceramics and the most widely used dental ceramics were compared; the shear bond strength value for the diatomite-based ceramics was found to be significantly higher than for other groups (P < 0.05. Our results show that diatomite-based nanocomposite ceramics are good potential candidates for ceramic-based dental materials.Keywords: layer-by-layer, diatomite, nanoceramics, zirconia (ZrO2, dental materials

  2. Improved performance of diatomite-based dental nanocomposite ceramics using layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoli; Xia, Yang; Liu, Mei; Qian, Yunzhu; Zhou, Xuefeng; Gu, Ning; Zhang, Feimin

    2012-01-01

    To fabricate high-strength diatomite-based ceramics for dental applications, the layer-by-layer technique was used to coat diatomite particles with cationic [poly(allylamine hydrochloride)] and anionic [poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)] polymers to improve the dispersion and adsorption of positively charged nano-ZrO(2) (zirconia) as a reinforcing agent. The modified diatomite particles had reduced particle size, narrower size distribution, and were well dispersed, with good adsorption of nano-ZrO(2). To determine the optimum addition levels for nano-ZrO(2), ceramics containing 0, 20, 25, 30, and 35 wt% nano-ZrO(2) were sintered and characterized by the three-point bending test and microhardness test. In addition to scanning electron microscopy, propagation phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to examine the internal structure of the ceramics. The addition of 30 wt% nano-ZrO(2) resulted in the highest flexural strength and fracture toughness with reduced porosity. Shear bond strength between the core and veneer of our diatomite ceramics and the most widely used dental ceramics were compared; the shear bond strength value for the diatomite-based ceramics was found to be significantly higher than for other groups (P ceramics are good potential candidates for ceramic-based dental materials.

  3. NEAR INFRARED ELECTROCHROMIC VARIABLE OPTICAL ATTENUATOR FABRICATED BY LAYER-BY-LAYER ASSEMBLY*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zheng; Yi-jun Zheng; Xin-hua Wan

    2011-01-01

    An electrochromic variable optical attenuator (ECVOA) was fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of disodium N,N-bis(p-sulfonatophenyl)naphthalenedicarboximide (Naph-SO3Na) and common cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA). The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the multilayer films revealed that approximately an equal amount of Naph-SO3Na was assembled in each deposition cycle. Upon one-electron reduction, multilayer films exhibited intense absorption around 452 nm and also a broad absorption band from 1200 nm to 1900 nm. Owing to the improved ionic conductivity, the optical attenuation at 1550 nm of the films showed rapid response time and reached 1.3 dB/μm within 5 s. These results indicate that layer-by-layer assembly could be an effective method for the preparation of ECVOA operating in near infrared region.

  4. Fabrication of Ceramic Layer-by-Layer Infrared Wavelength Photonic Band Gap Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Henry Hao-Chuan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    Photonic band gap (PBG) crystals, also known as photonic crystals, are periodic dielectric structures which form a photonic band gap that prohibit the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves of certain frequencies at any incident angles. Photonic crystals have several potential applications including zero-threshold semiconductor lasers, the inhibition of spontaneous emission, dielectric mirrors, and wavelength filters. If defect states are introduced in the crystals, light can be guided from one location to another or even a sharp bending of light in micron scale can be achieved. This generates the potential for optical waveguide and optical circuits, which will contribute to the improvement in the fiber-optic communications and the development of high-speed computers.

  5. Innovation in Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Cui, Jiwei; Björnmalm, Mattias; Braunger, Julia A; Ejima, Hirotaka; Caruso, Frank

    2016-12-14

    Methods for depositing thin films are important in generating functional materials for diverse applications in a wide variety of fields. Over the last half-century, the layer-by-layer assembly of nanoscale films has received intense and growing interest. This has been fueled by innovation in the available materials and assembly technologies, as well as the film-characterization techniques. In this Review, we explore, discuss, and detail innovation in layer-by-layer assembly in terms of past and present developments, and we highlight how these might guide future advances. A particular focus is on conventional and early developments that have only recently regained interest in the layer-by-layer assembly field. We then review unconventional assemblies and approaches that have been gaining popularity, which include inorganic/organic hybrid materials, cells and tissues, and the use of stereocomplexation, patterning, and dip-pen lithography, to name a few. A relatively recent development is the use of layer-by-layer assembly materials and techniques to assemble films in a single continuous step. We name this "quasi"-layer-by-layer assembly and discuss the impacts and innovations surrounding this approach. Finally, the application of characterization methods to monitor and evaluate layer-by-layer assembly is discussed, as innovation in this area is often overlooked but is essential for development of the field. While we intend for this Review to be easily accessible and act as a guide to researchers new to layer-by-layer assembly, we also believe it will provide insight to current researchers in the field and help guide future developments and innovation.

  6. 层层组装技术制备牙科硅藻土基纳米复相陶瓷粉体%Preparation of diatomite based nano-composite dental ceramic powders by layer-by-layer technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆小丽; 钱蕴珠; 刘梅; 周雪锋; 章非敏; 顾宁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To prepare a novel bioactive and degradable scaffold with mineralized collagenpolyose based composite by biomimetic synthesis for bone tissue engineering and explore the compatibility of osteoblast culturing on the scaffold. Methods Two kinds of polyelectrolyte were assembled on the surface of diatomite particles in order to adsorbe on nano-zirconia through opposite charges. Zeta potential,particle size and size distribution were compared before and after the modification of diatomite; IR was used to analysis molecular structure of functional group changes on the surface of diatomite particles, nano-composite powder morphology was observed by SEM. Results Two kinds of the polyelectrolyte were successfully assembled on the surface of diatomite powders. Particle size and size distribution were significantly reduced, d (0.5) reduce from 16.421 μm to 0.420 μm. SEM showed the dispersion of the modified diatomite was improved and had a good adsorption with nano-zirconia. Conclusion Layer-by-layer technique could enhance the dispersion of diatomite-based dental ceramic powders as well as a good adsorption of nano-composite ceramic powder.%目的 探讨层层组装技术对硅藻土基牙科陶瓷粉体的改性效果及其与纳米氧化锆的吸附能力的影响,减小硅藻土及纳米氧化锆粉体的团聚现象,制备出分散均匀的纳米复相陶瓷粉体.方法 采用层层组装将2种聚电解质分别组装到硅藻土颗粒表面,再将硅藻土与纳米氧化锆通过异种电荷进行吸附.比较改性前后硅藻土Zeta电位、粒径及粒径分布的变化、红外谱图(IR)分析硅藻土颗粒表面官能团和分子结构特征的变化,扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察纳米复相陶瓷粉体的形貌.结果 聚电解质在硅藻土表面成功组装,且硅藻土粒径和粒径分布明显减小,d(0.5)从16.421μm减小到0.420μm;SEM显示改性后硅藻土的分散性得到提高且与纳米氧化锆吸附良好.结论 层层组装

  7. Building biomedical materials layer-by-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula T. Hammond

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this materials perspective, the promise of water based layer-by-layer (LbL assembly as a means of generating drug-releasing surfaces for biomedical applications, from small molecule therapeutics to biologic drugs and nucleic acids, is examined. Specific advantages of the use of LbL assembly versus traditional polymeric blend encapsulation are discussed. Examples are provided to present potential new directions. Translational opportunities are discussed to examine the impact and potential for true biomedical translation using rapid assembly methods, and applications are discussed with high need and medical return.

  8. Layer-by-layer Assembly of Noble Metal Nanoparticles on Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Da; ZHENG Long-Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Silver,gold,platinum and palladium nanoparticles were initially prepared in the AOT[sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)-sulfosuccinate]micelle and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,transmission electron macroscopy,X-ray diffraction,Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy,and zeta potential analysis.The negatively charged Pt nanoparticles were self-assembled on a glassy carbon electrode by a layer-by-layer method and the modified electrode electrocatalytic reactivity toward methanol oxidation was studied.

  9. Layer-by-layer films for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Catherine; Voegel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique is a versatile approach for preparing nanoscale multimaterial films: the fabrication of multicomposite films by the LbL procedure allows the combination of literally hundreds of different materials with nanometer thickness in a single device to obtain novel or superior performance. In the last 15 years the LbL technique has seen considerable developments and has now reached a point where it is beginning to find applications in bioengineering and biomedical engineering. The book gives a thorough overview of applications of the LbL technique in the c

  10. DAR Assisted Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Aromatic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜思光; 陈晓东; 张莉; 刘鸣华

    2003-01-01

    A facile DAR (diphenylamine-4-diazonium-formaldehyde resin)assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of uitrathin organic film of aromatic compounds has been investigated. The muitilayer of pyrene or anthracene was fabricated through simple dipping of the glass slide into the mixed solution of DAR with the target compounds. In this method, DAR acted as an assistant compound to help the assembling of the aromatic compounds. Such a convenient deposition method not only reserves the advantages of the traditional LbL technique but also simplifies the technique and extends the effectiveness of LbL technique to small molecules without any charge.

  11. The layer by layer selective laser synthesis of ruby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work, features of the layer-by-layer selective laser synthesis (SLS of ruby from an Al2O3-Cr2O3 mixture are considered depending on the irradiation power, the laser beam traverse speed, the height and amount of the backfill of powder layers. It has been established that, under irradiation, a track consisting of polycrystalline textured ruby forms. The morphology of the surface of the track and its crystalline structure are determined by the irradiation conditions.

  12. Facile preparation, optical and electrochemical properties of layer-by-layer V2O5 quadrate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifu; Zheng, Jiqi; Wang, Qiushi; Hu, Tao; Tian, Fuping; Meng, Changgong

    2017-03-01

    Layer-by-layer V2O5 structures self-assembly by quadrate sheets like "multilayer cake" were successfully synthesized using NH4VO3 as the vanadium sources by a facile hydrothermal route and combination of the calcination. The structure and composition were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray powder diffraction, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties of the as-obtained V2O5 layer-by-layer structures were investigated by the Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectrum. The electrochemical properties of the as-obtained V2O5 layer-by-layer structures as electrodes in supercapacitor device were measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) both in the aqueous and organic electrolyte. The specific capacitance is 347 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 in organic electrolyte, which is improved by 46% compared with 238 F g-1 in aqueous electrolyte. During the cycle performance, the specific capacitances of V2O5 layer-by-layer structures after 100 cycles are 30% and 82% of the initial discharge capacity in the aqueous and organic electrolyte, respectively, indicating the cycle performance is significantly improved in organic electrolyte. Our results turn out that layer-by-layer V2O5 structures are an ideal material for supercapacitor electrode in the present work.

  13. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Enzymes on Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-06-01

    The use of Layer-by-layer techniques for immobilizing several types of enzymes, e.g. glucose oxidase (GOx), horse radish oxidases(HRP), and choline oxidase(CHO) on carbon nanotubes and their applications for biosenseing are presented. The enzyme is immobilized on the negatively charged CNT surface by alternatively assembling a cationic polydiallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride (PDDA) layer and a enzyme layer. The sandwich-like layer structure (PDDA/enzyme/PDDA/CNT) formed by electrostatic assembling provides a favorable microenvironment to keep the bioactivity of enzyme and to prevent enzyme molecule leakage. The morphologies and electrocatalytic acitivity of the resulted enzyme film were characterized using TEM and electrochemical techniques, respectively. It was found that these enzyme-based biosensors are very sensitive, selective for detection of biomolecules, e.g. glucose, choline.

  14. Fabrication of graphene/polyaniline composite multilayer films by electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Jiaojiao; Chen, Yuze; Luo, Jing, E-mail: jingluo19801007@126.com; Liu, Xiaoya

    2014-10-15

    A novel graphene/polyaniline composite multilayer film was fabricated by electrostatic interactions induced layer-by-layer self-assembly technique, using water dispersible and negatively charged chemically converted graphene (CCG) and positively charged polyaniline (PANI) as building blocks. CCG was achieved through partly reduced graphene oxide, which remained carboxyl group on its surface. The remaining carboxyl groups not only retain the dispersibility of CCG, but also allow the growth of the multilayer films via electrostatic interactions between graphene and PANI. The structure and morphology of the obtained CCG/PANI multilayer film are characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrum (UV–vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical properties of the resulting film are studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), which showed that the resulting CCG/PANI multilayer film kept electroactivity in neutral solution and showed outstanding cyclic stability up to 100 cycles. Furthermore, the composite film exhibited good electrocatalytic ability toward ascorbic acid (AA) with a linear response from 1×10{sup −4} to 1.2×10{sup −3} M with the detect limit of 5×10{sup −6} M. This study provides a facile and effective strategy to fabricate graphene/PANI nanocomposite film with good electrochemical property, which may find potential applications in electronic devices such as electrochemical sensor. - Graphical abstract: A novel graphene/polyaniline (CCG/PANI) film was prepared by layer-by-layer assembly. - Highlights: • A novel graphene/polyaniline (CCG/PANI) film was prepared by layer-by-layer assembly. • The water dispersible and negatively charged graphene (CCG) was used as building block. • CCG was achieved through partly reduced graphene oxide with carboxyl group on its surface. • CCG/PANI film kept

  15. Layer-by-layer microcapsules templated on erythrocyte ghost carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaillender, Mutukumaraswamy; Luo, Rongcong; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Neu, Björn

    2011-08-30

    This work reports the fabrication of layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules that provide a simple mean for controlling the burst and subsequent release of bioactive agents. Red blood cell (RBC) ghosts were loaded with fluorescently labeled dextran and lysozyme as model compounds via hypotonic dialysis with an encapsulation efficiency of 27-31%. It is demonstrated that these vesicles maintain their shape and integrity and that a uniform distribution of the encapsulated agents within these carriers is achieved. The loaded vesicles were then successfully coated with the biocompatible polyelectrolytes, poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and dextran sulfate. It is demonstrated that the release profiles of the encapsulated molecules can be regulated over a wide range by adjusting the number of polyelectrolyte layers. In addition, the LbL shell also protects the RBC ghost from decomposition thereby potentially preserving the bioactivity of encapsulated drugs or proteins. These microcapsules, consisting of an RBC ghost coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer, provide a simple mean for the preparation of loaded LbL microcapsules eliminating the core dissolution and post-loading of bioactive agents, which are required for conventional LbL microcapsules.

  16. Polyelectrolyte Layer-by-Layer Assembly on Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Pappa, Anna-Maria

    2017-03-06

    Oppositely charged polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) were built up in a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly on top of the conducting polymer channel of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), aiming to combine the advantages of well-established PEMs with a high performance electronic transducer. The multilayered film is a model system to investigate the impact of biofunctionalization on the operation of OECTs comprising a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) film as the electrically active layer. Understanding the mechanism of ion injection into the channel that is in direct contact with charged polymer films provides useful insights for novel biosensing applications such as nucleic acid sensing. Moreover, LbL is demonstrated to be a versatile electrode modification tool enabling tailored surface features in terms of thickness, softness, roughness, and charge. LbL assemblies built up on top of conducting polymers will aid the design of new bioelectronic platforms for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical diagnostics.

  17. Layer-by-layer assemblies for antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoying; Jun Loh, Xian

    2015-12-01

    The adhesion and proliferation of bacteria on various artificial surfaces affects the functionality of these specific interfaces. To overcome the problems caused by bacterial growth on these surfaces, various antibacterial coatings were developed. In this review, we summarized most of the antibacterial surfaces prepared by the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly approach and classified these LbL films based on their antibacterial mechanisms. In the first group, the bactericidal LbL assemblies which incorporate various biocides including heavy metals, antibiotics, cationic molecules, antimicrobial peptides and enzymes are able to kill surrounding or contacted bacteria. In the second group, we focused on the physical aspects of film surfaces. Bacterial adhesion resistant LbL films have been fabricated to adjust the substrate surface properties such as surface free energy (or wettability), roughness, and surface charge which may affect the adhesion of bacteria. Furthermore, as an enhancement in the antibacterial efficiency, multifunctional LbL assemblies combining both bactericidal and adhesion resistant functionalities were discussed. The advantages and limitations of these antibacterial LbL assemblies were summarized and subsequently directions for future development were proposed.

  18. Fluidized bed layer-by-layer microcapsule formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Teng, Darwin; Björnmalm, Mattias; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Guo, Junling; Cui, Jiwei; Franks, George V; Caruso, Frank

    2014-08-26

    Polymer microcapsules can be used as bioreactors and artificial cells; however, preparation methods for cell-like microcapsules are typically time-consuming, low yielding, and/or involve custom microfluidics. Here, we introduce a rapid (∼30 min per batch, eight layers), scalable (up to 500 mg of templates), and efficient (98% yield) microcapsule preparation technique utilizing a fluidized bed for the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polymers, and we investigate the parameters that govern the formation of robust capsules. Fluidization in water was possible for particles of comparable diameter to mammalian cells (>5 μm), with the experimental flow rates necessary for fluidization matching well with the theoretical values. Important variables for polymer film deposition and capsule formation were the concentration of polymer solution and the molecular weight of the polymer, while the volume of the polymer solution had a negligible impact. In combination, increasing the polymer molecular weight and polymer solution concentration resulted in improved film deposition and the formation of robust microcapsules. The resultant polymer microcapsules had a thickness of ∼5.5 nm per bilayer, which is in close agreement with conventionally prepared (quiescent (nonflow) adsorption/centrifugation/wash) LbL capsules. The technique reported herein provides a new way to rapidly generate microcapsules (approximately 8 times quicker than the conventional means), while being also amenable to scale-up and mass production.

  19. Dendrimers in Layer-by-Layer Assemblies: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Sato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the synthesis of dendrimer-containing layer-by-layer (LbL assemblies and their applications, including biosensing, controlled drug release, and bio-imaging. Dendrimers can be built into LbL films and microcapsules by alternating deposition of dendrimers and counter polymers on the surface of flat substrates and colloidal microparticles through electrostatic bonding, hydrogen bonding, covalent bonding, and biological affinity. Dendrimer-containing LbL assemblies have been used to construct biosensors, in which electron transfer mediators and metal nanoparticles are often coupled with dendrimers. Enzymes have been successfully immobilized on the surface of electrochemical and optical transducers by forming enzyme/dendrimer LbL multilayers. In this way, high-performance enzyme sensors are fabricated. In addition, dendrimer LbL films and microcapsules are useful for constructing drug delivery systems because dendrimers bind drugs to form inclusion complexes or the dendrimer surface is covalently modified with drugs. Magnetic resonance imaging of cancer cells by iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dendrimer LbL film is also discussed.

  20. PRESSURE DRIVEN CONDUCTING POLYMER MEMBRANES DERIVED FROM LAYER BY LAYER FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZZATI IZNI YUSOFF

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The layer-by-layer method is a technique used for the fabrication of ultra-thin defect free films which involves alternating sequential adsorption of polycations and polyanions, while conducting polymer is characterized by a conjugated structure of alternating single and double bonds. The use of layer-by-layer in producing a membrane for separation has received considerable interest due to its properties. However, the introduction of conducting polymer as a base membrane is relatively new. Therefore, in this review, we discuss in detail three types of LBL techniques (dip, spin and spray layer-by-layer along with their parameters. We will also summarize current developments on the characterization of modified membrane prepared using the layer-by-layer techniques in terms of morphology, physical and chemical properties, and separation performances.

  1. Layer-by-layer tissue microfabrication supports cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catros, S.; Guillemont, F.; Nandakumar, A.; Ziane, S.; Moroni, L.; Habibovic, P.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Rousseau, B.; Chassande, O.; Amedee, J.; Fricain, J-C.

    2012-01-01

    Layer-by-layer biofabrication represents a novel strategy to create three-dimensional living structures with a controlled internal architecture, using cell micromanipulation technologies. Laser assisted bioprinting (LAB) is an effective printing method for patterning cells, biomolecules, and biomate

  2. Effect of layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte method on encapsulation of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshad, Mohammad; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Shahidi, Fakhri; Koocheki, Arash

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to microencapsulate vanillin by multilayer emulsion followed by spray drying, aiming to protect it and control its release. An electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition method was used to create the multilayered interfacial membranes around microcapsules with different compositions: (i) one-layer (soy protein isolate); (ii) two-layer (soy protein isolate - OSA starch); (iii) three-layer (soy protein isolate - OSA starch - Chitosan). The morphology of the microcapsules was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy. The hygroscopicity, solubility, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and release into water (37°C and 80°C) were also examined. FTIR confirmed the interaction between the wall materials. All microcapsules were not very water-soluble or hygroscopic while three-layer microcapsules compared to one and two layer microcapsules have lower moisture content and predominantly shriveled surfaces. The results indicated it was possible to encapsulate vanillin with the techniques employed and that these protected the vanillin even at 80°C. The reduced solubility and low release rates indicated the enormous potential of the vehicle developed in controlling the release of the vanillin into the food and pharmaceuticals.

  3. Preparation and characterization of composite membrane via layer by layer assembly for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasim, Maria; Sabir, Aneela; Shafiq, Muhammad; Islam, Atif; Jamil, Tahir

    2017-02-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) incorporated with sepiolite and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) multilayer composite on Polysulfone (PSf) substrate have been prepared by layer by layer (LbL) assembly method. Fourier TransformInfrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results verified the hydrogen bonding among the components of composite membrane. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) was carried out for the determination and elucidation of roughness and morphology of the fabricated membranes on PSf substrate. The AFM and SEM results showed the increased surface roughness with the porous and spongy structure. The performance results verified that the successful incorporation of sepiolite in membranes showed maximum MgSO4 rejection (98.9%) and flux of 38.7 L/m2 h. Whereas, in case of NaCl the rejection is 98.3% and flux is 34.9L/m2 h. The modification was evidenced to be effective in increasing the surface hydrophilicity that led to increase in surface roughness. The chlorine resistivity is improved by dropping the active sites for chlorine attack and protecting the underlying PSf substrate.

  4. Chitosan-Recombinamer Layer-by-Layer Coatings for Multifunctional Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindharajulu, Jeevan Prasaad; Chen, Xi; Li, Yuping; Rodriguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; Battacharya, Mrinal; Aparicio, Conrado

    2017-01-01

    The main clinical problems for dental implants are (1) formation of biofilm around the implant—a condition known as peri-implantitis and (2) inadequate bone formation around the implant—lack of osseointegration. Therefore, developing an implant to overcome these problems is of significant interest to the dental community. Chitosan has been reported to have good biocompatibility and anti-bacterial activity. An osseo-inductive recombinant elastin-like biopolymer (P-HAP), that contains a peptide derived from the protein statherin, has been reported to induce biomineralization and osteoblast differentiation. In this study, chitosan/P-HAP bi-layers were built on a titanium surface using a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The difference in the water contact angle between consecutive layers, the representative peaks in diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the changes in the topography between surfaces with a different number of bi-layers observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), all indicated the successful establishment of chitosan/P-HAP LbL assembly on the titanium surface. The LbL-modified surfaces showed increased biomineralization, an appropriate mouse pre-osteoblastic cell response, and significant anti-bacterial activity against Streptococcus gordonii, a primary colonizer of tissues in the oral environment. PMID:28208793

  5. Simulation of the layer-by-layer synthesis of articles with an electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudskoi, A. I.; Kondrat'ev, S. Yu.; Sokolov, Yu. A.; Kopaev, V. N.

    2015-11-01

    The production of powder articles by layer-by-layer electron-beam synthesis is simulated. The following types of spatial distribution of the specific beam power over the surface of a powder layer are analyzed: truncated Gaussian distribution and β distribution. The mathematical description of the layer-by-layer electron- beam synthesis of articles includes a model for the interaction of a scanning electron beam with an article and a model for the heat-and-mass transfer processes that occur during the formation of an article.

  6. The first step in layer-by-layer deposition: Electrostatics and/or non-electrostatics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.; Deschênes, L.

    2011-01-01

    A critical discussion is presented on the properties and prerequisites of adsorbed polyelectrolytes that have to function as substrates for further layer-by-layer deposition. The central theme is discriminating between the roles of electrostatic and non-electrostatic interactions. In order to emphas

  7. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of a pH-Responsive and Electrochromic Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Daniel J.; Pridgen, Eric M.; Hammond, Paula T.; Love, J. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes an experiment on thin-film fabrication with layer-by-layer assembly that is appropriate for undergraduate laboratory courses. The purpose of this experiment is to teach students about self-assembly in the context of thin films and to expose students to the concepts of functional polymeric coatings. Students dip coat…

  8. Innovative layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant behavior of cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardant behavior has been prepared by the layer-by layer assemblies of kaolin/casein with inorganic chemicals on cotton fabrics. Three different kinds of cotton fabrics (print cloth, mercerized print cloth, and mercerized twill fabric) were prepared with solutions of mixture of BPEI, urea, ...

  9. Microcapsule production by an hybrid colloidosome-layer-by-layer technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossier Miranda, F.J.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although many different methods for microencapsulation are known only some of them had been applied at industrial scale, due to complexity, lack of mechanical strength of the resulting capsules, and the costs related to their production. One of such methods is the electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL)

  10. Preparation of very thin superconducting films of Y-Ba-Cu-O by a layer-by-layer resistive evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, J.; Goldschmidt, D. (Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel, and Center for Technological Education, Holon, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58680, Israel (IL)); Brener, R. (Solid State Institute, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200, Israel)

    1989-10-15

    We report here on 1/4 -{mu}m-thick superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-O films, produced by a sequential layer-by-layer deposition of Cu, BaF{sub 2}, and YF{sub 3}, utilizing solely resistive evaporation from tungsten boats onto SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. The films are composed primarily of quasioriented elongated grains and have, on the average, the correct stoichiometry. A transition onset at 75 K and width of {similar to}25 K have been observed in these films. The shape of the current-voltage curve indicates that Josephson-coupled weak links limit the transport in these films. However, the magnitude of critical current (3000 A/cm{sup 2} at {similar to}10 K) is larger than that found in bulk ceramic superconductors. The origin of weak links in these films is probably in the regions of contact between the elongated grains. The relatively large critical current density, as compared to regular bulk ceramic superconductors, is presumably related to the quasioriented nature of the film.

  11. Layer by layer assembly of glucose oxidase and thiourea onto glassy carbon electrode: Fabrication of glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistsn, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noorbakhsh, Abdollah [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistsn, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nanotechnology Engenering, Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, University of Isfahan, 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: > Although various enzymes immobilization have been approve for the construction of glucose biosensor, a layer by layer (LBL) technique has attracted more attention due to simplicity of the procedure, wide choice of materials that can be used, controllability of film thickness and unique mechanical properties. > In this paper, we described a novel and simple strategy for developing an amperometric glucose biosensor based on layer-by-layer self assembly of glucose oxidase on the glassy carbon electrode modified by thiourea. > Thiourea has two amino groups that the one can be immobilized on the activated glassy carbon electrode and the other can be used for the coupling of glucose oxidase enzyme. > The biosensor exhibited good performance for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, such as high sensitivity, low detection limit, short response time and wide concentration range. > Finally, the new method is strongly recommended for immobilization of many other enzymes or proteins containing carbaldehyde or carboxylic groups for fabricating third generation biosensors and bioelectronics devices. - Abstract: For the first time a novel, simple and facile approach is described to construct highly stable glucose oxidase (GOx) multilayer onto glassy carbon (GC) electrode using thiourea (TU) as a covalent attachment cross-linker. The layer by layer (LBL) attachment process was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy (FT-IR-RS) techniques. Immobilized GOx shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward glucose oxidation using ferrocenemethanol as artificial electron transfer mediator and biosensor response was directly correlated to the number of bilayers. The surface coverage of active GOx per bilayer, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub M}), of immobilized GOx were 1.50 x 10{sup -12} mol cm{sup -2}, 9.2 {+-} 0.5 s{sup -1

  12. Polysaccharide-based polyelectrolytes hollow microcapsules constructed by layer-by-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Chen, Cong; Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Lina

    2013-07-25

    Two water-soluble polysaccharide derivatives, carboxymethylated and quarternized glucans (CMGP and QGP) were synthesized for the first time from water-insoluble polysaccharides (GP) extracted from Ganoderma lucidum. Hollow microspheres were constructed using electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of the CMGP and QGP polyelectrolytes onto colloidal ZnO particles followed by the core decomposition with an acid solution. The structures of the multilayered CMGP/QGP microspheres were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results revealed that the multilayer thickness increased regularly from 48 to 145 nm as the number of deposited CMGP/QGP layers was increased from two to seven, and the mean increment of thickness was ∼25 nm per layer, reflecting the high regularity of the layer-by-layer assembly. This work provided an easy method to construct hollow microcapsules with biocompatibility and controlled dimensions.

  13. Layer-by-layer assembly of nanocomposite films with thickness up to hundreds of nanometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ling-de; YAN Yu-hua; YU Hai-hu; GU Er-dan; JIANG De-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte/polyelectrolyte, organic molecule/colloidal CdS and polyelectrolyte/MWCNT films were fabricated via the layer-by-layer assembling technique. The assembled films were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometry,nano profilometer and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that the layer-by-layer assembling technique can be used to make the nanoscaled films from polyelectrolytes and thicker composite films from suitable precursor materials. Both organic molecule/colloidal CdS films and PEI/MWCNT films with thickness of hundreds of nanometers were obtained. For the organic molecule/colloidal CdS films, a reasonable explanation for the result is that both the organic molecules and the CdS particles aggregate in the films. For the PEI/MWCNT films, obviously, it is the MWCNT that makes the great contribution to the film thickness.

  14. Multilayer assembly. Technology-driven layer-by-layer assembly of nanofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Björnmalm, Mattias; Caruso, Frank

    2015-04-24

    Multilayer thin films have garnered intense scientific interest due to their potential application in diverse fields such as catalysis, optics, energy, membranes, and biomedicine. Here we review the current technologies for multilayer thin-film deposition using layer-by-layer assembly, and we discuss the different properties and applications arising from the technologies. We highlight five distinct routes of assembly—immersive, spin, spray, electromagnetic, and fluidic assembly—each of which offers material and processing advantages for assembling layer-by-layer films. Each technology encompasses numerous innovations for automating and improving layering, which is important for research and industrial applications. Furthermore, we discuss how judicious choice of the assembly technology enables the engineering of thin films with tailor-made physicochemical properties, such as distinct-layer stratification, controlled roughness, and highly ordered packing.

  15. Layer-by-layer epitaxial thin films of the pyrochlore Tb2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Laura; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Prabhakaran, Dharmalingam; Bramwell, Steven T.

    2017-02-01

    Layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of the pyrochlore magnet Tb2Ti2O7 on the isostructural substrate Y2Ti2O7 results in high-quality single crystal films of up to 60 nm thickness. Substrate-induced strain is shown to act as a strong and controlled perturbation to the exotic magnetism of Tb2Ti2O7, opening up the general prospect of strain-engineering the diverse magnetic and electrical properties of pyrochlore oxides.

  16. Development of a Layer-by-Layer Assembled Film on Hydrogel for Ocular Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogel is a kind of attractive drug carriers because of its good biocompatibility and transparency. But traditional hydrogel showed some restrictions in its application in ocular drug delivery. A simple surface modification technique based on layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembled multilayer for ocular drug delivery was developed in this work. Polycarboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (poly(CM-β-CD))/poly-l-lysine (PLL) multilayer film was designed and constructed for ocular drug delivery, since β-CD s...

  17. Layer-by-Layer Nanoassembly of Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Nanoparticle Films for Solar Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hemati, A; Shrestha, S; M. Agarwal; K. Varahramyan

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of CIGS nanoparticles interdigited with polymers have been fabricated through a cost-effective nonvacuum film deposition process called layer-by-layer (LbL) nanoassembly. CIGS nanoparticles synthesized by heating copper chloride, indium chloride, gallium chloride, and selenium in oleylamine were dispersed in water, and desired surface charges were obtained through pH regulation and by coating the particles with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Raising the pH of the nanoparticle disper...

  18. Development of "all natural" layer-by-layer redispersible solid lipid nanoparticles by nano spray drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taoran; Hu, Qiaobin; Zhou, Mingyong; Xia, Yan; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-10-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have gained tremendous attraction as carriers for controlled drug delivery. Despite numerous advances in the field, one long-standing historical challenge for their practical applications remains unmet: redispersibility after drying. In this work, a novel design of SLNs using a layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was developed and the formulations were optimized by surface response methodology (Box-Behnken design). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the fabrication of SLNs from all natural ingredients in the absence of any synthetic surfactants or coatings. The SLNs were prepared by a combined solvent-diffusion and hot homogenization method, with soy lecithin as natural emulsifier (first layer), followed by the subsequent coating with sodium caseinate (second layer) and pectin (third layer), both of which are natural food biopolymers. The adsorption of pectin coating onto caseinate was reinforced by hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions induced by a pH-driven process along with thermal treatment. The innovative nano spray drying technology was further explored to obtain ultra-fine powders of SLNs. Compared to uncoated or single-layer coated SLNs powders, which showed severe aggregation after spray drying, the well-separated particles with spherical shape and smooth surface were obtained for layer-by-layer (LbL) SLNs, which were redispersible into water without variation of dimension, shape and morphology. The SLNs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared and high-performance differential scanning calorimetry for their physical properties. The LbL-coated SLNs based on all natural ingredients have promising features for future applications as drug delivery systems, overcoming the major obstacles in conventional spray drying and redispersing SLNs-based formulations.

  19. pH-responsive layer-by-layer films of zwitterionic block copolymer micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Demirel, Adem Levent; Yusan, Pelin; Tuncel, İrem; Bütün, Vural; Erel-Goktepe, İrem

    2014-01-01

    We report a strategy to incorporate micelles of poly[3-dimethyl (methacryloyloxyethyl) ammonium propane sulfonate]-block-poly[2-(diisopropylamino) ethyl methacrylate] (beta PDMA-b-PDPA) into electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) films. We obtained micelles with pH-responsive PDPA-cores and zwitterionic bPDMA-coronae at pH 8.5 through pH-induced self-assembly of bPDMA-b-PDPA in aqueous solution. To incorporate bPDMA-b-PDPA micelles into LbL films, we first obtained a net electrical charge on bPDM...

  20. Layer-by-Layer Assembly Onto Gold Nanoparticles of Various Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, Andrew; Kessler, Sarah; Dobbins, Tabbetha

    This research focuses on the potential applications of coated gold nanoparticles in medicine. By coating gold nanoparticles in layers of polyelectrolytes, with a final layer of antibodies which targets chemicals uniquely exhibited by cancer cells, we eventually hope to selectively attach the nanoparticles to the cancer cells. The coated nanoparticles are assembled through layer-by-layer coulombic attraction due to the passive zeta potential of the particle and the charged nature of the polyelectrolytes. This poster will explore the potential usefulness of variously sized nanoparticles with various thickness of polyelectrolyte layers.

  1. Graphene-based multilayers constructed from layer-by-layer self-assembly techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Liu, Xiaomian; Cong, Hailin; Yuan, Hua; Wang, Dong; Li, Zejing

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and development of graphene-based multilayers fabricated from layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique. Graphene multilayer films, due to their excellent performances and specific applications, have attracted widespread attention during recent decades. In this paper, the preparation and property of self-assembled graphene multilayer films are introduced. The application of different graphene multilayer films in transparent conducting films (TCFs), field effect transistors (FETs), lithium ion batteries (LIBs), supercapacitors, and solar cells are summarized and discussed. The perspectives for the future developments of self-assembled graphene multilayer films are proposed.

  2. Porous Materials with Tunable Structure and Mechanical Properties via Templated Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziminska, Monika; Dunne, Nicholas; Hamilton, Andrew R

    2016-08-31

    The deposition of stiff and strong coatings onto porous templates offers a novel strategy for fabricating macroscale materials with controlled architectures at the micro- and nanoscale. Here, layer-by-layer assembly is utilized to fabricate nanocomposite-coated foams with highly customizable properties by depositing polymer-nanoclay coatings onto open-cell foam templates. The compressive mechanical behavior of these materials evolves in a predictable manner that is qualitatively captured by scaling laws for the mechanical properties of cellular materials. The observed and predicted properties span a remarkable range of density-stiffness space, extending from regions of very soft elastomer foams to very stiff, lightweight honeycomb and lattice materials.

  3. Layer-by-layer films from tartrazine dye with bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Nara C.; Flores, Júlio C. Johner; Silva, Josmary R.

    2009-12-01

    We report on the preparation and study of the adsorption process of layer-by-layer films of tartrazine alternated with bovine serum albumin. UV-Vis spectroscopy indicated that the films form J-aggregates of tartrazine. Adsorption kinetics was fitted by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation and surface morphological analyses by atomic force microscopy suggested that the J-aggregates were column-shaped, which was attributed to the column-like symmetry of the tartrazine molecules. The columnar structures that formed probably arose from the juxtaposition of smaller aggregates that were already present at the beginning of film growth.

  4. Mixed mosaic membranes prepared by layer-by-layer assembly for ionic separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Sahadevan; Yan, Yu; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Gao, Haifeng; Phillip, William A

    2014-12-23

    Charge mosaic membranes, which possess distinct cationic and anionic domains that traverse the membrane thickness, are capable of selectively separating dissolved salts from similarly sized neutral solutes. Here, the generation of charge mosaic membranes using facile layer-by-layer assembly methodologies is reported. Polymeric nanotubes with pore walls lined by positively charged polyethylenimine moieties or negatively charged poly(styrenesulfonate) moieties were prepared via layer-by-layer assembly using track-etched membranes as sacrificial templates. Subsequently, both types of nanotubes were deposited on a porous support in order to produce mixed mosaic membranes. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that the facile deposition techniques implemented result in nanotubes that are vertically aligned without overlap between adjacent elements. Furthermore, the nanotubes span the thickness of the mixed mosaic membranes. The effects of this unique nanostructure are reflected in the transport characteristics of the mixed mosaic membranes. The hydraulic permeability of the mixed mosaic membranes in piezodialysis operations was 8 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1). Importantly, solute rejection experiments demonstrate that the mixed mosaic membranes are more permeable to ionic solutes than similarly sized neutral molecules. In particular, negative rejection of sodium chloride is observed (i.e., the concentration of NaCl in the solution that permeates through a mixed mosaic membrane is higher than in the initial feed solution). These properties illustrate the ability of mixed mosaic membranes to permeate dissolved ions selectively without violating electroneutrality and suggest their utility in ionic separations.

  5. Monoamine oxidase B layer-by-layer film fabrication and characterization toward dopamine detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Celina Massumi; Pereira, Tamyris Paschoal [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, UFSCar, CCTS, Sorocaba, São Paulo (Brazil); Mascagni, Daniela Branco Tavares [Universidade Estadual de São Paulo — UNESP, Sorocaba, São Paulo (Brazil); Leite de Moraes, Marli [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Unifesp, São José dos Campos, São Paulo (Brazil); Ferreira, Marystela, E-mail: marystela@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, UFSCar, CCTS, Sorocaba, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-01-01

    In this work nanostructured film composites of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) enzyme, free or encapsulated in liposomes, were fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique, employing polyethylene imine (PEI) as polycation. Initially, the MAO-B enzyme was incorporated into liposomes in order to preserve its enzymatic structure ensuring their activity and catalytic stability. The LbL film growth was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) by gold resonance angle shift analysis after each bilayer deposition. Subsequently, the films were applied as amperometric biosensors for dopamine detection using Prussian Blue (PB) as the electron mediator. The biosensor fabricated by MAO-B incorporated into liposomes composed of DPPG:POPG in the ratio (1:4) (w/w) showed the best performance with a sensitivity of 0.86 (μA cm{sup −2})/(mmol L{sup −1}) and a detection limit of 0.33 mmol L{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Monoamine oxidase B incorporation in liposomes was proposed to preserve the enzyme. • Layer-by-layer films composed of MAO-B (free and in liposomes) were fabricated. • Amperometric response using ITO/Prussian Blue covered with the MAO-B films was studied. • Sensitivity, limit of detection and apparent Michaelis–Menten constant were compared.

  6. Layer-by-layer assembly of partially sulfonated isotactic polystyrene with poly(vinylamine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiro, Hiroharu; Beckerle, Klaus; Okuda, Jun; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2012-03-27

    The stereoregular synthetic polymer isotactic polystyrene bearing partially sulfonated groups (SiPS) was used as a layer-by-layer assembled thin film for the first time. When a low molecular weight compound was employed as the pair for the alternative layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, the frequency shift was very small using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) analysis, whereas poly(vinylamine) (PVAm) formed an effective pair for the construction of LbL films with SiPS. When it was neutralized, SiPS was not assembled, probably due to the loss of effective polymer-polymer interactions. The ionic strength conditions revealed a slight difference of the assembly behavior on the isotactic polymer as compared to the atactic one. The assembled LbL film showed the same peaks over the range from 1141 to 1227 cm(-1) and 700 cm(-1) in the FT-IR/ATR spectra as the bulk complex of SiPS/PVAm, and the thickness on one side was calculated at 76 nm by QCM analysis. The surface roughness of the film was also observed by AFM.

  7. Antitumoral materials with regenerative function obtained using a layer-by-layer technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ficai D

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Denisa Ficai,1 Maria Sonmez,1,2 Madalina Georgiana Albu,2 Dan Eduard Mihaiescu,1 Anton Ficai,1 Coralia Bleotu3 1Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 2Leather and Footwear Research Institute, National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather, 3Stefan S Nicolau Institute of Virology, Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania Abstract: A layer-by layer technique was successfully used to obtain collagen/hydroxyapatite-magnetite-cisplatin (COLL/HAn-Fe3O4-CisPt, n=1–7 composite materials with a variable content of hydroxyapatite intended for use in the treatment of bone cancer. The main advantages of this system are the possibility of controlling the rate of delivery of cytostatic agents, the presence of collagen and hydroxyapatite to ensure more rapid healing of the injured bone tissue, and the potential for magnetite to be a passive antitumoral component that can be activated when an appropriate external electromagnetic field is applied. In vitro cytotoxicity assays performed on the COLL/HAn-Fe3O4-CisPt materials obtained using a layer-by layer method confirmed their antitumoral activity. Samples with a higher content of hydroxyapatite had more antitumoral activity because of their better absorption of cisplatin and consequently a higher amount of cisplatin being present in the matrices. Keywords: multifunctional materials, antitumoral activity, scaffold, bone grafts

  8. Layer-by-layer click deposition of functional polymer coatings for combating marine biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen Jing; Pranantyo, Dicky; Neoh, Koon-Gee; Kang, En-Tang; Teo, Serena Lay-Ming; Rittschof, Daniel

    2012-09-10

    "Click" chemistry-enabled layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of multilayer functional polymer coatings provides an alternative approach to combating biofouling. Fouling-resistant azido-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate-based polymer chains (azido-poly(PEGMA)) and antimicrobial alkynyl-functionalized 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride-based polymer chains (alkynyl-poly(META)) were click-assembled layer-by-layer via alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The polymer multilayer coatings are resistant to bacterial adhesion and are bactericidal to marine Gram-negative Pseudomonas sp. NCIMB 2021 bacteria. Settlement of barnacle ( Amphibalanus (= Balanus ) amphitrite ) cyprids is greatly reduced on the multilayer polymer-functionalized substrates. As the number of the polymer layers increases, efficacy against bacterial fouling and settlement of barnacle cyprids increases. The LBL-functionalized surfaces exhibit low toxicity toward the barnacle cyprids and are stable upon prolonged exposure to seawater. LBL click deposition is thus an effective and potentially environmentally benign way to prepare antifouling coatings.

  9. Thermal Transitions in Layer-by-Layer Assemblies Observed Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Choonghyun; Hearn, Katelin; Lutkenhaus, Jodie

    2014-03-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assemblies have been of great interest due to their versatile functionality and ease of fabrication. Charge and mass transport in LbL assemblies have been studied for the application of electrochemical devices and ion-conducting membranes. However, there are limited studies on the effect of temperature and of thickness on charge transport in LbL assemblies. Some LbL assemblies are known to have a thermal transition similar to a glass transition when hydrated. Thus, electrochemical properties can be strongly influenced by temperature. In this presentation, we studied the electrochemical impedance spectra of layer-by-layer assemblies of poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) and poly(styrene sulfonate) as a function of temperature using the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox couple. The effect of assembly salt concentration, thickness, and outermost layer on electrochemical properties is studied. Modified Randles circuits were used to quantitatively analyze the impedance spectra. Temperature-dependent impedance data are discussed with respect to the structure and thermal properties of LbL assemblies.

  10. A molecular photovoltaic system based on Dawson type polyoxometalate and porphyrin formed by layer-by-layer self assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Iftikhar; Farha, Rana; Goldmann, Michel; Ruhlmann, Laurent

    2013-01-18

    Films based on electrostatic interactions between tetracationic porphyrin and Dawson type polyoxometalate are formed by the so called layer-by-layer method. Their photovoltaic performances are investigated by photocurrent transient measurements which showed significant photocurrent response.

  11. Silica nanoparticles for the layer-by-layer assembly of fully electro-active cytochrome c multilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifel Sven C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For bioanalytical systems sensitivity and biomolecule activity are critical issues. The immobilization of proteins into multilayer systems by the layer-by-layer deposition has become one of the favorite methods with this respect. Moreover, the combination of nanoparticles with biomolecules on electrodes is a matter of particular interest since several examples with high activities and direct electron transfer have been found. Our study describes the investigation on silica nanoparticles and the redox protein cytochrome c for the construction of electro-active multilayer architectures, and the electron transfer within such systems. The novelty of this work is the construction of such artificial architectures with a non-conducting building block. Furthermore a detailed study of the size influence of silica nanoparticles is performed with regard to formation and electrochemical behavior of these systems. Results We report on interprotein electron transfer (IET reaction cascades of cytochrome c (cyt c immobilized by the use of modified silica nanoparticles (SiNPs to act as an artificial matrix. The layer-by-layer deposition technique has been used for the formation of silica particles/cytochrome c multilayer assemblies on electrodes. The silica particles are characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Zeta-potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The modified particles have been studied with respect to act as an artificial network for cytochrome c and to allow efficient interprotein electron transfer reactions. We demonstrate that it is possible to form electro-active assemblies with these non-conducting particles. The electrochemical response is increasing linearly with the number of layers deposited, reaching a cyt c surface concentration of about 80 pmol/cm2 with a 5 layer architecture. The interprotein electron transfer through the layer system and the

  12. Layer-by-layer self-assembled active electrodes for hybrid photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniprath, Rolf

    2008-11-18

    Solar cells based on thin organic/inorganic heterofilms are currently in the focus of research, since they represent promising candidates for cost-efficient photovoltaic energy conversion. In this type of cells, charges are separated at a heterointerface between dissimilar electrode materials. These materials either absorb light themselves, or they are sensitized by an additional absorber layer at the interface. The present work investigates photovoltaic cells which are composed of nanoporous TiO{sub 2} combined with conjugated polymers and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The method of layer-by-layer self-assembly of oppositely charged nanoparticles and polymers is used for the fabrication of such devices. This method allows to fabricate nanoporous films with controlled thicknesses in the range of a few hundred nanometers to several micrometers. Investigations with scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveal that the surface morphology of the films depends only on the chemical structure of the polyions used in the production process, and not on their molecular weight or conformation. From dye adsorption at the internal surface of the electrodes one can estimate that the internal surface area of a 1 {mu}m thick film is up to 120 times larger than the projection plane. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to demonstrate that during the layer-by-layer self-assembly at least 40% of the TiO{sub 2} surface is covered with polymers. This feature allows to incorporate polythiophene derivatives into the films and to use them as sensitizers for TiO{sub 2}. Further, electrodes containing CdSe or CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers are fabricated. For the fabrication of photovoltaic cells the layer-by-layer grown films are coated with an additional polymer layer, and Au back electrodes are evaporated on top. The cells are illuminated through transparent doped SnO{sub 2} front electrodes. The I/V curves of all fabricated cells show diode

  13. Layer-by-layer assembled gold nanoparticles for the delivery of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Eva-Christina; Elbakry, Asmaa; Göpferich, Achim; Breunig, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    The delivery of nucleic acids to mammalian cells requires a potent particulate carrier system. The physicochemical properties of the used particles, such as size and surface charge, strongly influence the cellular uptake and thereby the extent of the subsequent biological effect. However the knowledge of this process is still fragmentary because heterogeneous particle collectives are applied. Therefore we present a strategy to synthesize carriers with a highly specific appearance on the basis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique. The LbL method is based on the alternate deposition of oppositely charged (bio-)polymers, in our case poly(ethylenimine) and nucleic acids. The size and surface charge of those particles can be easily modified and accordingly systematic studies on cellular uptake are accessible.

  14. Reversible layer-by-layer deposition on solid substrates inspired by mussel byssus cuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suyeob; Kim, Dong Soo; Kang, Sung Min

    2014-01-01

    The protective coating on mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) byssus has attracted considerable research interest because of its excellent mechanical properties such as hardness and extensibility. These special properties are known to be highly related with specific interactions between mussel foot protein-1 and metal ions. In particular, the complexation between catechols in mfp-1 and iron(III) has been identified as a key interaction. This finding has given opportunities for pursuing promising applications. Herein, we report that emulating the properties of the mussel byssus cuticle provides an important platform for developing reversible layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition, an advanced technique for surface modification. LbL films were constructed on solid substrates by sequential immersion of substrates into solutions containing iron(III) and catecholic compounds. The thickness of the LbL films was effectively controlled by increasing the immersion steps, and the reversibility of the LbL deposition was demonstrated by addition of a chelating agent.

  15. Underpotential deposition-mediated layer-by-layer growth of thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia Xu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-05-19

    A method of depositing contiguous, conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin films with atomic-level control is described. The process involves the use of underpotential deposition of a first element to mediate the growth of a second material by overpotential deposition. Deposition occurs between a potential positive to the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element where a full monolayer of mediating element forms, and a potential which is less than, or only slightly greater than, the bulk deposition potential of the material to be deposited. By cycling the applied voltage between the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element and the material to be deposited, repeated desorption/adsorption of the mediating element during each potential cycle can be used to precisely control film growth on a layer-by-layer basis. This process is especially suitable for the formation of a catalytically active layer on core-shell particles for use in energy conversion devices such as fuel cells.

  16. Monazite coatings on short alumina fibers using layer-by-layer assembly technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Bo; Shen Liya; Liu Xiaozhen; Zhang Shuihe; Wu Chunfang; Liu Wenjing

    2004-01-15

    Rhabdophane cerous phosphate particles were deposited on short alumina fibers, using an aqueous precursor and layer-by-layer assembly technique. A polyelectrolyte, Na{sup +} salt of poly(acrylic acid), was employed for the surface modification of alumina fibers in the coating process. Subsequent heat treatment caused the transition of the coatings from rhabdophane to monazite. Dense, uniform monazite coatings on the alumina fibers were obtained by multiple coating steps. The precursor phase evolution was studied with differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffractometry. The morphology and structure of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The variables controlling the coating process are discussed.

  17. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyelectrolyte functionalized MoS2 nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianfeng; Pei, Yu; Dong, Pei; Ji, Jin; Cui, Zheng; Yuan, Junhua; Baines, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Ye, Mingxin

    2016-05-01

    Few-layered polyelectrolyte functionalized MoS2 nanosheets were obtained for the first time through in situ polymerization of MoS2 nanosheets with poly(acrylic acid) and poly(acrylamide), both of which demonstrated excellent dispersibility and stability in water. After designing and optimizing the components of this series of polyelectrolyte functionalized MoS2 nanosheets, by exploiting the electrostatic interactions present in the modified MoS2 nanosheets, we further created a series of layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembling MoS2-based films. To this end, uniform MoS2 nanosheet-based LBL films were precisely deposited on substrates such as quartz, silicon, and ITO. The polyelectrolyte functionalized MoS2 nanosheet assembled LBL film-modified electrodes demonstrated enhanced electrocatalytic activity for H2O2. As such, they are conducive to efficient sensors and advanced biosensing systems.

  18. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayers using catalase-encapsulated gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Park, Jeongju; Cho, Jinhan

    2010-09-01

    We introduce a novel and versatile approach for the preparation of multilayers, based on catalase-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (CAT-AuNP), allowing electrostatic charge reversal and structural transformation through pH adjustment. CAT-AuNP, which are synthesized directly from CAT stabilizer, can be electrostatically assembled with anionic and cationic PEs as a result of the charge reversal of the catalase stabilizers through pH control. In particular, at pH 5.2, near the pI of catalase, dispersed CAT-AuNP are structurally transformed into colloidal or network CAT-AuNP nanocomposites. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the layer-by-layer assembled multilayers composed of PEs and CAT-AuNP induce an effective electron transfer between CAT and the electrode as well as a high loading of CAT and AuNP, and resultantly exhibit a highly catalytic activity toward H2O2.

  19. Application of Layer-by-Layer Solidification Principle to Optimization of Large Chain Wheel Foundry Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李日; 毛协民; 柳百成; 李文珍

    2003-01-01

    In order to get a sound casting of the alloy with a solidification range, the principle of directional solidification (DS) and the layer-by-layer solidification(LBLS) should be followed, especially in designing foundry process of steel cas/dng. Using the principles, the reasons for the forming of the defects on the surface of the chain wheels teeth and groove and the forming of MT (magneldc particle testing) thin lines were analyzed. The results of the metallographic observation and the numerical simulation show that the low temperature gradient results in a wider mushy zone at the S/L interface that causes the defects and MT thin lines on the surface of the chain wheel casting. Bvsed on the anslysis, a new casUng technology of the chain wheel was designed and used in the casting production successfully.

  20. Tailored surface engineering of pigments by layer-by-layer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dähne, Lars; Schneider, Julia; Lewe, Dirk; Petersen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of layer-by-layer encapsulation technology for the improvement of dye pigments used for tattoos or permanent make-up. The formation of core-shell structures is possible by coating pigments with thin films of several different polyelectrolytes using this technology. The physicochemical surface properties, such as charge density and chemical functionality, can be reproducibly varied in a wide range. Tailoring the surface properties independently from the pigment core allows one to control the rheological behaviour of pigment suspensions, to prevent aggregation between different pigments, to reduce the cytotoxicity, and to influence the response of phagocytes in order to have similar or the same uptake and bioclearance for all pigments. These properties determine the durability and colour tone stability of tattoos and permanent make-up.

  1. Nanostructured solid-state hybrid photovoltaic cells fabricated by electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniprath, Rolf; McLeskey, James T.; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Kirstein, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    We report on the fabrication of hybrid organic/inorganic photovoltaic cells utilizing layer-by-layer deposition of water-soluble polyions and nanocrystals. A bulk heterojunction structure was created consisting of alternating layers of the p-conductive polythiophene derivative poly[2-(3-thienyl)-ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] and n-conductive TiO2 nanoparticles. We fabricated working devices with the heterostructure sandwiched between suitable charge carrier blocking layers and conducting oxide and metal electrodes, respectively. We analyzed the influence of the thickness and nanostructure of the active layer on the cell performance and characterized the devices in terms of static and transient current response with respect to illumination and voltage conditions. We observed reproducible and stable photovoltaic behavior with photovoltages of up to 0.9 V.

  2. Development of nanostructured magnetic capsules by means of the layer by layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Oscar L; Parigi, Enrico; Habibi, Neda; Pastorino, Laura; Caneva Soumetz, Federico; Ruggiero, Carmelina

    2010-01-01

    Nanomagnetic particles have been already taken into account as drug carriers thank to the possibility to control their movement to a specific location where the treatment is required by means of high gradient magnetic fields (HGMF). In this work the layer-by-layer technique (LbL) and nanomagnetic particles were used to developed innovative nanostructured magnetic capsules (NSMC). Their potential application as magnetic drug carriers was investigated under the influence of both static and oscillating magnetic fields used respectively to control capsule displacement and shell permeability. The assembly process of the nanostructured magnetic capsules, its characterization by Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM), and the results obtained under the influence of the magnetic fields are presented.

  3. Photophysical characterization of layer-by-layer self-assembled films of deoxyribonucleic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Dey; S A Islam; S A Hussain; D Bhattacharjee

    2008-08-01

    This communication reports the photophysical characterization of self-assembled layer-by-layer (LbL) films of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) fabricated at different temperatures by electrostatic interaction with a polycation, poly(allylamine hydrochloride). It was observed that there was a successful incorporation of DNA molecules in DNA–PAH LbL films at room temperature as well as after melting temperature. An abrupt increase in intensity was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated at high temperature which is an indication of the immobilization of unzipped DNA after melting of DNA. The films were observed to remain unaffected even after 250 h of film fabrication. The total electrostatic interaction time between DNA and PAH is about 15 min, that is, no PAH binding site is free.

  4. Systematic layer-by-layer characterization of multilayers for three-dimensional data storage and logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Dorothée; Lavrijsen, Reinoud; Lee, JiHyun; Mansell, Rhodri; Fernández-Pacheco, Amalio; Cowburn, Russell P.

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic kink solitons are used as a probe to experimentally measure the layer-by-layer coercivity and interlayer coupling strength of an antiferromagnetically coupled perpendicularly magnetized Co multilayer. The magnetic response is well described by a nearest neighbor Ising macrospin model. By controlling the position of one, two or three solitons in the stack using globally applied magnetic fields, we successfully probe the switching of individual buried layers under different neighboring configurations, allowing us to access individual layer's characteristic parameters. We found the coercivity to increase dramatically up the multilayer, while the interlayer coupling strength decreased slightly. We corroborate these findings with scanning transmission electron microscopy images where a degrading quality of the multilayer is observed. This method provides a very powerful tool to characterize the quality of individual layers in complex multilayers, without the need for depth-sensitive magnetic characterization equipment.

  5. Bending of Layer-by-Layer Films Driven by an External Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo N. Oliveira Jr.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on optimized architectures containing layer-by-layer (LbL films of natural rubber latex (NRL, carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC and magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs deposited on flexible substrates, which could be easily bent by an external magnetic field. The mechanical response depended on the number of deposited layers and was explained semi-quantitatively with a fully atomistic model, where the LbL film was represented as superposing layers of hexagonal graphene-like atomic arrangements deposited on a stiffer substrate. The bending with no direct current or voltage being applied to a supramolecular structure containing biocompatible and antimicrobial materials represents a proof-of-principle experiment that is promising for tissue engineering applications in biomedicine.

  6. Flame Retardant Polyelectrolyte-Nanoclay Layer-by-Layer Assemblies on Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhonosova, Galina; Li, Yu-Chin; Grunlan, Jaime

    2010-03-01

    Thin composite films of branched polyethylenimine (BPEI) and Laponite clay platelets were prepared using layer-by-layer assembly. Film thickness was tailored by altering the pH of the aqueous mixtures used to deposit theses films, resulting in growth that ranged from 0.5 to 5 nm per bilayer. In all films, the clay platelets are uniformly deposited and look analogous to a cobblestone path in atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface images. These thin coatings were deposited onto cotton fabric and the fabric has significantly more char left after burning than the uncoated fabric. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results reveal that fabric coated with 10-bilayers of BPEI-Laponite produces up to 6 wt% char at 500 C, which is almost an order of magnitude greater than untreated fabric. This study demonstrates that polymer-clay assemblies could improve the thermal stability of cotton and may be useful for fire safety applications.

  7. Monoamine oxidase B layer-by-layer film fabrication and characterization toward dopamine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Celina Massumi; Pereira, Tamyris Paschoal; Mascagni, Daniela Branco Tavares; de Moraes, Marli Leite; Ferreira, Marystela

    2016-01-01

    In this work nanostructured film composites of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) enzyme, free or encapsulated in liposomes, were fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique, employing polyethylene imine (PEI) as polycation. Initially, the MAO-B enzyme was incorporated into liposomes in order to preserve its enzymatic structure ensuring their activity and catalytic stability. The LbL film growth was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) by gold resonance angle shift analysis after each bilayer deposition. Subsequently, the films were applied as amperometric biosensors for dopamine detection using Prussian Blue (PB) as the electron mediator. The biosensor fabricated by MAO-B incorporated into liposomes composed of DPPG:POPG in the ratio (1:4) (w/w) showed the best performance with a sensitivity of 0.86 (μA cm(-2))/(mmol L(-1)) and a detection limit of 0.33 mmol L(-1).

  8. Layer-by-layer synthesis of mechanically robust solvent-permeable silica nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kathryn A; Furst, Eric M

    2014-01-21

    A layer-by-layer (LbL) synthesis of mechanically robust micrometer-diameter nanoshell silica was developed. Silica was templated onto polstyrene latex particles using a modified Stöber synthesis. Each subsequent silica layer was deposited after adsorbing cationic polymer poly(allylamine) hydrochloride. The silica shell grew approximately 30 nm for each reaction step. The polystyrene-silica core-shell particles were calcined at 500 °C to remove the latex core. The synthesis was adapted to nonspherical shapes using anisotropic polystyrene dicolloids as templates. The silica nanoshells were functionalized to render them organophilic or fluorescent. The rates at which water, ethanol, and aqueous sucrose solution (60% w/w) permeate the silica shells were compared using spectrophotometry and conductivity measurements. The rate of solvent uptake ranged between under 1 h to over 1 week depending on the surface chemistry of the nanoshells.

  9. Layer-by-layer deposition of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes on the surface of condensed DNA particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, V S; Loomis, A; Hagstrom, J E; Budker, V G; Wolff, J A

    1999-08-01

    DNA can be condensed with an excess of poly-cations in aqueous solutions forming stable particles of submicron size with positive surface charge. This charge surplus can be used to deposit alternating layers of polyanions and polycations on the surface surrounding the core of condensed DNA. Using poly-L-lysine (PLL) and succinylated PLL (SPLL) as polycation and polyanion, respectively, we demonstrated layer-by-layer architecture of the particles. Polyanions with a shorter carboxyl/backbone distance tend to disassemble binary DNA/PLL complexes by displacing DNA while polyanions with a longer carboxyl/backbone distance effectively formed a tertiary complex. The zeta potential of such complexes became negative, indicating effective surface recharging. The charge stoichiometry of the DNA/PLL/SPLL complex was found to be close to 1:1:1, resembling poly-electrolyte complexes layered on macrosurfaces. Recharged particles containing condensed plasmid DNA may find applications as non-viral gene delivery vectors.

  10. Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission using layer-by-layer assembled cowpea mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Deng, Zhaoqi; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaojie; Geng, Yanhou; Ma, Dongge; Su, Zhaohui

    2009-01-01

    Layer-by-layer assembly technique was used to construct ultrathin film of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) by electrostatic interactions, and the film was employed as a precursor on which an OF8T2 film was deposited by spin coating. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) was observed and improved for the OF8T2 film. Compared with OF8T2 film on quartz, the introduction of CPMV nanoparticles reduced the threshold and loss, and remarkably increased the net gain. The threshold, loss, and gain reached 0.05 mJ/pulse, 6.9 cm-1, and 82 cm-1, respectively. CPMV nanoparticles may enormously scatter light, resulting in a positive feedback, thus the ASE is easily obtained and improved.

  11. Fracture Mechanisms of Layer-By-Layer Polyurethane/Poly(Acrylic Acid) Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheng, Eugene R.

    A layer-by-layer(LBL) manufactured material is examined in detail in this thesis. Improvements are made to the method of its manufacture. Efforts are made to understand its fracture mechanisms and take advantage of these fracture mechanisms in the absorption of impact energy. A novel series of experiments has been performed on LBL manufactured thin films to demonstrate their unique fracture mechanisms. Polyurethane/Poly(Acrylic Acid) (PU/PAA) and PU/PAA/(PU/Clay)5 nanocomposite films readily undergo Interlaminar mode II fracture, because of the relatively weak elctrostatic bonds between monolayers. Tensile tests performed while under observation by a scanning electron microscope demonstrate the tendency of these nanocomposite films to undergo interlaminar mode II fracture even when loads are applied in the plane of nanocomposite film. It is concluded that these mechanisms of energy dissipation are responsible for the enhanced toughness of these films when used as layers between glass blocks in the prevention of impact damage to the glass. A novel automated manufacturing facility has been designed and built to deposit large sheets of Layer-by-Layer nanocomposite film. These large sheets are incorporated into a borosillicate glass composite in order to compare the ballistic characteristics of LBL PU based nanocomposite films to a single cast layer of polyurethane. It is demonstrated that shear fracture is the mode of failure in the blocks containing the nanocomposite film. The shear fracture surface in the nanocomposite after it has undergone a ballistic impact is characterized. Additional experiments are performed to characterize the interlaminar fracture stresses and toughnesses of the nanocomposite LBL layers, to assist in the implementation of a numerical crack band model that describes the nanocomposite film. The computational model predicts the failure of the ballistic nanocomposite samples, and the predicted V50 velocity is found to be in good agreement with

  12. Application of ceramic phosphors for near infrared biomedical imaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kohei; Tokuzen, Kimikazu; Tsuji, Kosuke; Yamano, Tomoyoshi; Venkatachalam, Nallusamy; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hidehiro

    2010-02-01

    Near infrared wavelength region between 0.8 and 2 μm is an attractive region for biomedical imaging due to the low loss in biomedical objects in the region. Rare-earth doped ceramic phosphors are known to emit efficient fluorescence in the same wavelength region. The authors have developed micro fluorescence bioimaging system for cellular or tissue imaging and macro one for in vivo imaging. This paper will review the materials synthesis for the near infrared fluorescence probes as well as the system development and demonstrative works. Er-doped or Yb/Er-doped ceramic phosphors were synthesized with required particle size. The phosphors were partly modified with polyethylene glycol to give dispersion and controlled interaction with the biological objects. By using the micro imaging system, nematodes, mouse tissue and M1 cells were observed by detecting 1.5 μm emission from Er doped in the ceramic phosphor. in vivo imaging with the same fluorescence scheme was also performed for the digestive organs of live mouse.

  13. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyelectrolyte functionalized MoS2 nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianfeng; Pei, Yu; Dong, Pei; Ji, Jin; Cui, Zheng; Yuan, Junhua; Baines, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Ye, Mingxin

    2016-05-01

    Few-layered polyelectrolyte functionalized MoS2 nanosheets were obtained for the first time through in situ polymerization of MoS2 nanosheets with poly(acrylic acid) and poly(acrylamide), both of which demonstrated excellent dispersibility and stability in water. After designing and optimizing the components of this series of polyelectrolyte functionalized MoS2 nanosheets, by exploiting the electrostatic interactions present in the modified MoS2 nanosheets, we further created a series of layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembling MoS2-based films. To this end, uniform MoS2 nanosheet-based LBL films were precisely deposited on substrates such as quartz, silicon, and ITO. The polyelectrolyte functionalized MoS2 nanosheet assembled LBL film-modified electrodes demonstrated enhanced electrocatalytic activity for H2O2. As such, they are conducive to efficient sensors and advanced biosensing systems.Few-layered polyelectrolyte functionalized MoS2 nanosheets were obtained for the first time through in situ polymerization of MoS2 nanosheets with poly(acrylic acid) and poly(acrylamide), both of which demonstrated excellent dispersibility and stability in water. After designing and optimizing the components of this series of polyelectrolyte functionalized MoS2 nanosheets, by exploiting the electrostatic interactions present in the modified MoS2 nanosheets, we further created a series of layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembling MoS2-based films. To this end, uniform MoS2 nanosheet-based LBL films were precisely deposited on substrates such as quartz, silicon, and ITO. The polyelectrolyte functionalized MoS2 nanosheet assembled LBL film-modified electrodes demonstrated enhanced electrocatalytic activity for H2O2. As such, they are conducive to efficient sensors and advanced biosensing systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM, AFM and TEM characterization of PAA-MoS2 and PAM-MoS2 nanocomposites. More characterization and electrochemical properties of LBL films

  14. Redox responsive nanotubes from organometallic polymers by template assisted layer by layer fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jing; Jańczewski, Dominik; Guo, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jianwei; Vancso, G. Julius

    2013-11-01

    Redox responsive nanotubes were fabricated by the template assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method and employed as platforms for molecular payload release. Positively and negatively charged organometallic poly(ferrocenylsilane)s (PFS) were used to construct the nanotubes, in combination with other polyions. During fabrication, multilayers of these polyions were deposited onto the inner pores of template porous membranes, followed by subsequent removal of the template. Anodized porous alumina and track-etched polycarbonate membranes were used as templates. The morphology, electrochemistry, composition and other properties of the obtained tubular structure were characterized by fluorescence microscopy, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Composite nanotubes, consisting of poly(acrylic acid) anions with PFS+ and nanoparticles including fluorophore labelled dextran and decorated quantum dots, with PFS polyelectrolytes were also fabricated, broadening the scope of the structures. Cyclic voltammograms of PFS containing nanotubes showed similar redox responsive behaviour to thin LbL assembled films. Redox triggered release of labelled macromolecules from these tubular structures demonstrated application potential in controlled molecular delivery.Redox responsive nanotubes were fabricated by the template assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method and employed as platforms for molecular payload release. Positively and negatively charged organometallic poly(ferrocenylsilane)s (PFS) were used to construct the nanotubes, in combination with other polyions. During fabrication, multilayers of these polyions were deposited onto the inner pores of template porous membranes, followed by subsequent removal of the template. Anodized porous alumina and track-etched polycarbonate membranes were used as templates. The morphology, electrochemistry, composition and other properties of the obtained tubular

  15. Layer-by-Layer Assembly and Photocatalytic Activity of Titania Nanosheets on Coal Fly Ash Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the problem with titania distribution and recovery, series of Ti0.91O2/CFA photocatalysts (Ti0.91O2/CFA-n, n=2,4,6, and 8 were fabricated by assembling Ti0.91O2 nanosheets on coal fly ash (CFA microspheres via the layer-by-layer assembly (LBLA process and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, N2-sorption, and ultraviolet-visible absorption (UV-vis techniques. The SEM images and UV-vis spectra illustrated that Ti0.91O2 nanosheets were immobilized successfully on the CFA by the LBLA approach and changed the characteristics of CFA noticeably. The photocatalytic activity of Ti0.91O2/CFA was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB under UV irradiation. The results demonstrated that Ti0.91O2/CFA-6 showed the best photocatalytic activity among the series of Ti0.91O2/CFA irradiated for 60 min, with a decoloration rate above 43%. After photocatalysis, the Ti0.91O2/CFA could be easily separated and recycled from aqueous solution and Ti0.91O2 nanosheets were still anchored on the CFA.

