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Sample records for ceprate sc stem

  1. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Is a Marker for Normal and Malignant Human Colonic Stem Cells (SC) and Tracks SC Overpopulation during Colon Tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Emina H.; Hynes, Mark J.; Zhang, Tao; Ginestier, Christophe; Dontu, Gabriela; Appelman, Henry; Fields, Jeremy Z.; Wicha, Max S.; Boman, Bruce M

    2009-01-01

    Although the concept that cancers originate from stem cells (SC) is becoming scientifically accepted, mechanisms by which SC contribute to tumor initiation and progression are largely unknown. For colorectal cancer (CRC), investigation of this problem has been hindered by a paucity of specific markers for identification and isolation of SC from normal and malignant colon. Accordingly, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) was investigated as a possible marker for identifying colonic SC and for tra...

  2. [Human amniotic epithelium (HAE) as a possible source of stem cells (SC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Guadalupe; García-Castro, Irma Lydia; Avila-González, Daniela; Molina-Hernández, Anayansi; Flores-Herrera, Héctor; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Díaz-Martínez, Fabián

    2015-01-01

    There have been major recent advances in the field of developmental biology due to the investigation on stem cells (SC). Stem cells are characterized by their capacity of auto-renewal and differentiation to different cellular phenotypes. Based on the developmental stage, they can be classified into two different types: embryonic SCs and adult SCs. It has been widely reported that several problems need to be resolved before their possible clinical applications. As a result, fetal membranes have been suggested as an alternative source of SCs. In the human amniotic epithelium, the presence of markers of pluripotent SC´s has been reported, and its capacity as a feeder layer for expansion of different SC types. Also, fetal membranes are a discarded product after delivery, and thus there are not any ethical issues related to its use. In conclusion, the human amniotic epithelium can be a strong candidate for regenerative medicine.

  3. Noninvasive Tracking of Quiescent and Activated Muscle Stem Cell (MuSC) Engraftment Dynamics In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Andrew T V; Blau, Helen M

    2016-01-01

    Muscle stem cells play a central role in muscle regeneration. Most studies in the field of muscle regeneration focus on the unraveling of muscle stem cell biology to devise strategies for treating failing muscles as seen in aging and muscle-related diseases. However, the common method used in assessing stem cell function in vivo is laborious, as it involves time-consuming immunohistological analyses by microscopy on serial cryo-sections of the muscle post stem cell transplantation. Here we describe an alternative method, which adapts the bioluminescence imaging (BLI) technique to allow noninvasive tracking of engrafted stem-cell function in vivo in real-time. This assay system enables longitudinal studies in the same mice over time and reveals parameters, not feasible by traditional analysis, such as the magnitude and dynamics of engrafted muscle stem cell expansion in vivo in response to a particular drug treatment or muscle injury. PMID:27492173

  4. SC-26CD57 DEFINES A NOVEL MAKER OF GLIOBLASTOMA STEM CELLS THAT HAVE GREATER INVASIVE POTENTIAL THAN CD133+ TUMOR CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Lin; Huang, Yulun; Kogiso, Mari; Mao, Hua; Lindsay, Holly; Baxter, Patricia; Su, Jack; Perlaky, Laszlo; Lau, Ching; Chintagumpala, Murali; Li, Xiao-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse invasion into normal brain is one of the hallmark features that make GBM difficult to treat. Due to the lack of biologically accurate invasive GBM cells from patients, most of the existing studies on GBM invasion were conducted in surgical samples that were primarily tumor core tissues. Although cancer stem cells are critical in tumor initiation and therapy-resistance, their role in GBM invasion has not been well understood. To identify the cancer stem cell subpopulations that drive G...

  5. File list: Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX1074917,SRX1...074908,SRX1074905 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX1074917,SRX1...074908,SRX1074905 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX1074917,SRX1...074905,SRX1074908 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ...

  8. Pulsed SC Proton Linac

    OpenAIRE

    Ouchi, N.; Chishiro, E.; Tsukishima, C.; Mukugi, K.

    2000-01-01

    The superconducting (SC) proton linac is proposed in the JAERI/KEK Joint Project for a high-intensity proton accelerator in the energy region from 400 to 600 MeV. Highly stable fields in the SC cavities are required under the dynamic Lorentz force detuning. A new model describing the dynamic Lorentz detuning has been developed and the validity has been confirmed experimentally. The model has been applied successfully to the rf control simulation of the SC proton linac.

  9. SC tuning fork

    CERN Multimedia

    The tuning fork used to modulate the radiofrequency system of the synchro cyclotron (SC) from 1957 to 1973. This piece is an unused spare part. The SC was the 1st accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990. In the SC the magnetic field did not change with time, and the particles were accelerated in successive pulses by a radiofrequency voltage of some 20kV which varied in frequency as they spiraled outwards towards the extraction radius. The frequency varied from 30MHz to about 17Mz in each pulse. The tuning fork vibrated at 55MHz in vacuum in an enclosure which formed a variable capacitor in the tuning circuit of the RF system, allowing the RF to vary over the appropriate range to accelerate protons from the centre of the macine up to 600Mev at extraction radius. In operation the tips of the tuning fork blade had an amplitude of movement of over 1 cm. The SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements from 1973 to 1975, including the installation of a...

  10. Prolonged remission state of refractory adult onset Still's disease following CD34-selected autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, F; Dominici, M; Govoni, M; Moretti, S; Campioni, D; Corte, R L; Latorraca, A; Tieghi, A; Castagnari, B; Trotta, F; Castoldi, G

    2000-06-01

    We report a 38-year-old patient affected by refractory adult onset Still's disease who achieved a prolonged remission following CD34-selected ABMT. The conditioning regimen was based on the use of CY and anti-thymocyte globulin. A 3.0 and 2.0 log reduction of T (CD3+) and B (CD19+) lymphocytes, respectively, was obtained using a Ceprate device to select CD34+ cells from PBSC. In the pre-transplant period (1994-1998) the patient had a chronic persistent disease course with frequent and recurrent systemic articular flares and loss of some functional abilities, despite daily prednisone, pulses of CY and immunosuppressive therapy (CYA or MTX). At the time of ABMT the patient had become non-ambulatory. Within 3 weeks of ABMT the patient showed a marked decrease in joint swelling, and morning stiffness. Joint pain and systemic symptoms disappeared, the patient was able to walk and run and gained general well being. ESR, C-reactive protein and WBC count were significantly decreased, while Hb level increased. This partial remission persisted for at least 1 year after ABMT, although at 15 months of follow-up a reappearance of moderate synovitis in the knees and wrists was noted. Our data further showed that both patient BM microenvironment and stem-progenitor cell function (as assessed by LTC-IC assay) were damaged even 1 year after CD34-selected ABMT, suggesting that the persistence of these alterations could have facilitated the favorable outcome of the disease following ABMT. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 1307-1310. PMID:10871738

  11. Iatrogenic limbal stem cell deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, E J; Schwartz, G S

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a group of patients with limbal stem cell (SC) deficiency without prior diagnosis of a specific disease entity known to be causative of SC deficiency. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the records of all patients with ocular surface disease presenting to the University of Minnesota between 1987 and 1996. Patients were categorized according to etiology of limbal deficiency. Patients who did not have a specific diagnosis previously described as being causative...

  12. Monitor of SC beam profiles

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution secondary emission grid for the measurement of SC beam profiles. Modern techniques of metal-ceramic bonding, developed for micro-electronics, have been used in its construction. (See Annual Report 1977 p. 105 Fig. 12.)

  13. First coil for the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1955-01-01

    The coils for the SC magnet were stored in the large hangar of the Cointrin Airport (to make sure that they would be available before snow and ice would block the roads and canals from Belgium, where they were built).

  14. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  15. Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Research

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell research offers great promise for understanding basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation, as well as the hope for new treatments for diseases such as diabetes, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, and myocardial infarction. However, human stem cell (hSC) research also raises sharp ethical and political controversies. The derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines from oocytes and embryos is fraught with disputes about the onset of human personhood. The reprogramm...

  16. Stem cells in dentistry, sources, and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mozafar Khazaei; Azam Bozorgi; Saber Khazaei; Abbasali Khademi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Stem cells (SCs), known as cells with characteristics such as self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, are generally obtained from two sources: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells (ASCs). SC research is expected to play a pivotal role in future medicine. The aim of the present review was to introduce dental and nondental SCs, examining the general characteristics, in vivo and in vitro differentiation capacities, immunosuppressive properties as well as the appl...

  17. Cancer stem cells - normal stem cells "Jedi" that went over to the "dark side"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Z. Ratajczak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has accumulated that cancer develops from a population of quiescent tissue committed/pluripotent stem cells (TCSC/PSC or cells developmentally closely related to them that are distributed in various organs. To support this notion, stem cells (SC are long lived cells and thus may become the subject of accumulating mutations that are crucial for initiation/progression of cancer. More important, they may maintain these mutations and pass them to the daughter stem cells. Therefore, mutations that occur in normal SC, accumulate during the life of an organism at the clonal level in the stem cell compartment committed to a given tissue/organ. As a consequence, this may lead to the malignant transformation of SC and tumor initiation. Furthermore, many biological features of normal and cancer SC such as the physiological trafficking of normal and metastasis of cancer stem cells involve similar molecular mechanisms, and we discuss these similarities here. Therefore, looking both at the origin and behavioral aspects we can envision cancer SC being normal SC "Jedi" that went over to the "dark side".

  18. STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    A series of circumstances has once more created an opportunity for technology educators to develop and implement new integrative approaches to STEM education championed by STEM education reform doctrine over the past two decades.

  19. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  20. Influence of oxygen in the cultivation of human mesenchymal stem cells in simulated microgravity: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Versari; J. Klein-Nulend; J. van Loon; S. Bradamante

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that human Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (AT-MSCs) cultured in simulated microgravity (sim-μg) in standard laboratory incubators alter their proliferation and differentiation. Recent studies on the stem cell (SC) niches and the influence of oxygen on SC pro

  1. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Schwann Cell Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering of Schwann cells (SCs) can serve a number of purposes, such as in vitro SC-related disease modeling, treatment of peripheral nerve diseases or peripheral nerve injury, and, potentially, treatment of CNS diseases. SCs can be generated from autologous stem cells in vitro by recapitu

  2. Emerging Stem Cell Controls: Nanomaterials and Plasma Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Borghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells (SC are among the most promising cell sources for tissue engineering due to their ability to self-renew and differentiate, properties that underpin their clinical application in tissue regeneration. As such, control of SC fate is one of the most crucial issues that needs to be fully understood to realise their tremendous potential in regenerative biology. The use of functionalized nanostructured materials (NM to control the microscale regulation of SC has offered a number of new features and opportunities for regulating SC. However, fabricating and modifying such NM to induce specific SC response still represent a significant scientific and technological challenge. Due to their versatility, plasmas are particularly attractive for the manufacturing and modification of tailored nanostructured surfaces for stem cell control. In this review, we briefly describe the biological role of SC and the mechanisms by which they are controlled and then highlight the benefits of using a range of nanomaterials to control the fate of SC. We then discuss how plasma nanoscience research can help produce/functionalise these NMs for more effective and specific interaction with SCs. The review concludes with a perspective on the advantages and challenges of research at the intersection between plasma physics, materials science, nanoscience, and SC biology.

  3. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  4. Human umbilical cord-drived mesenchymal stem cells as vehicles of CD20 specific-TRAIL fusion protein against non-Hodgkin’ s lymphoma%脐带间充质干细胞运载scFvCD20:sTRAIL融合蛋白对B-淋巴瘤细胞的生长抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范冬梅; 张晓龙; 张晴; 卢杨; 杨圆圆; 袁向飞; 张砚君; 熊冬生

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the therapeutic effect of a novel double-target system,in which human umbilical cord-derived MSCs were used as vehicles to deliver fusion protein scFvCD20:sTRAIL to non-Hodgkin ’ s lymphoma. Methods: The traditional methods in molecular biology were used to construct lentivirus expression vectors pLenR. scFvCD20: sTRAIL and contrast vectors. Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs ( HUMSCs ) were labeled with the copGFP by transducing with pseudo viral particles which had been packaged in 293T cells with four plasmid-lentivirus packaging system. Fusion protein scFvCD20:sTRAIL were secreted from MSC. scFvCD20:sTRAIL after that HUMSCs were infected by pseudo viral particles. CCK8 assay was applied to detect the antigen-restricted cell death induced by scFvCD20:sTRAIL in CD20-positive BJAB and Raji cells as well as CD20-negtive Jurkat cells and human normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To evaluate the therapeutic effect of MSC. scFvCD20:sTRAIL in vivo,ge-netically modified HUMSCs were intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice with BJAB cells. The volume of tumor was measured every three days, and the inhibition ratio of tumor was calculated according to tumor volume. Results: Lentivirus expression vectors pLenR. scFvCD20:sTRAIL, pLenR. ISZ:sTRAIL, pLenR. scFvCD20 and pLenR. CopGFP were successfully constructed and these constructs could be expressed stably in HUMSCs by lentivirus transduction. scFvCD20:sTRAIL fusion protein produced a potent inhibition of cell proliferation in CD20-positive BJAB cells,moderate inhibition of the growth of Raji cells,and weak inhibition in CD20-negtive Jurkat cells when compared with ISZ-sTRAIL treatment,and it had no effect on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The MSC. scFvCD20:sTRAIL treatment significantly inhibited the tumor growth when compared with those treated with MSC. ISZ-sTRAIL. Conclusion: A double-target therapeutic system is well established, in which HUMSCs

  5. Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Madhukar Thakur

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in ...

  6. Stem cell therapy for retinal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Mauricio Garcia,; Luisa Mendon?a; Rodrigo Brant; Murilo Abud; Caio Regatieri; Bruno Diniz

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss about current knowledgeabout stem cell (SC) therapy in the treatment of retinaldegeneration. Both human embryonic stem cell andinduced pluripotent stem cell has been growth inculture for a long time, and started to be explored inthe treatment of blinding conditions. The Food andDrug Administration, recently, has granted clinical trialsusing SC retinal therapy to treat complex disorders, asStargardt's dystrophy, and patients with geographicatrophy, providing good outcomes. This study'sintent is to overview the critical regeneration of thesubretinal anatomy through retinal pigment epitheliumtransplantation, with the goal of reestablish importantpathways from the retina to the occipital cortex of thebrain, as well as the differentiation from pluripotentquiescent SC to adult retina, and its relationshipwith a primary retinal injury, different techniques oftransplantation, management of immune rejection andtumorigenicity, its potential application in improvingpatients' vision, and, finally, approaching future directionsand challenges for the treatment of several conditions.

  7. rotor of the SC rotating condenser

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The rotor of the rotating condenser was installed instead of the tuning fork as the modulating element of the radiofrequency system, when the SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements between 1973 to 1975 (see object AC-025). The SC was the first accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990.

  8. Mammary stem cells: Novel markers and novel approaches to increase lactation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue r...

  9. Academic Training - Pulsed SC Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 2, 3, June 29, 30, 31 May, 1, 2 June 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Pulsed SC Magnets by M. Wilson Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mech...

  10. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  11. Cs3ScCl6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Ward

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystals of tricaesium scandium(III hexachloride were obtained as a side product from the reaction of U, SnCl2, Sc, and S in a CsCl flux at 1073 K. Cs3ScCl6 crystallizes in the Rb3YCl6 structure type. The asymmetric unit comprises three Cs sites, two Sc sites, and six Cl sites, all of which have site symmetry 1, except for the two Sc sites that have site symmetries of 2 and -1, respectively. The structure is composed of isolated [ScCl6]3− octahedra that are surrounded by Cs+ cations. Two Cs+ cations have interactions with eight Cl− anions, while the third has interactions with ten Cl− anions.

  12. A modified enrichment protocol for adult caprine skeletal muscle stem cell

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Ajai K.; Ramani, Umed V.; Ahir, Viral B.; Rank, Dharamshi N.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2010-01-01

    To establish an adequate model to study the proliferation and differentiation of adult caprine skeletal muscle in response to bioactive compounds, a pool of satellite cells (SC) was derived from the rectus abdominis muscle of adult goat. Skeletal muscle contains a population of adult stem cells, named as satellite cells that reside beneath the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fiber and other populations of cells. These SC are multipotent stem cells, since cells cultured in the presence of spec...

  13. Stem system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajmardanova L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the stem cells from the point of view of systemic anatomy, where they are united into an entire stem system. This integration shows various advantages for better understanding the stem cells role in the body. Authors, considering functions and action mechanism of stem cells, phylogeny, ontogeny, regulation of functions, explain the base for stem cells system existance. The definition and terminology, age peculiarities, relationship with other systems of organs and differences are offered. The theoretical proof of primary-integrative role of stem system is provided for all other systems in body. Of particular importance is the role of stem system as a link between neural and endocrine systems. The work helps to sistematize data on investigations of stem cells, their entire-system perception, that will ease the goals determining for further research and their clinical use.

  14. SC-FDMA for mobile communications

    CERN Document Server

    Abd El-Samie, Fathi E

    2013-01-01

    SC-FDMA for Mobile Communications examines Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA). Explaining this rapidly evolving system for mobile communications, it describes its advantages and limitations and outlines possible solutions for addressing its current limitations. The book explores the emerging trend of cooperative communication with SC-FDMA and how it can improve the physical layer security. It considers the design of distributed coding schemes and protocols for wireless relay networks where users cooperate to send their data to the destination. Supplying you with the re

  15. z206sc_video_observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents video observations from cruise Z206SC for the Santa Barbara Channel region and beyond in southern California. The vector data file is...

  16. z107sc_video_observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents video observations from cruise Z107SC for the Santa Barbara Channel region and beyond in southern California. The vector data file is...

  17. Bandwidth challenge teams at SC2003 conference

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Results from the fourth annual High-Performance Bandwidth Challenge, held in conjunction with SC2003, the international conference on high-performance computing and networking which occurred last week in Phoenix, AZ (1 page).

  18. Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, “anchored” in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC. Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as “subendothelial or vasculogenic zones”. Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  19. Sc3N and Sc2C2 encapsulated B40: Smarter than its carbon analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Esha V.; Roy, Debesh R.

    2016-10-01

    A detailed comparative investigation on the recently synthesised B40 and C40 along with their metal nitride (Sc3N)and carbide (Sc2C2) encapsulated endohedral fullerenes, is performed under density functional theory for the first time. The structures, electronic, thermodynamic and magnetic properties of all the considered compounds are explored in detail. The present study identifies borospherene (B40) and its encapsulated nitride (Sc3N@B40) and carbide (Sc2C2@B40) endohedral borofullerenes as the better candidates for future novel nano-applications compared to their carbon bucky ball analogues.

  20. Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Thakur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in the body. Often called as Magic Seeds, stem cells are produced in bone marrow and circulate in blood, albeit at a relatively low concentration. These virtues together with the ability of stem cells to grow in tissue culture have paved the way for their applications to generate new and healthy tissues and to replace diseased or injured human organs. Although possibilities of stem cell applications are many, much remains yet to be understood of these remarkable magic seeds. Conclusion: This presentation shall briefly cover the origin of stem cells, the pros and cons of their growth and division, their potential application, and shall outline some examples of the contributions of radiolabeled stem cells, in this rapidly growing branch of biomedical science

  1. Recrystallization and Morphology of Microstructure in Al-Sc Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jun; Zhang Zonghua

    2007-01-01

    Minor addition of Sc to aluminum results in the rapid precipitation of homogeneously distributed Al3Sc dispersoids. The presence of Al3Sc dispersoids is more effective recrystallization inhibitors. Our work established the precipitation of homogeneously distributed Al3Sc dispersoids, which are coherent with the matrix, have the L12 structure. It was also established that the addition of Sc was effective in improving the recrystallization resistance.

  2. Sc20C60: a volleyballene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Hong-Man; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as ``Volleyballene''. Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (~1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable.An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as ``Volleyballene''. Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (~1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sc20C60: a Volleyballene_SI. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07784b

  3. Neurospheres from rat adipose-derived stem cells could be induced into functional Schwann cell-like cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Yanchang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schwann cells (SC which are myelin-forming cells in peripheral nervous system are very useful for the treatment of diseases of peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. However, it is difficult to obtain sufficient large number of SC for clinical use, so alternative cell systems are desired. Results Using a procedure similar to the one used for propagation of neural stem cells, we could induce rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC into floating neurospheres. In addition to being able to differentiate into neuronal- and glial-like cells, neurospheres could be induced to differentiate into SC-like cells. SC-like cells were bi- or tri-polar in shape and immunopositive for nestin and SC markers p75, GFAP and S-100, identical to genuine SC. We also found that SC-like cells could induce the differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells efficiently, perhaps through secretion of soluble substances. We showed further that SC-like cells could form myelin structures with PC12 cell neurites in vitro. Conclusion These findings indicated that ADSC could differentiate into SC-like cells in terms of morphology, phenotype and functional capacities. SC-like cells induced from ADSC may be useful for the treatment of neurological diseases.

  4. Mammary gland stem cells: More puzzles than explanations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suneesh Kaimala; Suneesh Kaimala; Satish Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers. At present, Lin–CD29hiCD49fhiCD24+/modSca-1– cells of the mammary gland have been reported to be enriched with MaSCs. We suggest that the inclusion of stem cell markers like Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and the mammary gland differentiation marker BRCA-1 may further narrow down the search for MaSCs. In addition, we have discussed some of the other unresolved puzzles on the mammary gland stem cells, such as their similarities and/or differences with mammary cancer stem cells, use of milk as source of mammary stem cells and the possibility of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional mammary gland structures in this review. Nevertheless, it is the lack of identity for a MaSC that is curtailing the advances in some of the above and other related areas.

  5. Norma Audio Revo SC-/PA-150

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Norma audio是意大利一间顶级HI-Fi音响器材生产商。这款IRevo SC-2/PA-150为正是公司旗下的一款高端型号产品。其中,Revo SC-2前置放大器的放大电路以低噪音、高速和宽频作为设计重点,能反映出音频信号中的每一个细节。

  6. Sc20C60: a volleyballene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Hong-Man; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as "Volleyballene". Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (∼1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable. PMID:26878201

  7. K2SC: K2 Systematics Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigrain, Suzanne; Parviainen, Hannu; Pope, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    K2SC (K2 Systematics Correction) models instrumental systematics and astrophysical variability in light curves from the K2 mission. It enables the user to remove both position-dependent systematics and time-dependent variability (e.g., for transit searches) or to remove systematics while preserving variability (for variability studies). K2SC automatically computes estimates of the period, amplitude and evolution timescale of the variability for periodic variables and can be run on ASCII and FITS light curve files. Written in Python, this pipeline requires NumPy, SciPy, MPI4Py, Astropy (ascl:1304.002), and George (ascl:1511.015).

  8. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... ISSCR Get Involved Media © 2015 International Society for Stem Cell Research Terms of Use Disclaimer Privacy Policy

  9. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics: Introduction Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current Research Policy Glossary Site Map Stem Cell Basics Introduction: What are stem cells, and why ...

  10. Magnetism in Sc-doped ZnO with zinc vacancies: A hybrid density functional and GGA + U approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the zinc vacancy effects on the electronic structures and magnetic properties of Sc-doped ZnO, by performing first-principles calculations within both GGA + U and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional methods. We find that Sc impurities stabilize considerably Zn vacancies. The electronic and magnetic analysis shows a half metallic ferromagnetic character with a total magnetic moment of 2.01 μ B. The magnetism mainly stems from the O 2p states around the Zn vacancies. Calculations with the hybrid density functional agree with the GGA + U results but give an accurate description of the electronic structure for pure ZnO and Sc-doped ZnO with Zn vacancies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN SEED TESTS AND FIELD EMERGENCE OF TWO MAIZE HYBRIDS (SC704 AND SC500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. ALILOO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of maize (Zea mays L. are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors. The influence of seed vigor on these factors is vital. Therefore, five laboratory tests and field experiment were conducted on basis of a randomized complete block design (RCBD with five replications in 2011, to evaluate the correlation among the seed vigor tests and field emergence of two maize hybrids (SC704 and SC500. In laboratory tests, differences between two hybrids for cold test and electrical conductivity test were significant (P≤0.01. The leachates of hybrid SC500 was 35% higher than the leachates of hybrid SC704. However, high germination percentage was obtained by hybrid SC740 in cold test. A Statistically significant difference was found between hybrids in field emergence percentage (P≤0.05. The field emergence of hybrid SC704 and hybrid SC500 was 71% and 37%, respectively. The farm emergence percentage had the significant negative correlation (-0.71 with conductivity test, but positive correlation (0.79 with cold test. No significant correlation between the standard seed germination and the field emergence was detected. Therefore, the standard germination test was not a good indicator for field emergence percentage. However, cold and conductivity tests were the best predictor of field emergence than all the other laboratory tests.

  12. Identification of stem cells from human umbilical cord blood with embryonic and hematopoietic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We identified stem cells from the umbilical cord blood, designated cord blood-stem cells (CB-SC). CB-SC displayed important embryonic stem (ES) cell characteristics including expression of ES-cell-specific molecular markers including transcription factors OCT-4 and Nanog, along with stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-3 and SSEA-4. CB-SC also expressed hematopoietic cell antigens including CD9, CD45 and CD117, but were negative for CD34. CB-SC displayed very low immunogenicity as indicated by expression of a very low level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and failure to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic lymphocytes. CB-SC could give rise to cells with endothelial-like and neuronal-like characteristics in vitro, as demonstrated by expression of lineage-associated markers. Notably, CB-SC could be stimulated to differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells in vivo and eliminated hyperglycemia after transplantation into a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. These findings may have significant potential to advance stem-cell-based therapeutics

  13. The Synchrocyclotron (SC) in building 300

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    The red magnet of CERN's first accelerator, the Synchrocyclotron (SC), has occupied a large part of Hall 300 since it was installed in the late 1950s. The remaining part of the 300-square-metre building has been used as a storage room since the accelerator was shut down in 1990. Now a public exhibition will breathe new life into the hall.

  14. Cripto is essential to capture mouse epiblast stem cell and human embryonic stem cell pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenzano, Alessandro; Pascale, Emilia; D'Aniello, Cristina; Acampora, Dario; Bassalert, Cecilia; Russo, Francesco; Andolfi, Gennaro; Biffoni, Mauro; Francescangeli, Federica; Zeuner, Ann; Angelini, Claudia; Chazaud, Claire; Patriarca, Eduardo J; Fico, Annalisa; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Known molecular determinants of developmental plasticity are mainly transcription factors, while the extrinsic regulation of this process has been largely unexplored. Here we identify Cripto as one of the earliest epiblast markers and a key extracellular determinant of the naive and primed pluripotent states. We demonstrate that Cripto sustains mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal by modulating Wnt/β-catenin, whereas it maintains mouse epiblast stem cell (EpiSC) and human ESC pluripotency through Nodal/Smad2. Moreover, we provide unprecedented evidence that Cripto controls the metabolic reprogramming in ESCs to EpiSC transition. Remarkably, Cripto deficiency attenuates ESC lineage restriction in vitro and in vivo, and permits ESC transdifferentiation into trophectoderm lineage, suggesting that Cripto has earlier functions than previously recognized. All together, our studies provide novel insights into the current model of mammalian pluripotency and contribute to the understanding of the extrinsic regulation of the first cell lineage decision in the embryo. PMID:27586544

  15. An Examination of Effects of Self-Concept, Destination Personality, and SC-DP Congruence on Tourist Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIANGPING

    2009-01-01

    Factors influencing tourist behavior have been a focal point in tourism research for decades. Efforts to unveil the determinants that shape travel behavior stem not only from pure academic interest, but from practical business considerations (Pizam & Mansfeld, 1999). Destination personality, self-concept, and congruence between self-concept and destination personality (SC-DP congruence) are among the factors that are believed to influence tourist behavior. However, little research has been un...

  16. Comparative study on the stem cell phenotypes of C6 cells under different culture conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Suo-jun; YE Fei; XIE Rui-fan; HU Feng; WANG Bao-feng; WAN Feng; GUO Dong-sheng; LEI Ting

    2011-01-01

    Background Glioma stem cell (GSC) hypothesis posits that a subpopulation of cells within gliomas have true clonogenic and tumorigenic potential. Significantly, a more controversial correlate to GSC is that cells in different culture conditions might display distinct stem cell properties. Considering these possibilities, we applied an approach comparing stem cell characteristics of C6 glioma cells under different culture conditions.Methods C6 cells were cultured under three different growth conditions, i.e., adherent growth in conventional 10% serum medium, non-adherent spheres growth in serum-free medium, as well as adherent growth on laminin-coated flask in serum-free medium. Growth characteristics were detected contrastively through neurosphere formation assay and cell cycle analysis. Markers were determined by immunofluorescence, relative-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR,Western blotting and flow cytometry. Side population cells were analyzed via flow cytometry. Tumor models were detected by magnetic resonance imaging and hematoxylin & eosin staining. Data analyses were performed with SPSS software (17.0).Results C6 cells (C6-Adh, C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh) showed distinctive growth patterns and proliferation capacity.Compared to suspending C6-SC-Sph, adherent C6-Adh and C6-SC-Adh displayed higher growth ratio. C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh showed enhanced capability of neurosphere formation and self-renewal. High side population ratio was detected in C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh. CD133 was not detected in all three kinds of cells. Conversely, Nestin and β-Ⅲ-tubulin were demonstrated positive, nonetheless with no statistical significance (P >0.05). Interestingly, lower expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein was demonstrated in C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh. C6-Adh, C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh were all displayed in situ oncogenicity, while statistical difference of survival time was not confirmed.Conclusions C6 glioma cell line is endowed with some GSC

  17. New tumor-associated antigen SC6 in pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Min-Pei; Guo, Xiao-Zhong; Xu, Jian-Hua; Wang, Di; Li, Hong-Yu; Cui, Zhong-Min; Zhao, Jia-Jun; Ren, Li-Nan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the concentration of a new antigen SC6 (SC6-Ag) recognized by monoclonal antibody (MAb) in patients with pancreatic cancer and other malignant or benign diseases and to understand whether SC6-Ag has any clinical significance in distinguishing pancreatic cancer from other gastrointestinal diseases.