  16. Thermally Induced Charge Reversal of Layer-by-Layer Assembled Single-Component Polymer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Tardy, Blaise L; Ejima, Hirotaka; Guo, Junling; Cui, Jiwei; Liang, Kang; Choi, Gwan H; Yoo, Pil J; De Geest, Bruno G; Caruso, Frank

    2016-03-23

    Temperature can be harnessed to engineer unique properties for materials useful in various contexts and has been shown to affect the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polymer thin films and cause physical changes in preassembled polymer thin films. Herein we demonstrate that exposure to relatively low temperatures (≤ 100 °C) can induce physicochemical changes in cationic polymer thin films. The surface charge of polymer films containing primary and secondary amines reverses after heating (from positive to negative), and different characterization techniques are used to show that the change in surface charge is related to oxidation of the polymer that specifically occurs in the thin film state. This charge reversal allows for single-polymer LbL assembly to be performed with poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH) through alternating heat/deposition steps. Furthermore, the negative charge induced by heating reduces the fouling and cell-association of PAH-coated planar and particulate substrates, respectively. This study highlights a unique property of thin films which is relevant to LbL assembly and biofouling and is of interest for the future development of thin polymer films for biomedical systems.

  17. Cellular uptake and distribution of graphene oxide coated with layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiye; Lu, Zhenzhen; Li, Zhongjun; Nie, Guangjun; Fang, Ying

    2014-05-01

    We report a facile approach for the fabrication of a new class of graphene oxide (GO)-based nanoassemblies by layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The single-layer thickness and intrinsic negatively charged carboxyl groups of GO nanosheets provide a natural platform for LbL assembly of polyelectrolyte nanofilms by electrostatic forces at mild and aqueous conditions. The general applicability of our approach is demonstrated by the preparation of GO nanoassemblies with sizes of 100-200 nm using various charged polyelectrolytes, including synthetic polymers, polypeptides, and DNA oligonucleotides. Systemic assessment of cytotoxicity and acute stress response show that no discernable signs of cytotoxicity are associated with exposure of GO and its nanoassemblies [GO/PLL (poly ( l-lysine)), GO/PLL/PSS (poly(sodium-4-styrenesulfonate)), GO/PLL-PEG (PEGlayted PLL), GO/PLL/PLGA-PEG (PEGlayted poly ( l-glutamic acid))] up to 1 μg/mL. Studies on cellular uptake and subcellular localization show that a representative nanoassembly, GO/PLL-PEG, can effectively cross cell membranes and localize mainly in lysosomal compartments, without induction of noticeable harmful effects as confirmed by detection of mitochondrial depolarization and lysosomal pH.

  18. Local and Sustained Activity of Doxycycline Delivered with Layer-by-Layer Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Gould, David J; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2016-04-11

    Achieving localized delivery of small molecule drugs has the potential to increase efficacy and reduce off target and side effects associated with systemic distribution. Herein, we explore the potential use of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled microcapsules for the delivery of doxycycline. Absorbance of doxycycline onto core dextran sulfate of preassembled microcapsules provides an efficient method to load both synthetic and biodegradable microcapsules with the drug. Application of an outer layer lipid coat enhances the sustained in vitro release of doxycycline from both microcapsule types. To monitor doxycycline delivery in a biological system, C2C12 mouse myoblasts are engineered to express EGFP under the control of the optimized components of the tetracycline regulated gene expression system. Microcapsules are not toxic to these cells, and upon delivery to the cells, EGFP is more efficiently induced in those cells that contain engulfed microcapsules and monitored EGFP expression clearly demonstrates that synthetic microcapsules with a DPPC coat are the most efficient for sustain intracellular delivery. Doxycycline released from microcapsules also displayed sustained activity in an antimicrobial growth inhibition assay compared with doxycycline solution. This study reveals the potential for LbL microcapsules in small molecule drug delivery and their feasible use for achieving prolonged doxycycline activity.

  19. Note: Automatic layer-by-layer spraying system for functional thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongmin; Lee, Sangmin; Park, Yong Tae

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have constructed an automatic spray machine for producing polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing various functional materials on wide substrates via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The proposed machine exhibits advantages in terms of automation, process speed, and versatility. Furthermore, it has several features that allow a fully automated spraying operation, such as various two-dimensional spraying paths, control of the flow rate and operating speed, air-assist fan-shaped twin-fluid nozzles, and an optical display. The robot uniformly sprays aqueous mixtures containing complementary (e.g., oppositely charged, capable of hydrogen bonding, or capable of covalent bonding) species onto a large-area substrate. Between each deposition of opposite species, samples are spray-rinsed with deionized water and blow-dried with air. The spraying, rinsing, and drying areas and times are adjustable by a computer program. Twenty-bilayer flame-retardant thin films were prepared in order to compare the performance of the spray-assisted LbL assembly with a sample produced by conventional dipping. The spray-coated film exhibited a reduction of afterglow time in vertical flame tests, indicating that the spray-LbL technique is a simple method to produce functional thin film coatings.

  20. Lubricant-Infused Nanoparticulate Coatings Assembled by Layer-by-Layer Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunny, S; Vogel, N; Howell, C; Vu, TL; Aizenberg, J

    2014-09-01

    Omniphobic coatings are designed to repel a wide range of liquids without leaving stains on the surface. A practical coating should exhibit stable repellency, show no interference with color or transparency of the underlying substrate and, ideally, be deposited in a simple process on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We use layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of negatively charged silica nanoparticles and positively charged polyelectrolytes to create nanoscale surface structures that are further surface-functionalized with fluorinated silanes and infiltrated with fluorinated oil, forming a smooth, highly repellent coating on surfaces of different materials and shapes. We show that four or more LbL cycles introduce sufficient surface roughness to effectively immobilize the lubricant into the nanoporous coating and provide a stable liquid interface that repels water, low-surface-tension liquids and complex fluids. The absence of hierarchical structures and the small size of the silica nanoparticles enables complete transparency of the coating, with light transmittance exceeding that of normal glass. The coating is mechanically robust, maintains its repellency after exposure to continuous flow for several days and prevents adsorption of streptavidin as a model protein. The LbL process is conceptually simple, of low cost, environmentally benign, scalable, automatable and therefore may present an efficient synthetic route to non-fouling materials.

  1. Enzyme-Encapsulated Layer-by-Layer Assemblies: Current Status and Challenges Toward Ultimate Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Ji, Qingmin; Hill, Jonathan P.

    Alternate layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption has received much attention as an emerging methodology. Biocompatibility is the most prominent advantage of the LbL assembly process because the technique employs mild conditions for film construction. Most enzymes, especially water-soluble ones, have charged sites at their surfaces so that electrostatic LbL adsorption is suitable for construction of various protein organizations. In this review chapter, we summarize recent developments on enzyme-encapsulated LbL devices and their related functions where "encapsulated" does not always entail entrapment within spherical structures but generally includes immobilization of enzymes within the LbL structures. Recent examples, with various functions such as reactor sensors and medical applications, are described within a classification of structural types, i.e., thin films and spherical capsules. In addition to conventional applications, advanced systems including integration of LbL structures into advanced devices such as microchannels, field effect transistors, and flow injection amperometric sensors are introduced as well as recent developments in hybridization of LbL assemblies with functional nanomaterials such as carbon nanotube, dendrimers, nanoparticles, lipid assemblies, and mesoporous materials, all of which can enhance bio-related functions of LbL assemblies.

  2. Layer-by-layer-assembled high-performance broadband antireflection coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Hiroomi; Gemici, Zekeriyya; Cohen, Robert E; Rubner, Michael F

    2010-03-01

    Nanoparticles are indispensable ingredients of solution-processed optical, dielectric, and catalytic thin films. Although solution-based methods are promising low-cost alternatives to vacuum methods, they can have significant limitations. Coating uniformity, thickness control, roughness control, mechanical durability, and incorporation of a diverse set of functional organic molecules into nanoparticle thin films are major challenges. We have used the electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly technique to make uniform, conformal multistack nanoparticle thin films for optical applications with precise thickness control over each stack. Two particularly sought-after optical applications are broadband antireflection and structural color. The effects of interstack and surface roughness on optical properties of these constructs (e.g., haze and spectral response) have been studied quantitatively using a combination of Fourier-transform methods and atomic force microscopy measurements. Deconvoluting root-mean-square roughness into its large-, intermediate-, and small-scale components enables enhanced optical simulations. A 4-stack broadband antireflection coating (cleaning test under 100 kPa normal stress.

  3. Fabrication of Glucose-Sensitive Layer-by-Layer Films for Potential Controlled Insulin Release Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talusan Timothy Jemuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulated drug delivery systems (DDS are potential alternative to the conventional method of introducing insulin to the body due to their controlled drug release mechanism. In this study, Layer-by-Layer technique was utlized to manufacture drug loaded, pH responsive thin films. Insulin was alternated with pH-sensitive, [2-(dimethyl amino ethyl aminoacrylate] (PDMAEMA and topped of with polymer/glucose oxidase (GOD layers. Similarly, films using a different polymer, namely Poly(Acrylic Acid (PAA were also fabricated. Exposure of the films to glucose solutions resulted to the production of gluconic acid causing a polymer conformation change due to protonation, thus releasing the embedded insulin. The insulin release was monitored by subjecting the dipping glucose solutions to Bradford Assay. Films exhibited a reversal in drug release profile in the presence of glucose as compared to without glucose. PAA films were also found out to release more insulin compared to that of the PDMAEMA films.The difference in the profile of the two films were due to different polymer-GOD interactions, since both films exhibited almost identical profiles when embedded with Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (PSS instead of GOD.

  4. Chitosan Derivatives/Calcium Carbonate Composite Capsules Prepared by the Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell capsules composed of calcium carbonate whisker core (rod-like shape and chitosan/chitosansulfate shell were prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique. Two chitosan samples of different molecular weights (Mw=9.7×104 and 1.09×106g·mol-1 were used as original materials. Hollow capsules were also obtained by dissolution of the core in hydrochloric acid. Electron microscopy revealed that the surface of the shell is rather ragged associated with some agglomerates. The shell thickness l obeys a linear relation with respect to the number of deposited layers m as l=md+a(a>0. The values of d (thickness per layer were 4.0 and 1.0 nm for the higher and lower Mw chitosan materials, respectively, both of which are greater than the thickness of the monolayer. The results suggest that the feature of the deposition does not obey an ideal homogeneous monolayer-by-monolayer deposition mechanism. Shell crosslinked capsules were also prepared via photodimerization reaction of cinnamoyl groups after a deposition of cinnamoyl chitosan to the calcium carbonate whisker core. The degree of crosslink was not enough to stabilize the shell structure, and hollow capsule was not obtained.

  5. Multifunctional CNTs nanohybrids decorated with magnetic and fluorescent nanoparticles layer-by-layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Liu; Wei Jiang; Lei Yao; Xi-Wen Yang; Bin-Hua Chen; Shi-Xi Wu; Feng-Sheng Li

    2013-06-01

    Fe3O4/CNTs nanocomposites, which were prepared by polyol-medium in situ high-temperature decomposition of Fe()3 using PVP as stabilizing agent andmodified with SDS, were further decorated with high-quality ZnS nanocrystal via a wet technique in glycol solution. The obtained ZnS/Fe3O4/CNTs nanohybrids were characterized by XRD, FT–IR, Raman microscope, TEM, EDS, XPS, VSM and fluorophotometers. Results indicated that magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and fluorescent ZnS nanocrystal were uniformly dispersed on the surface of CNTs layer-by-layer with PVP and SDS as stabilizing agent and ion-capture agent, respectively. The novel multi-functional nanohybrids exhibit super-paramagnetic properties with a saturation magnetization about 6.795 emu g-1 at room temperature and show a strong emission band at 367 nm with a broad shoulder around 342–483 nm due to the interactions and/or background emissions of Fe3O4 and CNTs. The superparamagnetic and fluorescent properties of obtained products are promising for potential applications in magnetically guided and fluorescence tracing drug delivery systems.

  6. Layer-by-layer assembly of nanowires for three-dimensional, multifunctional electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javey, Ali; Nam, SungWoo; Friedman, Robin S; Yan, Hao; Lieber, Charles M

    2007-03-01

    We report a general approach for three-dimensional (3D) multifunctional electronics based on the layer-by-layer assembly of nanowire (NW) building blocks. Using germanium/silicon (Ge/Si) core/shell NWs as a representative example, ten vertically stacked layers of multi-NW field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated. Transport measurements demonstrate that the Ge/Si NW FETs have reproducible high-performance device characteristics within a given device layer, that the FET characteristics are not affected by sequential stacking, and importantly, that uniform performance is achieved in sequential layers 1 through 10 of the 3D structure. Five-layer single-NW FET structures were also prepared by printing Ge/Si NWs from lower density growth substrates, and transport measurements showed similar high-performance characteristics for the FETs in layers 1 and 5. In addition, 3D multifunctional circuitry was demonstrated on plastic substrates with sequential layers of inverter logical gates and floating gate memory elements. Notably, electrical characterization studies show stable writing and erasing of the NW floating gate memory elements and demonstrate signal inversion with larger than unity gain for frequencies up to at least 50 MHz. The ability to assemble reproducibly sequential layers of distinct types of NW-based devices coupled with the breadth of NW building blocks should enable the assembly of increasing complex multilayer and multifunctional 3D electronics in the future.

  7. Facile cation electro-insertion into layer-by-layer assembled iron phytate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, Charles Y.; Roweth, Alistair H.; Ching, Andrew K.Z.; Jenkins, A. Toby A.; Mitchels, John M.; Shariki, Sara; Marken, Frank [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath (United Kingdom); Liew, Soon Yee; Thielemans, Wim [Faculty of Engineering, Process and Environmental Research Division, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Walsh, Darren A. [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Molecular layer-by-layer assembly from pre-saturated aqueous solutions of Fe{sup 3+} and phytate is employed to build up iron phytate deposits on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) electrodes. Globular films with approximately 1 nm growth per layer are observed by AFM imaging and sectioning. In electrochemical experiments the iron phytate films show well-defined voltammetric responses consistent with an immobilised Fe(III/II) redox system in aqueous (LiClO{sub 4}, NaClO{sub 4}, KClO{sub 4}, phosphate buffer) and in ethanolic (LiClO{sub 4}, NaClO{sub 4}, NBu{sub 4}ClO{sub 4}) electrolyte solutions. The Fe(III/II) redox system is reversible and cation insertion/expulsion occurs fast on the timescale of voltammetric experiments even for more bulky NBu{sub 4}{sup +} cations and in ethanolic solution. Peak shape analysis and scan rate dependent midpoint potentials suggest structural changes accompanying the redox process and limiting propagation. Iron phytate is proposed as a versatile and essentially colourless cation electro-insertion material and as a potential energy storage material. (author)

  8. Flame-Retardant Paper from Wood Fibers Functionalized via Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köklükaya, Oruç; Carosio, Federico; Grunlan, Jaime C; Wågberg, Lars

    2015-10-28

    The highly flammable character of cellulose-rich fibers from wood limits their use in some advanced materials. To suppress the flammability and introduce flame-retardant properties to individual pulp fibers, we deposited nanometer thin films consisting of cationic chitosan (CH) and anionic poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA) on fibers using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The buildup of the multilayer film was investigated in the presence and absence of salt (NaCl) using model cellulose surfaces and a quartz crystal microbalance technique. Fibers were then treated with the same strategy, and the treated fibers were used to prepare paper sheets. A horizontal flame test (HFT) and cone calorimetry were conducted to evaluate the combustion behavior of paper sheets as a function of the number of bilayers deposited on fibers. In HFT, paper made of fibers coated with 20 CH/PVPA bilayers (BL), self-extinguished the flame, while uncoated fibers were completely consumed. Scanning electron microscopy of charred paper after HFT revealed that a thin shell of the charred polymeric multilayer remained after the cellulose fibers had been completely oxidized. Cone calorimetry demonstrated that the phosphorus-containing thin films (20 BL is ∼25 nm) reduced the peak heat release rate by 49%. This study identifies a unique and highly effective way to impart flame-retardant characteristic to pulp fibers and the papers made from these fibers.

  9. Improving the endoscopic endonasal transclival approach: the importance of a precise layer by layer reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Di Rienzo, Alessandro; di Somma, Lucia Giovanna Maria; Moriconi, Elisa; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Re, Massimo; Salvinelli, Fabrizio; Carassiti, Massimiliano; Scerrati, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    BACKGROUND. The endoscopic endonasal transclival approach (EETCA) is a minimally-invasive technique allowing a direct route to the base of implant of clival lesions with reduced brain and neurovascular manipulation. On the other hand, it is associated with potentially severe complications related to the difficulties in reconstructing large skull base defects with a high risk of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. The aim of this paper is to describe a precise layer by layer reconstruction in the EETCA including the suture of the mucosa as an additional reinforcing layer between cranial and nasal cavity in order to speed up the healing process and reduce the incidence of CSF leak. METHODS. This closure technique was applied to the last six cases of EETCA used for clival meningiomas (2), clival chordomas (2), clival metastasis (1), and craniopharyngioma with clival extension (1). RESULTS. After a mean follow-up of 6 months we had no one case of postoperative CSF leakage or infections. Seriated outpatient endoscopic endonasal controls showed a fast healing process of nasopharyngeal mucosa with less patient discomfort. CONCLUSIONS. Our preliminary experience confirms the importance of a precise reconstruction of all anatomical layers violated during the surgical approach, including the nasopharygeal mucosa.

  10. Layer-by-layer assembly surface modified microbial biomass for enhancing biorecovery of secondary gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Nengwu; Kang, Naixin; Cao, Yanlan; Shi, Chaohong; Wu, Pingxiao; Dang, Zhi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Qin, Benqian

    2017-02-01

    Enhancement of the biosorption capacity for gold is highly desirable for the biorecovery of secondary gold resources. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI) was grafted on Shewanella haliotis surface through layer-by-layer assembly approach so as to improve the biosorption capacity of Au(III). Results showed that the relative contribution of amino group to the biosorption of Au(III) was the largest one (about 44%). After successful grafting 1, 2 and 3-layer PEI on the surface of biomass, the biosorption capacity significantly enhanced from 143.8mg/g to 597.1, 559.1, and 536.8mg/g, respectively. Interestingly, the biomass modified with 1-layer PEI exhibited 4.2 times higher biosorption capacity than the untreated control. When 1-layer modified biomass was subjected to optimizing the various conditions by response surface methodology, the theoretical maximum adsorption capacity could reach up to 727.3mg/g. All findings demonstrated that PEI modified S. haliotis was effective for enhancing gold biorecovery.

  11. Layer-by-Layer-Assembled High-Performance Broadband Antireflection Coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Shimomura, Hiroomi

    2010-03-24

    Nanoparticles are indispensable ingredients of solution-processed optical, dielectric, and catalytic thin films. Although solution-based methods are promising low-cost alternatives to vacuum methods, they can have significant limitations. Coating uniformity, thickness control, roughness control, mechanical durability, and incorporation of a diverse set of functional organic molecules into nanoparticle thin films are major challenges. We have used the electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly technique to make uniform, conformal multistack nanoparticle thin films for optical applications with precise thickness control over each stack. Two particularly sought-after optical applications are broadband antireflection and structural color. The effects of interstack and surface roughness on optical properties of these constructs (e.g., haze and spectral response) have been studied quantitatively using a combination of Fourier-transform methods and atomic force microscopy measurements. Deconvoluting root-mean-square roughness into its large-, intermediate-, and small-scale components enables enhanced optical simulations. A 4-stack broadband antireflection coating (<0.5% average reflectance in the visible range, and 0.2% haze) composed of alternating high-index (n ≈ 1.96) and low-index (n ≈ 1.28) stacks has been made on glass substrate. Films calcinated at 550 °C endure a one-hour-long cloth cleaning test under 100 kPa normal stress. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Polymer Thin Films and Interfaces; a Layer-by-Layer Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald; Lipson, Jane

    2013-03-01

    In this talk we discuss new ways to model polymer films and interfaces, including properties such as density and concentration gradients, interfacial tension, and surface enrichment. We build on recent work where we developed a very simple equation of state approach for polymer thin films, and successfully applied it to determine thermodynamic properties and even to make predictions for the thickness-dependent depression of the thin film glass transition temperature. In that very simplified mean field model, the film properties across the entire interface region were treated as a ``whole sample'' average. Here, we take the next step, and develop a layer-by-layer equation of state model wherein details of the interface region are captured by allowing properties to vary from one discretized layer (within which properties are uniform) to the next. The model can be solved by imposing hydrostatic equilibrium in each layer, which then leads to predictions for the corresponding density gradient and other key interface properties. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  13. Chondrocyte Behavior on Micropatterns Fabricated Using Layer-by-Layer Lift-Off: Morphological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Shaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell patterning has emerged as an elegant tool in developing cellular arrays, bioreactors, biosensors, and lab-on-chip devices and for use in engineering neotissue for repair or regeneration. In this study, micropatterned surfaces were created using the layer-by-layer lift-off (LbL-LO method for analyzing canine chondrocytes response to patterned substrates. Five materials were chosen based on our previous studies. These included: poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDDA, poly(ethyleneimine (PEI, poly(styrene sulfonate (PSS, collagen, and chondroitin sulfate (CS. The substrates were patterned with these five different materials, in five and ten bilayers, resulting in the following multilayer nanofilm architectures: (PSS/PDDA5, (PSS/PDDA10; (CS/PEI4/CS, (CS/PEI9/CS; (PSS/PEI5, (PSS/PEI10; (PSS/Collagen5, (PSS/Collagen10; (PSS/PEI4/PSS, (PSS/PEI9/PSS. Cell characterization studies were used to assess the viability, longevity, and cellular response to the configured patterned multilayer architectures. The cumulative cell characterization data suggests that cell viability, longevity, and functionality were enhanced on micropatterned PEI, PSS, collagen, and CS multilayer nanofilms suggesting their possible use in biomedical applications.

  14. Amperometric detection of lactose using β-galactosidase immobilized in layer-by-layer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Paula P; Moraes, Marli L; Volpati, Diogo; Miranda, Paulo B; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Ferreira, Marystela

    2014-07-23

    A direct, low-cost method to determine the concentration of lactose is an important goal with possible impact in various types of industry. In this study, a biosensor is reported that exploits the specific interaction between lactose and the enzyme β-galactosidase (β-Gal) normally employed to process lactose into glucose and galactose for lactose-intolerant people. The biosensor was made with β-Gal immobilized in layer-by-layer (LbL) films with the polyelectrolyte poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and poly(vinyl sufonate) (PVS) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode modified with a layer of Prussian Blue (PB). With an ITO/PB/(PEI/PVS)1(PEI/β-Gal)30 architecture, lactose could be determined with an amperometric method with sensitivity of 0.31 μA mmol(-1) cm(-2) and detection limit of 1.13 mmol L(-1), which is sufficient for detecting lactose in milk and for clinical exams. Detection occurred via a cascade reaction involving glucose oxidase titrated as electrolytic solution in the electrochemical cell, while PB allowed for operation at 0.0 V versus saturated calomel electrode, thus avoiding effects from interfering species. Sum-frequency generation spectroscopy data for the interface between the LbL film and a buffer containing lactose indicated that β-Gal lost order, which is the first demonstration of structural effects induced by the molecular recognition interaction with lactose.

  15. Layer-by-Layer (LBL) Self-Assembled Biohybrid Nanomaterials for Efficient Antibacterial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanhao; Long, Yubo; Li, Qing-Lan; Han, Shuying; Ma, Jianbiao; Yang, Ying-Wei; Gao, Hui

    2015-08-12

    Although antibiotics have been widely used in clinical applications to treat pathogenic infections at present, the problem of drug-resistance associated with abuse of antibiotics is becoming a potential threat to human beings. We report a biohybrid nanomaterial consisting of antibiotics, enzyme, polymers, hyaluronic acid (HA), and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), which exhibits efficient in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity with good biocompatibility and negligible hemolytic side effect. Herein, biocompatible layer-by-layer (LBL) coated MSNs are designed and crafted to release encapsulated antibiotics, e.g., amoxicillin (AMO), upon triggering with hyaluronidase, produced by various pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The LBL coating process comprises lysozyme (Lys), HA, and 1,2-ethanediamine (EDA)-modified polyglycerol methacrylate (PGMA). The Lys and cationic polymers provided multivalent interactions between MSN-Lys-HA-PGMA and bacterial membrane and accordingly immobilized the nanoparticles to facilitate the synergistic effect of these antibacterial agents. Loading process was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). The minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of MSN-Lys-HA-PGMA treated to antibiotic resistant bacteria is much lower than that of isodose Lys and AMO. Especially, MSN-Lys-HA-PGMA exhibited good inhibition for pathogens in bacteria-infected wounds in vivo. Therefore, this type of new biohybrid nanomaterials showed great potential as novel antibacterial agents.

  16. Effect of pirfenidone delivered using layer-by-layer thin film on excisional wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapalli, Praveen Kumar; Labala, Suman; Bojja, Jagadeesh; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a new anti-fibrotic agent, pirfenidone (PFD), delivered using polyelectrolyte multilayer films on excisional wound healing. Polyelectrolyte multilayer films were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) sequential adsorption of chitosan and sodium alginate. The UV-spectrophotometer, FTIR and differential scanning calorimeter were used to characterize the LbL thin films. The PFD was entrapped within the LbL thin films and its effect on excisional wound healing was studied in C57BL/6. The total protein, collagen content and TGF-β expression within the wound tissue were determined after application of PFD using LbL thin films, chitosan hydrogel and polyethylene glycol hydrogel. UV-spectrophotometer and FTIR studies showed a sequential adsorption of chitosan and alginate polymer layers to form LbL thin films. The thickness of LbL thin films with 15 bilayers was found to be 15 ± 2 μm. HPLC analysis showed a PFD loading efficiency of 1.0 ± 0.1mg in 1cm(2) area of LbL thin film. In vivo wound healing studies in C57BL/6 mice showed an accelerated (healing.

  17. Nanocoating for biomolecule delivery using layer-by-layer self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, M; Jiang, X Y; Yamane, M; Lee, M; Goodman, S; Yang, F

    2015-11-07

    Since its introduction in the early 1990s, layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of films has been widely used in the fields of nanoelectronics, optics, sensors, surface coatings, and controlled drug delivery. The growth of this industry is propelled by the ease of film manufacture, low cost, mild assembly conditions, precise control of coating thickness, and versatility of coating materials. Despite the wealth of research on LbL for biomolecule delivery, clinical translation has been limited and slow. This review provides an overview of methods and mechanisms of loading biomolecules within LbL films and achieving controlled release. In particular, this review highlights recent advances in the development of LbL coatings for the delivery of different types of biomolecules including proteins, polypeptides, DNA, particles and viruses. To address the need for co-delivery of multiple types of biomolecules at different timing, we also review recent advances in incorporating compartmentalization into LbL assembly. Existing obstacles to clinical translation of LbL technologies and enabling technologies for future directions are also discussed.

  18. Layer-by-Layer Nanoassembly of Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Nanoparticle Films for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hemati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of CIGS nanoparticles interdigited with polymers have been fabricated through a cost-effective nonvacuum film deposition process called layer-by-layer (LbL nanoassembly. CIGS nanoparticles synthesized by heating copper chloride, indium chloride, gallium chloride, and selenium in oleylamine were dispersed in water, and desired surface charges were obtained through pH regulation and by coating the particles with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS. Raising the pH of the nanoparticle dispersion reduced the zeta-potential from +61 mV at pH 7 to −51 mV at pH 10.5. Coating the CIGS nanoparticles with PSS (CIGS-PSS produced a stable dispersion in water with −56.9 mV zeta-potential. Thin films of oppositely charged CIGS nanoparticles (CIGS/CIGS, CIGS nanoparticles and PSS (CIGS/PSS, and PSS-coated CIGS nanoparticles and polyethylenimine (CIGS-PSS/PEI were constructed through the LbL nanoassembly. Film thickness and resistivity of each bilayer of the films were measured, and photoelectric properties of the films were studied for solar cell applications. Solar cell devices fabricated with a 219 nm CIGS film, when illuminated by 50 W light-source, produced 0.7 V open circuit voltage and 0.3 mA/cm2 short circuit current density.

  19. Flame retardation of cellulose-rich fabrics via a simplified layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Chi; Liao, Wang; Deng, Shi-Bi; Cao, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2016-10-20

    Due to the high cellulose content of cotton (88.0-96.5%), the flame retardation of cotton fabrics can be achieved via an approach for the flame retardation of cellulose. In this work, a facile water-based flame retardant coating was deposited on cotton fabrics by a 'simplified' layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. The novel coating solution was based on a mild reaction between ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI), and the reaction mechanism was studied. TGA results showed that the char residues of coated fabrics were remarkably increased. The fabric with only 5wt% coating showed self-extinguishing in the horizontal flame test, and the peak heat release rate (pHRR) in cone calorimeter test decreased by 51%. Furthermore, this coating overcame a general drawback of flame-retardant LbL assembly which was easily washed away. Therefore, the simplified LbL method provides a fast, low-cost, eco-friendly and wash-durable flame-retardant finishing for the cellulose-rich cotton fabrics.

  20. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective layer-by-layer coatings for neural implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiling; Nong, Jia; Zhong, Yinghui

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Infection, inflammation, and neuronal loss are common issues that seriously affect the functionality and longevity of chronically implanted neural prostheses. Minocycline hydrochloride (MH) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and effective anti-inflammatory drug that also exhibits potent neuroprotective activities. In this study, we investigated the development of biocompatible thin film coatings capable of sustained release of MH for improving the long term performance of implanted neural electrodes. Approach. We developed a novel magnesium binding-mediated drug delivery mechanism for controlled and sustained release of MH from an ultrathin hydrophilic layer-by-layer (LbL) coating and characterized the parameters that control MH loading and release. The anti-biofilm, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective potencies of the LbL coating and released MH were also examined. Main results. Sustained release of physiologically relevant amount of MH for 46 days was achieved from the Mg2+-based LbL coating at a thickness of 1.25 μm. In addition, MH release from the LbL coating is pH-sensitive. The coating and released MH demonstrated strong anti-biofilm, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective potencies. Significance. This study reports, for the first time, the development of a bioactive coating that can target infection, inflammation, and neuroprotection simultaneously, which may facilitate the translation of neural interfaces to clinical applications.

  1. Microporous polymeric 3D scaffolds templated by the layer-by-layer self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulraj, Thomas; Feoktistova, Natalia; Velk, Natalia; Uhlig, Katja; Duschl, Claus; Volodkin, Dmitry

    2014-08-01

    Polymeric scaffolds serve as valuable supports for biological cells since they offer essential features for guiding cellular organization and tissue development. The main challenges for scaffold fabrication are i) to tune an internal structure and ii) to load bio-molecules such as growth factors and control their local concentration and distribution. Here, a new approach for the design of hollow polymeric scaffolds using porous CaCO3 particles (cores) as templates is presented. The cores packed into a microfluidic channel are coated with polymers employing the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. Subsequent core elimination at mild conditions results in formation of the scaffold composed of interconnected hollow polymer microspheres. The size of the cores determines the feature dimensions and, as a consequence, governs cellular adhesion: for 3T3 fibroblasts an optimal microsphere size is 12 μm. By making use of the carrier properties of the porous CaCO3 cores, the microspheres are loaded with BSA as a model protein. The scaffolds developed here may also be well suited for the localized release of bio-molecules using external triggers such as IR-light.

  2. Biocorrosion behavior of biodegradable nanocomposite fibers coated layer-by-layer on AM50 magnesium implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdal-Hay, Abdalla; Hasan, Anwarul; Kim, Yu-Kyoung; Yu-Kyoung; Lee, Min-Ho; Hamdy, Abdel Salam; Khalil, Khalil Abdelrazek

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates the use of hybrid nanofibers to improve the biodegradation rate and biocompatibility of AM50 magnesium alloy. Biodegradable hybrid membrane fiber layers containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) particles and poly(lactide)(PLA) nanofibers were coated layer-by-layer (LbL) on AM50 coupons using a facile single-step air jet spinning (AJS) approach. The corrosion performance of coated and uncoated coupon samples was investigated by means of electrochemical measurements. The results showed that the AJS 3D membrane fiber layers, particularly the hybrid membrane layers containing a small amount of nHA (3 wt.%), induce a higher biocorrosion resistance and effectively decrease the initial degradation rate compared with the neat AM50 coupon samples. The adhesion strength improved highly due to the presence of nHA particles in the AJS layer. Furthermore, the long biodegradation rates of AM50 alloy in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) were significantly controlled by the AJS-coatings. The results showed a higher cytocompatibility for AJS-coatings compared to that for neat Mg alloys. The nanostructured nHA embedded hybrid PLA nanofiber coating can therefore be a suitable coating material for Mg alloy as a potential material for biodegradable metallic orthopedic implants.

  3. Layer-by-layer nanocoating of lignocellulose fibers for enhanced paper properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiguo; McDonald, John; Khillan, Rajneek; Su, Yi; Shutava, Tatsiana; Grozdits, George; Lvov, Yuri M

    2006-03-01

    The systematic modification of the surface charge of lignocellulose fibers was performed with a polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer (LbL) nanocoating process to produce negatively and positively charged fibers. The fibers were coated with 20-50 nm thick polymer surface layers which subsequently increased interaction between the fibers during paper formation. The modified fibers were added to standard fibers at varying proportions to produce paper with corresponding variation in properties such as strength and electrical conductivity. Paper strength was doubled by manipulating the surface charge and coating thickness of the LbL-treated pulp fibers. It is demonstrated that the LbL coating process increased the fiber interactions and that these interactions enhanced the paper properties. This process, when applied to a simulated sample of recycle grade of fibers, produce paper with an increase in tear strength as compared with untreated fiber paper. Nanocoating fibers with polythiophene/polyallylamine multilayers produced marginally conductive pulp and paper. Paper electrical conductivity was proportional to the number of the bilayers deposited.

  4. Solution-processed sintered nanocrystal solar cells via layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasieniak, Jacek; MacDonald, Brandon I; Watkins, Scott E; Mulvaney, Paul

    2011-07-13

    Solar cells made by high temperature and vacuum processes from inorganic semiconductors are at a perceived cost disadvantage when compared with solution-processed systems such as organic and dye-sensitized solar cells. We demonstrate that totally solution processable solar cells can be fabricated from inorganic nanocrystal inks in air at temperature as low as 300 °C. Focusing on a CdTe/ZnO thin-film system, we report solar cells that achieve power conversion efficiencies of 6.9% with greater than 90% internal quantum efficiency. In our approach, nanocrystals are deposited from solution in a layer-by-layer process. Chemical and thermal treatments between layers induce large scale grain formation, turning the 4 nm CdTe particles into pinhole-free films with an optimized average crystallite size of ∼70 nm. Through capacitance-voltage measurements we demonstrate that the CdTe layer is fully depleted which enables the charge carrier collection to be maximized.

  5. The photoluminescent lifetime of polyelectrolytes in thin films formed via layer by layer self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Roseanne S; Smyth, Ciarán A; Rakovich, Yury P; McCabe, Eithne M

    2009-03-04

    We present results on luminescence lifetime studies of thin multilayer films of polyelectrolyte molecules produced via layer by layer (LbL) electrostatic assembly. We found that, in contrast to common assumptions, LbL films show measurable photoluminescent lifetimes with an average value of 6 ns. Scanning fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy studies combined with steady-state photoluminescence measurements imply that this lifetime may be due to aggregation of polyelectrolyte molecules during preparation of LbL films. This conclusion has been further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images clearly show the presence of 100-200 nm high aggregates on the surface of these films. This aggregation of polyelectrolyte molecules contributes significantly to the experimentally detected luminescence decays of any light-emitting samples attached to LbL film, especially in a single molecule detection regime. To demonstrate this effect we compare photoluminescence lifetime results for CdTe quantum dots deposited on the surface of LbL polyelectrolyte films.

  6. Layer-by-layer graphene/TCNQ stacked films as conducting anodes for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chang-Lung; Lin, Cheng-Te; Huang, Jen-Hsien; Chu, Chih-Wei; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Li, Lain-Jong

    2012-06-26

    Large-area graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising candidate for transparent conducting electrode applications in flexible optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes or organic solar cells. However, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the polymer photovoltaic devices using a pristine CVD graphene anode is still not appealing due to its much lower conductivity than that of conventional indium tin oxide. We report a layer-by-layer molecular doping process on graphene for forming sandwiched graphene/tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ)/graphene stacked films for polymer solar cell anodes, where the TCNQ molecules (as p-dopants) were securely embedded between two graphene layers. Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on these multilayered graphene/TCNQ anodes are fabricated and characterized. The P3HT/PCBM device with an anode structure composed of two TCNQ layers sandwiched by three CVD graphene layers shows optimum PCE (∼2.58%), which makes the proposed anode film quite attractive for next-generation flexible devices demanding high conductivity and transparency.

  7. pH-Dependent Release of Insulin from Layer-by-Layer-Deposited Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Yoshida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-containing microcapsules were prepared by a layer-by-layer (LbL deposition of poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH and polyanions, such as poly(styrenesulfonate (PSS, poly(vinyl sulfate (PVS, and dextran sulfate (DS on insulin-containing calcium carbonate (CaCO3 microparticles. The CaCO3 core was dissolved in diluted HCl solution to obtain insulin-containing hollow microcapsules. The microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM images and ζ-potential. The release of insulin from the microcapsules was faster at pH 9.0 and 7.4 than in acidic solutions due to the different charge density of PAH. In addition, insulin release was suppressed when the microcapsules were constructed using PAH with a lower molecular weight, probably owing to a thicker shell of the microcapsules. The results suggested a potential use of the insulin-containing microcapsules for developing insulin delivery systems.

  8. Nanostructured layer-by-layer films containing phaeophytin-b: Electrochemical characterization for sensing purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes Pauli, Gisele Elias [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88040900 (Brazil); Araruna, Felipe B. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, Parnaíba (Brazil); Eiras, Carla [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, Parnaíba (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avançados, LIMAV, CCN, UFPI, Teresina, PI 64049-550 (Brazil); Leite, José Roberto S.A. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, Parnaíba (Brazil); Chaves, Otemberg Souza; Filho, Severino Gonçalves Brito; Vanderlei de Souza, Maria de Fátima [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Produtos Naturais e Sintéticos Bioativos, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Chavero, Lucas Natálio; Sartorelli, Maria Luisa [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88040900 (Brazil); and others

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the study and characterization of a new platform for practical applications, where the use of phaeophytin-b (phaeo-b), a compound derived from chlorophyll, was characterized and investigated for sensing purposes. Modified electrodes with nanostructured phaeo-b films were fabricated via the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique, where phaeo-b was assembled with cashew gum, a polysaccharide, or with poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH). The multilayer formation was investigated with UV–Vis spectroscopy by monitoring the absorption band associated to phaeo-b at approximately 410 nm, where distinct molecular interactions between the materials were verified. The morphology of the films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrochemical properties through redox behavior of phaeo-b were studied with cyclic voltammetry. The produced films were applied as sensors for hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) detection. In terms of sensing, the cashew/phaeo-b film exhibited the most promising result, with a fast response and broad linear range upon the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. This approach provides a simple and inexpensive method for development of a nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Potential applications of phaeophytin-b • Low-cost method to produce sensitive nanostructured films • Electrochemical sensor based on phaeophytin-b and cashew gum.

  9. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Ferrite Multilayer Nanofilms for Microwave Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwoong Heo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a simple method for fabricating multilayer thin films containing ferrite (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles, using layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly. These films have microwave absorbing properties for possible radar absorbing and stealth applications. To demonstrate incorporation of inorganic ferrite nanoparticles into an electrostatic-interaction-based LbL self-assembly, we fabricated two types of films: (1 a blended three-component LbL film consisting of a sequential poly(acrylic acid/oleic acid-ferrite blend layer and a poly(allylamine hydrochloride layer and (2 a tetralayer LbL film consisting of sequential poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride, poly(sodium-4-sulfonate, bPEI-ferrite, and poly(sodium-4-sulfonate layers. We compared surface morphologies, thicknesses, and packing density of the two types of ferrite multilayer film. Ferrite nanoparticles (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 were prepared via a coprecipitation method from an aqueous precursor solution. The structure and composition of the ferrite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction patterns of ferrite nanoparticles indicated a cubic spinel structure, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed their composition. Thickness growth and surface morphology were measured using a profilometer, atomic force microscope, and scanning electron microscope.

  10. Interactions between Chitosan and Alginate Dialdehyde Biopolymers and Their Layer-by-Layer Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Robyn; Wimalaratne, Medini; Brock, Aidan; Lawrie, Gwendolyn; Grøndahl, Lisbeth

    2015-06-01

    Biopolymers are researched extensively for their applications in biomaterials science and drug delivery including structures and complexes of more than one polymer. Chemical characterization of complexes formed between chitosan (CHI) and alginate dialdehyde (ADA) biopolymers established that while electrostatic interactions dominate (as determined from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) covalent cross-linking between these biopolymers also contribute to their stability (evidenced from immersion in salt solution). It was furthermore found that imine bond formation could not be directly detected by any of the techniques XPS, FTIR, (1)H NMR, or fluorescence. The layer-by-layer assemblies of the biopolymers formed on silica colloids, glass slides, and alginate hydrogel beads were evaluated using XPS, as well as zeta potential measurements for the silica colloids and changes to hydration properties for the hydrogels. It was found that the degree of oxidation of ADA affected the LbL assemblies in terms of a greater degree of CHI penetration observed when using the more conformationally flexible biopolymer ADA (higher degree of oxidation).

  11. Encapsulation of the herbicide picloram by using polyelectrolyte biopolymers as layer-by-layer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Zhao, Jing

    2013-04-24

    Microcapsules of the herbicide picloram (PLR) were formulated by a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method using the polyelectrolyte biopolymers of biocompatible chitosan (CS) and the UV-absorbent sodium lignosulfonate (SL) as shell materials. The herbicide PLR was recrystallized and characterized using XRD analysis. The obtained PLR-loaded microcapsules were characterized by using SEM, FTIR, CLSM, and ζ-potential measurements. The herbicide loading and encapsulation efficiency were also analyzed for the PLR-loaded microcapsules. The influence of LbL layer numbers on herbicide release and photodegradation rates was investigated in vitro. The results showed that the release rates and photodegradation rates of PLR in microcapsules decreased with increasing number of CS/SL self-assembly layers. The results demonstrated that polyelectrolyte biopolymer-based LbL multilayer microcapsules can be a promising approach for the controlled release of PLR as well as other pesticides with poor photostability or short half-release time.

  12. Structure and properties of layer-by-layer self-assembled chitosan/lignosulfonate multilayer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Hui; Shen Qing, E-mail: sqing@dhu.edu.cn; Ye Fan; Cheng Yifei; Mezgebe, Mebrahtu; Qin Ruijuan

    2012-10-01

    The formation of polycation chitosan, CS, with polyanion lignosulfonate, LGS, multilayer films based on layer-by-layer self-assembly method was investigated by several techniques. UV absorption spectra showed that the growth of both CS and LGS layers followed the exponential model. The film surface wettability was found alternated depending on the surface properties of these two materials because the contact angle is smaller for the CS layer and greater for the LGS layer while the surface free energy is known greater for the former and smaller for the latter. AFM images indicated that the surface roughness of these layers was in nanosize and was increased with the layer number due to the aggregation. The field emission scanning electron microscope photograph showed that the average thickness of each layer was about 5-6 nm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chitosan/lignosulfonate (CS/LGS) multilayer films were self-assembled following the exponential model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film surface wettability was alternated depending on the surface properties of CS and LGS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface roughness of these layers was in nanosize and increased with the layer number due to the aggregation.

  13. Nanostructured layer-by-layer films containing phaeophytin-b: electrochemical characterization for sensing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Gisele Elias Nunes; Araruna, Felipe B; Eiras, Carla; Leite, José Roberto S A; Chaves, Otemberg Souza; Brito Filho, Severino Gonçalves; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei; Chavero, Lucas Natálio; Sartorelli, Maria Luisa; Bechtold, Ivan H

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the study and characterization of a new platform for practical applications, where the use of phaeophytin-b (phaeo-b), a compound derived from chlorophyll, was characterized and investigated for sensing purposes. Modified electrodes with nanostructured phaeo-b films were fabricated via the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique, where phaeo-b was assembled with cashew gum, a polysaccharide, or with poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH). The multilayer formation was investigated with UV-Vis spectroscopy by monitoring the absorption band associated to phaeo-b at approximately 410 nm, where distinct molecular interactions between the materials were verified. The morphology of the films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrochemical properties through redox behavior of phaeo-b were studied with cyclic voltammetry. The produced films were applied as sensors for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. In terms of sensing, the cashew/phaeo-b film exhibited the most promising result, with a fast response and broad linear range upon the addition of H2O2. This approach provides a simple and inexpensive method for development of a nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor for H2O2.

  14. Carboxyl-ebselen-based layer-by-layer films as potential antithrombotic and antimicrobial coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenyi; Wu, Jianfeng; Xi, Chuanwu; Ashe, Arthur J; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2011-11-01

    A carboxyl-ebselen-based layer-by-layer (LbL) film was fabricated by alternatively assembling carboxyl-ebselen immobilized polyethylenimine (e-PEI) and alginate (Alg) onto substrates followed by salt annealing and cross-linking. The annealed films exhibiting significantly improved stability are capable of generating nitric oxide (NO) from endogeneous S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) in the presence of a reducing agent. The NO generation behaviors of different organoselenium species in solution phase are compared and the annealing mechanism to create stable LbL films is studied in detail. An LbL film coated polyurethane catheter is capable of generating physiological levels of NO from RSNOs even after blood soaking for 24 h, indicating potential antithrombotic applications of the coating. Further, the LbL film is also demonstrated to be capable of reducing living bacterial surface attachment and killing a broad spectrum of bacteria, likely through generation of superoxide (O(2)(·-)) from oxygen. This type of film is expected to have potential application as an antithrombotic and antimicrobial coating for different biomedical device surfaces.

  15. Electrochemical detection of acetaminophen on the functionalized MWCNTs modified electrode using layer-by-layer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, Revanasiddappa [Chemistry Research Centre, S.S.M.R.V. Degree College, IV ' T' Block, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560041 (India); Nagaraju, Dodahalli Hanumantharayudu [Mechanical Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 119615 (Singapore); Suresh, Gurukar Shivappa, E-mail: sureshssmrv@yahoo.co.in [Chemistry Research Centre, S.S.M.R.V. Degree College, IV ' T' Block, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560041 (India); Melo, Jose Savio; D' Souza, Stanislaus F. [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Venkatesha, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah [Department of Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shimoga 577451 (India)

    2011-07-30

    A selective electrochemical method is fabricated via layer-by-layer (LBL) method using both positively and negatively charged multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on poly (diallyldimetheylammonium chloride) (PDDA)/poly styrene sulfonate (PSS) modified graphite electrode, for the determination of acetaminophen (ACT) in the presence of dopamine (DA) and high concentration of ascorbic acid (AA). The modified electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental conditions such as pH, accumulation potential and time, effect of potential sweep rates and interferents were studied. In CV well defined peaks for AA, ACT and DA are obtained at 24, 186 and 374 mV, respectively. The separations of peaks were 210, 188 and 398 mV between AA and DA, DA and ACT and AA and ACT, respectively. The diffusion coefficient was calculated by chronocoulometric. Chronoamperometric studies showed the linear relationship between oxidation peak current and concentration of ACT in the range 25-400 {mu}M (R = 0.9991). The detection limit was 5 x 10{sup -7} mol/L. The proposed method gave satisfactory results in the determination of ACT in pharmaceutical and human serum samples.

  16. Layer-by-layer assembly of thin films containing exfoliated pristine graphene nanosheets and polyethyleneimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Alison Y W; Notley, Shannon M

    2014-03-11

    A method for the modification of surface properties through the deposition of stabilized graphene nanosheets is described. Here, the thickness of the film is controlled through the use of the layer-by-layer technique, where the sequential adsorption of the cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) is followed by the adsorption of anionic graphene sheets modified with layers of polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) surfactants. The graphene particles were prepared using the surfactant-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation technique, with the low residual negative charge arising from edge defects. The buildup of the multilayer assembly through electrostatic interactions was strongly influenced by the solution conditions, including pH, ionic strength, and ionic species. Thereby, not only could the thickness of the film be tailored through the choice of the number of bilayers deposited but the viscoelastic properties of the film could also be modified by changing solution conditions at which the different species were deposited. The quartz crystal microbalance was used to measure the mass of graphene and polyelectrolyte immobilized at the interface as well as to probe the energy dissipated in the adsorbed layer.

  17. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayers using catalase-encapsulated gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Park, Jeongju [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jinhan, E-mail: jinhan71@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-17

    We introduce a novel and versatile approach for the preparation of multilayers, based on catalase-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (CAT-Au{sub NP}), allowing electrostatic charge reversal and structural transformation through pH adjustment. CAT-Au{sub NP}, which are synthesized directly from CAT stabilizer, can be electrostatically assembled with anionic and cationic PEs as a result of the charge reversal of the catalase stabilizers through pH control. In particular, at pH 5.2, near the pI of catalase, dispersed CAT-Au{sub NP} are structurally transformed into colloidal or network CAT-Au{sub NP} nanocomposites. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the layer-by-layer assembled multilayers composed of PEs and CAT-Au{sub NP} induce an effective electron transfer between CAT and the electrode as well as a high loading of CAT and Au{sub NP}, and resultantly exhibit a highly catalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  18. Influence of the Assembly Conditions on the Growth and Disassembly of Layer-by-Layer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishvakant Mankad, Ravin

    A central aim of our research is to capitalize upon the versatility of the Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique and explore parameters to control the film properties for tailored applications. The objective of this work is to investigate immersion time as a parameter to tune film properties and analyze the kinetics of LbL assembly. Multilayer films prepared using strong polycation poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and strong polyanion poly (styrene sulfonate) (PSS), or the weak polyanion poly (acrylic acid) (PAA), and/or the synthetic clay Laponite were assembled using the solution dip LbL procedure. We also investigate the disassembly kinetics of these multilayers upon exposure to different pH conditions. UV-vis spectroscopy and AFM were used to measure the adsorption and desorption of polymers and film surface morphology. The kinetics of multilayer growth for strong polyelectrolyte system were observed to be different than for the weak polyelectrolyte system. Multilayer films of strong polyelectrolyte system of PDDA/PSS or clay system of PDDA/Laponite were found to be stable upon exposure to different pH conditions for very long times. LbL offers a convenient method to produce ultrathin films with nanometer scale control for various applications, e.g., drug delivery, optical coating, battery electrolytes and gas barriers.

  19. Layer-by-layer rose petal mimic surface with oleophilicity and underwater oleophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-chin; Zacharia, Nicole S

    2015-01-20

    Surfaces designed with specific wetting properties are still a key challenge in materials science. We present here a facile preparation of a surface assembled by the layer-by-layer technique, using a colloidal dispersion of ionomer particles and linear polyethylene imine. The colloidal ethylene-co-methacrylic acid (EMAA) particles are on the order of half a micron in size with surface features from 40 to 100 nm in width. The resultant surface has roughness on two length scales, one on the micron scale due to the packing of particles and one on the nanoscale due to these surface features on the EMAA particles. This hierarchical structure results in a hydrophobic surface with good water pinning properties (∼550 μN). We show that there is a balance between maximizing contact angle and water pinning force. Furthermore, this surface is oleophilic with regard to many organic solvents, also demonstrating underwater oleophobicity, and given the difference in wetting between aqueous and organic phases, this material may be a candidate material for oil/water separations.

  20. Bio-Inspired Aquaporinz Containing Double-Skinned Forward Osmosis Membrane Synthesized through Layer-by-Layer Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzheng Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a novel AquaporinZ (AqpZ-incorporated double-skinned forward osmosis (FO membrane by layer-by-layer (LbL assembly strategy. Positively charged poly(ethyleneimine (PEI and negatively charged poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (PSS were alternately deposited on both the top and bottom surfaces of a hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile (H-PAN substrate. Subsequently, an AqpZ-embedded 1,2-dioleloyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC/1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium- propane (chloride salt (DOTAP supported lipid bilayer (SLB was formed on PSS-terminated (T-PSS membrane via vesicle rupture method. The morphology and structure of the biomimetic membranes were characterized by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer using the attenuated total reflection technique (ATR-FTIR, and contact angle. Moreover, the FO performance of the resultant membrane was measured by using 2 M MgCl2 solution as draw solution and deionized (DI water as feed solution, respectively. The membrane with a protein-to-lipid weight ratio (P/L of 1/50 exhibits 13.2 L/m2h water flux and 3.2 g/m2h reversed flux by using FO mode, as well as 15.6 L/m2h water flux and 3.4 L/m2h reversed flux for PRO mode (the draw solution is placed against the active layer. It was also shown that the SLB layer of the double-skinned FO membrane can increase the surface hydrophilicity and reduce the surface roughness, which leads to an improved anti-fouling performance against humic acid foulant. The current work introduced a new method of fabricating high performance biomimetic FO membrane by combining AqpZ and a double-skinned structure based on LbL assembly.

  1. Layer-by-layer fully printed Zn-MnO2 batteries with improved internal resistance and cycle life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B.; Winslow, R.; Lin, I.; Gururangan, K.; Evans, J.; Wright, P.

    2015-12-01

    This research created direct layer-by-layer printed zinc-based secondary batteries with an ionic liquid-based gel polymer electrolyte to power micro- and meso-scale devices. The use of a gel polymer electrolyte composed of [BMIM][Otf] ionic liquid, ZnOtf salt, and PVDF-HFP polymer binder enabled direct layer-by-layer printing of functional cells. The effects of additive printing methods on cell discharge capacity, cycle life, and internal resistance are discussed. Fully printed cells have demonstrated average discharge capacities of 0.548 mAh/cm2, energy densities of 8.20 mWh/cm3, and specific energies of 2.46 mWh/g with some cells achieving over 1000 cycles without catastrophic failure. Layer-by-layer printed devices exhibited decreased DC internal resistance and longer cycle life over previous mechanically assembled cells.

  2. Building 3D Layer-by-Layer Graphene-Gold Nanoparticle Hybrid Architecture with Tunable Interlayer Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-26

    the entire surface of graphene within such 3D layer-by-layer hybrid nanomaterials would be exposed to electrolyte ions to facilitate the charging...B.; Li, Y. L.; Li, Y. M.; Li, J. H.; Deng, Z. X. Noncovalent DNA decorations of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide toward water -soluble metal...Building 3D Layer-by-Layer Graphene −Gold Nanoparticle Hybrid Architecture with Tunable Interlayer Distance Chenming Xue,† Min Gao,† Yuhua Xue,‡ Lin

  3. Selective growth of graphene in layer-by-layer via chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyun; An, Hyosub; Choi, Dong-Chul; Hussain, Sajjad; Song, Wooseok; An, Ki-Seok; Lee, Won-Jun; Lee, Naesung; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Jung, Jongwan

    2016-07-01

    Selective and precise control of the layer number of graphene remains a critical issue for the practical applications of graphene. First, it is highly challenging to grow a continuous and uniform few-layer graphene since once the monolayer graphene fully covers a copper (Cu) surface, the growth of the second layer stops, resulting in mostly nonhomogeneous films. Second, from the selective adlayer growth point of view, there is no clear pathway for achieving this. We have developed the selective growth of a graphene adlayer in layer-by-layer via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) which makes it possible to stack graphene on a specific position. The key idea is to deposit a thin Cu layer (~40 nm thick) on pre-grown monolayer graphene and to apply additional growth. The thin Cu atop the graphene/Cu substrate acts as a catalyst to decompose methane (CH4) gas during the additional growth. The adlayer is grown selectively on the pre-grown graphene, and the thin Cu is removed through evaporation during CVD, eventually forming large-area and uniform double layer graphene. With this technology, highly uniform graphene films with precise thicknesses of 1 to 5 layers and graphene check patterns with 1 to 3 layers were successfully demonstrated. This method provides precise LBL growth for a uniform graphene film and a technique for the design of new graphene devices.Selective and precise control of the layer number of graphene remains a critical issue for the practical applications of graphene. First, it is highly challenging to grow a continuous and uniform few-layer graphene since once the monolayer graphene fully covers a copper (Cu) surface, the growth of the second layer stops, resulting in mostly nonhomogeneous films. Second, from the selective adlayer growth point of view, there is no clear pathway for achieving this. We have developed the selective growth of a graphene adlayer in layer-by-layer via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) which makes it possible to stack graphene

  4. Layer-by-layer deposition of rhenium-containing hyperbranched polymers and fabrication of photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chui Wan; Man, Ka Yan Kitty; Cheng, Kai Wing; Mak, Chris S K; Chan, Wai Kin; Yip, Cho Tung; Liu, Zheng Tong; Djurisić, Aleksandra B

    2007-01-01

    Multilayer thin films were prepared by the layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition method using a rhenium-containing hyperbranched polymer and poly[2-(3-thienyl)ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] (PTEBS). The radii of gyration of the hyperbranched polymer in solutions with different salt concentrations were measured by laser light scattering. A significant decrease in molecular size was observed when sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate was used as the electrolyte. The conditions of preparing the multilayer thin films by LBL deposition were studied. The growth of the multilayer films was monitored by absorption spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry, and the surface morphologies of the resulting films were studied by atomic force microscopy. When the pH of a PTEBS solution was kept at 6 and in the presence of salt, polymer films with maximum thickness were obtained. The multilayer films were also fabricated into photovoltaic cells and their photocurrent responses were measured upon irradiation with simulated air mass (AM) 1.5 solar light. The open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency of the devices were 1.2 V, 27.1 mu A cm(-2), 0.19, and 6.1x10(-3) %, respectively. The high open-circuit voltage was attributed to the difference in the HOMO level of the PTEBS donor and the LUMO level of the hyperbranched polymer acceptor. A plot of incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency versus wavelength also suggests that the PTEBS/hyperbranched polymer junction is involved in the photosensitization process, in which a maximum was observed at approximately 420 nm. The relatively high capacitance, determined from the measured photocurrent rise and decay profiles, can be attributed to the presence of large counter anions in the polymer film.

  5. Electrochemistry of ATP-capped silver nanoparticles in layer-by-layer multilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Solomon, Virgil C.; Buttry, Daniel A.

    2014-07-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) capped with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were prepared using borohydride reduction of Ag+ in the presence of ATP. Subsequent characterization was done using transmission electron microscopy/high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and non-contact atomic force microscopy (NcAFM) confirming the size and composition of the Ag NPs. This report focuses on two topics: (1) the change in NP size and properties as a function of molar ratios of Ag+ to ATP capping ligand to BH4 - reductant, and (2) the electrochemical behavior of the NPs in layer-by-layer (LbL) multilayer films. On the basis of electrostatic interaction between negatively charged phosphate groups on Ag NPs and positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium) hydrochloride, NPs were immobilized on 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MCP)-functionalized gold electrodes using LbL assembly method followed by characterization of the film using NcAFM. Furthermore, the redox chemistry for phase transformations of immobilized Ag NPs to AgCl or Ag2O in multilayer films was examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) in NaOH and NaCl solutions. A non-linear increase of charge with an increase in the number of bilayers in the film was observed up to five layers. Underpotential deposition of Pb on multilayer film of Ag NPs confirmed the presence of Ag in multilayer films. The stability of the LbL film toward electrochemical cycling to higher potentials (i.e., +0.8 V) in NaOH solutions was evaluated.

  6. Electrochemical and electrochromic properties of layer-by-layer films from WO(3) and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenin, Fritz; Gonzalez, Ernesto R; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2005-07-07

    The design of improved materials for electrochromic applications now involves extensive use of novel composites, thus requiring an investigation of the mechanisms responsible for electrochromism in these structures. Using films of WO(3) and chitosan produced with the layer-by-layer (LBL) technique, we demonstrate that characteristics such as the number of electrochemical active sites (K), the molar absorption coefficient (epsilon), and the electrochromic efficiency (eta) can be obtained using the quadratic logistic equation (QLE). The complexation ability between chitosan and WO(3) allowed the growth of visually uniform multilayers of the composite, with the same amount of material adsorbed in each deposition cycle. By fitting the absorbance changes (DeltaA) resulting from the electronic intervalence transfer from W(V) to W(VI) sites in four-bilayer LBL films of WO(3)/chitosan and WO(3)/chitosan with ethanol in the precursor dispersion, K was estimated to be ca. 5.5 x 10(-8) mol cm(-2) and 3.6 x 10(-8) mol cm(-2), respectively. The molar absorption coefficient and electrochromic efficiency vary with the charge injected because of the saturation of W(V) sites and the dissipation and feedback effects implicit in the QLE associated with ion-network interactions, such as the proton trapping effect. The LBL film of WO(3)/chitosan showed a smaller molar absorption coefficient and electrochromic efficiency than that containing ethanol because of a greater proton trapping effect for the LBL film with no ethanol. This enhanced trapping effect was seen as a decrease in the electronic flux involved in intervalence transfer in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments.

  7. Protein adsorption on polyanion/polycation layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Tsai, Rong-Ze; Hsu, Chih-Chin

    2016-06-01

    As layer-by-layer self-assembly deposition (LbL) is a versatile technique for surface modification, protein adsorption on the LbL modified glass is evaluated in this study. At the beginning, glass slides was silanized by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Sodium alginate (Alg), poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) and poly(aspartic acid) (PAsp) were selected as polyanion electrolytes and chitosan (CS) was used as the polycation electrolyte. Both polyanion and polycation electrolytes alternately deposited on the silanized glass slide surface by the LbL technique to get three different polyanion/chitosan series of LbL films ([Alg/CS], [PGA/CS], and [PAsp/CS]). Three kinds of kinetic model including pseudo-first-order, second-order kinetic and intraparticle diffusion model were used to evaluate the adsorption of albumin on the three different polyanion/chitosan series of LbL films. It is found that the adsorption of albumin on the polyanion/chitosan series of LbL films can be described well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic mechanism. To make sure if the pseudo-second-order kinetic mechanism of protein adsorbed on the other polyanion/polycation LbL films is also suitable, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(L-lysine) (PLL) are used as two other polycations. The [polyanion/PAH] and [polyanion/PLL] series of LbL films were prepared with the same LbL technique for albumin, fibrinogen, and fibronectin adsorption. From the results, it is found that albumin, fibrinogen, and fibronectin adsorption on the various polyanion/polycation LbL films can be described well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic mechanism. The protein adsorbed at equilibrium and rate constant of protein adsorbed on the various LbL films can be determined.

  8. Fabrication of hierarchical hybrid structures using bio-enabled layer-by-layer self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilova, Marketa; Karaca, Banu Taktak; Park, James; Jia, Carol; Wilson, Brandon R; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tamerler, Candan

    2012-05-01

    Development of versatile and flexible assembly systems for fabrication of functional hybrid nanomaterials with well-defined hierarchical and spatial organization is of a significant importance in practical nanobiotechnology applications. Here we demonstrate a bio-enabled self-assembly technique for fabrication of multi-layered protein and nanometallic assemblies utilizing a modular gold-binding (AuBP1) fusion tag. To accomplish the bottom-up assembly we first genetically fused the AuBP1 peptide sequence to the C'-terminus of maltose-binding protein (MBP) using two different linkers to produce MBP-AuBP1 hetero-functional constructs. Using various spectroscopic techniques, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), we verified the exceptional binding and self-assembly characteristics of AuBP1 peptide. The AuBP1 peptide tag can direct the organization of recombinant MBP protein on various gold surfaces through an efficient control of the organic-inorganic interface at the molecular level. Furthermore using a combination of soft-lithography, self-assembly techniques and advanced AuBP1 peptide tag technology, we produced spatially and hierarchically controlled protein multi-layered assemblies on gold nanoparticle arrays with high molecular packing density and pattering efficiency in simple, reproducible steps. This model system offers layer-by-layer assembly capability based on specific AuBP1 peptide tag and constitutes novel biological routes for biofabrication of various protein arrays, plasmon-active nanometallic assemblies and devices with controlled organization, packing density and architecture.

  9. Self-defensive layer-by-layer films with bacteria-triggered antibiotic release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Iryna; Jariwala, Freneil; Attygalle, Athula B; Wu, Yong; Libera, Matthew R; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A

    2014-08-26

    We report on highly efficient, bioresponsive, controlled-release antibacterial coatings constructed by direct assembly of tannic acid (TA) with one of several cationic antibiotics (tobromycin, gentamicin, and polymyxin B) using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. These films exhibit a distinct “self-defense” behavior triggered by acidification of the immediate environment by pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) or Escherichia coli (E. coli). Films assembled using spin-assisted and dip-assisted techniques show drastically different morphology, thickness and pH-/bacteria-triggered antibiotic release characteristics. While dip-deposited films have rough surfaces with island-like, granular structures regardless of the film thickness, spin-assisted LbL assemblies demonstrate a transition from linear deposition of uniform 2D films to a highly developed 3D morphology for films thicker than ∼45 nm. Ellipsometry, UV–vis and mass spectrometry confirm that all coatings do not release antibiotics in phosphate buffered saline at pH 7.4 for as long as one month in the absence of bacteria and therefore do not contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. These films do, however, release antibiotics upon pH lowering. The rate of triggered release can be controlled through the choice of assembled antibiotic and the assembly technique (spin- vs dip-deposition) and by the spinning rate used during deposition, which all affect the strength of TA–antibiotic binding. TA/antibiotic coatings as thin as 40 nm strongly inhibit S. epidermidis and E. coli bacterial growth both at surfaces and in surrounding medium, but support adhesion and proliferation of murine osteoblast cells. These coatings thus present a promising way to incorporate antibacterial agents at surfaces to prevent bacterial colonization of implanted biomedical devices.

  10. Photoactive layer-by-layer films of cellulose phosphate and titanium dioxide containing phosphotungstic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sajjad; Acuña, José Javier Sáez; Pasa, André Avelino; Bilmes, Sara A.; Vela, Maria Elena; Benitez, Guillermo; Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara Pereira

    2013-07-01

    A versatile layer-by-layer (LbL) procedure for the preparation of highly dispersed, adherent and porous multilayer films of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and phosphotungstic acid (HPW) on a variety of substrates at room temperature was developed based on the use of cellulose phosphate (CP) as an efficient and non-conventional polyelectrolyte. UV/vis absorption spectroscopy confirmed the linear and regular growth of the films with the number of immersion cycles and a strong adsorption ability of CP towards TiO2 NPs. FTIR spectroscopy showed that HPW binds to the surface of TiO2 through the oxygen atom at the corner of the Keggin structure. XPS results showed that the interaction between TiO2 and CP is through Ti-O-P linkage. A model is proposed for the TiO2-HPW interaction based on XPS and FTIR results. FEG/SEM study of the surface morphology revealed a porous film structure with a homogenous distribution of the TiO2 NPs induced by CP. HRTEM studies showed that the resulting composite films consist of crystalline anatase and rutile phases and poly-nano-crystalline HPW with a semi-crystalline TiO2-HPW interface. These CP/TiO2 and CP/TiO2/HPW LbL films showed good photoactivity against both saturated and unsaturated species, for instance, stearic acid (SA), crystal violet (CV) and methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. The CP/HPW films formed on bacterial cellulose (BC) showed good photochromic response which is enhanced in presence of TiO2 due to an interfacial electron transfer from TiO2 to HPW. This simple and environmentally safe method can be used to form coatings on a variety of surfaces with photoactive TiO2 and TiO2/HPW films.

  11. Tunable Staged Release of Therapeutics from Layer-by-Layer Coatings with Clay Interlayer Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jouha; Braatz, Richard D.; Hammond, Paula T.

    2014-01-01

    In developing new generations of coatings for medical devices and tissue engineering scaffolds, there is a need for thin coatings that provide controlled sequential release of multiple therapeutics while providing a tunable approach to time dependence and the potential for sequential or staged release. Herein, we demonstrate the ability to develop a self-assembled, polymer-based conformal coating, built by using a water-based layer-by-layer (LbL) approach, as a dual-purpose biomimetic implant surface that provides staggered and/or sustained release of an antibiotic followed by active growth factor for orthopedic implant applications. This multilayered coating consists of two parts: a base osteoinductive component containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) beneath an antibacterial component containing gentamicin (GS). For the fabrication of truly stratified composite films with the customized release behavior, we present a new strategy—implementation of laponite clay barriers—that allows for a physical separation of the two components by controlling interlayer diffusion. The clay barriers in a single-component GS system effectively block diffusion-based release, leading to approximately 50% reduction in bolus doses and 10-fold increase in the release timescale. In a dual-therapeutic composite coating, the top GS component itself was found to be an effective physical barrier for the underlying rhBMP-2, leading to an order of magnitude increase in the release timescale compared to the single-component rhBMP-2 system. The introduction of a laponite interlayer barrier further enhanced the temporal separation between release of the two drugs, resulting in a more physiologically appropriate dosing of rhBMP-2. Both therapeutics released from the composite coating retained their efficacy over their established release timeframes. This new platform for multi-drug localized delivery can be easily fabricated, tuned, and translated to a variety of implant

  12. The effect of electrostatic heparin/collagen layer-by-layer coating degradation on the biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jialong; Huang, Nan; Li, Quanli; Chu, Chun H.; Li, Jun; Maitz, Manfred F.

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatic layer-by-layer coatings of heparin and collagen have been suggested before to improve the biocompatibility of blood-contacting devices. However, to our knowledge, there have been no systematic studies about the effect of degradation of this coating on its biocompatibility, anticoagulant properties and the cyto-compatibility. The purpose of this study was to design an in vitro experiment in this regard that can assess the degradation behavior and the biocompatibility change of the coating. The coating degradation in physiological saline (PS) under static and dynamic condition was monitored by DR-FTIR, SEM, AFM and water contact angle, moreover, heparin densities on the topmost surface and the release heparin every day were measured by toluidine blue O (TBO) assay. The results showed that the degradation rate of the coating in is much faster under flow and shear conditions than during static incubation, and only very limited collagen and heparin remain on the surface after 15 days incubation in dynamic condition. With the degradation, the hemocompatibility of the coating got worse, especially when incubated under dynamic conditions. The degradation products of the coating do not lead to coagulation but behave -as heparin- anticoagulant. The compatibility of the coating to endothelial cells improved within 15d incubation in static medium, but it for degradation under dynamic conditions, it improved for 5d but at 15d incubation, it was almost as low as for the bare substrate. These results highlight the necessity for appropriate testing of newly developed coatings not only in the initial state but also after extended exposure to a physiological ambient.

  13. Pyrene biodegradation with layer-by-layer assembly bio-microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fucai; Zhang, Zhengfang; Yang, Chen; Guo, Chuling; Lu, Guining; Dang, Zhi

    2017-04-01

    Biotechnology is considered as a promising technology for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the environment. Free bacteria are often sensitive to some biotic and abiotic factors in the environment to the extent that their ability to effect biodegradation of organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, is hampered. Consequently, it is imperative to carry out investigations into biological systems that will obviate or aid tolerance of bacteria to harsh environmental conditions. Chitosan/alginate bio-microcapsules produced using layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly method were tested for pyrene (PYR) biodegradation under harsh environmental conditions. Morphology observation indicated that the flake bio-microcapsules could be successfully prepared through LBL assembly method. Surface analysis showed that the bio-microcapsules had large fractions of mesopores. The results of the biodegradation experiments revealed that the 95% of 10mgL(-1) PYR could be removed by the bacteria encapsulated chitosan/alginate bio-microcapsules in 3 days, which was higher than that of the free bacteria (59%). Compared to the free cells, the bacteria encapsulated chitosan/alginate bio-microcapsules produced 1-6 times higher PYR biodegradation rates at a high initial PYR concentration (50mgL(-1)) and extremely low pH values (pH =3) or temperatures (10°C or 40°C), as well as high salt stress. The results indicated that bacteria in microcapsules treatment gained a much higher tolerance to environmental stress and LBL bio-microcapsule could be promising candidate for remediating the organic pollutants.

  14. Surface coating for flame-retardant behavior of cotton fabric using a continuous layer-by-layer process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton’s exceptional softness, breathability, and absorbency have made it America’s best selling textile fiber; however, cotton textiles are generally more combustible than their synthetic counterparts. In this study, a continuous layer-by-layer self-assembly technique was used to deposit polymer-cl...

  15. Part I. Improved flame retardant textiles. Part II. Novel approach to layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical re...

  16. Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2007-10-01

    We present the design, growth, fabrication, integration and characterization of alternative hybrid white light sources based on the controlled layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on UV-emitting nitride diodes for adjustable white light parameters. We hybridize CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals of different sizes (1.9-3.2-5.2 nm) on InGaN/GaN LEDs as a near-UV excitation source at 383 nm for efficient pumping. The first device includes layer-by-layer assembly of dichromatic cyan- and red-emitting nanocrystals (λPL = 504-615 nm) leading to the tristimulus coordinates (x = 0.37,y = 0.46); the second device uses the trichromatic combination of layer-by-layer hybridized cyan-, yellow- and red-emitting nanocrystals (λPL = 504-580-615 nm), yielding (x = 0.38,y = 0.48). Such layer-by-layer hybridization offers the advantages of precisely controlling individual nanocrystal film thicknesses and order in addition to concentrations. By utilizing such multiple combinations of nanocrystals in the assembly, the light parameters are well controlled and adjusted. Leveraging rapidly advancing UV technology into efficient lighting with nanocrystal based color conversion, it is critical to develop and demonstrate hybrid light sources on UV pumping platforms.

  17. Far infrared and Raman response in tetragonal PZT ceramic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buixaderas, E.; Kadlec, C.; Vanek, P.; Drnovsek, S.; Ursic, H.; Malic, B.

    2015-07-01

    PbZr{sub 0}.38Ti{sub 0}.62O{sub 3} and PbZr{sub 0}.36Ti{sub 0}.64{sub O}3 thick films deposited by screen printing on (0 0 0 1) single crystal sapphire substrates and prepared at two different sintering temperatures, were studied by Fourier-transform infrared reflectivity, time-domain TH{sub z} transmission spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The dielectric response is discussed using the Lichtenecker model to account for the porosity of the films and to obtain the dense bulk dielectric functions. Results are compared with bulk tetragonal PZT 42/58 ceramics. The dynamic response in the films is dominated by an overdamped lead-based vibration in the TH{sub z} range, as known in PZT, but its evaluated dielectric contribution is affected by the porosity and roughness of the surface. (Author)

  18. Integration of micro nano and bio technologies with layer-by-layer self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommireddy, Dinesh Shankar

    In the past decade, layer-by-layer (LbL) nanoassembly has been used as a tool for immobilization and surface modification of materials with applications in biology and physical sciences. Often, in such applications, LbL assembly is integrated with various techniques to form functional surface coatings and immobilized matrices. In this work, integration of LbL with microfabrication and microfluidics, and tissue engineering are explored. In an effort to integrate microfabrication with LbL nanoassembly, microchannels were fabricated using soft-lithography and the surface of these channels was used for the immobilization of materials using LbL and laminar flow patterning. Synthesis of poly(dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride)/poly(styrene sulfonate) and poly(dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride)/bovine serum albumin microstrips is demonstrated with the laminar flow microfluidic reactor. Resulting micropatterns are 8-10 mum wide, separated with few micron gaps. The width of these microstrips as well as their position in the microchannel is controlled by varying the flow rate, time of interaction and concentration of the individual components, which is verified by numerical simulation. Spatially resolved pH sensitivity was observed by modifying the surface of the channel with a pH sensitive dye. In order to investigate the integration of LbL assembly with tissue engineering, glass substrates were coated with nanoparticle/polyelectrolyte layers, and two different cell types were used to test the applicability of these coatings for the surface modification of medical implants. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2), silicon dioxide, halloysite and montmorillonite nanoparticles were assembled with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. In-vitro cytotoxicity tests of the nanoparticle substrates on human dermal firbroblasts (HDFs) showed that the nanoparticle surfaces do not have toxic effects on the cells. HDFs retained their phenotype on the nanoparticle coatings, by synthesizing type

  19. Composite Layer-by-Layer (LBL) assembly with inorganic nanoparticles and nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhanshu; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2008-12-01

    New assembly techniques are required for creating advanced materials with enough structural flexibility to be tuned for specific applications, and to be practical, the techniques must be implemented at relatively low cost. Layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly is a simple, versatile, and significantly inexpensive approach by which nanocomponents of different groups can be combined to coat both macroscopically flat and non-planar (e.g., colloidal core-shell particles) surfaces. Compared with other available assembly methods, LBL assembly is simpler and more universal and allows more precise thickness control at the nanoscale. LBL can be used to combine a wide variety of species--including nanoparticles (NPs), nanosheets, and nanowires (NWs)--with polymers, thus merging the properties of each type of material. This versatility has led to recent exceptional growth in the use of LBL-generated nanocomposites. This Account will focus on the materials and biological applications of introducing inorganic nanocrystals into polymer thin films. Combining inorganic NPs and NWs with organic polymers allows researchers to manipulate the unique properties in the nanomaterial. We describe the LBL assembly technique for introducing metallic NPs into polymers in order to generate a material with combined optomechanical properties. Similarly, LBL assembly of highly luminescent semiconductor NPs like HgTe or CdTe with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) was used to create uniform optical-quality coatings made on optical fibers and tube interiors. In addition, LBL assembly with inorganic nanosheets or clay molecules is reported for fabricating films with strong mechanical and ion transport properties, and the technique can also be employed to prepare Au/TiO(2) core/sheath NWs. The LBL approach not only will be useful for assembly of inorganic nanocrystals with various polymers but can be further applied to introduce specific functions. We discuss how the expanded use of NWs and

  20. Layer-by-layer assembled carbon nanotube-acetylcholinesterase/biopolymer renewable interfaces: SPR and electrochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Arugula, Mary A; Kirsch, Jeffrey S; Yang, Xiaoyun; Olsen, Eric; Simonian, Aleksandr L

    2015-02-03

    Developing simple, reliable, and cost-effective methods of renewing an inhibited biocatalyst (e.g., enzymatic interfaces) on biosensors is needed to advance multiuse, reusable sensor applications. We report a method for the renewal of layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembled inhibition-based enzymatic interfaces in multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) armored acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensors. The self-assembly process of MWCNT dispersed enzymes/biopolymers was investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The LbL fabrication consisted of alternating cushion layers of positively charged CNT-polyethylenimine (CNT-PEI) and negatively charged CNT-deoxyribonucleic acid (CNT-DNA) and a functional interface consisting of alternating layers of CNT-PEI and negatively charged CNT-acetylcholine esterase (CNT-AChE, pH 7.4). The observed SPR response signal increased while assembling the different layers, indicating the buildup of multiple layers on the Au surface. A partial desorption of the top enzymatic layer in the LbL structure was observed with a desorption strategy employing alkaline treatment. This indicates that the strong interaction of CNT-biopolymer conjugates with the Au surface was a result of both electrostatic interactions between biopolymers and the surface binding energy from CNTs: the closer the layers are to the Au surface, the stronger the interactions. In contrast, a similar LbL assembly of soluble enzyme/polyelectrolytes resulted in stronger desorption on the surface after the alkaline treatment; this led to the investigation of AChE layer removal, permanently inhibited after pesticide exposure on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, while keeping the cushion layers intact. The desorption strategy permitted the SPR and electrochemical electrode surfaces to be regenerated multiple times by the subsequent self-assembly of fresh PEI/AChE layers. Flow-mode electrochemical amperometric analysis demonstrated good stability toward the determination of

  1. Photoactive layer-by-layer films of cellulose phosphate and titanium dioxide containing phosphotungstic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sajjad [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, PO Box 780, São Carlos, São Paulo 13564-970 (Brazil); Acuña, José Javier Sáez [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, 09210-170 (Brazil); Pasa, André Avelino [Surface and Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, PO Box 476, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Bilmes, Sara A. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Instituto de Química Física de los Materiales, Medio Ambiente y Energía – INQUIMAE, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. 2, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina); Vela, Maria Elena; Benitez, Guillermo [Laboratorio de Nanoscopías y Fisicoquímica de Superficies, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Universidad Nacional de La Plata – CONICET, diagonal 113 esquina 64. C.C.16.Suc.4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara Pereira, E-mail: uprf@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, PO Box 780, São Carlos, São Paulo 13564-970 (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    A versatile layer-by-layer (LbL) procedure for the preparation of highly dispersed, adherent and porous multilayer films of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) and phosphotungstic acid (HPW) on a variety of substrates at room temperature was developed based on the use of cellulose phosphate (CP) as an efficient and non-conventional polyelectrolyte. UV/vis absorption spectroscopy confirmed the linear and regular growth of the films with the number of immersion cycles and a strong adsorption ability of CP towards TiO{sub 2} NPs. FTIR spectroscopy showed that HPW binds to the surface of TiO{sub 2} through the oxygen atom at the corner of the Keggin structure. XPS results showed that the interaction between TiO{sub 2} and CP is through Ti–O–P linkage. A model is proposed for the TiO{sub 2}–HPW interaction based on XPS and FTIR results. FEG/SEM study of the surface morphology revealed a porous film structure with a homogenous distribution of the TiO{sub 2} NPs induced by CP. HRTEM studies showed that the resulting composite films consist of crystalline anatase and rutile phases and poly-nano-crystalline HPW with a semi-crystalline TiO{sub 2}–HPW interface. These CP/TiO{sub 2} and CP/TiO{sub 2}/HPW LbL films showed good photoactivity against both saturated and unsaturated species, for instance, stearic acid (SA), crystal violet (CV) and methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. The CP/HPW films formed on bacterial cellulose (BC) showed good photochromic response which is enhanced in presence of TiO{sub 2} due to an interfacial electron transfer from TiO{sub 2} to HPW. This simple and environmentally safe method can be used to form coatings on a variety of surfaces with photoactive TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/HPW films.

  2. Preparation of nanoporous polyimide thin films via layer-by-layer self-assembly of cowpea mosaic virus and poly(amic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Bo; Wu Guojun; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Wang Qian [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208 (United States); Su Zhaohui, E-mail: zhsu@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Low dielectric (low-{kappa}) materials are of key importance for the performance of microchips. In this study, we show that nanosized cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles can be assembled with poly(amic acid) (PAA) in aqueous solutions via the layer-by-layer technique. Then, upon thermal treatment CPMV particles are removed and PAA is converted into polyimide in one step, resulting in a porous low-{kappa} polyimide film. The multilayer self-assembly process was monitored by quartz crystal microbalance and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Imidization and the removal of the CPMV template was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively. The dielectric constant of the nanoporous polyimide film thus prepared was 2.32 compared to 3.40 for the corresponding neat polyimide. This work affords a facile approach to fabrication of low-{kappa} polyimide ultrathin films with tunable thickness and dielectric constant.

  3. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayer of graphene/Prussian blue toward simultaneous electrochemical and SPR detection of H2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Yan; Bao, Yu; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    A new type of chemically converted graphene sheets, cationic polyelectrolyte-functionalized ionic liquid decorated graphene sheets (PFIL–GS) composite, was synthesized and characterized by Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption, Fourier transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. It was found...... layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. The assembly process was confirmed by UV–vis spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, which showed linear responses to the numbers of the deposited PFIL–GS/PB bilayers. Moreover, the as-prepared composite films were used to detect hydrogen peroxide (H......2O2) by electrochemical surface plasmon resonance (EC-SPR) spectroscopy. This real time EC-SPR technique can provide simultaneous monitoring of both optical SPR signal and electrochemical current responses upon injecting H2O2 into the reaction cell. The experimental results revealed that both...

  4. Inhibition of water activated by far infrared functional ceramics on proliferation of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongmei; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Meng, Junping; Zhang, Guangchuan

    2014-05-01

    Rare earth (RE)/tourmaline composite materials prepared by the precipitation method are added to the ceramic raw materials at a certain percentage and sintered into RE functional ceramics with high far infrared emission features. Then the far infrared functional ceramics are used to interact with water. The influence of the ceramics on the physical parameters of water is investigated, and the effect of the activated water on the growth of Bel-7402 hepatoma cells cultured in vitro is further studied. The results indicate that, compared with the raw water, the water activated by the ceramics can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma cells, with statistical probability P ceramics has a higher concentration of H+, which decreases the potential difference across the cell membrane to release the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). After entering the cells, the activated water stimulates the mitochondria to produce immune substances that lead tumor cells to apoptosis.

  5. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayers and polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery in tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Sumit

    Tissues and organs in vivo are structured in three dimensional (3-D) ordered assemblies to maintain their metabolic functions. In the case of an injury, certain tissues lack the regenerative abilities without an external supportive environment. In order to regenerate the natural in vivo environment post-injury, there is a need to design three-dimensional (3-D) tissue engineered constructs of appropriate dimensions along with strategies that can deliver growth factors or drugs at a controlled rate from such constructs. This thesis focuses on the applications of hydrogen bonded (H-bonded) nanoscale layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled multilayers for time controlled drug delivery, fabrication of polymeric nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers, and engineering 3-D cellular constructs. Axonal regeneration in the central nervous system after spinal cord injury is often disorganized and random. To support linear axonal growth into spinal cord lesion sites, certain growth factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), needs to be delivered at a controlled rate from an array of uniaxial channels patterned in a scaffold. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that H-bonded LbL assembled degradable thin films prepared over agarose hydrogel, whereby the protein was loaded separately from the agarose fabrication, provided sustained release of protein under physiological conditions for more than four weeks. Further, patterned agarose scaffolds implanted at the site of a spinal cord injury forms a reactive cell layer of leptomeningeal fibroblasts in and around the scaffold. This limits the ability of axons to reinnervate the spinal cord. To address this challenge, we demonstrate the time controlled release of an anti-mitotic agent from agarose hydrdgel to control the growth of the reactive cell layer of fibroblasts. Challenges in tissue engineering can also be addressed using gene therapy approaches. Certain growth factors in the body are known to inhibit

  6. In site formation and growth of Prussian blue nanoparticles anchored to multiwalled carbon nanotubes with poly(4-vinylpyridine) linker by layer-by-layer assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Na; He Bo; Xu Shaoya [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Yuan Junhua, E-mail: jhyuan@zjnu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Miao Jigen [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Niu Li, E-mail: lniu@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Song Jixia [Jilin City Institute of Testing on Product Quality, Jilin 132013 (China)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon nanotubes were grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prussian blue nanoparticles were deposited on carbon nanotubes by complextion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size of these nanoparticles can be controlled by layer-by-layer assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compoistes show a superior catalytic activity to the oxidation of L-cysteine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficiency is dependent on the capacity of Prussian blue nanoparticles loaded. - Abstract: Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VB) was grafted to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by an in situ polymerization. This grafted polymer plays two roles in the synthesis of Prussian Blue (PB)/MWCNT composites: (1) a stabilizer to protect PB nanoparticles from aggregation; (2) a linker to anchor these nanoparticles on the surface of MWCNTs. The size of PB nanoparticles deposited on MWCNTs can be controlled by in site layer-by-layer coordination of Fe{sup 3+} and [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 4-} ions in aqueous solution. The as-prepared PB/P4VP-g-MWCNT composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, which revealed that these PB nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on the surface of MWCNTs, and grew upon layer-by-layer assembly. A potential use of PB/P4VP-g-MWCNT composites was demonstrated as an electrocatalyst used in the electrochemical detection of L-cysteine. The as-prepared electrodes modified with PB/P4VP-g-MWCNT composites showed two reversible redox waves assigned to a fast surface-controlled processes. The analytical performance for L-cysteine detection is associated with the load of PB nanoparticles onto MWCNTs. In an optimal experiment, for these as-prepared electrodes, their detection limit of L-cysteine can be measured as low as 0.01 {mu}M with a sensitivity 778.34 nA {mu}M{sup -1} cm{sup -2}.

  7. Construction of antibacterial poly(ethylene terephthalate) films via layer by layer assembly of chitosan and hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo-Gallego, Sara; Pérez-Álvarez, Leyre; Gómez-Galván, Flor; Lizundia, Erlantz; Kuritka, Ivo; Sedlarik, Vladimir; Laza, Jose Manuel; Vila-Vilela, Jose Luis

    2016-06-05

    Polyelectrolytic multilayers (PEMs) with enhanced antibacterial properties were built up onto commercial poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films based on the layer by layer assembling of bacterial contact killing chitosan and bacterial repelling highly hydrated hyaluronic acid. The optimization of the aminolysis modification reaction of PET was carried out by the study of the mechanical properties and the surface characterization of the modified polymers. The layer by layer assembly was successfully monitored by TEM microscopy, surface zeta-potential, contact angle measurements and, after labeling with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FTIC) by absorption spectroscopy and confocal fluorescent microscopy. Beside, the stability of the PEMs was studied at physiological conditions in absence and in the presence of lysozyme and hyaluronidase enzymes. Antibacterial properties of the obtained PEMs against Escherichia coli were compared with original commercial PET.

  8. Novel electrochemical sensors with electrodes based on multilayers fabricated by layer-by-layer synthesis and their analytical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, S. S.; Nikolaev, K. G.; Tolstoy, V. P.

    2016-08-01

    The results of studies on layer-by-layer synthesis of multilayers on the electrode surface in order to design electrochemical sensors for the determination of concentrations of inorganic, organic and bioorganic compounds are summarized and analyzed. The principle of the method is discoursed and the key advantages of the approach are highlighted, such as the possibility of single layer synthesis with specified thickness and composition under mild conditions with further fabrication of multilayers. Charge transfer conditions in the layers on the electrode surface between the analyte molecules and electrode redox centres and the operating conditions for the optimal electrode are considered. The role of electrocatalysts and intermediates of these processes is noted. Particular attention is devoted to the methods for synthesis of gold nanoparticles with different diameters. Analytical characteristics for electrochemical sensors are presented and application prospects of the layer-by-layer synthesis to electrode fabrication are discussed. The bibliography includes 241 references.

  9. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    OpenAIRE

    Philip S. Brown; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work...

  10. Preparation and characterization of ultra-thin films containing Au and Ag nanoparticles using layer-by-layer deposition technique

    OpenAIRE

    Cönger, Can Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent University, 2009. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2009. Includes bibliographical references leaves 69-77. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte and polyelectrolyte/metal nanoparticle films by using X-ray Photoelectron (XPS) and Optical Spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Within this purpose, in the first part of the study, laye...

  11. Spectroscopic, morphological and electrochromic characterization of layer-by-layer hybrid films of polyaniline and hexaniobate nanoscrolls

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Claudio H. B.; Galiote, Nelson A.; Huguenin,Fritz; Teixeira-Neto, Erico; Constantino, Vera R. L.; Marcia L. A. Temperini

    2012-01-01

    The combination of semiconducting oxides and polyaniline in the nanoscale range may result in hybrid materials having enhanced properties, such as electrochromism and charge capacity. This paper reports the spectroscopic, morphological and electrochromic characterization of hybrid films made up of hexaniobate one-dimensional (1D) nanoscrolls and polyaniline prepared by the layer-by-layer assembly technique (LbL). Secondary electron imaging and backscattered electron imaging techniques perform...

  12. Deposition of Layer-by-layer Inorganic-organic Nano-hybrid Ultrathin Films onto SBA-15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Ming DING; Li Ping WANG; Yong Kui SHAN; Ming Yuan HE

    2003-01-01

    Deposition of inorganic-organic nano-hybrid ultrathin films onto mesoporous silicate materials has been proven possible by using layer-by-layer assembly method. In combination with sol-gel method, titania, subsequently dye molecules (or polymer) were successfully fabricated onto the inner wall of SBA-15. Their structures were preliminarily characterized by FTIR and solid-state UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and BET surface area measurements, respectively.

  13. Direct Electrochemistry of Hemoglobin in Layer-by-layer {PDDA/Hb}n Films Assembled on Pyrolytic Graphite Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Layer-by-layer {PDDA/Hb}n films were assembled by means of alternate adsorption of positively charged poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium) (PDDA) and negatively charged hemoglobin (Hb) at pH 9.2 from their aqueous solutions on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrodes. Film growth during adsorption cycles was demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis spectroscopy.Direct electrochemistry of Hb in {PDDA/Hb} n films on PG was studied.

  14. Influence of Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte Deposition and EDC/NHS Activated Heparin Immobilization onto Silk Fibroin Fabric

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fazley Elahi; Guoping Guan; Lu Wang; Martin W. King

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the hemocompatibility of silk fibroin fabric as biomedical material, polyelectrolytes architectures have been assembled through the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique on silk fibroin fabric (SFF). In particular, 1.5 and 2.5 bilayer of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes were assembled onto SFF using poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) as polycationic polymer and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as polyanionic polymer with PAH topmost. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) activated with 1-ethyl...

  15. Cu and Cu(Mn) films deposited layer-by-layer via surface-limited redox replacement and underpotential deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. S.; Sun, S. L.; Cheng, Y. L.; Chen, G. S.; Chin, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports Cu and Cu(Mn) films prepared layer-by-layer using an electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) method. The structure and properties of the films were investigated to elucidate their suitability as Cu interconnects for microelectronics. Previous studies have used primarily a vacuum-based atomic layer deposition to form a Cu metallized film. Herein, an entirely wet chemical process was used to fabricate a Cu film using the ECALD process by combining underpotential deposition (UPD) and surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR). The experimental results indicated that an inadequate UPD of Pb affected the subsequent SLRR of Cu and lead to the formation of PbSO4. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results. Layer-by-layer deposition of Cu(Mn) films was successfully performed by alternating the deposition cycle-ratios of SLRR-Cu and UPD-Mn. The proposed self-limiting growth method offers a layer-by-layer wet chemistry-based deposition capability for fabricating Cu interconnects.

  16. Cu and Cu(Mn) films deposited layer-by-layer via surface-limited redox replacement and underpotential deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.S., E-mail: jsfang@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Sun, S.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Y.L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi-Nan University, Nan-Tou 54561, Taiwan (China); Chen, G.S.; Chin, T.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The present paper reports Cu and Cu(Mn) films prepared layer-by-layer using an electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) method. The structure and properties of the films were investigated to elucidate their suitability as Cu interconnects for microelectronics. Previous studies have used primarily a vacuum-based atomic layer deposition to form a Cu metallized film. Herein, an entirely wet chemical process was used to fabricate a Cu film using the ECALD process by combining underpotential deposition (UPD) and surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR). The experimental results indicated that an inadequate UPD of Pb affected the subsequent SLRR of Cu and lead to the formation of PbSO{sub 4}. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results. Layer-by-layer deposition of Cu(Mn) films was successfully performed by alternating the deposition cycle-ratios of SLRR-Cu and UPD-Mn. The proposed self-limiting growth method offers a layer-by-layer wet chemistry-based deposition capability for fabricating Cu interconnects.

  17. The salivary mucin MUC5B and lactoperoxidase can be used for layer-by-layer film formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Liselott; Svendsen, Ida E; Svensson, Olof; Cárdenas, Marité; Arnebrant, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    In situ ellipsometry was used to study layer-by-layer film formation on hydrophilic and hydrophobized silica surfaces by alternating sequential adsorption of human mucin MUC5B and cationic proteins lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase or histatin 5, respectively. The stability of the multilayers was investigated by addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate solution (SDS). Atomic force microscopy was employed to investigate morphological structures on the surfaces during the layer-by-layer film build-up. It was clearly shown that, on both hydrophilic and hydrophobized silica, only MUC5B and lactoperoxidase showed the ability for multilayer formation, resulting in an approximately linear increase in adsorbed amount and film thickness with each deposition cycle. The net increase in amounts per cycle was larger on the hydrophilic silica. Further, MUC5B needs to be adsorbed first on the hydrophilic substrates to obtain this fast build-up behavior. Generally, addition of SDS solution showed that a large fraction of the adsorbed film could be desorbed. However, films on the hydrophobized silica were more resistant to surfactant elution. In conclusion, MUC5B-cationic protein multilayers can be formed on hydrophilic and hydrophobized silica, depending on the choice of the cationic protein as well as in which order the build-up is started on hydrophilic silica. Additionally, SDS disrupts the layer-by-layer film formed by MUC5B and lactoperoxidase.

  18. Layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide on polypropylene macroporous membranes via click chemistry to improve antibacterial and antifouling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhen-Bei, E-mail: 1021453457@qq.com [The Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, Anhui Key Laboratory of Molecular-Based Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, East Beijing Rd. 1, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Wu, Jing-Jing, E-mail: 957522275@qq.com [The Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, Anhui Key Laboratory of Molecular-Based Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, East Beijing Rd. 1, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Su, Yu, E-mail: 819388710@qq.com [The Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, Anhui Key Laboratory of Molecular-Based Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, East Beijing Rd. 1, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Zhou, Jin, E-mail: zhoujin_ah@163.com [Department of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Chizhou University, Muzhi Rd. 199, Chizhou, Anhui 247000 (China); Gao, Yong, E-mail: 154682180@qq.com [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China); Yu, Hai-Yin, E-mail: yhy456@mail.ahnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, Anhui Key Laboratory of Molecular-Based Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, East Beijing Rd. 1, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Gu, Jia-Shan, E-mail: jiashanG@mail.ahnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, Anhui Key Laboratory of Molecular-Based Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, East Beijing Rd. 1, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Clickable membrane prepared by photo bromination and S{sub N}2 nucleophilic substitution. • Azide graphene oxide prepared by ring-opening reaction. • Alkyne graphene oxide was prepared via esterification reaction. • Layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide on membrane by click chemistry. • Antibacterial and antifouling characteristics were enhanced greatly. - Abstract: Polypropylene is an extensively used membrane material; yet, polypropylene membranes exhibit extremely poor resistance to protein fouling. To ameliorate this issue, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were used to modify macroporous polypropylene membrane (MPPM) via layer-by-layer assembly technique through click reaction. First, alkyne-terminated GO was prepared through esterification between carboxyl groups in GO and amide groups in propargylamine; azide-terminated GO was synthesized by the ring-opening reaction of epoxy groups in GO with sodium azide. Second, GO was introduced to the membrane by click chemistry. Characterizations of infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the modification. The sharply decreasing of static water contact angle indicated the improvement of the surface hydrophilicity for GO modified membrane. Introducing GO to the membrane results in a dramatic increase of water flux, improvements in the antifouling characteristics and antibacterial property for the membranes. The pure water flux through the 5-layered GO modified membrane is 1.82 times that through the unmodified one. The water flux restores to 43.0% for the unmodified membrane while to 79.8% for the modified membrane. The relative flux reduction decreases by 32.1% due to GO modification. The antibacterial property was also enhanced by two-thirds. These results demonstrate that the antifouling and antibacterial characteristics can be raised by tethering GO to the membrane surface.

  19. Effect of Tourmaline-Doped on the Far Infrared Emission of Iron Ore Tailings Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Gu, Xiaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Iron ore tailings as secondary resources have been of great importance to many countries in the world. Their compositions are similar to that of infrared emission ceramics, but there are few reports about it. In addition, tourmaline has high infrared emission properties due to its unique structure. With the purpose of expanding functional utilization of iron ore tailings, as well as reducing the production cost of far infrared ceramics, a new kind of far infrared emission ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, calcium carbonate, silica, and natural tourmaline. The ceramics powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results show that after being sintered at 1065 °C, the percentage of pseudobrookite and lattice strain of samples increased with increasing the elbaite content. Furthermore, the added tourmaline was conducive to the densification sintering of ceramics. The appearance of Li-O vibration at 734.73 cm-1, as well as the strengthened Fe-O vibration at 987.68 cm-1 were attributed to the formation of Li0.375Fe1.23Ti1.4O5 solid solution, which led the average far infrared emissivity of ceramics increase from 0.861 to 0.906 within 8-14 µm.

  20. MICROSTRUCTURE AND INFRARED EMISSIVITY AT NORMAL TEMPERATURE IN TRANSITIONAL METAL OXIDES SYSTEM CERAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The fabrication of Fe2O3-MnO2-Co2O3-CuO system ceramics, and the composite system ceramics of transitional metal oxides-cordierite and transitional metal oxides-kaolinit are presented in this work. The research was carried out with the main attention to the infrared emissivity in the band of 8~14μm at room temperature,the microstructure of the ceramics and the relation between them. High infrared emissivities exceeding 0.9 in the band of 8~14μm at room temperature were gained in the transitional metal oxide ceramics and the composite system ceramics. It is suggested that the formation of inverse spinels and partially inverse spinels, such as Fe3O4, CoFe2O4, CuFe2O4 and CuMn2O4, is beneficial to the enhancement of the infrared emissivity of the transitional metal oxide ceramics. The transitional metal oxides play an important role in determining the infrared emissivity of the composite system ceramics.

  1. Facile synthesis of novel magnetic silica nanoparticles functionalized with layer-by-layer detonation nanodiamonds for secretome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Haojie; Zhou, Zhongjun; Wei, Liming; Yang, Pengyuan

    2015-12-07

    Novel magnetic silica nanoparticles functionalized with layer-by-layer detonation nanodiamonds (dNDs) were prepared by coating single submicron-size magnetite particles with silica and subsequently modified with dNDs. The resulting layer-by-layer dND functionalized magnetic silica microspheres (Fe3O4@SiO2@[dND]n) exhibit a well-defined magnetite-core-silica-shell structure and possess a high content of magnetite, which endow them with high dispersibility and excellent magnetic responsibility. Meanwhile, dNDs are known for their high affinity and biocompatibility towards peptides or proteins. Thus, a novel convenient, fast and efficient pretreatment approach of low-abundance peptides or proteins was successfully established with Fe3O4@SiO2@[dND]n microspheres. The signal intensity of low-abundance peptides was improved by at least two to three orders of magnitude in mass spectrometry analysis. The novel microsphere also showed good tolerance to salt. Even with a high concentration of salt, peptides or proteins could be isolated effectively from samples. Therefore, the convenient and efficient enrichment process of this novel layer-by-layer dND-functionalized microsphere makes it a promising candidate for isolation of protein in a large volume of culture supernatant for secretome analysis. In the application of Fe3O4@SiO2@[dND]n in the secretome of hepatoma cells, 1473 proteins were identified and covered a broad range of pI and molecular weight, including 377 low molecular weight proteins.

  2. Nanostructured ZnO Arrays with Self-ZnO Layer Created Using Simple Electrostatic Layer-by-Layer Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PilHo Huh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of unique ZnO nanoarrays utilizing photodynamic polymer, surface-relief grating structures, and unique electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly as a simple and economical methodology was demonstrated. Atomic force microscope (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX analysis were employed to characterize elemental composition and morphology of the resulting ZnO nanostructures with self-ZnO layer. Optical behavior of the final product was studied by UV-vis-NIR absorption and photoluminescence (PL spectra.

  3. Catechol-based layer-by-layer assembly of composite coatings: a versatile platform to hierarchical nano-materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C X; Braendle, A; Menyo, M S; Pester, C W; Perl, E E; Arias, I; Hawker, C J; Klinger, D

    2015-08-21

    Inspired by the marine mussel's ability to adhere to surfaces underwater, an aqueous catechol-based dip coating platform was developed. Using a catechol-functionalized polyacrylamide binder in combination with inorganic nanoparticles enables the facile fabrication of robust composite coatings via a layer-by-layer process. This modular assembly of well-defined building blocks provides a versatile alternative to electrostatic driven approaches with layer thickness and refractive indices being readily tunable. The platform nature of this approach enables the fabrication of hierarchically ordered nano-materials such as Bragg stacks.

  4. Three-Dimensional Nanodot-Type Floating Gate Memory Fabricated by Bio-Layer-by-Layer Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kosuke; Zheng, Bin; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Yamashita, Ichiro; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2011-08-01

    The properties of a nanodot-type floating gate memory with a multilayered nanodot array were investigated. High-density and uniform cobalt bio-nanodot (Co-BND) arrays were stacked on a SiO2 tunnel oxide layer by a bio-layer-by-layer method (Bio-LBL). Memory properties, such as hysteresis width, charge retention, charging speed, and reliability, were improved by increasing the number of Co-BND arrays in a floating gate memory. This research confirmed that the proposed memory is promising for application in next-generation memory devices.

  5. A Novel Reagentless Biosensor Constructed by Layer-by-Layer Assembly of HRP and Nile Blue Premixed with Polyanion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Ming YANG; Yang Mei LI; Xiu Ming JIANG; Xian Fu LIN

    2005-01-01

    A novel reagentless biosensor constructed by the organic dye nile blue (NB) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has been fabricated via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique. NB premixed with polyanion poly (sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) acts as the mediator between the immobilized HRP and the electrode surface. The response of the biosensor to hydrogen peroxide has been investigated. The linear range of the biosensor to hydrogen peroxide was from 0.20 mmol/L to 7.03 mmol/L with a sensitivity of 8.45μA/(mmol/L).

  6. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Biopolyelectrolytes onto Thermo/pH-Responsive Micro/Nano-Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M.; Peter S. Shuttleworth

    2014-01-01

    This review deals with the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers of biopolymers, polypeptides (i.e., poly-l-lysine/poly-l-glutamic acid) and polysaccharides (i.e., chitosan/dextran sulphate/sodium alginate), onto thermo- and/or pH-responsive micro- and nano-gels such as those based on synthetic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or biodegradable hyaluronic acid (HA) and dextran-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (DEX-HEMA). The synthesis of the ...

  7. Layer-by-layer assembly of thin organic films on PTFE activated by cold atmospheric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth András

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An air diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge is used to activate the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE samples, which are subsequently coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and tannic acid (TAN single, bi- and multilayers, respectively, using the dip-coating method. The surfaces are characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, Attenuated Total Reflection – Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. The XPS measurements show that with plasma treatment the F/C atomic ratio in the PTFE surface decreases, due to the diminution of the concentration of CF2 moieties, and also oxygen incorporation through formation of new C–O, C=O and O=C–O bonds can be observed. In the case of coated samples, the new bonds indicated by XPS show the bonding between the organic layer and the surface, and thus the stability of layers, while the gradual decrease of the concentration of F atoms with the number of deposited layers proves the creation of PVP/TAN bi- and multi-layers. According to the ATR-FTIR spectra, in the case of PVP/TAN multilayer hydrogen bonding develops between the PVP and TAN, which assures the stability of the multilayer. The AFM lateral friction measurements show that the macromolecular layers homogeneously coat the plasma treated PTFE surface.

  8. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-03-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised.

  9. Micromechanical Properties of Nanostructured Clay-Oxide Multilayers Synthesized by Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dongwei; Zhang, Guoping; Pant, Rohit Raj; Wei, Zhongxin; Shen, Shuilong

    2016-11-08

    Clay-based nanostructured multilayers, such as clay-polymer multilayers and clay-oxide multilayers, have attracted growing attention owing to their remarkable mechanical properties and promising application in various fields. In this paper, synthesis of a new kind of nanostructured clay-oxide multilayers by layer-by-layer self-assembly was explored. Nano-mechanical characterization of 18 clay-based multilayer samples, prepared under as-deposited (i.e., air-dried) and annealing conditions at 400 °C/600 °C with different precursor cations and multilayer structure, were carried out using nanoindentation testing, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influencing factors, including as-deposited and annealing conditions and clay concentrations on the mechanical properties were analyzed. Results show that all of the multilayers exhibit high bonding strength between interlayers. Higher modulus and hardness of clay-based multilayers were obtained with lower clay concentrations than that with higher clay concentrations. Different relationships between the modulus and hardness and the annealing temperature exist for a specific type of clay-oxide multilayer. This work offers the basic and essential knowledge on design of clay-based nanostructured multilayers by layer-by-layer self-assembly.

  10. Layer-by-Layer Method for the Synthesis and Growth of Surface Mounted Metal-Organic Frameworks (SURMOFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shekhah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A layer-by-layer method has been developed for the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs and their deposition on functionalized organic surfaces. The approach is based on the sequential immersion of functionalized organic surfaces into solutions of the building blocks of the MOF, i.e., the organic ligand and the inorganic unit. The synthesis and growth of different types of MOFs on substrates with different functionalization, like COOH, OH and pyridine terminated surfaces, were studied and characterized with different surface characterization techniques. A controlled and highly oriented growth of very homogenous films was obtained using this method. The layer-by-layer method offered also the possibility to study the kinetics of film formation in more detail using surface plasmon resonance and quartz crystal microbalance. In addition, this method demonstrates the potential to synthesize new classes of MOFs not accessible by conventional methods. Finally, the controlled growth of MOF thin films is important for many applications like chemical sensors, membranes and related electrodes.

  11. Spray Layer-by-Layer Assembled Clay Composite Thin Films as Selective Layers in Reverse Osmosis Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jason R; Liu, Chaoyang; Hammond, Paula T

    2015-06-24

    Spray layer-by-layer assembled thin films containing laponite (LAP) clay exhibit effective salt barrier and water permeability properties when applied as selective layers in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Negatively charged LAP platelets were layered with poly(diallyldimethylammonium) (PDAC), poly(allylamine) (PAH), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in bilayer and tetralayer film architectures to generate uniform films on the order of 100 nm thick that bridge a porous poly(ether sulfone) support to form novel RO membranes. Nanostructures were formed of clay layers intercalated in a polymeric matrix that introduced size-exclusion transport mechanisms into the selective layer. Thermal cross-linking of the polymeric matrix was used to increase the mechanical stability of the films and improve salt rejection by constraining swelling during operation. Maximum salt rejection of 89% was observed for the tetralayer film architecture, with an order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to commercially available TFC-HR membranes. These clay composite thin films could serve as a high-flux alternative to current polymeric RO membranes for wastewater and brackish water treatment as well as potentially for forward osmosis applications. In general, we illustrate that by investigating the composite systems accessed using alternating layer-by-layer assembly in conjunction with complementary covalent cross-linking, it is possible to design thin film membranes with tunable transport properties for water purification applications.

  12. Tetanus toxoid-loaded layer-by-layer nanoassemblies for efficient systemic, mucosal, and cellular immunostimulatory response following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Harshad; Agrawal, Ashish Kumar; Jain, Sanyog

    2015-10-01

    The present study reports the tetanus toxoid (TT)-loaded layer-by-layer nanoassemblies (layersomes) with enhanced protection, permeation, and presentation for comprehensive oral immunization. The stable and lyophilized TT-loaded layersomes were prepared by a thin-film hydration method followed by alternate layer-by-layer coating of an electrolyte. The developed system was assessed for in vitro stability of antigen and formulation, cellular uptake, ex vivo intestinal uptake, and immunostimulatory response using a suitable experimental protocol. Layersomes improved the stability in simulated biological media as well as protected the integrity/conformation and native 3D structure of TT as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The cell culture studies demonstrated a 3.8-fold higher permeation of layersomes in Caco-2 cells and an 8.5-fold higher uptake by antigen-presenting cells (RAW 264.7). The TT-loaded layersomes elicited a complete immunostimulatory profile consisting of higher systemic (serum IgG titer), mucosal (sIgA titer), and cellular (interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels) immune response after peroral administration in mice. The modified TT inhibition assay further confirmed the elicitation of complete protective levels of anti-TT antibody (>0.1 IU/mL) by layersomes. In conclusion, the proposed strategy is expected to contribute significantly in the field of stable liposome technology for mass immunization through the oral route.

  13. Preparation and characterization of polymeric thin films containing gold nanoshells via electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Ho; Jamison, Andrew C.; Hoffman, David M., E-mail: hoffman@uh.edu; Jacobson, Allan J., E-mail: ajjacob@uh.edu; Lee, T. Randall, E-mail: trlee@uh.edu

    2014-05-02

    As an initial step in the development of surfaces for collecting thermal energy, gold shell/silica core particles (∼ 200 nm in diameter with shells ∼ 25 nm thick) were synthesized and incorporated into organic polymeric thin films. The morphologies of these nanoshells were characterized with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Powder X-ray diffraction demonstrated that the gold layers were highly crystalline. Thin films containing the gold nanoshells and polyethyleneimine were generated using dip-coating techniques based on electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly methods. Scanning electron microscopy was used to image the resultant composite films, which contained uniformly distributed gold nanoshells with limited aggregation. The optical properties were analyzed by absorption spectroscopy, revealing broad extinctions ranging from the visible to the near-IR spectral regions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra were also obtained to determine the elements present and the oxidation states of these elements. - Highlights: • Prepared gold nanoshells with broad light absorption from visible to near IR. • Added the gold nanoshells to polyethyleneimine films via layer-by-layer assembly. • The resulting layered thin films exhibited minimal gold nanoshell aggregation.

  14. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised. PMID:25731716

  15. 3D Printing of Human Tissue Mimics via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polymer/Hydrogel Biopapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeisen, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The foundations of tissue engineering were built on two fundamental areas of research: cells and scaffolds. Multipotent cells and their derivatives are traditionally randomly seeded into sophisticated polymer or hydrogel scaffolds, ultimately with the goal of forming a tissue-like material through cell differentiation and cell-material interactions. One problem with this approach is that no matter how complex or biomimetic the scaffold is, the cells are still homogeneously distributed throughout this three dimensional (3D) material. Natural tissue is inherently heterogeneous on both a microscopic and macroscopic level. It also contains different types of cells in close proximity, extracellular matrix, voids, and a complex vascularized network. Recently developed 3D cell and organ printers may be able to enhance traditional tissue engineering experiments by building scaffolds layer-by-layer that are crafted to mimic the microscopic and macroscopic structure of natural tissue or organs. Over the past decade, my laboratory has developed a capillary-free, live cell printer termed biological laser printing, or BioLP. We find that printed cells do not express heat shock protein and retain >99% viability. Printed cells also incur no DNA strand fracture and preserve their ability to differentiate. Recent work has used a layer-by-layer approach, stacking sheets of hybrid polymer/hydrogel biopapers in conjunction with live cell printing to create 3D tissue structures. Our specific work is now focused on the blood-brain-barrier and air-lung interface and will be described during the presentation.

  16. Aqueous oxidation reaction enabled layer-by-layer corrosion of semiconductor nanoplates into single-crystalline 2D nanocrystals with single layer accuracy and ionic surface capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Muwei; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Jiatao

    2016-02-25

    A controllable aqueous oxidation reaction enabled layer-by-layer corrosion has been proposed to prepare high-quality two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor nanocrystals with single layer accuracy and well-retained hexagonal shapes. The appropriate oxidizing agent, such as H2O2, Fe(NO3)3, and HNO3, could not only corrode the layered-crystalline-structured Bi2Te3 nanoplates layer-by-layer to be a single quintuple layer, but also replace the organic barriers to be ionic ligands on the surface synergistically. AFM analysis was used to confirm the layer-by-layer exfoliation from the side to the center. Together with precise XRD, LRTEM and HRTEM characterizations, the controllable oxidation reaction enabled aqueous layer-by-layer corrosion mechanism has been studied.

  17. Layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide on polypropylene macroporous membranes via click chemistry to improve antibacterial and antifouling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Bei; Wu, Jing-Jing; Su, Yu; Zhou, Jin; Gao, Yong; Yu, Hai-Yin; Gu, Jia-Shan

    2015-03-01

    Polypropylene is an extensively used membrane material; yet, polypropylene membranes exhibit extremely poor resistance to protein fouling. To ameliorate this issue, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were used to modify macroporous polypropylene membrane (MPPM) via layer-by-layer assembly technique through click reaction. First, alkyne-terminated GO was prepared through esterification between carboxyl groups in GO and amide groups in propargylamine; azide-terminated GO was synthesized by the ring-opening reaction of epoxy groups in GO with sodium azide. Second, GO was introduced to the membrane by click chemistry. Characterizations of infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the modification. The sharply decreasing of static water contact angle indicated the improvement of the surface hydrophilicity for GO modified membrane. Introducing GO to the membrane results in a dramatic increase of water flux, improvements in the antifouling characteristics and antibacterial property for the membranes. The pure water flux through the 5-layered GO modified membrane is 1.82 times that through the unmodified one. The water flux restores to 43.0% for the unmodified membrane while to 79.8% for the modified membrane. The relative flux reduction decreases by 32.1% due to GO modification. The antibacterial property was also enhanced by two-thirds. These results demonstrate that the antifouling and antibacterial characteristics can be raised by tethering GO to the membrane surface.

  18. Layered Double Hydroxide Assemblies with Controllable Drug Loading Capacity and Release Behavior as well as Stabilized Layer-by-Layer Polymer Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fengzhu; Xu, Linan; Zhang, Yihe; Meng, Zilin

    2015-09-02

    A stable drug release system with magnetic targeting is essential in a drug delivery system. In the present work, layered double hydroxide assemblies stabilized by layer-by-layer polymer multilayers were prepared by alternative deposition of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(acrylic acid) species on composite particles of Fe3O4 and ZnAl-LDH and then covalent cross-linkage of the polymer multilayers by photosensitive cross-linker. The successful fabrication was recorded by Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectrum measurements. The formed assemblies were stable in high pH solutions (pH > 7). The drug loading capacity and release behavior of the assemblies could be controlled by treatment with appropriate acidic solution, and were confirmed by loading and release of a simulated drug, methylene blue. The formed assemblies possessed enough saturated magnetic strength and were sensitive to external magnetic field which was essential for targeting drug delivery. The formed assemblies were multifunctional assemblies with great potential as drug delivery system.

  19. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayer films of exfoliated layered double hydroxide and carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin for selective capacitive sensing of acephatemet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jingming; Han, Xinmei; Zhu, Xiaolei; Guan, Zhangqiong

    2014-11-15

    Novel organic-inorganic hybrid ultrathin films were fabricated by alternate assembly of cationic exfoliated Mg-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets and carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CMCD) as a polyanion onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach. The multilayer films were then characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These films were found to possess a long range stacking order in the normal direction of the substrate with a continuous and uniform morphology. Its electrochemical performance was systematically investigated. Our results demonstrate that such a newly designed (LDH/CMCD)n multilayer film, combining the individual properties of CMCD (a high supramolecule recognition and enrichment capability) together with LDH nanosheets (a rigid inorganic matrix), can be applied to a sensitive, simple, and label-free capacitive detection of acephatemet (AM). Molecular docking calculations further disclose that the selective sensing behavior toward AM may be attributed to the specific binding ability of CMCD to AM. Under the optimized conditions, the capacitive change of AM was proportional to its concentration ranging from 0.001 to 0.10 μg mL(-1) and 0.1 to 0.8 μg mL(-1) with a detection limit 0.6 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3). Toward the goal for practical applications, this simple probe was further evaluated by monitoring AM in real samples.

  20. Influence of layer-by-layer assembled electrospun poly (L-lactic acid) nanofiber mats on the bioactivity of endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Keke; Zhang, Xiazhi; Yang, Wufeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Jiao, Yanpeng; Zhou, Changren

    2016-12-01

    Electrospun poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofiber mats were successfully modified by deposition of multilayers with chitosan (CS), heparin (Hep) and graphene oxide (GO) through electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly method. In this study, the surface properties of PLLA nanofiber mats before and after modification were investigated via scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflectance fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement. In addition, the cytocompatibility of the modified PLLA nanofiber mats were investigated by testing endothelial cells compatibility, including cell attachment, cell proliferation and cell cycle. The results revealed that the surfaces of modified PLLA nanofiber mats become much rougher, stifiness and the hydrophilicity of the LBL modified PLLA nanofiber mats were improved compared to original PLLA one. Moreover, the modified PLLA nanofiber mats had promoted the endothelial cells viability attachment significantly. Besides, we studied the PLLA nanofiber mats on the expression of necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukine-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in endothelial cells. The results showed that modified PLLA nanofiber mats had inhibited the inflammatory response to some extent.

  1. Impact of Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly Clay-Based Nanocoating on Flame Retardant Properties of Sisal Fiber Cellulose Microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The renewable cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan (CH and anionic nanomontmorillonite (MMT layers were alternately deposited on the surface of sisal fiber cellulose microcrystals (SFCM via layer-by-layer (LBL self-assembly method. The structure and properties of the composites were characterized by zeta potential, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, microcalorimeter (MCC, and so forth. The zeta potential results show that the cellulose microcrystalline surface charge reversed due to the adsorption of CH and MMT nanoplatelets during multilayer deposition. MMT characteristic diffraction peaks appear in XRD patterns of SFCM(CH/MMT5 and SFCM(CH/MMT10 composites. Additionally, FESEM reveals that the SFCM(CH/MMT10 surface is covered with a layer of material containing Si, which has been verified by elemental analysis. TGA results show that the initial decomposition (weight loss of 5% temperature of SFCM(CH/MMT5 is increased by 4°C compared to that of pure SFCM. On the other hand, carbon residue percentage of SFCM(CH/MMT10 is 25.1%, higher than that of pure SFCM (5.4% by 19.7%. Eventually, it is testified by MCC measurement that CH/MMT coating can significantly reinforce the flame retardant performance of SFCM.

  2. A novel pulsed drug-delivery system: polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer coating of chitosan–alginate microgels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou GC

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Guichen Zhou,1,2,* Ying Lu,1,* He Zhang,1,* Yan Chen,1 Yuan Yu,1 Jing Gao,1 Duxin Sun,3 Guoqing Zhang,2 Hao Zou,1 Yanqiang Zhong1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, East Hospital of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: The aim of this report was to introduce a novel “core-membrane” microgel drug-delivery device for spontaneously pulsed release without any external trigger.Methods: The microgel core was prepared with alginate and chitosan. The semipermeable membrane outside the microgel was made of polyelectrolytes including polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride and sodium polystyrene sulfonate. The drug release of this novel system was governed by the swelling pressure of the core and the rupture of the outer membrane.Results: The size of the core-membrane microgel drug-delivery device was 452.90 ± 2.71 µm. The surface charge depended on the layer-by-layer coating of polyelectrolytes, with zeta potential of 38.6 ± 1.4 mV. The confocal microscope exhibited the layer-by-layer outer membrane and inner core. The in vitro release profile showed that the content release remained low during the first 2.67 hours. After this lag time, the cumulative release increased to 80% in the next 0.95 hours, which suggested a pulsed drug release. The in vivo drug release in mice showed that the outer membrane was ruptured at approximately 3 to 4 hours, as drug was explosively released.Conclusion: These data suggest that the encapsulated substance in the core-membrane microgel delivery device can achieve a massive drug release after outer membrane rupture. This device was an effective system for pulsed drug delivery.Keywords: polyelectrolyte, chitosan–alginate, microgels, layer-by-layer, pulsed

  3. Electron molecular beam epitaxy: Layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides via pulsed electron-beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan; Liu Hongxue; Lu Jiwei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Gu, Man [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Khokhlov, Mikhail; Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Guilford College, Greensboro, North Carolina 27410 (United States)

    2013-01-14

    Complex oxide epitaxial film growth is a rich and exciting field, owing to the wide variety of physical properties present in oxides. These properties include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, spin-polarization, and a variety of other correlated phenomena. Traditionally, high quality epitaxial oxide films have been grown via oxide molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition. Here, we present the growth of high quality epitaxial films using an alternative approach, the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. We demonstrate all three epitaxial growth modes in different oxide systems: Frank-van der Merwe (layer-by-layer); Stranski-Krastanov (layer-then-island); and Volmer-Weber (island). Analysis of film quality and morphology is presented and techniques to optimize the morphology of films are discussed.

  4. Electron molecular beam epitaxy: Layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides via pulsed electron-beam deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comes, Ryan; Gu, Man; Khokhlov, Mikhail; Liu, Hongxue; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Complex oxide epitaxial film growth is a rich and exciting field, owing to the wide variety of physical properties present in oxides. These properties include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, spin-polarization, and a variety of other correlated phenomena. Traditionally, high quality epitaxial oxide films have been grown via oxide molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition. Here, we present the growth of high quality epitaxial films using an alternative approach, the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. We demonstrate all three epitaxial growth modes in different oxide systems: Frank-van der Merwe (layer-by-layer); Stranski-Krastanov (layer-then-island); and Volmer-Weber (island). Analysis of film quality and morphology is presented and techniques to optimize the morphology of films are discussed.

  5. Preparation of porous hollow silica spheres via a layer-by-layer process and the chromatographic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaobing; Gong, Cairong; Chen, Xujuan; Fan, Guoliang; Xu, Xinhua

    2017-03-01

    Hollow silica spheres possessing excellent mechanical properties were successfully prepared through a layer-by-layer process using uniform polystyrene (PS) latex fabricated by dispersion polymerization as template. The formation of hollow SiO2 micro-spheres, structures and properties were observed in detail by zeta potential, SEM, TEM, FTIR, TGA and nitrogen sorption porosimetry. The results indicated that the hollow spheres were uniform with particle diameter of 1.6 μm and shell thickness of 150 nm. The surface area was 511 m2/g and the pore diameter was 8.36 nm. A new stationary phase for HPLC was obtained by using C18-derivatized hollow SiO2 micro-spheres as packing materials and the chromatographic properties were evaluated for the separation of some regular small molecules. The packed column showed low column pressure, high values of efficiency (up to about 43 000 plates/m) and appropriate asymmetry factors.

  6. Process Conditions of Forming the Surface Layer of Aluminum Powder Product by Layer-by-layer Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents data on state of the art in selective laser sintering of products. Layer-by-layer sintering is shown to be a future-oriented technology, making it possible to synthesize products of metal powder materials. Factors, influencing the quality of a sintered product, are revealed in the paper. It presents outcomes of experiments, focused on the dependence of surface layer thickness of sintered aluminum powder PA-4 on laser processing conditions. Basic factors, influencing the quality of a sintered surface layer include laser power, speeds of scanning and moving the laser beam on the layer of powder. Thickness of the sintered layer varies from 0.74 to 1.55 mm, as the result of changing the laser processing conditions.

  7. Highly stable surface functionalization of microgas chromatography columns using layer-by-layer self-assembly of silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Shakeel, Hamza; Lovette, John; Rice, Gary W; Heflin, James R; Agah, Masoud

    2013-09-03

    A controllable and high-yield surface functionalization of silicon microchannels using layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of SiO2 nanoparticles (SNPs) is presented. The application of SNPs (45 nm average diameter) coating as a stationary phase for chromatographic separation is also demonstrated with surface functionalization using chloroalkylsilanes. This method facilitates a simple, low-cost, and parallel processing scheme that also provides homogeneous and stable nanoparticle-based stationary phases with ease of control over the coating thickness. The SNP-functionalized microfabricated columns with either single capillary channels (1 m long, 150 μm wide, 240 μm deep) or very narrow multicapillary channels (25 cm long, 30 μm wide, 240 μm deep, 16 parallel channels) successfully separated a multicomponent gas mixture with a wide range of boiling points with high reproducibility.

  8. Sustained, Controlled and Stimuli-Responsive Drug Release Systems Based on Nanoporous Anodic Alumina with Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta-i-Batalla, Maria; Eckstein, Chris; Xifré-Pérez, Elisabet; Formentín, Pilar; Ferré-Borrull, J.; Marsal, Lluis F.

    2016-08-01

    Controlled drug delivery systems are an encouraging solution to some drug disadvantages such as reduced solubility, deprived biodistribution, tissue damage, fast breakdown of the drug, cytotoxicity, or side effects. Self-ordered nanoporous anodic alumina is an auspicious material for drug delivery due to its biocompatibility, stability, and controllable pore geometry. Its use in drug delivery applications has been explored in several fields, including therapeutic devices for bone and dental tissue engineering, coronary stent implants, and carriers for transplanted cells. In this work, we have created and analyzed a stimuli-responsive drug delivery system based on layer-by-layer pH-responsive polyelectrolyte and nanoporous anodic alumina. The results demonstrate that it is possible to control the drug release using a polyelectrolyte multilayer coating that will act as a gate.

  9. Quantum dot layer-by-layer assemblies as signal amplification labels for ultrasensitive electronic detection of uropathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yun; Zhang, Haixia; Jiang, Bingying; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2011-06-01

    The preparation and use of a new class of signal amplification label, quantum dot (QD) layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled polystyrene microsphere composite, for amplified ultrasensitive electronic detection of uropathogen-specific DNA sequences is described. The target DNA is sandwiched between the capture probes immobilized on the magnetic beads and the signaling probes conjugated to the QD LBL assembled polystyrene beads. Because of the dramatic signal amplification by the numerous QDs involved in each single DNA binding event, subfemtomolar level detection of uropathogen-specific DNA sequences is achieved, which makes our strategy among the most sensitive electronic approach for nucleic acid-based monitoring of pathogens. Our signal amplified detection scheme could be readily expanded to monitor other important biomolecules (e.g., proteins, peptides, amino acids, cells, etc.) in ultralow levels and thus holds great potential for early diagnosis of disease biomarkers.

  10. Regulating Cell Apoptosis on Layer-by-Layer Assembled Multilayers of Photosensitizer-Coupled Polypeptides and Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ruirui; Jiao, Tifeng; Ma, Kai; Ma, Guanghui; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yan, Xuehai

    2016-05-01

    The design of advanced, nanostructured materials by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly at the molecular level is of great interest because of the broad application of these materials in the biomedical field especially in regulating cell growth, adhesion, movement, differentiation and detachment. Here, we fabricated functional hybrid multilayer films by LbL assembly of biocompatible photosensitizer-coupled polypeptides and collagen-capped gold nanoparticles. The resulting multilayer film can well accommodate cells for adhesion, growth and proliferation. Most significantly, controlled cell apoptosis (detachment) and patterning of the multilayer film is achieved by a photochemical process yielding reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the site and shape of apoptotic cells can be controlled easily by adjusting the location and shape of the laser beam. The LbL assembled multilayer film with integration of functions provides an efficient platform for regulating cell growth and apoptosis (detachment).

  11. Ion Permeability of Free-Suspended Layer-by-Layer (LbL Films Prepared Using an Alginate Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Sato

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer (LbL films were prepared over an aperture (diameter 1–5 mm on a glass plate to study ion permeation across free-suspended LbL films. LbL films were prepared by depositing alternating layers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH and poly(styrene sulfonate (PSS on the surface of a glass plate with an aperture filled with an alginate gel, followed by dissolution of the alginate gel. PAH-PSS films prepared in this way showed permeability to inorganic salts, depending on the size and charge. Permeability to alkali metal chlorides depended on the Stokes radius of the alkali metal cations. The effect of the type of halide was negligible because of the halides’ smaller ionic radii. Permeation of multivalent ions such as Ru(NH363+ and [Fe(CN6]3− was severely suppressed owing to Donnan exclusion.

  12. Photochromic paper from wood pulp modification via layer-by-layer assembly of pulp fiber/chitosan/spiropyran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaojun; Wang, Bin; Li, Jinpeng; Zeng, Jinsong; Chen, Kefu

    2017-02-10

    Cellulosic fiber introducing with photochromic properties can be used in many fields such as security packaging, printing paper, and rewritable paper. To introduce photochromic property to individual fiber, a polyelectrolyte composite layer composed of cationic chitosan (CS) and anionic carboxyl-containing spiropyran (SPCOOH) on pulp fibers was designed using layer-by-layer assembly technique. Scanning electron microscope observation showed that the SPCOOH was successfully absorbed onto the surface of fiber. The photochromic characteristic of LbL-treated fiber could be triggered by UV-vis absorption spectrum and the LbL-treated fibers had a good compatibility with pulp fibers. This study gives a highly effective method to impart the photochromic characteristic to paper.

  13. Simultaneous determination of dopamine and uric acid using layer-by-layer graphene and chitosan assembled multilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xuexiang; Cao, Qingxue; Liang, Lixin; Chen, Jianrong; You, Chunping; Ruan, Yongmin; Lin, Hongjun; Wu, Lanju

    2013-12-15

    Multilayer films containing graphene (Gr) and chitosan (CS) were prepared on glassy carbon electrodes with layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique. After being characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the electrochemical sensor based on the resulted films was developed to simultaneously determine dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The LBL assembled electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and UA. In addition, the self-assembly electrode possessed an excellent sensing performance for detection of DA and UA with a linear range from 0.1 μM to 140 µM and from 1.0 µM to 125 µM with the detection limit as low as 0.05 µM and 0.1 µM based on S/N=3, respectively.

  14. Photocurrent generation in organic photodetectors with tailor-made active layers fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonhoeren, Benjamin; Dalgleish, Simon; Hu, Laigui; Matsushita, Michio M; Awaga, Kunio; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2015-04-08

    Photodetectors supply an electric response when illuminated. The detectors in this study consist of an active layer and a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blocking layer, which are sandwiched by an aluminum and an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The active layer was prepared of Zn porphyrins and assembled by covalent layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Layer growth was monitored by UV-vis absorbance, ellipsometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Upon exposure to chopped light, the detectors show an alternating transient photocurrent, which is limited by the accumulation of space charges at the blocking layer/active layer interface. We could show that the number of photoactive layers has a significant impact on device performance. The fastest response was achieved with fewer layers. The highest photocurrents were measured for detectors with an intermediate number of layers, beyond which, more layers did not lead to an increase in the photocurrent despite containing more active material.

  15. Anti-fogging and anti-frosting behaviors of layer-by-layer assembled cellulose derivative thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibraen, Mahmoud H. M. A.; Yagoub, Hajo; Zhang, Xuejian; Xu, Jian; Yang, Shuguang

    2016-05-01

    Two cellulose derivatives, quaternized cellulose (QC) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), were layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled to prepare a thin film. QC was also LbL assembled with two synthetic polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), separately. The anti-fogging and anti-frosting properties of the assembled films were studied. QC/CMC thin film exhibits anti-fogging and anti-frosting behaviors, whereas QC/PAA and QC/PSS films do not have capacity for anti-fogging and anti-frosting. The anti-fogging and anti-frosting properties of QC/CMC film are attributed to that water molecules can be quickly adsorbed into the matrix of the film. The water adsorption of QC/CMC film was illustrated by the optical thickness increment.

  16. BARK-MIMETIC LAYER-BY-LAYER ASSEMBLED MONTMORILLONITE/POLY(p-AMINOSTYRENE) FLEXIBLE NANOCOMPOSITES SHIELDING ATOMIC OXYGEN EROSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Gao; Bing-jun Liu; Long-cheng Gao; Peng-gang Yin; Lei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the birch bark,which has multilayered structures,we fabricated layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled montmorillonite (MMT) and poly(p-aminostyrene) (PPAS) nanocomposites on cotton fiber curved surfaces to provide protection from atomic oxygen (AO) erosion.The multilayer coated fibers had high flexibility,uniformity,defect free,ease of preparation and low cost.The AO erosion durability has been dramatically enhanced which was evidenced by testing in the ground-based AO effects simulation facility.And the dimension and surface morphologies of the fibers observed by SEM had few changes,indicating excellent AO erosion resistant ability of the coatings.These results provide us a new method to design fibrous materials exposed directly in low earth orbit environment.

  17. Quantum size effect on the layer by layer assembly of PbTe–InSe multilayer nanocomposite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvathi, M. Manonmani; Arivazhagan, V. [Department of Physics, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114 (India); Rajesh, S., E-mail: drsrajesh@karunya.edu [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114 (India)

    2015-10-15

    PbTe–InSe multilayer nanocomposite structures were prepared by thermal evaporation method using layer by layer assembly with different PbTe nanocrystal (NCs) layer thicknesses ranges from 5 to 20 nm. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy images divulge the formation of PbTe NCs embedded within InSe matrix as an ordered PbTe–InSe multilayer structure. X-ray and electron beam diffractions from the multilayer structure exhibit eminent peak at (2 0 0) plane analogous to face-centred cubic PbTe. The absorption onset significantly blue shifted as long as 3 nm PbTe NCs were embedded in InSe matrix. The observed band gap is correlated with theoretically predicted effective band gap of three dimensionally confined PbTe NCs which confirm size dependent quantum confinement effect. PL spectra show dominant single emission at 1.6 eV corresponding to the band edge emission of PbTe NCs. The prospects to use this structure in p-i-n junction quantum dot solar cells are discussed. - Graphical abstract: A graphical abstract to illustrate (a) schematic view of the PbTe–InSe multilayer structure. (b) and (c) are the cross sectional TEM and AFM image of the single layer PbTe NCs on InSe matrix, respectively. - Highlights: • PbTe Nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous InSe matrix by thermal evaporation. • Array of 3D confined PbTe NCs was obtained from layer by layer deposition. • Growth of isolated PbTe NCs were observed from TEM and AFM. • Blue shift from absorption spectra and quantum confined PL emission were observed. • Use of this structure in next generation solar cells were discussed.