  18. Biocompatibility Assessment of PLCL-Sericin Copolymer Membranes Using Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kewalin Inthanon; Donraporn Daranarong; Pimwalan Techaikool; Winita Punyodom; Vorathep Khaniyao; Audrey M Bernstein; Weerah Wongkham

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells based tissue engineering requires biocompatible materials, which allow the cells to adhere, expand, and differentiate in a large scale. An ideal biomaterial for clinical application should be free from mammalian products which cause immune reactivities and pathogen infections. We invented a novel biodegradable poly(L-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone)-sericin (PLCL-SC) copolymer membrane which was fabricated by electrospinning. Membranes with concentrations of 2.5 or 5% (w/v) SC exhibited q...

  19. LHCb Data Replication During SC3

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, A

    2006-01-01

    LHCb's participation in LCG's Service Challenge 3 involves testing the bulk data transfer infrastructure developed to allow high bandwidth distribution of data across the grid in accordance with the computing model. To enable reliable bulk replication of data, LHCb's DIRAC system has been integrated with gLite's File Transfer Service middleware component to make use of dedicated network links between LHCb computing centres. DIRAC's Data Management tools previously allowed the replication, registration and deletion of files on the grid. For SC3 supplementary functionality has been added to allow bulk replication of data (using FTS) and efficient mass registration to the LFC replica catalog.Provisional performance results have shown that the system developed can meet the expected data replication rate required by the computing model in 2007. This paper details the experience and results of integration and utilisation of DIRAC with the SC3 transfer machinery.

  20. The SC gets ready for visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Hall 300, which houses the Synchrocyclotron (SC), CERN’s first accelerator, is getting ready to host a brand-new exhibition. The site will be one of the stops on the new visit itineraries that will be inaugurated for the 2013 CERN Open Day.   The Synchrocyclotron through the years. Just as it did in the late 1950s, when the accelerator was first installed, the gigantic red structure of the Synchrocyclotron's magnet occupies a large part of the 300-square-metre hall. “We have completed the first phase of the project that will give the SC a new lease of life,” says Marco Silari, the project leader and a member of CERN’s Radiation Protection Group. “We have removed all the equipment that was not an integral part of the accelerator. The hall is now ready for the civil-engineering work that will precede the installation of the exhibition.” The SC was witness to a big part of the history of CERN. The accelerator produced ...

  1. Adipose-derived stem cells from lean and obese humans show depot specific differences in their stem cell markers, exosome contents and senescence: role of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) in adipose stem cell niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rekha S.; Carter, Gay; El Bassit, Ghattas; Patel, Achintya A.; Cooper, Denise R.; Murr, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and its exosomes are gaining utmost importance in the field of regenerative medicine. The ASCs tested for their potential in wound healing are predominantly derived from the subcutaneous depot of lean donors. However, it is important to characterize the ASC derived from different adipose depots as these depots have clinically distinct roles. Methods We characterized the ASC derived from subcutaneous and omental depots from a lean donor (sc-ASCn and om-ASCn) and compared it to the ASC derived from an obese donor (sc-ASCo and om-ASCo) using flow cytometry and real time qPCR. Results We show that stem cell markers Oct4, Sal4, Sox15, KLF4 and BMI1 have distinct expression patterns in each ASC. We evaluated the secretome of the ASC and characterized their secreted exosomes. We show long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are secreted by ASC and their expression varied between the ASC’s derived from different depots. Protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) regulates the mitogenic signals in stem cells. We evaluated the effect of silencing PKCδ in sc-ASCn, om-ASCn, sc-ASCo and om-ASCo. Using β-galactosidase staining, we evaluated the percentage of senescent cells in sc-ASCn, om-ASCn, sc-ASCo and om-ASCo. Our results also indicated that silencing PKCδ increases the percentage of senescent cells. Conclusions Our case-specific study demonstrates a role of PKCδ in maintaining the adipose stem cell niche and importantly demonstrates depot-specific differences in adipose stem cells and their exosome content. PMID:27358894

  2. The stem cell and tissue engineering research in Chinese ophthalmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; LIU Jingbo

    2007-01-01

    Much has been considerably developed recently in the ophthalmic research of stem cell (SC) and tissue engineering (TE).They have become closer to the clinical practice,standardized and observable.Leading edge research of SC and TE on the ocular surface reconstruction,neuroregeneration and protection,and natural animal model has become increasingly available.However,challenges remain on the way,especially on the aspects of function reconstruction and specific differentiation.This paper reviews the new developments in this area with an intention of identifying research priorities for the future.

  3. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    In his influential essay on markets, An essay on framing and overflowing (1998), Michel Callon writes that `the growing complexity of industrialized societies [is] due in large part to the movements of the technosciences, which are causing connections and interdependencies to proliferate'. This p...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products.......'. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...

  4. Why STEM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) defines STEM as a new transdisciplinary subject in schools that integrates the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a single course of study. There are three major problems with this definition: There is no consensus in support of the ITEEA…

  5. From hair to cornea: towards the therapeutic use of hair follicle-derived stem cells in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Blazejewska, Ewa Anna; Call, Mindy K; Yamanaka, Osamu; Liu, Hongshan; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Kruse, Friedrich E; Kao, Winston W.

    2011-01-01

    Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) leads to severe ocular surface abnormalities that can result in the loss of vision. The most successful therapy currently being used is transplantation of limbal epithelial cell sheets cultivated from a limbal biopsy obtained from the patient´s healthy, contralateral eye or cadaveric tissue. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of murine vibrissae hair follicle bulge-derived stem cells (HFSC) as an autologous SC source for ocular surface ...

  6. Contraceptive efficacy and safety of DMPA-SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, J; Jakimiuk, A J; Bode, F R; Ross, D; Kaunitz, A M

    2004-10-01

    DMPA-SC 104 mg/0.65 mL is a new, low-dose subcutaneous (SC) formulation of Depo-Provera contraceptive injection (150 mg/mL medroxyprogesterone acetate injectable suspension) that provides efficacy, safety and immediacy of onset equivalent to Depo-Provera intramuscular (IM) injection. Two large, open-label, Phase 3 studies assessed the 1-year contraceptive efficacy, safety and patient satisfaction with DMPA-SC administered every 3 months (12-13 weeks). Zero pregnancies were reported in both studies, which included a total of 16,023 woman-cycles of exposure to DMPA-SC and substantial numbers of overweight or obese women. DMPA-SC was well-tolerated and adverse events were similar to those reported previously with Depo-Provera IM. Thus, DMPA-SC offers women a new, highly effective and convenient long-acting contraceptive option. PMID:15451329

  7. Patentability of Parthenogenic Stem Cells: International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansnérus, Juli

    2015-06-01

    The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has recently issued a ruling in Case C-364/13 International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents Designs and Tademarks (Case) that aims at harmonising the patenting practices regarding interpretation of Article 6.2.c of Directive 98/44/EC (Biotech Patent Directive) in respect of patentability of human parthenogenic stem cells (hpSCs). The Case alters the patenting regime for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) applications, by stating that moral restrictions against hESC-patents are only applicable to such cells derived from embryos that had the potential to develop into a human being. Consequently, hpSC-based inventions may be patentable in Europe. This Case represents a leap forward to striking a balance between protecting human dignity and integrity whilst granting patent incentives for biomedical research. PMID:26399046

  8. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is in troduced inthis paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AiCI3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCI3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing,flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  9. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is introduced in this paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AlCl3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCl3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing, flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  10. Sc-47 production from titanium targets using electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we have studied the feasibility of photonuclear production of 47Sc from 48Ti via 48Ti(γ,p)47Sc reaction. Photon flux distribution for electron beams of different energies incident on tungsten converter was calculated using MCNPX radiation transport code. 47Sc production rate dependence on electron beam energy was found and 47Sc yields were estimated. It was shown that irradiating a natural Ti target results in numerous scandium isotopes which can reduce the specific activity of 47Sc. Irradiating enriched 48Ti targets with a 22 MeV 1 mA beam will result in hundreds of MBq/g activity of 47Sc and no other isotopes of scandium. Decreasing the size of the target will result in much higher average photon flux through the target and tens of GBq/g levels of specific activity of 47Sc. Increasing the beam energy will also result in higher yields, but as soon as the electron energy exceeds the 48Ti(γ,np)46Sc reaction threshold, 46Sc starts being produced and its fraction in total scandium atoms grows as beam energy increases. The results of the simulations were benchmarked by irradiating natural titanium foil with 22 MeV electron beam incident on the tungsten converter. Measured 47Sc activities were found to be in very good agreement with the predictions. - Highlights: • Optimum irradiation conditions of titanium targets were found. • MCNPX simulation and experimental results of Sc-47 yield are presented. • We demonstrated the feasibility of photonuclear production of Sc-47 from Ti-48

  11. Pluripotent stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Junying; Thomson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The derivation of human embryonic stem cells 10 years ago ignited an explosion of public interest in stem cells, yet this achievement depended on prior decades of research on mouse embryonic carcinoma cells and embryonic stem cells. In turn, the recent derivation of mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells depended on the prior studies on mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Both human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can self-renew indefinitely in vitro while ma...

  12. Search for naive human pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone Aparecida Siqueira Fonseca; Roberta Montero Costas; Lygia Veiga Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Normal mouse pluripotent stem cells were originallyderived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocystsand shown to be the in vitro equivalent of those preimplantationembryonic cells, and thus were calledembryonic stem cells (ESCs). More than a decade later,pluripotent cells were isolated from the ICM of humanblastocysts. Despite being called human ESCs, thesecells differ significantly from mouse ESCs, includingdifferent morphology and mechanisms of control ofpluripotency, suggesting distinct embryonic originsof ESCs from the two species. Subsequently, mousepluripotent stem cells were established from the ICMderivedepiblast of post-implantation embryos. Thesemouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are morphologicaland epigenetically more similar to human ESCs. Thisraised the question of whether cells from the humanICM are in a more advanced differentiation stage thantheir murine counterpart, or whether the availableculture conditions were not adequate to maintain thosehuman cells in their in vivo state, leading to a transitioninto EpiSC-like cells in vitro . More recently, novel cultureconditions allowed the conversion of human ESCs intomouse ESC-like cells called naive (or ground state)human ESCs, and the derivation of naive human ESCsfrom blastocysts. Here we will review the characteristicsof each type of pluripotent stem cells, how (andwhether) these relate to different stages of embryonicdevelopment, and discuss the potential implications ofnaive human ESCs in research and therapy.

  13. Cyclotron production of {sup 44}Sc for clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, S.; Bilewicz, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Cydzik, I. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); European Commission Joint Research Center, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for Health and Consumer Protection; Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Heavy Ion Lab.; Abbas, K. [European Commission Joint Research Center, Ispra (Italy). Institute for Transuranium Elements; Bulgheroni, A.; Simonelli, F.; Holzwarth, U. [European Commission Joint Research Center, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for Health and Consumer Protection

    2013-08-01

    {sup 44} is a promising {beta}{sup +}-emitter for molecular imaging with intermediate half-life of 4 h. Due to the chemical similarity of Sc{sup 3+} to the Lu{sup 3+} and Y{sup 3+} cations, {sup 44}Sc-DOTA bioconjugates are expected to demonstrate similar properties in vivo as the {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 90}Y-bioconjugates, what is important in planning the radionuclide therapy. {sup 44}Sc can be obtained from the {sup 44}Ti/{sup 44}Sc generator. An alternative method for {sup 44}Sc production can be the irradiation of {sup 44}Ca target at small cyclotrons. The aim of our work was to optimize the parameters of {sup 44}CaCO{sub 3} irradiation and to develop a simple procedure for {sup 44}Sc separation from the calcium target. For optimization study, {sup 44}CaCO{sub 3} targets were irradiated by protons in the energy range of 5.6-17.5 MeV with 9 MeV being found to be the best energy for {sup 44}Ca irradiations. A simple and fast separation procedure of {sup 44}Sc from calcium target was developed using chelating resin Chelex 100. DOTATATE conjugate was successfully radiolabelled with high yield at elevated temperature using the produced {sup 44}Sc. While {sup 44}CaCO{sub 3} is relatively expensive, the cost of {sup 44}Sc-DOTATATE production can be reduced by target recovery. Due to low proton energy required to produce GBq activity level of {sup 44}Sc, the availability of {sup 44}Sc radioisotope could be enhanced to open new opportunities for applications in medical imaging. (orig.)

  14. Resident macrophages influence stem cell activity in the mammary gland

    OpenAIRE

    Gyorki, D.E.; Asselin-Labat, M.L.; Rooijen, van, J.; Lindeman, G J; Visvader, J E

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Macrophages in the mammary gland are essential for morphogenesis of the ductal epithelial tree and have been implicated in promoting breast tumor metastasis. Although it is well established that macrophages influence normal mammopoiesis, the mammary cell types that these accessory cells influence have not been determined. Here we have explored a role for macrophages in regulating mammary stem cell (MaSC) activity, by assessing the ability of MaSCs to reconstitute a mammary gland ...

  15. Endochondral bone tissue engineering using embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jukes, Jojanneke M.; Both, Sanne Karijn; Leusink, Anouk; Sterk, Lotus M. Th.; Blitterswijk, van, W.J.; Boer, de, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells can provide an unlimited supply of pluripotent cells for tissue engineering applications. Bone tissue engineering by directly differentiating ES cells (ESCs) into osteoblasts has been unsuccessful so far. Therefore, we investigated an alternative approach, based on the process of endochondral ossification. A cartilage matrix was formed in vitro by mouse ESCs seeded on a scaffold. When these cartilage tissue-engineered constructs (CTECs) were implanted s.c., the cartilage ...

  16. Switching roles: the functional plasticity of adult tissue stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wabik, A.; Jones, P H

    2015-01-01

    Adult organisms have to adapt to survive, and the same is true for their tissues. Rates and types of cell production must be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to meet tissue demands in response to both local and systemic challenges. Recent work reveals how stem cell (SC) populations meet these requirements by switching between functional states tuned to homoeostasis or regeneration. This plasticity extends to differentiating cells, which are capable of reverting to SCs after injury. The concept...

  17. Human bulbar conjunctival hemodynamics in hemoglobin SS and SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanek, Justin; Gaynes, Bruce; Lim, Jennifer I; Molokie, Robert; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2013-08-01

    The known biophysical variations of hemoglobin (Hb) S and Hb C may result in hemodynamic differences between subjects with SS and SC disease. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare conjunctival hemodynamics between subjects with Hb SS and SC hemoglobinopathies. Image sequences of the conjunctival microcirculation were acquired in 9 healthy control subjects (Hb AA), 24 subjects with SC disease, and 18 subjects with SS disease, using a prototype imaging system. Diameter (D) and blood velocity (V) measurements were obtained in multiple venules of each subject. Data were categorized according to venule caliber by averaging V and D for venules with diameters less than (vessel size 1) or greater than (vessel size 2) 15 µm. V in vessel size 2 was significantly greater than V in vessel size 1 in the AA and SS groups (P ≥ 0.009), but not in the SC group (P = 0.1). V was significantly lower in the SC group as compared to the SS group (P = 0.03). In AA and SS groups, V correlated with D (P ≤ 0.005), but the correlation was not statistically significant in the SC group (P = 0.08). V was inversely correlated with hematocrit in the SS group for large vessels (P = 0.03); however, no significant correlation was found in the SC group (P ≥ 0.2). Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular hemodynamics in SS and SC disease may advance understanding of sickle cell disease pathophysiology and thereby improve therapeutic interventions.

  18. 76 FR 58401 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 38586). We received no... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on waters of...

  19. Sc III Spectral Properties of Astrophysical Interest

    CERN Document Server

    Nandy, D K; Sahoo, B K; Li, Chengbin

    2011-01-01

    Transition properties such as oscillator strengths, transition rates, branching ratios and lifetimes of many low-lying states in the doubly ionized scandium (Sc III) are reported. A relativistic method in the coupled-cluster framework has been employed to incorporate the electron correlations due to the Coulomb interaction to all orders by considering all possible singly and doubly excited electronic configurations conjointly with the contributions from the leading order triple excitations in a perturbative approach. Present results are compared with the previously available results for the transition lines of astrophysical interest and the role of the correlation effects are also discussed concisely. Some of the transition rates, oscillator strengths and lifetimes are acquainted.

  20. SC2: Secure Communication over Smart Cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragoni, Nicola; Lostal, Eduardo; Papini, Davide;

    2012-01-01

    The Security-by-Contract (S×C) framework has recently been proposed to support software evolution in open multi-application smart cards. The key idea lies in the notion of contract, a specification of the security behavior of an application that must be compliant with the security policy...... of the card hosting the application. In this paper we address a key issue to realize the S×C idea, namely the outsourcing of the contractpolicy matching service to a Trusted Third Party (TTP). In particular, we present the design and implementation of (SC)2 (Secure Communication over Smart Cards), a system...... securing the communication between a smart card and the TTP which provides the S×C matching service....

  1. Thermal stability of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei-tao; YAN De-sheng; RONG Li-jian

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitates in the cold worked Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy after elevated temperature exposure was investigated. The evaluation was conducted using room temperature tensile, Vicker's hardness, optical metallography and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with the backscatter. The results show that the Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitates and mechanical properties have no obvious change, and the grains keep elongated along the working direction as that in cold worked sample after exposure at 300 ℃ for 1 000 h. The coarsening of Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitates occurs and is no longer effective on the recrystallization resistance, and partial recrystallization is observed after 400 ℃ exposure. In particular, after 500 ℃ exposure, the hardness decreases drastically and the alloy has fully recrystallized due to the obvious coarsening of Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitates.

  2. Cyclotron production of 44Sc: From bench to bedside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: 44Sc, a PET radionuclide, has promising decay characteristics (T1/2 = 3.97 h, Eβ+av = 632 keV) for nuclear imaging and is an attractive alternative to the short-lived 68Ga (T1/2 = 68 min, Eβ+av = 830 keV). The aim of this study was the optimization of the 44Sc production process at an accelerator, allowing its use for preclinical and clinical PET imaging. Methods: 44CaCO3 targets were prepared and irradiated with protons (~ 11 MeV) at a beam current of 50 μA for 90 min. 44Sc was separated from its target material using DGA extraction resin and concentrated using SCX cation exchange resin. Radiolabeling experiments at activities up to 500 MBq and stability tests were performed with DOTANOC by investigating different scavengers, including gentisic acid. Dynamic PET of an AR42J tumor-bearing mouse was performed after injection of 44Sc-DOTANOC. Results: The optimized chemical separation method yielded up to 2 GBq 44Sc of high radionuclidic purity. In the presence of gentisic acid, radiolabeling of 44Sc with DOTANOC was achieved with a radiochemical yield of ~ 99% at high specific activity (10 MBq/nmol) and quantities which would allow clinical application. The dynamic PET images visualized increasing uptake of 44Sc-DOTANOC into AR42J tumors and excretion of radioactivity through the kidneys of the investigated mouse. Conclusions: The concept “from-bench-to-bedside” was clearly demonstrated in this extended study using cyclotron-produced 44Sc. Sufficiently high activities of 44Sc of excellent radionuclidic purity are obtainable for clinical application, by irradiation of enriched calcium at a cyclotron. This work demonstrates a promising basis for introducing 44Sc to clinical routine of nuclear imaging using PET

  3. Fermi surface study of ScAu{sub 2}(Al, In) and ScPd{sub 2}(Sn, Pb) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, P. V. Sreenivasa; Kanchana, V., E-mail: kanchana@iith.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailaram-502205, Telangana (India); Vaitheeswaran, G. [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad-500046 (India)

    2015-06-24

    A detailed study on the electronic structure and Fermi surface (FS) of superconducting Heusler compounds ScAu{sub 2}(Al, In) and ScPd{sub 2}(Sn, Pb) has been carried out using first principles electronic structure calculations. The spin orbit coupling is found to play a major role in understanding the band structure and FS. Analysis of the data shows the importance of spin orbit coupling effect in the above compounds. The bands which cross Fermi level (EF) are found to be dominated by the Sc d{sub t2g}-states. The calculated total density of states are in good agreement with the experimentally reported value for ScPd{sub 2}Sn. Under compression we find a change in the Fermi surface topology of ScPd{sub 2}Sn at V/V{sub 0} = 0.95 (pressure of≈15 GPa), which is explained using the band structure calculations.

  4. Fermi surface study of ScAu2(Al, In) and ScPd2(Sn, Pb) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study on the electronic structure and Fermi surface (FS) of superconducting Heusler compounds ScAu2(Al, In) and ScPd2(Sn, Pb) has been carried out using first principles electronic structure calculations. The spin orbit coupling is found to play a major role in understanding the band structure and FS. Analysis of the data shows the importance of spin orbit coupling effect in the above compounds. The bands which cross Fermi level (EF) are found to be dominated by the Sc dt2g-states. The calculated total density of states are in good agreement with the experimentally reported value for ScPd2Sn. Under compression we find a change in the Fermi surface topology of ScPd2Sn at V/V0 = 0.95 (pressure of≈15 GPa), which is explained using the band structure calculations

  5. NAD⁺ repletion improves mitochondrial and stem cell function and enhances life span in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Ryu, Dongryeol; Wu, Yibo; Gariani, Karim; Wang, Xu; Luan, Peiling; D'Amico, Davide; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Lutolf, Matthias P; Aebersold, Ruedi; Schoonjans, Kristina; Menzies, Keir J; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-06-17

    Adult stem cells (SCs) are essential for tissue maintenance and regeneration yet are susceptible to senescence during aging. We demonstrate the importance of the amount of the oxidized form of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and its effect on mitochondrial activity as a pivotal switch to modulate muscle SC (MuSC) senescence. Treatment with the NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) induced the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and synthesis of prohibitin proteins, and this rejuvenated MuSCs in aged mice. NR also prevented MuSC senescence in the mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmd(mdx)/J) mouse model of muscular dystrophy. We furthermore demonstrate that NR delays senescence of neural SCs and melanocyte SCs and increases mouse life span. Strategies that conserve cellular NAD(+) may reprogram dysfunctional SCs and improve life span in mammals. PMID:27127236

  6. Effects of cooling rate on solidification behavior of dilute Al-Sc and Al-Sc-Zr solid solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金头男; 聂祚仁; 徐国富; 阮海琼; 杨军军; 付静波; 左铁镛

    2004-01-01

    Six alloys with different compositions of Al-0.1%Sc, Al-0.3%Sc, Al-0.3%Zr, Al-0.1% Sc-0. 1%Zr,Al-0.3%Sc-0.1%Zr and Al-0.3%Sc-0.3%Zr were prepared by casting in a wedge shaped copper mould. The hardness test, microstructure observation, and DSC thermal analysis were applied to fully investigate the solidification behavior of the wedge tip (whose cooling rate is 1 000 K/s) and the top surface (cooling rate 100 K/s) of each casting. The results show that the cast structures in the hypoeutectic region of Al-Sc alloys are slightly affected by cooling rates during the solidification. In the case of hypereutectic alloy of Al-0.3%Sc-0.3%Zr , the cast grains were remarkably refined under the condition of a 100 K/s cooling rate, however, under a 1 000 K/s cooling rate condition,solute atoms contribute nothing to the grain-refinement, due to the eutectic concentration becomes higher. The hardness can be improved to a greater degree by Sc single addition, compared to single Zr addition, but it can be improved even greater when Sc added together with Zr. It is sensitive to cooling rate, the higher the cooling rate, the greater the hardness. By combining the results of TEM examination and DSC analysis, it can be seen that a supersaturated Al solid solution forms during the solidification, and the solubility of Sc in Al solution can be improved by increasing the cooling rate.

  7. Redesigning Introductory Science Courses to Teach Sustainability: Introducing the L(SC)2 Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. D.; Campbell-Stone, E.; Massey, G.

    2008-12-01

    promoting scientific literacy, L(SC)2 courses explicitly promote mastery of fundamental quantitative and qualitative skills critical to science and commonly a barrier to student success in science. Scientific content addresses the principles and disciplines necessary to tackle the multifaceted problems that must be solved in any sustainability transition and illustrates the limitations on what can be accomplished. Finally, social context adds the place-based component that is critical to sustainability science while revealing how science impacts students' everyday lives. Experience in addressing realistic, real-life problems fosters the habits of mind necessary to address these problems and instills a sense of social and political efficacy and responsibility. The L(SC)2 course paradigm employs a variety of educational tools (active problem-based learning, collaborative work, peer instruction, interdisciplinarity, and global context-based instruction) that improve lasting comprehension by creating a more effective learning environment. In this paradigm, STEM students learn that although there may be a technically or scientifically optimal solution to a problem, it must be responsive to a society's social, legal, cultural and religious parameters. Conversely, students in non-STEM fields learn that solutions to societal problems must be scientifically valid and technologically feasible. The interaction of STEM and non-STEM students in L(SC)2 courses builds bridges between the natural and social sciences that are critical for a successful sustainability transition and lacking in most traditional science courses.

  8. Radiation-induced frequency transients in AT, BT, and SC cut quartz resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies of transient frequency changes in high-purity swept AT quartz resonators led to the conclusion that impurity-induced effects were small, while the observed changes were qualitatively and quantitatively well characterized in terms of the time changing temperature of the vibrating quartz and its effect on frequency. 5 MHz, AT cut fifth overtone, and BT and SC cut third overtone resonators were prepared from a single stone of Sawyer swept Premium-Q quartz. The resonators were operated in precision ovenized oscillators at or near their turnover temperatures. Pulsed irradiation, at dose levels of the order of 104 rads (Si) per pulse, was accomplished at Sandia. The experimental data display negative frequency transients for the AT cut resonators, positive frequency transients for the BT cut resonators, and very small transient effects for the SC cut resonators. From these experimental results, it is concluded that no measurable impurity-induced frequency changes are observed in this high-purity swept-quartz and that the frequency transients are accurately modelled in terms of transient temperature effects stemming from the thermal characteristics of the resonator structure

  9. New tumor-associated antigen SC6 in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Pei Liu; Xiao-Zhong Guo; Jian-Hua Xu; Di Wang; Hong-Yu Li; Zhong-Min Cui; Jia-Jun Zhao; Li-Nan Ren

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the concentration of a new antigen SC6 (SC6-Ag) recognized by monoclonal antibody (MAb)in patients with pancreatic cancer and other malignant or benign diseases and to understand whether SC6-Ag has any clinical significance in distinguishing pancreatic cancer from other gastrointestinal diseases.METHODS: Six hundred and ninety-five serum specimens obtained from 115 patients with pancreatic cancer, 154 patients with digestive cancer and 95patients with non-digestive cancer were used and classified in this study. Serum specimens obtained from 140 patients with benign digestive disease and 89 patients with non-benign digestive disease served as controls. Ascites was tapped from 16 pancreatic cancer patients, 19 hepatic cancer patients, 16 colonic cancer patients, 10 gastric cancer and 6 severe necrotic pancreatitis patients. The samples were quantitated by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. The cut-off values (CV)of 41, 80, and 118 U/mL were used.RESULTS: The average intra- and interassay CV detected by immunoradiometric assay of SC6-Ag was 5.4% and 8.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 73.0% and 90.9% respectively. The levels in most malignant and benign cases were within the normal upper limit. Among the 16 pancreatic cancer cases, the concentration of SC6-Ag in ascites was over the normal range in 93.8% patients. There was no significant difference in the concentration of SC6-Ag.Decreased expression of SC6-Ag in sera was significantly related to tumor differentiation. The concentration of SC6-Ag was higher in patients before surgery than after surgery. The specificity of SC6-Ag and CA19-9 was significantly higher than that of ultrasound and computer tomography (CT) in pancreatic cancer patients. Higher positive predictive values were indicated in 92.3% SC6-Ag and 88.5% CA19-9, but lower in 73.8% ultrasound and 76.2% CT.CONCLUSION: The combined test of SC6-Ag and CA19-9 may improve the diagnostic rate of primary cancer. The detection of

  10. NMR investigation of intermetallic compound FeΛ2Sc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure, macro- and microscopic magnetic properties of Fe12Sc intermetallides are studied. The structure of compounds has been determined roentgenographically using FeKsub(α) irradiation. NMR measurements have been carried out at 4.2 77 and 293 K and structure measurements - at 293 K. Fe2Sc samples magnetation, measured with the help of vibrational manometer in the 9 kOe field and in the temperature range from 293-1000 K, is equal to approximately 400 Gs (measurement accuracy approximately 3%). Curie temperature for Fe2Sc is determined according to the point of magnetization curve decay bend at high temperatures. Analysis of NMR spectra is carried out

  11. Pascal-SC a computer language for scientific computation

    CERN Document Server

    Bohlender, Gerd; von Gudenberg, Jürgen Wolff; Rheinboldt, Werner; Siewiorek, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Perspectives in Computing, Vol. 17: Pascal-SC: A Computer Language for Scientific Computation focuses on the application of Pascal-SC, a programming language developed as an extension of standard Pascal, in scientific computation. The publication first elaborates on the introduction to Pascal-SC, a review of standard Pascal, and real floating-point arithmetic. Discussions focus on optimal scalar product, standard functions, real expressions, program structure, simple extensions, real floating-point arithmetic, vector and matrix arithmetic, and dynamic arrays. The text then examines functions a

  12. Gadolinium scandium germanide, Gd2Sc3Ge4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumohan Misra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Gd2Sc3Ge4 adopts the orthorhombic Pu5Rh4-type structure. The crystal structure contains six sites in the asymmetric unit: two sites are statistically occupied by rare-earth atoms with Gd:Sc ratios of 0.967 (4:0.033 (4 and 0.031 (3:0.969 (3, one site (.m. symmetry is occupied by Sc atoms, and three distinct sites (two of which with .m. symmetry are occupied by Ge atoms. The rare-earth atoms form two-dimensional slabs with Ge atoms occupying the trigonal-prismatic voids.