  18. Cleanability evaluation of ceramic glazes with nanometer far-infrared materials using contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Liang, Jinsheng; Di, Xingfu; Tang, Qingguo

    2014-05-01

    The cleanability of easy-to-clean ceramic glazes doped with nanometer far-infrared materials was compared with that of some high-quality household ceramic glazes from the market. The cleanability was evaluated by the contact angle measurement using a sessile drop method with a Dataphysics OCA-30 contact angle analyzer. The results showed that the difference of contact angles of water on the glazes before soiling and after cleaning could be used as a parameter for evaluating the cleanability of the glazes. The relationship between cleanability and surface properties, such as surface free energy and surface topography, was investigated. The surface free energy of the samples and their components were calculated using van Oss acid-base approach. By measuring advancing and receding contact angles, the contact angle hysteresis of the ceramic glazes due to the surface topography was investigated. It was shown that the cleanability of ceramic glazes containing nanometer far-infrared materials (NFIM) is better than that of household ceramic glazes from market, due to a higher ratio of electron-acceptor parameter to electron-donor parameter, which led to the effect of water hydration as well as better hydrophilic property and increased smoothness. The contact angle measurement not only accurately evaluates the cleanability of the ceramic glazes, but also has a contribution to the study of cleanability theory. Moreover, this method is simple, convenient and less sample-consumption.

  19. Broadband Infrared Luminescence of Ni2+ in Petalite-Type Transparent Glass Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Gao-Reng; ZHOU Shi-Feng; ZHANG Song-Min; YANG Hu-Cheng; QIU Jian-Rong

    2007-01-01

    Transparent Ni2+-doped magnesium aluminosilicate glass ceramics are prepared.The formation of petalite-type crystallites in the glass ceramics is confirmed by x-ray diffraction.Broadband infrared luminescence centred at around 1235 nm with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of about 300 nm is observed from the Ni2+-doped glass ceramics.The observed infrared emission could be attributed to the 3T2(F)→3A2(F)transition of octahedral Ni2+ ions in petalite-type crystallites.The product of the fluorescence lifetime and the stimulated emission cross sections is 1.2×10-24 cm2s.

  20. Effect of Microwave Heating on Infrared Radiation Properties of Cordierite-Ferrites Based Composite Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Lei; FAN; Xi’an; HU; Xiaoming; ZHANG; Jianyi

    2015-01-01

    The cordierite-ferrites based infrared radiation composite materials were synthesized with Fe2O3, Mn O2, Cu O, Co2O3, and Mg2Al4Si5O18 powders as raw materials via microwave heating. The cordierite-ferrites based composite ceramics could be obtained via microwave heating at 1173 K for 1 h or 1473 K for 10 min, respectively. The lower synthesis temperature or the shorter heating time results in the smaller grain size of the composite ceramics obtained by microwave heating. The interplanar distance of cordierite becomes greater after microwave heating, indicating that the doping effect of transitional metal oxides on the cordierite is more efficient in microwave heating. The infrared radiation composite ceramics synthesized by microwave heating at 1473 K for 1 h exhibit the maximum emissivity of 0.9 in the band range of 6-8 μm at 1073 K.

  1. Preparation and characterization of an anionic dye-polycation molecular films by electrostatic layer-by-layer adsorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, D.; Hussain, S. A.; Nath, R. K.; Bhattacharjee, D.

    2008-07-01

    This communication reports the formation and characterization of self-assembled films of a low molecular weight anionic dye amaranth and polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) by electrostatic alternating layer-by-layer (LBL) adsorption. It was observed that there was almost no material loss occurred during adsorption process. The UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra of amaranth solution reveal that with the increase in amaranth concentration in solution, the aggregated species starts to dominate over the monomeric species. New aggregated band at 600 nm was observed in amaranth-PAH mixture solution absorption spectrum. A new broad low intense band at the longer wavelength region, in the amaranth-PAH mixture solution fluorescence spectrum was observed due to the closer association of amaranth molecule while tagged into the polymer backbone of PAH and consequent formation of aggregates. The broad band system in the 650-750 nm region in the fluorescence spectra of different layered LBL films changes in intensity distribution among various bands within itself, with changing layer number and at 10 bilayer LBL films the longer wavelength band at 710 nm becomes prominent. Existence of dimeric or higher order n-meric species in the LBL films was confirmed by excitation spectroscopic studies. Almost 45 min was required to complete the interaction between amaranth and PAH molecules in the one-bilayer LBL film.

  2. Biological and immunotoxicity evaluation of antimicrobial peptide-loaded coatings using a layer-by-layer process on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jue; Liu, Yu; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Shifang; Yang, Guoli

    2015-11-01

    The prevention and control of peri-implantitis is a challenge in dental implant surgery. Dental implants with sustained antimicrobial coating are an ideal way of preventing peri-implantitis. This study reports development of a non- immunotoxicity multilayered coating on a titanium surface that had sustained antimicrobial activity and limited early biofilm formation. In this study, the broad spectrum AMP, Tet213, was linked to collagen IV through sulfo-SMPB and has been renamed as AMPCol. The multilayer AMPCol coatings were assembled on smooth titanium surfaces using a LBL technique. Using XPS, AFM, contact angle analysis, and QCM, layer-by-layer accumulation of coating thickness was measured and increased surface wetting compared to controls was confirmed. Non-cytotoxicity to HaCaT and low erythrocyte hemolysis by the AMPCol coatings was observed. In vivo immunotoxicity assays showed IP administration of AMPCol did not effect serum immunoglobulin levels. This coating with controlled release of AMP decreased the growth of both a Gram-positive aerobe (Staphylococcus aureus) and a Gram-negative anaerobe (Porphyromonas gingivalis) up to one month. Early S. aureus biofilm formation was inhibited by the coating. The excellent long-term sustained antimicrobial activity of this multilayer coating is a potential method for preventing peri-implantitis through coated on the neck of implants before surgery.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of novel antibacterial silver nanocomposite nanofiltration and forward osmosis membranes based on layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Qi, Saren; Li, Ye; Yang, Liang; Cao, Bin; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2013-06-01

    Using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method, we fabricated novel silver nanocomposite LbL-Ag nanofiltration (NF) and forward osmosis (FO) membranes. The incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the membranes did not adversely affect the membrane separation performance in NF and FO processes at low AgNPs incorporation levels (0.22-1.19 wt.% as silver). The FO performance of the xLbL-Ag membranes was better than or comparable to most NF-like FO membranes reported in the literature. In addition, the silver nanocomposite membranes exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Our results showed that the performances of the silver nanocomposite membranes are highly dependent on silver incorporation in the membranes, which could be controlled by using different membrane synthesis routines and doping of AgNPs. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first study on fabrication and characterization of novel antibacterial silver nanocomposite NF and FO membranes through LbL assembly approach.

  4. Label-free electrochemical aptasensor constructed by layer-by-layer technology for sensitive and selective detection of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianshu; Liu, Jiyang; Gu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Dan; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

    2015-07-02

    Here, a cytosensor was constructed with ferrocene-appended poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (Fc-PAH) functionalized graphene (Fc-PAH-G), poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and aptamer (AS1411) by layer-by-layer assembly technology. The hybrid nanocomposite Fc-PAH-G not only brings probes on the electrode and also promotes electron transfer between the probes and the substrate electrode. Meanwhile, LBL technology provides more effective probes to enhance amplified signal for improving the sensitivity of the detection. While AS1411 forming G-quardruplex structure and binding cancer cells, the current response of the sensing electrode decreased due to the insulating properties of cellular membrane. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed to investigate the electrochemical detection of HeLa cells attributing to its sensitivity of the current signal change. The as-prepared aptasensor showed a high sensitivity and good stability, a widely detection range from 10 to 10(6) cells/mL with a detection limit as low as 10 cells/mL for the detection of cancer cells.

  5. Fabrication of hybrid graphene oxide/polyelectrolyte capsules by means of layer-by-layer assembly on erythrocyte cell templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Irigoyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel and facile method was developed to produce hybrid graphene oxide (GO–polyelectrolyte (PE capsules using erythrocyte cells as templates. The capsules are easily produced through the layer-by-layer technique using alternating polyelectrolyte layers and GO sheets. The amount of GO and therefore its coverage in the resulting capsules can be tuned by adjusting the concentration of the GO dispersion during the assembly. The capsules retain the approximate shape and size of the erythrocyte template after the latter is totally removed by oxidation with NaOCl in water. The PE/GO capsules maintain their integrity and can be placed or located on other surfaces such as in a device. When the capsules are dried in air, they collapse to form a film that is approximately twice the thickness of the capsule membrane. AFM images in the present study suggest a film thickness of approx. 30 nm for the capsules in the collapsed state implying a thickness of approx. 15 nm for the layers in the collapsed capsule membrane. The polyelectrolytes used in the present study were polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH and polystyrenesulfonate sodium salt (PSS. Capsules where characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, dynamic light scattering (DLS and Raman microscopy, the constituent layers by zeta potential and GO by TEM, XRD, and Raman and FTIR spectroscopies.

  6. Fabrication of hybrid graphene oxide/polyelectrolyte capsules by means of layer-by-layer assembly on erythrocyte cell templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen, Joseba; Politakos, Nikolaos; Diamanti, Eleftheria; Rojas, Elena; Marradi, Marco; Ledezma, Raquel; Arizmendi, Layza; Rodríguez, J Alberto; Ziolo, Ronald F; Moya, Sergio E

    2015-01-01

    A novel and facile method was developed to produce hybrid graphene oxide (GO)-polyelectrolyte (PE) capsules using erythrocyte cells as templates. The capsules are easily produced through the layer-by-layer technique using alternating polyelectrolyte layers and GO sheets. The amount of GO and therefore its coverage in the resulting capsules can be tuned by adjusting the concentration of the GO dispersion during the assembly. The capsules retain the approximate shape and size of the erythrocyte template after the latter is totally removed by oxidation with NaOCl in water. The PE/GO capsules maintain their integrity and can be placed or located on other surfaces such as in a device. When the capsules are dried in air, they collapse to form a film that is approximately twice the thickness of the capsule membrane. AFM images in the present study suggest a film thickness of approx. 30 nm for the capsules in the collapsed state implying a thickness of approx. 15 nm for the layers in the collapsed capsule membrane. The polyelectrolytes used in the present study were polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) and polystyrenesulfonate sodium salt (PSS). Capsules where characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Raman microscopy, the constituent layers by zeta potential and GO by TEM, XRD, and Raman and FTIR spectroscopies.

  7. Suspended carbon nanotube nanocomposite beams with a high mechanical strength via layer-by-layer nano-self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongjin; Cui, Tianhong

    2011-04-01

    The fabrication and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composite thin film micropatterns and suspended beams prepared by lithography-compatible layer-by-layer (LbL) nano-self-assembly are demonstrated. Negatively charged SWCNTs are assembled with a positively charged polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride, and the composite thin film is patterned by oxygen plasma etching with a masking layer of photoresist, resulting in a feature size of 2 µm. Furthermore, the SWCNT nanocomposite stripe pattern with a metal clamp on both ends is released by etching a sacrificial layer of silicon dioxide in the hydrofluoric acid vapor. I-V measurement reveals that the resistance of SWCNT nanocomposite film decreases by 23% upon release, presumably due to the effect of reorientation of CNTs caused by the deflection of about 50 nm. A high Young's modulus is found in a range of 500-800 GPa based on the characterization of a fixed-fixed beam using nanoindentation. This value is much higher than those of the other CNT-polymer composites reported due to organization of structures by self-assembly and higher loading of CNTs. The stiff CNT-polymer composite thin film micropattern and suspended beam have potential applications to novel physical sensors, nanoelectromechanical switches, other M/NEMS devices, etc.

  8. Layer-by-layer structured polysaccharides-based multilayers on cellulose acetate membrane: Towards better hemocompatibility, antibacterial and antioxidant activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lincai; Li, Hui; Meng, Yahong

    2017-04-01

    The development of multifunctional cellulose acetate (CA) membranes with enhanced hemocompatibility and antibacterial and antioxidant activities is extremely important for biomedical applications. In this work, significant improvements in hemocompatibility and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of cellulose acetate (CA) membranes were achieved via layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of chitosan (CS) and water-soluble heparin-mimicking polysaccharides (i.e., sulfated Cantharellus cibarius polysaccharides, SCP) onto their surface. The surface chemical compositions, growth manner, surface morphologies, and wetting ability of CS/SCP multilayer-modified CA membranes were characterized, respectively. The systematical evaluation of hemocompatibility revealed that CS/SCP multilayer-modified CA membranes significantly improved blood compatibility including resistance to non-specific protein adsorption, suppression of platelet adhesion and activation, prolongation of coagulation times, inhibition of complement activation, as well as reduction in blood hemolysis. Meanwhile, CS/SCP multilayer-modified CA membranes exhibited strong growth inhibition against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as high scavenging abilities against superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. In summary, the CS/SCP multilayers could confer CA membranes with integrated hemocompatibility and antibacterial and antioxidant activities, which might have great potential application in the biomedical field.

  9. Layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide nanosheets on polyamide membranes for durable reverse-osmosis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wansuk; Choi, Jungkyu; Bang, Joona; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2013-12-11

    Improving membrane durability associated with fouling and chlorine resistance remains one of the major challenges in desalination membrane technology. Here, we demonstrate that attractive features of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets such as high hydrophilicity, chemical robustness, and ultrafast water permeation can be harnessed for a dual-action barrier coating layer that enhances resistance to both fouling and chlorine-induced degradation of polyamide (PA) thin-film composite (TFC) membranes while preserving their separation performance. GO multilayers were coated on the PA-TFC membrane surfaces via layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of oppositely charged GO nanosheets. Consequently, it was shown that the conformal GO coating layer can increase the surface hydrophilicity and reduce the surface roughness, leading to the significantly improved antifouling performance against a protein foulant. It was also demonstrated that the chemically inert nature of GO nanosheets enables the GO coating layer to act as a chlorine barrier for the underlying PA membrane, resulting in a profound suppression of the membrane degradation in salt rejection upon chlorine exposure.

  10. Fabrication of positively charged nanofiltration membrane via the layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide and polyethylenimine for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Qian; Li, Pei; Cao, Bing

    2016-11-01

    Highly positively charged nanofiltration (NF) membranes have been prepared via a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique using graphene oxide (GO) and polyethyleneimine (PEI). The high aspect ratio and unique 2D structure of GO nanosheets enabled them to be easily assembled on the membrane surface, and the intrinsic low resistant channels within the GO nanosheets resulted in a high water flux of the membrane. By assembled a PEI layer on the membrane outer surface, the composite membrane exhibited high positive charge and resulted in the high rejections to multivalent ions. The effects of deposition time, PEI and GO concentrations on separation performance of the NF membranes were detailed studied. The best performance among all the membranes was achieved with salt rejections of 93.9% and 38.1% for Mg2+ and Na+, and a water flux of 4.2 L/m2 h bar at 30 °C and 0.5 MPa. The attractive performance of these NF membranes showed a great potential in the industrial application of water softening.

  11. Layer-by-Layer Deposition with Polymers Containing Nitrilotriacetate, A Convenient Route to Fabricate Metal- and Protein-Binding Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Salinda; Liu, Weijing; Dong, Jinlan; Ning, Wenjing; Ratnayake, Nishanka Dilini; Walker, Kevin D; Bruening, Merlin L

    2016-04-27

    This paper describes a convenient synthesis of nitrilotriacetate (NTA)-containing polymers and subsequent layer-by-layer adsorption of these polymers on flat surfaces and in membrane pores. The resulting films form NTA-metal-ion complexes and capture 2-3 mmol of metal ions per mL of film. Moreover, these coatings bind multilayers of polyhistidine-tagged proteins through association with NTA-metal-ion complexes. Inclusion of acrylic acid repeat units in NTA-containing copolymers promotes swelling to increase protein binding in films on Au-coated wafers. Adsorption of NTA-containing films in porous nylon membranes gives materials that capture ∼46 mg of His-tagged ubiquitin per mL. However, the binding capacity decreases with the protein molecular weight. Due to the high affinity of NTA for metal ions, the modified membranes show modest leaching of Ni(2+) in binding and rinsing buffers. Adsorption of NTA-containing polymers is a simple method to create metal- and protein-binding films and may, with future enhancement of stability, facilitate development of disposable membranes that rapidly purify tagged proteins.

  12. Mechanically durable, superomniphobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for self-cleaning and anti-smudge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-10-15

    Superomniphobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge and low-drag applications. Many bioinspired surfaces developed previously are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. From a previously developed technique, an adapted layer-by-layer approach involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers is combined with an uncharged fluorosilane layer to result in a durable, superomniphobic coating. This technique can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate with the addition of a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and fluorosilane layers are deposited, providing the combination of surface roughness and low surface tension to result in a superomniphobic coating with droplets of liquids with surface tensions from 72 to 21 mN m(-1) displaying contact angles exceeding 155° with low tilt angles. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display levels of transparency acceptable for automotive applications. Fabrication via this novel combination of techniques results in durable, superomniphobic coatings displaying improved performance compared to existing work where either the durability or the repellency is compromised.

  13. Reagentless biosensor based on layer-by-layer assembly of functional multiwall carbon nanotubes and enzyme-mediator biocomposite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-hua ZHOU; Feng-na XI; Yi-ming ZHANG; Xian-fu LIN

    2011-01-01

    A simple and controllable layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly method was proposed for the construction of reagentless biosensors based on electrostatic interaction between functional multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and enzyme-mediator biocomposites. The carboxylated MWNTs were wrapped with polycations poly(allylamine hy-drochloride) (PAH) and the resulting PAH-MWNTs were well dispersed and positively charged. As a water-soluble dye methylene blue (MB) could mix well with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to form a biocompatible and negatively-charged HRP-MB biocomposite. A (PAH-MWNTs/HRP-MB)n bionanomultilayer was then prepared by electrostatic LBL assembly of PAH-MWNTs and HRP-MB on a polyelectrolyte precursor film-modified Au electrode. Due to the excellent biocompatibility of HRP-MB biocomposite and the uniform LBL assembly, the immobilized HRP could retain its natural bioactivity and MB could efficiently shuttle electrons between HRP and the electrode. The incorporation of MWNTs in the bionanomultilayer enhanced the surface coverage concentration of the electroactive enzyme and increased the catalytic current response of the electrode. The proposed biosensor displayed a fast response (2 s) to hydrogen peroxide with a low detection limit of 2.0脳10-7 mol/L (S/A/=3). This work provided a versatile platform in the further development of reagentless biosensors.

  14. Layer-by-layer coating of textile with two oppositely charged cyclodextrin polyelectrolytes for extended drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junthip, Jatupol; Tabary, Nicolas; Chai, Feng; Leclercq, Laurent; Maton, Mickael; Cazaux, Frederic; Neut, Christel; Paccou, Laurent; Guinet, Yannick; Staelens, Jean-Noel; Bria, Marc; Landy, David; Hédoux, Alain; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Martel, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    The coating of a nonwoven textile by polyelectrolyte multilayer film (PEM) issued from cationic and anionic β-cyclodextrin (βCD) polyelectrolytes according to the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was successfully attempted. The tert-butyl benzoic acid (TBBA) was used as drug model to evaluate the loading capacity and sustained release properties of this PEM system. The build-up of the multilayer assembly was monitored in situ by optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) on the one hand, and was assessed by gravimetry on the other hand when applied onto the textile substrate. In parallel, the complexation study of TBBA with both CD polyelectrolytes was also investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The influence of thermal crosslinking of the multilayered coating on its stability and on TBBA release kinetics in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C was studied. Finally, biological and microbiological tests were performed to investigate the cytocompatibility and the intrisic antibacterial activity of multilayer assemblies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1408-1424, 2016.

  15. Investigation of the effects caused by applying voltage in Layer-by-Layer self-assembly method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omura Y.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Layer-by-Layer (LbL self-assembly method under applied voltage (voltage-applied LbL attracts great attention. It is reported that the method enables more abundant film adsorption than conventional LbL method. However, a small proportion of experimental results about adsorption of polyelectrolytes by voltage-applied LbL have been reported. In this study, voltage-applied LbL method using weakly charged polyelectrolytes was examined. Poly (allylamine hydrochloride (PAH and Poly (ethylene imine (PEI as cationic solutions and Poly (acrylic acid (PAA as anionic solution were chosen. The pH of solutions was adjusted to several conditions and film of PAH/PAA and film of PEI/PAA were fabricated by voltage-applied LbL method. Change of adsorption behavior and film morphology by applying voltage depended on pH condition of solutions. When pH of PAH/PAA solutions was 3.9/3.8, respectively, the film adsorption was accelerated by applying voltage. Moreover, in this condition, the surface morphology remarkably changes and texture structure appears by applying voltage. Consequently, it was found that applying voltage in LbL method was effective in controlling film adsorption and the surface nano structure.

  16. Stabilization of starch-based microgel-lysozyme complexes using a layer-by-layer assembly technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Pan, Yi; Chen, Hanqing; Liu, Tengfei; Tao, Han; Tian, Yaoqi

    2017-01-01

    The layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers of chitosan (CS) and carboxymethyl starch (CMS) on soft and porous pH- and ionic strength-response microgels was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and zeta potential measurements. In vitro release of lysozyme from the stabilized microgels under simulated gastric and intestinal fluids was also investigated. The distribution of CS in the microgels was identified by CLSM, and the optimal molecular weight of CS was 100kDa, which could only be absorbed on the microgel surface. The CS was used as the first layer, while the CMS was used as the second layer, and the zeta potential revealed that the optimal weight ratios of CS and CMS to microgels in the complexes were 0.1 and 0.06, respectively. The in vitro release experiments suggested that the stabilized double-layer microgel complexes could potentially be applied as a carrier system to prevent early release in the stomach to target intestinal delivery.

  17. Ambient Layer-by-Layer ZnO Assembly for Highly Efficient Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed Samir

    2015-02-04

    The use of metal oxide interlayers in polymer solar cells has great potential because metal oxides are abundant, thermally stable, and can be used in fl exible devices. Here, a layer-by-layer (LbL) protocol is reported as a facile, room-temperature, solution-processed method to prepare electron transport layers from commercial ZnO nanoparticles and polyacrylic acid (PAA) with a controlled and tunable porous structure, which provides large interfacial contacts with the active layer. Applying the LbL approach to bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with an optimized ZnO layer thickness of H25 nm yields solar cell power-conversion effi ciencies (PCEs) of ≈6%, exceeding the effi ciency of amorphous ZnO interlayers formed by conventional sputtering methods. Interestingly, annealing the ZnO/PAA interlayers in nitrogen and air environments in the range of 60-300 ° C reduces the device PCEs by almost 20% to 50%, indicating the importance of conformational changes inherent to the PAA polymer in the LbL-deposited fi lms to solar cell performance. This protocol suggests a new fabrication method for solution-processed polymer solar cell devices that does not require postprocessing thermal annealing treatments and that is applicable to fl exible devices printed on plastic substrates.

  18. Layer-by-layer self-assembled multilayers on PEEK implants improve osseointegration in an osteoporosis rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xilin; Han, Fei; Zhao, Peng; Lin, Chao; Wen, Xuejun; Ye, Xiaojian

    2017-01-25

    This study aims to fabricate and deposit nanoscale multilayers on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) to improve cell adhesion and osseointegration. Bio-activated PEEK constructs were designed with prepared surface of different layers of polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) multilayers. Irregular morphology was found on the 5 and 10-layer PEEK surfaces, while "island-like" clusters were observed for 20-layer (20 L) multilayers. Besides, the 20 L PEEK showed more hydrophilic feature than native PEEK, and the surface contact angle reduced from 39.7° to 21.7° as layers increased from 5 to 20. In vitro, modified PEEK allowed excellent adhesion and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells, and induced higher cell growth rate and alkaline phosphatase level. In vivo, this bio-active PEEK exhibited significantly enhanced integration with bone tissue in an osteoporosis rabbit model. This work highlights layer-by-layer self-assembly as a practical method to construct bio-active PEEK implants for enhanced osseointegration.

  19. Thermodynamic assessment of adsorptive fouling with the membranes modified via layer-by-layer self-assembly technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liguo; Cui, Xia; Yu, Genying; Li, Fengquan; Li, Liang; Feng, Shushu; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong

    2017-05-15

    In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membrane was coated by dipping the membrane alternatingly in solutions of the polyelectrolytes (poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) and polystyrenesulfonate (PSS)) via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique to improve the membrane antifouling ability. Filtration experiments showed that, sludge cake layer on the coated membrane could be more easily washed off, and moreover, the remained flux ratio (RFR) of the coated membrane was obviously improved as compared with the control membrane. Characterization of the membranes showed that a polyelectrolyte layer was successfully coated on the membrane surfaces, and the hydrophilicity, surface charge and surface morphology of the coated membrane were changed. Based on the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) approaches, quantification of interfacial interactions between foulants and membranes in three different scenarios was achieved. It was revealed that there existed a repulsive energy barrier when a particle foulant adhered to membrane surface, and the enhanced electrostatic double layer (EL) interaction and energy barrier should be responsible for the improved antifouling ability of the coated membrane. This study provided a combined solution to membrane modification and interaction energy evaluation related with membrane fouling simultaneously.

  20. Surface-Engineered Fire Protective Coatings for Fabrics through Sol-Gel and Layer-by-Layer Methods: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Malucelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabric flammability is a surface-confined phenomenon: in fact, the fabric surface represents the most critical region, through which the mass and heat transfers, responsible for fueling the flame, are controlled and exchanged with the surroundings. More specifically, the heat the fabric surface is exposed to is transferred to the bulk, from which volatile products of thermal degradation diffuse toward the surface and the gas phase, hence feeding the flame. As a consequence, the chemical and physical characteristics of the fabric surface considerably affect the ignition and combustion processes, as the surface influences the flux of combustible volatile products toward the gas phase. In this context, it is possible to significantly modify (and improve the fire performance of textile materials by “simply” tailoring their surface: currently, one of the most effective approaches exploits the deposition of tailored coatings able to slow down the heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during the fire stages. This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the design of inorganic, hybrid, or organic flame-retardant coatings suitable for the fire protection of different fabric substrates (particularly referring to cotton, polyester, and their blends. More specifically, the use of sol-gel and layer-by-layer (LbL methods is thoroughly discussed; then, some recent examples of flame retardant coatings are presented, showing their potential advances and their current limitations.

  1. Analysis of layer-by-layer thin-film oxide growth using RHEED and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Eli; Sullivan, M. C.; Gutierrez-Llorente, Araceli; Joress, H.; Woll, A.; Brock, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is commonly used as an in situ analysis tool for layer-by-layer thin-film growth. Atomic force microscopy is an equally common ex situ tool for analysis of the film surface, providing visual evidence of the surface morphology. During growth, the RHEED intensity oscillates as the film surface changes in roughness. It is often assumed that the maxima of the RHEED oscillations signify a complete layer, however, the oscillations in oxide systems can be misleading. Thus, using only the RHEED maxima is insufficient. X-ray reflectivity can also be used to analyze growth, as the intensity oscillates in phase with the smoothness of the surface. Using x-ray reflectivity to determine the thin film layer deposition, we grew three films where the x-ray and RHEED oscillations were nearly exactly out of phase and halted deposition at different points in the growth. Pre-growth and post-growth AFM images emphasize the fact that the maxima in RHEED are not a justification for determining layer completion. Work conducted at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) supported by NSF Awards DMR-1332208 and DMR-0936384 and the Cornell Center for Materials Research Shared Facilities are supported through DMR-1120296.

  2. Work-function oscillations during the surfactant induced layer-by-layer growth of copper on oxygen precovered Ru(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Wolter, H.; Wandelt, K.

    1994-04-01

    In the present work the Cu-film growth on a clean and an oxygen precovered Ru(0001) surface, as monitored with dynamical work function measurements (ΔΦ measurements) during the Cu evaporation using a special Kelvin-probe is compared. For Cu adsorption on the clean surface the observed temperature dependence of the ΔΦ measurements is understood in terms of a change of the growth structure of the Cu films from layer-by-layer growth up to ~ 3 ML at ~ 600 K to a 3D-growth mode at ~ 400 K. In turn, as recently reported, in the case of Cu adsorption on the oxygen-precovered surface at ~ 400 K remarkable ΔΦ oscillations are observed, which could be resolved over many periods clearly indicating a layer-wise growth of high quality at this temperature. Furthermore, in the present paper we report on new and detailed results about the dependence of the ΔΦ oscillations on the oxygen precoverage as well as the Cu deposition rate.

  3. A Stimuli-Responsive Biosensor of Glucose on Layer-by-Layer Films Assembled through Specific Lectin-Glycoenzyme Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqin Yao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research on intelligent bioelectrocatalysis based on stimuli-responsive materials or interfaces is of great significance for biosensors and other bioelectronic devices. In the present work, lectin protein concanavalin A (Con A and glycoenzyme glucose oxidase (GOD were assembled into {Con A/GOD}n layer-by-layer (LbL films by taking advantage of the biospecific lectin-glycoenzyme affinity between them. These film electrodes possess stimuli-responsive properties toward electroactive probes such as ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH2 by modulating the surrounding pH. The CV peak currents of Fc(COOH2 were quite large at pH 4.0 but significantly suppressed at pH 8.0, demonstrating reversible stimuli-responsive on-off behavior. The mechanism of stimuli-responsive property of the films was explored by comparative experiments and attributed to the different electrostatic interaction between the films and the probes at different pH. This stimuli-responsive films could be used to realize active/inactive electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose by GOD in the films and mediated by Fc(COOH2 in solution, which may establish a foundation for fabricating novel stimuli-responsive electrochemical biosensors based on bioelectrocatalysis with immobilized enzymes.

  4. Preparation and characterization of an anionic dye-polycation molecular films by electrostatic layer-by-layer adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, D; Hussain, S A; Nath, R K; Bhattacharjee, D

    2008-07-01

    This communication reports the formation and characterization of self-assembled films of a low molecular weight anionic dye amaranth and polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) by electrostatic alternating layer-by-layer (LBL) adsorption. It was observed that there was almost no material loss occurred during adsorption process. The UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra of amaranth solution reveal that with the increase in amaranth concentration in solution, the aggregated species starts to dominate over the monomeric species. New aggregated band at 600 nm was observed in amaranth-PAH mixture solution absorption spectrum. A new broad low intense band at the longer wavelength region, in the amaranth-PAH mixture solution fluorescence spectrum was observed due to the closer association of amaranth molecule while tagged into the polymer backbone of PAH and consequent formation of aggregates. The broad band system in the 650-750 nm region in the fluorescence spectra of different layered LBL films changes in intensity distribution among various bands within itself, with changing layer number and at 10 bilayer LBL films the longer wavelength band at 710 nm becomes prominent. Existence of dimeric or higher order n-meric species in the LBL films was confirmed by excitation spectroscopic studies. Almost 45 min was required to complete the interaction between amaranth and PAH molecules in the one-bilayer LBL film.

  5. Strategies to optimize biosensors based on impedance spectroscopy to detect phytic acid using layer-by-layer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Marli L; Maki, Rafael M; Paulovich, Fernando V; Rodrigues Filho, Ubirajara P; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina F; Riul, Antonio; de Souza, Nara C; Ferreira, Marystela; Gomes, Henrique L; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2010-04-15

    Impedance spectroscopy has been proven a powerful tool for reaching high sensitivity in sensor arrays made with nanostructured films in the so-called electronic tongue systems, whose distinguishing ability may be enhanced with sensing units capable of molecular recognition. In this study we show that for optimized sensors and biosensors the dielectric relaxation processes involved in impedance measurements should also be considered, in addition to an adequate choice of sensing materials. We used sensing units made from layer-by-layer (LbL) films with alternating layers of the polyeletrolytes, poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH) and poly(vinyl sulfonate) (PVS), or LbL films of PAH alternated with layers of the enzyme phytase, all adsorbed on gold interdigitate electrodes. Surprisingly, the detection of phytic acid was as effective in the PVS/PAH sensing system as with the PAH/phytase system, in spite of the specific interactions of the latter. This was attributed to the dependence of the relaxation processes on nonspecific interactions such as electrostatic cross-linking and possibly on the distinct film architecture as the phytase layers were found to grow as columns on the LbL film, in contrast to the molecularly thin PAH/PVS films. Using projection techniques, we were able to detect phytic acid at the micromolar level with either of the sensing units in a data analysis procedure that allows for further optimization.

  6. Modification of single-walled carbon nanotube electrodes by layer-by-layer assembly for electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vaibhav; Yochum, Henry M.; Montazami, Reza; Heflin, James R.; Hu, Liangbing; Gruner, George

    2008-04-01

    We have studied the morphological properties and electrochromic (EC) performance of polythiophene multilayer films on single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) conductive electrodes. The morphology for different numbers of layer-by-layer (LbL) bilayer on the SWCNT electrode has been characterized with atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscope, and it was found that the LbL multilayers significantly decrease the surface roughness of the nanoporous nanotube films. The controlled surface roughness of transparent nanotube electrodes could be beneficial for their device applications. We have also fabricated EC devices with LbL films of poly[2-(3-thienyl) ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) on SWCNT electrodes, which not only have high EC contrast but also sustain higher applied voltage without showing any degradation for more than 20000cycles, which is not possible in the case of indium tin oxide electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry of the LbL films formed on SWCNT shows higher current at low potential, revealing the feasibility of SWCNT electrode as a good host for electrolyte ion insertion.

  7. Layer-by-layer assembly of TiO(2) colloids onto diatomite to build hierarchical porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuxin; Han, Wei; Xiong, Guoxing; Yang, Weishen

    2008-07-15

    TiO(2) colloids with the most probably particle size of 10 nm were deposited on the surface of macroporous diatomite by a layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly method with using phytic acid as molecular binder. For preparation of colloidal TiO(2), titanium(IV) isopropoxide (Ti(C(3)H(7)O)(4)) was used as titanium precursor, nitric acid (HNO(3)) as peptizing agent and deionized water and isopropanol (C(3)H(7)OH) as solvent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N(2) adsorption-desorption, and UV-vis spectra are used to assess the morphology and physical chemistry properties of the resulting TiO(2) coated diatomite. It was shown that the mesoporosity has been introduced into macroporous diatomite by LBL deposition. The mesoporosity was originated from close-packing of the uniform TiO(2) nanoparticles. More TiO(2) could be coated on the surface of diatomite by increasing the deposition cycles. This hierarchical porous material has potential for applications in catalytic reactions involved diffusion limit, especially in photocatalytic reactions.

  8. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Biopolyelectrolytes onto Thermo/pH-Responsive Micro/Nano-Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Díez-Pascual

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the layer-by-layer (LbL assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers of biopolymers, polypeptides (i.e., poly-l-lysine/poly-l-glutamic acid and polysaccharides (i.e., chitosan/dextran sulphate/sodium alginate, onto thermo- and/or pH-responsive micro- and nano-gels such as those based on synthetic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM and poly(acrylic acid (PAA or biodegradable hyaluronic acid (HA and dextran-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (DEX-HEMA. The synthesis of the ensembles and their characterization by way of various techniques is described. The morphology, hydrodynamic size, surface charge density, bilayer thickness, stability over time and mechanical properties of the systems are discussed. Further, the mechanisms of interaction between biopolymers and gels are analysed. Results demonstrate that the structure and properties of biocompatible multilayer films can be finely tuned by confinement onto stimuli-responsive gels, which thus provides new perspectives for biomedical applications, particularly in the controlled release of biomolecules, bio-sensors, gene delivery, tissue engineering and storage.

  9. Graphene as a spacer to layer-by-layer assemble electrochemically functionalized nanostructures for molecular bioelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Jingfang; Cheng, Hanjun; Yu, Ping; Ye, Jianshan; Mao, Lanqun

    2011-09-06

    This study demonstrates the capability of graphene as a spacer to form electrochemically functionalized multilayered nanostructures onto electrodes in a controllable manner through layer-by-layer (LBL) chemistry. Methylene green (MG) and positively charged methylimidazolium-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were used as examples of electroactive species and electrochemically useful components for the assembly, respectively. By using graphene as the spacer, the multilayered nanostructures of graphene/MG and graphene/MWNT could be readily formed onto electrodes with the LBL method on the basis of the electrostatic and/or π-π interaction(s) between graphene and the electrochemically useful components. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to characterize the assembly processes, and the results revealed that nanostructure assembly was uniform and effective with graphene as the spacer. Electrochemical studies demonstrate that the assembled nanostructures possess excellent electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of NADH and could thus be used as electronic transducers for bioelectronic devices. This potential was further demonstrated by using an alcohol dehydrogenase-based electrochemical biosensor and glucose dehydrogenase-based glucose/O(2) biofuel cell as typical examples. This study offers a simple route to the controllable formation of graphene-based electrochemically functionalized nanostructures that can be used for the development of molecular bioelectronic devices such as biosensors and biofuel cells.

  10. Delivery of surface-mediated non-viral gene nanoparticles from ultrathin layer-by-layer multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An efficient and safe gene delivery system remains a challenge in the development of gene therapy.Polycation-based gene nanoparticles are a typical non-viral gene delivery system,which are able to transfect cells in vitro and in vivo.This paper reported a facile method for constructing biodegradable multilayers via layer-by-layer self-assembly,in which the polycation-based gene nanoparticles were loaded.Through this surface-mediated delivery system,adherent cells on the multilayer could be transfected in situ.Gene nanoparticles-loaded multilayers transfect cells with higher efficiency than naked DNA-loaded multilayers because of the complex configuration of the DNA.DNA nanoparticles/PGA multilayers constructed on the scaffold surface could also realize in situ transfection on the adherent cells.The well-structured,easy-processed multilayers may provide a novel approach to precisely controlled delivery of gene nanoparticles,which may have potential applications for gene therapy in tissue engineering and medical implants.

  11. Layer-by-layer assembly of multifunctional porous N-doped carbon nanotube hybrid architectures for flexible conductors and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Songfang; Gao, Yongju; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Guoping; Zhi, Chunyi; Deng, Libo; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Coassemble diverse functional nanomaterials with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form three-dimensional (3D) porous CNTs hybrid architectures (CHAs) are potentially desirable for applications in energy storage, flexible conductors, and catalysis, because of diverse functionalities and synergistic effects in the CHAs. Herein, we report a scalable strategy to incorporate various functional nanomaterials with N-doped CNTs (N-CNTs) into such 3D porous CHAs on the polyurethane (PU) sponge skeletons via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. To investigate their properties and applications, the specific CHAs based on N-CNTs and Ag nanoparticles (NPs), denoted as PU-(N-CNTs/Ag NPs)n, are developed. The unique binary structure enables these specific CHAs conductors to possess reliable mechanical and electrical performance under various elastic deformations as well as excellent hydrophilicity. Moreover, they are employed as strain-gauge sensor and heterogeneous catalyst, respectively. The sensor could detect continuous signal, static signal, and pulse signal with superior sustainability and reversibility, indicating an important branch of electromechanical devices. Furthermore, the synergistic effects among N-CNTs, Ag NPs, and porous structure endow the CHAs with excellent performance in catalysis. We have a great expectation that LbL assembly can afford a universal route for incorporating diverse functional materials into one structure.

  12. Enzymatic Catalysis Combining the Breath Figures and Layer-by-Layer Techniques: Toward the Design of Microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León, A S; Garnier, T; Jierry, L; Boulmedais, F; Muñoz-Bonilla, A; Rodríguez-Hernández, J

    2015-06-10

    Herein, we report the fabrication of microstructured porous surfaces with controlled enzymatic activity by combining the breath figures and the layer-by-layer techniques. Two different types of porous surfaces were designed based on fluorinated and carboxylated copolymers in combination with PS, using poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene)-b-polystyrene (PS5F31-b-PS21) and polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PS19-b-PAA10) block copolymers, respectively. For comparative purposes, flat surfaces having similar chemistry were obtained by spin-coating. Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PSS/PAH) multilayers incorporating alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were built on these porous surfaces to localize the enzyme both inside and outside of the pores using PS/PS5F31-b-PS21 surfaces and only inside the pores on PS/PS19-b-PAA10 surfaces. A higher catalytic activity of ALP (about three times) was obtained with porous surfaces compared to the flat ones. The catalysis happens specifically inside the holes of PS/PS19-b-PAA10surfaces, where ALP is located. This opens the route for applications in microreactors.

  13. Highly Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Layer-by-Layer Assembled Nanofibrillated Cellulose/Graphene Nanosheets Hybrid Films for Thermal Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Na; Jiao, Dejin; Cui, Siqi; Hou, Xingshuang; Ding, Peng; Shi, Liyi

    2017-01-25

    An anisotropic thermally conductive film with tailorable microstructures and macroproperties is fabricated using a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of graphene oxide (GO) and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) on a flexible NFC substrate driven by hydrogen bonding interactions, followed by chemical reduction process. The resulting NFC/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid film reveals an orderly hierarchical structure in which the RGO nanosheets exhibit a high degree of orientation along the in-plane direction. The assembly cycles dramatically increase the in-plane thermal conductivity (λX) of the hybrid film to 12.6 W·m(-1)·K(-1), while the cross-plane thermal conductivity (λZ) shows a lower value of 0.042 W·m(-1)·K(-1) in the hybrid film with 40 assembly cycles. The thermal conductivity anisotropy reaches up to λX/λZ = 279, which is substantially larger than that of similar polymeric nanocomposites, indicating that the LbL assembly on a flexible NFC substrate is an efficient technique for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites with improved heat conducting property. Moreover, the layered hybrid film composed of 1D NFC and 2D RGO exhibits synergetic mechnical properties with outstanding flexibility and a high tensile strength (107 MPa). The combination of anisotropic thermal conductivity and superior mechanical performance may facilitate the applications in thermal management.

  14. Improved and targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to cells with magnetic layer-by-layer assembled microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Anton M.; Gabriel, Samantha A.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.; Gould, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Despite our increasing knowledge of cell biology and the recognition of an increasing repertoire of druggable intracellular therapeutic targets, there remain a limited number of approaches to deliver bioactive molecules to cells and even fewer that enable targeted delivery. Layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules are assembled using alternate layers of oppositely charged molecules and are potential cell delivery vehicles for applications in nanomedicine. There are a wide variety of charged molecules that can be included in the microcapsule structure including metal nanoparticles that introduce physical attributes. Delivery of bioactive molecules to cells with LbL microcapsules has recently been demonstrated, so in this study we explore the delivery of bioactive molecules (luciferase enzyme and plasmid DNA) to cells using biodegradable microcapsules containing a layer of magnetite nanoparticles. Interestingly, significantly improved intracellular luciferase enzyme activity (25 fold) and increased transfection efficiency with plasmid DNA (3.4 fold) was observed with magnetic microcapsules. The use of a neodymium magnet enabled efficient targeting of magnetic microcapsules which further improved the delivery efficiency of the cargoes as a consequence of increased microcapsule concentration at the magnetic site. Microcapsules were well tolerated by cells in these experiments and only displayed signs of toxicity at a capsule : cell ratio of 100 : 1 and with extended exposure. These studies illustrate how multi-functionalization of LbL microcapsules can improve and target delivery of bioactive molecules to cells.

  15. Layer-by-layer assembled PVA/Laponite multilayer free-standing films and their mechanical and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasankar Patro, T.; Wagner, H. Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Structural arrangements of nanoplatelets in a polymer matrix play an important role in determining their properties. In the present study, multilayered composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with Laponite clay are assembled by layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition. The LBL films are found to be hydrated, flexible and transparent. A facile and solvent-free method—by depositing self-assembled monolayers (SMA) of a functional silane on substrates—is demonstrated for preparing free-standing LBL films. Evolution of nanostructures in LBL films is correlated with thermal and mechanical properties. A well-dispersed solvent-cast PVA/Laponite composite film is also studied for comparison. We found that structurally ordered LBL films with an intercalated nanoclay system exhibits tensile strength, modulus and toughness, which are significantly higher than that of the conventional nanocomposites with well-dispersed clay particles and that of pure PVA. This indicates that clay platelets are oriented in the applied stress direction, leading to efficient interfacial stress transfer. In addition, various grades of composite LBL films are prepared by chemical crosslinking and their mechanical properties are assessed. On account of these excellent properties, the LBL films may find potential use as optical and structural elements, and as humidity sensors.

  16. Layer-by-layer assembled carbon nanotubes for selective determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meining; Gong, Kuanping; Zhang, Hongwu; Mao, Lanqun

    2005-01-15

    Multilayer films of shortened multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are homogeneously and stably assembled on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes using layer-by-layer (LBL) method based on electrostatic interaction of positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and negatively charged shortened MWNTs. The assembled MWNT multilayer films were studied with respect to the electrocatalytic activity toward ascorbic acid (AA) and dopamine (DA) and were further applied for selective determination of DA in the presence of AA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used for characterization of MWNT films indicates that the assembled MWNTs are almost in a form of small bundles or single nanotubes on the electrodes. Cyclic voltammetric results with assembled MWNT electrode indicate that the strategy based on the LBL method for assembling the MWNT multilayer films on substrate well retains the electrochemical catalytic activity of the MWNTs toward AA and DA, offering some advantages particularly attractive for analytical applications, such as the form of MWNTs assembled on the substrate, i.e., small bundles or single tubes, homogeneity and stability of the as-assembled MWNT films. These features make the assembled MWNTs relatively potential for selective and sensitive determination of DA in the presence of AA.

  17. Layer-by-layer assembled carbon nanotube films with molecule recognition function and lower capacitive background current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bo; Zeng, Jinxiang; Luo, Guangming; Luo, Shenglian; Wei, Wanzhi; Li, Jun

    2009-02-01

    Multilayer films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with molecule recognition function were assembled on glassy carbon (GC) electrode with lower capacitive background current by two steps: first, MWCNTs interacted with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) with the aid of sonication to form beta-CD-MWCNTs nanocomposite, then the beta-CD-MWCNTs nanocomposite was assembled on GC electrode using layer-by-layer (LBL) method based on electrostatic interaction of positively charged biopolymer chitosan and negatively charged MWCNTs. The assembled beta-CD-MWCNTs multilayer films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The SEM indicated that the MWCNTs multilayer films with beta-CD were somewhat more compact than that of the MWCNTs multilayer films without beta-CD. The cyclic voltammetric results indicated that the assembled MWCNTs with beta-CD on GC electrode exhibited lower capacitive background current than the assembled MWCNTs without beta-CD. The MWCNTs multilayer films with beta-CD were studied with respect to the electrocatalytic activity toward dopamine (DA). Compared with the MWCNTs multilayer films without beta-CD, the MWCNTs multilayer films with beta-CD possesses a much lower capacitive background current and higher electrocatalytic activity in phosphate buffer, which was ascribed to the relatively compact three-dimensional structure of the MWCNTs multilayer films with beta-CD and the excellent molecule recognition function of beta-CD.

  18. Photocatalytic Nanocomposite Films Fabricated by Layer-by-Layer Self-assembly of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Lignosulfonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 付时雨; 彭林才; 詹怀宇

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalytic multilayer nanocomposite films composed of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles and lignosulfonates (LS) were fabricated on quartz slides by the layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the TiO2/LS multilayer nanocomposite films. Moreover, the photocatalytic properties (decomposition of methyl orange and bacteria) of multilayer nanocomposite films were investigated. XPS results indicated that the intensities of titanium and sulfur peaks increased with the LBL deposition process. A linear increase in absorbance at 280 nm was found by UV-Vis spectroscopy, suggesting that stepwise multilayer growth occurs on the substrate and this deposition process is highly reproducible. AFM images showed that quartz slide was completely covered by TiO2 nanoparticles when a 10-bilayer multilayer film was formed. The decomposition efficiency of methyl orange by TiOz/LS multilayer films under the same UV irradiation time increased linearly with the number of TiO2 layers, and the results of decomposition of bacteria under UV irradiation showed that TiO2/LS multilayer nanocomposite films exhibited excellent decomposition activity of bacteria (Escherichia coil).

  19. Synthesis of collagen nanotubes with highly regular dimensions through membrane-templated layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoulsi, Jessem; Roy, Cécile J; Dupont-Gillain, Christine; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie

    2009-05-11

    Nanotubes made from a fibrillar protein, namely, collagen, were fabricated by a template-based method combined with layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. The ability to incorporate collagen in LbL multilayered film was first demonstrated by in situ quartz crystal microbalance and ex situ ellipsometry on a flat model substrate, using poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) as polyanion. Collagen-based nanotubes were then fabricated by alternately immersing a polycarbonate membrane, used as template, in PSS and collagen aqueous solutions. Direct evidence for nanotube formation was obtained by dissolving the membrane and imaging the liberated (PSS/collagen)(n) nanostructures by scanning electron microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. The proposed strategy constitutes a practical alternative to electrospinning as it allows a very good control over the dimensions (outside and inside diameters and length) of the resulting nanotubes. Besides their fundamental interest, collagen-based nanotubes are useful nano-objects for the creation of new nanostructured biomaterials with numerous potential applications in the biomedical field.

  20. Electrochemical impedance study of self-assembled layer-by-layer iron-silicotungstate/poly(ethylenimine) modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Diana M. [Department of Chemistry/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ghica, Mariana E. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Cavaleiro, Ana M.V. [Department of Chemistry/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Brett, Christopher M.A., E-mail: brett@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2011-09-30

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to study multilayer films containing anionic iron-substituted silicotungstate [SiW{sub 11}Fe{sup III}(H{sub 2}O)O{sub 39}]{sup 5-} (SiW{sub 11}Fe) and positively charged poly(ethylenimine) self-assembled by the layer-by-layer method on glassy carbon and indium tin oxide electrodes. The effect of the charge of the outermost layer of the multilayer assembly on the electron transfer of soluble species was studied using the redox probes [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-} and [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+}; cyclic voltammetry indicating that the surface charge has a significant effect on the process. EIS demonstrated that the electrostatic attraction or repulsion between the surface and the redox probes plays a significant role. Analysis of the impedance spectra showed that the charge transfer resistance increases with an increasing number of bilayers for both redox probes and that the porosity of the multilayer film, which varies with the electrode substrate, also has a significant effect on the electrochemical response.

  1. Photocatalytic enhancement of floating photocatalyst: Layer-by-layer hybrid carbonized chitosan and Fe-N- codoped TiO2 on fly ash cenospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingke; Wang, Xuejiang; Bu, Yunjie; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Jiayu; Ma, RongRong; Zhao, Jianfu

    2017-01-01

    Due to the advantage of floating on water surface, floating photocatalysts show higher rates of radical formation and collection efficiencies. And they were expected to be used for solar remediation of non-stirred and non-oxygenated reservoirs. In this research, floating fly ash cenospheres (FAC) supported layer-by- layer hybrid carbonized chitosan and Fe-N-codoped TiO2 was prepared by a simple sol-gel method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy(DRS), nitrogen adsorption analyses for Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area. It is indicated that Fe-N codoped narrowed the material's band gap, and the layer of carbonized chitosan (Cts) increased the catalyst's adsorption capacity and the absorption ability of visible light. Comparing with Fe-N-TiO2/FAC and N-TiO2/FAC, the composite photocatalyst show excellent performance on the degradation of RhB. Photodegradation rate of RhB by Fe-N-TiO2/FAC-Cts was 0.01018 min-1, which is about 1.5 and 2.09 times higher than Fe-N-TiO2/FAC and N-TiO2/FAC under visible light irradiation in 240 min, respectively. The dye photosentization, capture of holes and electrons by Fe3+ ion, and synergistic effect of adsorption and photodegradation were attributed to the results for the improvement of photocatalytic performance. The floating photocatalyst can be reused for at least three consecutive times without any significant decrease on the degradation of Rhodamin B after each reuse.

  2. Bifunctional sensor of pentachlorophenol and copper ions based on nanostructured hybrid films of humic acid and exfoliated layered double hydroxide via a facile layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuang; Peng, Dinghua; Hu, Xianluo; Gong, Jingming

    2013-06-27

    A new, highly sensitive bifunctional electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper ions (Cu(2+)) has been developed, where organic-inorganic hybrid ultrathin films were fabricated by alternate assembly of humic acid (HA) and exfoliated Mg-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets onto ITO substrates via a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach. The multilayer films were then characterized by means of UV-vis spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM). These films were found to have a relatively smooth surface with almost equal amounts of HA incorporated in each cycle. Its electrochemical performance was systematically investigated. Our results demonstrate that such a newly designed (LDH/HA)n multilayer films, combining the individual properties of HA (dual recognition ability for organic herbicides and metal ions) together with LDH nanosheets (a rigid inorganic matrix), can be applied to the simultaneous analysis of PCP and Cu(II) without interference from each other. The LBL assembled nanoarchitectures were further investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), which provides insight for bifunctional sensing behavior. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit was found to be as low as 0.4 nM PCP, well below the guideline value of PCP in drinking water (3.7 nM) set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), and 2.0 nM Cu(2+), much below the guideline value (2.0 mg L(-1), ~31.2 nM) from the World Health Organization (WHO), respectively. Toward the goal for practical applications, this simple and cost-effective probe was further evaluated by monitoring PCP and Cu(II) in water samples.

  3. The potential use of a layer-by-layer strategy to develop LDPE antimicrobial films coated with silver nanoparticles for packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlin-Hasim, Shafrina; Cruz-Romero, Malco C; Cummins, Enda; Kerry, Joseph P; Morris, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Commercial low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were UV/ozone treated and coated using a layer-by-layer (LbL) technique by alternating the deposition of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) polymer solutions and antimicrobial silver (Ag). The effects of the initial pH of the PEI/PAA polymer solutions alternating layers (pH 10.5/4 or 9/6.5) on the antimicrobial activity of the developed LbL coatings combined with Ag against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were investigated. The results from fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and toluidine blue O assay showed that LDPE LbL coated using PEI/PAA polymer solutions with initial pH of 10.5/4 significantly increased the presence of carboxylic acid groups and after Ag attachment the coating had higher antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria compared to the LDPE LbL coated using PEI/PAA polymer solutions with initial pH of 9/6.5. The LDPE LbL coated films using non-modified pH PEI/PAA polymer solutions decreased the water contact-angle indicating an increased hydrophilicity of the film, also increased the tensile strength and roughness of LDPE LbL coated films compared to uncoated LbL samples. The LDPE LbL coated films attached with Ag(+) were UV/ozone treated for 20 min to oxidise Ag(+) to Ag(0). The presence of Ag(0) (Ag nanoparticles (NPs)) on the LDPE LbL coated films was confirmed by XRD, UV-vis spectrophotometer and colour changes. The overall results demonstrated that the LbL technique has the potential to be used as a coating method containing antimicrobial Ag NPs and that the manufactured films could potentially be applied as antimicrobial packaging.

  4. Blood compatibility and adhesion of collagen/heparin multilayers coated on two titanium surfaces by a layer-by-layer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chau-Chang, E-mail: cchou@mail.ntou.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, No. 2 Pei-Ning Rd., Keelung 202, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Marine Mechatronic Systems (CMMS), National Taiwan Ocean University, No. 2 Pei-Ning Rd., Keelung 202, Taiwan, ROC (China); Zeng, Hong-Jhih [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, No. 2 Pei-Ning Rd., Keelung 202, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yeh, Chi-Hsiao [Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung 204, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-31

    This paper investigates the blood compatibility and adhesion of collagen/heparin multilayers coated on cp-Ti substrates with a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. Two surface polishing processes were used for the titanium samples: one was mechanical polishing (MP) and the other, electropolishing (EP). These samples were pretreated by being immersed in NaOH solution to obtain a negatively charged surface with hydroxyl groups and then positively charged in poly-L-lysine solution. The repeated treatment of the samples by applying heparin and collagen alternately determined the number and thickness of the multilayers. The surface topography, chemical composition, and hydrophilicity of the films were investigated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurement. The study of the adhesion of the multilayer was conducted by a nano-scratch test. The blood compatibility was evaluated by measuring the hemolysis ratio and platelet-covered area in vitro. The uncoated titanium surface was used as the benchmark. The results indicated that the anticoagulation performance of collagen/heparin multilayers on the titanium surface was superior to that of the uncoated titanium surface. The hemolysis ratios of samples with an EP Ti substrate, a relatively rougher one, were essentially lower than those of samples with an MP substrate. The increase in the multilayers' thickness enhanced their adhesion to the Ti substrate. - Highlights: • Coated substrates' platelet-adhesion tests revealed a possible thrombus suppression. • Hemolysis of coated substrates was reduced mainly by substrate's original morphology. • Two coated substrates' hemolysis ratios were reduced by nearly the same percentages. • Adhesion strength of multilayers was proportional to their thicknesses.

  5. Gold Nanoparticle-based Layer-by-Layer Enhancement of DNA Hybridization Electrochemical Signal at Carbon Nanotube Modified Carbon Paste Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bo NIE; Jian Rong CHEN; Yu Qing MIAO; Nong Yue HE

    2006-01-01

    Colloid gold nanoparticle-based layer-by-layer amplification approach was applied to enhance the electrochemical detection sensitivity of DNA hybridization at carbon nanotube modified carbon paste electrodes (CNTPEs). Streptavidin was immobilized onto the surface of CNTPEs, and the conjugation of biotin labeled target oligonucleotides to the above immobilized streptavidin was performed, followed by the hybridization of target oligonucleotides with the gold nanoparticle-labeled DNA probe and then the layer-by-layer enhanced connection of gold nanoparticles, on which oligonucleotides complementary to the DNA probe were attached, to the hybridization system. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signal of total gold nanoparticles was monitored. It was found that the layer-by-layer colloidal gold DPV detection enhanced the sensitivity by about one order of magnitude compared with that of one-layer detection. One-base mismatched DNA and complementary DNA could be distinguished clearly.

  6. Layer-by-Layer Coating of Solid Drug Cores: A Versatile Method to Improve Stability, Control Release and Tune Surface Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polomska, Anna; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Brambilla, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Layer-by-layer coating is a simple and versatile technique based on the sequential deposition of molecular species on planar surfaces or colloidal templates. Its relevance in drug delivery primarily emerges from its versatility to control the release rate of the cargo encapsulated within the colloidal core. The focus of this review is the layer-by-layer encapsulation of colloidal particles purely composed of drug, including the core fabrication step, coating materials and techniques, multilayer shell permeability control, and reported in vitro and in vivo outcomes.

  7. Label-free electrochemical aptasensor constructed by layer-by-layer technology for sensitive and selective detection of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tianshu [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130012 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Liu, Jiyang; Gu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Dan [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Wang, Jin, E-mail: jin.wang.1@stonybrook.edu [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130012 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Department of Chemistry, Physics and Applied Mathematics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Wang, Erkang, E-mail: ekwang@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2015-07-02

    Highlights: • Fc-PAH was modified on the surface of graphene to prepare hybid nanocomposite (Fc-PAH-G). • A cytosensor was constructed with Fc-PAH-G, PSS and aptamer AS1411 by LBL technology. • The sensing interface introduced more redox probe and enhanced current signal on electrode. • The sensor showed a detection range of 10–10{sup 6} cells/mL with a detection limit of 10 cells/mL. - Abstract: Here, a cytosensor was constructed with ferrocene-appended poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (Fc-PAH) functionalized graphene (Fc-PAH-G), poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and aptamer (AS1411) by layer-by-layer assembly technology. The hybrid nanocomposite Fc-PAH-G not only brings probes on the electrode and also promotes electron transfer between the probes and the substrate electrode. Meanwhile, LBL technology provides more effective probes to enhance amplified signal for improving the sensitivity of the detection. While AS1411 forming G-quardruplex structure and binding cancer cells, the current response of the sensing electrode decreased due to the insulating properties of cellular membrane. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed to investigate the electrochemical detection of HeLa cells attributing to its sensitivity of the current signal change. The as-prepared aptasensor showed a high sensitivity and good stability, a widely detection range from 10 to 10{sup 6} cells/mL with a detection limit as low as 10 cells/mL for the detection of cancer cells.

  8. Adjusting the Ion Permeability of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers through Layer-by-Layer Assembly under a High Gravity Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Luo, Caijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Shao, Lei; Dong, Youqing; Zhang, Yingwei; Shi, Feng

    2015-05-27

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled multilayer has been widely used as good barrier film or capsule due to the advantages of its flexible tailoring of film permeability and compactness. Although many specific systems have been proposed for film design, developing a versatile strategy to control film compactness remains a challenge. We introduced the simple mechanical energy of a high gravity field to the LbL assembly process to tailor the multilayer permeability through adjusting film compactness. By taking poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly{1-4[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl sodium salt} (PAzo) as a model system, we investigated the LbL assembly process under a high gravity field. The results showed that the high gravity field introduced effectively accelerated the multilayer deposition process by 20-fold compared with conventional dipping assembly; the adsorption rate was positively dependent on the rotating speed of the high gravity equipment and the concentration of the building block solutions. More interestingly, the film compactness of the PDDA/PAzo multilayer prepared under the high gravity field increased remarkably with the growing rotational speed of the high gravity equipment, as demonstrated through comparisons of surface morphology, cyclic voltammetry curves, and photoisomerization kinetics of PDDA/PAzo multilayers fabricated through the conventional dipping method and through LbL assembly under a high gravity field, respectively. In this way, we have introduced a simple and versatile external form of mechanical energy into the LbL assembling process to improve film compactness, which should be useful for further applications in controlled ion permeability, anticorrosion, and drug loading.

  9. Adhesive layer-by-layer films of carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibril-dopamine covalent bioconjugates inspired by marine mussel threads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Erdem; Pettersson, Torbjörn; Ankerfors, Mikael; Wågberg, Lars

    2012-06-26

    The preparation of multifunctional films and coatings from sustainable, low-cost raw materials has attracted considerable interest during the past decade. In this respect, cellulose-based products possess great promise due not only to the availability of large amounts of cellulose in nature but also to the new classes of nanosized and well-characterized building blocks of cellulose being prepared from trees or annual plants. However, to fully utilize the inherent properties of these nanomaterials, facile and also sustainable preparation routes are needed. In this work, bioinspired hybrid conjugates of carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibrils (CNFC) and dopamine (DOPA) have been prepared and layer-by-layer (LbL) films of these modified nanofibrils have been built up in combination with a branched polyelectrolyte, polyethyleneimine (PEI), to obtain robust, adhesive, and wet-stable nanocoatings on solid surfaces. It is shown that the chemical functionalization of CNFCs with DOPA molecules alters their conventional properties both in liquid dispersion and at the interface and also influences the LbL film formation by reducing the electrostatic interaction. Although the CNFC-DOPA conjugates show a lower colloidal stability in aqueous dispersions due to charge suppression, it was possible to prepare the LbL films through the consecutive deposition of the building blocks. Adhesive forces between multilayer films prepared using chemically functionalized CNFCs and a silica probe are much stronger in the presence of Fe(3+) than those between a multilayer film prepared from unmodified nanofibrils and a silica probe. The present work demonstrates a facile way to prepare chemically functionalized cellulose nanofibrils whereby more extended applications can produce novel cellulose-based materials with different functionalities.

  10. Transparent conductors from layer-by-layer assembled SWNT films: importance of mechanical properties and a new figure of merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Bong Sup; Zhu, Jian; Jan, Edward; Critchley, Kevin; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2010-07-27

    New transparent conductors (TCs) capable of replacing traditional indium tin oxide (ITO) are much needed for displays, sensors, solar cells, smart energy-saving windows, and flexible electronics. Technical requirements of TCs include not only high electrical conductivity and transparency but also environmental stability and mechanical property which are often overlooked in the research environment. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) coatings have been suggested as alternative TC materials but typically lack sufficient wear resistance compared to ITO. Balancing conductance, transparency, durability, and flexibility is a formidable challenge, which leads us to the introduction of a new TC figure of merit, PiTC, incorporating all these qualities. Maximization of PiTC to that of ITO or better can be suggested as an initial research goal. Fine tuning of SWNT layer-by-layer (LBL) polymeric nanocomposite structures makes possible integration of all the necessary properties. The produced TC demonstrated resistivity of 86 Omega/sq with 80.2% optical transmittance combined with tensile modulus, strength, and toughness of the film of 12.3+/-3.4 GPa, 218+/-13 MPa, and 8+/-1.7 J/g, respectively. A new transparent capping layer to conserve these properties in the hostile environment with matching or better strength, toughness, and transparency parameters was also demonstrated. Due to application demands, bending performance of TC made by LBL was of special interest and exceeded that of ITO by at least 100 times. Cumulative figure of merit PiTC for the produced coatings was 0.15 Omega(-1), whereas the conventional ITO showed PiTC<0.07 Omega(-1). With overall electrical and optical performance comparable to ITO and exceptional mechanical properties, the described coatings can provide an excellent alternative to ITO or other nanowire- and nanotube-based TC specifically in flexible electronics, displays, and sensors.

  11. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo; Österberg, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering ability and some UV protection, all achieved using an environmentally friendly coating process, which is beneficial to retain the natural appearance of wood and improve indoor air quality and comfort.

  12. Layer by layer assembly of a biocatalytic packaging film: lactase covalently bound to low-density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dana E; Talbert, Joey N; Goddard, Julie M

    2013-06-01

    Active packaging is utilized to overcome limitations of traditional processing to enhance the health, safety, economics, and shelf life of foods. Active packaging employs active components to interact with food constituents to give a desired effect. Herein we describe the development of an active package in which lactase is covalently attached to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) for in-package production of lactose-free dairy products. The specific goal of this work is to increase the total protein content loading onto LDPE using layer by layer (LbL) deposition, alternating polyethylenimine, glutaraldehyde (GL), and lactase, to enhance the overall activity of covalently attached lactase. The films were successfully oxidized via ultraviolet light, functionalized with polyethylenimine and glutaraldehyde, and layered with immobilized purified lactase. The total protein content increased with each additional layer of conjugated lactase, the 5-layer sample reaching up to 1.3 μg/cm2 . However, the increase in total protein did not lend to an increase in overall lactase activity. Calculated apparent Km indicated the affinity of immobilized lactase to substrate remains unchanged when compared to free lactase. Calculated apparent turnover numbers (kcat ) showed with each layer of attached lactase, a decrease in substrate turnover was experienced when compared to free lactase; with a decrease from 128.43 to 4.76 s(-1) for a 5-layer conjugation. Our results indicate that while LbL attachment of lactase to LDPE successfully increases total protein mass of the bulk material, the adverse impact in enzyme efficiency may limit the application of LbL immobilization chemistry for bioactive packaging use.

  13. DBD atmospheric plasma-modified, electrospun, layer-by-layer polymeric scaffolds for L929 fibroblast cell cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surucu, Seda; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    This paper reported a study related to atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) Ar + O2 and Ar + N2 plasma modifications to alter surface properties of 3D PCL/Chitosan/PCL layer-by-layer hybrid scaffolds and to improve mouse fibroblast (L929 ATCC CCL-1) cell attachment, proliferation, and growth. The scaffolds were fabricated using electrospinning technique and each layer was electrospun sequentially on top of the other. The surface modifications were performed with an atmospheric pressure DBD plasma under different gas flow rates (50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 sccm) and for different modification times (0.5-7 min), and then the chemical and topographical characterizations of the modified samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The samples modified with Ar + O2 plasma for 1 min under 70 cm(3)/min O2 flow rate (71.077° ± 3.578) showed a 18.83% decrease compare to unmodified samples' CA value (84.463° ± 3.864). Comparing with unmodified samples, the average fiber diameter values for plasma-modified samples by Ar + O2 (1 min 70 sccm) and Ar + N2 (40 s 70 sccm) increased 40.756 and 54.295%, respectively. Additionally, the average inter-fiber pore size values exhibited decrease of 37.699 and 48.463% for the same Ar + O2 and Ar + N2 plasma-modified samples, respectively, compare to unmodified samples. Biocompatibility performance was determined with MTT assay, fluorescence, Giemsa, and confocal imaging as well as SEM. The results showed that Ar + O2-based plasma modification increased the hydrophilicity and oxygen functionality of the surface, thus affecting the cell viability and proliferation on/within scaffolds.

  14. Enhancement of capillary electrochromatographic separation performance by conductive polymer in a layer-by-layer fabricated graphene stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Wenpeng; Bao, Tao; Chen, Zilin

    2014-04-25

    In this work, we fabricated a novel graphene-based capillary column for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) by a layer-by-layer strategy. To immobilize graphene onto the inner surface of silica capillary, a bio-inspired method was first used to functionalize the capillary surface with a layer of polydopamine (PDA). Graphene oxide (GO) was then introduced and can covalently react with polydopamine, realizing immobilization of graphene as a result. To enhance the modification efficiency of polydopamine, a conductive polymer, polyaniline (PANI) was introduced to be a sub-layer; polydopamine was then introduced following with GO, to generate a multilayer GO-PDA-PANI@capillary. Interestingly, separation efficiency of the graphene-based capillary was enhanced significantly by using conductive PANI as a sub-layer. The morphology of different layers modified on the capillary column was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electroosmotic flow (EOF) characteristics of capillaries modified with different layers were also investigated by varying the pH value of mobile phase. GO-PDA-PANI@capillary showed good separation efficiency towards alkylbenzenes by OT-CEC mode, with theoretic plate numbers up to 133,918 for benzene. The separation was found to follow a reversed-phase chromatographic retention mechanism. Repeatability of the GO-PDA-PANI@capillary was studied, with relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day runs less than 2.89%, and column-to-column runs less than 6.17%. The separation performance of GO-PDA-PANI@capillary was also compared with that of the reported graphene modified capillary.