  13. Infectivity-associated PrP(Sc) and disease duration-associated PrP(Sc) of mouse BSE prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Disease-related prion protein (PrP(Sc)), which is a structural isoform of the host-encoded cellular prion protein, is thought to be a causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, the specific role of PrP(Sc) in prion pathogenesis and its relationship to infectivity remain controversial. A time-course study of prion-affected mice was conducted, which showed that the prion infectivity was not simply proportional to the amount of PrP(Sc) in the brain. Centrifugation (20,000 ×g) of the brain homogenate showed that most of the PrP(Sc) was precipitated into the pellet, and the supernatant contained only a slight amount of PrP(Sc). Interestingly, mice inoculated with the obtained supernatant showed incubation periods that were approximately 15 d longer than those of mice inoculated with the crude homogenate even though both inocula contained almost the same infectivity. Our results suggest that a small population of fine PrP(Sc) may be responsible for prion infectivity and that large, aggregated PrP(Sc) may contribute to determining prion disease duration.

  14. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al-Sc-Zr and Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 C. The precipitation of the Al6Mn- and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particles of a size ~ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al3Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al6Mn and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al3Sc-phase and the Al 6Mn-phase precipitation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Stem Cell Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a general computational theory of stem cell networks and their developmental dynamics. Stem cell networks are special cases of developmental control networks. Our theory generates a natural classification of all possible stem cell networks based on their network architecture. Each stem cell network has a unique topology and semantics and developmental dynamics that result in distinct phenotypes. We show that the ideal growth dynamics of multicellular systems generated by stem cell ...

  16. Limbal stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Merle; Sangwan Virender; Rao Srinivas; Basti Surendra; Sridhar Mittanamalli; Bansal Aashish; Dua Harminder

    2004-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in limbal stem cell transplantation. In addition to harvesting stem cells from a cadaver or a live related donor, it is now possible to cultivate limbal stem cells in vitro and then transplant them onto the recipient bed. A clear understanding of the basic disease pathology and a correct assessment of the extent of stem cell deficiency are essential. A holistic approach towards management of limbal stem cell deficiency is needed. This ...

  17. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is th...

  18. Stem Cell Separation Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Beili; Murthy, Shashi K

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy and translational stem cell research require large-scale supply of stem cells at high purity and viability, thus leading to the development of stem cell separation technologies. This review covers key technologies being applied to stem cell separation, and also highlights exciting new approaches in this field. First, we will cover conventional separation methods that are commercially available and have been widely adapted. These methods include Fluorescence-activated cell so...

  19. IEC SC15E: Report on liaison activities of CIGRÉ-SC15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    WG’s activities under CIGRÉ SC15:WG 15.01 - Fluid impregnated systems.WG 15.02 - Dielectric Liquids.WG 15.03 - Gas Insulation.WG 15.04 - Outdoor Insulation.WG 15.05 - Capacitors.WG 15.07 - Solid Insulating Materials for Rotating Machines.WG 15/33.08 - Insulation Monitoring and Life Estimation. WG...... 15.09 - Advanced Materials.WG 15.10 - Internal Insulation and Interfaces.WG 15.11 - Service-Aged Materials.WG 15.12 - DC Insulation/Space Charge Measurements....

  20. Design of SC walls and slabs for impulsive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Amit H. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-11-11

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures have historically been the preferred choice for blast resistant structures because of their mass and the ductility provided by steel reinforcement. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls are a viable alternative to RC for protecting the infrastructure against explosive threats. SC structures consist of two steel faceplates with a plain concrete core between them. The steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete using stud anchors and connected to each other using tie bars. SC structures provide mass from the concrete infill and ductility from the continuous external steel faceplates. This dissertation presents findings and recommendations from experimental and analytical investigations of the performance of SC walls subjected to far-field blast loads.

  1. scFv Antibody: Principles and Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhaida Asra Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, generation of single-chain fragment variable (scFv has become an established technique used to produce a completely functional antigen-binding fragment in bacterial systems. The advances in antibody engineering have now facilitated a more efficient and generally applicable method to produce Fv fragments. Basically, scFv antibodies produced from phage display can be genetically fused to the marker proteins, such as fluorescent proteins or alkaline phosphatase. These bifunctional proteins having both antigen-binding capacity and marker activity can be obtained from transformed bacteria and used for one-step immunodetection of biological agents. Alternatively, antibody fragments could also be applied in the construction of immunotoxins, therapeutic gene delivery, and anticancer intrabodies for therapeutic purposes. This paper provides an overview of the current studies on the principle, generation, and application of scFv. The potential of scFv in breast cancer research is also discussed in this paper.

  2. Gordie Howe’s “Miraculous Treatment”: Case Study of Twitter Users’ Reactions to a Sport Celebrity’s Stem Cell Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Rachul, Christen; Guo, Zhaochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Former Detroit Red Wing Gordie Howe received stem cell (SC) treatment in Mexico in December 2014 for a stroke he suffered in October 2014. The news about his positive response to the SC treatment prompted discussion on social networks like Twitter. Objective This study aims to provide information about discussions that took place on Twitter regarding Howe’s SC treatment and SC treatment in general. In particular, this study examines whether tweets portrayed a positive or negative attitude towards Howe’s SC treatment, whether or not tweets mention that the treatment is unproven, and whether the tweets mention risks associated with the SC treatment. Methods This is an infodemiology study, harnessing big data published on the Internet for public health research and analysis of public engagement. A corpus of 2783 tweets about Howe’s SC treatment was compiled using a program that collected English-language tweets from December 19, 2014 at 00:00 to February 7, 2015 at 00:00. A content analysis of the corpus was conducted using a coding framework developed through a two-stage process. Results 78.87% (2195/2783) of tweets mentioned improvements to Howe’s health. Only one tweet explicitly mentioned that Howe’s SC treatment was unproven, and 3 tweets warned that direct-to-consumer SC treatments lacked scientific evidence. In addition, 10.31% (287/2783) of tweets mentioned challenges with SC treatment that have been raised by scientists and researchers, and 3.70% (103/2783) of tweets either defined Howe as a “stem cell tourist” or claimed that his treatment was part of “stem cell tourism”. In general, 71.79% (1998/2783) of tweets portrayed a positive attitude towards Howe’s SC treatment. Conclusions Our study found the responses to Howe’s treatment on Twitter to be overwhelmingly positive. There was far less attention paid to the lack of scientific evidence regarding the efficacy of the treatment. Unbalanced and uncritical discussion on

  3. Development of SC structure modularization in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Focus on NPP are Rising Concerns on Global Warming, Potential energy crisis (geo-political), Improved reliability and safety of nuclear power plant, Advent of Generation 3+ NPP technology and Economical Energy Resource. New NPPs are 6 units in Korea and 23 in Asia being built, 32 units being planned in China by 2020 (150 by 2050), 10 units being planned in US by 2020 and IAEA expects $200 billions on NPP construction next 25 years (up to 30% of total world energy). □ SC(Steel Plate Concrete) structure · Steel Plate is used as a Structural Element instead of Reinforcing Bars in RC · SC structure consists of Steel Plate with Headed Studs. Connected by Tie-bars - The Primary Purpose of Tie-bars is to Stiffen and Hold Together the Plates during Construction Process - Headed Studs are Welded to the Inside of Steel Plate for composite action □ Benefits of SC Structure · Shorten Construction Duration for Re bar, Forming and Scaffolding Works · Minimize Site Labors · Improve the Construction Quality · Enable Construction Sites to be kept Clean □ SC Modularization · Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features · Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features · Inattentively Effective for Integrated Modules · Pre-fabrication, Pre-assembly and Modularization □ Project Overview · Project Name: Development of SC structure for Modularization in NPP · Project Type: Electric Power Industry R and D (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) · Duration: Sep. 2005 ∼ Aug. 2008 (36 Months) · Research Team and Scopes - Project Management: Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) - Development of Code and Standards for SC Structure: Korea Society of Steel Construction (KSSC) Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) - Development of SC Structural Analysis and Design: Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) - Development of Construction Techniques for SC Modularization: KHNP, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS), KOPEC □ Performance

  4. Electrochemical Characterization of Ni/(Sc)YSZ Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Tania; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of Ni/(Sc)YSZ cermets for solid oxide cells (SOCs) were performed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), under varying experimental conditions and upon redox cycling, using three different designs of symmetric cells. The deconvolution and fitting of the obtained impedance...... parameters. Initial degradation results for both Ni/ScYSZ and Ni/YSZ based anodes under very high steam content are also reported. ©2010 COPYRIGHT ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  5. Study on microstructures and tensile properties with addition of V and Sc in ODS ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyun Ju; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    High temperature strength should be considerably improved for an application of the FM steel to the structural materials of SFR. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FM steels are considered to be promising candidate materials for high- temperature components operating in severe environments such as nuclear fusion and fission systems due to their excellent high temperature strength and radiation resistance stemming from the addition of extremely thermally stable oxide particles dispersed in the ferritic/martensitic matrix. To develop an advanced ODS steel for core structural materials for next generation nuclear reactor system applications, it is important to optimize its compositions to improve the high temperature strength and radiation resistance. This study investigates effects of addition of V and Sc on microstructures and mechanical properties of 10Cr ODS FM steel. For this, three kinds of 10 Cr ODS FM steels were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and hot rolling process. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature and 700 .deg. C to evaluate the influences of V and Sc elements on the mechanical properties. The microstructures were observed using SEM, electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This study investigated the effects of addition of V and Sc on the microstructure and tensile properties of ODS FM steels. The ODS FM steels were fabricated by the MA, HIP and hot-rolling processes.

  6. Parametric Study of SC Panel Subjected to Impact Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FE analysis with impact test for small scale structure is necessary, because it is impossible to perform full scale test for safety assessment of NPP structures. Analysis factors such as erosion value, strain rate effect, and material model of concrete and steel can influence the analysis results. In this paper, the effects of concrete fracture energy and erosion in material model on FE results of SC panel subjected to impact loading are evaluated using a commercial program LS-DYNA. The analysis results are compared with impact test for SC panel conducted by other researchers. Parametric studies were performed to evaluate the structural behavior of SC panels according to the fracture energy of concrete and erosion values of concrete and steel. Based on these studies, the following conclusions have been obtained : SC panel with an applied erosion value of ±7% for tension and compression of concrete agreed well with the test result. The erosion of steel had not influenced structural behavior, because the failure mode of SC panel is non-perforation mode. SC panel using the concrete fracture energy of 0.152N/mm corresponding to the maximum aggregate size of 32mm showed a good agreement with the test result

  7. Heteronuclear transition metal diatomics - The bonding and electronic structure of ScNi, YNi, ScPd, and YPd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faegri, Knut, Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    High quality ab initio calculations show that ScNi, YNi, ScPd, and YPd all have 2Sigma(+) ground states in agreement with electron spin resonance experiments. For ScNi and YNi, this is expected based on the lowest atomic asymptote. For ScPd and YPd, the lowest atomic asymptote would give the order of stability 2Delta greater than 2Pi equal to about 2Sigma(+), but the calculations show that mixing in of the excited asymptotes preferentially lowers the 2Sigma(+) state. The calculations show that the quartet states are about 20-30 kcal/mol above the ground state, and therefore probably do not contribute significantly to the unexpected g(vertical) values found in experiment. Calculations of excited states for YPd reveal some strong transitions that should be amenable to spectroscopic studies.

  8. Medialogy (English Information Brochure on the education M.Sc.,Medialogy, 3rd to 10th semester (B.Sc. & M.Sc) - For graduates from higher study programmes such as Multimedia Design and IT Graduates)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    An information brochure, 24 pages, in English which describes the education M.Sc., Medialogy, offered by Aalborg University in Copenhagen and Esbjerg. The brochure describes the 3rd to 10th semester (B.Sc. and M.Sc. degree) of the education. The information is primarily directed toward potential...

  9. Stem cells, a two-edged sword: Risks and potentials of regenerative medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The recent advancements in stem cell (SC) biology have led to the concept of regenerative medicine, which is based on the potential of SC for therapies aimed to facilitate the repair of degenerating or injured tissues. Nonetheless, prior to large scale clinical appli- cations, critical aspects need to be further addressed, including the long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of SC-based treatments. Most problematic among the risks of SC-based therapies, in addition to the pos- sible rejection or loss of function of the infused cells, is their potential neoplastic transformation. Indeed, SCs may be used to cure devastating diseases, but their specific properties of self-renewal and clonogenicity may render them prone to generate cancers. In this respect, 'Stemness' might be seen as a two-edged sword, its bright side being represented by normal SCs, its dark side by cancer SCs. A better understand- ing of SC biology will help fulfill the promise of regen- erative medicine aimed at curing human pathologies and fighting cancer from its roots.

  10. Association of Interleukin-6 Signalling with the Muscle Stem Cell Response Following Muscle-Lengthening Contractions in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Bryon R.; Michael De Lisio; Johnston, Adam P. W.; Ciara E O'Reilly; Phillips, Stuart M.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Gianni Parise

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The regulation of muscle stem cells in humans in response to muscle injury remains largely undefined. Recently, interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been implicated in muscle stem cell (satellite cell)-mediated muscle hypertrophy in animals; however, the role of IL-6 in the satellite cell (SC) response following muscle-lengthening contractions in humans has not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight subjects (age 22+/-1 y; 79+/-8 kg) performed 300 maximal unilateral lengthening c...

  11. Is belief larger than fact: expectations, optimism and reality for translational stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubela Tania

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell (SC therapies hold remarkable promise for many diseases, but there is a significant gulf between public expectations and the reality of progress toward clinical application. Public expectations are fueled by stakeholder arguments for research and public funding, coupled with intense media coverage in an ethically charged arena. We examine media representations in light of the expanding global landscape of SC clinical trials, asking what patients may realistically expect by way of timelines for the therapeutic and curative potential of regenerative medicine? Methods We built 2 international datasets: (1 3,404 clinical trials (CT containing 'stem cell*' from ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Search Portal; and (2 13,249 newspaper articles on SC therapies using Factiva.com. We compared word frequencies between the CT descriptions and full-text newspaper articles for the number containing terms for SC type and diseases/conditions. We also developed inclusion and exclusion criteria to identify novel SC CTs, mainly regenerative medicine applications. Results Newspaper articles focused on human embryonic SCs and neurological conditions with significant coverage as well of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In contrast, CTs used primarily hematopoietic SCs, with an increase in CTs using mesenchymal SCs since 2007. The latter dominated our novel classification for CTs, most of which are in phases I and II. From the perspective of the public, expecting therapies for neurological conditions, there is limited activity in what may be considered novel applications of SC therapies. Conclusions Given the research, regulatory, and commercialization hurdles to the clinical translation of SC research, it seems likely that patients and political supporters will become disappointed and disillusioned. In this environment, proponents need to make a concerted effort to temper

  12. SLIT/ROBO2 Signaling Promotes Mammary Stem Cell Senescence by Inhibiting Wnt Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwyndolen Harburg

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available WNT signaling stimulates the self-renewal of many types of adult stem cells, including mammary stem cells (MaSCs, but mechanisms that limit this activity are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that SLIT2 restricts stem cell renewal by signaling through ROBO2 in a subset of basal cells to negatively regulate WNT signaling. The absence of SLIT/ROBO2 signaling leads to increased levels of nuclear β-catenin. Robo2 loss does not increase the number of stem cells; instead, stem cell renewal is enhanced in the absence of SLIT/ROBO2 signaling. This is due to repressed expression of p16 INK4a, which, in turn, delays MaSC senescence. Together, our studies support a model in which SLITs restrict the expansion of MaSCs by countering the activity of WNTs and limiting self-renewal.

  13. Information on Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Information on Stem Cell Research Research @ NINDS Stem Cell Highlights Submit a hESC ... found here: Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells NINDS Stem Cell Research on Campus The Intramural Research Program of NINDS ...

  14. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neurons Oligodendrocyte Parthenogenesis Passage Pluripotent Polar body Preimplantation Proliferation Regenerative medicine Reproductive cloning Signals Somatic cell Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) Somatic (adult) stem cell Stem cells Stromal cells Subculturing Surface markers ...

  15. What are Stem Cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadshah Farhat; Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; M. Rezaie

    2014-01-01

      Stem cells are undifferentiated self regenerating multi potential cells. There are three types of stem cells categories by the ability to form after cells and correlated with the body’s development process. Totipotent: these stem cells can form an entire organism such as fertilized egg. Ploripotent: ploripotent cells are those that can form any cell in the body but cannot form an entire organism such as developing embryo’s totipotent cells become ploripotent  Multipotent: Multi potent stem ...

  16. Optimizing stem cell culture.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2010-01-01

    International audience Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. In the past few years, major efforts have been made to define more precisely the medium composition in which stem cells grow or differentiate. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such a...

  17. Hepatic stem cell niches

    OpenAIRE

    Kordes, Claus; Häussinger, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell niches are special microenvironments that maintain stem cells and control their behavior to ensure tissue homeostasis and regeneration throughout life. The liver has a high regenerative capacity that involves stem/progenitor cells when the proliferation of hepatocytes is impaired. In recent years progress has been made in the identification of potential hepatic stem cell niches. There is evidence that hepatic progenitor cells can originate from niches in the canals...

  18. Artificial Stem Cell Niches

    OpenAIRE

    Lutolf, Matthias P.; Blau, Helen M.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instructive microenvironment, termed stem cell niche. In these niches, stem cells integrate a complex array of molecular signals that, in concert with induced cell-...

  19. Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Mónica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M. S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the poten...

  20. FGL-functionalized self-assembling nanofiber hydrogel as a scaffold for spinal cord-derived neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of designed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds has been shown to be a good biomimetic material in tissue engineering. Here, we specifically made a new peptide hydrogel scaffold FGLmx by mixing the pure RADA16 and designer functional peptide RADA16-FGL solution, and we analyzed the physiochemical properties of each peptide with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and circular dichroism (CD). In addition, we examined the biocompatibility and bioactivity of FGLmx as well as RADA16 scaffold on spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (SC-NSCs) isolated from neonatal rats. Our results showed that RADA16-FGL displayed a weaker β-sheet structure and FGLmx could self-assemble into nanofibrous morphology. Moreover, we found that FGLmx was not only noncytotoxic to SC-NSCs but also promoted SC-NSC proliferation and migration into the three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold, meanwhile, the adhesion and lineage differentiation of SC-NSCs on FGLmx were similar to that on RADA16. Our results indicated that the FGL-functionalized peptide scaffold might be very beneficial for tissue engineering and suggested its further application for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. - Highlights: • RADA16 and RADA16-FGL peptides were synthesized and characterized. • Rat spinal cord neural stem cells were successfully isolated and characterized. • We provided an induction method for mixed differentiation of neural stem cells. • FGL scaffold had good biocompatibility and bioactivity with neural stem cells

  1. The NSF PAARE Projects at SC State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, Sean D.; Cash, Jennifer; Hartmann, Dieter; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve B.; King, Jeremy R.; Leising, Mark D.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    We review our progress over the past 7.5 years and the path forward under the NSF program "Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)". Our first project, "A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)" was a part of the 2008 PAARE cohort which we finished on September 30, 2015. We will summarize the results of those years and look at our way forward under a second PAARE award made in August 2014 (POCA II). Our partnership under the second PAARE award includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) as well as individual investigators at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon University. Our recent work on variable and peculiar stars, work with the Kepler Observatory and our educational products in cosmology for non-STEM majors will be presented as well as our success with undergraduate and graduate students. We will also discuss how we are sharing resources with Clemson through distance learning and undergraduate research projects. Our support includes NSF awards AST-0750814 and AST-1358913 to South Carolina State University as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu/paare/

  2. Unexpected magnetic behavior in amorphous Co90Sc10 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An amorphous alloy Co90Sc10 has been prepared by rapid quenching from the melt. The results of magnetization measurements show that this alloy has the highest Curie temperature reported for any amorphous transition metal based alloys. Furthermore, for a Co based amorphous alloy, the magnetic moment is remarkably high. Moreover, the alloy exhibits soft magnetic properties. Based on the findings, amorphous Co90Sc10 appears to be an attractive candidate for applications as a soft magnetic material. The temperature dependence of the reduced magnetization can be described by the Bloch power law. The results show that the B coefficient of the amorphous Co90Sc10 alloy, which is a measure of the rigidity of spin waves, exhibits the lowest value observed until now for any amorphous alloy and is comparable to crystalline alloys. It is found that the Sc atoms in the Co90Sc10 alloy lead to an increase of the itinerant spin moment of Co atoms, and, in contrast to this behaviour, to a decrease of the local 3d-electrons of Co

  3. Unexpected magnetic behavior in amorphous Co90Sc10 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Peng, G.; Fang, Y. N.; Feng, T.; Hahn, H.; Gleiter, H.; Itou, M.; Kamali, S.

    2015-09-01

    An amorphous alloy Co90Sc10 has been prepared by rapid quenching from the melt. The results of magnetization measurements show that this alloy has the highest Curie temperature reported for any amorphous transition metal based alloys. Furthermore, for a Co based amorphous alloy, the magnetic moment is remarkably high. Moreover, the alloy exhibits soft magnetic properties. Based on the findings, amorphous Co90Sc10 appears to be an attractive candidate for applications as a soft magnetic material. The temperature dependence of the reduced magnetization can be described by the Bloch power law. The results show that the B coefficient of the amorphous Co90Sc10 alloy, which is a measure of the rigidity of spin waves, exhibits the lowest value observed until now for any amorphous alloy and is comparable to crystalline alloys. It is found that the Sc atoms in the Co90Sc10 alloy lead to an increase of the itinerant spin moment of Co atoms, and, in contrast to this behaviour, to a decrease of the local 3d-electrons of Co.

  4. Ab-initio studies of the Sc adsorption and the ScN thin film formation on the GaN(000-1)-(2 × 2) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, J., E-mail: guerrero@ifuap.buap.mx [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Instituto de Física “Ing Luis Rivera Terrazas”, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Sánchez-Ochoa, F.; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H.; Rivas-Silva, J.F. [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Instituto de Física “Ing Luis Rivera Terrazas”, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Takeuchi, Noboru [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Apartado Postal 2681, Ensenada, Baja California 22800 (Mexico)

    2013-12-02

    First principles total energy calculations have been performed to investigate the initial stages of the Sc adsorption and ScN thin film formation on the GaN(000-1)-(2 × 2) surface. Studies are done within the periodic density functional theory as implemented in the PWscf code of the Quantum ESPRESSO package. The Sc adsorption at high symmetry sites results in the bridge site as the most stable structure. When a Sc monolayer is deposited above the surface the T4 site results as the most stable geometry. The Sc migration into the first Ga monolayer induces the Ga displaced ad-atom to be adsorbed at the T4-2 site. A ScN bilayer may be obtained under the Ga monolayer. Finally a ScN bilayer may be formed in the wurtzite phase above the surface. The formation energy plots show that in the moderate Ga-rich conditions we obtain the formation of a ScN bilayer under the gallium monolayer. However at N-rich conditions the formation of ScN bilayer above the surface is the most favorable structure. We report the density of states to explain the electronic structure of the most favorable geometries. - Highlights: • Studies of the initial stages in the formation of Sc and ScN structures on GaN • In the adsorption of Sc on the GaN the Br site is the most favorable geometry. • When a Sc replaces a Ga of the first monolayer the displaced Ga occupies a T4-2 site. • For Ga-rich conditions there is formation of ScN under the Ga monolayer. • In N-rich conditions there is formation of ScN in the wurtzite phase.

  5. Sex Chromosome Meiotic Drive Systems in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER I. Abnormal Spermatid Development in Males with a Heterochromatin-Deficient X Chromosome (sc4sc8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, W. J.; Miklos, George L. Gabor; Goodchild, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The meiotic drive characteristics of the In(1)sc4Lsc8R/Y system have been examined by genetic analysis and by light and electron microscopy. sc4sc8/Y males show a direct correlation between nondisjunction frequency and meiotic drive. Temperature-shift experiments reveal that the temperature-sensitive period for nondisjunction is at meiosis, whereas that for meiotic drive has both meiotic and post-meiotic components. Cytological analyses in the light and electron microscopes reveal failures in spermiogenesis in the testes of sc4sc8 males. The extent of abnormal spermatid development increases as nondisjunction becomes more extreme. PMID:805751

  6. Experience with OpenMP for MADX-SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Imperio, Nicholas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Montag, Christophe [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Yu, Kwangmin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Kapin, Valery [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); McIntosh, Eric [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Renshall, Harry [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Schmidt, Frank [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    MADX-SC allows the treatment of frozen space charge using beam-beam elements in a thin lattice, i.e. one can take advantage of the standard set-up of MAD-X lattices without the need for specialized codes for the space-charge (SC) evaluation. The idea is to simulate over many turns without the problem of noise as in the PIC SC codes. For the examples under study, like the PS and RHIC, it would be desirable to simulate up to 1 million turns or more. To this end one had to make an effort to optimize the scalar speed and, most importantly, get a speed-up of approximately a factor of 5 using OpenMP.

  7. Experience with OpenMP 1 for MADX-SC

    CERN Document Server

    D’Imperio, N; Yu, K; Kapin, V; McIntosh, E; Renshall, H; Schmidt, F

    2014-01-01

    MADX-SC [1–3] allows the treatment of frozen space charge using beam-beam elements in a thin lattice, i.e. one can take advantage of the standard set-up of MAD-X [4] lattices without the need for specialized codes for the space-charge (SC) evaluation. The idea is to simulate over many turns without the problem of noise as in the PIC 1 SC codes. For the examples under study, like the PS and RHIC, it would be desirable to simulate up to 1 million turns or more. To this end one had to make an effort to optimize the scalar speed and, most importantly, get a speed-up of approximately a factor of 5 using OpenMP [5].

  8. Transport of one SC coil through the village of Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    1956-01-01

    In 1952, before CERN was officially founded, two accelerator projects were launched: one for an innovative accelerator to operate at an energy level unequalled at the time, the other for a more standard machine, a Synchro-Cyclotron (SC) to operate at 600 MeV. Design work on the SC was started in 1952 and carried out by teams scattered throughout Europe. Once construction began in 1954, CERN had to arrange road transport for the first of what has since been a long series of spectacular component deliveries, such as those of the machine's two magnetic coils each weighing 60 tonnes and measuring 7.2 metres in diameter. Above, one of them is seen passing through the village of Meyrin. The SC was commissioned in 1957 and was operational for 34 years!

  9. La scène punk montréalaise

    OpenAIRE

    Lussier, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Cet article est consacré à l’un des moments clés de la scène punk, le concert, et à ce qui se déroule à l’intérieur des murs des salles de spectacle la peuplant. Une attention toute particulière est portée à la façon dont les concerts installent le punk en tant que scène, avec ses lignes de fractures et ses forces métissantes. Le punk, installé en tant que scène, nous apparaît comme un lieu où se croisent à la fois des tendances à diviser des ensembles, à circonscrire certains mondes d’acteur...