  15. Electrochemical layer-by-layer approach to fabricate mechanically stable platinum black microelectrodes using a mussel-inspired polydopamine adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Raeyoung; Nam, Yoonkey

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Platinum black (PtBK) has long been used for microelectrode fabrication owing to its high recording performance of neural signals. The porous structure of PtBK enlarges the surface area and lowers the impedance, which results in background noise reduction. However, the brittleness of PtBK has been a problem in practice. In this work, we report mechanically stable PtBK microelectrodes using a bioinspired adhesive film, polydopamine (pDA), while maintaining the low impedance of PtBK. Approach. The pDA layer was incorporated into the PtBK structure through electrochemical layer-by-layer deposition. Varying the number of layers and the order of materials, multi-layered pDA-PtBK hybrids were fabricated and the electrical properties, both impedance and charge injection limit, were evaluated. Main results. Multilayered pDA-PtBK hybrids had electrical impedances as low as PtBK controls and charge injection limit twice larger than controls. For the 30 min-ultrasonication agitation test, impedance levels rarely changed for some of the pDA-PtBK hybrids indicating that the pDA improved the mechanical property of the PtBK structures. The pDA-PtBK hybrid microelectrodes readily recorded neural signals of cultured hippocampal neurons, where background noise levels and signal-to-noise were 2.43 ∼ 3.23 μVrms and 28.4 ∼ 69.1, respectively. Significance. The developed pDA-PtBK hybrid microelectrodes are expected to be applicable to neural sensors for neural prosthetic studies.

  16. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayer TiO(x) for efficient electron acceptor in polymer hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunbum; Lee, Chanwoo; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Cho, Chul-Hee; Cho, Jinhan; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2010-11-16

    We demonstrate that TiO(x) nanocomposite films fabricated using electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly improve the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells compared to conventional TiO(x) films fabricated via the sol-gel process. For this study, titanium precursor/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) multilayer films were first deposited onto indium tin oxide-coated glass to produce TiO(x) nanocomposites (TiO(x)NC). The specific effect of the LbL processed TiO(x) on photovoltaic performance was investigated using the planar bilayer TiO(x)NC and highly regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solar cells, and the P3HT/LbL TiO(x)NC solar cells showed a dramatic increase in power efficiency, particularly in terms of the short current density and fill factor. The improved efficiency of this device is mainly due to the difference in the chemical composition of the LbL TiO(x)NC films, including the much higher Ti(3+)/Ti(4+) ratio and the highly reactive facets of crystals as demonstrated by XPS and XRD measurement, thus enhancing the electron transfer between electron donors and acceptors. In addition, the grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) study revealed the presence of more highly oriented P3HT stacks parallel to the substrate on the LbL TiO(x)NC film compared to those on the sol-gel TiO(x) films, possibly influencing the hole mobility of P3HT and the energy transfer near and at the interface between the P3HT and TiO(x) layers. The results of this study demonstrate that this approach is a promising one for the design of hybrid solar cells with improved efficiency.

  17. Layer-by-layer TiO(2)/WO(3) thin films as efficient photocatalytic self-cleaning surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrocinio, Antonio Otavio T; Paula, Leonardo F; Paniago, Roberto M; Freitag, Janna; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2014-10-08

    New TiO2/WO3 films were produced by the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique and successfully applied as self-cleaning photocatalytic surfaces. The films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates from the respective metal oxide nanoparticles obtained by the sol-gel method. Thirty alternative immersions in pH = 2 TiO2 and pH = 10 WO3 sols resulted in ca. 400 nm thick films that exhibited a W(VI)/Ti(IV) molar ratio of 0.5, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy, along with atomic force images, showed that the resulting layers are constituted by aggregates of very small nanoparticles (films were investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometry and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The films behave as nanoscale heterojunctions, and the presence of WO3 nanoparticles caused a decrease in the optical band gap of the bilayers compared to that of pure LbL TiO2 films. The TiO2/WO3 thin films exhibited high hydrophilicity, which is enhanced after exposition to UV light, and they can efficiently oxidize gaseous acetaldehyde under UV(A) irradiation. Photonic efficiencies of ξ = 1.5% were determined for films constituted by 30 TiO2/WO3 bilayers in the presence of 1 ppm of acetaldehyde, which are ∼2 times higher than those observed for pure LbL TiO2 films. Therefore, these films can act as efficient and cost-effective layers for self-cleaning, antifogging applications.

  18. Enhancement of dopamine sensing by layer-by-layer assembly of PVI-dmeOs and Nafion on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Fang; Cui, Yu-Han; Sun, Yu-Long; Zhang, Kuan; Zhang, Wei-De

    2010-05-01

    In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were modified to further improve their performance in electrochemical sensing of dopamine (DA) levels. After a redox polymer, poly(vinylimidazole) complexed with Os(4, 4'-dimethyl- 2, 2-bipyridine)2Cl (termed PVI-dmeOs) was electrodeposited on multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs), Nafion and PVI-dmeOs films were successfully layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled on the hydrophilic surface of the as-prepared PVI-dmeOs/CNTs nanocomposites through electrostatic interactions. The LBL assembly was proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemistry and UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. LBL assembly of Nafion/PVI-dmeOs films on CNTs significantly enhanced their linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) response sensitivity to DA, with a maximum enhancement for three Nafion/PVI-dmeOs film-modified MWCNTs. The LSV peak current density of (Nafion/PV I-dmeOs)3/CNT electrodes in response to 10 and 50 µM DA solutions was about 7.3 and 3.9 times those for bare CNTs. At the (Nafion/PV I-dmeOs)3/CNT electrodes, the limit of detection (LOD) (signal-to-noise ratio: 3) was 0.05 µM DA, the linear range was 0.1-10 µM DA (with a linear regression coefficient of 0.97) and the DA-sensing sensitivity was 8.15 µA cm - 2 µM - 1. The newly fabricated (Nafion/PV I-dmeOs)3/CNT electrodes may be developed as an ideal biosensor for direct and in situ measurement of DA levels.

  19. Enhancement of dopamine sensing by layer-by-layer assembly of PVI-dmeOs and Nafion on carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Huifang; Cui Yuhan; Sun Yulong; Zhang Kuan [Department of Bioengineering, Zhengzhou University, 100 Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang Weide, E-mail: hfcui@zzu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2010-05-28

    In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were modified to further improve their performance in electrochemical sensing of dopamine (DA) levels. After a redox polymer, poly(vinylimidazole) complexed with Os(4, 4'-dimethyl- 2, 2-bipyridine){sub 2}Cl (termed PVI-dmeOs) was electrodeposited on multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs), Nafion and PVI-dmeOs films were successfully layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled on the hydrophilic surface of the as-prepared PVI-dmeOs/CNTs nanocomposites through electrostatic interactions. The LBL assembly was proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemistry and UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. LBL assembly of Nafion/PVI-dmeOs films on CNTs significantly enhanced their linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) response sensitivity to DA, with a maximum enhancement for three Nafion/PVI-dmeOs film-modified MWCNTs. The LSV peak current density of (Nafion/PV I-dmeOs){sub 3}/CNT electrodes in response to 10 and 50 {mu}M DA solutions was about 7.3 and 3.9 times those for bare CNTs. At the (Nafion/PV I-dmeOs){sub 3}/CNT electrodes, the limit of detection (LOD) (signal-to-noise ratio: 3) was 0.05 {mu}M DA, the linear range was 0.1-10 {mu}M DA (with a linear regression coefficient of 0.97) and the DA-sensing sensitivity was 8.15 {mu}A cm{sup -2} {mu}M{sup -1}. The newly fabricated (Nafion/PV I-dmeOs){sub 3}/CNT electrodes may be developed as an ideal biosensor for direct and in situ measurement of DA levels.

  20. Iron phthalocyanine in non-aqueous medium forming layer-by-layer films: growth mechanism, molecular architecture and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, Priscila; Rodríguez-Méndez, Maria Luz; De Saja Saez, Jose Antonio; Constantino, Carlos José Leopoldo

    2010-04-28

    The application of organic thin films as transducer elements in electronic devices has been widely exploited, with the electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) technique being one of the most powerful tools to produce such films. The conventional LbL method, however, is restricted in many cases to water soluble compounds. Here, an alternative way to produce LbL films containing iron phthalocyanine (FePc) in non-aqueous media (chloroform) is presented. This film fabrication was made possible by exploiting the specific interactions between Fe and NH(2) groups from PAH, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) used as the supporting layer, leading to the formation of bilayers structured as (PAH/FePc)(n). We have also incorporated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in LbL films with (PAH/FePc/AgNP)(n) trilayers, making it possible to achieve the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomenon. The molecular architecture of the LbL films was determined through different techniques. The growth was monitored with UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, their morphology characterized by optical and scanning electron (SEM) microscopes, and their molecular organization determined using FTIR. The electrochemical properties of the LbL films were successfully applied in detecting dopamine in KCl aqueous solutions at different concentrations using cyclic voltammetry. The results confirmed that the LbL films from FePc in non-aqueous media keep their electroactivity, while showing an interesting electrocatalytic effect. The SERS phenomenon suggested that FePc aggregates might be directly involved in the maintenance of the electroactivity of the LbL films.

  1. Hydrogen-bonding layer-by-layer-assembled biodegradable polymeric micelles as drug delivery vehicles from surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Su; Park, Sang Wook; Hammond, Paula T

    2008-02-01

    We present the integration of amphiphilic block copolymer micelles as nanometer-sized vehicles for hydrophobic drugs within layer-by-layer (LbL) films using alternating hydrogen bond interactions as the driving force for assembly for the first time, thus enabling the incorporation of drugs and pH-sensitive release. The film was constructed based on the hydrogen bonding between poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as an H-bond donor and biodegradable poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) micelles as the H-bond acceptor when assembled under acidic conditions. By taking advantage of the weak interactions of the hydrogen-bonded film on hydrophobic surfaces, it is possible to generate flexible free-standing films of these materials. A free-standing micelle LbL film of (PEO-b-PCL/PAA)60 with a thickness of 3.1 microm was isolated, allowing further characterization of the bulk film properties, including morphology and phase transitions, using transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Because of the sensitive nature of the hydrogen bonding employed to build the multilayers, the film can be rapidly deconstructed to release micelles upon exposure to physiological conditions. However, we could also successfully control the rate of film deconstruction by cross-linking carboxylic acid groups in PAA through thermally induced anhydride linkages, which retard the drug release to the surrounding medium to enable sustained release over multiple days. To demonstrate efficacy in delivering active therapeutics, in vitro Kirby-Bauer assays against Staphylococcus aureus were used to illustrate that the drug-loaded micelle LbL film can release significant amounts of an active antibacterial drug, triclosan, to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Because the micellar encapsulation of hydrophobic therapeutics does not require specific chemical interactions, we believe this noncovalent approach provides a new route to integrating active small

  2. Oxygen cathode based on a layer-by-layer self-assembled laccase and osmium redox mediator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szamocki, R.; Flexer, V. [INQUIMAE-DQIAyQF, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Levin, L.; Forchiasin, F. [Micologia Experimental, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biologia Experimental. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Calvo, E.J. [INQUIMAE-DQIAyQF, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: calvo@qi.fcen.uba.ar

    2009-02-28

    Trametes trogii laccase has been studied as biocatalyst for the oxygen electro-reduction in three different systems: (i) soluble laccase was studied in solution; (ii) an enzyme monolayer was tethered to a gold surface by dithiobis N-succinimidyl propionate (DTSP), with a soluble osmium pyridine-bipyridine redox mediator in both cases. The third case (iii) consisted in the sequential immobilization of laccase and the osmium complex derivatized poly(allylamine) self-assembled layer-by-layer (LbL) on mercaptopropane sulfonate modified gold to produce an all integrated and wired enzymatic oxygen cathode. The polycation was the same osmium complex covalently bound to poly-(ally-lamine) backbone (PAH-Os), the polyanion was the enzyme adsorbed from a solution of a suitable pH so that the protein carries a net negative charge. The adsorption of laccase was studied by monitoring the mass uptake with a quartz crystal microbalance and the oxygen reduction electrocatalysis was studied by linear scan voltammetry. While for the three cases, oxygen electrocatalysis mediated by the osmium complex was observed, for tethered laccase direct electron transfer in the absence of redox mediator was also apparent but no electrocatalysis for the oxygen reduction was recorded in the absence of mediator in solution. For the fully integrated LbL self-assembled laccase and redox mediator (case iii) a catalytic reduction of oxygen could be recorded at different oxygen partial pressures and different electrolyte pH. The tolerance of the reaction to methanol and chloride was also investigated.

  3. Broadband Near-Infrared Emission from Transparent Ni2+-Doped Sodium Aluminosilicate Glass Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shi-Feng; FENG Gao-Feng; XU Shi-Qing; WU Bo-Tao; QIU Jian-Rong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Broadband near-infrared emission from transparent Ni2+-doped sodium aluminosilicate glass-ceramics is observed.The broad emission is centred at 1290nm and covers the whole telecommunication wavelength region (1100-1700nm) with full width at half maximum of about 340nm. The observed infrared emission could be attributed to the 3T2(F) → 3A2(F) transition of octahedral Ni2+ ions that occupy high-field sites in nanocrystals. The product of the lifetime and the stimulated emission cross section is 2.15 × 10-24 cm2s. It is suggested that Ni2+-doped sodium aluminosilicate glass ceramics have potential applications in tunable broadband light sources and broadband amplifiers.

  4. Supramolecular Layer-by-Layer Assembly: Alternating Adsorptions of Guest- and Host-Functionalized Molecules and Particles Using Multivalent Supramolecular Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crespo-Biel, Olga; Dordi, Barbara; Reinhoudt, David N.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2005-01-01

    The stepwise construction of a novel kind of self-assembled organic/inorganic multilayers based on multivalent supramolecular interactions between guest-functionalized dendrimers and host-modified gold nanoparticles has been developed, yielding supramolecular layer-by-layer assembly. The deposition

  5. Post-assembly transformations of porphyrin-containing metal-organic framework (MOF) films fabricated via automated layer-by-layer coordination

    KAUST Repository

    So, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate the robustness of layer-by-layer (LbL)-assembled, pillared-paddlewheel-type MOF films toward conversion to new or modified MOFs via solvent-assisted linker exchange (SALE) and post-assembly linker metalation. Further, we show that LbL synthesis can afford MOFs that have proven inaccessible through other de novo strategies.

  6. Flame retardant polymer-clay nanocoatings on cotton textile substrates using a newly developed, continuous layer-by-layer deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton’s exceptional softness, breathability, and absorbency have made it America’s best selling textile fiber; however, cotton textiles are generally more combustible than most synthetic fabrics. In this study, a continuous layer-by-layer self-assembly technique was used to deposit polymer-clay nan...

  7. Facile fabrication of 3D layer-by-layer graphene-gold nanorod hybrid architecture for hydrogen peroxide based electrochemical biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenming Xue

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D layer-by-layer graphene-gold nanorod (GNR architecture has been constructed. The resulting hybrid nanomaterials’ architecture has been tested for detecting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 through the electrocatalytic reaction on a three electrode disposable biosensor platform. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used to characterize and assess the performance of the biosensor. The 3D layer-by-layer modified electrode exhibited the highest sensitivity compared to the active carbon, graphene-oxide, cysteine-graphene oxide and GNR coated electrodes. This research explored the feasibility of using the 3D hybrid graphene-GNR as a template for biosensor. The 3D hybrid structure exhibited higher sensitivity than GNRs alone. SEM showed the explanation that GNRs had self-aggregates reducing the contact surface area when coated on the active carbon electrode, while there were no such aggregates in the 3D structure, and TEM illustrated that GNRs dispersed well in the 3D structure. This research demonstrated a better way to prepare well-separated metal nanoparticles by using the 3D layer-by-layer structure. Consequently, other single and bi-metallic metal nanoparticles could be incorporated into such structure. As a practical example, 3D layer-by-layer nanomaterials modified active carbon electrode was used for detecting glucose showing very good sensitivity and minimum interference by ascorbic acid and uric acid in test solution, which indicated a good selectivity of the biosensor as well.

  8. Fabricating Electrochromic Thin Films Based on Metallo-Polymers Using Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly: An Attractive Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Marco; Beck, Matthias; Winkler, Franziska; Lorrmann, Henning; Kurth, Dirk G.

    2015-01-01

    Metallo-supramolecular polyelectrolytes (MEPE) based on iron(II)-acetate and 1,4-bis(2,2':6',2?-terpyridin-4'-yl)benzene are assembled by layer-by-layer deposition on transparent electrode surfaces. When a potential is applied, the color of the film can be switched from blue to transparent. Due to the strong absorption and the fast switching…

  9. Supramolecular architectures in layer-by-layer films of single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan and cobalt (II) phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa Luz, Roberto A. de; Martins, Marccus Victor A.; Magalhaes, Janildo L. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina - PI, CEP 64049-550 (Brazil); Siqueira, Jose R. [Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Naturais e Educacao, Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba - MG, CEP 38025-180, Brazil (Brazil); Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos - SP, CEP 13560-970 (Brazil); Crespilho, Frank N. [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre - SP, CEP 09210-170 (Brazil); Cantanhede da Silva, Welter, E-mail: welter@ufpi.edu.br [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina - PI, CEP 64049-550 (Brazil)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: {yields} Platforms were assembled from cobalt phthalocyanine, chitosan and carbon nanotubes. {yields} Supramolecular organization of multilayer films was investigated. {yields} Increase of the supramolecular charge transfer after carbon nanotube incorporation. {yields} Functional modulation based on constitutional dynamic chemistry was achieved. - Abstract: The building of supramolecular structures in nanostructured films has been exploited for a number of applications, with the film properties being controlled at the molecular level. In this study, we report on the layer-by-layer (LbL) films combining cobalt (II) tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CoTsPc), chitosan (Chit) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in two architectures, {l_brace}Chit/CoTsPc{r_brace}{sub n} and {l_brace}Chit-SWCNTs/CoTsPc{r_brace}{sub n} (n = 1-10). The physicochemical properties of the films were evaluated and the multilayer formation was monitored with microgravimetry measurements using a quartz microbalance crystal and an electrochemical technique. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM) results, the incorporation of SWCNTs caused the films to be thicker, with a thickness ca. 3 fold that of a 2-bilayer LbL film with no SWCNTs. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a quasi-reversible, one electron process with E{sub 1/2} at -0.65 V (vs SCE) and an irreversible oxidation process at 0.80 V in a physiological medium for both systems, which can be attributed to [CoTsPc(I)]{sup 5-}/[CoTsPc(II)]{sup 4-} and CoTsPc(II) to CoTsPc(III), respectively. The {l_brace}Chit-SWCNTs/CoTsPc{r_brace}{sub 5} multilayer film exhibited an increased faradaic current, probably associated with the supramolecular charge transfer interaction between cobalt phthalocyanine and SWCNTs. The results demonstrate that an intimate contact at the supramolecular level between functional SWCNTs immobilized into biocompatible chitosan polymer and CoTsPc improves the electron flow from CoTsPc redox sites to the

  10. Adsorption of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles within layer-by-layer films: a kinetic study carried out using quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Gustavo B; Paterno, Leonardo G; Afonso, André S; Faria, Ronaldo C; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A; Morais, Paulo C; Soler, Maria A G

    2011-12-28

    The paper reports on the successful use of the quartz crystal microbalance technique to assess accurate kinetics and equilibrium parameters regarding the investigation of in situ adsorption of nanosized cobalt ferrite particles (CoFe(2)O(4)--10.5 nm-diameter) onto two different surfaces. Firstly, a single layer of nanoparticles was deposited onto the surface provided by the gold-coated quartz resonator functionalized with sodium 3-mercapto propanesulfonate (3-MPS). Secondly, the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was used to build multilayers in which the CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle-based layer alternates with the sodium sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) layer. The adsorption experiments were conducted by modulating the number of adsorbed CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS bilayers (n) and/or by changing the CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle concentration while suspended as a stable colloidal dispersion. Adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles onto the 3-MPS-functionalized surface follows perfectly a first order kinetic process in a wide range (two orders of magnitude) of nanoparticle concentrations. These data were used to assess the equilibrium constant and the adsorption free energy. Alternatively, the Langmuir adsorption constant was obtained while analyzing the isotherm data at the equilibrium. Adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles while growing multilayers of CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS was conducted using colloidal suspensions with CoFe(2)O(4) concentration in the range of 10(-8) to 10(-6) (moles of cobalt ferrite per litre) and for different numbers of cycles n = 1, 3, 5, and 10. We found the adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles within the CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS bilayers perfectly following a first order kinetic process, with the characteristic rate constant growing with the increase of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle concentration and decreasing with the rise of the number of LbL cycles (n). Additionally, atomic force microscopy was employed for assessing the LbL film roughness and thickness. We found the film

  11. 功能性层层组装厚膜%Layer-by-Layer Assembled Functional Thick Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙俊奇

    2011-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, which involves alternate deposition of species with complementary groups, has been demonstrated to be a convenient and versatile method to fabricate functional film materials with precise control of the chemical composition and structure. The LbL assembly is usually employed as a method for uhrathin film fabrication. Compared with uhrathin films, the LbL assembled films with micrometer-thickness have the irreplaceable ad- vantages of high loading capacity, enhanced mechanical robustness, convenience in tailoring micro- and nanosealed hierar- chical structures and integrating multiple functions into one film. We demonstrate herein that building blocks with large di- mensions, including polymeric complexes, large-sized inorganic particles and particle aggregates, can be LbL assembled to rapidly fabricate micrometer-thick composite films. Composite films with high loading capacity, self-healing ability, ca- pable of controlling cell adhesion and integrating multiple functions and so forth were rapidly fabricated by LbL assembly of building blocks of large dimensions. Furthermore, the LbL assembled thick films can be exfoliated from substrates to pro- duce highly stable free-standing films, which enrich largely the functionalities of the LbL assembled films.%层层组装是一种基于物质交替沉积而制备复合膜的方法,可以实现膜的结构和组成的精确调控。层层组装通常被认为是超薄膜的构筑方法。与超薄膜相比,微米或亚微米的厚膜更容易实现高的负载、微纳复合结构的调控、多功能集成以及赋予膜更高的稳定性。以作者的研究结果为基础,阐明TN用大尺度的构筑基元,包括聚合物复合物、大尺度的无机粒子以及聚集的粒子,可以方便地实现微米厚度的层层组装膜的快速构筑。以快速构筑的厚膜为功能载体,实现了层层组装膜的自修复、高负载、细胞可控粘附及多功能

  12. Far-Infrared Study of BaTi4O9 Microwave Dielectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianli; Wang, Fuping; Song, Ying

    2006-02-01

    In this work, lattice vibrations in BaTi4O9 ceramic were investigated using far-infrared spectra (FIRS), which were transformed by Kramers-Kronig relations into the real and imaginary parts of permittivity spectra. Curve fitting of reflectance spectra shows that 32 vibration modes were observed, among which transverse vibrations at lower frequencies (stretching and bending vibration modes involving A-site cations and TiO6 octahedra) account for most dielectric loss. An evaluation of dielectric constants and quality factors using an extrapolation method was accomplished. The calculated dielectric constants agree well with the measured ones, while the calculated dielectric losses are about half the measured ones, indicating that noneigen elements such as defects and pores exist and play an important role in BaTi4O9 ceramics. A multimode behavior of vibration modes involving Ba-sites was proposed as the origin of dielectric loss.

  13. Facile Fabrication of 3D Layer-by-layer Graphene-gold Nanorod Hybrid Architecture for Hydrogen Peroxide Based Electrochemical Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Facile fabrication of 3D layer-by-layer graphene-gold nanorod hybrid architecture for hydrogen peroxide based electrochemical biosensor Chenming Xue...the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). 1. Introduction Electrochemical biosensors are highly effective in...measurement techniques such as radioisotope tracing, NMR spectroscopy, and microfluorometry assay [12,25,18]. In recent years, electrochemical biosensors

  14. Successful implementation of the stepwise layer-by-layer growth of MOF thin films on confined surfaces: Mesoporous silica foam as a first case study

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the successful growth of highly crystalline homogeneous MOF thin films of HKUST-1 and ZIF-8 on mesoporous silica foam, by employing a layer-by-layer (LBL) method. The ability to control and direct the growth of MOF thin films on confined surfaces, using the stepwise LBL method, paves the way for new prospective applications of such hybrid systems. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Layer-by-layer growth of CH₃NH₃PbI(3-x)Clx for highly efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Chen, Tao; Dai, Liming

    2015-02-01

    A layer-by-layer approach is developed to prepare uniform and compact CH₃NH₃PbI(3-x)Clx perovskite films for perovskite solar cells with a high efficiency up to 15.12% and an improved stability. Moreover, a record high efficiency of 12.25% is achieved for these flexible perovskite solar cells. This study represents an important step forward in developing high-performance and stable perovskite solar cells.

  16. Multilayer Films Electrodes Consisted of Cashew Gum and Polyaniline Assembled by the Layer-by-Layer Technique: Electrochemical Characterization and Its Use for Dopamine Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Bitencourt Araújo Barros; Cleide Maria da Silva Leite; Ana Cristina Facundo de Brito; José Ribeiro Dos Santos Júnior; Valtencir Zucolotto; Carla Eiras

    2012-01-01

    We take advantage of polyelectrolyte feature exhibited by natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) (CG), found in northeast Brazil, to employ it in the formation of electroactive nanocomposites prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. We used polyaniline unmodified (PANI) or modified with phosphonic acid (PA), PANI-PA as cationic polyelectrolyte. On the other hand, the CG or polyvinyl sulfonic (PVS) acids were used as anionic polyelectrolytes. The films were prepared with PANI ...

  17. Effect of dipping solution pH values on electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly of side-chain azo polyelectrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effect of pH value on the electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly and the photo-responsive behavior of Poly{2-[4-(4-ethoxyphenylazo)phenoxy]ethyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid} (PEAPE) was studied.Results show that in the studied pH value range,the lower the pH value is,the higher is the UV-vis absorbance and the larger is the thickness of the multilayer films.FTIR studies indicate that the azo polyelectrolyte exhibits a different ionization degree in solutions with different pH values.The higher absorbance and the larger thickness of the layer-by-layer films can be attributed to the low ionization degree and the shrinkage conformation of PEAPE in the solution with low pH values.FTIR analysis also confirms that the driving force for layer-by-layer self-assembly of PEAPE and PDAC is the electrostatic interaction.

  18. Immobilization of biomacromolecules on poly-L-lactide surface via a layer-by-layer method for the improving of its cytocompatibility to bone marrow stromal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Delong; MENG Sheng; ZHONG Wei; DU Qiangguo; GONG Li; LIU Jinfen; Dusan Bakos

    2005-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitosan (CS) were immobilized on the surface of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) by the following procedure: Firstly, PLLA was aminolyzed with 1, 6-hexanediamine, and part of the PLLA surface ester groups were converted to free amino groups. Then negatively charged hyaluronic acid and positively charged chitosan were deposited onto the surface of aminolyzed PLLA film in a layer-by-layer assembly manner. The effect of the layer-by- layer deposition was evaluated by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and static contact angle measurements. The cytocompatibility of PLLA sample to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was improved after modification with chitosan and HA. The cell attachment, activity, and proliferation on CS/HA modified PLLA films were enhanced comparing with the control. The cells cultured on the modified PLLA samples excreted abundant cytoplasm and can differentiate to vascular smooth muscle (SM)-like (SM-like) cells. A macroporous three-dimensional PLLA scaffold was prepared by integrating both the technique of freeze-drying and particle leaching. Layer-by-layer modification by HA/CS and cell culture was also applied on this scaffold. The scaffold cultured with BMSCs for 2 weeks has been tested successfully in vivo as a patch for repairing the artificial incision on canine pulmonary artery.

  19. Ni2+-doped new silicate glass-ceramics for broadband near infrared luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Cheng, Yin

    2016-12-01

    The new composite transparent spinel silicate glass-ceramics containing Ni2+-doped ZnGa2O4 and solid solution MgxZn1-xGa2O4 nanocrystals were fabricated by in situ controlled crystallization method. After heat treatment, the crystal phase content of ZnGa2O4 increase with increasing heat treatment temperature, and the Mg2+ ions could enter the crystal lattice of ZnGa2O4 to replace the Zn2+ ions and form a new solid solution MgxZn1-xGa2O4. The coordination environment of Ni2+ was changed from tetrahedral in glasses to octahedral sites in glass ceramics. The super-broadband infrared luminescence with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of about 400 nm overing 1.1-1.7 μm wavelength region and fluorescent lifetime of about 480 μs were observed from the glass ceramics containing MgxZn1-xGa2O4 nanocrystals. It is probably due to the variety of solid solution structure making Ni2+ ions enter two different octahedral sites. At the same time, the impact of heat treatment temperature and the concentration of NiO on peak position and intensity were also discussed. The results demonstrate that the method presented may be an effective way to fabricate super-broadband optical amplifiers and tunable lasers.

  20. Influence of Water Activated by Far infrared Porous Ceramics on Nitrogen Absorption in the Pig Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Junping; Liu, Jie; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Ding, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Under modern and, intensive feeding livestock and poultry density has increased, and brought a deterioration of the farm environment. The livestock and their excrement generate harmful gases such as ammonia, etc. which restricted the sustainable development and improvement of production efficiency of animal husbandry. In this paper, a new kind of far infrared porous ceramics was prepared to activate, the animal drinking water. The activated water and common water were then supplied to pigs, and the fresh pig feces of experimental group and:control group were collected on a regular basis. The residual protein content in feces was tested by Kjeldahl nitrogen method to study the influence law of the porous ceramics on absorbing nitrogen element in animal feces. The results showed that compared with the control group, the protein content in the experimental group decreased on average by 39.2%. The activated drinking water was conducive to the absorption of nitrogen in pig feed. The clusters of water molecules became smaller under the action of the porous ceramics. Hence, they were easy to pass through the water protein channel on the cell membrane for speeding up the metabolism.

  1. Layer-by-Layer Fabrication of Porphyrin Multilayer Films via Copper(I)-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition: Film Properties and Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomaki, Peter Karl Bunk

    Solar energy may be the only renewable source of energy available to the human race that could provide the energy we require while at the same time minimizing negative impacts on the planet and population. These characteristics may be instrumental in diminishing the potential for societal conflict. In order for photovoltaic devices to succeed on a global scale, research and development must lead to reduced costs and/or increased efficiency. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) are one class of nextgeneration photovoltaic technologies with the potential to realize these goals. Herein, I describe efforts towards developing a new light harvesting array of chromophores assembled on oxide substrates using copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC or ‘click’ chemistry) that could prove useful in improving DSCC performance while maintaining low cost and simple fabrication. Specifically, molecular multilayers of porphyrin-based chromophores have been fabricated via sequential selflimiting CuAAC reactions to generate multilayered light harvesting films. Films of synthetic porphyrins, perylenes, and mixtures of the two are constructed in order to highlight the versatility of this molecular layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. Characterization in the form of electrochemical techniques, UV-Visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (IR), and water contact angle all indicate that the films are reacting as expected. Film thickness and morphology are investigated using X-ray reflectivity showing that film growth displays a high degree of linearity, while the roughness increases with thickness. Growth angles based on the porphyrin plane are estimated via a comparison of molecular models and experimentally determined thickness measurements. A more finite measurement of growth angle (and as a result the primary bonding mode) is determined by grazing angle IR spectroscopy. Blocking layer studies suggest that the films could be useful as a self-passivating layer in DSSCs to

  2. Biomimetic layer-by-layer deposition assisted synthesis of Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets with enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Yan, Yong; Hao, Bo; Chen, Ge

    2014-10-07

    In this paper, a Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheet with increased visible light photocatalytic activity was successfully synthesized using a biomimetic layer-by-layer deposition process. The polymer, branched-polyethyleneimine (b-PEI) was used as an induction agent for the hydrolysis of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) as well as for a nitrogen resource, and the graphene oxide (GO) was used as a two-dimensional nano-template. The positively charged b-PEI will bind to the negatively charged GO and titania. In a typical layer-by-layer deposition process, GO nanosheets are exposed in an alternating fashion to aqueous b-PEI, CuCl2 and Ti-BALDH solutions, thus, making the layer-by-layer deposition of a conformal b-PEI/Cu-Ti-O coating on the GO. Subsequent b-PEI and GO pyrolysis at 550 °C under air yielded Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets. The materials obtained were comprehensively investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectra, photoluminescence spectra and electron paramagnetic resonance. The Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets showed obviously enhanced photocatalytic activity which was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. This research might provide some new insights for the "green synthesis" of the simultaneous doping of two kinds of foreign atoms into TiO2 with controlled morphology and photocatalytic properties.

  3. Mesoporous layer-by-layer ordered nanohybrids of layered double hydroxide and layered metal oxide: highly active visible light photocatalysts with improved chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjakar, Jayavant L; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, Hyo Na; Kim, In Young; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2011-09-28

    Mesoporous layer-by-layer ordered nanohybrids highly active for visible light-induced O(2) generation are synthesized by self-assembly between oppositely charged 2D nanosheets of Zn-Cr-layered double hydroxide (Zn-Cr-LDH) and layered titanium oxide. The layer-by-layer ordering of two kinds of 2D nanosheets is evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution-transmission electron microscopy. Upon the interstratification process, the original in-plane atomic arrangements and electronic structures of the component nanosheets remain intact. The obtained heterolayered nanohybrids show a strong absorption of visible light and a remarkably depressed photoluminescence signal, indicating an effective electronic coupling between the two component nanosheets. The self-assembly between 2D inorganic nanosheets leads to the formation of highly porous stacking structure, whose porosity is controllable by changing the ratio of layered titanate/Zn-Cr-LDH. The resultant heterolayered nanohybrids are fairly active for visible light-induced O(2) generation with a rate of ∼1.18 mmol h(-1) g(-1), which is higher than the O(2) production rate (∼0.67 mmol h(-1) g(-1)) by the pristine Zn-Cr-LDH material, that is, one of the most effective visible light photocatalysts for O(2) production, under the same experimental condition. This result highlights an excellent functionality of the Zn-Cr-LDH-layered titanate nanohybrids as efficient visible light active photocatalysts. Of prime interest is that the chemical stability of the Zn-Cr-LDH is significantly improved upon the hybridization, a result of the protection of the LDH lattice by highly stable titanate layer. The present findings clearly demonstrate that the layer-by-layer-ordered assembly between inorganic 2D nanosheets is quite effective not only in improving the photocatalytic activity of the component semiconductors but also in synthesizing novel porous LDH-based hybrid materials with improved chemical

  4. Interrogating chemical variation via layer-by-layer SERS during biofouling and cleaning of nanofiltration membranes with further investigations into cleaning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li; Chen, Pengyu; Zhang, Bifeng; Zhang, Dayi; Li, Junyi; Martin, Francis L; Zhang, Kaisong

    2015-12-15

    Periodic chemical cleaning is an essential step to maintain nanofiltration (NF) membrane performance and mitigate biofouling, a major impediment in high-quality water reclamation from wastewater effluent. To target the important issue of how to clean and control biofouling more efficiently, this study developed surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a layer-by-layer tool to interrogate the chemical variations during both biofouling and cleaning processes. The fact that SERS only reveals information on the surface composition of biofouling directly exposed to cleaning reagents makes it ideal for evaluating cleaning processes and efficiency. SERS features were highly distinct and consistent with different biofouling stages (bacterial adhesion, rapid growth, mature and aged biofilm). Cleaning was performed on two levels of biofouling after 18 h (rapid growth of biofilm) and 48 h (aged biofilm) development. An opposing profile of SERS bands between biofouling and cleaning was observed and this suggests a layer-by-layer cleaning mode. In addition, further dynamic biochemical and infrastructural changes were demonstrated to occur in the more severe 48-h biofouling, resulting in the easier removal of sessile cells from the NF membrane. Biofouling substance-dependent cleaning efficiency was also evaluated using the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS appeared more efficient in cleaning lipid than polysaccharide and DNA. Protein and DNA were the predominant residual substances (irreversible fouling) on NF membrane leading to permanent flux loss. The chemical information revealed by layer-by-layer SERS will lend new insights into the optimization of cleaning reagents and protocols for practical membrane processes.

  5. Recent developments in the layer-by-layer assembly of polyaniline and carbon nanomaterials for energy storage and sensing applications. From synthetic aspects to structural and functional characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmisollé, Waldemar A.; Azzaroni, Omar

    2016-05-01

    The construction of hybrid polymer-inorganic nanoarchitectures for electrochemical purposes based on the layer-by-layer assembly of conducting polymers and carbon nanomaterials has become increasingly popular over the last decade. This explosion of interest is primarily related to the increasing mastery in the design of supramolecular constructs using simple wet chemical approaches. Concomitantly, this continuous research activity paved the way to the rapid development of nanocomposites or ``nanoblends'' readily integrable into energy storage and sensing devices. In this sense, the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique has allowed us to access three-dimensional (3D) multicomponent carbon-based network nanoarchitectures displaying addressable electrical, electrochemical and transport properties in which conducting polymers, such as polyaniline, and carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes or nanographene, play unique roles without disrupting their inherent functions - complementary entities coexisting in harmony. Over the last few years the level of functional sophistication reached by LbL-assembled carbon-based 3D network nanoarchitectures, and the level of knowledge related to how to design, fabricate and optimize the properties of these 3D nanoconstructs have advanced enormously. This feature article presents and discusses not only the recent advances but also the emerging challenges in complex hybrid nanoarchitectures that result from the layer-by-layer assembly of polyaniline, a quintessential conducting polymer, and diverse carbon nanomaterials. This is a rapidly developing research area, and this work attempts to provide an overview of the diverse 3D network nanoarchitectures prepared up to now. The importance of materials processing and LbL integration is explored within each section and while the overall emphasis is on energy storage and sensing applications, the most widely-used synthetic strategies and characterization methods for ``nanoblend

  6. Layer-by-Layer CdS-Modified TiO2 Film Electrodes for Enhancing the Absorption and Energy Conversion Efficiency of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A layer-by-layer assemble method was used to fabricate CdS quantum dots (QDs sensitized electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM have been utilized to characterize the samples. The absorption spectra and photovoltaic measurement confirmed that much more effective deposition of QDs in TiO2 matrix and much better power conversion performance were achieved for these multilayer electrodes compared with the ones fabricated by traditional single-layer assembly method.

  7. Electrostatic Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polycation and DNA Multilayer Films by Real-time Surface Plasmon ResonanceTechnique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI, Ren-Jun; CUI, Xiao-Qiang; YANG, Xiu-Rong; WANG, Er-Kang

    2001-01-01

    The assembly of alternating DNA and positively charged poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) (PDDA) multilayer films by electrostatic layer-by-layer adsorption has been studied.Real time surface plasmon resonance (BIAcore) technique was used to characterize and monitor the formation of multilayer films in solution in real time continuously. The results indicate that the uniform multilayer can be obtained on the poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) coated substrate surface. The kinetics of the adsorption of DNA on PDDA surface was also studied by real-time BIAcore technique, and the observed rate constant was calculated using a Langmuir model (kobs= (1.28±0.08) ×10-2 s-1).

  8. Reducing Water Vapor Permeability of Poly(lactic acid Film and Bottle through Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Green-Processed Cellulose Nanocrystals and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Halász

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly technique was applied to improve the barrier properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA films and bottles. The LbL process was carried out by the alternate adsorption of chitosan (CH (polycation and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC produced via ultrasonic treatment. Four bilayers (on each side of chitosan and cellulose nanocrystals caused 29 and 26% improvement in barrier properties in case of films and bottles, respectively. According to the results the LbL process with CH and CNC offered a transparent “green” barrier coating on PLA substrates.

  9. Preparation and Layer-by-Layer Solution Deposition of Cu(In,Ga)O2 Nanoparticles with Conversion to Cu(In,Ga)S2 Films

    OpenAIRE

    Dressick, Walter J; Soto, Carissa M.; Jake Fontana; Baker, Colin C.; Myers, Jason D.; Jesse A Frantz; Woohong Kim

    2014-01-01

    We present a method of Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) thin film formation via conversion of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled Cu-In-Ga oxide (CIGO) nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes. CIGO nanoparticles were created via a novel flame-spray pyrolysis method using metal nitrate precursors, subsequently coated with polyallylamine (PAH), and dispersed in aqueous solution. Multilayer films were assembled by alternately dipping quartz, Si, and/or Mo substrates into a solution of either polydopamine (PDA) or polys...

  10. Layer-by-layer growth of high-optical-quality ZnO film on atomically smooth and lattice relaxed ZnO buffer layer

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The growth mode of ZnO thin films can be well regulated in a molecular layer-by-layer growth by employing a ZnO buffer layer deposited on a lattice-matched ScAlMgO4 substrate and annealed at high temperature. The annealed buffer layer has atomically flat surface and relaxed (strain-free) crystal structure. The intensity oscillation of reflection high-energy electron diffraction persisted for more than a 100-nm film deposition under optimized conditions on such a buffer layer. Thus prepared th...

  11. Metallic layer-by-layer photonic crystals for linearly-polarized thermal emission and thermophotovoltaic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P.

    2016-07-26

    Metallic thermal emitters consisting of two layers of differently structured nickel gratings on a homogeneous nickel layer are fabricated by soft lithography and studied for polarized thermal radiation. A thermal emitter in combination with a sub-wavelength grating shows a high extinction ratio, with a maximum value close to 5, in a wide mid-infrared range from 3.2 to 7.8 .mu.m, as well as high emissivity up to 0.65 at a wavelength of 3.7 .mu.m. All measurements show good agreement with theoretical predictions. Numerical simulations reveal that a high electric field exists within the localized air space surrounded by the gratings and the intensified electric-field is only observed for the polarizations perpendicular to the top sub-wavelength grating. This result suggests how the emissivity of a metal can be selectively enhanced at a certain range of wavelengths for a given polarization.

  12. Bioinspired, roughness-induced, water and oil super-philic and super-phobic coatings prepared by adaptable layer-by-layer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-09-01

    Coatings with specific surface wetting properties are of interest for anti-fouling, anti-fogging, anti-icing, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, and oil-water separation applications. Many previous bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. Here, a layer-by-layer technique is utilized to create coatings with four combinations of water and oil repellency and affinity. An adapted layer-by-layer approach is tailored to yield specific surface properties, resulting in a durable, functional coating. This technique provides necessary flexibility to improve substrate adhesion combined with desirable surface chemistry. Polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and silane or fluorosurfactant layers are deposited, combining surface roughness and necessary chemistry to result in four different coatings: superhydrophilic/superoleophilic, superhydrophobic/superoleophilic, superhydrophobic/superoleophobic, and superhydrophilic/superoleophobic. The superoleophobic coatings display hexadecane contact angles >150° with tilt angles 160° with tilt angles <2°. One coating combines both oleophobic and hydrophobic properties, whilst others mix and match oil and water repellency and affinity. Coating durability was examined through the use of micro/macrowear experiments. These coatings display transparency acceptable for some applications. Fabrication via this novel combination of techniques results in durable, functional coatings displaying improved performance compared to existing work where either durability or functionality is compromised.

  13. Peptide isolated from Cry1Ab16 toxin present in Bacillus thuringiensis: Synthesis and morphology data for layer-by-layer films studied by atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Plácido

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The peptide PcL342-354C was obtained from the Cry1Ab16 toxin present in Bacillus thuringiensis (“Computational Modeling Deduced Three Dimensional Structure of Cry1Ab16 Toxin from B. thuringiensis AC11” (Kashyap, 2012 [1]. In this data article, we report the synthesis and characterization of the PcL342-354C peptide by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. In addition, the preparation of layer-by-layer films is shown based on interspersion of this peptide with both polyethylenimine (PEI and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (PSS, self-assembled on ITO (indium tin oxide electrodes. The morphology of the ITO/PEI/PSS/PcL342-354C film was analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM. We also evaluated the effect of the number of bilayers in ITO/PEI/(PSS/PcL342-354Cn on the morphology of the film using AFM amplitude images. Further details about this study were published elsewhere, “Layer-by-layer films containing peptides of the Cry1Ab16 toxin from B. thuringiensis for potential biotechnological applications,” (Plácido et al., 2016 [2].

  14. In vivo efficacy studies of layer-by-layer nano-matrix bearing kaempferol for the conditions of osteoporosis: a study in ovariectomized rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avinash; Gupta, Girish K; Khedgikar, Vikram; Gautam, Jyoti; Kushwaha, Priyanka; Changkija, Bendangla; Nagar, Geet K; Gupta, Varsha; Verma, Ashwni; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan; Trivedi, Ritu

    2012-11-01

    A prototype formulation based on layer-by-layer (LbL) nano-matrix was developed to increase bioavailability of kaempferol with improved retention in bone marrow to achieve enhanced bone formation. The layer-by-layer nano-matrix was prepared by sequential adsorption of biocompatible polyelectrolytes over the preformed kaempferol-loaded CaCO(3) template. The system was pharmaceutically characterized and evaluated for osteogenic activity in ovariectomized (OVx) rats. Data have been compared to the standard osteogenic agent parathyroid hormone (PTH). Single oral dose of kaempferol loaded LbL nano-matrix formulation increased bioavailability significantly compared to unformulated kaempferol. Three months of Formulated kaempferol administration to osteopenic rats increased plasma and bone marrow Kaempferol levels by 2.8- and 1.75-fold, respectively, compared to free Kaempferol. Formulated Kaempferol increased bone marrow osteoprogenitor cells, osteogenic genes in femur, bone formation rate, and improved trabecular micro-architecture. Withdrawal of Formulated kaempferol-in OVx rats resulted in the maintenance of bone micro-architecture up to 30days, whereas micro-architectural deterioration was readily observed in OVx rats treated with unformulated kaempferol-within 15days of withdrawal. The developed novel formulation has enhanced anabolic effect in osteopenic rats through increased stimulatory effect in osteoblasts. Treatment post-withdrawal sustenance of formulated kaempferol could become a strategy to enhance bioavailability of flavanoids.

  15. Interrogating the superconductor Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2-xPtxAs2)5 Layer-by-layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisun; Nam, Hyoungdo; Li, Guorong; Karki, A. B.; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Yimei; Shih, Chih-Kang; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E. W.

    2016-10-01

    Ever since the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in layered cuprates, the roles that individual layers play have been debated, due to difficulty in layer-by-layer characterization. While there is similar challenge in many Fe-based layered superconductors, the newly-discovered Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2As2)5 provides opportunities to explore superconductivity layer by layer, because it contains both superconducting building blocks (Fe2As2 layers) and intermediate Pt4As8 layers. Cleaving a single crystal under ultra-high vacuum results in multiple terminations: an ordered Pt4As8 layer, two reconstructed Ca layers on the top of a Pt4As8 layer, and disordered Ca layer on the top of Fe2As2 layer. The electronic properties of individual layers are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), which reveals different spectra for each surface. Remarkably superconducting coherence peaks are seen only on the ordered Ca/Pt4As8 layer. Our results indicate that an ordered structure with proper charge balance is required in order to preserve superconductivity.

  16. Peptide isolated from Cry1Ab16 toxin present in Bacillus thuringiensis: Synthesis and morphology data for layer-by-layer films studied by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plácido, Alexandra; de Oliveira Farias, Emanuel Airton; Marani, Mariela M; Gomes Vasconcelos, Andreanne; Leite, José R S A; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The peptide PcL342-354C was obtained from the Cry1Ab16 toxin present in Bacillus thuringiensis ("Computational Modeling Deduced Three Dimensional Structure of Cry1Ab16 Toxin from B. thuringiensis AC11" (Kashyap, 2012) [1]). In this data article, we report the synthesis and characterization of the PcL342-354C peptide by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. In addition, the preparation of layer-by-layer films is shown based on interspersion of this peptide with both polyethylenimine (PEI) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), self-assembled on ITO (indium tin oxide) electrodes. The morphology of the ITO/PEI/PSS/PcL342-354C film was analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We also evaluated the effect of the number of bilayers in ITO/PEI/(PSS/PcL342-354C) n on the morphology of the film using AFM amplitude images. Further details about this study were published elsewhere, "Layer-by-layer films containing peptides of the Cry1Ab16 toxin from B. thuringiensis for potential biotechnological applications," (Plácido et al., 2016) [2].

  17. A VEGF delivery system targeting MI improves angiogenesis and cardiac function based on the tropism of MSCs and layer-by-layer self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ge; Li, Li; Huo, Da; Li, Yanzhao; Wu, Yangxiao; Zeng, Lingqing; Cheng, Panke; Xing, Malcolm; Zeng, Wen; Zhu, Chuhong

    2017-05-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a serious ischemic condition affecting many individuals around the world. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered a promising factor for enhancing cardiac function by promoting angiogenesis. However, the lack of a suitable method of VEGF delivery to the MI area is a serious challenge. In this study, we screened a suitable delivery carrier with favorable biocompatibility that targeted the MI area using the strategy of an inherent structure derived from the body and that was based on characteristics of the MI. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important infiltrating cells that are derived from blood and have an inherent tropism for the MI zone. We hypothesized that VEGF-encapsulated MSCs targeting MI tissue could improve cardiac function by angiogenesis based on the tropism of the MSCs to the MI area. We first developed VEGF-encapsulated MSCs using self-assembled gelatin and alginate polyelectrolytes to improve angiogenesis and cardiac function. In vitro, the results showed that VEGF-encapsulated MSCs had a sustained release of VEGF and tropism to SDF-1. In vivo, VEGF-encapsulated MSCs migrated to the MI area, enhanced cardiac function, perfused the infarcted area and promoted angiogenesis. These preclinical findings suggest that VEGF-loaded layer-by-layer self-assembled encapsulated MSCs may be a promising and minimally invasive therapy for treating MI. Furthermore, other drugs loaded to layer-by-layer self-assembled encapsulated MSCs may be promising therapies for treating other diseases.

  18. Interrogating the superconductor Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2-xPtxAs2)5 Layer-by-layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisun; Nam, Hyoungdo; Li, Guorong; Karki, A B; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Yimei; Shih, Chih-Kang; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E W

    2016-10-14

    Ever since the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in layered cuprates, the roles that individual layers play have been debated, due to difficulty in layer-by-layer characterization. While there is similar challenge in many Fe-based layered superconductors, the newly-discovered Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2As2)5 provides opportunities to explore superconductivity layer by layer, because it contains both superconducting building blocks (Fe2As2 layers) and intermediate Pt4As8 layers. Cleaving a single crystal under ultra-high vacuum results in multiple terminations: an ordered Pt4As8 layer, two reconstructed Ca layers on the top of a Pt4As8 layer, and disordered Ca layer on the top of Fe2As2 layer. The electronic properties of individual layers are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), which reveals different spectra for each surface. Remarkably superconducting coherence peaks are seen only on the ordered Ca/Pt4As8 layer. Our results indicate that an ordered structure with proper charge balance is required in order to preserve superconductivity.

  19. Promoting the selection and maintenance of fetal liver stem/progenitor cell colonies by layer-by-layer polypeptide tethered supported lipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Chi; Liu, Yung-Chiang; Tsai, Hsuan-Ang; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2014-12-10

    In this study, we designed and constructed a series of layer-by-layer polypeptide adsorbed supported lipid bilayer (SLB) films as a novel and label-free platform for the isolation and maintenance of rare populated stem cells. In particular, four alternative layers of anionic poly-l-glutamic acid and cationic poly-l-lysine were sequentially deposited on an anionic SLB. We found that the fetal liver stem/progenitor cells from the primary culture were selected and formed colonies on all layer-by-layer polypeptide adsorbed SLB surfaces, regardless of the number of alternative layers and the net charges on those layers. Interestingly, these isolated stem/progenitor cells formed colonies which were maintained for an 8 day observation period. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation measurements showed that all SLB-polypeptide films were protein resistant with serum levels significantly lower than those on the polypeptide multilayer films without an underlying SLB. We suggest the fluidic SLB promotes selective binding while minimizing the cell-surface interaction due to its nonfouling nature, thus limiting stem cell colonies from spreading.

  20. Anatase TiO2 pillar-nanoparticle composite fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoliang; Pan, Kai; Zhou, Wei; Qu, Yang; Pan, Qingjing; Jiang, Baojiang; Tian, Guohui; Wang, Guofeng; Xie, Ying; Dong, Youzhen; Miao, Xiaohuan; Tian, Chungui

    2012-11-07

    The anatase TiO(2) pillar (PL)-TiO(2) nanoparticle (NP) composite is fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly. The composition of the nanostructures (i.e. the pillar-to-nanoparticle ratio) can be conveniently tuned by controlling the experimental conditions of the layer-by-layer assembly. It has been used to fabricate photoelectrodes for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which combine the advantages of the rapid electron transport in PLs with the high surface area of NPs. It was found that, with optimum preparation conditions, DSSCs with the composite photoelectrode show a better photoelectrical conversion efficiency (8.06%) than those with either the naked PL photoelectrode or the mechanically mixed PL-NP photoelectrode. This is explained by the photoelectron injection drive force and the interfacial electron transport of the DSSCs, which are quantitatively characterized using the surface photovoltage spectra and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. It is evident that the DSSC with the optimal PL/NP ratio displays the largest photoelectron injection drive force and the fastest interfacial electron transfer.

  1. Capillary flow layer-by-layer: a microfluidic platform for the high-throughput assembly and screening of nanolayered film libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Steven A; Li, Wei; Deng, Di; Mayner, Sarah; Hammond, Paula T

    2014-07-22

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a powerful tool with increasing real world applications in energy, biomaterials, active surfaces, and membranes; however, the current state of the art requires individual sample construction using large quantities of material. Here we describe a technique using capillary flow within a microfluidic device to drive high-throughput assembly of LbL film libraries. This capillary flow layer-by-layer (CF-LbL) method significantly reduces material waste, improves quality control, and expands the potential applications of LbL into new research spaces. The method can be operated as a simple lab benchtop apparatus or combined with liquid-handling robotics to extend the library size. Here we describe and demonstrate the technique and establish its ability to recreate and expand on the known literature for film growth and morphology. We use the same platform to assay biological properties such as cell adhesion and proliferation and ultimately provide an example of the use of this approach to identify LbL films for surface-based DNA transfection of commonly used cell types.

  2. Bioinspired, roughness-induced, water and oil super-philic and super-phobic coatings prepared by adaptable layer-by-layer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Coatings with specific surface wetting properties are of interest for anti-fouling, anti-fogging, anti-icing, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, and oil-water separation applications. Many previous bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. Here, a layer-by-layer technique is utilized to create coatings with four combinations of water and oil repellency and affinity. An adapted layer-by-layer approach is tailored to yield specific surface properties, resulting in a durable, functional coating. This technique provides necessary flexibility to improve substrate adhesion combined with desirable surface chemistry. Polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and silane or fluorosurfactant layers are deposited, combining surface roughness and necessary chemistry to result in four different coatings: superhydrophilic/superoleophilic, superhydrophobic/superoleophilic, superhydrophobic/superoleophobic, and superhydrophilic/superoleophobic. The superoleophobic coatings display hexadecane contact angles >150° with tilt angles 160° with tilt angles oleophobic and hydrophobic properties, whilst others mix and match oil and water repellency and affinity. Coating durability was examined through the use of micro/macrowear experiments. These coatings display transparency acceptable for some applications. Fabrication via this novel combination of techniques results in durable, functional coatings displaying improved performance compared to existing work where either durability or functionality is compromised. PMID:26353971

  3. Protein-enabled layer-by-layer syntheses of aligned, porous-wall, high-aspect-ratio TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrigan, John D.; Cai, Ye; Sandhage, Kenneth H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Air Force Center of Excellence on Bio-Nano-Enabled Inorganic/Organic Nanocomposites and Improved Cognition (BIONIC), Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (United States); Kang, Tae-Sik; Deneault, James R.; Durstock, Michael F. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 45433-7702 (United States)

    2011-05-10

    An aqueous, protein-enabled (biomimetic), layer-by-layer titania deposition process is developed, for the first time, to convert aligned-nanochannel templates into high-aspect-ratio, aligned nanotube arrays with thin (34 nm) walls composed of co-continuous networks of pores and titania nanocrystals (15 nm ave. size). Alumina templates with aligned open nanochannels are exposed in an alternating fashion to aqueous protamine-bearing and titania precursor-bearing (Ti(IV) bis-ammonium-lactato-dihydroxide, TiBALDH) solutions. The ability of protamine to bind to alumina and titania, and to induce the formation of a Ti-O-bearing coating upon exposure to the TiBALDH precursor, enables the layer-by-layer deposition of a conformal protamine/Ti-O-bearing coating on the nanochannel surfaces within the porous alumina template. Subsequent protamine pyrolysis yields coatings composed of co-continuous networks of pores and titania nanoparticles. Selective dissolution of the underlying alumina template through the porous coating then yields freestanding, aligned, porous-wall titania nanotube arrays. The interconnected pores within the nanotube walls allow enhanced loading of functional molecules (such as a Ru-based N719 dye), whereas the interconnected titania nanoparticles enable the high-aspect-ratio, aligned nanotube arrays to be used as electrodes (as demonstrated for dye-sensitized solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 5.2 {+-} 0.4%). (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. 3D features of modified photostructurable glass-ceramic with infrared femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pradas, J. M.; Serrano, D.; Bosch, S.; Morenza, J. L.; Serra, P.

    2011-04-01

    The exclusive ability of laser radiation to be focused inside transparent materials makes lasers a unique tool to process inner parts of them unreachable with other techniques. Hence, laser direct-write can be used to create 3D structures inside bulk materials. Infrared femtosecond lasers are especially indicated for this purpose because a multiphoton process is usually required for absorption and high resolution can be attained. This work studies the modifications produced by 450 fs laser pulses at 1027 nm wavelength focused inside a photostructurable glass-ceramic (Foturan ®) at different depths. Irradiated samples were submitted to standard thermal treatment and subsequent soaking in HF solution to form the buried microchannels and thus unveil the modified material. The voxel dimensions of modified material depend on the laser pulse energy and the depth at which the laser is focused. Spherical aberration and self-focusing phenomena are required to explain the observed results.

  5. The use of layer by layer self-assembled coatings of hyaluronic acid and cationized gelatin to improve the biocompatibility of poly(ethylene terephthalate) artificial ligaments for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Shurong; Jiang, Jia; Tao, Hongyue; Xu, Jialing; Sun, Jianguo; Zhong, Wei; Chen, Shiyi

    2012-11-01

    In this study layer by layer (LBL) self-assembled coatings of hyaluronic acid (HA) and cationized gelatin (CG) were used to modify polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament grafts. Changes in the surface properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and contact angle and biomechanical measurements. The cell compatibility of this HA-CG coating was investigated in vitro on PET films seeded with human foreskin dermal fibroblasts over 7days. The results of our in vitro studies demonstrated that the HA-CG coating significantly enhanced cell adhesion, facilitated cell growth, and suppressed the expression of inflammation-related genes relative to a pure PET graft. Furthermore, rabbit and porcine anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction models were used to evaluate the effect of this LBL coating in vivo. The animal experiment results proved that this LBL coating significantly inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration and promoted new ligament tissue regeneration among the graft fibers. In addition, the formation of type I collagen in the HA-CG coating group was much higher than in the control group. Based on these results we conclude that PET grafts coated with HA-CG have considerable potential as substitutes for ligament reconstruction.

  6. Application of liposome-encapsulated ceramic phoshpors for cancer cell imaging under near infrared excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Hirotada; Otsuka, Hiroko; Tashiro, Fumio [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Tokuzen, Kimikazu; Soga, Kohei, E-mail: hakiyama@rs.noda.tus.ac.j [Polyscale Technology Research Center, Tokyo University of Science (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    Bioimaging with fluorescent probes is used as an invaluable tool in a biomedical field both in vivo and in vitro. However, organic dyes have some problems such as photo-breaching and cytotoxicity due to short wavelength with high quantum energy. Recently, a new approach using rare-earth-doped ceramic nanophosphors (RED-CNP) shows that fluorescence from RED-CNP in both visible (upconversion) and near infrared (NIR) wavelength region under NIR excitation is available for bioimaging. In order to efficiently introduce the RED-CNP into cancer cells, in this study we have developed a lipid nano-particles of liposome-encapsulated erbium (Er) ion-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (lipo-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Cationic lipo-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} could clearly visualize the intracellular region of human hepatocellular carcinoma Huh-7 cells by a fluorescence microscope measurements equipped with near-infrared excitation source scanning. The results imply that the lipo-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} would potentially be useful material for imaging of cancer cells. The embedded Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the liposome having cancer-specific ligands and/or antibodies on its surface should have a great potential for cancer cell imaging in general in living subjects.

  7. Disposable amperometric immunosensor based on layer-by-layer electro-depositing of the nanogold particles, prussian blue-modified indium tin oxide for determination of -fetoprotein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan Li; Wen-Bin Liang; Li-Chao Fang; Hui Huang; Jun Deng; Jun-Song Zheng

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, a novel disposable immunosensor for the detection of -fetoprotein (AFP) based on the Indium tin oxide (ITO) modified by the sequential electro-deposition of the nanogold particles (nano-Au) and prussian blue (PB) is described. The ITO is employed to reduce the cost, instead of expensive gold electrode, glassy carbon electrode or platinum electrode. The layer-by-layer (LBL) electro-deposition of the nano-Au, PB is used for blocking the possible leakage from the substrate electrode surface and to prevent shedding of composite membrane. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor displays a broad linear response to AFP, the working range being 0.25 to 300.0 ng mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.04 ng mL-1. The studied immunosensor exhibits high sensitivity, fast analytical time and good stability. The proposed methodology is potentially attractive for clinical immunoassays.

  8. Colloidal Gold--Collagen Protein Core--Shell Nanoconjugate: One-Step Biomimetic Synthesis, Layer-by-Layer Assembled Film, and Controlled Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ruirui; Jiao, Tifeng; Yan, Linyin; Ma, Guanghui; Liu, Lei; Dai, Luru; Li, Junbai; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yan, Xuehai

    2015-11-11

    The biogenic synthesis of biomolecule-gold nanoconjugates is of key importance for a broad range of biomedical applications. In this work, a one-step, green, and condition-gentle strategy is presented to synthesize stable colloidal gold-collagen core-shell nanoconjugates in an aqueous solution at room temperature, without use of any reducing agents and stabilizing agents. It is discovered that electrostatic binding between gold ions and collagen proteins and concomitant in situ reduction by hydroxyproline residues are critically responsible for the formation of the core-shell nanoconjugates. The film formed by layer-by-layer assembly of such colloidal gold-collagen nanoconjugates can notably improve the mechanical properties and promote cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation. Thus, the colloidal gold-collagen nanoconjugates synthesized by such a straightforward and clean manner, analogous to a biomineralization pathway, provide new alternatives for developing biologically based hybrid biomaterials toward a range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  9. Self-Assembled Film of Tb3+ and Poly(3-Thiophene Acetic Acid) via Layer-by-Layer Complexation Technique and Its Photoluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛颢; 李富友; 黄岩谊; 黄春辉

    2002-01-01

    The layer-by-layer complexation technique of polymer and metal ion was successfully utilized to fabricate the ultrathin multilayer film of poly(3-thiophene acetic acid (PTAA) and Tb3+ ion by dipping the substrates alternatively in polymer and Tb3+ ion aqueous solutions. UV-vis measurement revealed that the absorbance has linearity with the bilayer number from layer to layer and the X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) confirmed the existence of Tb3+ ion. The pH of both the polymer and TbCl3 solutions influence the thickness dramatically while the concentration of the solutions is not so sensitive. The luminescent spectrum of the complex film shows the characteristic emission of Tb3+ ion as well as the ligand indicating the formation of the complex.

  10. Membranes with well-defined ions transport channels fabricated via solvent-responsive layer-by-layer assembly method for vanadium flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanxing; Li, Xianfeng; Cao, Jingyu; Zhang, Hongzhang; Zhang, Huamin

    2014-02-06

    In this work we presented a general strategy for the fabrication of membranes with well-defined ions transport channels through solvent-responsive layer-by-layer assembly (SR-LBL). Multilayered poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) complexes were first introduced on the inner pore wall and the surface of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone)/poly (ether sulfone) (PES/SPEEK) nanofiltration membranes to form ions transport channels with tuned radius. This type of membranes are highly efficient for the separators of batteries especially vanadium flow batteries (VFBs): the VFBs assembled with prepared membranes exhibit an outstanding performance in a wide current density range, which is much higher than that assembled with commercial Nafion 115 membranes. This idea could inspire the development of membranes for other flow battery systems, as well as create further progress in similar areas such as fuel cells, electro-dialysis, chlor-alkali cells, water electrolysis and so on.

  11. Caracterização por espectroscopia vibracional de filmes Layer-by-Layer contendo ftalocianina, polímeros condutores e gomas naturais

    OpenAIRE

    Kitagawa, Igor Lebedenco [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Esta dissertação apresenta o estudo do crescimento (em escala nanométrica) e morfológica (em escala micrométrica) de filmes finos fabricados segundo a técnica Layer-by-Layer (LbL) contendo ftalocianina tetrasulfonada de níquel, polímeros condutores, o polímero poli(alilamina hidroclorada) (PAH), e gomas naturais. Três sistemas foram investigados: i) filmes LbL de NiTsPc e PAH; ii) filme LbL de NiTsPc, PAH e gomas naturais e iii) filmes LbL dos polímeros condutores polianilina (PANI) e poli(o-...

  12. Layer-by-layer assembled graphene-coated mesoporous SnO2 spheres as anodes for advanced Li-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    We report layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of graphene/carbon-coated mesoporous SnO2 spheres (Gr/C-SnO2 spheres), without binder and conducting additives, as anode materials with excellent Li-ion insertion-extraction properties. Our results indicate that these novel LBL assembled electrodes have high reversible Li storage capacity, improved cycling, and especially good rate performance, even at high specific currents. The superior electrochemical performance offered by these LBL assembled Gr/C-SnO2 spheres is attributed to the enhanced electronic conductivity and effective diffusion of Li ions in the interconnected network of nanoparticles forming the mesoporous SnO2 spheres. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Layer-By-Layer Assembled Hybrid Film of Carbon Nanotubes/Iron Oxide Nanocrystals for Reagentless Electrochemical Detection of H2O2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yuqing; Wang, Hua; Shao, Yuyan; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-04-01

    A new approach to construct a reagentless H2O2 electrochemical sensor is described. Iron oxide magnetic nanocystals (IOMNs), as peroxidase mimetics, were employed to assemble a multilayer structure layer by layer. Polythionin was electrodeposited onto the glassy carbon electrode surface to introduce amino groups. Carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes, amino functionalized IOMNs, and thionin monomers were anchored onto a polythionin-functionalized GC surface in order by carbodiimide or glutaraldehyde chemistry. The resulting multilayer construction with three layers of IOMNs and thionin mediator exhibits excellent electrochemical response to the reduction of H2O2, whereas such a modified electrode with one layer construction only yields a slight response to H2O2 of the same concentration. The tethered MWCNs enlarge the amount of immobilized IOMNs and effectively shuttle electrons between the electrode and the thionin.

  14. Layer by layer assembly of albumin nanoparticles with selective recognition of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Wang, Anhe; Zhao, Jie; Yang, Xiaoke; Cai, Peng; Li, Junbai

    2016-03-01

    Crosslinked albumin nanoparticles which loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) were fabricated with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and biocompatible polysaccharide, alginate (ALG), using layer-by-layer technique. Albumin nanoparticles exhibited narrow size distribution and fluorescent property. The assembled core/shell structure of the nanoparticles can be internalized more easily with the cancer cells, which attributes to TRAIL binding with death receptors. TRAIL still hold bioactive properties after assembled onto the particles. In addition, after loaded into the albumin core nanoparticles, DOX (as the chemotherapeutics) display a synergistic cytotoxic effect on cytotoxicity in combination with TRAIL in vitro. The core/shell nanostructured nanoparticles realized in this study would be used as a promising candidate for novel drug carriers.

  15. Controlled assembly of layer-by-layer stacking continuous graphene oxide films and their application for actively modulated field electron emission cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; She, Juncong; Yang, Wenjie; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2014-03-01

    A featured ``vapor transportation'' assembly technique was developed to attain layer-by-layer stacking continuous graphene oxide (GO) films on both flat and concavo-concave surfaces. Few-layer (layer number MOSFET). The field emission current of the GO cathode can be precisely controlled by the MOSFET gate voltage (VGS). A current modulation range from 1 × 10-10 A to 6.9 × 10-6 A (4 orders of magnitude) was achieved by tuning the VGS from 0.812 V to 1.728 V. Due to the self-acting positive feedback of the MOSFET, the emission current fluctuation was dramatically reduced from 57.4% (non-control) to 3.4% (controlled). Furthermore, the integrated GO cathode was employed for a lab-prototype display pixel application demonstrating the active modulation of the phosphor luminance, i.e. from 0.01 cd m-2 to 34.18 cd m-2.