  10. Allogenic benefit in stem cell therapy: cardiac repair and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daccak, R; Charron, D

    2015-09-01

    Stem cell (SC)-based therapies are a developing mean to repair, restore, maintain, or enhance organ functioning through life span. They are in particular a fast track to restore function in failing heart. Various types of SCs have been used in experimental and clinical studies showing the potential of these cells to revolutionize the treatment of heart diseases. Autologous cells have been privileged to overpass immunological barriers. The field has progressed tremendously and the hurdles, which have been largely overlooked in the excitement over the expected benefit the immunogenicity, have been revealed. Also, manufacturing of patient-specific clinical grade SC product, whether adult stem or reprogrammed induced pluripotent SCs, and the availability of these cells in sufficient amounts and status when needed is questionable. In contrast, adult SCs derived from healthy donors, thus allogeneic, have the advantage to be immediately available as an 'off-the-shelf' therapeutic product. The challenge is to overcome the immunological barriers to their transplantation. Recent research provided new insights into the mode of action and immune behavior of SCs in autologous as well as allogeneic settings. Lessons are learned and immune paradigms are changing: allogenicity, if balanced could be part of the dynamic and durable mechanisms that are critical to sustain cardiac regeneration and repair. We discuss the hurdles, lessons, and advances accomplished in the field through the progressive journey of cardiac-derived stem/progenitor cells toward allogeneic cardiac regenerative/reparative therapy. PMID:26206374

  11. Tissue Regeneration and Stem Cell Distribution in Adriamycin Induced Glomerulopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickri, Maha Baligh; Fattah, Marwa Mohamed Abdel; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Glomerulosclerosis develops secondary to various kidney diseases. It was postulated that adriamycin (ADR) induce chronic glomerulopathy. Treatment combinations for one year did not significantly modify renal function in resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Recurrence of FSGS after renal transplantation impacts long-term graft survival and limits access to transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the relation between the possible therapeutic effect of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs), isolated from cord blood on glomerular damage and their distribution by using ADR induced nephrotoxicity as a model in albino rat. Methods and Results Thirty three male albino rats were divided into control group, ADR group where rats were given single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 5 mg/kg adriamycin. The rats were sacrificed 10, 20 and 30 days following confirmation of glomerular injury. In stem cell therapy group, rats were injected with HMSCs following confirmation of renal injury and sacrificed 10, 20 and 30 days after HMSCs therapy. Kidney sections were exposed to histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric and serological studies. In response to SC therapy multiple Malpighian corpuscles (MC) appeared with patent Bowman's space (Bs) 10 and 20 days following therapy. One month following therapy no remarkable shrunken glomeruli were evident. Glomerular area and serum creatinine were significantly different in ADR group in comparison to control and SC therapy groups. Conclusions ADR induced glomerulosclerosis regressed in response to cord blood HMSC therapy. A reciprocal relation was recorded between the extent of renal regeneration and the distribution of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:24298364

  12. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  13. Toward 'SMART' stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T

    2008-01-01

    Stem cell research is at the heart of regenerative medicine, which holds great promise for the treatment of many devastating disorders. However, in addition to hurdles posed by well-publicized ethical issues, this emerging field presents many biological challenges. What is a stem cell? How are embryonic stem cells different from adult stem cells? What are the physiological bases for therapeutically acceptable stem cells? In this editorial review, I will briefly discuss these superficially simple but actually rather complex issues that surround this fascinating cell type. The goal of this special issue on stem cells in Gene Therapy is to review some fundamental and critical aspects of current stem cell research that have translational potential. PMID:18046429

  14. Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon R. Pine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation pathways are maintained within distinct cancer types, and destabilization of this machinery may participate in maintenance of cancer stem cells. Characterization of lung cancer stem cells is an area of active research and is critical for developing novel therapies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell signaling pathways and cell markers used to identify the lung cancer stem cells.

  15. Determination of Sc by Ion-exchanger Colorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ion-exchanger colorimetry for scandium in the form of ternary color system "Sc(Ⅲ)-CPA-pc-Ac" was developed. The influences of types and grain sizes of resin, adsorption modes and the acidity on the determination were studied systematically, and the optimum operating conditions and the allowable amounts of foreign ions were determined. In comparison with the ordinary solution colorimetry, both of the sensitivity and the selectivity of this ion-exchanger colorimetry are improved obviously. The preliminary uses of this method to the determination of Sc(Ⅲ) in two synthetic samples were satisfied.

  16. Thermoelectric performance of functionalized Sc 2 C MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S.

    2016-07-05

    Functionalization of the MXene Sc2C, which has the rare property to realize semiconducting states for various functionalizations including O, F, and OH, is studied with respect to the electronic and thermal behavior. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is obtained for OH functionalization and an additional 30% decrease can be achieved by confining the phonon mean free path to 100 nm. Despite a relatively low Seebeck coefficient, Sc2C(OH)2 is a candidate for intermediate-temperature thermoelectric applications due to compensation by a high electrical conductivity and very low lattice thermal conductivity.

  17. Product policy of SC Electrecord S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Candidate Cristina Andreescu (Manolache

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The global brand has the advantage of the scale economy, facilitates the company image and prestige and sometimes benefits even from its origin country effect. Its use is quite difficult (the semantic variations can impede the use of the same brand. The international brands act as a restriction against standardisation (the product should not be differentiated as there are internationally accepted and recognized brands. This paper makes an overview description of the general market environment, but also of the arket environment of SC ELECTRECORD S.A.; it underlines the product characteristics as well as the commercial diagnosis within SC ELECTRECORD S.A.

  18. Experimental Progress of DC-SC Photoinjector at Peking University

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, G M; Ding, Y T; Hao, J; Huang, S L; Lin, L; Lu, X Y; Quan, S W; Wang, L F; Xiang, R; Zhang, B C; Zhao, K; Jiao, F; Xie, D; Yang, L; Zhu, F; Liu, C; Wang, F; Xu, W; Liu, Z

    2005-01-01

    Beam loading experiments on DC-SC photoinjector test facility have been finished at 4.4 K. Upon the present experiments, the gradient of 6 MV/m is achieved. The maximum energy gain is 1.1 MeV at 4.4 K. With average beam current of 270 mA, the measured rms emittance is about 5 mm-mrad at the beam energy of 500 keV. Experiments on the test facility has validated that the DC-SC photoinjector is a good choice to provide moderate average current electron beams with low bunch charge and very high repetition rate.

  19. Radiation protection Group (SC/RP) desperately seeking...

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Hervé, Y. Donjoux / SC

    2006-01-01

    We are trying to trace two transit permits (passavants), which constitute the customs clearance documentation for two 'AD6'portable radiation detectors. The two permits (No. 1308 and No. 1309) were sent in the same internal mail envelope towards the middle of March 2006 but never reached their final destination. After weeks of searching in vain, we are now appealing for your help. If you have these two permits in your possession, please get in touch with us. Many thanks in advance. A.HERVE - SC/RP- ( 163168 / 70927) Y.DONJOUX - SC/RP - (160105 / 73171)

  20. Human scFv antibodies (Afribumabs) against Africanized bee venom: Advances in melittin recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessenda, Gabriela; Silva, Luciano C; Campos, Lucas B; Pacello, Elenice M; Pucca, Manuela B; Martinez, Edson Z; Barbosa, José E

    2016-03-15

    Africanized Apis mellifera bees, also known as killer bees, have an exceptional defensive instinct, characterized by mass attacks that may cause envenomation or death. From the years 2000-2013, 77,066 bee accidents occurred in Brazil. Bee venom comprises several substances, including melittin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Due to the lack of antivenom for bee envenomation, this study aimed to produce human monoclonal antibody fragments (single chain fragment variable; scFv), by using phage display technology. These fragments targeted melittin and PLA2, the two major components of bee venom, to minimize their toxic effects in cases of mass envenomation. Two phage antibody selections were performed using purified melittin. As the commercial melittin is contaminated with PLA2, phages specific to PLA2 were also obtained during one of the selections. Specific clones for melittin and PLA2 were selected for the production of soluble scFvs, named here Afribumabs: prefix: afrib- (from Africanized bee); stem/suffix: -umab (fully human antibody). Afribumabs 1 and 2 were tested in in vitro and in vivo assays to assess their ability to inhibit the toxic actions of purified melittin, PLA2, and crude bee venom. Afribumabs reduced hemolysis caused by purified melittin and PLA2 and by crude venom in vitro and reduced edema formation in the paws of mice and prolonged the survival of venom-injected animals in vivo. These results demonstrate that Afribumabs may contribute to the production of the first non-heterologous antivenom treatment against bee envenomation. Such a treatment may overcome some of the difficulties associated with conventional immunotherapy techniques. PMID:26829652

  1. Tetrahedron dynamics in the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn6Sc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euchner, H; Yamada, T; Rols, S; Ishimasa, T; Kaneko, Y; Ollivier, J; Schober, H; Mihalkovic, M; de Boissieu, M

    2013-03-20

    A comparison of periodic approximants and their quasicrystalline counterparts offers the opportunity to better understand the structure, physical properties and stabilizing mechanisms of these complex phases. We present a combined experimental and molecular dynamics study of the lattice dynamics of the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and compare it to recently published results obtained for the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn(6)Sc. Both phases, quasicrystal and approximant, are built up from large atomic clusters which contain a tetrahedral shell at the cluster centre and are packed either quasiperiodically or on a bcc lattice. Using quasielastic neutron scattering and atomic scale simulations, we show that in the quasicrystal the tetrahedra display a dynamics similar to that observed in the 1/1-approximant: the tetrahedra behave as a 'single molecule' and reorient dynamically on a timescale of the order of a few ps. The tetrahedra reorientation is accompanied by a large distortion of the surrounding cluster shells which provide a unique dynamical flexibility to the quasicrystal. However, whereas in the 1/1-approximant the tetrahedron reorientation is observed down to T(c) = 160 K, where a phase transition takes place, in the quasicrystal the tetrahedron dynamics is gradually freezing from 550 to 300 K, similarly to a glassy system.

  2. Polycomb group genes Psc and Su(z)2 maintain somatic stem cell identity and activity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo Prado, Jose Rafael; Chen, Xin; Fuller, Margaret T

    2012-01-01

    Adult stem cells are essential for the proper function of many tissues, yet the mechanisms that maintain the proper identity and regulate proliferative capacity in stem cell lineages are not well understood. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that have recently emerged as important regulators of stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Here we describe the role of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) genes Posterior sex combs (Psc) and Suppressor of zeste two (Su(z)2) in restricting the proliferation and maintaining the identity of the Cyst Stem Cell (CySC) lineage in the Drosophila testis. In contrast, Psc and Su(z)2 seem to be dispensable for both germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance and germ cell development. We show that loss of Psc and Su(z)2 function in the CySC lineage results in the formation of aggregates of mutant cells that proliferate abnormally, and display abnormal somatic identity correlated with derepression of the Hox gene Abdominal-B. Furthermore, we show that tumorigenesis in the CySC lineage interferes non-cell autonomously with maintenance of GSCs most likely by displacing them from their niche.

  3. Placental-derived stem cells: Culture, differentiation andchallenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising approach to clinicalhealing in several diseases. A great variety of tissues(bone marrow, adipose tissue, and placenta) arepotentially sources of stem cells. Placenta-derivedstem cells (p-SCs) are in between embryonic andmesenchymal stem cells, sharing characteristics withboth, such as non-carcinogenic status and property todifferentiate in all embryonic germ layers. Moreover,their use is not ethically restricted as fetal membranesare considered medical waste after birth. In this context,the present review will be focused on the biologicalproperties, culture and potential cell therapy usesof placental-derived stem cells. Immunophenotypecharacterization, mainly for surface marker expression,and basic principles of p-SC isolation and culture(mechanical separation or enzymatic digestion ofthe tissues, the most used culture media, cell platingconditions) will be presented. In addition, somepreclinical studies that were performed in differentmedical areas will be cited, focusing on neurological,liver, pancreatic, heart, muscle, pulmonary, and bonediseases and also in tissue engineering field. Finally,some challenges for stem cell therapy applications willbe highlighted. The understanding of the mechanismsinvolved in the p-SCs differentiation and the achievementof pure cell populations (after differentiation) arekey points that must be clarified before bringing thepreclinical studies, performed at the bench, to themedical practice.

  4. Tumor-stem cells interactions by fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleshina, Aleksandra V.; Cherkasova, Elena I.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Turchin, Ilya V.; Kiseleva, Ekaterina V.; Dashinimaev, Erdem B.; Shirmanova, Marina V.; Zagaynova, Elena V.

    2013-02-01

    Recently, great deal of interest is investigation the function of the stem cells (SC) in tumors. In this study, we studied «recipient-tumor- fluorescent stem cells » system using the methods of in vivo imaging and laser scanning microscopy (LSM). We used adipose-derived adult stem (ADAS) cells of human lentiviral transfected with the gene of fluorescent protein Turbo FP635. ADAS cells were administrated into nude mice with transplanted tumor HeLa Kyoto (human cervical carcinoma) at different stages of tumor growth (0-8 days) intravenously or into tumor. In vivo imaging was performed on the experimental setup for epi - luminescence bioimaging (IAP RAS, Nizhny Novgorod). The results of the imaging showed localization of fluorophore tagged stem cells in the spleen on day 5-9 after injection. The sensitivity of the technique may be improved by spectral separation autofluorescence and fluorescence of stem cells. We compared the results of in vivo imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSM 510 META, Carl Zeiss, Germany). Internal organs of the animals and tumor tissue were investigated. It was shown that with i.v. injection of ADAS, bright fluorescent structures with spectral characteristics corresponding to TurboFP635 protein are locally accumulated in the marrow, lungs and tumors of animals. These findings indicate that ADAS cells integrate in the animal body with transplanted tumor and can be identified by fluorescence bioimaging techniques in vivo and ex vivo.

  5. 44gSc from metal calcium targets for PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Gagnon, K.; Engle, J. W.;

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost and efficient method for producing pre-clinical scale quantities of 44gSc is presented. Production involves proton irradiation of natural unenriched calcium metal followed by rapid separation of radioscandium from the target using hydroxmate functionalized resin.© 2012 American Institu...

  6. Calibration of the DLP-SC-3300-02 probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    This report douments the calibration measurement of the DLP-SC-3300-02 dual-linearly polarized near-field probe. The measurement comprises radiation pattern, diretivity, gain, spetra of spherial wave coefients, polarization charateristis, and complex channel balance at 41 frequencies, as well...

  7. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The following pages contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short master projects as well as regular 3rd...... semester projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  8. Scandium carbides/cyanides in the boron cage: computational prediction of X@B80 (X = Sc2C2, Sc3C2, Sc3CN and Sc3C2CN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Liu, Chang; Hou, Qinghua; Li, Lanlan; Tang, Chengchun; Chen, Zhongfang

    2016-08-01

    As the first study on metal carbide/cyanide boron clusterfullerenes, the geometries, energies, stabilities and electronic properties of four novel scandium cluster-containing B80 buckyball derivatives, namely Sc2C2@B80, Sc3C2@B80, Sc3CN@B80 and Sc3C2CN@B80, were investigated by means of density functional theory computations. The rather favorable binding energies, which are very close to those of the experimentally abundant carbon fullerene analogues, suggest a considerable possibility to realize these doped boron clusterfullerenes. Their intracluster and cluster-cage bonding natures were thoroughly revealed by various theoretical approaches. In contrast to carbon clusterfullerenes, in which the encaged non-metal atoms mainly play a stabilizing role in the metal clusters, the encapsulated carbon and nitrogen atoms inside the B80 cage covalently bond to the boron framework, resulting in strong cluster-cage interactions. Furthermore, infrared spectra and (11)B nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were simulated and fingerprint peaks were proposed to assist future experimental characterization. PMID:27424658

  9. 78 FR 62001 - South Carolina Disaster #SC-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION South Carolina Disaster SC-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: 07/07/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  10. Toelating Herbasan SC welkom voor dahlia, A. coronaria en narcis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Koster, A.T.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Onlangs is Herbasan SC voor de onkruidbestrijding in onder meer dahlia, narcis en Anemone coronaria toegelaten. PPO ging na hoe het middel het beste is in te zetten. In dit artikel zijn de resultaten van het onderzoek vermeld en een advies voor toepassing

  11. South Carolina's SC LENDS: Optimizing Libraries, Transforming Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Rogan; McBride, Ray; Lundberg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Since SC LENDS started operating in June 2009, more public libraries have come on board. All of this on the back end connects to a Mozilla-based staff client that has distributions for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows, using SSL encryption to keep communications secure and private between remote libraries and the servers hosted at a high-end…

  12. 77 FR 14700 - Safety Zones; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... establish temporary moving safety zones during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on...

  13. 76 FR 38586 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... establish a temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring...

  14. 78 FR 54583 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ..., telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on waters of...

  15. 77 FR 51471 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC in the Federal Register (77 FR...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston,...

  16. 44gSc from metal calcium targets for PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Gagnon, K.; Engle, J. W.;

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost and efficient method for producing pre-clinical scale quantities of 44gSc is presented. Production involves proton irradiation of natural unenriched calcium metal followed by rapid separation of radioscandium from the target using hydroxmate functionalized resin.© 2012 American Institute...

  17. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This catalogue contains a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd...... semester projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  18. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The catalogue contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd semester...... projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  19. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan

    The report contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd semester...... projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  20. A Study on the Fluorescence System of Sc-BPMPHD-CTMAB and Its Analytical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Introduction The fluorescence of Sc3+ itself in solution is not observed. After complexed with an organic ligand with a chromophore, Sc3+ makes the ligand, which has no or has weak fluorescence, emit strong fluorescence.

  1. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  2. Many facets of stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiarui Wu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Research area on stem cells is one of frontiers in biology.The collection of five research articles in this issue aims to cover timely developments in stem cell biology, ranging from generating and identifying stem cell line to manipulating stem cells, and from basic mechanism analysis to applied medical potential.These papers reflect the various research tasks in stem cell biology.

  3. Biocompatibility Assessment of PLCL-Sericin Copolymer Membranes Using Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewalin Inthanon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells based tissue engineering requires biocompatible materials, which allow the cells to adhere, expand, and differentiate in a large scale. An ideal biomaterial for clinical application should be free from mammalian products which cause immune reactivities and pathogen infections. We invented a novel biodegradable poly(L-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone-sericin (PLCL-SC copolymer membrane which was fabricated by electrospinning. Membranes with concentrations of 2.5 or 5% (w/v SC exhibited qualified texture characteristics with a noncytotoxic release profile. The hydrophilic properties of the membranes were 35–40% higher than those of a standard PLCL and commercial polystyrene (PS. The improved characteristics of the membranes were due to an addition of new functional amide groups, C=O, N–H, and C–N, onto their surfaces. Degradation of the membranes was controllable, depending on the content proportion of SC. Results of thermogram indicated the superior stability and crystallinity of the membranes. These membranes enhanced human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSC proliferation by increasing cyclin A and also promoted cell adhesion by upregulating focal adhesion kinase (FAK. On the membranes, hWJMSC differentiated into a neuronal lineage with the occurrence of nestin. These data suggest that PLCL-SC electrospun membrane represents some properties which will be useful for tissue engineering and medical applications.

  4. Biocompatibility Assessment of PLCL-Sericin Copolymer Membranes Using Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthanon, Kewalin; Daranarong, Donraporn; Techaikool, Pimwalan; Punyodom, Winita; Khaniyao, Vorathep; Bernstein, Audrey M; Wongkham, Weerah

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells based tissue engineering requires biocompatible materials, which allow the cells to adhere, expand, and differentiate in a large scale. An ideal biomaterial for clinical application should be free from mammalian products which cause immune reactivities and pathogen infections. We invented a novel biodegradable poly(L-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone)-sericin (PLCL-SC) copolymer membrane which was fabricated by electrospinning. Membranes with concentrations of 2.5 or 5% (w/v) SC exhibited qualified texture characteristics with a noncytotoxic release profile. The hydrophilic properties of the membranes were 35-40% higher than those of a standard PLCL and commercial polystyrene (PS). The improved characteristics of the membranes were due to an addition of new functional amide groups, C=O, N-H, and C-N, onto their surfaces. Degradation of the membranes was controllable, depending on the content proportion of SC. Results of thermogram indicated the superior stability and crystallinity of the membranes. These membranes enhanced human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSC) proliferation by increasing cyclin A and also promoted cell adhesion by upregulating focal adhesion kinase (FAK). On the membranes, hWJMSC differentiated into a neuronal lineage with the occurrence of nestin. These data suggest that PLCL-SC electrospun membrane represents some properties which will be useful for tissue engineering and medical applications. PMID:26839562

  5. Heterogeneous Structure of Stem Cells Dynamics: Statistical Models and Quantitative Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Paul; Deasy, Bridget M.; Gharaibeh, Burhan; Roehrs, Timo; Marculescu, Radu

    2014-04-01

    Understanding stem cell (SC) population dynamics is essential for developing models that can be used in basic science and medicine, to aid in predicting cells fate. These models can be used as tools e.g. in studying patho-physiological events at the cellular and tissue level, predicting (mal)functions along the developmental course, and personalized regenerative medicine. Using time-lapsed imaging and statistical tools, we show that the dynamics of SC populations involve a heterogeneous structure consisting of multiple sub-population behaviors. Using non-Gaussian statistical approaches, we identify the co-existence of fast and slow dividing subpopulations, and quiescent cells, in stem cells from three species. The mathematical analysis also shows that, instead of developing independently, SCs exhibit a time-dependent fractal behavior as they interact with each other through molecular and tactile signals. These findings suggest that more sophisticated models of SC dynamics should view SC populations as a collective and avoid the simplifying homogeneity assumption by accounting for the presence of more than one dividing sub-population, and their multi-fractal characteristics.

  6. STEM CELLS AND PROTEOMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yong-ming; GUO Tian-nan; HUANG Shi-ang

    2006-01-01

    The distinctive features of proteomics are large-scale and high throughput. The key techniques of proteomics are two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Stem cell can differentiate into all kinds of cells, tissues and organs. There are many proteins and cytokines involved in the process of differentiation. Applying proteomics techniques to the research of the complex process of stem cell differentiation is of great importance to study the mechanism and applications of stem cell differentiation.

  7. Epidermal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Osman Köse

    2015-01-01

    The epidermis is the outermost layer of the human skin and comprises a multilayered epithelium, the interfollicular epidermis, with associated hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and eccrine sweat glands. There are many origins of stem cells in the skin and skin appendages. These stem cells are localized in different part of the pilosebaseous units and also express many different genes. Epidermal stem cells in the pilosebaseous units not only ensure the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis and ...

  8. Chiaroscuro hematopoietic stem cell.

    OpenAIRE

    Quesenberry, P.; Habibian, M. (PhD); Dooner, M; Zhong, S.; Reilly, J; Peters, S.; De Becker, P; Grimaldi, C.; Carlson, J; REDDY, P; Nilsson, S.; Stewart, F. M.

    1998-01-01

    These observations suggest several immediate clinical strategies. In gene therapy, approaches could be targeted to obtain cycling of hematopoietic stem cells and gene-carrying retrovirus vector integration followed by engraftment at an appropriate time interval which favors engraftment. The same type of approach can be utilized for stem cell expansion approaches. Alternatively marrow or peripheral stem cell engraftment can be obtained with minimal to no toxicity in allochimeric strategies in ...

  9. Cancer stem cell metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Pestell, Richard G.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now viewed as a stem cell disease. There is still no consensus on the metabolic characteristics of cancer stem cells, with several studies indicating that they are mainly glycolytic and others pointing instead to mitochondrial metabolism as their principal source of energy. Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes. Deter...

  10. Lung Stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ardhanareeswaran, Karthikeyan; Mirotsou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years new insights have been added to the study of stem cells in the adult lung. The exploration of the endogenous lung progenitors as well as the study of exogenously delivered stem cell populations holds promise for advancing our understanding of the biology of lung repair mechanisms. Moreover, it opens new possibilities for the use of stem cell therapy for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of lung disease. Here, we discuss the main type...

  11. The leukemic stem cell

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Craig T.

    2007-01-01

    Malignant stem cells have recently been described as the source of several types of human cancer. These unique cell types are typically rare and possess properties that are distinct from most other tumor cells. The properties of leukemic stem cells indicate that current chemotherapy drugs will not be effective. The use of current cytotoxic agents is not effective in leukemia because the agents target both the leukemic and normal stem cell populations. Consequently, new strategies are required...

  12. Gastric Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takaishi, Shigeo; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Timothy C Wang

    2008-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are defined as the unique subpopulation in the tumors that possess the ability to initiate tumor growth and sustain self-renewal as well as metastatic potential. Accumulating evidence in recent years strongly indicate the existence of cancer stem cells in solid tumors of a wide variety of organs. In this review, we will discuss the possible existence of a gastric cancer stem cell. Our recent data suggest that a subpopulation with a defined marker shows spheroid colony format...

  13. Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Wieczorek; Jolanta Niewiarowska

    2008-01-01

    Cancer stem cell theory gains increasingly greater significance in the world of medicine. Numerous findings of scientific research in vivo and in vitro indicate that it is the population of undifferentiated, self-renewing cells which is responsible for recurrence of cancer and metastasis. Similarly to normal stem cells, cancer stem cells (CSC) function in the environment of the other cells of the organism, called the niche, where they receive signals for differentiation and proliferation proc...

  14. Prostate cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have long been implicated in prostate glandular formation. The prostate undergoes regression after androgen deprivation and regeneration after testosterone replacement. Regenerative studies suggest that these cells are found in the proximal ducts and basal layer of the prostate. Many characteristics of prostate cancer indicate that it originates from stem cells. For example, the putative AR− status of prostate stem cells renders them inherently insensitive to androgen blockade ther...

  15. Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pine, Sharon R.; Blair Marshall; Lyuba Varticovski

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation p...

  16. Optimizing stem cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2010-11-01

    Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. In the past few years, major efforts have been made to define more precisely the medium composition in which stem cells grow or differentiate. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness, and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh's plane. PMID:20803548

  17. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Da Sun; Shikang Zhang; Yuefei Wang; Ping Xu; Yuejin Zhu; Le Ying

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. The best conditions obtained f...

  18. Genetic stability of pluripotent stem cells during anti-cancer therapies

    OpenAIRE

    SUCHORSKA, WIKTORIA MARIA; AUGUSTYNIAK, EWELINA; ŁUKJANOW, MAGDALENA

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly growing field that holds promise for the treatment of many currently unresponsive diseases. Stem cells (SCs) are undifferentiated cells with long-term self-renewal potential and the capacity to develop into specialized cells. SC-based therapies constitute a novel and promising concept in regenerative medicine. Radiotherapy is the most frequently used method in the adjuvant treatment of tumorous alterations. In the future, the usage of SCs in regenerative med...

  19. Preparation and characterization of Sc doped MgB2 wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Burdusel, M.

    2016-01-01

    The in-situ technique was used to manufacture scandium (Sc) doped MgB2 wires in a composite Cu–Nb sheath. After reaction at 700 °C, at most 1 at.% Mg was replaced by Sc in the MgB2 phase, without significant influence on its superconducting transition temperature. For higher Sc concentrations...

  20. Crystal fields of dilute Tb, Dy, or Er in Sc obtained by magnetization measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, J.; Touborg, P.

    1976-01-01

    Crystal-field parameters for dilute Sc-Tb, Sc-Dy, and Sc-Er alloys have been obtained by fitting theoretical expressions to the experimentally measured paramagnetic susceptibility. The initial susceptibility was measured and corrected for the effects of ordering at the lowest temperatures in the ...

  1. Switching roles: the functional plasticity of adult tissue stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabik, Agnieszka; Jones, Philip H

    2015-05-01

    Adult organisms have to adapt to survive, and the same is true for their tissues. Rates and types of cell production must be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to meet tissue demands in response to both local and systemic challenges. Recent work reveals how stem cell (SC) populations meet these requirements by switching between functional states tuned to homoeostasis or regeneration. This plasticity extends to differentiating cells, which are capable of reverting to SCs after injury. The concept of the niche, the micro-environment that sustains and regulates stem cells, is broadening, with a new appreciation of the role of physical factors and hormonal signals. Here, we review different functions of SCs, the cellular mechanisms that underlie them and the signals that bias the fate of SCs as they switch between roles. PMID:25812989

  2. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Teens > Stem Cell Transplants Print ... it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  3. The stem factor challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important challenges that still needs to be met in the effort to understand the operation of motor-operated, rising-stem valves is the ability to determine stem factor throughout the valve's load range. The stem factor represents the conversion of operator torque to stem thrust. Determining the stem factor is important because some motor-operated valves (MOVs) cannot be tested in the plant at design basis conditions. The ability of these valves to perform their design basis function (typically, to operate against specified flow and pressure loads) must be ensured by analytical methods or by extrapolating from the results of tests conducted at lower loads. Because the stem factor tends to vary in response to friction and lubrication phenomena that occur during loading and wedging, analytical methods and extrapolation methods have been difficult to develop and implement. Early investigations into variability in the stem factor tended to look only at the tip of the iceberg; they focused on what was happening at torque switch trip, which usually occurs at full wedging. In most stems, the stem factor is better (lower) in the wedging transient than before wedging, so working with torque switch trip data alone led many early researchers to false conclusions about the relationship between stem factor and load. However, research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has taken a closer look at what happens during the running portion of the closing stroke along with the wedging portion. This shift in focus is important, because functional failure of a valve typically consists of a failure to isolate flow, not a failure to achieve full wedging. Thus, the stem factor that must be determined for a valve's design basis closing requirements is the one that corresponds with the running load before wedging

  4. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Reduce Acute and Chronic Kidney Damage in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Burgos-Silva

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic kidney injuries (AKI and CKI constitute syndromes responsible for a large part of renal failures, and are today still associated with high mortality rates. Given the lack of more effective therapies, there has been intense focus on the use stem cells for organ protective and regenerative effects. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have shown great potential in the treatment of various diseases of immune character, although there is still debate on its mechanism of action. Thus, for a greater understanding of the role of MSCs, we evaluated the effect of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (AdSCs in an experimental model of nephrotoxicity induced by folic acid (FA in FVB mice. AdSC-treated animals displayed kidney functional improvement 24h after therapy, represented by reduced serum urea after FA. These data correlated with cell cycle regulation and immune response modulation via reduced chemokine expression and reduced neutrophil infiltrate. Long-term analyses, 4 weeks after FA, indicated that AdSC treatment reduced kidney fibrosis and chronic inflammation. These were demonstrated by reduced interstitial collagen deposition and tissue chemokine and cytokine expression. Thus, we concluded that AdSC treatment played a protective role in the framework of nephrotoxic injury via modulation of inflammation and cell cycle regulation, resulting in reduced kidney damage and functional improvement, inhibiting organ fibrosis and providing long-term immune regulation.