  16. Nanostructured composite films of ceria nanoparticles with anti-UV and scratch protection properties constructed using a layer-by-layer strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songsong; Li, Jie; Guo, Xianpeng; Liu, Lianhe; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yingwei

    2016-09-01

    Rare earth cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles have attracted extensive research attention due to their advantageous anti-UV and anti-scratch properties. However, a general and facile method for the fabrication of composite films using ceria and possessing these advantages is still lacking. Here, we report the fabrication of multilayers of ceria and polymeric species poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyl-dimethyl ammonium) (PDDA) via the layer-by-layer deposition strategy. The thickness of the multilayers increased linearly with the number of bilayers, indicating accurate control of the film structure in the nanoscopic range. The constructed multilayers were transparent in the visible spectral region and at the same time presented anti-UV properties. In addition, the multilayers also presented scratch protection properties.

  17. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, I M S; Zampa, M F; Moura, J B; dos Santos, J R; Eaton, P; Zucolotto, V; Veras, L M C; de Paula, R C M; Feitosa, J P A; Leite, J R S A; Eiras, C

    2012-08-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piauí and Ceará states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors.

  18. Improved pharmacokinetics and enhanced tumor growth inhibition using a nanostructured lipid carrier loaded with doxorubicin and modified with a layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussi, Samuel V.; Parekh, Gaurav; Pattekari, Pravin; Levchenko, Tatyana; Lvov, Yuri; Ferreira, Lucas A.M.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    A nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) has been shown to be cytotoxic against the human cancer cell lines A549 and MCF-7/Adr. In attempts to improve formulation characteristics, enhance pharmacokinetics and antitumor effects, we modified the surface of these NLC with an alternating layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polycation and polyanion polyelectrolytes and an additional coating with PEG using a simple method of core shell attachment. The formulation had a narrow size distribution, longer residence in the blood, lower accumulation in the liver, higher accumulation in tumors and a significant tumor growth inhibition effect. Thus, NLC-DOX nanopreparations complexes modified by LbL coating have the potential to enhance the anticancer effects of DOX against tumors. PMID:26325314

  19. Influence of C60 co-deposition on the growth kinetics of diindenoperylene-From rapid roughening to layer-by-layer growth in blended organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, C.; Novák, J.; Banerjee, R.; Weimer, S.; Dieterle, J.; Frank, C.; Hinderhofer, A.; Gerlach, A.; Carla, F.; Schreiber, F.

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the growth of the two phase-separating materials diindenoperylene (DIP) and buckminsterfullerene C60 with different mixing ratio in real-time and in situ by X-ray scattering experiments. We found that at room temperature, mixtures with an excess of DIP show a growth mode which is very close to the perfect layer-by-layer limit with DIP crystallites forming over the entire film thickness. An unexpected increase in the island size is observed for these mixtures as a function of film thickness. On the other hand, equimolar and C60 dominated mixtures grow with poor crystallinity but form very smooth films. Additionally, it is observed that higher substrate temperatures lead to an increase in the length scale of phase separation with film thickness.

  20. Layer-by-Layer Assembled Films of Perylene Diimide- and Squaraine-Containing Metal-Organic Framework-like Materials: Solar Energy Capture and Directional Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hea Jung; So, Monica C; Gosztola, David; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Emery, Jonathan D; Martinson, Alex B F; Er, Süleyman; Wilmer, Christopher E; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Stoddart, J Fraser; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2016-09-28

    We demonstrate that thin films of metal-organic framework (MOF)-like materials, containing two perylenediimides (PDICl4, PDIOPh2) and a squaraine dye (S1), can be fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly (LbL). Interestingly, these LbL films absorb across the visible light region (400-750 nm) and facilitate directional energy transfer. Due to the high spectral overlap and oriented transition dipole moments of the donor (PDICl4 and PDIOPh2) and acceptor (S1) components, directional long-range energy transfer from the bluest to reddest absorber was successfully demonstrated in the multicomponent MOF-like films. These findings have significant implications for the development of solar energy conversion devices based on MOFs.

  1. Fabrication of N-doped TiO2 coatings on nanoporous Si nanopillar arrays through biomimetic layer by layer mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter

    2014-06-14

    Si/N-doped TiO2 core/shell nanopillar arrays with a nanoporous structure are fabricated through a simple protein-mediated TiO2 deposition process. The Si nanopillar arrays are used as templates and alternatively immersed in aqueous solutions of catalytic molecules (protamine, PA) and the titania precursor (titanium(iv) bis(ammonium lactato)dihydroxide, Ti-BALDH) for the layer by layer mineralization of a PA/TiO2 coating. After a subsequent calcination, a N-doped TiO2 layer is formed, and its thickness could be controlled by varying the cycles of deposition. Moreover, the nanoporous structure of the Si nanopillars strongly affects the formation of the TiO2 layer. The obtained Si/TiO2 nanocomposites show significantly improved solar absorption compared with commercially purchased TiO2 nanoparticles.

  2. An electrochemical aptasensor for chiral peptide detection using layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte-methylene blue/polyelectrolyte-graphene multilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Haixia; Liu Jiyang; Chen Chaogui [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang Jiahi, E-mail: jhwang@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang Erkang, E-mail: ekwang@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An electrochemical aptasensor for selective detection of peptide is constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This aptasensor is based on grapheme multilayer via layer-by-layer assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such multilayer facilitates electron transfer and provides more adsorption sites. - Abstract: Here we demonstrate for the first time that by physically adsorbing aptamer onto conductive film assembled via alternate adsorption of graphene/polyelectrolyte and methylene blue/polyelectrolyte, a label-free electrochemical aptasensor with high sensitivity and selectivity for peptide detection is constructed. Graphene multilayer derived from layer-by-layer assembly has played significant roles in this sensing strategy: allowing accumulation of methylene blue, facilitating electron transfer and providing much more adsorption site. As compared to previous electrochemical aptasensors, the current sensor based on graphene multilayer alternated with electroactive molecule layer offers extremely high capability for sensitive detection of target without interference of environmental surrounding. This electroactive probe-confined graphene multilayer confers great flexibility to combine with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) together. In the presence of target D entiomer of arginine vasopressin (D-VP), the binding of peptide to aptamer block the electron transfer process of MB, leading to decreased current peak of DPV. By this way, this electrochemical aptasensor based on electroactive molecule-intercalated graphene multilayer provide highly sensitive and specific detection of D-VP with the lowest detectable concentration of 1 ng mL{sup -1} and a wide detection range from 1 to 265 ng mL{sup -1}.

  3. A method of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticle hybridization in a quartz crystal microbalance DNA sensing system used to detect dengue virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sz-Hau; Chuang, Yao-Chen; Lu, Yi-Chen; Lin, Hsiu-Chao; Yang, Yun-Liang; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2009-05-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is nowadays the most important arthropod-spread virus affecting humans existing in more than 100 countries worldwide. A rapid and sensitive detection method for the early diagnosis of infectious dengue virus urgently needs to be developed. In the present study, a circulating-flow quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensing method combining oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (i.e. AuNP probes) used to detect DENV has been established. In the DNA-QCM method, two kinds of specific AuNP probes were linked by the target sequences onto the QCM chip to amplify the detection signal, i.e. oscillatory frequency change (ΔF) of the QCM sensor. The target sequences amplified from the DENV genome act as a bridge for the layer-by-layer AuNP probes' hybridization in the method. Besides being amplifiers of the detection signal, the specific AuNP probes used in the DNA-QCM method also play the role of verifiers to specifically recognize their target sequences in the detection. The effect of four AuNP sizes on the layer-by-layer hybridization has been evaluated and it is found that 13 nm AuNPs collocated with 13 nm AuNPs showed the best hybridization efficiency. According to the nanoparticle application, the DNA-QCM biosensing method was able to detect dengue viral RNA in virus-contaminated serum as plaque titers being 2 PFU ml-1 and a linear correlation (R2 = 0.987) of ΔF versus virus titration from 2 × 100 to 2 × 106 PFU ml-1 was found. The sensitivity and specificity of the present DNA-QCM method with nanoparticle technology showed it to be comparable to the fluorescent real-time PCR methods. Moreover, the method described herein was shown to not require expensive equipment, was label-free and highly sensitive.

  4. Broadband near-infrared emission from Tm3+/Er3+ co-doped nanostructured glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daqin; Wang, Yuansheng; Bao, Feng; Yu, Yunlong

    2007-06-01

    Transparent SiO2-Al2O3-NaF-YF3 glass ceramics co-doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ were prepared by melt quenching and subsequent heating. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy experiments revealed that β-YF3 nanocrystals incorporated with Er3+ and Tm3+ were precipitated homogeneously among the oxide glass matrix. An integrated broad near-infrared emission band in the wavelength region of 1300-1700 nm, consisting of Tm3+ emissions around 1472 nm (H34→F34) and 1626 nm (F34→H36), and Er3+ emission around 1543 nm (I413/2→I415/2), was obtained under 792 nm laser excitation. The full width at half maximum of this integrated band increased with the increasing of [Tm]/[Er] ratio, and it reached as large as 175 nm for the 0.1 mol% Er3+ and 0.8 mol% Tm3+ co-doped sample. The energy transfers between Er3+ and Tm3+ were proposed to play an important role in tailoring the emission bandwidth of the sample.

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Far-Infrared Irradiation Generated by Ceramic Material on Murine Melanoma Cell Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Kai Leung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of specific wavelengths, so-called “far-infrared radiation” produced from ceramic material (cFIR, on whole organisms are not yet well understood. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of cFIR on murine melanoma cells (B16-F10 at body temperature. cFIR irradiation treatment for 48 h resulted in an 11.8% decrease in the proliferation of melanoma cells relative to the control. Meanwhile, incubation of cells with cFIR for 48 h significantly resulted in 56.9% and 15.7% decreases in the intracellular heat shock protein (HSP70 and intracellular nitric oxide (iNO contents, respectively. Furthermore, cFIR treatment induced 6.4% and 12.3% increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species stained by 5-(and 6-carboxyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydrorhodamine 123, respectively. Since malignant melanomas are known to have high HSP70 expression and iNO activity, the suppressive effects of cFIR on HSP70 and NO may warrant future interest in antitumor applications.

  6. Cancer-targeted near infrared imaging using rare earth ion-doped ceramic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zako, Tamotsu; Yoshimoto, Miya; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hidehiro; Ito, Masaaki; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Soga, Kohei; Maeda, Mizuo

    2015-01-01

    The use of near-infrared (NIR) light over 1000 nm (OTN-NIR or second NIR) is advantageous for bioimaging because it enables deep tissue penetration due to low scattering and autofluorescence. In this report, we describe the application of rare earth ion-doped ceramic nanoparticles to cancer-targeted NIR imaging using erbium and ytterbium ion-doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles (YNP) functionalized with streptavidin via bi-functional PEG (SA-YNP). YNP has NIR emission at 1550 nm, with NIR excitation at 980 nm (NIR-NIR imaging). Cancer-specific NIR-NIR imaging was demonstrated using SA-YNP and biotinylated antibodies on cancer cells and human colon cancer tissues. NIR-NIR imaging through porcine meat of 1 cm thickness was also demonstrated, supporting the possible application of deep tissue NIR-NIR bioimaging using YNP as a probe. Our results suggest that non-invasive imaging using YNP has great potential for general application in cancer imaging in living subjects.

  7. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes: Layer-by-layer assembly on carbon-nanotube templates and their upconversion luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Weishi; Shen, Jianfeng; Wan, Lei; Chang, Yu [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ye, Mingxin, E-mail: mxye@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Center of Special Materials and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Well-shaped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes have been successfully synthesized on a large scale via layer-by-layer assembly on carbon nanotubes templates followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. The as-prepared Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes show a strong red emission corresponding to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}–{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition of the Er{sup 3+} ions under excitation at 980 nm. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Well-shaped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes have been successfully synthesized. ► CNTs were used as templates for Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes. ► LBL assembly and calcination were used for preparation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes. ► The as-prepared Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes show a strong red emission. -- Abstract: Well-shaped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes have been successfully synthesized on a large scale via layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) templates followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. The crystal structure, element analysis, morphology and upconversion luminescence properties were characterized. XRD results demonstrate that the diffraction peaks of the samples calcinated at 800 °C or above can be indexed to the pure cubic phase of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. SEM images indicate that a large quantity of uniform and rough nanotubes with diameters of about 30–60 nm can be observed. The as-prepared Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes show a strong red emission corresponding to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}–{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition of the Er{sup 3+} ions under excitation at 980 nm, which have potential applications in such fields as nanoscale devices, molecular catalysts, nanobiotechnology, photonics and optoelectronics.

  8. Transcutaneous iontophoretic delivery of STAT3 siRNA using layer-by-layer chitosan coated gold nanoparticles to treat melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labala, Suman; Jose, Anup; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna

    2016-10-01

    Overexpression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein prevents apoptosis and enhances proliferation of melanocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using layer-by-layer assembled gold nanoparticles (LbL-AuNP) as a carrier for iontophoretic delivery of STAT3 siRNA to treat melanoma. Chitosan coated AuNP (AuNP-CS) were prepared by direct reduction of HAuCl4 in the presence of chitosan. The AuNP-CS were then sequentially layered with siRNA and chitosan to form AuNP-CS/siRNA/CS. STAT3 siRNA replaced with scrambled siRNA or sodium alginate were used as controls. The average particle size and zeta-potential of the prepared LbL-AuNP were 150±10nm (PDI: 0.41±0.06) and 35±6mV, respectively. In vitro studies in B16F10 murine melanoma cells showed that AuNP-CS/siRNA/CS inhibited the cell growth by 49.0±0.6% and 66.0±0.2% at 0.25nM and 0.5nM STAT3 siRNA concentration, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry studies showed a time dependent cell uptake of the LbL-AuNP up to 120min. Clathrin mediated endocytosis was found to be the predominant cell uptake mechanism for LbL-AuNP. STAT3 siRNA loaded LbL-AuNP reduced the STAT3 protein expression by 47.3% in B16F10 cells. Similarly, apoptosis assay showed 29% and 44% of early and late apoptotic events, respectively after treatment with STAT3 siRNA loaded LbL-AuNP. Confocal microscope and skin cryosections showed that application of 0.47mA/cm(2) of anodal iontophoresis enhanced the skin penetration of LbL-AuNP to reach viable epidermis. In conclusion, layer-by-layer chitosan coated AuNP can be developed as a carrier for iontophoretic delivery of STAT3 siRNA to treat melanoma.

  9. Simultaneous axial screw dislocation-mediated growth and radial layer-by-layer deposition for controlled synthesis of asymmetric axial ZnO nanospindles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Jie; He, Sheng-Yan; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2014-07-01

    Single-component nanostructures with axial asymmetry were successfully synthesized in organic solvents via a new type of growth model. Asymmetric axial ZnO nanospindles with a hexagonal cross-section were produced by a growth model consisting of simultaneous axial screw dislocation-mediated growth and radial layer-by-layer deposition. The growth process of ZnO nanospindles is explained by comprehensively characterizing and monitoring the products at different reaction time intervals. Hexagonal discs containing dislocations were first generated at a reaction time of 2.5 min. When the reaction time continued to increase, the nanodiscs grew along the direction. Half-nanospindles were formed at mid-reaction stage when the growth rate of [0001] was greater than [000-1]. Finally, the asymmetric nanospindles were obtained at 40 min. Further, the length of the asymmetric axial ZnO spindles can be precisely tuned by the adjustment of reaction temperature. Thus, the growth model presented here can synthesize a new category of one-dimensional asymmetric nanostructures.Single-component nanostructures with axial asymmetry were successfully synthesized in organic solvents via a new type of growth model. Asymmetric axial ZnO nanospindles with a hexagonal cross-section were produced by a growth model consisting of simultaneous axial screw dislocation-mediated growth and radial layer-by-layer deposition. The growth process of ZnO nanospindles is explained by comprehensively characterizing and monitoring the products at different reaction time intervals. Hexagonal discs containing dislocations were first generated at a reaction time of 2.5 min. When the reaction time continued to increase, the nanodiscs grew along the direction. Half-nanospindles were formed at mid-reaction stage when the growth rate of [0001] was greater than [000-1]. Finally, the asymmetric nanospindles were obtained at 40 min. Further, the length of the asymmetric axial ZnO spindles can be precisely tuned by the

  10. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of micro-capsules for the magnetic activation of semi-permeable nano-shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Malcolm D.

    2007-12-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly has demonstrated broad perspectives for encapsulating, and the controllable delivery, of drugs. The nano-scale polymer layers have the capability of material protection. Magnetic nanoparticles have great potential to be applied with LbL technology to achieve both "focusing" of the encapsulated drugs to a specific location followed by "switching" them on to release the encapsulated drugs. In this work, Phor21-betaCG(ala), dextran, and dexamethasone were used as model drugs. Encapsulation of these drugs with layer-by-layer self-assembly formed biolnano robotic capsules for controlled delivery and drug release. Silica nanoparticles coated with polyelectrolyte layers of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or gelatin B, along with an oppositely charged peptide drug (Phor2l-betaCG(ala)), were prepared using LbL self-assembly and confirmed using QCM and zeta potential measurements. The peptide drug was assembled as a component of the multilayer walls. The release kinetics of the embedded peptide were determined. Up to 18% of the embedded Phor21-betaCG(ala) was released from the CMC multilayers over a period of 28 hours. The release was based on physiological conditions, and an external control mechanism using magnetic nanoparticles needed to be developed. Magnetic permeability control experiments were setup by applying LbL self-assembly on MnCO3 micro-cores to fabricate polyelectrolyte microcapsules embedded with superparamagnetic gold coated cobalt (Co Au) nanoparticles. An alternating magnetic field was applied to the microcapsules to check for changes in permeability. Permeability experiments were achieved by adding fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled dextran to the microcapsule solution. Before an alternating magnetic field was applied, the capsules remained impermeable to the FITC-dextran; however, after an alternating magnetic field was applied for 30 minutes, approximately 99% of the capsules were filled with FITC

  11. A method of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticle hybridization in a quartz crystal microbalance DNA sensing system used to detect dengue virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S-H; Chuang, Y-C; Lu, Y-C; Lin, H-C; Yang, Y-L; Lin, C-S [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lincs@mail.nctu.edu.tw

    2009-05-27

    Dengue virus (DENV) is nowadays the most important arthropod-spread virus affecting humans existing in more than 100 countries worldwide. A rapid and sensitive detection method for the early diagnosis of infectious dengue virus urgently needs to be developed. In the present study, a circulating-flow quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensing method combining oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (i.e. AuNP probes) used to detect DENV has been established. In the DNA-QCM method, two kinds of specific AuNP probes were linked by the target sequences onto the QCM chip to amplify the detection signal, i.e. oscillatory frequency change ({delta}F) of the QCM sensor. The target sequences amplified from the DENV genome act as a bridge for the layer-by-layer AuNP probes' hybridization in the method. Besides being amplifiers of the detection signal, the specific AuNP probes used in the DNA-QCM method also play the role of verifiers to specifically recognize their target sequences in the detection. The effect of four AuNP sizes on the layer-by-layer hybridization has been evaluated and it is found that 13 nm AuNPs collocated with 13 nm AuNPs showed the best hybridization efficiency. According to the nanoparticle application, the DNA-QCM biosensing method was able to detect dengue viral RNA in virus-contaminated serum as plaque titers being 2 PFU ml{sup -1} and a linear correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.987) of {delta}F versus virus titration from 2 x 10{sup 0} to 2 x 10{sup 6} PFU ml{sup -1} was found. The sensitivity and specificity of the present DNA-QCM method with nanoparticle technology showed it to be comparable to the fluorescent real-time PCR methods. Moreover, the method described herein was shown to not require expensive equipment, was label-free and highly sensitive.

  12. Direct electrochemistry of Shewanella loihica PV-4 on gold nanoparticles-modified boron-doped diamond electrodes fabricated by layer-by-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenguo; Xie, Ronggang; Bai, Linling; Tang, Zuming; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-05-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are robust devices capable of taping biological energy, converting pollutants into electricity through renewable biomass. The fabrication of nanostructured electrodes with good bio- and electrochemical activity, play a profound role in promoting power generation of MFCs. Au nanoparticles (AuNPs)-modified Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) electrodes are fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique and used for the direct electrochemistry of Shewanella loihica PV-4 in an electrochemical cell. Experimental results show that the peak current densities generated on the Au/PAH multilayer-modified BDD electrodes increased from 1.25 to 2.93 microA/cm(-2) as the layer increased from 0 to 6. Different cell morphologies of S. loihica PV-4 were also observed on the electrodes and the highest density of cells was attached on the (Au/PAH)6/BDD electrode with well-formed three-dimensional nanostructure. The electrochemistry of S. loihica PV-4 was enhanced on the (Au/PAH)4/BDD electrode due to the appropriate amount of AuNPsand thickness of PAH layer.

  13. A surface-mediated siRNA delivery system developed with chitosan/hyaluronic acid-siRNA multilayer films through layer-by-layer self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijuan; Wu, Changlin; Liu, Guangwan; Liao, Nannan; Zhao, Fang; Yang, Xuxia; Qu, Hongyuan; Peng, Bo; Chen, Li; Yang, Guang

    2016-12-01

    siRNA delivery remains highly challenging because of its hydrophilic and anionic nature and its sensitivity to nuclease degradation. Effective siRNA loading and improved transfection efficiency into cells represents a key problem. In our study, we prepared Chitosan/Hyaluronic acid-siRNA multilayer films through layer-by-layer self-assembly, in which siRNAs can be effectively loaded and protected. The construction process was characterized by FTIR, 13C NMR (CP/MAS), UV-vis spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We presented the controlled-release performance of the films during incubation in 1 M NaCl solution for several days through UV-vis spectroscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Additionally, we verified the stability and integrity of the siRNA loaded on multilayer films. Finally, the biological efficacy of the siRNA delivery system was evaluated via cells adhesion and gene silencing analyses in eGFP-HEK 293T cells. This new type of surface-mediated non-viral multilayer films may have considerable potential in the localized and controlled-release delivery of siRNA in mucosal tissues, and tissue engineering application.

  14. Fabricating Multifunctional Nanoparticle Membranes by a Fast Layer-by-Layer Langmuir-Blodgett Process: Application in Lithium-sulfur Batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Mun Sek; Choudhury, Snehashis; Moganty, Surya S; Wei, Shuya; Archer, Lynden A

    2016-01-01

    The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique is a powerful, widely used method for preparing coatings of amphiphilic molecules at air/water interfaces with thickness control down to a single molecule. Here we report two new LB techniques designed to create ordered, multifunctional nanoparticle films on any non-reactive support. The methods utilize Marangoni stresses produced by surfactants at a fluid/solid/gas interface and self-assembly of nanoparticles to facilitate rapid creation of dense monolayers of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), metal-oxide nanoparticles, polymers, and combinations of these materials in a layer-by-layer configuration. Using the polyolefin separator in a lithium sulfur (Li-S) electrochemical cell as an example, we illustrate how the method can be used to create structured membranes for regulating mass and charge transport. We show that a layered MWCNT/SiO2/MWCNT nanomaterial created in a clip-like configuration, with gravimetric areal coverage of ~130 mg cm-2 and a thickness of ~3 micron,...

  15. Influence of Drying Temperature on the Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Layer-by-Layer ZnO Nanoparticles Seeded Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Shariffudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared using sol-gel spin coating technique. The films were dried at different temperature from 100°C to 300°C to study its effect to the surface morphology, optical and electrical properties of the films. Film dried at 200°C shows the highest (0 0 2 peak of X-ray diffraction pattern which is due to complete decomposition of zinc acetate and complete vaporization of the stabilizer and solvent. It was found that the grain size increased with the increased of drying temperature from 100 to 200°C, but for films dried at above 200°C, the grain size decreased. Photoluminescence measurements show a sharp ultraviolet emission centred at 380 nm and a very low intensity visible emission. Blue visible emission was detected for sample dried at temperature below 200°C, while for films dried above 250°C, the visible emission is red shifted. The films were transparent in the visible range from 400 to 800 nm with average transmittance of above 85%. Linear I-V characteristics were shown confirming the ohmic behaviour of the gold contacts to the films. A minimum resistivity was given by 5.08 Ω · cm for the film dried at 300°C.

  16. Aqueous phase synthesis of upconversion nanocrystals through layer-by-layer epitaxial growth for in vivo X-ray computed tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feifei

    2013-05-21

    Lanthanide-doped core-shell upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs) have tremendous potential for applications in many fields, especially in bio-imaging and medical therapy. As core-shell UCNCs are mostly synthesized in organic solvents, tedious organic-aqueous phase transfer processes are usually needed for their use in bio-applications. Herein, we demonstrate the first example of one-step synthesis of highly luminescent core-shell UCNCs in the "aqueous" phase under mild conditions using innocuous reagents. A microwave-assisted approach allowed for layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of a hydrophilic NaGdF4 shell on NaYF4:Yb, Er cores. During this process, surface defects of the nanocrystals could be gradually passivated by the homogeneous shell deposition, resulting in obvious enhancement in the overall upconversion emission efficiency. In addition, the up-down conversion dual-mode luminescent NaYF4:Yb, Er@NaGdF4:Ce, Ln (Eu, Tb, Sm, Dy) nanocrystals were also synthesized to further validate the successful formation of the core-shell structure. More significantly, based on their superior solubility and stability in water solution, high upconversion efficiency and Gd-doped predominant X-ray absorption, the as-prepared NaYF4:Yb, Er@NaGdF4 core-shell UCNCs exhibited high contrast in in vitro cell imaging and in vivo X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging, demonstrating great potential as multiplexed luminescent biolabels and CT contrast agents.

  17. Layer-by-layer self-assembled mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films for platinum free dye-sensitized-solar-cell counter electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

    2011-05-13

    A thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS), which is an alternative cathodic catalyst for Pt in dye-sensitized solar cells, was prepared using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method (LbL). The film is highly adhesive to the substrate and has a controllable thickness. Therefore, the PEDOT-PSS film prepared using LbL is expected have high performance and durability as a counter electrode. Moreover, when carbon black was added to the PEDOT-PSS solution, highly mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films were obtained. These films showed high cathodic activity. In this study, we investigated the change in morphology in the obtained film with increasing carbon black content, and the influence of the porosity and thickness on the performance of the cells. In this study, a Pt-free counter electrode with performance similar to that of Pt-based counter electrodes was successfully fabricated. The achieved efficiency of 4.71% was only a factor of 8% lower than that of the cell using conventional thermally deposited Pt on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass counter electrodes.

  18. Chemical Force Spectroscopy Evidence Supporting the Layer-by-Layer Model of Organic Matter Binding to Iron (oxy)Hydroxide Mineral Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chassé, Alexander W.

    2015-08-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to metal (oxy)hydroxide mineral surfaces is a critical step for C sequestration in soils. Although equilibrium studies have described some of the factors controlling this process, the molecular-scale description of the adsorption process has been more limited. Chemical force spectroscopy revealed differing adhesion strengths of DOM extracted from three soils and a reference peat soil material to an iron (oxy)hydroxide mineral surface. The DOM was characterized using ultrahigh-resolution negative ion mode electrospray ionization Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The results indicate that carboxyl-rich aromatic and N-containing aliphatic molecules of DOM are correlated with high adhesion forces. Increasing molecular mass was shown to decrease the adhesion force between the mineral surface and the DOM. Kendrick mass defect analysis suggests that mechanisms involving two carboxyl groups result in the most stable bond to the mineral surface. We conceptualize these results using a layer-by-layer "onion" model of organic matter stabilization on soil mineral surfaces.

  19. Fabrication of dopamine-modified hyaluronic acid/chitosan multilayers on titanium alloy by layer-by-layer self-assembly for promoting osteoblast growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinming; Li, Zhaoyang; Yuan, Xubo; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin

    2013-11-01

    The bare inert surface of titanium (Ti) alloy typically causes early failures in implants. Layer-by-layer self-assembly is one of the simple methods for fabricating bioactive multilayer coatings on titanium implants. In this study, a dopamine-modified hyaluronic acid/chitosan (DHA/CHI) bioactive multilayer was built on the surface of Ti-24Nb-2Zr (TNZ) alloy. Zeta potential oscillated between -2 and 17 mV for DHA- and CHI-ending layers during the assembly process, respectively. The DHA/CHI multilayer considerably decreased the contact angle and dramatically improved the wettability of TNZ alloy. Atomic force microscopy results revealed a rough surface on the original TNZ alloy, while the surface became smoother and more homogeneous after the deposition of approximately 5 bilayers (TNZ/(DHA/CHI)5). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the TNZ/(DHA/CHI)5 sample was completely covered by polyelectrolytes. Pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the original TNZ alloy and TNZ/(DHA/CHI)5 to evaluate the effects of DHA/CHI multilayer on osteoblast proliferation in vitro. The proliferation of osteoblasts on TNZ/(DHA/CHI)5 was significantly higher than that on the original TNZ alloy. The results of this study indicate that the proposed technique improves the biocompatibility of TNZ alloy and can serve as a potential modification method in orthopedic applications.

  20. Fabrication of dopamine-modified hyaluronic acid/chitosan multilayers on titanium alloy by layer-by-layer self-assembly for promoting osteoblast growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinming, E-mail: xmzhang@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Zhaoyang, E-mail: zyli@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yuan, Xubo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2013-11-01

    The bare inert surface of titanium (Ti) alloy typically causes early failures in implants. Layer-by-layer self-assembly is one of the simple methods for fabricating bioactive multilayer coatings on titanium implants. In this study, a dopamine-modified hyaluronic acid/chitosan (DHA/CHI) bioactive multilayer was built on the surface of Ti–24Nb–2Zr (TNZ) alloy. Zeta potential oscillated between −2 and 17 mV for DHA- and CHI-ending layers during the assembly process, respectively. The DHA/CHI multilayer considerably decreased the contact angle and dramatically improved the wettability of TNZ alloy. Atomic force microscopy results revealed a rough surface on the original TNZ alloy, while the surface became smoother and more homogeneous after the deposition of approximately 5 bilayers (TNZ/(DHA/CHI){sub 5}). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the TNZ/(DHA/CHI){sub 5} sample was completely covered by polyelectrolytes. Pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the original TNZ alloy and TNZ/(DHA/CHI){sub 5} to evaluate the effects of DHA/CHI multilayer on osteoblast proliferation in vitro. The proliferation of osteoblasts on TNZ/(DHA/CHI){sub 5} was significantly higher than that on the original TNZ alloy. The results of this study indicate that the proposed technique improves the biocompatibility of TNZ alloy and can serve as a potential modification method in orthopedic applications.

  1. A Novel Oxidation-Reduction Route for Layer-by-Layer Synthesis of TiO2 Nanolayers and Investigation of Its Photocatalytical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Semishchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer (LbL synthesis of titanium dioxide was performed by an oxidation-reduction route using a Ti(OH3 colloid and NaNO2 solutions. A model of chemical reactions was proposed based on the results of an investigation of synthesized nanolayers by scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and studying colloidal solution of Ti(OH3 with laser Doppler microelectrophoresis. At each cycle, negatively charged colloidal particles of [Ti(OH3]HSO4- adsorbed onto the surface of substrate. During the next stage of treatment in NaNO2 solution, the particles were oxidized to Ti(OH4. Photocatalytic activity was studied by following decomposition of methylene blue (MB under UV irradiation. Sensitivity of the measurements was increased using a diffuse transmittance (DT method. The investigation revealed strong photocatalytical properties of the synthesized layers, caused by their high area per unit volume and uniform globular structure.

  2. Use of a ruthenium-containing conjugated polymer as a photosensitizer in photovoltaic devices fabricated by a layer-by-layer deposition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Ka Yan Kitty; Wong, Hei Ling; Chan, Wai Kin; Djurisić, Aleksandra B; Beach, Elvin; Rozeveld, Steve

    2006-03-28

    Multilayer polymer films composed of a ruthenium terpyridine complex containing poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (Ru-PPV) and sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) were prepared by a layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly deposition. The deposition process was carried out from SPAN solution in water and Ru-PPV in dimethylformamide (DMF). Optical-quality multilayer thin films were obtained. The film growth process was monitored by quartz crystal microbalance, and the surface morphology of the films was studied by atomic force microscopy. It was found that the properties of the multilayer films were dependent on deposition conditions such as the pH of the SPAN solution, the presence of salt in the polymer solutions, and the post-film-forming thermal annealing process. Cross-section transmission electron microscopic images suggested that there was no stratified structure formed in the multilayer films. Photovoltaic cells were fabricated by sandwiching the multilayer films between indium-tin-oxide and aluminum electrodes. The device performances were examined by illumination with AM 1.5 simulated solar light. The power conversion efficiencies of these devices were on the order of 10(-3)%. The maximum incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the devices was found to be approximately 2% at 510 nm, which is consistent with the absorption maximum of the ruthenium complex. This indicates that the photosensitization process is due to the electronic excitation of the ruthenium complex.

  3. Layer-by-Layer Assembled Milk Protein Coated Magnetic Nanoparticle Enabled Oral Drug Delivery with High Stability in Stomach and Enzyme-Responsive Release in Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Shu, Qing; Wang, Liya; Wu, Hui; Wang, Andrew Y.; Mao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel drug delivery system composed of layer-by-layer (LBL) milk protein casein (CN) coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Doxorubicin (DOX) and indocyanine green (ICG) were selected as model drug molecules, which were incorporated into the inner polymeric layer, and subsequently coated with casein. The resulting casein coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CN-DOX/ICG-IO) were stable in the acidic gastric condition with the presence of gastric protease. On the other hand, the loaded drugs were released when the casein outer layer was gradually degraded by the intestinal protease in the simulated intestine condition. Such unique properties enable maintenance of the bioactivity of the drugs and thus enhance the drug delivery efficiency. Ex vivo experiments showed that the LBL CN-DOX-IO improved the translocation of DOX across microvilli and its absorption in the small intestine sacs. In vivo imaging of mice that were orally administered with these LBL CN-ICG-IO nanostructures further confirmed that the reported drug delivery vehicles could pass the stomach without significant degradation, and then accumulated in the small intestine. In addition, the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle core offered an MRI contrast enhancing capability for in vivo imaging guided drug delivery. Therefore, the reported LBL CN-DOX/ICG-IO is a promising oral drug delivery nanoplatform, especially for drugs that are poorly soluble in water or degradable in the gastric environment. PMID:25477177

  4. Layer-by-layer self assembly of a water-soluble phthalocyanine on gold. Application to the electrochemical determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koodlur, Lokesh S

    2013-06-01

    A self-assembled molecular film of a water-soluble cobalt tetrasulfophthalocyanine was deposited on a gold substrate premodified with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). The process of layer-by-layer assembly on the gold substrate was characterized using UV-Vis, Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and electrochemical methods. Results demonstrate the formation of a completely covered phthalocyanine film on the gold surface. UV-Vis spectra indicated the formation of monolayer film of the phthalocyanine on the surface. The functionalized surface is uniformly covered and becomes hydrophilic after modification. The modified gold surface exhibits a reversible redox behavior and acts as an electronic conductor for the electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer. A linear increase in the catalytic current is observed for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide in the concentration range from 1 to 20 μM, with a detection limit of 0.4 μM. Hydrogen peroxide spiked pond water sample showed a recovery of 94% indicating the method is selective and can be applied for various applications. The present method is a simple, cost effective and sensitive electrochemical method for the detection and quantification of hydrogen peroxide.

  5. The fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotube/polyelectrolyte multilayer composites by layer-by-layer assembly and magnetic field assisted alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying; Park, Jin Gyu; Cheng, Qunfeng; Liang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Chuck; Wang, Ben

    2009-08-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/polymer composites are widely studied because of their potential for high mechanical performance and multifunctional applications. In order to realize highly ordered multilayer nanostructures, we combined the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly method with magnetic force-induced alignment to fabricate SWNT/poly(ethylamine) (PEI) multilayer composites. The SWNTs were functionalized with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (NaDDBS) to realize negative charge at pH>7, while the PEI is positively charged at pHPEI resin to form multilayer composites on a solid substrate polydimethylsiloxane. Since the fabricated thickness of each SWNT-NaDDBS/PEI bilayer is uniform (~150 nm), the multilayer film thickness can be strictly controlled via the number of deposition cycles. A high magnetic field (8.5 Tesla) was used to align the SWNTs during the LBL process. The resultant LBL composite samples demonstrated high SWNT loading of approximately 50 wt% and uniform distribution of SWNTs in the multilayer structures, which was verified using a quartz crystal microbalance. Good alignment was also realized and observed through using high magnetic fields to align the nanotubes during the LBL deposition process. The results indicate that the LBL/magnetic alignment approach has potential for fabricating nanotube composites with highly ordered nanostructures for multifunctional materials and device applications.

  6. Covalent deposition of zwitterionic polymer and citric acid by click chemistry-enabled layer-by-layer assembly for improving the blood compatibility of polysulfone membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tao; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Sun, Shu-Dong; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2014-05-13

    Development of blood compatible membranes is critical for biomedical applications. Zwitterionic polymers have been proved to be resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. In this work, two kinds of zwitterionic copolymers bearing alkynyl and azide groups are synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and subsequent reactions, namely alkynyl-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (alkynyl-PSBMA) and azide-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (azide-PSBMA). The copolymers are directly used to modify azido-functionalized polysulfone (PSf-N3) membrane via click chemistry-enabled layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. Alkynyl-citric acid is then clicked onto the membrane when the outermost layer was azide-PSBMA. The chemical compositions, surface morphologies, and hydrophilicity of the zwitterionic polymer and citric acid multilayer modified membranes are characterized. The composite multilayer is resistant to protein adsorption and platelet adhesion and also prolongs clotting times, indicating that the blood compatibility is improved. Moreover, after clicking the small molecule anticoagulant alkynyl-citric acid onto the outermost of the zwitterionic multilayer, the membrane shows further improved anticoagulant property. The deposition of zwitterionic polymer and citric acid via click chemistry-enabled LBL assembly can improve the blood compatibility of the PSf membrane.

  7. Modification of Spherical Polyelectrolyte Brushes by Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly as Observed by Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchuan Tian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer modified spherical polyelectrolyte brushes were prepared through alternate deposition of positively charged poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH and negatively charged poly-l-aspartic acid (PAsp onto negatively charged spherical poly(acrylic acid (PAA brushes (SPBs on a poly(styrene core. The charge reversal determined by the zeta potential indicated the success of layer-by-layer (LBL deposition. The change of the structure during the construction of multilayer modified SPBs was observed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS. SAXS results indicated that some PAH chains were able to penetrate into the PAA brush for the PAA-PAH double-layer modified SPBs whereas part of the PAH moved towards the outer layer when the PAsp layer was loaded to form a PAA-PAH-PAsp triple-layer system. The multilayer modified SPBs were stable upon changing the pH (5 to 9 and ionic strength (1 to 100 mM. The triple-layer modified SPBs were more tolerated to high pH (even at 11 compared to the double-layer ones. SAXS is proved to be a powerful tool for studying the inner structure of multilayer modified SPBs, which can establish guidelines for the a range of potential applications of multilayer modified SPBs.

  8. A layer-by-layer ZnO nanoparticle-PbS quantum dot self-assembly platform for ultrafast interfacial electron injection

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed Samir

    2014-08-28

    Absorbent layers of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are now used as material platforms for low-cost, high-performance solar cells. The semiconductor metal oxide nanoparticles as an acceptor layer have become an integral part of the next generation solar cell. To achieve sufficient electron transfer and subsequently high conversion efficiency in these solar cells, however, energy-level alignment and interfacial contact between the donor and the acceptor units are needed. Here, the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique is used to assemble ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), providing adequate PbS QD uptake to achieve greater interfacial contact compared with traditional sputtering methods. Electron injection at the PbS QD and ZnO NP interface is investigated using broadband transient absorption spectroscopy with 120 femtosecond temporal resolution. The results indicate that electron injection from photoexcited PbS QDs to ZnO NPs occurs on a time scale of a few hundred femtoseconds. This observation is supported by the interfacial electronic-energy alignment between the donor and acceptor moieties. Finally, due to the combination of large interfacial contact and ultrafast electron injection, this proposed platform of assembled thin films holds promise for a variety of solar cell architectures and other settings that principally rely on interfacial contact, such as photocatalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy of AlN ultrathin films by layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Lee, Wei-Hao; Kao, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Yung-Chuan; Lin, Ray-Ming; Lin, Hsin-Chih; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2017-01-03

    Low-temperature epitaxial growth of AlN ultrathin films was realized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) together with the layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing (ALA), instead of a high growth temperature which is needed in conventional epitaxial growth techniques. By applying the ALA with the Ar plasma treatment in each ALD cycle, the AlN thin film was converted dramatically from the amorphous phase to a single-crystalline epitaxial layer, at a low deposition temperature of 300 °C. The energy transferred from plasma not only provides the crystallization energy but also enhances the migration of adatoms and the removal of ligands, which significantly improve the crystallinity of the epitaxial layer. The X-ray diffraction reveals that the full width at half-maximum of the AlN (0002) rocking curve is only 144 arcsec in the AlN ultrathin epilayer with a thickness of only a few tens of nm. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy also indicates the high-quality single-crystal hexagonal phase of the AlN epitaxial layer on the sapphire substrate. The result opens a window for further extension of the ALD applications from amorphous thin films to the high-quality low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy, which can be exploited in a variety of fields and applications in the near future.

  10. Morphology and Transport Properties of Novel Polymer Nanocomposites Resulted from Melt Processing of Polyvinylacetate Substrates Coated with Layer-by-Layer Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Iman; Spontak, Richard J.

    Novel polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) were processed through layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of clay and polyethylene terephthalate ionomer layers on polyvinylacetate (PVAc) substrates, followed by repetitive melt pressing of coated samples to crush LBL assemblies into the polymeric matrix. The increase in the clay content in resulted PNCs prepared through similar LBL coatings, relative to previously studied hydrophobic polystyrene-based nanocomposites, postulated superiority of PVAc, with relatively higher hydrophilicity, to interact with LBL assemblies. Also, these PNCs showed relatively good barrier improvement against transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases, proposing the scavenging effect of LBL assemblies crushed portions as highly tortuous labyrinths with high aspect ratios, comprising edge-edge flocculated exfoliated clay platelets, observed through transmission electron micrographs. However, combinative morphological investigations through optical microscopy, x-ray diffractometry, and transmission electron microscopy proposed low global dispersion of clay throughout polymeric matrix, conjecturing insufficient intensity of stress applied through cyclic melt pressing, and/or slight thermal degradation of samples via extended times of processing at high temperatures.

  11. Layer-by-Layer films based on biopolymers extracted from red seaweeds and polyaniline for applications in electrochemical sensors of chromium VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Farias, Emanuel Airton de; Corrêa dos Santos, Marianne; Araujo Dionísio, Natália de; Quelemes, Patrick V.; Souza Almeida Leite, José Roberto de [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, CMRV, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202-020 (Brazil); Eaton, Peter [UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Alves da Silva, Durcilene [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, CMRV, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202-020 (Brazil); Eiras, Carla, E-mail: eiras@cnpq.br [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, CMRV, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202-020 (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avançados, LIMAV, CCN, UFPI, Teresina, PI 64049-550 (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LbL films based on PANI and polysaccharides of seaweeds were produced and applied sensors of Cr (VI). - Abstract: This paper proposes a new application for natural polysaccharides (agar and carrageenan), both extracted from the cell wall of red seaweeds. Thin films were prepared by the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self-assembly technique onto ITO (tin-doped indium oxide), where the polysaccharides of interest were deposited in layers alternating with polyaniline (PANI). The films developed were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed the presence of agar as well as carrageenan, which improves the electrochemical stability of the conducting polymer in an acid medium. The interactions at the molecular level between PANI and the biopolymers affected the most appropriate sequence of deposition as employed in the process of material immobilization and also influenced the resulting morphology. Among the films studied, the most promising system as regards electrochemical measurements was the ITO/agar/PANI system, which was subsequently employed in the electrochemical detection of chromium (VI)

  12. A bio-enabled maximally mild layer-by-layer Kapton surface modification approach for the fabrication of all-inkjet-printed flexible electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yunnan; Hester, Jimmy G. D.; Su, Wenjing; Chow, Justin H.; Sitaraman, Suresh K.; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2016-12-01

    A bio-enabled, environmentally-friendly, and maximally mild layer-by-layer approach has been developed to surface modify inherently hydrophobic Kapton HN substrates to allow for great printability of both water- and organic solvent-based inks thus facilitating the full-inkjet-printing of flexible electronic devices. Different from the traditional Kapton surface modification approaches which are structure-compromising and use harsh conditions to target, and oxidize and/or remove part of, the surface polyimide of Kapton, the present Kapton surface modification approach targeted the surface electric charges borne by its additive particles, and was not only the first to utilize environmentally-friendly clinical biomolecules to build up a thin film of protamine-heparin complex on Kapton, but also the first to be conducted under minimally destructive and maximally mild conditions. Besides, for electrically charged ink particles, the present surface modification method can enhance the uniformity of the inkjet-printed films by reducing the “coffee ring effect”. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, reduced graphene oxide-based gas sensors, which were flexible, ultra-lightweight, and miniature-sized, were fully-inkjet-printed on surface modified Kapton HN films and tested for their sensitivity to dimethyl methylphosphonate (a nerve agent simulant). Such fabricated sensors survived a Scotch-tape peel test and were found insensitive to repeated bending to a small 0.5 cm radius.

  13. Systematic study on the sensitivity enhancement in graphene plasmonic sensors based on layer-by-layer self-assembled graphene oxide multilayers and their reduced analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyungwha; Rani, Adila; Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Yonghwi; Yang, Heejin; Kim, Sang Ouk; Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Dong Ha

    2015-01-14

    The use of graphene in conventional plasmonic devices was suggested by several theoretic research studies. However, the existing theoretic studies are not consistent with one another and the experimental studies are still at the initial stage. To reveal the role of graphenes on the plasmonic sensors, we deposited graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films on Au films and their refractive index (RI) sensitivity was compared for the first time in SPR-based sensors. The deposition of GO bilayers with number of deposition L from 1 to 5 was carried out by alternative dipping of Au substrate in positively- and negatively charged GO solutions. The fabrication of layer-by-layer self-assembly of the graphene films was monitored in terms of the SPR angle shift. GO-deposited Au film was treated with hydrazine to reduce the GO. For the rGO-Au sample, 1 bilayer sample showed a higher RI sensitivity than bare Au film, whereas increasing the rGO film from 2 to 5 layers reduced the RI sensitivity. In the case of GO-deposited Au film, the 3 bilayer sample showed the highest sensitivity. The biomolecular sensing was also performed for the graphene multilayer systems using BSA and anti-BSA antibody.

  14. Design Of A Bi-Functional α-Fe2O3/Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ By Layer-By-Layer Assembly Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design of bi-functional α-Fe2O3/Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ using a two-step coating process. We propose a combination of pigments (α-Fe2O3 and phosphor (Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ glaze which is assembled using a layer-by-layer method. A silica-coated α-Fe2O3 pigment was obtained by a sol-gel method and a Zn2+ precursor was then added to the silica-coated α-Fe2O3 to create a ZnO layer. Finally, the Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ layer was prepared with the addition of Mn2+ ions to serve as a phosphor precursor in the multi-coated α-Fe2O3, followed by annealing at a temperature above 1000°C. Details of the phase structure, color and optical properties of the multi-functional α-Fe2O3/Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses.

  15. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, I.M.S. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Zampa, M.F. [Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Campus Parnaiba, Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui, IFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64210-260 (Brazil); Moura, J.B.; Santos, J.R. dos [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Eaton, P. [REQUIMTE, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto, 4169-007 (Portugal); Zucolotto, V. [Grupo de Biofisica Molecular Sergio Mascarenhas, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, IFSC, USP, Sao Carlos, SP, 13566-590 (Brazil); and others

    2012-08-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piaui and Ceara states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study focused on the use of cashew gum for the formation of LbL films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LbL films containing cashew gums were investigated by AFM and cyclic voltammetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum contributed to obtain stable films with well-defined redox processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum films detected dopamine in low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These LbL films presented potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

  16. Chemical Force Spectroscopy Evidence Supporting the Layer-by-Layer Model of Organic Matter Binding to Iron (oxy)Hydroxide Mineral Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassé, Alexander W; Ohno, Tsutomu; Higgins, Steven R; Amirbahman, Aria; Yildirim, Nadir; Parr, Thomas B

    2015-08-18

    The adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to metal (oxy)hydroxide mineral surfaces is a critical step for C sequestration in soils. Although equilibrium studies have described some of the factors controlling this process, the molecular-scale description of the adsorption process has been more limited. Chemical force spectroscopy revealed differing adhesion strengths of DOM extracted from three soils and a reference peat soil material to an iron (oxy)hydroxide mineral surface. The DOM was characterized using ultrahigh-resolution negative ion mode electrospray ionization Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The results indicate that carboxyl-rich aromatic and N-containing aliphatic molecules of DOM are correlated with high adhesion forces. Increasing molecular mass was shown to decrease the adhesion force between the mineral surface and the DOM. Kendrick mass defect analysis suggests that mechanisms involving two carboxyl groups result in the most stable bond to the mineral surface. We conceptualize these results using a layer-by-layer "onion" model of organic matter stabilization on soil mineral surfaces.

  17. Direct Observation of the Layer-by-Layer Growth of ZnO Nanopillar by In situ High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Cheng, Shaobo; Deng, Shiqing; Wei, Xianlong; Zhu, Jing; Chen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Catalyst-free methods are important for the fabrication of pure nanowires (NWs). However, the growth mechanism remains elusive due to the lack of crucial information on the growth dynamics at atomic level. Here, the noncatalytic growth process of ZnO NWs is studied through in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We observe the layer-by-layer growth of ZnO nanopillars along the polar [0001] direction under electron beam irradiation, while no growth is observed along the radial directions, indicating an anisotropic growth mechanism. The source atoms are mainly from the electron beam induced damage of the sample and the growth is assisted by subsequent absorption and then diffusion of atoms along the side surface to the top (0002) surface. The different binding energy on different ZnO surface is the main origin for the anisotropic growth. Additionally, the coalescence of ZnO nanocrystals related to the nucleation stage is uncovered to realize through the rotational motions and recrystallization. Our in situ results provide atomic-level detailed information about the dynamic growth and coalescence processes in the noncatalytic synthesis of ZnO NW and are helpful for understanding the vapor-solid mechanism of catalyst-free NW growth.

  18. Drying and nondrying layer-by-layer assembly for the fabrication of sodium silicate/TiO2 nanoparticle composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianbin; Liu, He; Zhao, Engui; Qiu, Lingying; Sun, Junqi; Shen, Jiacong

    2012-01-24

    Influences of drying and nondrying steps on structures of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled sodium silicate/TiO(2) nanoparticles films (donated as silicate/TiO(2) films) have been systematically investigated. The nondrying LbL assembly produces highly porous silicate/TiO(2) films with large thickness. In contrast, the silicate/TiO(2) films fabricated with a drying step after each layer deposition are flat and thin without porous structures. In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements confirm that the sodium silicate and TiO(2) nanoparticles are deposited in their aggregated forms. A N(2) drying step can disintegrate the aggregated silicate and TiO(2) nanoparticles to produce thin silicate/TiO(2) films with compact structures. Without the drying steps, the aggregated silicate and TiO(2) nanoparticles are well retained, and their LbL assembly produces highly porous silicate/TiO(2) films of large thickness. The highly porous silicate/TiO(2) films are demonstrated to be useful as reusable film adsorbents for dye removal from wastewater because they can adsorb a large amount of cationic organic dyes and decompose them under UV irradiation. The present study is meaningful for exploring drying/nondrying steps for tailoring structure and functions of LbL assembled films.

  19. Influence of bias voltage on the optical and structural properties of nc-Si:H films grown by layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Goh Boon, E-mail: boontong77@yahoo.co [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Gani, Siti Meriam Ab.; Muhamad, Muhamad Rasat; Rahman, Saadah Abdul [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-07-01

    The effects of applying a positive bias of 25 to 100 V on the optical, structural and photoluminescence (PL) properties of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) films produced by layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition technique has been studied. Optical characterization of the films has been obtained from UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy measurements. Structural characterization has been performed using X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). PL spectroscopy technique has been used to investigate the PL properties of the films. In general, the films formed shows a mixed phase of silicon (Si) nanocrystallites embedded within an amorphous phase of the Si matrix. The crystalline volume fraction and grain size of the Si nanocrystallites have been shown to be strongly dependent on the applied bias voltage. High applied bias voltage enhances the growth rate of the films but reduces the refractive index and the optical energy gap of the films. Higher crystalline volume fraction of the films prepared at low bias voltages exhibits room temperature PL at around 1.8 eV (700 nm).

  20. Three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline nanocomposite film prepared by diffusion driven layer-by-layer assembly for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiaodong; Zhang, Binbin; Murphy, Elizabeth; Zou, Jianli; Kim, Franklin

    2017-03-01

    As a simple and versatile method, diffusion driven Layer-by-Layer assembly (dd-LbL) is developed to assemble graphene oxide (GO) into three-dimensional (3D) structure. The assembled GO macrostructure can be reduced through a hydrothermal treatment and used as a high volumetric capacitance electrode in supercapacitors. In this report we use rGO framework created from dd-LbL as a scaffold for in situ polymerization of aniline within the pores of the framework to form rGO/polyaniline (rGO/PANI) composite. The rGO/PANI composite affords a robust and porous structure, which facilitates electrolyte diffusion and exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as binder-free electrodes in a sandwich-configuration supercapacitor. Combining electric double layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance, rGO/PANI electrodes exhibit a specific capacitance of 438.8 F g-1 at discharge rate of 5 mA (mass of electrodes were 10.0 mg, 0.5 A g-1) in 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 electrolyte; furthermore, the generated PANI nanoparticles in rGO template achieve a higher capacitance of 763 F g-1. The rGO/PANI composite electrodes also show an improved recyclability, 76.5% of capacitance retains after recycled 2000 times.

  1. Layer-by-layer assembly of peptide based bioorganic–inorganic hybrid scaffolds and their interactions with osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, Steven M. [Fordham University Department of Chemistry, 441 East Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458 (United States); Fath, Karl R. [The City University of New York, Queens College, Department of Biology, 65-30 Kissena Blvd, Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, NY 10016 (United States); Phekoo, Aruna P. [The City University of New York, Queens College, Department of Biology, 65-30 Kissena Blvd, Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Knoll, Grant A. [Fordham University Department of Chemistry, 441 East Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458 (United States); Banerjee, Ipsita A., E-mail: banerjee@fordham.edu [Fordham University Department of Chemistry, 441 East Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this work we have developed a new family of biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration by utilizing self-assembled fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl protected Valyl-cetylamide (FVC) nanoassemblies as templates. To tailor the assemblies for enhanced osteoblast attachment and proliferation, we incorporated (a) Type I collagen, (b) a hydroxyapatite binding peptide sequence (EDPHNEVDGDK) derived from dentin sialophosphoprotein and (c) the osteoinductive bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) to the templates by layer-by-layer assembly. The assemblies were then incubated with hydroxyapatite nanocrystals blended with varying mass percentages of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and coated with alginate to form three dimensional scaffolds for potential applications in bone tissue regeneration. The morphology was examined by TEM and SEM and the binding interactions were probed by FITR spectroscopy. The scaffolds were found to be non-cytotoxic, adhered to mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and promoted osteogenic differentiation as indicated by the results obtained by alkaline phosphatase assay. Furthermore, they were found to be biodegradable and possessed inherent antibacterial capability. Thus, we have developed a new family of tissue-engineered biocomposite scaffolds with potential applications in bone regeneration. - Highlights: • Fmoc-val-cetylamide assemblies were used as templates. • Collagen, a short dentin sialophosphoprotein derived sequence and BMP-4 were incorporated. • Hydroxyapatite–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite blends and alginate were incorporated. • The 3D scaffold biocomposites adhered to preosteoblasts and promoted osteoblast differentiation. • The biocomposites also displayed antimicrobial activity.

  2. Preparation and layer-by-layer solution deposition of Cu(In,Ga)O2 nanoparticles with conversion to Cu(In,Ga)S2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressick, Walter J; Soto, Carissa M; Fontana, Jake; Baker, Colin C; Myers, Jason D; Frantz, Jesse A; Kim, Woohong

    2014-01-01

    We present a method of Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) thin film formation via conversion of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled Cu-In-Ga oxide (CIGO) nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes. CIGO nanoparticles were created via a novel flame-spray pyrolysis method using metal nitrate precursors, subsequently coated with polyallylamine (PAH), and dispersed in aqueous solution. Multilayer films were assembled by alternately dipping quartz, Si, and/or Mo substrates into a solution of either polydopamine (PDA) or polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and then in the CIGO-PAH dispersion to fabricate films as thick as 1-2 microns. PSS/CIGO-PAH films were found to be inadequate due to weak adhesion to the Si and Mo substrates, excessive particle diffusion during sulfurization, and mechanical softness ill-suited to further processing. PDA/CIGO-PAH films, in contrast, were more mechanically robust and more tolerant of high temperature processing. After LbL deposition, films were oxidized to remove polymer and sulfurized at high temperature under flowing hydrogen sulfide to convert CIGO to CIGS. Complete film conversion from the oxide to the sulfide is confirmed by X-ray diffraction characterization.

  3. Preparation and layer-by-layer solution deposition of Cu(In,GaO2 nanoparticles with conversion to Cu(In,GaS2 films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter J Dressick

    Full Text Available We present a method of Cu(In,GaS2 (CIGS thin film formation via conversion of layer-by-layer (LbL assembled Cu-In-Ga oxide (CIGO nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes. CIGO nanoparticles were created via a novel flame-spray pyrolysis method using metal nitrate precursors, subsequently coated with polyallylamine (PAH, and dispersed in aqueous solution. Multilayer films were assembled by alternately dipping quartz, Si, and/or Mo substrates into a solution of either polydopamine (PDA or polystyrenesulfonate (PSS and then in the CIGO-PAH dispersion to fabricate films as thick as 1-2 microns. PSS/CIGO-PAH films were found to be inadequate due to weak adhesion to the Si and Mo substrates, excessive particle diffusion during sulfurization, and mechanical softness ill-suited to further processing. PDA/CIGO-PAH films, in contrast, were more mechanically robust and more tolerant of high temperature processing. After LbL deposition, films were oxidized to remove polymer and sulfurized at high temperature under flowing hydrogen sulfide to convert CIGO to CIGS. Complete film conversion from the oxide to the sulfide is confirmed by X-ray diffraction characterization.

  4. Preparation of Layer-by-Layer Films Composed of Polysaccharides and Poly(Amidoamine Dendrimer Bearing Phenylboronic Acid and Their pH- and Sugar-Dependent Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Yoshida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer films composed of polysaccharides and poly(amidoamine dendrimer bearing phenylboronic acid (PBA-PAMAM were prepared to study the deposition behavior of the films and their stability in buffer solutions and in sugar solutions. Alginic acid (AGA and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC were employed as counter-polymers in constructing LbL films. AGA/PBA-PAMAM films were successfully prepared at pH 6.0–9.0, whereas the preparation of CMC/PBA-PAMAM film was unsuccessful at pH 8.0 and 9.0. The results show that the LbL films formed mainly through electrostatic affinity between PBA-PAMAM and polysaccharides, while, for AGA/PBA-PAMAM films, the participation of boronate ester bonds in the films was suggested. AGA/PBA-PAMAM films were stable in the solutions of pH 6.0–9.0. In contrast, CMC/PBA-PAMAM films decomposed at pH 7.5–9.0. The AGA/PBA-PAMAM films decomposed in response to 5–30 mM fructose at pH 7.5, while the films were stable in glucose solutions. Thus, AGA is useful as a counter-polymer for constructing PBA-PAMAM films that are stable at physiological pH and decompose in response to fructose.

  5. Direct Observation of the Layer-by-Layer Growth of ZnO Nanopillar by In situ High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Cheng, Shaobo; Deng, Shiqing; Wei, Xianlong; Zhu, Jing; Chen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Catalyst-free methods are important for the fabrication of pure nanowires (NWs). However, the growth mechanism remains elusive due to the lack of crucial information on the growth dynamics at atomic level. Here, the noncatalytic growth process of ZnO NWs is studied through in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We observe the layer-by-layer growth of ZnO nanopillars along the polar [0001] direction under electron beam irradiation, while no growth is observed along the radial directions, indicating an anisotropic growth mechanism. The source atoms are mainly from the electron beam induced damage of the sample and the growth is assisted by subsequent absorption and then diffusion of atoms along the side surface to the top (0002) surface. The different binding energy on different ZnO surface is the main origin for the anisotropic growth. Additionally, the coalescence of ZnO nanocrystals related to the nucleation stage is uncovered to realize through the rotational motions and recrystallization. Our in situ results provide atomic-level detailed information about the dynamic growth and coalescence processes in the noncatalytic synthesis of ZnO NW and are helpful for understanding the vapor-solid mechanism of catalyst-free NW growth. PMID:28098261

  6. Multilayer Films Electrodes Consisted of Cashew Gum and Polyaniline Assembled by the Layer-by-Layer Technique: Electrochemical Characterization and Its Use for Dopamine Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Sergio Bitencourt Araújo; Leite, Cleide Maria da Silva; de Brito, Ana Cristina Facundo; Dos Santos Júnior, José Ribeiro; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Eiras, Carla

    2012-01-01

    We take advantage of polyelectrolyte feature exhibited by natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) (CG), found in northeast Brazil, to employ it in the formation of electroactive nanocomposites prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. We used polyaniline unmodified (PANI) or modified with phosphonic acid (PA), PANI-PA as cationic polyelectrolyte. On the other hand, the CG or polyvinyl sulfonic (PVS) acids were used as anionic polyelectrolytes. The films were prepared with PANI or PANI-PA intercalated with CG or with PVS alternately resulting in four films with different sequences: PANI/CG PANI-PA/CG, PANI/PVS and PANI-PA/PVS, respectively. Analysis by cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the films showed that the presence of gum increases the stability of the films in acidic medium. The performance of the modified electrode of PANI-PA/CG was evaluated in electro analytical determination of dopamine (DA). The tests showed great sensitivity of the film for this analyte that was detected at 10(-5) mol L(-1).

  7. Fabrication of Hierarchical Layer-by-Layer Assembled Diamond-based Core-Shell Nanocomposites as Highly Efficient Dye Absorbents for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinna; Ma, Kai; Jiao, Tifeng; Xing, Ruirui; Ma, Xilong; Hu, Jie; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Lexin; Yan, Xuehai

    2017-03-01

    The effective chemical modification and self-assembly of diamond-based hierarchical composite materials are of key importance for a broad range of diamond applications. Herein, we report the preparation of novel core-shell diamond-based nanocomposites for dye adsorption toward wastewater treatment through a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled strategy. The synthesis of the reported composites began with the carboxyl functionalization of microdiamond by the chemical modification of diamond@graphene oxide composite through the oxidation of diamond@graphite. The carboxyl-terminated microdiamond was then alternatively immersed in the aqueous solution of amine-containing polyethylenimine and carboxyl-containing poly acrylic acid, which led to the formation of adsorption layer on diamond surface. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing and carboxyl-containing polymers were continued until the desired number of shell layers were formed around the microdiamond. The obtained core-shell nanocomposites were successfully synthesized and characterized by morphological and spectral techniques, demonstrating higher surface areas and mesoporous structures for good dye adsorption capacities than nonporous solid diamond particles. The LbL-assembled core-shell nanocomposites thus obtained demonstrated great adsorption capacity by using two model dyes as pollutants for wastewater treatment. Therefore, the present work on LbL-assembled diamond-based composites provides new alternatives for developing diamond hybrids as well as nanomaterials towards wastewater treatment applications.

  8. Synthesis of mesoporous silica@Co-Al layered double hydroxide spheres: layer-by-layer method and their effects on the flame retardancy of epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Dong; Bai, Zhi-Man; Tang, Gang; Song, Lei; Stec, Anna A; Hull, T Richard; Hu, Yuan; Hu, Wei-Zhao

    2014-08-27

    Hierarchical mesoporous silica@Co-Al layered double hydroxide (m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH) spheres were prepared through a layer-by-layer assembly process, in order to integrate their excellent physical and chemical functionalities. TEM results depicted that, due to the electrostatic potential difference between m-SiO2 and Co-Al LDH, the synthetic m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH hybrids exhibited that m-SiO2 spheres were packaged by the Co-Al LDH nanosheets. Subsequently, the m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH spheres were incorporated into epoxy resin (EP) to prepare specimens for investigation of their flame-retardant performance. Cone results indicated that m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH incorporated obviously improved fire retardant of EP. A plausible mechanism of fire retardant was hypothesized based on the analyses of thermal conductivity, char residues, and pyrolysis fragments. Labyrinth effect of m-SiO2 and formation of graphitized carbon char catalyzed by Co-Al LDH play pivotal roles in the flame retardance enhancement.

  9. Layer-by-Layer Thin Films for Co-Delivery of TGF-β siRNA and Epidermal Growth Factor to Improve Excisional Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapalli, Praveen Kumar; Labala, Suman; Jose, Anup; Bhatnagar, Shubhmita; Janupally, Renuka; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna

    2016-06-27

    The major challenge with treatment of dermal wounds is accelerating healing process, while preventing the scar formation. Herein, we have fabricated layer-by-layer (LbL) polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and TGF-β siRNA to improve excisional wound healing and decrease scar formation. The chitosan and sodium alginate LbL thin films showed 13.0 MPa tensile strength and 2.22 N/cm(2) skin adhesion strength. The LbL thin films were found to be cytocompatible, where A431 epidermal keratinocytes adhered to the film and showed 86.2 ± 0.8% cell growth compared with cells cultured in the absence of LbL thin film. In contrast, LbL thin film did not promote the Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial colony formation. In a C57BL/6 mouse excisional wound model, application of LbL thin films containing TGF-β siRNA significantly (p thin films containing EGF showed improved wound contraction (thin films resulted in accelerated wound healing and decreased collagen deposition. Furthermore, the LbL thin films with TGF-β siRNA and EGF combination showed greater reepithelialization. Taken together, we have successfully demonstrated the co-delivery of TGF-β siRNA and EGF peptide using LbL thin films to promote wound healing and decrease scar formation.

  10. Direct electrochemistry and enzymatic activity of hemoglobin in positively charged colloid Au nanoparticles and hemoglobin layer-by-layer self-assembly films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Ruo; CAO; ShuRui; CHAI; YaQin; GAO; FengXian; ZHAO; Qing; TANG; MingYu; TONG; ZhongQiang; XIE; Yi

    2007-01-01

    Alternate adsorption of positively charged colloid-Au nanoparticles (nano-Au(Ξ) and negatively charged hemoglobin (Hb) on L-cysteine (L-cys) modified gold electrode resulted in the assembly of {Hb/nano-Au(Ξ)}n layer-by-layer films/L-cys modified gold electrode. The nano-Au(Ξ) was characterized by transmission electron micrograph (TEM) and microelectrophoresis. The modified electrode interface morphology was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammograms (CV) and chronoamperometry. Direct electron transfer between hemoglobin and gold electrodes was studied, and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Kappm) of the modified electrode was evaluated to be 0.10 mmol·L-1. Moreover, the higher activity of proteins in the nano-Au(Ξ)films could be retained compared with the electropolymerization membrane, since the proteins in nano-Au(Ξ) films retained their near-native structure. Direct electron transfer between hemoglobin and electrode and electrochemically catalyzed reduction of hydrogen peroxide on a modified electrode was studied, and the linear range was from 2.1×10-8 to 1.2 ×10-3 mol·L-1 (r = 0.994) with a detection limit of 1.1×10?8 mol·L-1 H2O2.

  11. Inorganic-organic hybrid coatings on stainless steel by layer-by-layer deposition and surface-initiated atom-transfer-radical polymerization for combating biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S J; Pehkonen, S O; Ting, Y P; Neoh, K G; Kang, E T

    2009-03-01

    To improve the biocorrosion resistance of stainless steel (SS) and to confer the bactericidal function on its surface for inhibiting bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, well-defined inorganic-organic hybrid coatings, consisting of the inner compact titanium oxide multilayers and outer dense poly(vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium) brushes, were successfully developed. Nanostructured titanium oxide multilayer coatings were first built up on the SS substrates via the layer-by-layer sol-gel deposition process. The trichlorosilane coupling agent, containing the alkyl halide atom-transfer-radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator, was subsequently immobilized on the titanium oxide coatings for surface-initiated ATRP of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP). The pyridium nitrogen moieties of the covalently immobilized 4VP polymer, or P(4VP), brushes were quaternized with hexyl bromide to produce a high concentration of quaternary ammonium salt on the SS surfaces. The excellent antibacterial efficiency of the grafted polycations, poly(vinyl-N-pyridinium bromide), was revealed by viable cell counts and atomic force microscopy images of the surface. The effectiveness of the hybrid coatings in corrosion protection was verified by the Tafel plot and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements.