  5. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia.

  6. Study of structural and electronic properties of ScN and ScAs in rocksalt and zincblende structure: A DFT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Vikas, E-mail: vikas.nayak88@gmail.com; Verma, U. P., E-mail: upv.udai@gmail.com [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior-474011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    In this paper, we have studied the structural and electronic properties of ScN and ScAs in zincblende (ZB) and rocksalt (RS) phases. We have employed the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-APW) method within the density functional theory (DFT). Generalized gradient approximation (GGA), due to Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) has been used to estimate the exchange-correlation functional. Our band structure results for ScN shows the metallic nature, whereas ScAs shows the semiconducting behavior. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with earlier reported data.

  7. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia. PMID:27033804

  8. Dental stem cells: a future asset of ocular cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Peh, Gary Swee-Lim; Singhal, Shweta; Goh, Bee-Tin; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2015-11-10

    Regenerative medicine using patient's own stem cells (SCs) to repair dysfunctional tissues is an attractive approach to complement surgical and pharmacological treatments for aging and degenerative disorders. Recently, dental SCs have drawn much attention owing to their accessibility, plasticity and applicability for regenerative use not only for dental, but also other body tissues. In ophthalmology, there has been increasing interest to differentiate dental pulp SC and periodontal ligament SC (PDLSC) towards ocular lineage. Both can commit to retinal fate expressing eye field transcription factors and generate rhodopsin-positive photoreceptor-like cells. This proposes a novel therapeutic alternative for retinal degeneration diseases. Moreover, as PDLSC shares similar cranial neural crest origin and proteoglycan secretion with corneal stromal keratoctyes and corneal endothelial cells, this offers the possibility of differentiating PDLSC to these corneal cell types. The advance could lead to a shift in the medical management of corneal opacities and endothelial disorders from highly invasive corneal transplantation using limited donor tissue to cell therapy utilizing autologous cells. This article provides an overview of dental SC research and the perspective of utilizing dental SCs for ocular regenerative medicine.

  9. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to real

  10. Stem cells in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cell research. Instead, scientists have explored other cell sources, including progenitor and stem cells derived from adult tissues and stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid and placenta. In addition, novel techniques for generating stem cells in the laboratory are being developed. These techniques include somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which the nucleus of an adult somatic cell is placed into an oocyte, and reprogramming of adult cells to induce stem-cell-like behavior. Such techniques are now being used in tissue engineering applications, and some of the most successful experiments have been in the field of urology. Techniques to regenerate bladder tissue have reached the clinic, and exciting progress is being made in other areas, such as regeneration of the kidney and urethra. Cell therapy as a treatment for incontinence and infertility might soon become a reality. Physicians should be optimistic that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering will one day provide mainstream treatment options for urologic disorders.

  11. Making STEM Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Sheryl L.; Bryan, Joel A.; McConnell, Tom J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated approaches to education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), especially those set in the context of real-world situations, can motivate and deepen students' learning of the STEM subjects (National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council 2014). This article describes two integrated investigations used…

  12. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human embryo

  13. Stem cells in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogliari, Karolyn Sassi; Marinowic, Daniel; Brum, Dario Eduardo; Loth, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical research have shown that stem cell therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for many diseases in which current medical treatments do not achieve satisfying results or cure. This article describes stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications in dermatology today.

  14. Immunology of Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Yang

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of pluri-potent stem cells to repair the tissues in which stem cells reside holds great promise in development of novel cell replacement therapeutics for treating chronic and degenerative diseases. However,numerous reports show that stem cell therapy, even in an autologous setting, triggers lymphocyte infiltration and inflammation. Therefore, an important question to be answered is how the host immune system responds to engrafted autologous stem cells or allogeneous stem cells. In this brief review, we summarize the progress in several related areas in this field, including some of our data, in four sections: (1) immunogenicity of stem cells; (2)strategies to inhibit immune rejection to allograft stem cells; (3) immune responses to cancer stem cells; and (4)mesenchymal stem cells in immune regulation. Improvement of our understanding on these and other aspects of immune system-stem cell interplay would greatly facilitate the development of stem cell-based therapeutics for regenerative purposes.

  15. Investigating Preservice STEM Teacher Conceptions of STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radloff, Jeff; Guzey, Selcen

    2016-10-01

    Surrounding the national emphasis on improving STEM education, effective STEM educators are required. Connected, yet often overlooked, is the need for effective preservice STEM teaching instruction for incoming educators. At a basic level, preservice STEM teacher education should include STEM content, pedagogy, and conceptualization. However, the literature suggests no leading conception of STEM education, and little is known about how preservice STEM teachers are conceptualizing STEM education. In order to explore preservice STEM teacher conceptions of STEM education, preservice teachers at a large, Midwestern research university were given an open-ended survey eliciting both textual and visual responses. Here, we report and discuss the results of employing this instrument in relation with the current STEM conceptualization literature.

  16. Investigating Preservice STEM Teacher Conceptions of STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radloff, Jeff; Guzey, Selcen

    2016-07-01

    Surrounding the national emphasis on improving STEM education, effective STEM educators are required. Connected, yet often overlooked, is the need for effective preservice STEM teaching instruction for incoming educators. At a basic level, preservice STEM teacher education should include STEM content, pedagogy, and conceptualization. However, the literature suggests no leading conception of STEM education, and little is known about how preservice STEM teachers are conceptualizing STEM education. In order to explore preservice STEM teacher conceptions of STEM education, preservice teachers at a large, Midwestern research university were given an open-ended survey eliciting both textual and visual responses. Here, we report and discuss the results of employing this instrument in relation with the current STEM conceptualization literature.

  17. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of a Specific Antiprostate Stem Cell Single Chain Antibody on Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Nejatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA is a highly glycosylated cell surface protein which is overexpressed in several malignancies including prostate, pancreas, and urinary bladder cancers. Tumor suppression has been reported by anti-PSCA antibody. Small and high affinity single chain antibodies (scFv have been introduced as effective agents for cancer immunotargeting approaches. In the present study, we used a phage antibody display library of scFv and selected two antibodies against two immunodominant epitopes of PSCA by panning process. The reactivity of the scFvs for the corresponding epitopes was determined by phage ELISA. The binding specificity of antibodies to PSCA-expressing prostate cancer cell line, DU-145, was analyzed by flow cytometry. The antiproliferative and apoptotic induction effects were evaluated by MTT and Annexin-V assays, respectively. Results represented functional scFv C5-II which could bind specifically to DU-145 cells and significantly inhibited the proliferation of these cells (61% with no effect on PSCA-negative cells. The antibody also induced apoptosis in the PSCA expressing cells. The percentage of the apoptotic cells after 24 hrs of exposure to 500 scFv/cell was 33.80%. These results demonstrate that the functional anti-PSCA scFv C5-II has the potential to be considered as a new agent for targeted therapy of prostate cancer.

  18. Expanding STEM Education | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editor’s note: This article is written as a reflection on experiential STEM education by a student who completed her Werner H. Kirsten internship in June 2015. Here, she advocates for incorporating hands-on experience into STEM curricula. If the only way for high school students to learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is through textbooks, then count me out. But how then do you get students to learn STEM outside of the classroom? The focus of this article is to advocate for high school STEM education through experiential learning. Tom Freston, one of the founders and the chief executive officer (CEO) of MTV Productions, said in an interview in Men’s Journal that “innovation is taking two things that already exist and...

  19. Structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Ti2SC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongzhi Fu; Wenfang Liu; Tao Gao

    2011-12-01

    The structural parameters, elastic constants and thermodynamic properties of Ti2SC were investigated under pressure and temperature by using first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. The obtained results are in agreement with the available experimental data. The bulk moduli along the - and -axes, $B_{a}$ and $B_{c}$, almost linearly increase with pressure, and the former is always smaller than the latter. The ratio of $B_{c}/B_{a}$ has a trend of gradual increase as the pressure increases. It is found that the elastic constants, anisotropy and Debye temperature of Ti2SC increase with pressure, while axial compressibility along the - and -axes decreases with pressure. The thermal properties including the equation of state, the Grüneisen parameter , the anisotropies $\\Delta_{p}, \\Delta_{S1}$ and $\\Delta_{S2}$, and the heat capacity are estimated at various pressures and temperatures.

  20. Advanced fusion reactor design using remountable HTc SC magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept of fusion reactor design is proposed using remountable high critical temperature (HTc) superconducting (SC) magnet. There are two advantages using this system. First one is that the magnet system can be composed by parts, which means it easy to replace the damaged magnet module. The second one is that it becomes possible to access the reactor first wall easily. In order to realize this system, we have performed experiments using HTc SC tape. The experimental results indicate that the resistance of the jointed region becomes about 60 μΩ, which shows the feasibility of this concept. Using this system the remountable first wall system also has the feasibility based on thermomechanical analysis. (author)

  1. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder - Occulter (TPF-O) mission has two Spacecraft (SC) buses, one for a space telescope and the other for a formation-flying occulter. SC buses typically supply the utilities (support structures, propulsion, attitude control, power, communications, etc) required by the payloads. Unique requirements for the occulter SC bus are to provide the large delta V required for the slewing maneuvers of the occulter, and comunications for formation flying. The TPF-O telescope SC bus shares some key features of the one for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST): both support space telescopes designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths with comparable primary mirror apertures (2.4 m for HST, 2.4 - 4.0 m for TPF-O). However, TPF-O is expected to have a Wide Field Camera (WFC) with a Field of View (FOV) much larger than that of HST. Ths WFC is also expected to provide fine guidance. TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth Lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large science FOV require higher performance communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. The velocity required for reachng SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require both TPF-O elements to have compact, low-mass designs. Finally, it is possible that TPF-O may utilize a modular design derived fiom that of HST to allow servicing in the SEL2 orbit.

  2. Performance Analysis of OFDM 60GHz System and SC-FDE 60GHz System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xueyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of 60GHz wireless communication system with SC and OFDM is studied, the models of OFDM 60GHz system and SC 60GHz frequency domain equalization (SC-FDE system are established, and the bit error rate (BER performance of OFDM 60GHz system and SC-FDE 60GHz system in 802.15.3c channels is compared. The simulation results show that SC-FDE 60GHz system has a slight advantage over OFDM system in line-of-sight (LOS channels, while OFDM 60GHz system has a slight advantage over SC-FDE system in non-line-of-sight (NLOS channels. For 60GHz system, OFDM 60GHz system has a slight advantage over SC-FDE system in overcoming multipath fading, but the performance of both is close whether in the LOS or NLOS case.

  3. QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF BAKERY PRODUCTS: A CASE STUDY IN SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta- Luminiţa STRÂMBEANU RISTEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the benefits of implementing HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points to company S.C. "DOBRE AND SONS" S.R.L. Constanta, Romania. The data have been provided by the above mentioned manufacturer. The objectives of S.C. "DOBRE AND SONS" S.R.L. are protecting the health of the consumers of the products and their satisfaction regarding the consumption of products that are nutritional, tasty, fresh, free from microbiological, chemical and physical hazard, as well as possessing stable properties during the validity for consumption. In this respect, there has been implemented and maintained an integrated management system of food quality and safety according to SR EN ISO 9001:2008, SR EN ISO 22000:2005 and according to IFS standard, version 5/2007, which consists of determining the potential biological, chemical and physical hazards that might affect the safety of bread and bakery products, or the health of the consumer. HACCP team is analyzing hazard using one of the recommended techniques: brainstorming or the cause - effect diagram. In conclusion, the company S.C. "DOBRE AND SONS" S.R.L. Constanta, Romania provides awareness and employee involvement at all levels in achieving the appointed objectives.

  4. Survivin Modulates Squamous Cell Carcinoma-Derived Stem-Like Cell Proliferation, Viability and Tumor Formation in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lotti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous Cell Carcinoma-derived Stem-like Cells (SCC-SC originate from alterations in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC gene expression and sustain tumor development, invasion and recurrence. Since survivin, a KSC marker, is highly expressed in SCC-SC, we evaluate its role in SCC-SC cell growth and SCC models. Survivin silencing by siRNA decreases clonal growth of SCC keratinocytes and viability of total, rapidly adhering (RAD and non-RAD (NRAD cells from primary SCC. Similarly, survivin silencing reduces the expression of stem cell markers (OCT4, NOTCH1, CD133, β1-integrin, while it increases the level of differentiation markers (K10, involucrin. Moreover, survivin silencing improves the malignant phenotype of SCC 3D-reconstruct, as demonstrated by reduced epidermal thickness, lower Ki-67 positive cell number, and decreased expression of MMP9 and psoriasin. Furthermore, survivin depletion by siRNA in RasG12V-IκBα-derived tumors leads to smaller tumor formation characterized by lower mitotic index and reduced expression of the tumor-associated marker HIF1α, VEGF and CD51. Therefore, our results indicate survivin as a key gene in regulating SCC cancer stem cell formation and cSCC development.

  5. Survivin Modulates Squamous Cell Carcinoma-Derived Stem-Like Cell Proliferation, Viability and Tumor Formation in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Roberta; Palazzo, Elisabetta; Petrachi, Tiziana; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Saltari, Annalisa; Truzzi, Francesca; Quadri, Marika; Puviani, Mario; Maiorana, Antonino; Marconi, Alessandra; Pincelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma-derived Stem-like Cells (SCC-SC) originate from alterations in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC) gene expression and sustain tumor development, invasion and recurrence. Since survivin, a KSC marker, is highly expressed in SCC-SC, we evaluate its role in SCC-SC cell growth and SCC models. Survivin silencing by siRNA decreases clonal growth of SCC keratinocytes and viability of total, rapidly adhering (RAD) and non-RAD (NRAD) cells from primary SCC. Similarly, survivin silencing reduces the expression of stem cell markers (OCT4, NOTCH1, CD133, β₁-integrin), while it increases the level of differentiation markers (K10, involucrin). Moreover, survivin silencing improves the malignant phenotype of SCC 3D-reconstruct, as demonstrated by reduced epidermal thickness, lower Ki-67 positive cell number, and decreased expression of MMP9 and psoriasin. Furthermore, survivin depletion by siRNA in Ras(G12V)-IκBα-derived tumors leads to smaller tumor formation characterized by lower mitotic index and reduced expression of the tumor-associated marker HIF1α, VEGF and CD51. Therefore, our results indicate survivin as a key gene in regulating SCC cancer stem cell formation and cSCC development.

  6. Scandium(III) complexes of monophosphorus acid DOTA analogues: a thermodynamic and radiolabelling study with (44)Sc from cyclotron and from a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdjoudj, R; Pniok, M; Alliot, C; Kubíček, V; Havlíčková, J; Rösch, F; Hermann, P; Huclier-Markai, S

    2016-01-28

    The complexation ability of DOTA analogs bearing one methylenephosphonic (DO3AP) or methylenephosphinic (DO3AP(PrA) and DO3AP(ABn)) acid pendant arm toward scandium was evaluated. Stability constants of their scandium(iii) complexes were determined by potentiometry combined with (45)Sc NMR spectroscopy. The stability constants of the monophosphinate analogues are somewhat lower than that of the Sc-DOTA complex. The phosphorus acid moiety interacts with trivalent scandium even in very acidic solutions forming out-of-cage complexes; the strong affinity of the phosphonate group to Sc(iii) precludes stability constant determination of the Sc-DO3AP complex. These results were compared with those obtained by the free-ion selective radiotracer extraction (FISRE) method which is suitable for trace concentrations. FISRE underestimated the stability constants but their relative order was preserved. Nonetheless, as this method is experimentally simple, it is suitable for a quick relative comparison of stability constant values under trace concentrations. Radiolabelling of the ligands with (44)Sc was performed using the radioisotope from two sources, a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator and (44m)Sc/(44)Sc from a cyclotron. The best radiolabelling conditions for the ligands were pH = 4, 70 °C and 20 min which were, however, not superior to those of the parent DOTA. Nonetheless, in vitro behaviour of the Sc(iii) complexes in the presence of hydroxyapatite and rat serum showed sufficient stability of (44)Sc complexes of these ligands for in vivo applications. PET images and ex vivo biodistribution of the (44)Sc-DO3AP complex performed on healthy Wistar male rats showed no specific bone uptake and rapid clearance through urine. PMID:26675416

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dah-Ching; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have two features: the ability to differentiate along different lineages and the ability of self-renewal. Two major types of stem cells have been described, namely, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are obtained from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and are associated with tumorigenesis, and the use of human ESCs involves ethical and legal considerations. The use of adult mesenchymal stem cells is less problematic with regard to these issues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and also exhibit multilineage differentiation. MSCs can be isolated from a variety of tissues, such as umbilical cord, endometrial polyps, menses blood, bone marrow, adipose tissue, etc. This is because the ease of harvest and quantity obtained make these sources most practical for experimental and possible clinical applications. Recently, MSCs have been found in new sources, such as menstrual blood and endometrium. There are likely more sources of MSCs waiting to be discovered, and MSCs may be a good candidate for future experimental or clinical applications. One of the major challenges is to elucidate the mechanisms of differentiation, mobilization, and homing of MSCs, which are highly complex. The multipotent properties of MSCs make them an attractive choice for possible development of clinical applications. Future studies should explore the role of MSCs in differentiation, transplantation, and immune response in various diseases. PMID:21396235

  8. Epidermal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Köse

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis is the outermost layer of the human skin and comprises a multilayered epithelium, the interfollicular epidermis, with associated hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and eccrine sweat glands. There are many origins of stem cells in the skin and skin appendages. These stem cells are localized in different part of the pilosebaseous units and also express many different genes. Epidermal stem cells in the pilosebaseous units not only ensure the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis and hair regeneration, but also contribute to repair of the epidermis after injury. In recent years, human induced pluripotent skin stem cells are produced from the epidermal cells such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts and melanocytes. These cells can be transdifferentiated to embriyonic stem cells. Human induced pluripotent stem cells have potential applications in cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. These cells provide a means to create valuable tools for basic research and may also produce a source of patient-matched cells for regenerative therapies. In this review, we aimed an overview of epidermal stem cells for better understanding their functions in the skin. Skin will be main organ for using the epidermal cells for regenerative medicine in near future.

  9. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  10. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  11. Electrochemical formation of Sc-Al intermetallic compounds in the eutectic LiCl-KCl. Determination of thermodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The formation mechanism of AlxScy intermetallic compounds was studied in the eutectic LiCl-KCl • The formation energy, global and consecutive formation constants of AlxScy were estimated from OCP. • XRD after potentiostatic electrolysis, allowed the identification of Al3Sc and Al2Sc • XRD after intermittent galvanostatic electrolysis allowed the identification of Al3Sc, Al2Sc and AlSc2 • SEM with EDX, allowed the identification of Al3Sc, Al2Sc, AlSc and AlSc2. - Abstract: The electrochemical formation of Sc-Al alloys was investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl by cyclic voltammetry and open circuit chronopotentiometry. On reactive Al electrode the electrochemical reduction of Sc(III) was observed at less cathodic potential values than at the surface of an inert W electrode, the potential shift is caused by the decrease of Sc activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sc-Al intermetallic compounds at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sc(III) and Al(III) ions, using a W electrode, and ii) Sc(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after electrolysis runs by X-ray diffraction allowed the identification of Al3Sc and Al2Sc, whereas analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al3Sc, Al2Sc, AlSc and AlSc2. The formation energy of each AlxScy intermetallic compound, and the global and stepwise formation constant were estimated from open circuit chronopotentiometry measurements in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at 723 and 773 K using Al as working electrode

  12. Al-Mg-Sc-Zr合金的再结晶%Recrystallization of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永红; 尹志民; 张杰; 潘青林; 彭志辉

    2002-01-01

    研究了添加微量Sc,Zr的Al-Mg合金的再结晶行为,结果表明:Al-Mg-Sc-Zr合金的再结晶起始温度为400℃,细小、弥散、与基体共格的析出相对位错和亚晶的钉扎作用是合金再结晶温度大幅度提高的主要原因,再结晶形核机制为亚晶聚合机制.%The recrystalization behavior of Al-Mg alloys with Sc and Zr additives was studied.It is found that the recrystallization of the alloy began at 400℃.The main reason of the great increase of recrystallization temperature is attributed to that the dislocations and subgrain boundaries.The recrystallizing nucleation mechanism was the subgrain boundary merging mechanism in the alloy are pinned by ultrafine dispersed coherent precipitates.

  13. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable...... scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  14. Stem Cells and Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cell research has thrived over the last years due to their therapeutic and regenerative potential. Scientific breakthroughs in the field are immediately translated from the scientific journals to the mass media, which is not surprising as the characterisation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the biology of stem cells is crucial for the treatment of degenerative and cardiovascular diseases, as well as cancer. In the Molecular Oncology Unit at Ciemat we work to unravel the role of cancer stem cells in tumour development, and to find new antitumor therapies. (Author)

  15. Germline stem cells: stems of the next generation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Hebao; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2010-01-01

    Germline stem cells (GSCs) sustain gametogenesis during the life of organisms. Recent progress has substantially extended our understanding of GSC behavior, including the mechanisms of stem cell self-renewal, asymmetric stem cell division, stem cell niches, dedifferentiation, and tissue aging. GSCs typically are highly proliferative, due to organismal requirement to produce large number of differentiated cells. While many somatic stem cells are multipotent, with potentially multiple different...

  16. Common stemness regulators of embryonic and cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjimichael, Christiana; Chanoumidou, Konstantina; Papadopoulou, Natalia; Arampatzi, Panagiota; Papamatheakis, Joseph; Kretsovali, Androniki

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells is regulated by a well characterized gene transcription circuitry. The circuitry is assembled by ESC specific transcription factors, signal transducing molecules and epigenetic regulators. Growing understanding of stem-like cells, albeit of more complex phenotypes, present in tumors (cancer stem cells), provides a common conceptual and research framework for basic and applied stem cell biology. In this review, we h...

  17. The role of the bi-compartmental stem cell niche in delaying cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriyari, Leili; Komarova, Natalia L.

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, by using modern imaging techniques, scientists have found evidence of collaboration between different types of stem cells (SCs), and proposed a bi-compartmental organization of the SC niche. Here we create a class of stochastic models to simulate the dynamics of such a heterogeneous SC niche. We consider two SC groups: the border compartment, S1, is in direct contact with transit-amplifying (TA) cells, and the central compartment, S2, is hierarchically upstream from S1. The S1 SCs differentiate or divide asymmetrically when the tissue needs TA cells. Both groups proliferate when the tissue requires SCs (thus maintaining homeostasis). There is an influx of S2 cells into the border compartment, either by migration, or by proliferation. We examine this model in the context of double-hit mutant generation, which is a rate-limiting step in the development of many cancers. We discover that this type of a cooperative pattern in the stem niche with two compartments leads to a significantly smaller rate of double-hit mutant production compared with a homogeneous, one-compartmental SC niche. Furthermore, the minimum probability of double-hit mutant generation corresponds to purely symmetric division of SCs, consistent with the literature. Finally, the optimal architecture (which minimizes the rate of double-hit mutant production) requires a large proliferation rate of S1 cells along with a small, but non-zero, proliferation rate of S2 cells. This result is remarkably similar to the niche structure described recently by several authors, where one of the two SC compartments was found more actively engaged in tissue homeostasis and turnover, while the other was characterized by higher levels of quiescence (but contributed strongly to injury recovery). Both numerical and analytical results are presented.

  18. On 3d bonding in the transition metal trimers - The electronic structure of equilateral triangle Ca3, Sc3, Sc3(+), and Ti3(+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, S. P.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that transition metals and transition metal (TM) compounds are currently of considerable interest because of their relevance to catalysis and to materials science problems such as hydrogen embrittlement and crack propagation in metals. The present paper is concerned with complete active space Self-Consistent Field (SCF) externally contracted configuration interaction (CASSCF/CCI) calculations for the low-lying states of Sc3 and Sc3(+). A comparison is conducted regarding the bonding in the Ca3, Sc3, and Cu3 molecules. This comparison makes it possible to predict general trends for the TM trimers. Attention is given to the qualitative features of the bonding in the TM trimers, the basis sets and other technical details of the calculations, the calculated results for Sc3 and Sc3(+), and conclusions from this work.

  19. Directed evolution of human scFvs in DT40 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Alfred W Y; Williams, Gareth T; Rada, Cristina; Sale, Julian E

    2016-02-01

    Cells that constitutively diversify their immunoglobulin genes can be used for selection of novel antibodies and for refining existing affinities and specificities. Here, we report an adaptation of the chicken DT40 system wherein its capacity for somatic hypermutation is harnessed to evolve human antibodies expressed as single-chain variable fragments (scFvs). Expression of membrane-anchored scFvs from within the rearranged Igλ locus created self-diversifying scFv libraries from which we could both select scFvs of a desired specificity and evolve both the specificity and affinity of existing scFvs by iterative expansion and selection. From these scFvs, we were able to create fully human IgG antibodies with nanomolar affinities. We further enhanced the functionality of the system by creating a pool of DT40 scFv lines with high levels of mutation driven by the overexpression of a hyperactive variant of activation-induced deaminase. From this library, we successfully isolated scFvs that bound the spliceosome factor CWC15 and the cytokine human IFNγ. Our results demonstrate the flexibility and utility of DT40 for rapid generation of scFv repertoires and efficient selection, evolution and affinity maturation of scFv specificities.

  20. A small molecule (pluripotin as a tool for studying cancer stem cell biology: proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D Mertins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSC are thought to be responsible for tumor maintenance and heterogeneity. Bona fide CSC purified from tumor biopsies are limited in supply and this hampers study of CSC biology. Furthermore, purified stem-like CSC subpopulations from existing tumor lines are unstable in culture. Finding a means to overcome these technical challenges would be a useful goal. In a first effort towards this, we examined whether a chemical probe that promotes survival of murine embryonic stem cells without added exogenous factors can alter functional characteristics in extant tumor lines in a fashion consistent with a CSC phenotype. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The seven tumor lines of the NCI60 colon subpanel were exposed to SC-1 (pluripotin, a dual kinase and GTPase inhibitor that promotes self-renewal, and then examined for tumorigenicity under limiting dilution conditions and clonogenic activity in soft agar. A statistically significant increase in tumor formation following SC-1 treatment was observed (p<0.04. Cloning efficiencies and expression of putative CSC surface antigens (CD133 and CD44 were also increased. SC-1 treatment led to sphere formation in some colon tumor lines. Finally, SC-1 inhibited in vitro kinase activity of RSK2, and another RSK2 inhibitor increased colony formation implicating a role for this kinase in eliciting a CSC phenotype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings validate a proof of concept study exposure of extant tumor lines to a small molecule may provide a tractable in vitro model for understanding CSC biology.

  1. Optimized Lentiviral Transduction Protocols by Use of a Poloxamer Enhancer, Spinoculation, and scFv-Antibody Fusions to VSV-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasov, Nataša; Höfig, Ines; Mall, Sabine; Krackhardt, Angela M; Thirion, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LV) are widely used to successfully transduce cells for research and clinical applications. This optimized LV infection protocol includes a nontoxic poloxamer-based adjuvant combined with antibody-retargeted lentiviral particles. The novel poloxamer P338 demonstrates superior characteristics for enhancing lentiviral transduction over the best-in-class polybrene-assisted transduction. Poloxamer P338 exhibited dual benefits of low toxicity and high efficiency of lentiviral gene delivery into a range of different primary cell cultures. One of the major advantages of P338 is its availability in pharma grade and applicability as cell culture medium additive in clinical protocols. Lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) can be produced to high titers and mediate high transduction efficiencies in vitro. For clinical applications the need for optimized transduction protocols, especially for transduction of primary T and stem cells, is high. The successful use of retronectin, the second lentivirus enhancer available as GMP material, requires the application of specific coating protocols not applicable in all processes, and results in the need of a relatively high multiplicity of infection (MOI) to achieve effective transduction efficiencies for hematopoietic cells (e.g., CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells). Cell specificity of lentiviral vectors was successfully increased by displaying different ratios of scFv-fused VSV-G glycoproteins on the viral envelope. The system has been validated with human CD30+ lymphoma cells, resulting in preferential gene delivery to CD30+ cells, which was increased fourfold in mixed cell cultures, by presenting scFv antibody fragments binding to respective surface markers. A combination of spinoculation and poloxamer-based chemical adjuvant increases the transduction of primary T-cells by greater than twofold. The combination of poloxamer-based and scFv-retargeted LVs increased

  2. Induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddhartha Bhowmik; LI Yong

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a recent development which has brought a promise of great therapeutic values. The previous technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been ineffective in humans. Recent discoveries show that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed by a transient over expression of a small number of genes; they can undergo induced pluripotency. iPS were first produced in 2006. By 2008, work was underway to remove the potential oncogenes from their structure. In 2009, protein iPS (piPS) cells were discovered. Surface markers and reporter genes play an important role in stem cell research. Clinical applications include generation of self renewing stem cells, tissue replacement and many more. Stem cell therapy has the ability to dramatically change the treatment of human diseases.

  3. Innovation and STEM Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Julia Link

    2015-01-01

    How do schools with a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fit in with state goals to increase innovation and to boost the economy? This article briefly discusses how educators can encourage creativity and innovation.

  4. What are Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadshah Farhat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are undifferentiated self regenerating multi potential cells. There are three types of stem cells categories by the ability to form after cells and correlated with the body’s development process. Totipotent: these stem cells can form an entire organism such as fertilized egg. Ploripotent: ploripotent cells are those that can form any cell in the body but cannot form an entire organism such as developing embryo’s totipotent cells become ploripotent  Multipotent: Multi potent stem cells are those that can only form specific cells in the body such as blood cells based. Based on the sources of stem cells we have three types of these cells: Autologous: Sources of the patient own cells are (Autologous either the cells from patient own body or his or her cord blood. For this type of transplant the physician now usually collects the periphery rather than morrow because the procedure is easier on like a bane morrow harvest it take place outside of an operating room, and the patient does not to be under general unsetting . Allogenic: Sources of stem cells from another donore are primarily relatives (familial allogenic or completely unrelated donors. Xenogenic: In these stem cells from different species are transplanted e .g striatal porcine fetal mesan cephalic (FVM xenotransplants for Parkinson’s disease. On sites of isolation such as embryo, umbilical cord and other body tissues stem cells are named embnyonic, cord blood, and adult stem cells. The scope of results and clinical application of stem cells are such as: Neurodegenerative conditions (MS,ALS, Parkinson’s, Stroke, Ocular disorders- Glaucoma, retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Auto Immune Conditions (Lupus, MS,R. arthritis, Diabetes, etc, Viral Conditions (Hepatitis C and AIDS, Heart Disease, Adrenal Disorders, Injury(Nerve, Brain, etc, Anti aging (hair, skin, weight control, overall well being/preventive, Emotional disorders, Organ / Tissue Cancers, Blood cancers, Blood diseases

  5. An artificial niche preserves the quiescence of muscle stem cells and enhances their therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarta, Marco; Brett, Jamie O; DiMarco, Rebecca; De Morree, Antoine; Boutet, Stephane C; Chacon, Robert; Gibbons, Michael C; Garcia, Victor A; Su, James; Shrager, Joseph B; Heilshorn, Sarah; Rando, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    A promising therapeutic strategy for diverse genetic disorders involves transplantation of autologous stem cells that have been genetically corrected ex vivo. A major challenge in such approaches is a loss of stem cell potency during culture. Here we describe an artificial niche for maintaining muscle stem cells (MuSCs) in vitro in a potent, quiescent state. Using a machine learning method, we identified a molecular signature of quiescence and used it to screen for factors that could maintain mouse MuSC quiescence, thus defining a quiescence medium (QM). We also engineered muscle fibers that mimic the native myofiber of the MuSC niche. Mouse MuSCs maintained in QM on engineered fibers showed enhanced potential for engraftment, tissue regeneration and self-renewal after transplantation in mice. An artificial niche adapted to human cells similarly extended the quiescence of human MuSCs in vitro and enhanced their potency in vivo. Our approach for maintaining quiescence may be applicable to stem cells isolated from other tissues. PMID:27240197

  6. High Intensity Training May Reverse the Fiber Type Specific Decline in Myogenic Stem Cells in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean; Dalgas, Ulrik; Keytsman, Charly;

    2016-01-01

    = 23) and age matched healthy controls (HC, n = 18). Furthermore, the effects of 12 weeks of high intensity training on SC and myonuclei content were explored in MS. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. Vastus Lateralis at baseline (MS and HC) and following 12 weeks of training (MS only). Frozen...... increased by 165% (p < 0.05) and 135% (p < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, the type II fiber MN content tended (p = 0.06) to be increased by 35% following training. In conclusion, the SC content is lower in type II compared to type I fibers in both MS and HC. Furthermore, high intensity training was......Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The myogenic stem cells (satellite cells-SCs) are instrumental to accretion of myonuclei, but remain to be investigated in MS. The present study aimed to compare the SC and myonuclei content between MS patients (n...

  7. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid;

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  8. Stem cell myths

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus, Tim; Liu, Ying; Parker, Graham C.; Rao, Mahendra S.

    2007-01-01

    Stem cells, although difficult to define, hold great promise as tools for understanding development and as therapeutic agents. However, as with any new field, uncritical enthusiasm can outstrip reality. In this review, we have listed nine common myths that we believe affect our approach to evaluating stem cells for therapy. We suggest that careful consideration needs to be given to each of these issues when evaluating a particular cell for its use in therapy. Data need to be collected and rep...

  9. Stem cell mechanobiology

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Lee; Knight, Martin M.; Jonathan J Campbell; Bader, Dan L.

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are capable of proliferation, self-maintenance and differentiation towards specific cell phenotypes. These processes are controlled by a variety of cues including physicochemical factors associated with the specific mechanical environment in which the cells reside. The control of stem cell biology through mechanical factors remains poorly understood and is the focus of the developing field of mechanobiology. This review provides an insight into the c...

  10. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to reality. However, as somatic cells might have accumulated various chromosomal abnormalities, including aneuploidies throughout their lives, the resulting IPSCs might no longer carry the perfect bluepri...

  11. Exploring the STEM shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, S. James, Jr.; Bhulai, Alfred; IcePilot; JoeB

    2014-12-01

    In reply to Margaret Harris' article on "The STEM shortage paradox" (Graduate careers, October pp56-59, http://ow.ly/DXvIq) and a related post on the physicsworld.com blog ("The STEM employment paradox, revisited", http://ow.ly/DXvCl), both of which questioned reports that the UK is suffering from a severe shortage of graduates in science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

  12. Stem cell therapy independent of stemness

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Techung

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is entering a new era shifting the focus from initial feasibility study to optimization of therapeutic efficacy. However, how MSC therapy facilitates tissue regeneration remains incompletely characterized. Consistent with the emerging notion that secretion of multiple growth factors/cytokines (trophic factors) by MSC provides the underlying tissue regenerative mechanism, the recent study by Bai et al demonstrated a critical therapeutic role of MSC-derived h...

  13. The calculated rovibronic spectrum of scandium hydride, ScH

    CERN Document Server

    Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson\\, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structure of six low-lying electronic states of scandium hydride, $X\\,{}^{1}\\Sigma^+$, $a\\,{}^{3}\\Delta$, $b\\,{}^{3}\\Pi$, $A\\,{}^{1}\\Delta$ $c\\,{}^{3}\\Sigma^+$, and $B\\,{}^{1}\\Pi$, is studied using multi-reference configuration interaction as a function of bond length. Diagonal and off-diagonal dipole moment, spin-orbit coupling and electronic angular momentum curves are also computed. The results are benchmarked against experimental measurements and calculations on atomic scandium. The resulting curves are used to compute a line list of molecular ro-vibronic transitions for $^{45}$ScH.

  14. Wind power characterization in the Lages city - SC, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Olívio José Soccol; Danieli Bariviera Zitterell; Mario Nestor Ullmann; David José Miquelluti

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to determinate the nominal wind and the wind power, based on mathematical adjustments in the Lages city, SC-Brazil. The study used data comprising the period between 1976 and 2006. The wind average velocity was osted by Lages Meteorological Station located at 27º49'S, 50º12' W, and 937 meters of altitude. For the estimated wind temporal distribution, a methodology based on wind velocity curves was used. The nominal velocity that made wind power maximum in L...

  15. Scalable Implementation of Finite Elements by NASA _ Implicit (ScIFEi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, James E.; Bomarito, Geoffrey F.; Heber, Gerd; Hochhalter, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable Implementation of Finite Elements by NASA (ScIFEN) is a parallel finite element analysis code written in C++. ScIFEN is designed to provide scalable solutions to computational mechanics problems. It supports a variety of finite element types, nonlinear material models, and boundary conditions. This report provides an overview of ScIFEi (\\Sci-Fi"), the implicit solid mechanics driver within ScIFEN. A description of ScIFEi's capabilities is provided, including an overview of the tools and features that accompany the software as well as a description of the input and output le formats. Results from several problems are included, demonstrating the efficiency and scalability of ScIFEi by comparing to finite element analysis using a commercial code.

  16. Preparation and characterization of Sc doped MgB2 wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivel, J.-C.; Burdusel, M.

    2016-09-01

    The in-situ technique was used to manufacture scandium (Sc) doped MgB2 wires in a composite Cu-Nb sheath. After reaction at 700 °C, at most 1 at.% Mg was replaced by Sc in the MgB2 phase, without significant influence on its superconducting transition temperature. For higher Sc concentrations in the nominal composition, the formation of Sc-rich impurity phases was evidenced by SEM/EDS observations. The critical current density and accommodation field of the wires are weakly dependant on the Sc content. It is believed that these effects are related more to modifications of the thermal behaviour of the precursor powders revealed by DTA measurements than to actual doping. The best performance was obtained in a wire with Mg:Sc = 0.995_0.005 atomic ratio.

  17. Toward low-cost affinity reagents: lyophilized yeast-scFv probes specific for pathogen antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A Gray

    Full Text Available The generation of affinity reagents, usually monoclonal antibodies, remains a critical bottleneck in biomedical research and diagnostic test development. Recombinant antibody-like proteins such as scFv have yet to replace traditional monoclonal antibodies in antigen detection applications, in large part because of poor performance of scFv in solution. To address this limitation, we have developed assays that use whole yeast cells expressing scFv on their surfaces (yeast-scFv in place of soluble purified scFv or traditional monoclonal antibodies. In this study, a nonimmune library of human scFv displayed on the surfaces of yeast cells was screened for clones that bind to recombinant cyst proteins of Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric pathogen of humans. Selected yeast-scFv clones were stabilized by lyophilization and used in detection assay formats in which the yeast-scFv served as solid support-bound monoclonal antibodies. Specific binding of antigen to the yeast-scFv was detected by staining with rabbit polyclonal antibodies. In flow cytometry-based assays, lyophilized yeast-scFv reagents retained full binding activity and specificity for their cognate antigens after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature in the absence of desiccants or stabilizers. Because flow cytometry is not available to all potential assay users, an immunofluorescence assay was also developed that detects antigen with similar sensitivity and specificity. Antigen-specific whole-cell yeast-scFv reagents can be selected from nonimmune libraries in 2-3 weeks, produced in vast quantities, and packaged in lyophilized form for extended shelf life. Lyophilized yeast-scFv show promise as low cost, renewable alternatives to monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and research.

  18. SC1327-312 & SC1329-313 two galaxy groups in-between a major merging event observed with Beppo-SAX

    CERN Document Server

    Bardelli, S; Ettori, S; Molendi, S; Zucca, E; Colafrancesco, Sergio

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of two Beppo-SAX observations of the poor clusters SC1327-312 and SC1329-313. These objects are located in a huge structure, formed by three ACO clusters, which is probably the remnant of one of the largest and best studied major mergings known. Given the fact that these poor clusters are in between two interacting ACO clusters, the aim of this work is to study the physics of the intracluster medium and to look for the possible presence of shocks. We derived the gas distribution profiles, the global (i.e. within 0.3 Mpc) temperatures and abundances and the temperature profiles and maps for SC1327-312 and SC1329-313. Also the presence of soft excess in LECS and hard excess in PDS have been checked. We do not find evidence of regions where the gas is shocked or significantly heated. The image of SC1327-312 seems rather symmetric, while the gas profile of SC1329-313 shows disturbed, comet-like shaped isophotes, with the tail pointing toward A3562 and a compression toward SC1327-312. The pr...

  19. Identification of a Developmental Gene Expression Signature, Including HOX Genes, for the Normal Human Colonic Crypt Stem Cell Niche: Overexpression of the Signature Parallels Stem Cell Overpopulation During Colon Tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatlekar, Seema; Addya, Sankar; Salunek, Moreh; Orr, Christopher R.; Surrey, Saul; McKenzie, Steven; Fields, Jeremy Z.; Boman, Bruce M

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to identify a unique gene expression signature for human colonic stem cells (SCs). Accordingly, we determined the gene expression pattern for a known SC-enriched region—the crypt bottom. Colonic crypts and isolated crypt subsections (top, middle, and bottom) were purified from fresh, normal, human, surgical specimens. We then used an innovative strategy that used two-color microarrays (∼18,500 genes) to compare gene expression in the crypt bottom with expression in the other cryp...

  20. Characterization of PrP(Sc) transmission from immune cells to neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yufuko; Sadaike, Tetsuji; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2012-10-01

    We investigated PrP(Sc) transmission in neuronal cells, spleen cells and several immune cells using an in vitro cell-to-cell transmission system. The transmission of PrP(Sc) in the supernatant of PrP(Sc)-infected neuronal cells was also investigated. We found that PrP(Sc) transmission was more efficient in the cell-to-cell transmission system than in the supernatant-mediated system. PrP(Sc) was more efficiently transmitted from adherent spleen cells to neuronal cells than from floating spleen cells. The adherent spleen cells were composed of macrophages (80%), dendritic cells (8%) and follicular dendritic cells (3%), indicating that macrophages play an important role in PrP(Sc) transmission from immune cells to neuronal cells. Although PrP(Sc) in the immune cells used as donor cells was gradually degraded, the PrP(Sc) transmitted to neuronal cells was observed by Western blot analysis. Investigation of the mechanism of PrP(Sc) transmission between cells represents an important step towards understanding the pathogenesis of prion diseases. PMID:23246505

  1. Formation Processes of Nanocomposite Strengthening Particles in Rapidly Quenched Al-Sc-Zr Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Kotko; Nosenko, V. K.; O.A. Molebny; T.O. Monastyrska; A.L. Berezina

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition processes of supersaturated solid solution of aluminium alloys alloyed with Sc and Zr have been studied in the work. The binary hypereutectic Al-Sc alloys, hyperperitectic Al-Zr alloys and ternary Al-Sc-Zr alloys were chosen. Alloys were obtained by the melt-spinning. Melts were quenched from temperatures of Т = 1000 C and Т = 1400 ºC. The study of the structure of rapidly solidifyed binary Al alloys alloyed with Sc and Zr showed that the crystallization of anomalously supersat...

  2. Model of Dees and Rotco for the 600 MeV SC

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The accelerating frequency of the 600 MeV Synchro-Cyclotron (SC) was modulated by the varying capacity of a rotating condenser ("Rotco", the most delicate component of the SC). A 1/5-scale model, dating from the design-period of the SC, was used to study improvements to the SC RF-system, and also the acceleration of ions, first Helium and, at the time of this picture, Carbon. In the middle of the picture is the case containing the Dees. To the left, at the wide end of the cone, a rotco. Reinhold Hohbach is busy with measurements. See also 7805235 (Annual Report 1978, p.110).

  3. Ferromagnetism carried by highly delocalized hybrid states in Sc-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Benali Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-05-29

    We present first-principles results for Sc-doped ZnOthin films. Neighboring Sc atoms in the surface and/or subsurface layers are found to be coupled ferromagnetically, where only two of the possible configurations induce spin polarization. In the first configuration, the polarization is carried by the Sc d states as expected for transition metaldoping. However, there is a second configuration which is energetically favorable. It is governed by polarized hybrid states of the Zns, O p, and Sc d orbitals. Such highly delocalized states can be an important ingredient for understanding the magnetism of dopedZnOthin films.

  4. Smooth muscles and stem cells of embryonic guts express KIT, PDGFRRA, CD34 and many other stem cell antigens: suggestion that GIST arise from smooth muscles and gut stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is believed to original from interstitial cells of (ICC) present in Auerbach's nerve plexus. GIST frequently shows gain-of-function mutations of KIT and PDGFRA. In practical pathology, GIST is diagnosed by positive immunostaining or KIT and/or CD34. The author herein demonstrates that human embryonic gastrointestinal tract smooth muscles (HEGITSM) and human embryonic stem gastrointestinal cells (HEGISC) consistently express KIT, CD34, NCAM, PDGFRA and other stem cell (SC) antigens NSE, synaptophysin, chromogranin, bcl-2, ErbB, and MET throughout the embryonic development of 7-40 gestational week (GW). CK14 was negative. The author examines 42 cases (7-40 GW) of embryonic GI tract (EGI). The HEGISM, HEGIST, and gall bladder smooth muscles (SM) were consistently positive for KIT, CD34, NCAM, PDGFRA, synaptophysin, chromogranin, NSE, bcl-2, ErbB2, and MET in foregut, stomach, GB, midgut, and hindgut throughout the fetal life (7-40 GW). The stem cells (SC) were seen to create the SM, nerves, ICC, and other all structures of GI tract. In adult gastrointestinal walls (n=30), KIT, CD34, PDGFRA, and S100 proteins were expressed in Auerbach's nerve plexus and ICC. The bronchial and vascular SM of embryos did not express these molecules. In GIST, frequent expressions of KIT (100%, 30/30), CD34 (90%, 27/30), and PDGFRA (83%, 25/30) were seen. In general, characteristics of tumors recapitulate their embryonic life. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that GIST may be originated from GI SM and/or GI SC in addition to ICC.

  5. SC&RA颁发最佳起重运输奖%SC&RA picks best jobs in rigging and hauling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

      美国特种搬运和吊装协会(SC&RA)2007年4月10日至14日在圣安东尼奥Westin La Contera Resort饭店召开的年会上,评出了本年度的"最佳起重运输作业奖".这一奖项的出台再一次奖将人们的目光集中到美国最大和最佳的起重运输作业项目上.……

  6. Summary of the Space Charge Workshop 2013 (SC-13)

    CERN Document Server

    Franchetti, G

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the disucssions and conclusions from the "Space Charge 2013" (SC-13) workshop at CERN, 16-19 April 2013. SC-13 was jointly organized by EUCARD, ACCNET, ICFA, HIC4FAIR and LIU. Strong activities on space-charge related topics are ongoing at CERN (LIU), GSI (FAIR), and RAL (ISIS upgrade). Several studies include experimental work. The issue of code benchmarking is important with regard to long-term tracking. In particular, the noise created by PIC codes evoked intense discussions. Interesting from a theoretical stand point has been a discussion about equating PIC noise with intrabeam-scattering. A decision has been taken to use the GSI test suite for benchmarking of frozen space charge models also for the benchmarking of PIC codes. Firm plans have been made to benchmark Synergia and Orbit, plus perhaps also IMPACT and WARP. Other discussion focused on the role of GPU for high intensity beam dynamics. Corresponding efforts were reported from GSI, RAL, and FNAL. The final consensus is that ...

  7. V-ATPase, ScNhxlp and Yeast Vacuole Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan-Sheng Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Membrane fusion is the last step in trafficking pathways during which membrane vesicles fuse with target organelles to deliver cargos.It is a central cellular reaction that plays important roles in signal transduction,protein sorting and subcellular compartmentation.Recent progress in understanding the roles of ion transporters in vacuole fusion in yeast is summanzed in this article.It is becoming increasingly evident that the vacuolar proton pump V-ATPase and vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter ScNhxlp are key components of the vacuole fusion machinery in yeast.Yeast ScNhxlp regulates vacuole fusion by controlling the luminal pH.V-ATPases serve a dual role in vacuolar integrity in which they regulate both vacuole fusion and fission reactions in yeast.Fission defects are epistatic to fusion defects.Vacuole fission depends on the proton translocation activity of the V-ATPase; by contrast,the fusion reaction does not need the transport activity but requires the physical presence of the proton pump.Vo,the membrane-integral sector of the V-ATPase,forms trans-complexes between the opposing vacuoles in the terminal phase of vacuole fusion where the Vo trans-complexes build a continuous proteolipid channel at the fusion site to mediate the bilayer fusion.

  8. The first SC-SAGD pilot in the Grosmont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, S.C.; Barrett, K.; Riva, D.; Becker, L.; Brindle, G. [Laricina Energy Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In north-eastern Alberta, the Grosmont Formation is an Upper Devonian carbonate succession containing a vast amount of bitumen. In an attempt to exploit this resource, Laricina Energy Ltd. and OSUM Oil Sands Corp. built the first ever solvent-cyclic steam-assisted gravity drainage (SC-SAGD) pilot. In this process, solvent and/or steam are continuously injected at reservoir pressure to heat the reservoir and thus reduce bitumen viscosity. The aim of this paper is to present the pilot project and its initial results. The reservoir's geology, the recovery process, the drilling and completion challenges as well as the design and the operational plan are discussed in this paper. Steam injection started in December 2010 and indications show that the wells are progressing as planned. Results showed an uptime greater than 90% so far and this is expected to further improve in the future. The first SC-SAGD pilot is discussed and early phases showed excellent results from the project.

  9. FGL-functionalized self-assembling nanofiber hydrogel as a scaffold for spinal cord-derived neural stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng, Jin [Department of Neurology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng, Qixin, E-mail: zheng-qx@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Wu, Yongchao; Wu, Bin; Huang, Shuai; Fang, Weizhi; Guo, Xiaodong [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2015-01-01

    A class of designed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds has been shown to be a good biomimetic material in tissue engineering. Here, we specifically made a new peptide hydrogel scaffold FGLmx by mixing the pure RADA{sub 16} and designer functional peptide RADA{sub 16}-FGL solution, and we analyzed the physiochemical properties of each peptide with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and circular dichroism (CD). In addition, we examined the biocompatibility and bioactivity of FGLmx as well as RADA{sub 16} scaffold on spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (SC-NSCs) isolated from neonatal rats. Our results showed that RADA{sub 16}-FGL displayed a weaker β-sheet structure and FGLmx could self-assemble into nanofibrous morphology. Moreover, we found that FGLmx was not only noncytotoxic to SC-NSCs but also promoted SC-NSC proliferation and migration into the three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold, meanwhile, the adhesion and lineage differentiation of SC-NSCs on FGLmx were similar to that on RADA{sub 16}. Our results indicated that the FGL-functionalized peptide scaffold might be very beneficial for tissue engineering and suggested its further application for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. - Highlights: • RADA{sub 16} and RADA{sub 16}-FGL peptides were synthesized and characterized. • Rat spinal cord neural stem cells were successfully isolated and characterized. • We provided an induction method for mixed differentiation of neural stem cells. • FGL scaffold had good biocompatibility and bioactivity with neural stem cells.

  10. Limbal stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Merle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in limbal stem cell transplantation. In addition to harvesting stem cells from a cadaver or a live related donor, it is now possible to cultivate limbal stem cells in vitro and then transplant them onto the recipient bed. A clear understanding of the basic disease pathology and a correct assessment of the extent of stem cell deficiency are essential. A holistic approach towards management of limbal stem cell deficiency is needed. This also includes management of the underlying systemic disease, ocular adnexal pathology and dry eye. Conjunctival limbal autografts from the healthy contralateral eye are performed for unilateral cases. In bilateral cases, tissue may be harvested from a cadaver or a living related donor; prolonged immunosuppression is needed to avoid allograft rejection in such cases. This review describes the surgical techniques, postoperative treatment regimes (including immunosuppression for allografts, the complications and their management. The short and long-term outcomes of the various modalities reported in the literature are also described.

  11. Advancing Stem Cell Biology toward Stem Cell Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Scadden, David; Srivastava, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Here, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) Clinical Translation Committee introduces a series of articles outlining the current status, opportunities, and challenges surrounding the clinical translation of stem cell therapeutics for specific medical conditions.

  12. SOX9: a stem cell transcriptional regulator of secreted niche signaling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaja, Meelis; Keyes, Brice E; Lin, Mingyan; Pasolli, H Amalia; Genander, Maria; Polak, Lisa; Stokes, Nicole; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-02-15

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cyclical periods of growth, which are fueled by stem cells (SCs) at the base of the resting follicle. HF-SC formation occurs during HF development and requires transcription factor SOX9. Whether and how SOX9 functions in HF-SC maintenance remain unknown. By conditionally targeting Sox9 in adult HF-SCs, we show that SOX9 is essential for maintaining them. SOX9-deficient HF-SCs still transition from quiescence to proliferation and launch the subsequent hair cycle. However, once activated, bulge HF-SCs begin to differentiate into epidermal cells, which naturally lack SOX9. In addition, as HF-SC numbers dwindle, outer root sheath production is not sustained, and HF downgrowth arrests prematurely. Probing the mechanism, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify SOX9-dependent transcriptional changes and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify SOX9-bound genes in HF-SCs. Intriguingly, a large cohort of SOX9-sensitive targets encode extracellular factors, most notably enhancers of Activin/pSMAD2 signaling. Moreover, compromising Activin signaling recapitulates SOX9-dependent defects, and Activin partially rescues them. Overall, our findings reveal roles for SOX9 in regulating adult HF-SC maintenance and suppressing epidermal differentiation in the niche. In addition, our studies expose a role for SCs in coordinating their own behavior in part through non-cell-autonomous signaling within the niche.

  13. SOX9: a stem cell transcriptional regulator of secreted niche signaling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaja, Meelis; Keyes, Brice E; Lin, Mingyan; Pasolli, H Amalia; Genander, Maria; Polak, Lisa; Stokes, Nicole; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-02-15

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cyclical periods of growth, which are fueled by stem cells (SCs) at the base of the resting follicle. HF-SC formation occurs during HF development and requires transcription factor SOX9. Whether and how SOX9 functions in HF-SC maintenance remain unknown. By conditionally targeting Sox9 in adult HF-SCs, we show that SOX9 is essential for maintaining them. SOX9-deficient HF-SCs still transition from quiescence to proliferation and launch the subsequent hair cycle. However, once activated, bulge HF-SCs begin to differentiate into epidermal cells, which naturally lack SOX9. In addition, as HF-SC numbers dwindle, outer root sheath production is not sustained, and HF downgrowth arrests prematurely. Probing the mechanism, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify SOX9-dependent transcriptional changes and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify SOX9-bound genes in HF-SCs. Intriguingly, a large cohort of SOX9-sensitive targets encode extracellular factors, most notably enhancers of Activin/pSMAD2 signaling. Moreover, compromising Activin signaling recapitulates SOX9-dependent defects, and Activin partially rescues them. Overall, our findings reveal roles for SOX9 in regulating adult HF-SC maintenance and suppressing epidermal differentiation in the niche. In addition, our studies expose a role for SCs in coordinating their own behavior in part through non-cell-autonomous signaling within the niche. PMID:24532713

  14. scFv噬菌体库分离特异性的人源化抗D-dimer抗体%Isolation of specific humanized anti-D-dimer scFv fragments from scFv phage libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏红利; 谭最; 陈德杰; 乔建国; 邱仁峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 从scFv(单链Fv)噬菌体抗体库分离出对D-dimer有特异性的人源化单克隆scFv.方法 对Tomlinson scFv噬菌体文库进行3轮淘洗,富集特异性的抗D-dimer抗体并进行ELISA 验证.通过酶联免疫检测和双脱氧终止法基因测序,获取特异性的人源化单克隆抗体.结果 3轮淘洗选择出38个抗D-dimer噬菌体抗体,酶联免疫和基因测序分析后,20个不同的全长单克隆抗D-dimer scFv噬菌体抗体被筛选出来,3轮选择后阳性克隆获取率为100%;分泌性抗体ELISA结果显示单克隆anti-D-dimer噬菌体顺利表达了抗体蛋白;5个A450值较高的单克隆中,3个显示了对D-dimer的高特异性和亲和力.结论 抗体噬菌体展示技术是分离获取人源化特异性anti-D-dimer抗体的高效快速方法.%Objective To isolate specific humanized anti-D-dimer scFv(single chain Fv) antibody from scFv phage libraries. Methods Isolate anti-D-dimer positive clones from Tomlinson I + J phage libraries by three rounds of panuing, then sequence monoclonal genes by bideoxy-mediated chain termination and express soluble scFv antibody; Pick out anti-D-dimer antibodies with high specificity and affinity by ELISA.Results After three rounds of selection from human scFv phage libraries Tomlinson I and J, 38 monclonal specific anti-D-dimer scFv fragments were selected. By polyclonal and monoclonal phage ELISA and gene sequencing, 20 different full-length monoclonal scFv phages were identified, the result of soluble scFv ELISA showed that 20 full-length monoclonal scFv were expressed smoothly. According to the result of soluble scFv ELISA, in 5 scFv antibodies with high value of A450 selected, 3 scFv antibody fragments showed high specific and affinity. Conclusion Antibody phage display was an effective, rapid method to isolate anti-D-dimer antibodies with high specificity and affinity.