  12. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Multifunctional Flame Retardant Based on Brucite, 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane, and Alginate and Its Applications in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiliang; Yang, Xiaomei; Peng, Hui; Wang, Fang; Liu, Xiu; Yang, Yunguo; Hao, Jianwei

    2016-04-20

    An efficient and multifunctional brucite/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)/nickel alginate/APTES (B/A/Nia/A) hybrid flame retardant was fabricated via the layer-by-layer assembly technique with brucite, silane coupling agents, nickel chloride, and sodium alginate. The morphology, chemical composition, and structure of the hybrid flame retardant were characterized. The results confirmed the multilayer structure and indicated that the assembled driving forces were electrostatic interactions, dehydration condensation, hydrogen bonds, and coordination bonds. When used in ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) resin, the multifunctional flame retardant had better performance than brucite in improving the flame retardancy, smoke suppression, and mechanical properties. With 130 phr loading, the multifunctional flame retardant achieved a limiting oxygen index value of 32.3% and a UL 94 V-0 rating, whereas the brucite achieved only 31.1% and a V-2 rating, respectively. The peak heat release rate and total heat released decreased by 41.5% and 8.9%, respectively. The multifunctional flame retardant had an excellent performance in reducing the smoke, CO, and CO2 production rates. These improvements could be attributed to the catalyzing carbonization of nickel compounds and the formation of more protective char layers. Moreover, the elongation at break increased by 97.5%, which benefited from the improved compatibility and the sacrificial bonds in the nickel alginate. The mechanism of flame retardant, smoke suppression, and toughening is proposed.

  13. Effect of pH on the structure and drug release profiles of layer-by-layer assembled films containing polyelectrolyte, micelles, and graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Uiyoung; Seo, Younghye; Hong, Jinkee

    2016-04-01

    Layer by layer (lbl) assembled multilayer thin films are used in drug delivery systems with attractive advantages such as unlimited selection of building blocks and free modification of the film structure. In this paper, we report the fundamental properties of lbl films constructed from different substances such as PS-b-PAA amphiphilic block copolymer micelles (BCM) as nano-sized drug vehicles, 2D-shaped graphene oxide (GO), and branched polyethylenimine (bPEI). These films were fabricated by successive lbl assembly as a result of electrostatic interactions between the carboxyl group of BCM and amine group of functionalized GO or bPEI under various pH conditions. We also compared the thickness, roughness, morphology and degree of adsorption of the (bPEI/BCM) films to those in the (GO/BCM) films. The results showed significant difference because of the distinct pH dependence of each material. In addition, drug release rates of the GO/BCM film were more rapid those of the (bPEI/BCM) film in pH 7.4 and pH 2 PBS buffer solutions. In (bPEI/BCM/GO/BCM) film, the inserted GO layers into bPEI/BCM multilayer induced rapid drug release. We believe that these materials & pH dependent film properties allow developments in the control of coating techniques for biological and biomedical applications.

  14. Structural, optical, and adsorption properties of ZnO(2)/poly(acrylic acid) hybrid thin porous films prepared by ionic strength controlled layer-by-layer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, Edit; Sebok, Dániel; Hornok, Viktória; Dékány, Imre

    2009-04-01

    ZnO(2)/poly(acrylic acid) sandwich structures were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly. The structure and optical behavior of the hybrid films were controlled by changing the surface charge and conformation of the poly(acrylic acid). The buildup of the films was followed by UV-vis absorption and reflection spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. It was found that the ionic strength of the polymer solution had a great influence on the film thickness which, in turn, affected the optical properties. The water vapor adsorption isotherms of the films determined by QCM showed an adsorption hysteresis characteristic of porous thin layer structures. The adsorption of water molecules inside the films changed the effective refractive index resulting in a change of the reflection properties. This phenomenon is shown to be exploited for the application of the films as optical sensors. The polarizability of water molecules in the adsorption layer was also determined. It was found that polarization of water molecules in the adsorption layer is much lower than in the liquid water when the surface coverage (Theta) is low.

  15. Assembly of cell-laden hydrogel fiber into non-liquefied and liquefied 3D spiral constructs by perfusion-based layer-by-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Praveen; Oliveira, Sara M; Borges, João; Mano, João F

    2015-01-06

    In this work, three-dimensional (3D) self-sustaining, spiral-shaped constructs were produced through a combination of ionotropic gelation, to form cell-encapsulated alginate fibers, and a perfusion-based layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. Single fibers were assembled over cylindrical molds by reeling to form spiral shapes, both having different geometries and sizes. An uninterrupted nanometric multilayer coating produced by a perfusion-based LbL technique, using alginate and chitosan, generated stable 3D spiral-shaped macrostructures by gripping and affixing the threads together without using any crosslinking/binding agent. The chelation process altered the internal microenvironment of the 3D construct from the solid to the liquefied state while preserving the external geometry. L929 cell viability by MTS and dsDNA quantification favor liquefied 3D constructs more than non-liquefied ones. The proposed technique setup helps us to generate complex polyelectrolyte-based 3D constructs for tissue engineering applications and organ printing.

  16. Photocatalytic thin films containing TiO{sub 2}:N nanopowders obtained by the layer-by-layer self-assembling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Blanco, L., E-mail: smile_liz18@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fraccionamiento Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 76230 Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Urzua, M.D. [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Ramirez-Bon, R.; Espinoza Beltran, F.J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fraccionamiento Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 76230 Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2012-01-01

    In this work, TiO{sub 2}-N powders were synthesized by high-energy ball milling, using commercial titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the anatase phase and urea to introduce nitrogen into TiO{sub 2} in order to enhance their photocatalytic properties in the visible spectral region. Several samples were prepared by milling a mixture of TiO{sub 2}-urea during 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the coexistence of anatase and high-pressure srilankite TiO{sub 2} crystalline phases in the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the grain size of the powder samples decreases to 200 nm at 24 h milling time. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopic data showed a clear red-shift in the onset of light absorption from 387 to 469 nm as consequence of nitrogen doping in the samples. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO{sub 2}-N samples was evaluated by methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that TiO{sub 2}-N samples had higher photocatalytic activity than undoped TiO{sub 2} samples, which could be assigned to the effect of introducing N atoms and XPS results confirm it. Using polyethylenimine (PEI), transparent thin films of TiO{sub 2}-N nanoparticles were prepared by layer-by-layer self assembly method. UV-visible spectrophotometry was employed in a quantitative manner to monitor the adsorbed mass of TiO{sub 2} and PEI after each dip cycle. The adsorption of both TiO{sub 2} and PEI showed a saturation dip time of 15 min.

  17. Photocatalytic thin films containing TiO2:N nanopowders obtained by the layer-by-layer self-assembling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Blanco, L.; Urzúa, M. D.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Espinoza Beltrán, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, TiO2-N powders were synthesized by high-energy ball milling, using commercial titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the anatase phase and urea to introduce nitrogen into TiO2 in order to enhance their photocatalytic properties in the visible spectral region. Several samples were prepared by milling a mixture of TiO2-urea during 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the coexistence of anatase and high-pressure srilankite TiO2 crystalline phases in the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the grain size of the powder samples decreases to 200 nm at 24 h milling time. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopic data showed a clear red-shift in the onset of light absorption from 387 to 469 nm as consequence of nitrogen doping in the samples. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2-N samples was evaluated by methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that TiO2-N samples had higher photocatalytic activity than undoped TiO2 samples, which could be assigned to the effect of introducing N atoms and XPS results confirm it. Using polyethylenimine (PEI), transparent thin films of TiO2-N nanoparticles were prepared by layer-by-layer self assembly method. UV-visible spectrophotometry was employed in a quantitative manner to monitor the adsorbed mass of TiO2 and PEI after each dip cycle. The adsorption of both TiO2 and PEI showed a saturation dip time of 15 min.

  18. Molecular self ordering and charge transport in layer by layer deposited poly (3,3‴-dialkylquarterthiophene) films formed by Langmuir-Schaefer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Rajiv K.; Singh, Arun Kumar; Upadhyay, C.; Prakash, Rajiv, E-mail: rprakash.mst@itbhu.ac.in [School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2014-09-07

    The performance of π-conjugated polymer based electronic devices is directly governed by the molecular morphology of polymer aggregation, the extent to which a molecule is electronically coupled (self ordered and interacted) to neighboring molecules, and orientation. The well electronic coupled and crystalline/ordered polymer films have the potential to enhance the charge transport properties up to a benchmark. However, there is insufficient knowledge about the direct formation of large area, oriented, crystalline, and smooth films. In this study, we have presented Langmuir Schaefer technique to obtain the large area, oriented, crystalline, and smooth film of Poly (3,3‴-dialkylquarterthiophene) (PQT-12) polymer. The effect of self ordering and orientation of PQT-12 polymer on optical, morphological, and charge transport properties has been investigated. The prepared films have been characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffractions pattern (SAED), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. UV-vis spectra, TEM, SAED, and AFM images of monolayer films reveal the formation of well ordered and electronically coupled polymer domains. Layer by layer deposited films reveal the change in the orientation, which is confirmed by Raman spectra. Electronic properties and layer dependent charge transport properties are investigated using sandwiched structure Al/PQT-12/ITO Schottky configuration with perpendicular to the deposited films. It is observed that the charge transport properties and device electronic parameters (ideality factor and turn on voltage) are significantly changing with increasing the number of PQT-12 layers. Our study also demonstrates the charge transport between polymer crystallites and cause of deviation of ideal behavior of organic Schottky diodes. It may be further explored for improving the performance of other organic and optoelectronic devices.

  19. Layer-by-layer encapsulated nano-emulsion of ionic liquid loaded with functional material for extraction of Cd(2+) ions from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizarova, Iuliia S; Luckham, Paul F

    2017-04-01

    Ionic liquids can serve as an environmentally-friendly replacement for solvents in emulsions, therefore they are considered suitable to be used as an emulsified medium for various active materials one of which are extractors of metal ions. Increasing the extraction efficiency is considered to be one of the key objectives when working with such extraction systems. One way to improve the extraction efficiency is to increase the contact area between the extractant and the working ionic solution. This can be accomplished by creating a nano-emulsion of ionic liquid containing such an extractant. Since emulsification of ionic liquid is not always possible in the sample itself, there is a necessity of creating a stable emulsion that can be added externally and on demand to samples from which metal ions need to be extracted. We propose a method of fabrication of a highly-stable extractant-loaded ionic liquid-in-water nano-emulsion via a low-energy phase reversal emulsification followed by continuous layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition process to encapsulate the nano-emulsion and enhance the emulsion stability. Such a multilayered stabilized nano-emulsion was tested for extraction of Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) ions in order to determine its extraction efficiency and selectivity. It was found to be effective in the extraction of Cd(2+) ions with near 100% cadmium removal, as well as being selective since no Ca(2+) ions were extracted. The encapsulated emulsion was removed from samples post-extraction using two methods - filtration and magnetic separation, both of which were shown to be viable under different circumstances - larger and mechanically stronger capsules could be removed by filtration, however magnetic separation worked better for both smaller and bigger capsules. The long-term stability of nano-emulsion was also tested being a very important characteristic for its proposed use: it was found to be highly stable after four months of storage time.

  20. Layer-by-layer assembled highly absorbing hundred-layer films containing a phthalocyanine dye: Fabrication and photosensibilization by thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeeva, Alena S., E-mail: alenasergeeva@mail.ru [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology, Branch Bioanalytics and Bioprocesses (Fraunhofer IZI-BB), Muehlenberg 13, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Volkova, Elena K., E-mail: ekvolkova87@rambler.ru [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Bratashov, Daniil N., E-mail: dn2010@gmail.com [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Shishkin, Mikhail I., E-mail: shishkin1mikhail@gmail.com [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Atkin, Vsevolod S., E-mail: ceba91@list.ru [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Markin, Aleksey V., E-mail: markinav@mail.ru [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Skaptsov, Aleksandr A., E-mail: skaptsov@yandex.ru [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Volodkin, Dmitry V., E-mail: dmitry.volodkin@izi-bb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology, Branch Bioanalytics and Bioprocesses (Fraunhofer IZI-BB), Muehlenberg 13, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Gorin, Dmitry A., E-mail: gorinda@mail.ru [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-29

    Highly absorbing hundred-layer films based on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) of various molecular weights and on sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuPcTs) were prepared using layer-by-layer assembly. The multilayer films grew linearly up to 54 bilayers, indicating that the same amount of CuPcTs was adsorbed at each deposition step. This amount, however, was dependent on the molecular weight of PDADMAC in the range 100-500 kDa: the higher the molecular weight, the more CuPcTs molecules were adsorbed. This can be explained by the larger surface charge number density specific to longer polymer chains. Domains of pure PDADMAC and of the PDADMAC/CuPcTs complex were formed in the films during the assembly. Uniform distribution of CuPcTs over the films could be achieved by thermal treatment, leading to an α → β phase transition in phthalocyanine at 300 °C. Annealing caused changes in the film absorbance spectra, resulting in a 30-nm red shift of the peak maxima and in a strong (up to 62%) decrease in optical density. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed thermodegradation of PDADMAC during annealing above 270 °C, giving rise to micrometer-sized cracks within the films, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • The films exhibit the linear dependence of the adsorption on the bilayer number varied from 2 until 54. • Polyelectrolyte of the highest MW shows the maximal adsorption of copper phthalocyanine molecules. • Annealing of the films causes a red-shift of the maxima in the absorbance spectra. • Cracks and micropores emerged in the multilayer films during the annealing.

  1. A novel dynamic layer-by-layer assembled nano-scale biointerface: functionality tests with platelet adhesion and aggregate morphology influenced by adenosine diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Melanie G; Lopez, Juan M; Paun, Mihaela; Jones, Steven A

    2013-11-01

    An improved biointerface was developed, dynamic layer-by-layer self-assembly surface (d-LbL), and utilized as a biologically-active substrate for platelet adhesion and aggregation. Possible clinical applications for this research include improved anti-coagulation surfaces. This work demonstrated the functionality of d-LbL biointerfaces in the presence of platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) with the addition of 20 μM adenosine diphosphate (ADP), a thrombus activator. The surface morphology of the experimental control, plain PRP, was compared to PRP containing additional ADP (PRP + ADP) and resulted in an expected increase of platelet adhesions along the fibrinogen d-LbL substrate. The d-LbL process was used to coat glass slides with fibrinogen, Poly (sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate), and Poly (diallydimethlyammonium chloride). Slides were exposed to PRP under flow and static conditions with and without 20 μM of ADP. Fluorescence microscopy (FM), phase contrast microscopy (PCM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were used to evaluate platelet adhesions under the influence of varied shear conditions. PCM images illustrated differences between the standard LbL and d-LbL substrates. FM images provided percent surface coverage values. For high-shear conditions, percent surface coverage values increased when using ADP whereas plain PRP exposure displayed no significant increase. AFM scans also displayed higher mean peak height values and unique surface characteristics for PRP + ADP as opposed to plain PRP. FE-SEM images revealed platelet adhesions along the biointerface and unique characteristics of the d-LbL surface. In conclusion, PRP + ADP was more effective at increasing platelet aggregation, especially under high shear conditions, providing further validation of the improved biointerface.

  2. Controlling Structure from the Bottom-Up: Structural and Optical Properties of Layer-by-Layer Assembled Palladium Coordination-Based Multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman,M.; Shukla, A.; Zubkov, T.; Evmenenko, G.; Dutta, P.; van der Boom, M.

    2006-01-01

    Layer-by-layer assembly of two palladium coordination-based multilayers on silicon and glass substrates is presented. The new assemblies consist of rigid-rod chromophores connected by terminal pyridine moieties to palladium centers. Both colloidal palladium and PdCl{sub 2}(PhCN){sub 2} were used in order to determine the effect of the metal complex precursor on multilayer structure and optical properties. The multilayers were formed by an iterative wet-chemical deposition process at room temperature in air on a siloxane-based template layer. Twelve consecutive deposition steps have been demonstrated resulting in structurally regular assemblies with an equal amount of chromophore and palladium added in each molecular bilayer. The optical intensity characteristics of the metal-organic films are clearly a function of the palladium precursor employed. The colloid-based system has a UV-vis absorption maximum an order of magnitude stronger than that of the PdCl{sub 2}-based multilayer. The absorption maximum of the PdCl{sub 2}-based film exhibits a significant red shift of 23 nm with the addition of 12 layers. Remarkably, the structure and physiochemical properties of the submicron scale PdCl{sub 2}-based structures are determined by the configuration of the {approx}15 Angstrom thick template layer. The refractive index of the PdCl2-based film was determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Well-defined three-dimensional structures, with a dimension of 5 m, were obtained using photopatterned template monolayers. The properties and microstructure of the films were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and aqueous contact angle measurements (CA).

  3. Layer-by-layer films containing peptides of the Cry1Ab16 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis for potential biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plácido, Alexandra; de Oliveira Farias, Emanuel Airton; Marani, Mariela M; Vasconcelos, Andreanne G; Mafud, Ana C; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P; Eiras, Carla; Leite, José R S A; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Cry1Ab16 is a toxin of crystalline insecticidal proteins that has been widely used in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to gain resistance to pests. For the first time, in this study, peptides derived from the immunogenic Cry1Ab16 toxin (from Bacillus thuringiensis) were immobilized as layer-by-layer (LbL) films. Given the concern about food and environmental safety, a peptide with immunogenic potential, PcL342-354C, was selected for characterization of the electrochemical, optical, and morphological properties. The results obtained by cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed that the peptide have an irreversible oxidation process in electrolyte of 0.1 mol · L(-1) potassium phosphate buffer (PBS) at pH7.2. It was also observed that the electrochemical response of the peptide is governed mainly by charge transfer. In an attempt to maximize the electrochemical signal of peptide, it was intercalated with natural (agar, alginate and chitosan) or synthetic polymers (polyethylenimine (PEI) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (PSS)). The presence of synthetic polymers on the film increased the electrochemical signal of PcL342-354C up to 100 times. Images by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) showed that the immobilized PcL342-354C formed self-assembled nanofibers with diameters ranging from 100 to 200 nm on the polymeric film. By UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) it was observed that the ITO/PEI/PSS/PcL342-354C film grows linearly up to the fifth layer, thereafter tending to saturation. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence on the films of crystalline ITO and amorphous polypeptide phases. In general, the ITO/PEI/PSS/PcL342-354C film characterization proved that this system is an excellent candidate for applications in electrochemical sensors and other biotechnological applications for GMOs and environmental indicators.

  4. Photoelectrochemical, photophysical and morphological studies of electrostatic layer-by-layer thin films based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) and single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L C P; Zucolotto, V; Domingues, R A; Atvars, T D Z; Nogueira, A F

    2011-11-01

    The preparation of multilayer films based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) and carboxylic-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT-COOH) by electrostatic interaction using the layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition method is reported herein. The multilayer build-up, monitored by UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies, displayed a linear behavior with the number of PPV and SWNT-COOH layers deposited that undergo deviation and spectral changes for thicker films. Film morphology was evaluated by AFM and epifluorescence microscopies showing remarkable changes after incorporation of SWNT-COOH layers. Films without SWNT show roughness and present dispersed grains; films with SWNT-COOH layers are flatter and some carbon nanotube bundles can be visualized. The photoinduced charge transfer from the conducting polymer to SWNT-COOH was analyzed by PL quenching either by the decrease of the emission intensity or by the presence of dark domains in the epifluorescence micrographs. Photoelectrochemical characterization was performed under white light and the films containing SWNT-COOH displayed photocurrent values between 2.0 μA cm(-2) and 7.5 μA cm(-2), as the amount of these materials increases in the film. No photocurrent was observed for the film without carbon nanotubes. Photocurrent generation was enhanced and became more stable when an intermediate layer of PEDOT:PSS was interposed between the active layer and the ITO electrode, indicating an improvement in hole transfer to the contacts. Our results indicate that these multilayer films are promising candidates as active layers for organic photovoltaic cells.

  5. The Possibilities of Full-Color Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Biological Objects by the Method of Layer-By-Layer Overlapping: Knee Joint of a Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terpilovskiy A.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article has a goal to demonstrate capabilities of layer-by-layer overlapping method for 3D-reconstruction of knee joint. The model object was chosen for this research to provide the base for new methods in diagnostics and treatment of human orthopedic diseases. We used the original technology of high-precision grinding and compared the ability of quantitative analysis of bone and cartilage tissue on 3D models to the capabilities of classical morphometry of histological slices. Obtained digitized images of thin sections (1200-2600 on each of the 8 joints had a pixel size of 8 x 8 μm, with a vertical step grinding 8 μm. Its software processing allows for the construction of a virtual slice with an offset and slope, required for the adequate visualization of the biological structures. The developed method of high-precision grinding allows obtaining series of digitized cross-sectional images of biological objects, so the virtual object created on its base, is almost devoid of spatial deformations and distortions of color. Morphometric analysis of these 3D reconstructions in terms of precision and informativeness is not inferior, and according to some indicators it exceeds the quantitative study of serial histological sections. The reconstruction, obtained using the high-precision grinding, can be used to create virtual museum exhibits, atlases and manuals in various biological sciences, based on morphological approach to the cognition of its objects. Another application of reconstruction is to convert them into virtual simulators on the principles of augmented reality or into the models for 3D printing of physical simulators and working prototypes for medicine, veterinary, animal science and related areas. This will be of most value where an MRI or histological reconstruction did not provide full three-dimensional picture.

  6. Inkjet-assisted layer-by-layer printing of quantum dot/enzyme microarrays for highly sensitive detection of organophosphorous pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Enxiao; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Li, Xinyu; Gu, Hongxi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Micro- and Nanotechnology Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Liu, Shaoqin, E-mail: shaoqinliu@hit.edu.cn [Micro- and Nanotechnology Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2016-04-15

    We present a facile fabrication of layer-by-layer (LbL) microarrays of quantum dots (QDs) and acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). The resulting arrays had several unique properties, such as low cost, high integration and excellent flexibility and time–saving. The presence of organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) can inhibit the AChE activity and thus changes the fluorescent intensity of QDs/AChE microscopic dot arrays. Therefore, the QDs/AChE microscopic dot arrays were used for the sensitive visual detection of OPs. Linear calibration for parathion and paraoxon was obtained in the range of 5–100 μg L{sup −1} under the optimized conditions with the limit of detection (LOD) of 10 μg L{sup −1}. The arrays have been successfully used for detection of OPs in fruits and water real samples. The new array was validated by comparison with conventional high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). - Graphical abstract: A fluorimetric assay for high-throughput screening of organophosphorous pesticides was developed based on the CdTe QDs/AChE microarrays via inkjet-assisted LbL printing techniques. - Highlights: • The large scale microarrays of CdTe QDs and AChE were fabricated by facile inkjet-assisted LbL printing technique. • The QDs/AChE microscopic dot arrays could be used quantitatively and rapidly for the sensitively visual detection of OPs. • A detection limit of 10 μg L{sup −1} was achieved, much lower than levels specified by standard tests and other colorimetric detection methods. • The low cost, short processing time, sufficient sensitivity, good stability and ease of use make it for a facile platform for on-site screening.

  7. Investigating Zigzag Film Growth Behaviors in Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly of Small Molecules through a High-Gravity Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mengjiao; Jiang, Chao; Luo, Caijun; Zhang, Yajun; Shi, Feng

    2015-08-26

    The zigzag film growth behavior in the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method is a ubiquitous phenomenon for which the growth mechanism was rarely investigated, especially for small molecules. To interpret the zigzag increasing manner, we hypothesized that the desorption kinetics of small molecules was dominant for the film growth behavior and demonstrated this hypotheis by introducing the high-gravity technique into the LbL assembly of a typical polyelectrolyte/small molecule system of polyethylenimine (PEI) and meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine (Por). The results showed that the high-gravity technique remarkably accelerated the desorption process of Por; the high-gravity LbL assembly provides a good platform to reveal the desorption kinetics of Por, which is tedious to study in conventional situation. We found that as much as 50 min is required for Por molecules to reach desorption equilibrium from the substrate to the bulk PEI solution for the conventional dipping method; however, the process could be accelerated and require only 100 s if a high-gravity field is used. Nonequilibrated desorption at 10 min for normal dipping and at 30 s for high-gravity-field-assisted assembly both exhibited a zigzag film growth, but after reaching desorption equilibrium at 100 s under a high-gravity field, film growth began to cycle between assembly and complete disassembly instead of LbL assembly. For the first time we have proven that the high-gravity technique can also accelerate the desorption process and demonstrated the desorption-dependent mechanism of small molecules for zigzag film growth behaviors.

  8. Microgel-based engineered nanostructures and their applicability with template-directed layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte assembly in protein encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Dinesh B; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2005-05-23

    A novel strategy for the fabrication of microcapsules is elaborated by employing biomacromolecules and a dissolvable template. Calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) microparticles were used as sacrificial templates for the two-step deposition of polyelectrolyte coatings by surface controlled precipitation (SCP) followed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption technique to form capsule shells. When sodium alginate was used for inner shell assembly, template decomposition with an acid resulted in simultaneous formation of microgel-like structures due to calcium ion-induced gelation. An extraction of the calcium after further LbL treatment resulted in microcapsules filled with the biopolymer. The hollow as well as the polymer-filled polyelectrolyte capsules were characterized using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning force microscopy (SFM). The results demonstrated multiple functionalities of the CaCO(3) core - as supporting template, porous core for increased polymer accommodation/immobilization, and as a source of shell-hardening material. The LbL treatment of the core-inner shell assembly resulted in further surface stabilization of the capsule wall and supplementation of a nanostructured diffusion barrier for encapsulated material. The polymer forming the inner shell governs the chemistry of the capsule interior and could be engineered to obtain a matrix for protein/drug encapsulation or immobilization. The outer shell could be used to precisely tune the properties of the capsule wall and exterior. [Diagram: see text] Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) image of microcapsules (insert is after treating with rhodamine 6G to stain the capsule wall).

  9. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Graphene Multilayers as Pt-Free Alternative Counter Electrodes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Adila; Chung, Kyungwha; Kwon, Jeong; Kim, Sung June; Jang, Yoon Hee; Jang, Yu Jin; Quan, Li Na; Yoon, Minji; Park, Jong Hyeok; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-05-11

    Low cost, charged, and large scale graphene multilayers fabricated from nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide N-rGO(+), nitrogen and sulfur codoped reduced graphene oxide NS-rGO(+), and undoped reduced graphene oxide rGO(-) were applied as alternative counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The neat rGO-based counter electrodes were developed via two types of layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly (SA) methods: spin coating and spray coating methods. In the spin coating method, two sets of multilayer films were fabricated on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using GO(-) combined with N-GO(+) followed by annealing and denoted as [rGO(-)/N-rGO(+)]n or with NS-GO(+) and denoted as [rGO(-)/NS-rGO(+)]n for counter electrodes in DSSCs. The DSSCs employing new types of counter electrodes exhibited ∼7.0% and ∼6.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on ten bilayers of [rGO(-)/N-rGO(+)]10 and [rGO(-)/NS-rGO(+)]10, respectively. The DSSCs equipped with a blend of one bilayer of [rGO(-):N-rGO(+)] and [rGO(-):NS-rGO(+)] on PDDA-coated FTO substrates were prepared from a spray coating and showed ∼6.4% and ∼5.6% PCE, respectively. Thus, it was demonstrated that a combination of undoped, nitrogen-doped, and nitrogen and sulfur codoped reduced graphene oxides can be considered as potentially powerful Pt-free electrocatalysts and alternative electrodes in conventional photovoltaic devices.

  10. Assembly of 1D nanofibers into a 2D bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with different functionalities at the two layers via layer-by-layer electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijiao; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Li, Dan; Xi, Xue; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2016-12-21

    A two-dimensional (2D) bi-layered composite nanofibrous film assembled by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers with trifunctionality of electrical conduction, magnetism and photoluminescence has been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer electrospinning. The composite film consists of a polyaniline (PANI)/Fe3O4 nanoparticle (NP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) tuned electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer on one side and a Tb(TTA)3(TPPO)2/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) photoluminescent layer on the other side, and the two layers are tightly combined face-to-face together into the novel bi-layered composite film of trifunctionality. The brand-new film has totally different characteristics at the double layers. The electrical conductivity and magnetism of the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer can be, respectively, tunable via modulating the PANI and Fe3O4 NP contents, and the highest electrical conductivity can reach up to the order of 10(-2) S cm(-1), and predominant intense green emission at 545 nm is obviously observed in the photoluminescent layer under the excitation of 357 nm single-wavelength ultraviolet light. More importantly, the luminescence intensity of the photoluminescent layer remains almost unaffected by the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer because the photoluminescent materials have been successfully isolated from dark-colored PANI and Fe3O4 NPs. By comparing with the counterpart single-layered composite nanofibrous film, it is found that the bi-layered composite nanofibrous film has better performance. The novel bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with trifunctionality has potential in the fields of nanodevices, molecular electronics and biomedicine. Furthermore, the design conception and fabrication technique for the bi-layered multifunctional film provide a new and facile strategy towards other films of multifunctionality.

  11. Construction and histological analysis of a 3D human arterial wall model containing vasa vasorum using a layer-by-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Fumiaki; Narita, Hirokazu; Hiura, Ayami; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2017-03-01

    There is considerable global demand for three-dimensional (3D) functional tissues which mimic our native organs and tissues for use as in vitro drug screening systems and in regenerative medicine. In particular, there has been an increasing number of patients who suffer from arterial diseases such as arteriosclerosis. As such, in vitro 3D arterial wall models that can evaluate the effects of novel medicines and a novel artificial graft for the treatment are required. In our previous study, we reported the rapid construction of 3D tissues by employing a layer-by-layer (LbL) technique and revealed their potential applications in the pharmaceutical fields and tissue engineering. In this study, we successfully constructed a 3D arterial wall model containing vasa vasorum by employing a LbL technique for the first time. The cells were coated with extracellular matrix nanofilms and seeded into a culture insert using a cell accumulation method. This model had a three-layered hierarchical structure: a fibroblast layer, a smooth muscle layer, and an endothelial layer, which resembled the native arterial wall. Our method could introduce vasa vasorum into a fibroblast layer in vitro and the 3D arterial wall model showed barrier function which was evaluated by immunostaining and transendothelial electrical resistance measurement. Furthermore, electron microscopy observations revealed that the vasa vasorum was composed of single-layered endothelial cells, and the endothelial tubes were surrounded by the basal lamina, which are known to promote maturation and stabilization in native blood capillaries. These models should be useful for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and pharmaceutical applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 814-823, 2017.

  12. Layer-by-layer assembly of type I collagen and chondroitin sulfate on aminolyzed PU for potential cartilage tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Xianyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang Yingjun, E-mail: imwangyj@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China) and National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China) and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu Gang, E-mail: imwugang@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel biodegradable polyurethane (PU) was successfully synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface aminolyzing of the PU was performed by reacting it with 1,3-propanediamine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen and chondroitin sulfate were deposited alternately on the PU surface. - Abstract: In this paper, a two-step method was used to synthesize a biodegradable polyurethane (PU) composed of L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (LDI), poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) diols (PCL-diol) and 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol (isosorbide). Amino groups were introduced onto the surface of the PU membrane by an amination reacting with 1,3-propanediamine to produce polycationic substratum. And then, type I collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were deposited alternately on the polycationic substratum through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technology. The FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR results showed that the polyurethane was successfully synthesized. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) fluorescence spectrum indicated that amino groups were successfully introduced onto the PU surface. The results of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and RBITC-Col fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring the LBL assemble process presented that the Col/CS deposited alternately on the PU surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results displayed that the CS deposited on the PU surface as well. The surface of the assembled PU became even smoother observed from the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The hydrophilicity of the PU membrane was greatly enhanced though the modification of LBL assembly. The PU modified with the adsorption of Col/CS may be a potential application for cartilage tissue engineering due to its created mimicking chondrogenic environment.

  13. Spray- and spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembly of copper nanoparticles on thin-film composite reverse osmosis membrane for biofouling mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Soroush, Adel; Van Anh Luong, Tran; Brennan, Gregory; Rahaman, Md Saifur; Asadishad, Bahareh; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have long been considered as highly effective biocides; however, the lack of suitable methods for loading CuNPs onto polymeric membranes is recognized as being one of the primary reasons for the limited research concerning their application in membrane industries. A highly efficient spray- and spin-assisted layer-by-layer (SSLbL) method was developed to functionalize the TFC polyamide RO membranes with controllable loading of CuNPs for biofouling control. The SSLbL method was able to produce a uniform bilayer of polyethyleneimine-coated CuNPs and poly(acrylic) acid in less than 1 min, which is far more efficient than the traditional dipping approach (25-60 min). The successful loading of CuNPs onto the membrane surface was confirmed by XPS analysis. Increasing the number of bilayers from 2 to 10 led to an increased quantity of CuNPs on the membrane surface, from 1.75 to 23.7 μg cm(-2). Multi-layer coating exhibited minor impact on the membrane water permeation flux (13.3% reduction) while retaining the original salt rejection ability. Both static bacterial inactivation and cross-flow filtration tests demonstrated that CuNPs could significantly improve anti-biofouling property of a polyamide membrane and effectively inhibit the permeate flux reduction caused by bacterial deposition on the membrane surface. Once depleted, CuNPs can also be potentially regenerated on the membrane surface via the same SSLbL method.

  14. Layer-by-layer thin film of reduced graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles as an effective sample plate in laser-induced desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tsung-Rong; Wang, Di-Yan; Chiu, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Yun-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Ting; Chen, Ching-Hui; Chen, Chun-Wei; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Hu, Cho-Chun; Chen, Chia-Chun

    2014-01-27

    This work demonstrated a simple platform for rapid and effective surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF MS) measurements based on the layer structure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and gold nanoparticles. A multi-layer thin film was fabricated by alternate layer-by-layer depositions of rGO and gold nanoparticles (LBL rGO/AuNP). The flat and clean two-dimensional film was served as the sample plate and also functioned as the matrix in SALDI-TOF MS. By simply one-step deposition of analytes onto the LBL rGO/AuNP sample plate, the MS measurements of various homogeneous samples were ready to execute. The optimization of MS signal was reached by the variation of the layer numbers of rGO and gold nanoparticles. Also, the small molecules including amino acids, carbohydrates and peptides were successfully analyzed in SALDI-TOF MS using the LBL rGO/AuNP sample plate. The results showed that the signal intensity, S N(-1) ratio and reproducibility of SALDI-TOF spectra have been significantly improved in comparison to the uses of gold nanoparticles or α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (CHCA) as the assisted matrixes. Taking the advantages of the unique properties of rGO and gold nanoparticles, the ready-to-use MS sample plate, which could absorb and dissipate laser energy to analytes quite efficiently and homogeneously, has shown great commercial potentials for MS applications.

  15. Nanoparticulate hollow TiO2 fibers as light scatterers in dye-sensitized solar cells: layer-by-layer self-assembly parameters and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Masoud; Tajabadi, Fariba; Shooshtari, Leyla; Taghavinia, Nima

    2011-04-04

    Hollow structures show both light scattering and light trapping, which makes them promising for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. In this work, nanoparticulate hollow TiO(2) fibers are prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly deposition of TiO(2) nanoparticles on natural cellulose fibers as template, followed by thermal removal of the template. The effect of LbL parameters such as the type and molecular weight of polyelectrolyte, number of dip cycles, and the TiO(2) dispersion (amorphous or crystalline sol) are investigated. LbL deposition with weak polyelectrolytes (polyethylenimine, PEI) gives greater nanoparticle deposition yield compared to strong polyelectrolytes (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), PDDA). Decreasing the molecular weight of the polyelectrolyte results in more deposition of nanoparticles in each dip cycle with narrower pore size distribution. Fibers prepared by the deposition of crystalline TiO(2) nanoparticles show higher surface area and higher pore volume than amorphous nanoparticles. Scattering coefficients and backscattering properties of fibers are investigated and compared with those of commercial P25 nanoparticles. Composite P25-fiber films are electrophoretically deposited and employed as the photoanode in DSSC. Photoelectrochemical measurements showed an increase of around 50% in conversion efficiency. By employing the intensity-modulated photovoltage and photocurrent spectroscopy methods, it is shown that the performance improvement due to addition of fibers is mostly due to the increase in light-harvesting efficiency. The high surface area due to the nanoparticulate structure and strong light harvesting due to the hollow structure make these fibers promising scatterers in DSSCs.

  16. Incorporation of alkaline phosphatase into layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte films on the surface of affi-gel heparin beads: physicochemical characterization and evaluation of the enzyme stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbal, Lylia; Lesot, Hervé; Voegel, Jean Claude; Ball, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    The preparation of functionalized beads in the micrometer size range that can be used to probe the action of immobilized biomolecules on cell cultures during controlled periods of time is of fundamental importance in cell biology. However, the preparation and characterization of such particles is tedious because of their fast sedimentation. It is hence difficult to prepare such beads in a reproducible manner. This highlights the need to prepare an important batch of functionnalized particles and to store them under conditions where the loss of biological activity is minimized. The aim of this paper was to immobilize alkaline phosphatase (AP) as a model enzyme on the surface of Affi-gel heparin beads functionnalized by means of a layer-by-layer (LBL) film made of poly-l-glutamic (PGA) acid and poly-l-lysine (PLL). The enzyme has been adsorbed either on the top of the LBL film or embedded under five polyelectrolyte layers. When embedded, the enzyme was not released in buffer and retained more than 30% of its initial activity after 3 months of storage at 4 degrees C. However, when the enzyme was adsorbed on top of the LBL film, about 80% of the adsorbed enzyme was released in the buffer after a few days of storage. Longer storage did not lead to any further desorption and the remaining enzyme displayed the same evolution of its activity with time as the embedded enzyme. The time evolution of the enzyme activity on the beads is compared with that in solution alone and in the presence of PGA and PLL separately.

  17. Layer by layer assembly of catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid onto titanium nitride nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode: Study of direct voltammetry and bioelectrocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadati, Shagayegh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hallaj, Rahman; Rostami, Amin [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid were immobilized to GC/TiNnp with LBL assembly method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First a thin layer of NH{sub 2}-IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With alternative assemble of IL and catalase with positive and negative charged, multilayer was formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized catalase shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biosensor response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. - Abstract: A novel, simple and facile layer by layer (LBL) approach is used for modification of glassy carbon (GC) electrode with multilayer of catalase and nanocomposite containing 1-(3-Aminopropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide (amine terminated ionic liquid (NH{sub 2}-IL)) and titanium nitride nanoparticles (TiNnp). First a thin layer of NH{sub 2}-IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation method. Then, with alternative self assemble positively charged NH{sub 2}-IL and negatively charged catalase a sensitive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} biosensor is constructed, whose response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. The surface coverage of active catalase per bilayer, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub M}) of immobilized catalase were 3.32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} mol cm{sup -2}, 5.28 s{sup -1} and 1.1 mM, respectively. The biosensor shows good stability, high reproducibility, long life-time, and fast amperometric response with the high sensitivity of 380 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and low detection limit of 100 nM at concentration range up to 2.1 mM.

  18. Molecular ordering of PAH/MA-co-DR13 azopolymer layer-by-layer films probed by second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Heurison S.; Lopes, Fábio J. S.; Miranda, Paulo B.

    2016-09-01

    Molecular orientation within azopolymer thin films is important for their nonlinear optical properties and photonic applications. We have used optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) to study the molecular orientation of Layer-by-Layer (LbL) films of a cationic polyelectrolyte (poly(allylamine hydrochloride)) and an anionic polyelectrolyte containing azochromophore side groups (MA-co-DR13) on a glass substrate. The SHG measurements indicate that there is a preferential orientation of the azochromophores in the film, leading to a significant optical nonlinearity. However, both the signal strength and its anisotropy are not homogeneous throughout the sample, indicating the presence of large orientational domains. This is corroborated with Brewster angle microscopy. The average SHG signal does not increase with film thickness, in contrast to some reports in the literature, indicating an independent orientational order for successive bilayers. Analyzing the SHG signal as a function of the input and output polarizations, a few parameters of the azochromophore orientational distribution can be deduced. Fitting the SHG signal to a simple model distribution, we have concluded that the chromophores have an angular distribution with a slight in-plane anisotropy and a mean polar angle ranging from 45° to 80° with respect to substrate normal direction, with a relatively large width of about 25°. These results show that SHG is a powerful technique for a detailed investigation of the molecular orientation in azopolymer LbL films, allowing a deeper understanding of their self-assembling mechanism and nonlinear optical properties. The inhomogeneity and anisotropy of these films may have important consequences for their applications in nonlinear optical devices.

  19. Infrared-to-green upconversion luminescence and mechanism of Ho3+, Nd3+ and Yb3+ ions in oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jun-Jie; Kawamoto Yoji; Dai Shi-Xun

    2004-01-01

    New oxyfluoride glasses and glass ceramics co-doped with Nd3+, Yb3+ and Ho3+ were prepared. The upconversion of infrared radiation into green fluorescence has been studied for Nd3+, Yb3+ and Ho3+ in the transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics. At room temperature very strong green upconversion luminescence due to the Ho3+: (5F4, 5S2) →5I8transition under 800 nm excitation was observed in the glass ceramics. The intensity of the green upconversion luminescence in a 1mol% YbF3-containing glass ceramic was found to be about 120 times stronger than that in the precursor oxyfluoride glass. The reason for the highly efficient Ho3+ upconversion luminescence in the oxyfluoride glass ceramics is discussed. The upconversion mechanism is also investigated.

  20. Influence of electrolyte temperature on properties and infrared emissivity of MAO ceramic coating on 6061 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bosta, Mohannad M. S.; Ma, Kung-Jeng

    2014-11-01

    6061 aluminum alloy was treated by MAO at various temperatures of the alkali silicate electrolyte using pulsed bipolar current mode for ten minutes. The surface microstructures and properties were studied using SEM, EDX, and XRD. The infrared emissivities of the MAO ceramic coatings were measured at the 70 °C using FTIR spectrometer. The electrolyte temperature strongly affected all the surface properties. The MAO alumina ceramics prepared in cold electrolytes have volcano-like and accumulated particles microstructures, while those prepared in hot electrolytes were: rougher, thinner and contained grainy spherical hollow bulgy microstructures with more pore density and more sillimanite and cristobalite phases which enhanced the IR emissivity. Also, the increment of sillimanite and cristobalite phases moved the apparent peaks toward longer wavelengths, and broadened the opaque region of the IR spectra. As a result, the increment of electrolyte temperature from 12.3 °C to 90.5 °C increased the average of LWIR emissivity from 80.4% to 94.4%, respectively, for the MAO ceramic coatings.

  1. Layer-by-layer films containing peptides of the Cry1Ab16 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis for potential biotechnological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plácido, Alexandra [REQUIMTE/LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Oliveira Farias, Emanuel Airton de [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, 64202020 Parnaíba, Piaui (Brazil); Marani, Mariela M. [IPEEC-CENPAT-CONICET, Centro Nacional Patagónico, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 9120 Puerto Madryn, Chubut (Argentina); Vasconcelos, Andreanne G. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, 64202020 Parnaíba, Piaui (Brazil); Mafud, Ana C.; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Eiras, Carla [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, 64202020 Parnaíba, Piaui (Brazil); Laboratório de Materiais Avançados, LIMAV, Engenharia de Materiais, Centro de Tecnologia, CT, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, 64049550 Teresina, Piaui (Brazil); and others

    2016-04-01

    Cry1Ab16 is a toxin of crystalline insecticidal proteins that has been widely used in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to gain resistance to pests. For the first time, in this study, peptides derived from the immunogenic Cry1Ab16 toxin (from Bacillus thuringiensis) were immobilized as layer-by-layer (LbL) films. Given the concern about food and environmental safety, a peptide with immunogenic potential, PcL342–354C, was selected for characterization of the electrochemical, optical, and morphological properties. The results obtained by cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed that the peptide have an irreversible oxidation process in electrolyte of 0.1 mol·L{sup −1} potassium phosphate buffer (PBS) at pH 7.2. It was also observed that the electrochemical response of the peptide is governed mainly by charge transfer. In an attempt to maximize the electrochemical signal of peptide, it was intercalated with natural (agar, alginate and chitosan) or synthetic polymers (polyethylenimine (PEI) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (PSS)). The presence of synthetic polymers on the film increased the electrochemical signal of PcL342–354C up to 100 times. Images by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) showed that the immobilized PcL342–354C formed self-assembled nanofibers with diameters ranging from 100 to 200 nm on the polymeric film. By UV–Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis) it was observed that the ITO/PEI/PSS/PcL342–354C film grows linearly up to the fifth layer, thereafter tending to saturation. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence on the films of crystalline ITO and amorphous polypeptide phases. In general, the ITO/PEI/PSS/PcL342–354C film characterization proved that this system is an excellent candidate for applications in electrochemical sensors and other biotechnological applications for GMOs and environmental indicators. - Highlights: • Peptides of the Cry1Ab16 toxin for potential biotechnological applications • Optimized LbL film deposition for synergic

  2. Matrix-assisted colloidosome reverse-phase layer-by-layer encapsulating biomolecules in hydrogel microcapsules with extremely high efficiency and retention stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Wing Cheung; Bai, Jianhao; Chang, Xiang Yun; Trau, Dieter

    2009-01-20

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) polyelectrolyte self-assembly encapsulation method has attracted much interest because of its versatility to use various polymers for capsule formation, ability to encapsulate different templates, and capability to control capsule permeability. Traditionally, the LbL method was performed in water as solvent and limited to poorly or non-water-soluble templates. Using the matrix-assisted LbL method, complex mixtures of water-soluble proteins or DNA could be encapsulated within agarose microbeads templates but leakage of biomolecules into the water phase during the LbL process results in low encapsulation efficiency. Recently, the reverse-phase LbL (RP-LbL) method was introduced to perform LbL and encapsulation of water-soluble templates in organic solvents, thus preventing the templates from dissolving and allowing high encapsulation efficiency. However, encapsulation of complex mixtures of biomolecules or other substances with quantitative encapsulation efficiency remained impossible. Here we present a new approach for encapsulation of biomolecules or complex mixtures thereof with almost 100% encapsulation efficiency. The ability of our method to achieve high encapsulation efficiency arises from the combination of two strategies. (1) Using microparticles as surface stabilizer to create stable biomolecule-loaded hydrogel microbeads, termed matrix-assisted colloidosome (MAC), that are able to disperse in oil and organic solvents. (2) Using the RP-LbL method to fabricate polymeric capsule "membranes", thereby preventing diffusion of the highly water-soluble biomolecules. Using an oil phase during emulsification and an organic solvent phase during encapsulation could completely prevent leakage of water-soluble biomolecules and almost 100% encapsulation efficiency is achieved. Microcapsules fabricated with our method retained nearly 100% of encapsulated proteins during a 7 day incubation period in water. The method was demonstrated on model

  3. Chitosan/siRNA functionalized titanium surface via a layer-by-layer approach for in vitro sustained gene silencing and osteogenic promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wen Song,1,* Xin Song,2,* Chuanxu Yang,2 Shan Gao,2 Lasse Hyldgaard Klausen,2 Yumei Zhang,1 Mingdong Dong,2 Jørgen Kjems21State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 2Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Titanium surface modification is crucial to improving its bioactivity, mainly its bone binding ability in bone implant materials. In order to functionalize titanium with small interfering RNA (siRNA for sustained gene silencing in nearby cells, the layer-by-layer (LbL approach was applied using sodium hyaluronate and chitosan/siRNA (CS/siRNA nanoparticles as polyanion and polycation, respectively, to build up the multilayered film on smooth titanium surfaces. The CS/siRNA nanoparticle characterization was analyzed first. Dynamic contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to monitor the layer accumulation. siRNA loaded in the film was quantitated and the release profile of film in phosphate-buffered saline was studied. In vitro knockdown effect and cytotoxicity evaluation of the film were investigated using H1299 human lung carcinoma cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP. The transfection of human osteoblast-like cell MG63 and H1299 were performed and the osteogenic differentiation of MG63 on LbL film was analyzed. The CS/siRNA nanoparticles exhibited nice size distribution. During formation of the film, the surface wettability, topography, and roughness were alternately changed, indicating successful adsorption of the individual layers. The scanning electron microscope images clearly demonstrated the hybrid structure between CS/siRNA nanoparticles and sodium hyaluronate polymer. The cumulated load of siRNA increased linearly with the bilayer number and, more

  4. Facile Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly toward Enantiomeric Poly(lactide) Stereocomplex Coated Magnetite Nanocarrier for Highly Tunable Drug Deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zibiao; Yuan, Du; Jin, Guorui; Tan, Beng H; He, Chaobin

    2016-01-27

    A highly tunable nanoparticle (NP) system with multifunctionalities was developed as drug nanocarrier via a facile layer-by-layer (LbL) stereocomplex (SC) self-assembly of enantiomeric poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactic acid) (PDLA) in solution using silica-coated magnetite (Fe3O4@SiO2) as template. The poly(lactide) (PLA) SC coated NPs (Fe3O4@SiO2@-SC) were further endowed with different stimuli-responsiveness by controlling the outermost layer coatings with respective pH-sensitive poly(lactic acid)-poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PLA-D) and temperature-sensitive poly(lactic acid)-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PLA-N) diblock copolymers to yield Fe3O4@SiO2@SC-D and Fe3O4@SiO2@SC-N NPs, respectively, while the superparamagnetic properties of Fe3O4 were maintained. TEM images show a clearly resolved core-shell structure with a silica layer and sequential PLA SC co/polymer coating layers in the respective NPs. The well-designed NPs possess a size distribution in a range of 220-270 nm and high magnetization of 70.8-72.1 emu/g [Fe3O4]. More importantly, a drug release study from the as-constructed stimuli-responsive NPs exhibited sustained release profiles and the rates of release can be tuned by variation of external environments. Further cytotoxicity and cell culture studies revealed that PLA SC coated NPs possessed good cell biocompatibility and the doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded NPs showed enhanced drug delivery efficiency toward MCF-7 cancer cells. Together with the strong magnetic sensitivity, the developed hybrid NPs demonstrate a great potential of control over the drug release at a targeted site. The developed coating method can be further optimized to finely tune the nanocarrier size and operating range of pHs and temperatures for in vivo applications.

  5. An improved layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to generate biointerfaces for platelet adhesion studies: Dynamic LbL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Juan Manuel

    Layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL) is a technique that generates engineered nano-scale films, coatings, and particles. These nanoscale films have recently been used in multiple biomedical applications. Concurrently, microfabrication methods and advances in microfluidics are being developed and combined to create "Lab-on-a-Chip" technologies. The potential to perform complex biological assays in vitro as a first-line screening technique before moving on to animal models has made the concept of lab on a chip a valuable research tool. Prior studies in the Biofluids Laboratory at Louisiana Tech have used layer-by-layer and in vitro biological assays to study thrombogenesis in a controlled, repeatable, engineered environment. The reliability of these previously established techniques was unsatisfactory for more complex cases such as chemical and shear stress interactions. The work presented in this dissertation was performed to test the principal assumptions behind the established laboratory methodologies, suggest improvements where needed, and test the impact of these improvements on accuracy and repeatability. The assumptions to be tested were: (1) The fluorescence microscopy (FM) images of acridine orange-tagged platelets accurately provide a measure of percent area of surface covered by platelets; (2) fibrinogen coatings can be accurately controlled, interact with platelets, and do not interfere with the ability to quantify platelet adhesion; and (3) the dependence of platelet adhesion on chemical agents, as measured with the modified methods, generally agrees with results obtained from our previous methods and with known responses of platelets that have been documented in the literature. The distribution of fibrinogen on the final LbL surface generated with the standard, static process (s-LbL) was imaged by tagging the fibrinogen with an anti-fibrinogen antibody bound to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). FITC FM images and acridine orange FM images were taken

  6. Infrared to ultraviolet upconversion luminescence in Nd3+ doped nano-glass-ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Daqin; WANG Yuansheng; YU Yunlong; LIU Feng; HUANG Ping

    2008-01-01

    Nd3+ doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramic containing β-YF3 nanocrystals was prepared and the upconversion luminescence behaviors of Nd3+ in the precursor glass and glass ceramic were investigated. Under 796 nm laser excitation, ultraviolet upconversion emissions of Nd3+ ions at 354 nm (4D3/2→4I9/2) and 382 nm (4D3/2→4I11/2) were observed at room temperature. Power dependence analysis demonstrated that three-photon upconversion processes populated the 4D3/2 excited state. In comparison with those of the precursor glass, the ultraviolet emissions were enhanced by a factor of 500 in the glass ceramic, which was attributed to the change in the ligand field of Nd3+ ions and the decrease in phonon energy because of the partition of Nd3+ ions into the β-YF3 nanocrystals after crystallization.

  7. Characterization and obtainment of thin films based on N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan and heparin through the technical layer-by-layer; Caracterizacao e obtencao de filmes finos de N,N,N-trimetil quitosana e heparina atraves da tecnica layer-by-layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Thin films of Heparin (HP) and N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) with a high degree of quaternization (DQ) were obtained at pH 7.4 through the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. Polystyrene (PS) was oxidized with aqueous solution of sodium persulfate and subsequently employed as substrate. The characterization of TMC and the respective determination of DQ were performed through {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The thin films de TMC/HP were characterized by FTIR-ATR and AFM. Both techniques confirmed the adsorption of TMC and HP in surface of the PS. The increasing of the bilayers provides a decrease of the projections and/or roughness, further of minimizing the depressions at the surface of the films. Studies of thin films the base of TMC/HP prepared from the LbL technique has not been reported in the literature. It is expected that the thin films of TMC/HP present anti-adhesive and antimicrobial properties. (author)

  8. Spectroscopic properties in Er3+-doped germanotellurite glasses and glass ceramics for mid-infrared laser materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shiliang; Xiao, Xiudi; Pan, Qiwen; Chen, Dongdan; Qiu, Jianrong; Dong, Guoping

    2017-03-01

    Transparent Er3+-doped germanotellurite glass ceramics (GCs) with variable Te/Ge ratio were prepared by controllable heat-treated process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) confirmed the formation of nanocrystals in glass matrix. Raman spectra were used to investigate the evolution of glass structure and photon energy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were introduced to characterize the change of hydroxyl group (OH‑) content. Enhanced 2.7 μm emission was achieved from Er3+-doped GCs upon excitation with a 980 nm laser diode (LD), and the influence of GeO2 concentration and heat-treated temperature on the spectroscopic properties were also discussed in detail. It is found that the present Er3+-doped GC possesses large stimulated emission cross section at around 2.7 μm (0.85 × 10‑20 cm2). The advantageous spectroscopic characteristics suggest that the obtained GC may be a promising material for mid-infrared fiber lasers.

  9. Spectroscopic properties in Er3+-doped germanotellurite glasses and glass ceramics for mid-infrared laser materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shiliang; Xiao, Xiudi; Pan, Qiwen; Chen, Dongdan; Qiu, Jianrong; Dong, Guoping

    2017-01-01

    Transparent Er3+-doped germanotellurite glass ceramics (GCs) with variable Te/Ge ratio were prepared by controllable heat-treated process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) confirmed the formation of nanocrystals in glass matrix. Raman spectra were used to investigate the evolution of glass structure and photon energy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were introduced to characterize the change of hydroxyl group (OH−) content. Enhanced 2.7 μm emission was achieved from Er3+-doped GCs upon excitation with a 980 nm laser diode (LD), and the influence of GeO2 concentration and heat-treated temperature on the spectroscopic properties were also discussed in detail. It is found that the present Er3+-doped GC possesses large stimulated emission cross section at around 2.7 μm (0.85 × 10−20 cm2). The advantageous spectroscopic characteristics suggest that the obtained GC may be a promising material for mid-infrared fiber lasers. PMID:28266570

  10. Influence of the foundation layer on the layer-by-layer assembly of poly-L-lysine and poly(styrenesulfonate) and its usage in the fabrication of 3D microscale features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dejian; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Batchelor, Matthew; Kang, Dae-Joon; Abell, Chris; Klenerman, David

    2004-10-12

    The layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of a polypeptide, poly-L-lysine (PLL), with poly(styrenesulfonate) sodium salt (PSS) on flat template-stripped gold (TSG) surfaces precoated with a self-assembled monolayer of alkanethiols terminated with positive (pyridinium), negative (carboxylic acid), and neutral [hexa(ethylene glycol)] groups is investigated. Both the topography and the rate of film thickness growth are found to be strongly dependent on the initial surface foundation layer. LBL assembly of PLL and PSS on patterned TSG surfaces produced by micro contact printing leads to structurally distinct microscale features, including pillars, ridges, and wells, whose height can be controlled with nanometer precision.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of water-dispersed CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots prepared via layer-by-layer method capped with carboxylic-functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanery,Fábio Pereira; Mansur,Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli; Mansur,Herman Sander

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to synthesize CdSe/CdS (core-shell) nanoparticles stabilized by polymer ligand using entirely aqueous colloidal chemistry at room temperature. First, the CdSe core was prepared using precursors and acid-functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) as the capping ligand. Next, a CdS shell was grown onto the CdSe core via the layer-by-layer technique. The CdS shell was formed by two consecutive monolayers, as estimated by empirical mathematical functions. The nucleation and...

  12. A modified diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy cell for depth profiling of ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondeur, F; Mitchell, B S

    2000-02-15

    A modified diffused reflectance infrared Fourier transformed spectroscopy (DRIFTS) accessory was used to analyze the surface properties of alumino-silicate fibers. The modifications are simple and involve a different way of performing depth-profiling from traditional DRIFTS by removing approximately 2 mm of salt from a full cup prior to placing the sample in for depth profiling. This method proved successful in elucidating the effects of quenching alumino-silicate fibers in mineral oil versus quenching in an air stream.

  13. 重型载重车前轴分层淬火工艺仿真分析%Simulation analysis of layer by layer quenching process of a heavy truck front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振华; 秦训鹏; 高恺; 陈绪梁

    2016-01-01

    针对重型载重车前轴在传统整体式淬火强化后各部位马氏体含量、力学性能不均匀的问题,提出一种分层淬火工艺,并利用数值分析方法对某重型载重车前轴在分层淬火工艺条件下的温度场和微观组织进行仿真计算。计算结果证明分层淬火工艺能使截面尺寸变化大的前轴在淬火冷却过程中有效改善马氏体分布不均匀现象,提高其综合力学性能。%For the nonuniformity of martensite content and mechanical properties in each part of a heavy truck front axle after traditional integral hardening, a layer by layer quenching process was presented. Temperature field and microstructure content in a heavy truck front axle under the quenching process were calculated by numerical simulation analysis. The calculated results show that the layer by layer quenching process can improve the nonuniformity of martensite distribution in the front axle with large varying of cross section and enhance the comprehensive mechanical properties.

  14. Linker-free layer-by-layer self-assembly of gold nanoparticle multilayer films for direct electron transfer of horseradish peroxidase and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wentao; Wang Minhua [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li Yongjun, E-mail: liyongjunef@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Sun Yue; Li Jianchun [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: > Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) multilayer films were fabricated via a linker-free layer-by-layer assembly. > Direct electron transfer of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) absorbed on as-prepared AuNP multilayer films was enhanced. > The optimized HRP/AuNP multilayer film had a relatively rapid response and satisfactory selectivity for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection. - Abstract: Au nanoparticle (AuNP) multilayer films were fabricated by combining interfacial assembly and layer-by-layer assembly. The key point is that the procedure does not require assistance of organic linker molecules, thus providing a suitable platform for the modification of biological molecules. Direct electron transfer can easily take place between a glassy carbon electrode and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) molecules adsorbed on AuNP films. The current density of direct electron transfer was closely related to the layer number, m, and reached a maximum value for m = 4. The optimized HRP/AuNP multilayer film had a relatively rapid response and satisfactory selectivity for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection. The linear range and the detection limit were 9.8 x 10{sup -6} to 6 x 10{sup -3} mol/L and {approx}4.9 x 10{sup -6} mol/L (S/N = 3), respectively.

  15. Layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of a Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CuO sub 6 thin film on a Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, T.; Kawai, T.; Kitahama, K.; Kawai, S. (The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567, Japan (JP)); Shigaki, I.; Kawate, Y. (Superconducting Cryogenic Technology Center, Kobe Steel, Ltd., Takatsukadai 1-chome, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-22, (Japan))

    1991-05-06

    The epitaxial growth of a Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 6} (2201) thin film on a Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (2212) single crystal has been performed using computer-controlled laser molecular beam epitaxy. The surface of the 2212 single crystal used as the substrate is smooth and invariant under the growth condition at 640 {degree}C in NO{sub 2} pressure of 1{times}10{sup {minus}5} mbar. The growth process of the 2201 film has been observed by {ital in} {ital situ} reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and the layer-by-layer growth of the 2201 phase is confirmed by the oscillation of RHEED intensities. During the growth, a modulated surface structure which is characteristic of the Bi cuprate crystals is always present.

  16. Application of Layer-by-Layer Solidification Principle to Optimization of Large Chain Wheel Foundry Technology%逐层凝固原则在大链轮铸造工艺优化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李日; 毛协民; 柳百成; 李文珍

    2003-01-01

    In order to get a sound casting of the alloy with a solidification range, the principle of directional solidification (DS) and the layer-by-layer solidification(LBLS) should be followed, especially in designing foundry process of steel casting. Using the principles, the reasons for the forming of the defects on the surface of the chain wheels teeth and groove and the forming of MT (magnetic particle testing) thin lines were analyzed. The results of the metallographic observation and the numerical simulation show that the low temperature gradient results in a wider mushy zone at the S/L interface that causes the defects and MT thin lines on the surface of the chain wheel casting. Based on the analysis, a new casting technology of the chain wheel was designed and used in the casting production successfully.

  17. 层层自组装技术在薄膜锂电池上的应用研究进展%Thin Film Lithium-Ion Battery Assembly via Layer-by-Layer Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国建; 顾贤科

    2011-01-01

    Thin film lithium battery is a very important micro energy device, which has showed tremendous potential application. In order to further improve the performance of the thin film battery, it requires better assembling method. Layer-by-layer (LbL) technique provides a simple, safe and affordable route in assembling thin film electrolytes and electrodes. The technique is very important to construct nanoscale thin film which has showed unique property compared with bulk film. Here, we review the design of LbL films for electrolytes and electrodes and recent progress. Furthermore, material choice is significant to affect the properties of LBL battery. Hence, we review the recent progress of LBL film battery incorporating carbon nanotubes(CNT) due to its excellent electronic property.%薄膜锂电池作为一种重要的微型能源形式已经显示出巨大的应用前景,为了进一步提高薄膜锂电池的性能,要求有更好的技术对这种薄膜锂电池进行组装。层层自组装(Layer-by-Layer self-assembly,LBL)技术正是一种非常安全、经济、简便的薄膜组装方式,这对于组装薄膜电解质和薄膜电极是一个非常好的选择。更重要的是,由于纳米尺寸已经在电化学领域显示出优异的特性,因此LBL技术组装纳米结构的薄膜锂电池具有非常重要的意义。本文综述了使用LBL技术组装固体薄膜电解质和电极的进展和成就。同时,由于纳米材料选

  18. 聚电解质逐层组装的微凝胶脉冲释药系统的研制%Preparation of polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer coated microgels for pulsed drug delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周闺臣; 于菲菲; 邹豪; 钟延强; 鲁莹; 张翮; 俞媛; 陈琰; 张国庆; 孙治国; 黄景彬; 刘俊杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the preparation method, the release profile and structure of the polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer coated chitosan-alginate microgels. Methods The cores of the microgels were prepared by a high voltage electrostatic system, and the semipermeable membrane outside the microgel was polyelectrolyte deposits on the core surface through electrostatic attraction. The influences of different ratios of materials on the expansion property and the in vitro cumulative release of the coated microgels were evaluated by a single factor experiment. Results The prepared polyelectrolyte-coated microgels were well-shaped, with a narrow range of diameter distribution. The lag time of in vitro release was 2. 67 h; the release was rapid after lagging, with the cumulative in vitro release being 72% within 3 h. Conclusion Polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer coated chitosan-alginate microgels can release payload in a pulsed fashion in vitro.%目的 制备聚电解质逐层组装的壳聚糖海藻酸钠微凝胶脉冲制剂,并对制剂的结构和体外释放行为进行考察.方法 使用高压静电成囊机制备海藻酸钠壳聚糖微凝胶核心,通过静电吸附原理将聚电解质逐层包裹在微凝胶表面形成包衣层.通过单因素实验考察不同物料比对聚电解质包衣微凝胶膨胀性能、释放行为的影响.结果 聚电解质包衣微凝胶外观圆整,粒径分布范围窄,体外释放时滞2.67h,时滞后药物迅速释放,3h释放量为72%.结论 以壳聚糖海藻酸钠为核心,聚电解质为包衣层的微凝胶可以实现脉冲释放.

  19. The effect of MAO processing time on surface properties and low temperature infrared emissivity of ceramic coating on aluminium 6061 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bosta, Mohannad M. S.; Ma, Keng-Jeng; Chien, Hsi-Hsin

    2013-09-01

    MAO ceramic coatings were prepared on aluminium 6061 surfaces at different treating durations (10, 20, ... 60 min), using alkali silicate electrolyte and pulsed bipolar current mode. The surface microstructures and properties were studied using SEM, XRD, EDX and a surface roughness tester. Image-Pro Plus and MATCH! softwares were used to analyze SEM micrographs and XRD results, respectively. The infrared emissivities of the ceramic coatings were measured at the 70 °C using FTIR spectrometer. We found a linear correlation between the volcano-like area and the surface roughness. The compositions and phases were associated with the volcano-like population and area. The curve of IR spectral emissivity was influenced by surface roughness, γ-alumina, sillimanite and cristobalite phases. The emissivity was enhanced by the surface roughness in the ranges 4.0-9.6 μm and 10.5-14.8 μm. In the range 7.0-8.0 μm, α-alumina and sillimanite phases enhanced the emissivity, while the cristobalite has a negative impact to the emissivity. A negative contributions were found for α-alumina in the region 9.6-16.0 μm and for the surface thickness in the region 15.0-16.0 μm. Overall, the average of long wave infrared (LWIR) emissivity ranged from 87.05% to 91.65%.

  20. A New Strategy for Humidity Independent Oxide Chemiresistors: Dynamic Self-Refreshing of In2 O3 Sensing Surface Assisted by Layer-by-Layer Coated CeO2 Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Wook; Kim, Jun-Sik; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2016-08-01

    The humidity dependence of the gas sensing characteristics of metal oxide semiconductors has been one of the greatest obstacles for gas sensor applications during the last five decades because ambient humidity dynamically changes with the environmental conditions. Herein, a new and novel strategy is reported to eliminate the humidity dependence of the gas sensing characteristics of oxide chemiresistors via dynamic self-refreshing of the sensing surface affected by water vapor chemisorption. The sensor resistance and gas response of pure In2 O3 hollow spheres significantly change and deteriorate in humid atmospheres. In contrast, the humidity dependence becomes negligible when an optimal concentration of CeO2 nanoclusters is uniformly loaded onto In2 O3 hollow spheres via layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. Moreover, In2 O3 sensors LBL-coated with CeO2 nanoclusters show fast response/recovery, low detection limit (500 ppb), and high selectivity to acetone even in highly humid conditions (relative humidity 80%). The mechanism underlying the dynamic refreshing of the In2 O3 sensing surfaces regardless of humidity variation is investigated in relation to the role of CeO2 and the chemical interaction among CeO2 , In2 O3 , and water vapor. This strategy can be widely used to design high performance gas sensors including disease diagnosis via breath analysis and pollutant monitoring.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of water-dispersed CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots prepared via Layer-by-layer Method capped with carboxylic-functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanery, Fabio Pereira; Mansur, Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli; Mansur, Herman Sander, E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia e Engenharia dos Materiais. Centro de Nanociencia, Nanotecnologia e Inovacao

    2014-08-15

    The main goal of this work was to synthesize CdSe/CdS (core-shell) nanoparticles stabilized by polymer ligand using entirely aqueous colloidal chemistry at room temperature. First, the CdSe core was prepared using precursors and acid-functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) as the capping ligand. Next, a CdS shell was grown onto the CdSe core via the layer-by-layer technique. The CdS shell was formed by two consecutive monolayers, as estimated by empirical mathematical functions. The nucleation and growth of CdSe quantum dots followed by CdS shell deposition were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated a systematic red-shift of the absorption and emission spectra after the deposition of CdS, indicating the shell growth onto the CdSe core. TEM coupled with electron diffraction analysis revealed the presence of CdSe/CdS with an epitaxial shell growth. Therefore, it may be concluded that CdSe/CdS quantum dots with core-shell nanostructure were effectively synthesized.(author)

  2. A successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method to fabricate a layer-by-layer (LbL) MnO2-reduced graphene oxide assembly for supercapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Milan; Saha, Sanjit; Samanta, Pranab; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kuila, Tapas; Lee, Joong Hee

    2017-02-01

    A facile, cost effective and additive-free successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique is demonstrated to develop layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and MnO2 (MnO2-RGOSILAR) on a stainless steel current collector, for designing light-weight and small size supercapacitor electrode. The transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy images shows uniform distribution of RGO and MnO2 in the MnO2-RGOSILAR. The LbL (MnO2-RGOSILAR) demonstrates improved physical and electrochemical properties over the hydrothermally prepared MnO2-RGO (MnO2-RGOHydro). The electrochemical environment of MnO2-RGOSILAR is explained by constant phase element in the high frequency region, and a Warburg element in the low frequency region in the Z-View fitted Nyquist plot. The equivalent circuit of the MnO2-RGOHydro, displays the co-existence of EDL and constant phase element, indicating inhomogeneous distribution of MnO2 and RGO by the hydrothermal technique. An asymmetric supercapacitor device is designed with MnO2-RGOSILAR as positive electrode, and thermally reduced GO (TRGO) as negative electrode. The designed cell exhibits high energy density of ∼88 Wh kg-1, elevated power density of ∼23,200 W kg-1, and ∼79% retention in capacitance after 10,000 charge-discharge cycles.