  15. Stem Properties of Autobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Berdichevskyy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the stem properties of the autobacteria as part of the activation syndrome and persistence of the endogenous microflora in the adaptation process of the macroorganism to stress, as well as the ability of the bacteria to stimulate the cells of the macroorganism to manifest stem properties. The essence of this syndrome involves testing the tissue with the autobacteria of their "host" body to identify the foci of cellular insolvency with the subsequent inclusion of the autostrains in the implementation phase of the catabolic and anabolic inflammations. Considering the genetic tropism of the microbes to the organ-specific tissue of the area affected, the existence of the stem properties of the autobacteria is assumed to be realized in the process of reparative regeneration. The great clinical significance of further study of this phenomenon is not excluded.

  16. Escargot Restricts Niche Cell to Stem Cell Conversion in the Drosophila Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Voog

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells reside within specialized microenvironments, or niches, that control many aspects of stem cell behavior. Somatic hub cells in the Drosophila testis regulate the behavior of cyst stem cells (CySCs and germline stem cells (GSCs and are a primary component of the testis stem cell niche. The shutoff (shof mutation, characterized by premature loss of GSCs and CySCs, was mapped to a locus encoding the evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Escargot (Esg. Hub cells depleted of Esg acquire CySC characteristics and differentiate as cyst cells, resulting in complete loss of hub cells and eventually CySCs and GSCs, similar to the shof mutant phenotype. We identified Esg-interacting proteins and demonstrate an interaction between Esg and the corepressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP, which was also required for maintenance of hub cell fate. Our results indicate that niche cells can acquire stem cell properties upon removal of a single transcription factor in vivo.

  17. Expression and bioactivity identification of soluble MG7 scFv

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Cai Yu; Jie Ding; Bo-Rong Pan; Dai-Ming Fan; Xue-Yong Zhang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To examine the molecular mass and identify thebioactivity of MG7 scFv for its application as a targetingmediator in gene therapy of gastric cancer.METHODS: Two strongly positive recombinant phage clonesscreened from MG7 recombinant phage antibody library wereseparately transfected into E. coli TG1. Plasmid wasisolated from the transfected E. coli TG1 and digested byEcoR Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ to examine the length of exogenousscFv gene. Then, the positive recombinant phage cloneswere individually transfected into E. coli HB2151. Thetransfectant was cultured and induced by IPTG. Perplasmicextracts was prepared from the induced transfectant byosmotic shock. ELISA was used to examine the antigen-binding affinity of the soluble MG7 scFv. Immunodottingassay was adopted to evaluate the yield of soluble MG7 scFvproduced by transfected E. coli HB2151. Western blot wasused to examine the molecular mass of MG7 scFv. Finally,the nucleotide sequence of MG7 scFv was examined by DNAsequencing.RESULTS: Two positive recombinant phage clones werefound to contain the exogenous scFv gene. ELISA showedthat MG7 scFv had strong antigen-binding affinity.Immuodotting assay showed that transfected E. coli HB2151could successfully produce the soluble MG7 scFv with highyield via induction by IPTG. The molecular mass of MG7scFv was 30 kDa by western blot. DNA sequencingdemonstrated that the VH and VL genes of MG7 scFv were363bp and 321 bp, respectively.CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed the solubleMG7 scFv which possessed strong antigen-binding affinity.

  18. Effect of interfacial solute segregation on ductile fracture of Al–Cu–Sc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional atom probe analysis is employed to characterize the Sc segregation at θ′/α-Al interfaces in Al–2.5 wt.% Cu–0.3 wt.% Sc alloys aged at 473, 523 and 573 K, respectively. The interfacial Sc concentration is quantitatively evaluated and the change in interfacial energy caused by Sc segregation is assessed, which is in turn correlated to yield strength and ductility of the alloys. The strongest interfacial Sc segregation is generated in the 523 K-aged alloy, resulting in an interfacial Sc concentration about 10 times greater than that in the matrix and a reduction of ∼25% in interfacial energy. Experimental results show that the interfacial Sc segregation promotes θ′ precipitation and enhances the strengthening response. A scaling relationship between the interfacial energy and precipitation strengthening increment is proposed to account for the most notable strengthening effect observed in the 523 K-aged alloy, which is ∼2.5 times that in its Sc-free counterpart and ∼1.5 times that in the 473 and 573 K-aged Al–Cu–Sc alloys. The interfacial Sc segregation, however, causes a sharp drop in the ductility when the precipitate radius is larger than ∼200 nm in the 523 K-aged alloy, indicative of a transition in fracture mechanisms. The underlying fracture mechanism for the low ductility regime, revealed by in situ transmission electron microscopy tensile testing, is that interfacial decohesion occurs at the θ′ precipitates ahead of crack tip and favorably aids the crack propagation. A micromechanical model is developed to rationalize the precipitate size-dependent transition in fracture mechanisms by taking into account the competition between interfacial voiding and matrix Al rupture that is tailored by interfacial Sc segregation

  19. The Stem Cell Conundrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the beginning of this year, Kelly Reynolds,a US-national diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), became the one of the latest overseas patient to undergo stem cell treatment at the Nanshan Hospital in Shenzhen.Confined to a wheelchair and with limited use of his hands,the 39-year old received four fetal stem cell injections over a three-week period. So far,the results have been positive and Reynolds, acording to his personal blog page, is upbeat about the long-term benefits.

  20. Limbal Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kringlegarden, Hilde Grane

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted today that stem cells in the adult corneal epithelium is located to the limbus. No specific marker of limbal epithelial cells (LESCs) has been identified, yet many have been suggested, including ΔNp63α, ABCG2, vimentin and notch 1. Negative markers include amongst others the differentiation markers Ck3 and Ck12. The lack of an identified specific marker elucidates the need for establishment of more exact molecular markers of LESCs. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) may ...

  1. Stem cell therapy for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K O Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy holds immense promise for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Research on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into islet cells has defined the developmental stages and transcription factors involved in this process. However, the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells are limited by ethical concerns, as well as the potential for teratoma formation. As a consequence, alternative forms of stem cell therapies, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, have become an area of intense study. Recent advances in stem cell therapy may turn this into a realistic treatment for diabetes in the near future.

  2. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000839.htm Bone marrow (stem cell) donation To use the sharing ... stem cells from a donor's blood. Types of Bone Marrow Donation There are two types of bone ...

  3. Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “ni...

  4. Stem cell therapy independent of stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Techung

    2012-12-26

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is entering a new era shifting the focus from initial feasibility study to optimization of therapeutic efficacy. However, how MSC therapy facilitates tissue regeneration remains incompletely characterized. Consistent with the emerging notion that secretion of multiple growth factors/cytokines (trophic factors) by MSC provides the underlying tissue regenerative mechanism, the recent study by Bai et al demonstrated a critical therapeutic role of MSC-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in two animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is a progressive autoimmune disorder caused by damage to the myelin sheath and loss of oligodendrocytes. Although current MS therapies are directed toward attenuation of the immune response, robust repair of myelin sheath likely requires a regenerative approach focusing on long-term replacement of the lost oligodendrocytes. This approach appears feasible because adult organs contain various populations of multipotent resident stem/progenitor cells that may be activated by MSC trophic factors as demonstrated by Bai et al This commentary highlights and discusses the major findings of their studies, emphasizing the anti-inflammatory function and trophic cross-talk mechanisms mediated by HGF and other MSC-derived trophic factors in sustaining the treatment benefits. Identification of multiple functionally synergistic trophic factors, such as HGF and vascular endothelial growth factor, can eventually lead to the development of efficacious cell-free therapeutic regimens targeting a broad spectrum of degenerative conditions. PMID:23516128

  5. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of La3ScBi5%La3ScBi5的合成与晶体结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘大春; 孙忠明; 雷晓武; 毛江高

    2006-01-01

    在氩气保护下,将金属单质置于钽管中进行高温固相反应得到了一个新的三元极性金属间化合物,La3ScBi5.通过X-射线单晶衍射确定了它的晶体结构.La3ScBi5晶体属六方晶系,空间群为P63/mcm(No.193),晶胞参数为:a=b=0.97573(5)nm,c=0.65592(6)nm,V=0.54341(9)nm3,Z=2.La3ScBi5属反式Hf5Sn3Cu结构类型,其结构特征为Bi的一维直线链和由ScBi6八面体之间通过共面形成的{ScBi3}链.能带计算表明La3ScBi5呈金属导电性.%The new ternary phase, La3ScBi5 was obtained by the high temperature solid-state reactions of the pure metal elements in welded Ta tubes under argon atmosphere. Its structure was established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The title compound crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P63/mcm (No.193) with cell parameters of a=b=0.975 73(5) nm, c=0.655 92(6) nm, V=0.543 41(9) nm3, and Z=2. The structure of La3ScBi5 belongs to the "anti" Hf5Sn3Cu type, and features 1D linear Bi chains and {ScBi3} chains composed of face-sharing ScBi6 octahedra. Band calculations indicate that La3ScBi5 is metallic. CSD: 416609.

  6. Stem cell therapy for diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K. O.; Gan, S U; Calne, R Y

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell therapy holds immense promise for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Research on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into islet cells has defined the developmental stages and transcription factors involved in this process. However, the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells are limited by ethical concerns, as well as the potential for teratoma formation. As a consequence, alternative forms of stem cell therapies, such as induced plu...

  7. Introduction to Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Biehl, Jesse K.; Russell, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into specific cell types. The two defining characteristics of a stem cell are perpetual self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into a specialized adult cell type. There are two major classes of stem cells: pluripotent that can become any cell in the adult body, and multipotent that are restricted to becoming a more limited population of cells. Cell sources, characteristics, differentiation and therapeutic applications are discussed. Stem cel...

  8. The new stem cell biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Quesenberry, Peter J.; Colvin, Gerald A; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Frimberger, Angela E.; Dooner, Mark S.; Mcauliffe, Christina I.; Miller, Caroline; Becker, Pamela; Badiavas, Evangelis; Falanga, Vincent J.; Elfenbein, Gerald; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stem cells are capable of generating muscle, cardiac, hepatic, renal, and bone cells. Purified hematopoietic stem cells have generated cardiac and hepatic cells and reversed disease manifestations in these tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells also alter phenotype with cell cycle transit or circadian phase. During a cytokine stimulated cell cycle transit, reversible alterations of differentiation and engraftment occur. Primitive hematopoietic stem ce...

  9. Stem cell research in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Lianming; Li, Lingsong; Zhao, Robert Chunhua

    2007-01-01

    In the past 5 years, China has increased its efforts in the field of stem cell research and practice. Basic research mainly focuses on bone marrow and embryonic stem cells. Clinical applications of stem cells in the treatment of acute heart failure, acute liver failure and lower limb ischaemia have been reported by many hospitals. China enacted its ‘Ethical Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research’ in 2003. At present, China has the most liberal and favourable environments for human ...

  10. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or meristems stay active throughout plant-life. Specification of stem cells occurs very early during development of the emrbyo and they are maintained during later stages. The Arabidopsis embryo is a hig...

  11. Laser biomodulation on stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

    2001-08-01

    Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

  12. Stem cells and genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we have discussed a role of stem cells in the treatment of genetic diseases including cochlear and retinal regeneration. The most perceptive use of stem cells at the genetic diseases is cellular repair of tissues affected by a genetic mutation when stem cells without such mutation are transplanted to restore normal tissue function.

  13. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or mer

  14. Stem Cell Transplants (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Parents > Stem Cell Transplants Print A A A Text Size What's ... Recovery Coping en español Trasplantes de células madre Stem cells are cells in the body that have the ...

  15. Crystal structures of the ScCuSe{sub 2} and Sc{sub 3}CuSn{sub 3}Se{sub 11} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulay, L.D. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Volyn State University, Voli Ave 13, 43009 Lutsk (Ukraine)]. E-mail: gulay@lab.univer.lutsk.ua; Shemet, V.Ya. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Volyn State University, Voli Ave 13, 43009 Lutsk (Ukraine); Olekseyuk, I.D. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Volyn State University, Voli Ave 13, 43009 Lutsk (Ukraine)

    2005-05-03

    The crystal structure of the ScCuSe{sub 2} compound was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (space group P2, a=0.67108(5)nm, b=0.38949(3)nm, c=1.27879(6)nm, {beta}=90.281(6){sup o}, Pearson symbol mP16.08, R{sub I}=0.0839). The structure of ScCuSe{sub 2} represents a distinctive 3axax2c superstructure of Er{sub 2/3}Cu{sub 2}S{sub 2}. The Se atoms are stacked in a close-packed arrangement with layers in the sequence AB. The Sc atoms occupy half of the octahedral sites, the Cu atoms are located in 3/8 of the tetrahedral sites. The crystal structure of the Sc{sub 3}CuSn{sub 3}Se{sub 11} compound (space group Fd3m, a=1.08827(4)nm, Pearson symbol cF52.48, R{sub I}=0.0386) was also determined by means of X-ray powder diffraction. The Se atoms are stacked in a close-packed arrangement with layers in the sequence ABC. The Sc atoms and a statistical mixture M (Sc+Sn) are located in all octahedral sites, the Cu atoms in 1/8 of the tetrahedral sites.

  16. NiO-ScSZ and Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ-based anodes under internal dry reforming of simulated biogas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Y.; Sasaki, K.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with NiO-ScSZ and Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ-based anodes were operated by directly feeding a fuel mixture of CH 4, CO 2 and N 2 (CH 4 to CO 2 ratio of 3:2). Stable operation under constant current load (200 mA cm -2) was achieved with a NiO-ScSZ type anode during 200 h operating hours at 900 °C. Less stable operation occurred with a Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ type anode. In the case of SOFC with Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ as the anode, the methane reforming activity was higher than that with NiO-ScSZ. This was explained by change in the microstructure promoting reforming reactions. However, the addition of MgO resulted in degradation of electrochemical performance due to increase in ohmic resistance of the anode material during operation.

  17. NMR study of the AF-SC-SC-AF phased transition in a pnictide superconductor LaFeAsO1-xHx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Naoki; Sakurai, Ryosuke; Iimura, Soushi; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    We have performed 75As and 1H NMR measurements in LaFeAsO1xHx, an isomorphic compound of LaFeAsO1xFx. LaFeAsO1xHx is an electron doped system, and O2- can be replaced with H- up to x = 0.5. LaFeAsO1xHx is known for having double superconducting (SC) domes on H doping. Recently, we discovered that a new antiferromagnetic (AF) phase follows the double SC domes on further H doping, forming a symmetric AF-SC-SC-AF phase alignment in the electronic phase diagram Unlike the AF ordering in the lightly H-doped regime, the AF ordering in the highly H-doped regime is attributed to the nesting between electron pockets. In the conference, we will show the data of both NMR spectra and the relaxation rate 1/T1 in the whole doping region. We will discuss the difference of electronic states between the lightly H-doped AF-SC phases and highly H-doped SC-AF phases. This work is supported by a Grant-in-Aid (Grant No. KAKENHI 23340101) from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Japan.

  18. SC-535, a Novel Oral Multikinase Inhibitor, Showed Potent Antitumor Activity in Human Melanoma Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melanoma is considered as one of the most aggressive and deadliest cancers and current targeted therapies of melanoma often suffer limited efficacy or drug resistance. Discovery of novel multikinase inhibitors as anti-melanoma drug candidates is still needed. Methods: In this investigation, we assessed the in vitro and in vivo anti-melanoma activities of SC-535, which is a novel small molecule multikinase inhibitor discovered by us recently. We analyzed inhibitory effects of SC-535 on various melanoma cell lines and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC in vitro. Tumor xenografts in athymic mice were used to examine the in vivo activity of SC-535. Results: SC-535 could efficiently inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 1/2/3, B-RAF, and C-RAF kinases. It showed significant antiangiogenic potencies both in vitro and in vivo and considerable anti-proliferative ability against several melanoma cell lines. Oral administration of SC-535 resulted in dose-dependent suppression of tumor growth in WM2664 and C32 xenograft mouse models. Studies of mechanisms of action indicated that SC-535 suppressed the tumor angiogenesis and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in human melanoma cells. SC-535 possesses favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Conclusion: All of these results support SC-535 as a potential candidate for clinical studies in patients with melanoma.

  19. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. 165.708 Section 165.708 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. (a... Cooper River. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 1983. (2) All waters within 100 yards of...

  20. Structural and electronic studies of metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs-C72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Wang, Taishan; Wu, Jingyi; Feng, Lai; Xiang, Junfeng; Ma, Yihan; Zhang, Zhuxia; Jiang, Li; Shu, Chunying; Wang, Chunru

    2013-07-01

    We present a metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72, whose structure has been baffling for many years. A motional endohedral Sc2C2 cluster, special molecule geometry and electronic structure were found in Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72. The paramagnetic Sc2C2@Cs-C72 anion radical was successfully prepared by a chemical reduction method and hyperfine couplings in the ESR spectrum were observed.We present a metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72, whose structure has been baffling for many years. A motional endohedral Sc2C2 cluster, special molecule geometry and electronic structure were found in Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72. The paramagnetic Sc2C2@Cs-C72 anion radical was successfully prepared by a chemical reduction method and hyperfine couplings in the ESR spectrum were observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, HPLC chromatogram, and DFT calculations. CCDC 917712. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01739g

  1. Implementation of LTE SC-FDMA on the USRP2 Software Defined Radio Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn; Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the implementation of a Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) transceiver running over the Universal Software Radio Peripheral 2 (USRP2). SC-FDMA is the air interface which has been selected for the uplink in the latest Long Term Evolution (LTE...

  2. Renormalized molecular levels in a Sc3N@C-80 molecular electronic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larade, Brian; Taylor, Jeremy Philip; Zheng, Q. R.;

    2001-01-01

    We address several general questions about quantum transport through molecular systems by an ab initio analysis of a scandium-nitrogen doped C-80 metallofullerene device. Charge transfer from the Sc3N is found to drastically change the current-voltage characteristics: the current through the Sc3N...

  3. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  4. 77 FR 74472 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Energia Renovable S.C., LLC (Energia... 402(f) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7151(b), 7172(f)) and...

  5. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan Christian

    The following pages contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short master projects as well as regular 3rd...... semester projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering. Each project description provides a brief overview of the purpose as well as the main activities. Further, a weighting between theoretical analysis, experimental work and computer modelling has been proposed. Usually...... page. Furthermore, other ideas for projects may be discussed with a potential supervisor. Many private engineering companies have a homepage on which they state that they would like to collaborate with students on a master project....

  6. INTERVIU CU DOAMNA SIMONA CAROBENE, ADMINISTRATORUL SC PROIECT MOZAIC SRL

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Pascaru

    2013-01-01

    Fabrica de mozaic, înregistrată la Oficiul Registrului Comerţului în aprilie 2012 a luat fiinţă în cadrul unui proiect cu finanţare europeană nerambursabilă și are în prezent statutul de unitate protejată autorizată. În cadrul acesteia sunt angajați 10 tineri post instituţionalizați, pentru care integrarea în viaţa socială şi profesională este dificilă. Întreprinderea socială SC Proiect Mozaic SRL este rezultatul întâlnirii dintre sectorul social, non-profit şi sectorul business, deoarece are...

  7. Mises en scène du racisme italien

    OpenAIRE

    Gallini, Clara

    2007-01-01

    Traduit de l'italien par Giordana Charuty « Chers Italiens vous êtes racistes » Ainsi titre, le 17 mai 1988, Il Corriere della Sera, un des quotidiens italiens au plus fort tirage. Des titres analogues figurent sur les autres journaux. C'est la première fois que le mot racisme apparaît en première page et que les médias braquent leurs projecteurs sur ce phénomène. A partir de ce moment-là, on va assister, en Italie, à une mise en scène inédite d'actes racistes dont la violence se charge de s...

  8. DC-SC Photoinjector with Low Emittance at Peking University

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang Rong; Hao, J; Huang, Senlin; Lu Xiang Yang; Quan, Shengwen; Zhang, Baocheng; Zhao, Kui

    2005-01-01

    High average power Free Electron Lasers require the high quality electron beams with the low emittance and the sub-picosecond bunches. The design of DC-SC photoinjector, directly combining a DC photoinjector with an SRF cavity, can produce high average current beam with moderate bunch charge and high duty factor. Because of the DC gun, the emittance increases quickly at the beginning, so a carefully design is needed to control that. In this paper, the simulation of an upgraded design has been done to lower the normalized emittance below 1.5mm·mrad. The photoinjector consists of a DC gap and a 2+1/2-cell SRF cavity, and it is designed to produce 4.2 MeV electron beams at 100pC bunch charge and 81.25MHz repetition rate (8 mA average current).

  9. Stem cell heterogeneity revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne S; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    The skin forms a protective, water-impermeable barrier consisting of heavily crosslinked epithelial cells. However, the specific role of stem cells in sustaining this barrier remains a contentious issue. A detailed analysis of the interfollicular epidermis now proposes a model for how a composite...... of cells with different properties are involved in its maintenance....

  10. STEM Sense and Nonsense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charette, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    If you can believe the daily flood of mass media stories, journal articles, and white papers, the United States is facing a STEM worker crisis. Business leaders and politicians warn that the nation is falling hopelessly behind in the global economic race because our students are unprepared for and uninterested in science, technology, engineering,…

  11. Patterning Stem Cell Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of cell differentiation and assembly remains a fundamental question in developmental biology. Now, a report from the Chen laboratory (Ruiz and Chen, 2008) describes an approach that represents a major step toward a more profound understanding of the geometric-force control of stem cell differentiation.

  12. Urothelial Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Dimov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence supporting the idea that tumors, similar to normal adult tissues, arise from a specific stem-like cell population, the cancer stem cells (CSCs, which are considered as the real driving force behind tumor growth, the ability to metastasize, as well as resistance to conventional antitumor therapy. The concept that cancer growth recapitulates normal proliferative and/or regenerative processes, even though in very dysfunctional ways, has tremendous implications for cancer therapy. The rapid development of the CSC field, shoulder to shoulder with powerful genome-wide screening techniques, has provided cause for optimism for the development of more reliable therapies in the future. However, several important issues still lie ahead. Recent identification of a highly tumorigenic stem-like compartment and existence of urothelial differentiation programs in urothelial cell carcinomas (UCCs raised important questions about UCC initiation and development. This review examines the present knowledge on CSCs in UCCs regarding the similarities between CSCs and the adult urothelial stem cells, potential origin of urothelial CSCs, main regulatory pathways, surface markers expression, and the current state of CSC-targeting therapeutic strategies.

  13. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  14. Using laser to measure stem thickness and cut weed stems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Andreasen, C.;

    2002-01-01

    Stem thickness of the weed Solanum nigrum and the crop sugarbeet was determined with a He-Ne laser using a novel non-destructive technique measuring stem shadow. Thereafter, the stems were cut close to the soil surface with a CO2 laser. Treatments were carried out on pot plants, grown...... in the greenhouse, at two different growth stages, and plant dry matter was measured 2-5 weeks after treatment. The relationship between plant dry weight and laser energy was analysed using two different non-linear dose-response regression models; one model included stem thickness as a variable, the other did not....... A binary model was also tested. The non-linear model incorporating stem thickness described the data best, indicating that it would be possible to optimize laser cutting by measuring stem thickness before cutting. The general tendency was that more energy was needed the thicker the stem. Energy uses...

  15. AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with enhanced microfluidic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. B.; Fu, Y. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xuan, W. P.; Chen, J. K.; Wang, X. Z.; Mayrhofer, P.; Duan, P. F.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Luo, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the characterization of scandium aluminum nitride (Al1-x Sc x N, x  =  27%) films and discusses surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on them. Both AlScN and AlN films were deposited on silicon by sputtering and possessed columnar microstructures with (0 0 0 2) crystal orientation. The AlScN/Si SAW devices showed improved electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2, ~2%) compared with pure AlN films (hardness of the AlN film decreased significantly when Sc was doped, and this was responsible for the decreased acoustic velocity and resonant frequency, and the increased temperature coefficient of frequency, of the AlScN SAW devices.

  16. Sc(2)MgGa(2) and Y(2)MgGa(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Martin; Andersson, Yvonne

    2009-03-01

    Scandium magnesium gallide, Sc(2)MgGa(2), and yttrium magnesium gallide, Y(2)MgGa(2), were synthesized from the corresponding elements by heating under an argon atmosphere in an induction furnace. These intermetallic compounds crystallize in the tetragonal Mo(2)FeB(2)-type structure. All three crystallographically unique atoms occupy special positions and the site symmetries of (Sc/Y, Ga) and Mg are m2m and 4/m, respectively. The coordinations around Sc/Y, Mg and Ga are pentagonal (Sc/Y), tetragonal (Mg) and triangular (Ga) prisms, with four (Mg) or three (Ga) additional capping atoms leading to the coordination numbers [10], [8+4] and [6+3], respectively. The crystal structure of Sc(2)MgGa(2 )was determined from single-crystal diffraction intensities and the isostructural Y(2)MgGa(2) was identified from powder diffraction data. PMID:19265212

  17. Effect of Sc addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of 1460 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of minor addition of Sc on microstructure, age hardening behavior, tensile properties and fracture morphology of 1460 alloy have been studied. It is found that Sc content increase from 0.11 wt% to 0.22 wt% is favorable for grain refinement in as-cast alloy but results in a coarsening of Cu-rich particles. The alloy with 0.11 wt% Sc exhibits enhanced mechanical properties and age hardening effect. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM investigations on the alloy with 0.11 wt% Sc have suggested that a large amount of Al3(Sc, Zr particles precipitated at the earlier aging may inhibit recrystallization effectively.

  18. Nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions in 44,45Sc

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, A C; Chankova, R; Lönnroth, T; Messelt, S; Ingebretsen, F; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S; Syed, N U H; Voinov, A

    2007-01-01

    The scandium isotopes 44,45Sc have been studied with the 45Sc(3He,alpha gamma)44Sc and 45Sc(3He,3He' gamma)45Sc reactions, respectively. The nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions have been extracted using the Oslo method. The experimental level densities are compared to calculated level densities obtained from a microscopic model based on BCS quasiparticles within the Nilsson level scheme. This model also gives information about the parity distribution and the number of broken Cooper pairs as a function of excitation energy. The experimental gamma-ray strength functions are compared to theoretical models of the E1, M1, and E2 strength, and to data from (gamma,n) and (gamma,p) experiments. The strength functions show an enhancement at low gamma energies that cannot be explained by the present, standard models.

  19. Homogenization and Recrystallization of Al-6Mg Alloys with and without Sc and Zr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锋; 尹志民; 黄伯云; 贺跃辉; 陈苏里

    2004-01-01

    Plates of Al-6Mg alloys with and without scandium were prepared by semi-continuous cast, homogenization, hot-rolled, cold-rolled and annealing. Based on studying of effects of temperature and time on hardness and conductivity during homogenization, it was found that homogenization of ingot with Sc and Zr can result in dispersion strengthening. Recrystallization temperature of alloys was studied by hardness method and optical metallographic method. Staring recrystallization temperature of Al-6Mg alloys with Sc and Zr is 375 ℃, increasing by 150 ℃ than Al-6Mg alloys without Sc and Zr. Mechanical properties (σb, σ0.2, δ) of hot-rolled alloy with Sc and Zr are 400 MPa, 280 MPa and 18%; cold-rolled and anneal alloy with Sc and Zr are 420 MPa, 310 MPa and 12% respectively.