  3. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Metal-Ion- (Ag-, Co-, Ni-, and Pd- Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterisation, and Visible Light Degradation of Rhodamine B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mphilisi M. Mahlambi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-ion- (Ag, Co, Ni and Pd doped titania nanocatalysts were successfully deposited on glass slides by layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly technique using a poly(styrene sulfonate sodium salt (PSS and poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH polyelectrolyte system. Solid diffuse reflectance (SDR studies showed a linear increase in absorbance at 416 nm with increase in the number of m-TiO2 thin films. The LbL assembled thin films were tested for their photocatalytic activity through the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light illumination. From the scanning electron microscope (SEM, the thin films had a porous morphology and the atomic force microscope (AFM studies showed “rough” surfaces. The porous and rough surface morphology resulted in high surface areas hence the high photocatalytic degradation (up to 97% over a 6.5 h irradiation period using visible-light observed. Increasing the number of multilayers deposited on the glass slides resulted in increased film thickness and an increased rate of photodegradation due to increase in the availability of more nanocatalysts (more sites for photodegradation. The LbL assembled thin films had strong adhesion properties which made them highly stable thus displaying the same efficiencies after five (5 reusability cycles.

  4. Voltammetric Determination of Acetaminophen in the Presence of Codeine and Ascorbic Acid at Layer-by-Layer MWCNT/Hydroquinone Sulfonic Acid-Overoxidized Polypyrrole Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shahrokhian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A very sensitive electrochemical sensor constructed of a glassy carbon electrode modified with a layer-by-layer MWCNT/doped-overoxidized polypyrrole (oppy/MWCNT /GCE was used for the determination of acetaminophen (AC in the presence of codeine and ascorbic acid (AA. In comparison to the bare glassy carbon electrode, a considerable shift in the peak potential together with an increase in the peak current was observed for AC on the surface of oppy/MWCNT/GCE, which can be related to the enlarged microscopic surface area of the electrode. The effect of the experimental conditions on the electrode response, such as types of counter ion, pyrrole and counter ion concentration, potential and number of cycles in the polymerization procedure, amount of MWCNT, and the pH, were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was obtained over two concentration ranges of 2 × 10−7–6 × 10−6 M and 4 × 10−5–1 × 10−4 M of AC with a linear correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.9959 and 0.9947, respectively. The estimated detection limit (3σ for AC was obtained as 5 × 10−8 M. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the pharmaceutical preparations of AC, and a recovery of 95% with a relative standard deviation of 0.98% was obtained for AC.

  5. Dielectric and Pyroelectric Characteristics of the Infrared Sensitive(Pb_(1-x)Sr_x)TiO_3 Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Maoxiang; SHU Qing; MU Zhichun; JIAN Yuliang

    2009-01-01

    PST ferroelectric ceramics were fabricated successfully by a two-step method,i e first,PbTiO_3 and SrTiO_3 were sintered respectively,then mixed and sintered together.The process and characteristics of PST ferroelectric ceramics were introduced and researched.Their dielectric and pyroelectric characteristics are as follows dielectric constant 10~4 order,low dielectric loss(lower than 3.0%in the working frequency range of 1-1 000 kHz),saturation polarization intensity 10~(―1)C/m~2 order,and pyroelectric coefficient 10~(―3)C/m~2·K order.

  6. Titanium Surface Priming with Phase-Transited Lysozyme to Establish a Silver Nanoparticle-Loaded Chitosan/Hyaluronic Acid Antibacterial Multilayer via Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhong

    Full Text Available The formation of biofilm around implants, which is induced by immediate bacterial colonization after installation, is the primary cause of post-operation infection. Initial surface modification is usually required to incorporate antibacterial agents on titanium (Ti surfaces to inhibit biofilm formation. However, simple and effective priming methods are still lacking for the development of an initial functional layer as a base for subsequent coatings on titanium surfaces. The purpose of our work was to establish a novel initial layer on Ti surfaces using phase-transited lysozyme (PTL, on which multilayer coatings can incorporate silver nanoparticles (AgNP using chitosan (CS and hyaluronic acid (HA via a layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly technique.In this study, the surfaces of Ti substrates were primed by dipping into a mixture of lysozyme and tris(2-carboxyethylphosphine (TCEP to obtain PTL-functionalized Ti substrates. The subsequent alternating coatings of HA and chitosan loaded with AgNP onto the precursor layer of PTL were carried out via LbL self-assembly to construct multilayer coatings on Ti substrates.The results of SEM and XPS indicated that the necklace-like PTL and self-assembled multilayer were successfully immobilized on the Ti substrates. The multilayer coatings loaded with AgNP can kill planktonic and adherent bacteria to 100% during the first 4 days. The antibacterial efficacy of the samples against planktonic and adherent bacteria achieved 65%-90% after 14 days. The sustained release of Ag over 14 days can prevent bacterial invasion until mucosa healing. Although the AgNP-containing structure showed some cytotoxicity, the toxicity can be reduced by controlling the Ag release rate and concentration.The PTL priming method provides a promising strategy for fabricating long-term antibacterial multilayer coatings on titanium surfaces via the LbL self-assembly technique, which is effective in preventing implant-associated infections

  7. Probing the surface microstructure of layer-by-layer self-assembly chitosan/poly(L-glutamic acid) multilayers: A grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nie; Yang, Chunming, E-mail: yangchunming@sinap.ac.cn; Wang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Binyu; Bian, Fenggang; Li, Xiuhong; Wang, Jie, E-mail: wangjie@sinap.ac.cn

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized the surface structure of layer-by-layer self-assembly chitosan/poly(L-glutamic acid) multilayers through grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A weakly long-period ordered structure along the in-plane direction was firstly observed in the polyelectrolyte multilayer by the GISAXS technique. This structure can be attributed to the specific domains on the film surface. In the domain, nanodroplets that were formed by polyelectrolyte molecules were orderly arranged along the free surface of the films. This ordered structure gradually disappeared with the increasing bilayer number because of the complex merging behavior of nanodroplets into large islands. Furthermore, resonant diffuse scattering became evident in the GISAXS patterns as the number of bilayers in the polyelectrolyte multilayer was increased. Notably, the lateral cutoff length of resonant diffuse scattering for these polyelectrolyte films was comparable with the long-period value of the ordered nanodroplets in the polyelectrolyte multilayer. Therefore, the nanodroplets could be considered as a basic transmission unit for structure propagation from the inner interface to the film surface. It suggests that the surface structure with length scale larger than the size of nanodroplets was partially complicated from the interface structure near the substrate, but surface structure smaller than the cutoff length was mainly depended on the conformation of nanodroplets. - Highlights: • The growth of ordered nanodroplets in PEMs was characterized by the GISAXS technique. • The basic transmission units for structure propagation within PEMs were nanodroplets. • High-performance of wave-guiding devices prepared by PEMs was predicted.

  8. Ag/Pd纳米复合自组装膜的制备与电催化性质%Preparation of Ag/Pd Nanocomposite Thin Films by Layer-by-Layer Assembly Technique and Their Electrocatalytic Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 王聪; 王红艳; 张超

    2012-01-01

    利用层层静电自组装技术将聚乙烯亚胺(PEI-Ag+)、PdCl42-交替沉积在基底上,然后用硼氢化钠还原,构筑了含银/钯复合纳米粒子的PEI-Ag/Pd纳米复合薄膜.通过扫描电子显微镜(FESEM),X射线光电子能谱(XPS)和循环伏安(CV)等手段对复合膜的成分、微结构和性质进行了测试分析.膜上生成了不规则和立方体状的银/钯纳米复合物,导致膜表面有一定的粗糙度.结果表明,双金属{PEI-Ag/Pd}n复合膜比单金属{PEI/Pd}n或{PEI-Ag/PSS}n膜对多巴胺的氧化有更好的电催化活性.%Nanocomposite thin films containing Ag/Pd nanoparticles PEI-Ag/Pd were formed by alternating adsorption of PEI-Ag+ and PdCl42- by a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique and subsequent postdeposition reduction by sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The composition, microstructure and properties were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Ag/Pd nanocomposites which are irregular and cubic are formed in the films, resulting in a rough surface of the composite film. The results indicate that the {PEI-Ag/Pd}n nanocomposite film exhibits better electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of dopamine than {PEI/Pd}n and {PEI-Ag/PSS}n films.

  9. 塑料表面载银微凝胶层层组装膜的制备及抗菌活性%Layer-by-layer Assembled Microgel Films Containing Silver Nanoparticles as Antimicrobial Coatings on Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 王旭; 叶开其; 裘令瑛; 沈家骢

    2011-01-01

    以载银聚烯丙基胺盐酸盐-葡聚糖微凝胶与聚苯乙烯磺酸钠为构筑基元,利用层层组装技术制备了一种可直接沉积在疏水的塑料基底表面的载银抗菌微凝胶膜.研究结果表明,该载银抗菌微凝胶膜具有很好的抗菌能力,并且其抗菌活性可以通过控制载银微凝胶膜的组装层数进行调控.这种沉积在塑料表面的载银抗菌微凝胶膜具有良好的稳定性和基底黏附力,能够保障其长效抗菌性.%Antimicrobial coatings on hydrophobic plastic surfaces were directly fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition of cross-linked poly( allylamine hydrochloride) and dextran microgels containing silver nanoparticles ( Ag@ PAH-D) with poly ( sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The as-prepared Ag@ PAH-D/PSS microgel films are effective in prohibiting the growth of Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial activity of the coatings can be easily controlled by tailoring the number of coating deposition cycles. The antimicrobial coatings of Ag@ PAH-D/PSS microgel films are stable and have satisfactory adhesion to the underlying plastic substrates,which guarantee the long-term application of the coatings.

  10. Infrared-to-visible conversion luminescence of Er 3+ ions in lead borate transparent glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarski, Wojciech A.; Pisarska, Joanna; Lisiecki, Radosław; Grobelny, Łukasz; Dominiak-Dzik, Grażyna; Ryba-Romanowski, Witold

    2009-10-01

    Transparent glass-ceramics were successfully prepared during controlled heat treatment of lead borate glasses. The PbF 2 particles were dispersed into a borate glass matrix which was evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis. The phase identification revealed that crystalline peaks can be related to the orthorhombic PbF 2 phase. Green up-conversion luminescence due to the 4S 3/2- 4I 15/2 transition of Er 3+ ions was registered. In comparison to the precursor glass the luminescence intensity was considerably higher, whereas the luminescence linewidth slightly decreased in the studied oxyfluoride transparent glass-ceramics. It indicated that a part of the trivalent erbium was incorporated into the PbF 2 crystalline phase.

  11. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  12. LAYER-BY-LAYER ASSEMBLED POLYMERIC FILMS WITH STIMULUS-RESPONSIVE AND SELF-HEALING ABILITY%智能响应与自修复的层层组装聚合物膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈栋栋; 马莹; 孙俊奇

    2012-01-01

    Composite films with stimulus-responsive property and self-healing ability represent a group of important biomimetic film materials. The layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, which involves multiple dipping and rinsing steps for the fabrication of composite films, enables precise control of film composition and structure. LbL assembled films with micrometer thickness can be designed to respond quickly and effectively to various external stimuli, and are therefore promising for use as biomimetic films. We demonstrate herein that the LbL assembled polyelectrolyte multilayer films with micrometer thickness can be utilized for the fabrication of humido- and thermo-responsive bilayer free-standing films capable of bending/unbending movements, which are useful as highly efficient actuators and walking-devices. The LbL is assembly also promising in the fabrication of self-healing superhydrophobie coatings and water-enabled self-healing polyelectrolyte films capable of repairing severe damage of cuts.%具有刺激响应性和自修复功能的复合膜是重要的仿生功能膜材料.层层组装是一种基于物质交替沉积而制备复合膜的方法,可以实现膜的结构和组成的精确调控.通过结构与组成的精确调控,基于层层组装制备的微米厚度的聚电解质厚膜可以对外界刺激产生快速有效的响应,因而在制备智能仿生膜材料方面具有重要的价值.本文以作者的研究结果为基础,阐明了基于层层组装的聚电解质膜可以成功用于制备湿度和温度响应的双结构自支持膜和高效的促动器及行走机器,以及自修复超疏水和划痕修复聚电解质膜.

  13. 层层组装修饰Ni片阳极的光催化辅助电解水制氢%Ni anode modified by layer by layer assembly and its application in water electrolysis assisted by photocatalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常明; 陈爱平; 何洪波; 马磊; 李春忠

    2012-01-01

    TiO2/ZnO nanorode arrays (TiO2/ZnONRs) and TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2NTs) were assembled on Ni substrate anodes by the layer by layer (LBL) process. The anode of an alkaline electrolytic cell for water electrolysis was irradiated by ultraviolet light. The water electrolysis process was coupled with photocatalytic decomposition of water for hydrogen preparation. A new process for hydrogen preparation of water electrolysis assisted by photocatalysis (WEAP) was proposed and experimentally confirmed. FE-SEM, XRD, EDS, UV-Vis and WEAP measurement were used to characterize the structure and performance of modified Ni anode. The rate of hydrogen evolution in WEAP of modified Ni anode with TiO2/ZnONRs was higher than that with TiO2NTs. Comparing to sole Ni anode, the rate of hydrogen evolution of TiO2/ZnONRs and TiO2NTs modified Ni anode was increased by 1. 75 and 1. 50 times respectively. And the consumption of electric power was decreased by 10. 5% and 9. 0% respectively.%采用层层组装的方法在Ni片阳极上分别组装TiO2/ZnO纳米棒阵列(TiO2/ZnONRs)和TiO2纳米管阵列(TiO2NTs).以碱性电解池为基础,采用紫外线辐照阳极,将光催化与电解水有机地耦合在一起,提出并实现了光催化辅助电解水制氢的新过程.通过FE-SEM、XRD、EDS、UV-Vis和光催化辅助电解水制氢(WEAP)等方法,对修饰电极的结构和性能进行了表征和测试.结果表明,TiO2/ZnONRs比TiO2NTs修饰Ni阳极的光催化辅助电解水产氢速率快.TiO2/ZnONRs和TiO2NTs修饰Ni电极比纯Ni片作阳极的WEAP过程产氢速率分别提高了1.75和1.50倍.电耗分别降低了约10.5%和9.0%.

  14. 层层自组装聚电解质膜光纤传感器的制备和应用%Preparation and Application of Fiber-Optic Sensors Based on Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly Multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷明杰; 安全福; 钱锦文; 张阿平

    2011-01-01

    During last several decades,optical fiber has been applied in many disciplines and areas.Among its kinds of applications,optical fiber sensors have become an interesting research project due to the advantages of optical fiber,such as immunity to electromagnetic interferences,capability of remote measurements,multiplexed detection,small size and low weight and so on.Optical fiber has been applied in fiber-optic sensors based on polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer(LbL) self-assembly multilayers have become into a hot research field since it was reported in 2000.It has widely application in measuring trace substances.In this paper,layer-by-layer self-assembly polyelectrolytes on the surface of optical fibers as well as test of fiber-optic sensors are introduced.The fiber-optic structures,assembly materials,detection principle and performance of different fiber-optic sensors based on multilayers nanocoating are also summarized.Particularly,the preparation,test and application of fiber-optic pH sensors,fiber-optic humidity sensors,fiber-optic gas sensors and fiber-optic biosensors in last decade are reviewed.The outlook of fiber-optic sensors based on LbL polyelectrolyte self-assembly multilayers is suggested.%在过去几十年中,光纤的应用已经渗透到多个学科领域。光纤的抗电磁干扰、可远程监控、多重监测、体积小及质量轻等特点,使其在传感器研究领域备受关注。聚电解质层层自组装膜构建的光纤传感器自2000年诞生以来,已快速发展成为传感器领域新的研究热点。该类光纤传感器在微量物质的监测方面具有广泛的应用前景。本文从光纤和光纤传感器优点出发,总结了基于层层自组装多层膜的光纤传感器种类、性能、检测原理以及相应的光纤结构和自组装材料;进而结合作者已做的相关工作,论述了在光纤基底上的聚电解质层层自组装及基于自组装膜的光纤传感器的测试;重点综述了近十年

  15. Electrochemical sensor for acetaminophen based on layer-by-layer self assembly technique%基于层层自组装技术的对乙酰氨基酚药物电化学传感器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹慧瑛; 徐芬; 孙立贤; 刘青山; 刘娜

    2011-01-01

    本文利用层层自组装技术制备了一种新型的Nafion/GNPs/RTIL/MWNTs/GC电极.利用循环伏安法研究对乙酰氨基酚(ACOP)在该修饰电极上的电化学特性.结果表明:ACOP在裸GC电极上表现为不可逆的电极过程,而在Nafion/GNPs/RTIL/MWNTs/GC电极上表现为很好的可逆性,氧化峰电位由0.562 V移至0.413 V,具有0.149 V的电位降;其还原峰电位为0.384 V,峰电位差仅为29 mV.该修饰电极与MWNTs/GC电极和裸GC电极比,具有更高的电催化活性;同时可加速电极与ACOP间的电子转移.本文探索了不同实验条件对该电极性能的影响,在优化的实验条件下,检测ACOP药物的线性浓度范围为2×10-7~4.0×10-4 mol·L-1,线性相关系数为r= 0.9992,其检出限为2.6×10-8 mol·L-1(信噪比为3:1);回收率为97.9%~100.8%.将该电极用于对乙酰氨基酚片剂中ACOP的含量测定,并与药典方法比较无显著性差异.%A novel type of carbon nanotube-coated Au nanoparticle and [bmim]BF4 composite modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated by a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. The electrochemical performance of acetaminophen (ACOP) on the modified electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The Nafion/GNPs/RTIL/MWNTs/GC electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ACOP and accelerated electron transfer between the electrode and ACOP. For ACOP, the reversible electrochemical process was observed on the Nafion/GNPs/RTIL/MWNTs/GC electrode, while irreversible electrochemical process occurred on the GC electrode. For the Nafion/GNPs/RTIL/MWNTs/GC electrode, the anodic peak potential of ACOP was moved from 0.562 V to 0.413 V, with a potential drop of 149 mV. At the same time, the reduction peak potential was 0.384 V, and the potential difference was only 29 mV. It was shown that the modified electrode possessed higher electrocatalytic activity and more sensitive effect for the detection of ACOP than both

  16. Fourier transform infrared analysis of ceramic powders: Quantitative determination of alpha, beta, and amorphous phases of silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, T.K.; Bellama, J.M.; Brinckman, F.E.; Faltynek, R.A.

    1989-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) forms the basis for determining the morphological composition of mixtures containing alpha, beta, and amorphous phases of silicon nitride. The analytical technique, involving multiple linear regression treatment of Kubelka-Munk absorbance values from diffuse reflectance measurements, yields specific percent composition data for the amorphous phase as well as the crystalline phases in ternary mixtures of 0--1% by weight Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ in potassium bromide.

  17. Freeforming of Ceramics and Composites from Colloidal Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CESARANO III,JOSEPH; DENHAM,HUGH B.; STUECKER,JOHN N.; BAER,THOMAS A.; GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.

    1999-12-01

    This report is a summary of the work completed for an LDRD project. The objective of the project was to develop a solid freeform fabrication technique for ceramics and composites from fine particle slurries. The work was successful and resulted in the demonstration of a manufacturing technique called robocasting. Some ceramic components may pow be fabricated without the use of molds or tooling by dispensing colloidal suspensions through an orifice and stacking two-dimensional layers into three-dimensional shapes. Any conceivable two-dimensional pattern may be ''written'' layer by layer into a three-dimensional shape. Development of the robocasting technique required the materials expertise for fabrication and theological control of very highly concentrated fine particle slurries, and development of robotics for process control and optimization. Several ceramic materials have been manufactured and characterized. Development of techniques for robocasting multiple materials simultaneously have also been developed to build parts with unique structures or graded compositions.

  18. Portfolio: Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

  19. Layer by layer growth of silver chloride nanoparticle within the pore channels of SBA-15/SO3H mesoporous silica (AgClNP/SBA-15/SO3K): Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamnia, Sadegh; Doustkhah, Esmail; Estakhri, Saba; Karimi, Ziba

    2016-02-01

    The growth of silver chloride nanoparticles within the pore channels of functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous was achieved by sequential dipping steps in alternating bath of potassium chloride and silver nitrate under ultrasound irradiation at pH=9. The effects of sequential dipping steps in growth of the AgCl nanoparticles have been studied. The growth and formation of AgCl nanoparticles inside the sulfonated SBA-15 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Antibacterial activity of the synthesized materials was investigated against Escherichia coli (E.coli) using the conventional diffusion-disc method. The materials showed high antibacterial activity.

  20. On Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents four ceramics activities for secondary-level art classes. Included are directions for primitive kiln construction and glaze making. Two ceramics design activities are described in which students make bizarrely-shaped lidded jars, feet, and footwear. (AM)

  1. The dielectric properties of La(Mg{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} ceramics studied by Raman-scattering, infrared reflectivity spectroscopy, and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hsiang-Lin; Yang, Ming-Ti; Chia, Chia-Ta; Cheng, Hsiu-Fung [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Hung-Chung; Lin, I-Nan; Lee, Wei-Chung [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 25137, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Chun, E-mail: hliu@phy.ntnu.edu.tw, E-mail: hchsueh@mail.tku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-08

    La(Mg{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} (LMT) ceramics were prepared by either the solid-state reaction (LMT){sub SS} or the citric-acid chemical method (LMT){sub CA}. A combination of Raman scattering, infrared reflectivity, and first-principles calculations was carried out to elucidate the correlation between lattice dynamics and the dielectric properties of these materials. Twelve Raman-active phonons are observed in both samples, displaying similar frequency positions. Interestingly, the A{sub g} phonon (g{sub 11} mode) of (LMT){sub SS} at about 717 cm{sup -1} involving the oxygen octahedron breathing vibrations demonstrates a narrower linewidth, suggesting its better crystallinity. Furthermore, an infrared-active u{sub 2} phonon band due to the vibrations of O{sub I} and O{sub II} layers, which possesses the largest oscillator strength, exhibits stronger intensity for (LMT){sub SS}, as compared with those for (LMT){sub CA}. Additionally, the Q x f values (the product of dielectric Q values and measurement frequency) of (LMT){sub SS} estimated from either microwave cavity or infrared spectroscopic measurements are larger than those of (LMT){sub CA}. These results indicate that the better coherence of lattice vibrations in (LMT){sub SS} leads to its higher Q x f value, providing evidence for a strong connection between optical spectroscopic behavior and microwave dielectric characteristics in these materials.

  2. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly of Plexcitonic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Wet chemical synthesis of silver nanorods and nanowires of controllable aspect ratio,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 0(7), 617–618... synthesis of high-aspect-ratio gold nanorods ,” J. Adv. Mater. 15(5), 414–416 (2003). 19. Q. Zhang, N. Li, J. Goebl, Z. Lu, and Y. Yin, “A Systematic...Study of the Synthesis of Silver Nanoplates: Is Citrate a “Magic” Reagent?” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(46), 18931–18939 (2011). 20. N. R. Jana, L

  3. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    Full Text Available Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment.

  4. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Liao, Zhi; Wang, Xin-Xing; Bao, Lin-Fei; Fan, Mei-Hua; Li, Xiao-Min; Wu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment.

  5. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xing; Bao, Lin-fei; Fan, Mei-hua; Li, Xiao-min; Wu, Chang-wen; Xia, Shu-wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment. PMID:26218932

  6. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto (University of New Mexico); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  7. Imposed layer by layer growth by pulsed laser interval deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Guus J.H.M.; Blank, Dave H.A.; Rogalla, Horst

    1999-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition has become an important technique to fabricate novel materials. Although there is the general impression that, due to the pulsed deposition, the growth mechanism differs partially from continuous physical and chemical deposition techniques, it has hardly been used. Here, we w

  8. Ceramic Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  9. Ceramic joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehman, R.E. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the relation between reactions at ceramic-metal interfaces and the development of strong interfacial bonds in ceramic joining. Studies on a number of systems are described, including silicon nitrides, aluminium nitrides, mullite, and aluminium oxides. Joints can be weakened by stresses such as thermal expansion mismatch. Ceramic joining is used in a variety of applications such as solid oxide fuel cells.

  10. Ceramic Methyltrioxorhenium

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, R; Eickerling, G; Helbig, C; Hauf, C; Miller, R; Mayr, F; Krug von Nidda, H A; Scheidt, E W; Scherer, W; Herrmann, Rudolf; Troester, Klaus; Eickerling, Georg; Helbig, Christian; Hauf, Christoph; Miller, Robert; Mayr, Franz; Nidda, Hans-Albrecht Krug von; Scheidt, Ernst-Wilhelm; Scherer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The metal oxide polymeric methyltrioxorhenium [(CH3)xReO3] is an unique epresentative of a layered inherent conducting organometallic polymer which adopts the structural motifs of classical perovskites in two dimensions (2D) in form of methyl-deficient, corner-sharing ReO5(CH3) octahedra. In order to improve the characteristics of polymeric methyltrioxorhenium with respect to its physical properties and potential usage as an inherentconducting polymer we tried to optimise the synthetic routes of polymeric modifications of 1 to obtain a sintered ceramic material, denoted ceramic MTO. Ceramic MTO formed in a solvent-free synthesis via auto-polymerisation and subsequent sintering processing displays clearly different mechanical and physical properties from polymeric MTO synthesised in aqueous solution. Ceramic MTO is shown to display activated Re-C and Re=O bonds relative to MTO. These electronic and structural characteristics of ceramic MTO are also reflected by a different chemical reactivity compared with its...

  11. Pulsed release behavior of microgels coated layer-by-layer by polyelectrolyte in vivo and in vitro%聚电解质逐层组装的微凝胶脉冲制剂的体内外释放研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周闺臣; 邹豪; 钟延强; 鲁莹; 张翮; 俞媛; 陈琰; 张国庆; 孙治国; 黄景彬; 于菲菲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro and in vivo release of chitosan-alginate microgels coated layer-by-layer by polyelectrolyte self-assembly. Methods The cores of the microgels were made by gelatinization using electrostatic microencapsulated and coated by polyelectrolytes using electrostatic attraction. The effects of different layers and ratios of polymer on the in vitro release of FITC-dextran were evaluated. Histological examination was carried out to observe the in vivo release process by injecting the coated microgels into mice. Results The results showed that alginate and calcium chloride concentrations and polyelectrolyte layers markedly affected the lag time of pulsed release and the releasing speed after lagging. Conclusion The release of microgels coated layer-by-layer by polyelectrolyte can be controlled in vitro and can be observed in vivo; meanwhile, the microgels are safe and have good biocompatibility.%目的 制备聚电解质逐层组装的壳聚糖海藻酸钠微凝胶,考察体外释放规律,观察体内释放过程.方法 使用高压静电成囊机制备海藻酸钠壳聚糖微凝胶核心,通过静电吸附原理将聚电解质逐层包裹在微凝胶表面形成包衣层;考察不同物料比例、包衣层数对体外释药性能的影响;小鼠皮下注射制剂后,制备组织切片观察体内释放过程.结果 海藻酸钠浓度、氯化钙浓度、聚电解质包衣层数影响脉冲释放时滞以及时滞后释放速度.结论 聚电解质逐层组装的微凝胶脉冲制剂,体外释药性能可灵活调控,体内释药可见,并且制剂安全,生物相容性好.

  12. Mechanism of photochromic effect in Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} and (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} ceramics under violet/infrared light illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Caixia; Xu, Long; Zhao, Hua, E-mail: zhaohuaz@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Jingwen [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Boston Applied Technologies, Inc., Woburn, Massachusetts 01801 (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Obvious photochromic effects were observed in Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} and (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PLZT) ceramics, along with exponential responses to illumination power in both darkening and bleaching processes. An interesting anomalous dispersion in the transparent PLZT was observed and discussed. A tentative physical picture based on photoinduced electron stimulated processes and on structural change was proposed to explain all the interesting observations. Rate equations were established and solved in verifying the validity of the proposed model. This work may serve as guidance in designing tunable achromatic lenses, UV and IR light detectors and sensors.

  13. Layer-by-layer functionalized porous Zinc sulfide nanospheres-based solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography time-of-flight/mass and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the specific enrichment and identification of alkaloids from Crinum asiaticum var. sinicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong; Miao, Zhao Yi; Yang, Rui Xiang; Wen, Hong Mei; Li, Wei; Chen, Jun; Kang, An; Shan, Chen-Xiao; Yu, Sheng; Hu, Yue

    2016-08-17

    The current widely utilized polymer or C8, C18 end-capped material-based sorbents for solid-phase extraction could not capture alkaloids well only based on "like dissolves like" principle. In this paper, a layer-by-layer functionalized porous Zinc sulfide nanospheres-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with liquid chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the specific enrichment and identification of alkaloids from complex matrixes, Crinum asiaticum var. sinicum crude extracts. The functionalized porous Zinc sulfide nanospheres were prepared by the amidation reaction of poly-(acrylic acid) (PAA) homopolymer with amino groups onto the porous ZnS nanospheres. Tandem LC-TOF/MS spectrometry presented that the almost all of the twenty-three main peaks in elution fraction from the SPE could be inferred as alkaloids with ion of mass according to the nitrogen rule and hit formula with Peak View1.2@software from AB SCIEX, and seven alkaloids including two new found chemical entities were directly identified from their GC-MS spectra and retention indices. We believe that this SPE protocol can also be utilized in the future to selectively enrich alkaloids from extracts of other plant species.

  14. Engineering ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bengisu, Murat

    2001-01-01

    This is a comprehensive book applying especially to junior and senior engineering students pursuing Materials Science/ Engineering, Ceramic Engineering and Mechanical Engineering degrees. It is also a reference book for other disciplines such as Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Engineering. Important properties of most engineering ceramics are given in detailed tables. Many current and possible applications of engineering ceramics are described, which can be used as a guide for materials selection and for potential future research. While covering all relevant information regarding raw materials, processing properties, characterization and applications of engineering ceramics, the book also summarizes most recent innovations and developments in this field as a result of extensive literature search.

  15. Near-infrared emission of Yb3+ through energy transfer from ZnO to Yb3+ in glass ceramic containing ZnO nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qun; Qiao, Xvsheng; Fan, Xianping; Zhang, Xianghua

    2011-08-01

    Yb(3+)-doped glass and glass ceramic containing ZnO nanocrystals were prepared by the melting-quenching method and subsequent heat treatment. Intense near-IR emission around 1000 nm that originated from the transition of Yb(3+):(2)F(5/2)→(2)F(7/2) was generated as a result of energy transfer from oxygen interstitials in ZnO nanocrystals to Yb(3+) with energy transfer efficiency of about 10%. The quantum yield for the near-IR emission of Yb(3+) under the excitation of 390 nm was about 16.7%. These materials have potential application in achieving high-efficiency Si solar cells via spectrum modification.

  16. Structural Ceramics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  17. Near-infrared peptide-coated quantum dots for small animal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Gopal; Li, Jack J.; Pinaud, Fabien; Tsay, James M.; Bentolila, Laurent A.; Michalet, Xavier; Weiss, Shimon

    2006-02-01

    We have synthesized high quality type-II CdTe/CdSe near infrared quantum dots using successive ion layer adsorption and reaction chemistry. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that CdTe/CdSe can be synthesized layer by layer yielding quantum dots of narrow size distribution. Excitation and photoluminescence spectra reveal discrete type-II transitions, which correspond to energy lower that type-I bandgap. We have used a peptide coating technique on type-II and commercial near infrared quantum dots for delivery in live animals and cultured cells.

  18. Dielectric spectroscopy of Ba(B1/2scriptB1/2script)O3 complex perovskite ceramics: Correlations between ionic parameters and microwave dielectric properties. I. Infrared reflectivity study (1012-1014 Hz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurmühlen, Rudolf; Petzelt, Jan; Kamba, Stanislav; Voitsekhovskii, Valentin V.; Colla, Enrico; Setter, Nava

    1995-05-01

    An attempt has been undertaken to find a correlation between ionic parameters of ceramic materials and their complex permittivity at microwave frequencies. Ten Ba(B1/2'B1/2`)O3 complex perovskite compounds (B'=Y3+, In3+, Nd3+, Gd3+; B`=Nb5+, Ta5+ and B'=Mg2+, Cd2+, B`=W6+) are compared in order to study the effect of ionic radii, mass, and valence state on dielectric properties. Fourier transform infrared reflectivity spectra in the 30-4000 cm-1 range were measured and evaluated by means of Kramers-Kronig analysis and classical oscillator fit. The data were extrapolated below the measured frequency range to estimate the intrinsic microwave losses. The correlations between loss, permittivity, ionic size, mass, and effective charge and polar-phonon mode parameters were investigated. Ionic size was revealed to be the most important parameter, determining the tolerance factor of the structure packing and through this controlling the phonon frequencies and dampings as well as the extrapolated low-frequency intrinsic permittivity and loss. Nb5+ ions showed systematically higher dampings and greater tendencies towards disorder in comparison with Ta5+ compounds with the same tolerance factor. A steep increase in extrapolated loss with increasing permittivity was observed.

  19. Novel Prospects and Possibilities in Additive Manufacturing of Ceramics by means of Direct Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Mareike Wätjen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct inkjet printing is a versatile additive manufacturing technology to produce complex three-dimensional components from ceramic suspensions. By successive printing of cross-sections, the sample is built up layer by layer. The aim of this paper is to show the different possibilities of direct inkjet printing of ceramic suspensions, like printing of oxide (3Y-TZP, Al2O3, and ZTA or nonoxide (Si3N4, MoSi2 ceramics, featuring microstructures, laminates, three-dimensional specimens, and dispersion ceramics. A modified thermal inkjet printer was used and the ink replaced by aqueous ceramic suspensions of high solids content. The suspensions were processed in an attrition mill or agitator bead mill to reduce the grain size <1 μm to avoid clogging of printhead nozzles. Further significant parameters are rheological properties (viscosity and surface tension and solids content which were adjusted to the requirements of the printheads. The printed and sintered samples were analysed by SEM. Mechanical properties of 3Y-TZP samples were examined as well by use of the ball-on-three-balls test. The biaxial flexural strength of 3Y-TZP specimens was up to 1393 MPa with a Weibull modulus of 10.4 for small specimens (3 × 4×0.3 mm3.

  20. Ceramic Seal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Juan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Custer, Joyce Olsen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hymel, Ross W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krementz, Dan [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gobin, Derek [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Harpring, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Varble, Don [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); DiMaio, Jeff [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States); Hudson, Stephen [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  1. Preparation and Easy-Cleaning Property of Rare Earth Composite Ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth and far-infrared mineral composite materials were added to ceramic glazes to prepare easy-cleaning ceramic. The morphology of easy-cleaning ceramic was observed by SEM. The influence of easy-cleaning ceramic on water surface tension and contact angles of water were investigated. Through calculation of ceramic surface free energy and observation of oil drop on ceramic surface in water, the easy-cleaning mechanism of rare earth composite ceramic was studied. It is found that the rare earth composite ceramic can make water surface tension decrease. The surface free energy and the polar component of rare earth composite ceramic are increased. The rare earth composite ceramics have the easy-cleaning property.

  2. Direct electrochemistry of { Hb-ZnO/IP6 }6 modified electrode through layer-by-layer self assembly technology%层层自组装构筑{ Hb - ZnO/IP6}6修饰电极及其直接电化学行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐欢; 王耀; 杨海峰

    2011-01-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and the mixed solution of zinc oxide nanoparticles and hemoglobin(Hb) were alternately modified onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode ( GCE) through layer-by-layer self-assembly technique for constructing | Hb-ZnO/IP6 16/GCE. | Hb-ZnO/IP6 16/GCE was characterized with cyclic voltammetry ( CV) .electrochemical impedance spec-troscopy (EIS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Experimental results showed that the | Hb-ZnO/ IP6 (6/GCE exhibited three-dimensional porous structure and realized the direct electron transfer between Hb and electrode surface, j Hb-ZnO/IP6 |6/GCE displayed excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2 with a linear response range from 2.00 x 10"6-l. 12 x 10"4 mol ■ L"1 and a detection limit of 1. 40 x 10"6mol ? L"1 (at the ration of signal to noise, S/N =3). The Michaelis-Menten constant K M*pp was estimated to be 5.1 mmol ■ L"1.%将纳米氧化锌与血红蛋白(Hb)的混合液,通过肌醇六磷酸酯(IP6)层层自组装于玻碳电极(GCE)表面,制备了{Hb - ZnO/IP6}6修饰电极.用循环伏安法、电化学阻抗光谱和场发射扫描电镜对{ Hb - ZnO/IP6}6膜进行了表征.实验结果表明:{Hb - ZnO/IP6}6/GCE呈现层状三维多孔结构,实现了血红蛋白和电极表面的直接电子转移.该修饰电极对过氧化氢有很好的电催化活性,线性范围为2.00×10-6~ 1.12×10 -4mol·L-1,最低检测限为1.40 × 10-6mol·L-1(信噪比S/N =3),米氏常数为5.1 mmol · L-1.

  3. Near-infrared (1550 nm) in vivo bioimaging based on rare-earth doped ceramic nanophosphors modified with PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Masao; Kanayama, Naoki; Tokuzen, Kimikazu; Soga, Kohei; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2011-09-01

    A novel poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based block copolymer possessing a 4-vinylbenzylphosphonate repeating unit in another segment (PEG-block-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate)) (PEG-b-PVBP) was designed and successfully synthesized. As a control, an end-functionalized PEG possessing a mono-phosphonate group (PEG-PO(3)H(2)) was also synthesized. The surface of near-infrared (NIR) phosphors (i.e., ytterbium (Yb) and erbium (Er) ion-codoped Y(2)O(3) nanoparticles (YNPs)) were modified with PEG-b-PVBP (PEG-YNP(b)s) and PEG-PO(3)H(2) (PEG-YNP(1)s). The adsorption of PEG-b-PVBP and PEG-PO(3)H(2) was estimated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The physicochemical characteristics of the obtained YNP samples were analyzed by ζ-potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The ζ-potentials of YNPs modified by these polymers were close to zero, indicating the effective coverage of the YNP surface by our new PEG derivatives. However, the dispersion stability of the PEGylated YNPs was strongly affected by the structure of the PEG terminus. The average diameter of the PEG-YNP(1)s increased, and aggregates precipitated after less than 1 h in phosphate buffer saline (PBS). In contrast, the size did not change at all in the case of PEG-YNP(b)s and the dispersion in PBS was stable for over 1 week. PEG-YNP(b)s also showed high erosion resistance under acidic conditions. The multiple coordinated PVBP segment of the block copolymer on the YNP surface plays a substantial role in improving such dispersion stability. The excellent dispersion stability and strong NIR luminescence of the obtained PEG-YNP(b)s were also confirmed in fetal bovine serum (FBS) solution over 1 week. Furthermore, in vivo NIR imaging of live mice was performed, and the 1550 nm NIR emission of PEG-YNP(b)s from the organ of live mice was confirmed without dissection.

  4. Transparent Flexible Conductive Thin Films Based on Cellulose Nanofibers by Layer-by-layer Assembly Method and Its Fabricated Electrochromic Flexible Supercapacitors%纤维素纳米纤维基层层自组装透明柔性导电膜及其电致变色柔性超级电容器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红英; 王茜; 邵自强; 杨荣杰

    2015-01-01

    以纤维素纳米纤维(CNFs)膜为基材,通过层层自组装法设计并制备了 CNFs/[Cu2+-GO]5/[PANI-PEDOT:PSS]10复合膜(CGPP膜),经过除铜,将氧化石墨烯(GO)还原为还原氧化石墨烯(RGO),得到CNFs/RGO5/[ PANI-PEDOT: PSS ]10复合导电膜( CRGPP-10膜),并以 H2 SO4-PVA 凝胶为电解质,双片CRGPP-10膜为电极,组装了双电极体系的柔性超级电容器S-RGPP.对CGPP膜和CRGPP-10膜进行紫外-可见光谱、结晶特性和形态表征,并对S-RGPP的循环伏安( CV)曲线、恒电流充放电性能( GCD)及电化学阻抗谱( EIS)等电化学性能进行分析.结果表明,通过层层自组装法制备的CRGPP-10膜具有均匀和透明度可控的优点.柔性超级电容器S-RGPP的内阻较小,同时具有双电层( EDL)电容和赝电容性能,表现出良好的柔性和一定的电致变色性. RGO的加入使S-RGPP的循环稳定性得到改善.%The cellulose nanofibers ( CNFs) film exhibit high visible light transmittance, high mechanical strength, and excellent flexibility. Therefore, CNFs film may be an excellent substrate material for flexible transparent electronic devices. In this paper, we endeavor to prepare the CNFs-based hybrid multilayer thin film CNFs/[ Cu2+-GO ] 5/[ PANI-PEDOT: PSS ] 10 by layer-by-layer assembly method using divalent copper ions( Cu2+) as the crosslinking agent. Then the conductive thin film of CRGPP-10 was got by removing copper ions with solution and using reduction reaction of graphene oxide( GO) with hydroiodic acid solution for reduc-tion of oxide graphene( RGO) from CNFs/[ Cu2+-GO] 5/[ PANI-PEDOT:PSS] 10 film. After that, the superca-pacitor fabricated S-RGPP was fabricated using double CRGPP-10 films as electrode when H2 SO4-PVA gel was used as the electrolyte. The crystalline characteristic and configuration of CRGPP thin films, along with the absorbency characteristics of CRGPP thin films, were analyzed. Meanwhile, the electrochemical characters of the

  5. Study of Metal and Ceramic Thermionic Vacuum arc Discharges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamer AKAN; Serdar DEMIRKOL; Naci EKEM; Suat PAT; Geavit MUSA

    2007-01-01

    The thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) is a new type of plasma source, which generates a pure metal and ceramic vapour plasma containing ions with a directed energy. TVA discharges can be ignited in high vacuum conditions between a heated cathode (electron gun) and an anode (tungsten crucible) containing the material. The accelerated electron beam, incident on the anode, heats the crucible, together with its contents, to a high temperature. After establishing a steady-state density of the evaporating anode material atoms, and when the voltage applied is high enough, a bright discharge is ignited between the electrodes. We generated silver and AI2O3 TVA discharges in order to compare the metal and ceramic TVA discharges. The electrical and optical characteristics of silver and AI2O3 TVA discharges were analysed. The TVA is also a new technique for the deposition of thin films. The film condenses on the sample from the plasma state of the vapour phase of the anode material, generated by a TVA. We deposited silver and AI2O3 thin films onto an aluminium substrate layer-by-layer using their TVA discharges, and produced micro and/or nano-layer Ag-Ab2O3 composite samples. The composite samples using scanning electron microscopy was also analysed.

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Silicon Carbide-Based Ceramic Matrix Composites: Technical Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Halbig, Michael C.; Grady, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced SiC-based ceramic matrix composites offer significant contributions toward reducing fuel burn and emissions by enabling high overall pressure ratio (OPR) of gas turbine engines and reducing or eliminating cooling air in the hot-section components, such as shrouds, combustor liners, vanes, and blades. Additive manufacturing (AM), which allows high value, custom designed parts layer by layer, has been demonstrated for metals and polymer matrix composites. However, there has been limited activity on additive manufacturing of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). In this presentation, laminated object manufacturing (LOM), binder jet process, and 3-D printing approaches for developing ceramic composite materials are presented. For the laminated object manufacturing (LOM), fiber prepreg laminates were cut into shape with a laser and stacked to form the desired part followed by high temperature heat treatments. For the binder jet, processing optimization was pursued through silicon carbide powder blending, infiltration with and without SiC nano powder loading, and integration of fibers into the powder bed. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted along with XRD, TGA, and mechanical testing. Various technical challenges and opportunities for additive manufacturing of ceramics and CMCs will be presented.

  7. LAYER-BY-LAYER ASSEMBLY OF A HALOGEN-BONDED POLYMER MULTILAYER FILM AND IMPROVEMENT OF ITS STABILITY%一种卤键高分子多层膜的层层组装及其稳定性的提高

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧慧; 陈秋霞; 赵趱; 王力彦

    2011-01-01

    Poly (2-(4-iodo-2, 3,5, 6-tetrafluorophenoxy) ethyl methacrylate ) (PIPEMA) and poly(3-(3-pyridyl)propyl methacrylate) (PPyPMA) were designed and synthesized with iodotetrafluorophenoxy group as halogen-bonding donor and pyridyl group as halogen-bonding acceptor. After layer-by-layer assembly and verification with UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, a halogen-bonded PIPEMA/PPyPMA multilayer film was successfully assembled in acetone and methyl ethyl ketone ( MEK) , while PIPEMA and PPyPMA were not assembled into a multilayer film in tetrahydrofuran (THF) or chloroform. The PIPEMA/PPyPMA multilayer film was further characterized with quartz crystal microbalance, atomic force microscope and surface profiler. The PIPEMA/PPyPMA multilayer film assembled in MEK is stable in water with pH values between 3 and 13 because the two polymers can not be dissolved in water. In contrast, the polymer film was desorbed in THF, chloroform and pyridine with maximum film loss greater than 97%. In order to improve the stability of a multilayer film in organic solvents,two approaches were applied. (1 ) A PIPEMA/PPyPMA multilayer film was cross-linked with 1,3-dibromopropane. As for the cross-linked film,the maximum film loss in THF is less than 6%. (2) A copolymer bearing both hydrogen-bonding donor and halogen-bonding donor was designed and synthesized. As for a multilayer film of the copolymer and PPyPMA,the film loss in THF decreased to 46% .%设计合成了聚甲基丙烯酸2-(4-碘-2,3,5,6-四氟苯氧基)乙酯( PIPEMA)和聚甲基丙烯酸3-(3-吡啶基)丙酯( PPyPMA),经过层层组装和随后的紫外可见光谱的检验,发现可以在丙酮和丁酮中组装PIPEMA/PPyPMA卤键多层膜,但是当以四氢呋喃(THF)或氯仿为组装溶剂时未能获得多层膜.另外,在丁酮中组装的卤键多层膜在pH3~ 13的水溶液中稳定存在,然而在THF、氯仿和吡啶中的脱附率大于97%.为了提高多层膜在有机溶剂中的稳定

  8. Study on Layer-by-layer Electrostatic Self-assembly Composite Abrasives Slurry and Its Silicon Wafer CMP Performance%静电层层自组装复合磨粒及抛光液的抛光性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟强; 马国伟; 金清波; 黄亦申; 赵彬善; 许雪峰

    2013-01-01

    利用静电层层自组装原理,通过PDADMAC在聚合物粒子表面改性和吸附不同层数的SiO2磨粒,制备n-SiO2/BGF复合磨粒及其抛光液.分析了交替吸附PDADMAC和SiO2磨粒的BGF微球表面Zeta电位的变化,利用TEM表征了不同层数的n-SiO2/BGF复合磨粒SiO2磨粒的吸附情况.分析了聚合物表面磨粒的吸附层数、游离磨粒浓度、聚合物粒径对复合磨粒抛光液抛光的影响.抛光实验表明:3-SiO2/BGF复合磨粒抛光液的材料去除率最高,为368.8nm/min;复合磨粒抛光液中的聚合物粒子为1~2μm、游离磨料SiO2的质量分数为5%时,材料去除率取得较大值.经3-SiO2/BGF复合磨粒抛光液抛光后的硅表面,在10μm×10μm范围内,表面粗糙度从0.3μm降至0.9nm,峰谷值小于10nm,表明复合磨粒抛光液对硅片具有良好的抛光效果.%According to the principle of layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly technology, the cationic polyelectrolyte PDADMAC and SiO2 abrasives were adsorbed onto the surface of the Benzoguanamine formaldehyde(BGF) polymer microsphere alternatively,and the n - SiO2/BGF composite abrasives slurries were prepared. Zeta potential of BGF microsphere was investigated at different adsorption stages,and the adsorption situation between SiO2 abrasives and BGF microsphere was characterized by transmission electron microscope(TEM). The polishing mechanism of adsorption layers of SiO2 abrasive and free SiO2 abrasives in slurry was analyzed. The experiments show that the modified 3 - SiO2/BGF composite abrasives slurry yieldes highest material removal rate (368.8 nm/min) with 5wt% free silica abrasives in slurry. The surface roughness Ra of copper wafer (with 10μm×10μm district) are decreased from Ra 0. 3μm to 1. 5nm,and the surface peak-valley value Rpv are less than 10nm using the slurry.

  9. Hydrophobicity of rare-earth oxide ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Gisele; Dhiman, Rajeev; Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Paxson, Adam T.; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2013-04-01

    Hydrophobic materials that are robust to harsh environments are needed in a broad range of applications. Although durable materials such as metals and ceramics, which are generally hydrophilic, can be rendered hydrophobic by polymeric modifiers, these deteriorate in harsh environments. Here we show that a class of ceramics comprising the entire lanthanide oxide series, ranging from ceria to lutecia, is intrinsically hydrophobic. We attribute their hydrophobicity to their unique electronic structure, which inhibits hydrogen bonding with interfacial water molecules. We also show with surface-energy measurements that polar interactions are minimized at these surfaces and with Fourier transform infrared/grazing-angle attenuated total reflection that interfacial water molecules are oriented in the hydrophobic hydration structure. Moreover, we demonstrate that these ceramic materials promote dropwise condensation, repel impinging water droplets, and sustain hydrophobicity even after exposure to harsh environments. Rare-earth oxide ceramics should find widespread applicability as robust hydrophobic surfaces.

  10. Terahertz wave behaviours in ceramic and metal structures fabricated by spatial joining of micro-stereolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirihara, S; Niki, T; Kaneko, M [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka Ibaraki, 567-0047 Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: kirihara@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    We have newly developed micro-stereolithography system to realize freeform fabrication of micrometer order 3D metal structures. In this process, the photo-sensitive resin paste mixed with nanometer sized ceramic and metal particles was spread on a glass substrate with 10 {mu}m in layer thickness by using a mechanical knife edge, and two-dimensional images of UV ray were exposed using DMD (Digital Micro-mirror Device) with 2 {mu}m in part accuracy. Through the layer by layer stacking process, micrometer order three-dimensional objects were formed. Dense metal structures could be obtained by dewaxing and successive sintering of the formed objects. In our recent investigation, micro photonic crystals with lattice structures of alumina or pure copper were fabricated in order to control electromagnetic wave propagation in a terahertz (THz) frequency range. The micro photonic crystals with a diamond structure perfectly reflected the THz wave by Bragg diffraction.

  11. Nano black high near-infrared reflectance ceramic pigments synthesized by sol-gel method%溶胶-凝胶法制备纳米近红外高反射率黑色陶瓷颜料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张潇予; 张玉军; 龚红宇; 王翠玲; 赵新巧; 朱洪立; 熊天农

    2013-01-01

    以硝酸铁、硝酸铬、柠檬酸、乙二醇为原料,采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了纳米近红外高反射率黑色陶瓷颜料,探讨了Fe/Cr摩尔比、水解温度、溶液pH值、金属离子浓度、煅烧温度等因素对溶胶-凝胶过程及样品性能的影响.结果表明,在Fe/Cr摩尔比为0.50,水解温度70℃,溶液pH值=3~4,金属离子浓度为2.5~3.5mol/L,煅烧温度为900℃时,制备的颜料主晶相为CrL3Fe0.7O3,平均颗粒尺寸为50~150nm,在700~2500nm波段内的平均反射率为77.58%.%Nano black high near-infrared (NIR) reflectance ceramic pigments were prepared with ferric nitrate, chromium nitrate, citric acid, and ethylene glycol by sol-gel method. The effects of different molar ratio of Fe and Cr, hydrolysis temperature, the pH of the solution, concentration of metal ions and calcination temperature were investigated. The results show that the crystalline phase of the as-prepared pigments is Cr1.3 Feo.7 O3 with average NIR reflectance about 77. 58% in 700-2500nm wavelength range when Fe/Cr molar ratio was 0. 50, hydrolysis temperature was 70℃ , pH value was 3-4, metal ion concentration was 2. 5-3. 5mol/L, calcination temperature was 900 ℃.

  12. DLP-based light engines for additive manufacturing of ceramic parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbichler, M.; Geppert, M.; Gruber, S.; Ipp, E.; Almedal, R.; Stampfl, J.

    2012-03-01

    In the framework of the European research project PHOCAM (http://www.phocam.eu) the involved partners are developing systems and materials for lithography-based additive manufacturing technologies (AMT) which are used for shaping advanced ceramic materials. In this approach a ceramic-filled photosensitive resin is selectively exposed layer by layer. By stacking up the individual layers with a typical layer thickness between 25 and 50μm, a three-dimensional part is built up. After structuring, a solid part consisting of a ceramic filled polymer is obtained. The polymer is afterwards burnt off and in a last step the part is sintered to obtain a fully dense ceramic part. The developed systems are based on selective exposure with DLP projection (Digital Light Processing). A key element of the developed systems is a light engine which uses digital mirror devices (DMD) in combination light emitting diodes (460nm) as light source. In the current setup DMDs with 1920x1080 pixels are used. The use of LEDs in combination with a customized optical projection system ensures a spatial and temporal homogeneity of the intensity at the build platform which is significantly better than with traditionally used light engines. The system has a resolution of 40μm and a build size of 79x43x100mm. It could be shown that this system can fabricate dense ceramic parts with excellent strength. In the case of alumina densities up to 99.6% of the theoretical density were achieved, yielding a biaxial strength of 510MPa. Besides technical ceramics like alumina it is also possible to structure bioceramics, e.g. tricalcium phosphate.

  13. Mn and Sm doped lead titanate ceramic fibers and fiber/epoxy 13 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Pang, Geoffrey; Wa Chan, Helen Lai; Choy, Chung Loong; Li, Jin-hua

    2004-05-01

    Manganese and samarium doped lead titanate [Pb0.85Sm0.10(Ti0.98Mn0.02)O3, PSmT] fibers were prepared by sol-gel method. The micrographs obtained using scanning electron microscope show that PSmT ceramic fibers are round and dense. The diameter of the fibers was in the range of 30-35 μm. The crystalline grains size is ˜2.5 μm. The micrographs obtained using transmission electron microscope also unveiled the layer-by-layer 90° domains in the grains. X-ray diffraction patterns of the fibers show that PSmT ceramics have a pure perovskite structure. The c/a ratio of the unit cell was 1.04. The PSmT fiber/epoxy 1-3 composites were fabricated by filling the ceramic fiber bundle with epoxy. The dielectric permittivity ɛ, electromechanical coefficient kt, and the piezoelectric constant d33 of PSmT fiber/epoxy 1-3 composites with 68% fiber loading were 118, 0.51, and 48 pC/N, respectively. The hysteresis loop of the composites was measured by the Sawyer-Tower method. It was also found that the composites could withstand an electric field of 15 kV/mm at room temperature.

  14. Ceramic Laser Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Villalobos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic laser materials have come a long way since the first demonstration of lasing in 1964. Improvements in powder synthesis and ceramic sintering as well as novel ideas have led to notable achievements. These include the first Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG ceramic laser in 1995, breaking the 1 KW mark in 2002 and then the remarkable demonstration of more than 100 KW output power from a YAG ceramic laser system in 2009. Additional developments have included highly doped microchip lasers, ultrashort pulse lasers, novel materials such as sesquioxides, fluoride ceramic lasers, selenide ceramic lasers in the 2 to 3 μm region, composite ceramic lasers for better thermal management, and single crystal lasers derived from polycrystalline ceramics. This paper highlights some of these notable achievements.

  15. Ceramic Matrix Composites .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mukerji

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The present state of the knowledge of ceramic-matrix composites have been reviewed. The fracture toughness of present structural ceramics are not enough to permit design of high performance machines with ceramic parts. They also fail by catastrophic brittle fracture. It is generally believed that further improvement of fracture toughness is only possible by making composites of ceramics with ceramic fibre, particulate or platelets. Only ceramic-matrix composites capable of working above 1000 degree centigrade has been dealt with keeping reinforced plastics and metal-reinforced ceramics outside the purview. The author has discussed the basic mechanisms of toughening and fabrication of composites and the difficulties involved. Properties of available fibres and whiskers have been given. The best results obtained so far have been indicated. The limitations of improvement in properties of ceramic-matrix composites have been discussed.

  16. Three-dimensional printing of porous ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Hermann; Rieder, Wolfgang; Irsen, Stephan; Leukers, Barbara; Tille, Carsten

    2005-08-01

    This article reports a new process chain for custom-made three-dimensional (3D) porous ceramic scaffolds for bone replacement with fully interconnected channel network for the repair of osseous defects from trauma or disease. Rapid prototyping and especially 3D printing is well suited to generate complex-shaped porous ceramic matrices directly from powder materials. Anatomical information obtained from a patient can be used to design the implant for a target defect. In the 3D printing technique, a box filled with ceramic powder is printed with a polymer-based binder solution layer by layer. Powder is bonded in wetted regions. Unglued powder can be removed and a ceramic green body remains. We use a modified hydroxyapatite (HA) powder for the fabrication of 3D printed scaffolds due to the safety of HA as biocompatible implantable material and efficacy for bone regeneration. The printed ceramic green bodies are consolidated at a temperature of 1250 degrees C in a high temperature furnace in ambient air. The polymeric binder is pyrolysed during sintering. The resulting scaffolds can be used in tissue engineering of bone implants using patient-derived cells that are seeded onto the scaffolds. This article describes the process chain, beginning from data preparation to 3D printing tests and finally sintering of the scaffold. Prototypes were successfully manufactured and characterized. It was demonstrated that it is possible to manufacture parts with inner channels with a dimension down to 450 microm and wall structures with a thickness down to 330 microm. The mechanical strength of dense test parts is up to 22 MPa.

  17. Ceramic art in sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Rokavec, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Diploma seminar speaks of ceramics as a field of artistic expression and not just as pottery craft. I presented short overview of developing ceramic sculpture and its changing role. Clay inspires design and touch more than other sculpture media. It starts as early as in prehistory. Although it sometimes seems that was sculptural ceramics neglected in art history overview, it was not so in actual praxis. There is a rich tradition of ceramics in the East and also in Europe during the renaissanc...

  18. Light element ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, KJ; Varma, KBR; Raju, AR

    1988-01-01

    An overview of a few structually important light element ceramics is presented. Included in the overview are silicon nitide, sialon, aluminium nitride, boron carbide and silicon carbide. Methods of preparation, characterization and industrial applications of these ceramics are summarized. Mechanical properties, industrial production techniques and principal uses of these ceramics are emphasized.

  19. Ceramic to metal seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Gary S. (Albuquerque, NM); Wilcox, Paul D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1976-01-01

    Providing a high strength, hermetic ceramic to metal seal by essentially heating a wire-like metal gasket and a ceramic member, which have been chemically cleaned, while simultaneously deforming from about 50 to 95 percent the metal gasket against the ceramic member at a temperature of about 30 to 75 percent of the melting temperature of the metal gasket.

  20. 论功能型建筑陶瓷的作用及其应用%Functionalized Building Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税安泽; 覃东; 张勇林; 朱雯莉; 吴诚; 方桂金

    2012-01-01

    The functionalization of building ceramics is one of the main development directions for ceramic industry. The present paper summa-rizes the functionalized ceramics, including self-cleaning ceramic tiles, antibacterial ceramic tiles, solar ceramic tile, far-infrared ceramic tiles, anti-static ceramic, photoluminescence ceramic, humidity-controlling ceramic, electronegative ceramic tiles, porous heat insulation ce- ramic, water permeable brick, sound absorption ceramic, radar absorption ceramic tiles and dioxide absorption ceramic tiles and so on. The principle, process and the application of each functionalized ceramic tile are also given here.%将建筑陶瓷功能化是陶瓷行业的主要发展方向之一。本文对功能型建筑陶瓷,如自洁陶瓷、抗菌陶瓷、太阳能陶瓷、远红外辐射陶瓷、防静电陶瓷、发光陶瓷、调湿陶瓷、负离子陶瓷、多孔隔热陶瓷、透水砖、吸声陶瓷、吸收电磁波陶瓷和吸收二氧化碳陶瓷等方面进行了归纳,并阐述了各种功能型瓷砖的原理、工艺和应用。

  1. Creep in ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelleg, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is one of its kind, since there are no other books on Creep in Ceramics. The book consist of two parts: A and B. In part A general knowledge of creep in ceramics is considered, while part B specifies creep in technologically important ceramics. Part B covers creep in oxide ceramics, carnides and nitrides. While covering all relevant information regarding raw materials and characterization of creep in ceramics, the book also summarizes most recent innovations and developments in this field as a result of extensive literature search.

  2. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  3. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  4. Study on Far-Infrared Reflectivity Spectra of Microwave Dielectric Ceramic (RbBi) 1/2 MoO4%(RbBi)1/2MoO4陶瓷微波介电性能的远红外反射谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋萍; 刘汉臣

    2012-01-01

    The (RbBi)1/2MoO4 ceramic was prepared via solid state reaction method. The room temperature far-infrared reflectivity spectra were measured and 15 vibration modes were observed. Kramers-Kronig (K-K) relationship was employed to fit infrared spectra. The optical frequency permittivity ε00 is equal to 2. 17 for the dielectric materials, and the extrapolated value to microwave frequency (at about 9 GHz) is 20. 56 and it is slightly smaller than the actual measured value ~21. 4. The calculated value of quality factor (Q×f) is 11 790 GHz, which is higher than the actual measured value ~6 200 GHz, and it can be deduced that the quality factor of the (RbBi)1/2MoQt ceramic material has large room for improvement.%采用固相反应法制备了(RbBi)1/2 MoO4陶瓷样品.室温下测量了(RbBi)1/2 MoO4的红外反射谱,观察到15个振动模式;利用Kramers-Kronig(K-K)关系对样品的红外反射谱进行数据处理,获得材料的光频介电常数ε∞=2.17,微波频段的外推值为20.56,略小于实际测量值21.4;获得材料的本征品质因数Q×f为11790 GHz,高于实际测量值6200 GHz,说明陶瓷材料的品质因数还有较大提升空间.

  5. The friction and wear of ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/metal combinations in sliding contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    The tribological characteristics of ceramics sliding on ceramics are compared to those of ceramics sliding on a nickel-based turbine alloy. The friction and wear of oxide ceramics and silicon-based ceramics in air at temperatures from room ambient to 900 C (in a few cases to 1200 C) were measured for a hemispherically-tipped pin on a flat sliding contact geometry. In general, especially at high temperature, friction and wear were lower for ceramic/metal combinations than for ceramic/ceramic combinations. The better tribological performance for ceramic/metal combinations is attributed primarily to the lubricious nature of the oxidized surface of the metal.

  6. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabloff, J A [ed.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  7. Ceramic laser materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikesue, Akio; Aung, Yan Lin

    2008-12-01

    The word 'ceramics' is derived from the Greek keramos, meaning pottery and porcelain. The opaque and translucent cement and clay often used in tableware are not appropriate for optical applications because of the high content of optical scattering sources, that is, defects. Recently, scientists have shown that by eliminating the defects, a new, refined ceramic material - polycrystalline ceramic - can be produced. This advanced ceramic material offers practical laser generation and is anticipated to be a highly attractive alternative to conventional glass and single-crystal laser technologies in the future. Here we review the history of the development of ceramic lasers, the principle of laser generation based on this material, some typical results achieved with ceramic lasers so far, and discuss the potential future outlook for the field.

  8. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  9. Defect production in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  10. Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was developed by the USDOE Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the USDOE and NASA advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990 the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities.

  11. Preparation and Luminescence of Er3+ Doped Oxyfluoride Glass Ceramics Containing LaF3 Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Er3+ doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals were prepared and the up-con-version and near infrared luminescence behavior of Er3+ in glasses and glass ceramics were investigated. With increasing heat-treating time and temperature, the size (varied from 0 to 19 nm) and crystallinity (varied from 0 to 47%) of LaF3 nanocrystals in the glass ceramics are increased. The up-conversion luminescence intensity of Er3+ ions in the glass ceramics is much stronger than that in the glasses and increased significantly with increasing heat-treating time and temperature. The near infrared emission of Er3+ ions in the glass ceramics is found to be similar to that in the glasses.

  12. Effect of Additive on Microstructure of Transparent YAG Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xudong; Wen Lei; Xiu Zhimeng; Huo Di; Li Xiaodong; Chi-Tay Tsai

    2005-01-01

    Transparent YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) ceramics were fabricated by solid-state reaction method. Effect of additive (tetraethyl orthosilicate, TEOS) on microstructure of YAG ceramics was investigated. If the addition of TEOS is more than 3% (mass fraction), large amount of liquid phase can be yielded at grain boundaries, resulting in the formation of second phase particles at grain boundaries. If the addition is less than 0.05% (mass fraction), pores are entrapped in the grains. The suitable amount is 0.5% (mass fraction). A fully transparent YAG ceramic was fabricated by vacuum sintering at 1700 ℃ for 5 h. Optical transmittance of the YAG ceramic is 63% in the visible light wavelengths and 70% in the infrared wavelengths.

  13. Verification of ceramic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behar-Lafenetre, S.; Cornillon, L.; Rancurel, M.; Graaf, D. de; Hartmann, P.; Coe, G.; Laine, B.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the "Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures" contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and instr

  14. Industrial Ceramics: Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The expanding use of ceramic products in today's world can be seen in the areas of communications, construction, aerospace, textiles, metallurgy, atomic energy, and electronics. The demands of science have brought ceramics from an art to an industry using mass production and automated processes which requires the services of great numbers as the…

  15. Preparation, Characterization and Performance of Conch Ceramics Added With Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The conch ceramics bodies with different ratios were prepared by compression moulding technology using shell, kaolin, and calcium oxide etc. as the raw materials, and then calcined at the high temperature to obtain the conch ceramics. The effects of raw material ratios and calcination temperatures on the performance of conch ceramics were investigated by rotational viscometer, vernier caliper, digital display whiteness meter, thermal analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer(FT-IR. The results indicated that the viscosity, line shrinkage rate, and whiteness of the conch ceramics were 1.29 Pa·s, 17.9%, and 54.1%, respectively, when the content of the shell powder was 20 wt% and kaolin was 65 wt%. The density of the conch ceramics was the largest (3.8 g/cm3 when calcination temperature was 1200 °C. The results of FT-IR spectrum showed that the addition of the shell powders changed the structure of the ceramic body, which improved the performance of the conch ceramics.

  16. Ceramics As Materials Of Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Zaki, A.; Eteiba, M. B.; Abdelmonem, N.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper attempts to review the limitations for using the important ceramics in contact with corrosive media. Different types of ceramics are included. Corrosion properties of ceramics and their electrical properties are mentioned. Recommendations are suggested for using ceramics in different media.

  17. High pressure ceramic joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael E.; Harkins, Bruce D.

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  18. Wear Behavior of Cold Pressed and Sintered Al2O3/TiC/CaF2Al2O3/TiC Laminated Ceramic Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng YANG; Jian CHENG; Peilong SONG; Shouren WANG; Liying YANG; Yanjun WANG; Ken MAO

    2013-01-01

    A novel laminated Al2O3/TiC/CaF2-Al2O3/TiC sandwich ceramic composite was fabricated through cold pressing and sintering to achieve better anti-wear performance,such as low friction coefficient and low wear rate.Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 and Al2O3/TiC composites were alternatively built layer-by-layer to obtain a sandwich structure.Solid lubricant CaF2 was added evenly into the Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 layer to reduce the frict