  20. Association of interleukin-6 signalling with the muscle stem cell response following muscle-lengthening contractions in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryon R McKay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The regulation of muscle stem cells in humans in response to muscle injury remains largely undefined. Recently, interleukin-6 (IL-6 has been implicated in muscle stem cell (satellite cell-mediated muscle hypertrophy in animals; however, the role of IL-6 in the satellite cell (SC response following muscle-lengthening contractions in humans has not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight subjects (age 22+/-1 y; 79+/-8 kg performed 300 maximal unilateral lengthening contractions (3.14 rad.s(-1 of the knee extensors. Blood and muscle samples were collected before and at 4, 24, 72, and 120 hours post intervention. IL-6, IL-6 receptor, IL-6R(alpha, cyclin D1, suppressor of cytokine signling-3 (SOCS3 mRNA were measured using quantitative RT-PCR and serum IL-6 protein was measured using an ELISA kit. JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylated and total protein was measured using western blotting techniques. Immunohistochemical analysis of muscle cross-sections was performed for the quantification of SCs (Pax7(+ cells as well as the expression of phosphorylated STAT3, IL-6, IL-6R(alpha, and PCNA across all time-points. The SC response, as defined by an amplification of Pax7(+ cells, was rapid, increasing by 24 h and peaking 72 h following the intervention. Muscle IL-6 mRNA increased following the intervention, which correlated strongly (R(2 = 0.89, p<0.002 with an increase in serum IL-6 concentration. SC IL-6R(alpha protein was expressed on the fiber, but was also localized to the SC, and IL-6(+ SC increased rapidly following muscle-lengthening contractions and returned to basal levels by 72 h post-intervention, demonstrating an acute temporal expression of IL-6 with SC. Phosphorylated STAT3 was evident in SCs 4 h after lengthening contraction, and the downstream genes, cyclin D1 and SOCS3 were significantly elevated 24 hours after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The increased expression of STAT3 responsive genes and expression of

  1. Mammary-Stem-Cell-Based Somatic Mouse Models Reveal Breast Cancer Drivers Causing Cell Fate Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer genomics has provided an unprecedented opportunity for understanding genetic causes of human cancer. However, distinguishing which mutations are functionally relevant to cancer pathogenesis remains a major challenge. We describe here a mammary stem cell (MaSC organoid-based approach for rapid generation of somatic genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs. By using RNAi and CRISPR-mediated genome engineering in MaSC-GEMMs, we have discovered that inactivation of Ptpn22 or Mll3, two genes mutated in human breast cancer, greatly accelerated PI3K-driven mammary tumorigenesis. Using these tumor models, we have also identified genetic alterations promoting tumor metastasis and causing resistance to PI3K-targeted therapy. Both Ptpn22 and Mll3 inactivation resulted in disruption of mammary gland differentiation and an increase in stem cell activity. Mechanistically, Mll3 deletion enhanced stem cell activity through activation of the HIF pathway. Thus, our study has established a robust in vivo platform for functional cancer genomics and has discovered functional breast cancer mutations.

  2. Autonomous Extracellular Matrix Remodeling Controls a Progressive Adaptation in Muscle Stem Cell Regenerative Capacity during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Timothy Tierney

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Muscle stem cells (MuSCs exhibit distinct behavior during successive phases of developmental myogenesis. However, how their transition to adulthood is regulated is poorly understood. Here, we show that fetal MuSCs resist progenitor specification and exhibit altered division dynamics, intrinsic features that are progressively lost postnatally. After transplantation, fetal MuSCs expand more efficiently and contribute to muscle repair. Conversely, niche colonization efficiency increases in adulthood, indicating a balance between muscle growth and stem cell pool repopulation. Gene expression profiling identified several extracellular matrix (ECM molecules preferentially expressed in fetal MuSCs, including tenascin-C, fibronectin, and collagen VI. Loss-of-function experiments confirmed their essential and stage-specific role in regulating MuSC function. Finally, fetal-derived paracrine factors were able to enhance adult MuSC regenerative potential. Together, these findings demonstrate that MuSCs change the way in which they remodel their microenvironment to direct stem cell behavior and support the unique demands of muscle development or repair.

  3. [Construction and panning of scFv phage display library against recombinant interleukin 4 receptor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangyong; Guo, Haitao; Liu, Ximing; He, Guangzhi; Tian, Weiyi; Cai, Kun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Wenjia

    2016-06-01

    Objective To construct the recombinant human interleukin 4 receptor (rhIL-4R) single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody library by phage display technique to obtain the anti-IL-4R scFv clones selected from the library. Methods Total RNA was extracted from splenocytes of the BALB/c mice immunized with rhIL-4R. Complementary DNA fragments of variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL) chains of the antibodies were prepared by reverse transcription PCR and assembled into scFv by splice overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR). Both scFv and the pCANTAB5E vector were respectively double-digested with restriction endonuclease Sfi I and Not I, connected with T4 ligase, and then transformed into the competent cells E.coli TG1; it was cultured in medium to obtain the phage scFv antibody library; after three rounds of enrichment and panning, the specific antigen scFv with high affinity was selected for the sequencing. Results After three rounds of panning, we obtained a diversity of approximately 2×10(8) anti-rhIL-4R scFv antibody library. Sequencing analysis of one positive clone showed that the anti-rhIL-4R scFv was 741 bp and coded 247 amino acids. The analysis of VBASE2 database indicated that VH and VL gene sequences of anti-rhIL-4R protein all had three complementarity determining regions and four backbone areas.Conclusion The anti-rhIL-4R scFv was obtained from the scFv antibody library. PMID:27371853

  4. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium-Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes-Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the Ti(IV) /Ti(III) Redox Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B; Samoylova, Nataliya A; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L; Popov, Alexey A

    2016-09-01

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc-Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4 C2 @C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3 C2 @C80 , isomers of Sc2 C2 @C82 , and the family Sc2 C2 n (2 n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3 CH@C80 . The Sc-Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2 TiC@C2 n (2 n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2 TiC2 @C2 n (2 n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 , and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 , were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2 TiC- and Sc2 TiC2 -containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster-cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements. PMID:27459520

  5. Gravitropism in Leafy Dicot Stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    A polarizing research microscope with rotating stage and associated camera equipment were ordered, and techniques of fixation and preparation of specimens were perfected for studying possible changes in orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls of gravistimulated dicot stems. Acid ethephon solutions or acid without ethephon caused elongation of stem tissues where they were applied; stems bent away from the side of application. Acid solutions applied to the bottom of horizontal stems greatly delayed bending. Research in tissue sensitivity changes during gravitropic bending of soybean hypocotyls while immersed in auxin and in castor bean stems is also reported.

  6. Stem cells and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingbo

    2008-05-01

    Stem cells can differentiate into a variety of cells to replace dead cells or to repair damaged tissues. Recent evidence indicates that stem cells are involved in the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis, an alloimmune initiated vascular stenosis that often results in transplant organ failure. Although the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis is not yet fully understood, recent developments in stem cell research have suggested novel mechanisms of vascular remodeling in allografts. For example, stem cells derived from the recipient may repair damaged endothelial cells of arteries in transplant organs. Further evidence suggests that stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells may be released from both bone marrow and non-bone marrow tissues. Vascular stem cells appear to replenish cells that died in donor vessels. Concomitantly, stem/progenitor cells may also accumulate in the intima, where they differentiate into smooth muscle cells. However, several issues concerning the contribution of stem cells to the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis are controversial, eg, whether bone marrow-derived stem cells can differentiate into smooth muscle cells that form neointimal lesions of the vessel wall. This review summarizes recent research on the role of stem cells in transplant arteriosclerosis, discusses the mechanisms of stem cell homing and differentiation into mature endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and highlights the controversial issues in the field.

  7. Stem cell migration after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survival rate of irradiated rodents could be significantly improved by shielding only the small parts of hemopoietic tissues during the course of irradiation. The populations of circulating stem cells in adult organisms are considered to be of some importance for the homeostasis between the many sites of blood cell formation and for the necessary flexibility of hemopoietic response in the face of fluctuating demands. Pluripotent stem cells are migrating through peripheral blood as has been shown for several mammalian species. Under steady state conditions, the exchange of stem cells between the different sites of blood cell formation appears to be restricted. Their presence in blood and the fact that they are in balance with the extravascular stem cell pool may well be of significance for the surveilance of the integrity of local stem cell populations. Any decrease of stem cell population in blood below a critical size results in the rapid immigration of circulating stem cells in order to restore local stem cell pool size. Blood stem cells are involved in the regeneration after whole-body irradiation if the stem cell population in bone marrows is reduced to less than 10% of the normal state. In the animals subjected to partial-body irradiation, the circulating stem cells appear to be the only source for the repopulation of the heavily irradiated, aplastic sites of hemopoietic organs. (Yamashita, S.)

  8. Materials as stem cell regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-06-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.

  9. Radiolabeling of DOTATOC with the long-lived positron emitter {sup 44}Sc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruszynski, Marek; Majkowska-Pilip, Agnieszka [Centre of Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warszawa (Poland); Loktionova, Natalia S.; Eppard, Elisabeth [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Roesch, Frank, E-mail: frank.roesch@uni-mainz.de [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The positron-emitting radionuclide {sup 44}Sc with a half-life of 3.97 h and a {beta}{sup +} branching of 94.3% is of potential interest for clinical PET. As so far it is available from a {sup 44}Ti/{sup 44}Sc generator in Mainz, where long-lived {sup 44}Ti decays to no-carrier-added (nca) {sup 44}Sc. The {sup 44}Sc is a trivalent metal cation and should be suitable for complexation with many well established bifunctional chelators conjugated to peptides or other molecular targeting vectors. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the potential of {sup 44}Sc for labeling of DOTA-conjugated peptides. DOTA-D-Phe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide (DOTATOC) was used as a model molecule to study and optimize labeling procedure. Reaction parameters such as buffer conditions, concentration of peptide, pH range, reaction temperature and time were optimized. Addition of 21 nmol of DOTATOC to {sup 44}Sc in ammonium acetate buffer pH 4.0 provided labeling yields >98% within 25 min of heating in an oil-bath at 95 Degree-Sign C. This time can be reduced to 3 min only by applying microwave supported heating. {sup 44}Sc-DOTATOC was found to be stable in 0.9% NaCl, PBS pH 7.4, fetal calf and human serums, and also in the presence of competing metal cations (Fe{sup 3+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}), as well as other ligand competitors, like EDTA and DTPA, even after almost 25 h incubation at 37 Degree-Sign C. Present study shows that nca {sup 44}Sc forms stable complexes with the macrocyclic ligand DOTA and that {sup 44}Sc-DOTATOC and analog targeting vectors may be synthesized for further preclinical and clinical investigations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Labeling of somatostatin analouges with positron emitter {sup 44}Sc was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DOTATOC was labeled with {sup 44}Sc isotope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimal conditions for {sup 44}Sc-DOTATOC synthesis were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stability of {sup 44}Sc

  10. Downregulation of the Musca domestica peptidoglycan recognition protein SC (PGRP-SC) leads to overexpression of antimicrobial peptides and tardy pupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yifu; Tang, Ting; Gu, Jihai; Sun, Lingling; Gao, Xiaobin; Ma, Xianyong; Wang, Xiaochun; Liu, Fengsong; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-10-01

    PGRP (peptidoglycan recognition protein) is a conserved protein family that recognizes the peptidoglycan in bacterial cell wall and causes the activation of various innate immune responses. Previous studies have reported that PGRP-SCs in Drosophila dampen the activation of Immune Deficiency (Imd) pathway to microbial infection, and participate in the lifespan extension of the insects. To facilitate understanding the function of PGRP-SCs from an evolutionary angle, we identified and functionally characterized the PGRP-SC gene in the housefly Musca domestica, a species that has adapted to a septic environment much harsher than the natural habitat of Drosophila. The gene designated as MdPGRP-SC was found most abundantly expressed in the 3rd instar larvae, and is expressed at this developmental stage predominantly in the gut. MdPGRP-SC was virtually unchanged in whole larvae after a septic injury at the second larval instar, while two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), diptericin and attacin, were upregulated in the first 24h but not later. Through dsRNA microinjection, MdPGRP-SC was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi), and caused the significant increased expression of diptericin and attacin. The pupation of MdPGRP-SC-depleted larvae was severely suppressed compared to controls. Opposite to the expression trend of MdPGRP-SC, a spontaneous active expression of diptericin and attacin was found in pre-pupae but not in third instar larvae. Taken together, our study reveals that downregulation of MdPGRP-SC leads to the overexpression of the AMPs, and is involved in the larvae-to-pupa transition of housefly.

  11. NIH Stem Cell Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚明

    2009-01-01

    该网站是美国国立卫生研究所的干细胞信息门户网站。对于内科学临床和科研人员来说,该门户中如下信息值得关注。“StemCellRegistry”中提供如下信息:(1)“NationalStemCellBank”为可获取的人类胚胎干细胞库;(2)通过认证的研发干细胞系的实验室和公司名单;(3)一种以上干细胞系(可空运)的提供者并附有通信方式;(4)其他文档如各类标准等。

  12. Differential dynamics of splicing factor SC35 during the cell cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaushlendra Tripathi; Veena K Parnaik

    2008-09-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing factors are enriched in nuclear domains termed interchromatin granule clusters or nuclear speckles. During mitosis, nuclear speckles are disassembled by metaphase and reassembled in telophase in structures termed mitotic interchromatin granules (MIGs). We analysed the dynamics of the splicing factor SC35 in interphase and mitotic cells. In HeLa cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-SC35, this was localized in speckles during interphase and dispersed in metaphase. In telophase, GFP-SC35 was highly enriched within telophase nuclei and also detected in MIGs. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that the mobility of GFP-SC35 was distinct in different mitotic compartments. Interestingly, the mobility of GFP-SC35 was 3-fold higher in the cytoplasm of metaphase cells compared with interphase speckles, the nucleoplasm or MIGs. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) caused changes in the organization of nuclear compartments such as nuclear speckles and nucleoli, with corresponding changes in the mobility of GFP-SC35 and GFP-fibrillarin. Our results suggest that the dynamics of SC35 are significantly influenced by the organization of the compartment in which it is localized during the cell cycle.

  13. CERN Technical Training 2004: New Short Courses (SC) on Microsoft Outlook

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Technical Training programme is now proposing a new format for courses on Microsoft Outlook. Three two-hours Short Courses (SC) will cover basic and advanced functionalities of the recommended mail client for email at CERN. Each module can be followed independently. The next scheduled sessions will take place as follows: Outlook (SC I): E-mail. Next session: 31.8.2004 (9h00-11h00) Outlook (SC II): Calendar, Tasks and Notes. Next session: 31.8.2004 (14h00-16h00) Outlook (SC III): Meetings and Delegation. Next session: 7.9.2004 (14h00-16h00) In particular, SC I will cover how to open, create and send email, work with attachments, use stationery, organise mail, and work with the address book, SC II will show how to work with the calendar, tasks and notes, and SC III will cover how to organise and manage meetings, work with meeting requests, share tasks, and use email and calendar delegation. The number of participants to each session is limited to 8. The instructor is English-French bilingual, and she...

  14. Technical Training: CERN Technical Training 2004 - New Short Courses (SC) on Microsoft Outlook

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Technical Training programme is now proposing a new format for courses on Microsoft Outlook. Three two-hours Short Courses (SC) will cover basic and advanced functionalities of the recommended mail client for email at CERN. Each module can be followed independently. The next scheduled sessions will take place as follows: Outlook (SC I): E-mail. Next session: 31.8.2004 (9h00-11h00) Outlook (SC II): Calendar, Tasks and Notes. Next session: 31.8.2004 (14h00-16h00) Outlook (SC III): Meetings and Delegation. Next session: 7.9.2004 (14h00-16h00) In particular, SC I will cover how to open, create and send email, work with attachments, use stationery, organise mail, and work with the address book, SC II will show how to work with the calendar, tasks and notes, and SC III will cover how to organise and manage meetings, work with meeting requests, share tasks, and use email and calendar delegation. The number of participants to each session is limited to 8. The instructor is English-French bilingual, and s...

  15. CERN Technical Training 2004: New Short Courses (SC) on Microsoft Outlook

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Technical Training programme is now proposing a new format for courses on Microsoft Outlook. Three two-hours Short Courses (SC) will cover basic and advanced functionalities of the recommended mail client for email at CERN. Each module can be followed independently. The next scheduled sessions will take place as follows: Outlook (SC I): E-mail. Next session: 22.10.2004 (9h00-11h00) Outlook (SC II): Calendar, Tasks and Notes. Next session: 22.10.2004 (14h00-16h00) Outlook (SC III): Meetings and Delegation. Next session: 9.11.2004 (14h00-16h00) In particular, SC I will cover how to open, create and send email, work with attachments, use stationery, organise mail, and work with the address book, SC II will show how to work with the calendar, tasks and notes, and SC III will cover how to organise and manage meetings, work with meeting requests, share tasks, and use email and calendar delegation. The number of participants to each session is limited to 8. The instructor is English-French bilingual, and...

  16. Differential Attack on Five Rounds of the SC2000 Block Cipher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Qiang Lv

    2011-01-01

    The SC2000 block cipher has a 128-bit block size and a user key of 128,192 or 256 bits,which employs a total of 6.5 rounds if a 128-bit user key is used.It is a CRYPTREC recommended e-government cipher in Japan.In this paper we address how to recover the user key from a few subkey bits of SC2000,and describe two 4.75-round differential characteristics with probability 2-126 of SC2000 and seventy-six 4.75-round differential characteristics with probability 2-127.Finally,we present a differential cryptanalysis attack on a 5-round reduced version of SC2000 when used with a 128-bit key; the attack requires 2125.68 chosen plaintexts and has a time complexity of 212575 5-round SC2000 encryptions.The attack does not threat the security of the full SC2000 cipher,but it suggests for the first time that the safety margin of SC2000 with a 128-bit key decreases below one and a half rounds.

  17. Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sameh Mikhail; Aiwu Ruth He

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the liver in adults. It is also the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent research supports that liver cancer is a disease of adult stem cells. From the models of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis, there may be at least three distinct cell lineages with progenitor properties susceptible to neoplastic transformation. Identification of specific cell surface markers fo...

  18. Breast cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Thomas W.; Naylor, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to th...

  19. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Eleftheria Hatzimichael; Mark Tuthill

    2010-01-01

    Eleftheria Hatzimichael1, Mark Tuthill21Department of Haematology, Medical School of Ioannina, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2Department of Medical Oncology, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College National Health Service Trust, London, UKAbstract: More than 25,000 hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) are performed each year for the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, immune-deficiency illnesses, congenital metabolic defects, hemoglobinopathies, and myelodysplastic and mye...

  20. The intestinal stem cell

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Nick; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The epithelium of the adult mammalian intestine is in a constant dialog with its underlying mesenchyme to direct progenitor proliferation, lineage commitment, terminal differentiation, and, ultimately, cell death. The epithelium is shaped into spatially distinct compartments that are dedicated to each of these events. While the intestinal epithelium represents the most vigorously renewing adult tissue in mammals, the stem cells that fuel this self-renewal process have been identified only rec...

  1. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Ma; Liang Li; Wenxiu Zhao; Xiang Ji; Fangfang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other type...

  2. Stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Hajdu, K; Golbus, M S

    2000-01-01

    Modern physicians desire not only to treat but to cure congenital diseases. In a wide variety of diseases, bone marrow transplantation can be the tool of final cure. The limitations and risks of this procedure have motivated researchers to search for an earlier and safer method of treatment. Special features of fetal immune systems make it possible to perform the transplantation during fetal life using fetal hematopoietic stem cells, thus avoiding many of the side effects of bone marrow trans...

  3. Common stemness regulators of embryonic and cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiana; Hadjimichael; Konstantina; Chanoumidou; Natalia; Papadopoulou; Panagiota; Arampatzi; Joseph; Papamatheakis; Androniki; Kretsovali

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells(ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells is regulated by a well characterized gene transcription circuitry. The circuitry is assembled by ESC specific transcription factors, signal trans-ducing molecules and epigenetic regulators. Growing understanding of stem-like cells, albeit of more complex phenotypes, present in tumors(cancer stem cells), provides a common conceptual and research frame-work for basic and applied stem cell biology. In this review, we highlight current results on biomarkers, gene signatures, signaling pathways and epigenetic regulators that are common in embryonic and cancer stem cells. We discuss their role in determining the cell phenotype and finally, their potential use to design next generation biological and pharmaceutical approaches for regenerative medicine and cancer therapies.

  4. Final Technical Report – DOE Grant DE-SC0005904

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dear, Jody [Connecticut State Univ. System, Hartford, CT (United States)

    2013-10-23

    DOE grant DE-SC0005904 was allocated to fund the faculty development, curriculum development and travel to support the four institutions of the Connecticut State University System’s (CSUS) Initiative for Nanotechnology-related Equipment, Faculty Development and Curriculum Development. DOE grant DE-SC0005072 was also awarded for this program. In 2010, CSUS had identified the establishment of nanotechnology programs and infrastructure as a priority. At that time, the system set the goal of establishing an academic initiative in nanotechnology for the CSUS, beginning with the development of a series of courses at the graduate level. Implementation was planned via a collaborative effort including faculty from all four of the CSUS campuses. The CSUS Nanotechnology Working Group [CSUS NWG] was established to accomplish this goal. A faculty member from the Physics Department at Southern Connecticut State University [SCSU] was assigned the task of organizing and coordinating the work of the CSUS NWG. Representatives from each of the four CSUS campuses were appointed to join the CSUS NWG with the following initial representation: SCSU [Physics and Biology], Western Connecticut State University (WCSU) [Chemistry], Eastern Connecticut State University (ECSU) [Chemistry] and Central Connecticut State University (CCSU) [Chemistry. As a further outcome it was determined that this collaborative effort would lead to the establishment of a formal nanotechnology center, serving as the nucleus of CSUS student and faculty learning and research. This CSUS Nanotechnology Center [CSUS-NC] was to be located at Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU). The goal of this grant was to provide funding for curriculum and faculty development necessary to facilitate the development and implementation of a collaborative Graduate Certificate in Nanotechnology for the Connecticut State University System. This outcome has been successfully achieved. The courses and structure of the Graduate

  5. EngenuitySC Commercialization and Entrepreneurial Training Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Meghan; Hutton, Katherine R

    2012-12-31

    A team led by EngenuitySC has performed education and outreach on development of advanced energy markets that will enable wider use of clean energy technologies. This report details the efforts that have made significant advances to improve the market place through education, outreach, and increased communications between industry members. The project resulted in two self-funded industry clusters known as the Fuel Cell Collaborative and NuHub. This project has focused on building and strengthening the leading clean energy clusters in South Carolina: nuclear energy and fuel cell technologies. For the nuclear industry, a new cluster was developed that is now known as NuHub. This cluster has already engaged over 25 nuclear industry leaders or suppliers, four public sector partners, six community economic development foundations, and nearly ten academic partners in a 175 mile radius between Augusta, Georgia and Charlotte, North Carolina. Our outreach has touched over 2,000 stakeholders through the website alone, not including the public audiences and members of the business community reached through news stories and releases that were distributed to over 620 print and online publications. NuHub has established a formal leadership structure, developed subcommittees to focus on industry issues, instituted educational programs for the workforce, and created an industry funding structure that will sustain the industry cluster and mission. NuHub has participated in a wide-variety of community building and outreach activities since its formation under this grant. In the two years since its creation in 2010, we have initiated efforts focused in four main areas that correlate with the four NuHub subcommittees including: innovation, workforce development, industry engagement, and marketing and communications. NuHub successfully raised over $160,000 in both public and private funding, which has supported work to grow the cluster and engage partners including NuScale, Fluor, and

  6. Synergistic capture of Clostridium botulinum Type A neurotoxin by scFv antibodies to novel epitopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Sean A.; Barr, John R.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Marks, James D.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    A non-immune library of human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was screened for binding to the Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain [BoNT/A (Hc)] with the goal of identifying scFv to novel epitopes. To do this, an antibody-mediated labeling strategy was used in which antigen-binding yeast clones were selected after labeling with previously characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the Hc. Twenty unique scFv clones were isolated that bound Hc. Of these, three also bound to full-length BoNT/A toxin complex with affinities ranging from 5 nM to 170 nM. Epitope binning showed that the three unique clones recognized at least two epitopes that were distinct from one another and from the detection MAbs. After production in E. coli, the scFv were coupled to magnetic particles and tested for their ability to capture BoNT/A holotoxin using an Endopep-MS assay. In this assay, toxin captured by scFv coated magnetic particles was detected by incubation of the complex with a peptide containing a BoNT/A-specific cleavage sequence. Mass spectrometry was used to detect the ratio of intact peptide to cleavage products as evidence for toxin capture. When tested individually, each of the scFv showed a weak positive Endopep-MS result. However, when the particles were coated with all three scFv simultaneously, they exhibited significantly higher Endopep-MS activity, consistent with synergistic binding. These results demonstrate novel approaches toward the isolation and characterization of scFv antibodies specific to unlabeled antigen. They also provide evidence that distinct scFv antibodies can work synergistically to increase the efficiency of antigen capture onto a solid support.

  7. Osteogenic ability of bone marrow stem cells intraoperatively enriched by a novel matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Qing; Chen, Kaining; HUANG, WU; HE, YUNSONG; NONG, MINGSHAN; LI, CHUNXIANG; LIANG, TIANSEN

    2014-01-01

    Poly-L-lysine (PLL) is commonly used as an adhibiting agent due to its good viscosity, and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a common enriched matrix for selective cell retention technology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use PLL to coat the surface and interspaces of DBM to form a novel type of enriched matrix [DBM coated with PLL (PLL-DBM)], in order to effectively improve the enrichment effects of bone marrow stem cells and enhance their osteogenic ability. Electron microscope sc...

  8. Tracking stem cells in tissue-engineered organs using magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Thanh, NguyêN. Thi Kim

    2013-11-01

    The use of human stem cells (SCs) in tissue engineering holds promise in revolutionising the treatment of numerous diseases. There is a pressing need to comprehend the distribution, movement and role of SCs once implanted onto scaffolds. Nanotechnology has provided a platform to investigate this through the development of inorganic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs can be used to label and track SCs by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since this clinically available imaging modality has high spatial resolution. In this review, we highlight recent applications of iron oxide and gadolinium based MNPs in SC labelling and MRI; and offer novel considerations for their future development.

  9. SC-FDMA系统基于限幅技术降低峰均比的研究%PAPR reduction in SC-FDMA system by clipping technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茜; 李一兵; 叶方

    2009-01-01

    SC-FDMA is the uplink multiple access scheme in LTE. Localized FDMA which is a special case of SC-FDMA signal has relatively high PAPR. PAPR of LFDMA signal is reduced by means of hard limiting, soft limiting and smooth limiting respectively. Analysis and comparisons of the PAPR, anti-band noise performance and out-of-band emission based on these three methods was made. The simulation results show that in the acceptable situation of bit error rate and out-of-band emission, clipping is a simple, easy approach which can effectively reduce the PAPR of SC-FDMA signal.%SC-FDMA是LTE上行链路的多址接入方案.SC-FDMA中的集中式频分多址(LFDMA)峰均比相对较高.分别通过硬限幅、软限幅和平滑限幅的方法,降低LFDMA的峰均比,并针对这三种方法的PAPR性能,抗噪声性能和带外辐射问题进行分析比较.仿真结果表明,在允许的带外辐射和抗噪声性能情况下,限幅法是一种简单、易于实现且能有效降低发送信号峰均比的方法.

  10. Mimicking Stem Cell Niches to Increase Stem Cell Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Dellatore, Shara M.; Garcia, A. Sofia; Miller, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Niches regulate lineage-specific stem cell self-renewal vs. differentiation in vivo and are comprised of supportive cells and extracellular matrix components arranged in a 3-dimensional topography of controlled stiffness in the presence of oxygen and growth factor gradients. Mimicking stem cell niches in a defined manner will facilitate production of the large numbers of stem cells needed to realize the promise of regenerative medicine and gene therapy. Progress has been made in mimicking com...

  11. Ionic conductivity of co-doped Sc2O3-ZrO2 ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Shobit; bin Najib, Waqas; Chen, Weiwu;

    2012-01-01

    The oxide ionic conductivity of Sc0.18Zr0.82O1.91 doped with 0.5 mol.% of both Yb2O3 and In2O3 is evaluated at various temperatures in air. Among various co-doped compositions, In0.02Sc0.18Zr0.80O1.90 exhibits the highest grain ionic conductivity followed by Yb0.02Sc0.18Zr0.80O1.90 at 500°C. Howe...

  12. Crystal structure of the transcription factor sc-mtTFB offers insights into mitochondrial transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Schubot, Florian D; Chen, Chun-Jung; Rose, John P.; Dailey, Tamara A.; Dailey, Harry A.; Wang, Bi-Cheng

    2001-01-01

    Although it is commonly accepted that binding of mitochondrial transcription factor sc-mtTFB to the mitochondrial RNA polymerase is required for specific transcription initiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its precise role has remained undefined. In the present work, the crystal structure of sc-mtTFB has been determined to 2.6 Å resolution. The protein consists of two domains, an N-terminal α/β-domain and a smaller domain made up of four α-helices. Contrary to previous predictions, sc-mtTFB...

  13. Current Lead System of the SuperKEKB Final Focus SC Magnet Cryostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Z. G.; Ohuchi, N.; Tsuchiya, K.; Arimoto, Y.; Higashi, N.; Yamaoka, H.; Kondou, Y.; Kawai, M.

    To energize the SuperKEKB final focus superconducting (SC) magnets, 110 current leads in total will be equipped in the two service cryostats. For the SC quadrupoles and solenoids, 22 leads are the conventional vapor cooled type and the others for the SC correction coils employ an HTS section at the cold ends. The qualification program on the leads is being carried out at KEK as the cryogenic acceptance test prior to installation. This paper presents the thermal and electrical results of the cryogenic tests.

  14. Sc-Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35-50 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Uspenskii, Y A; Vinogradov, A V; Fedorenko, A I; Kondratenko, V V; Pershin, Y P; Zubarev, E N; Mrowka, S; Schäfers, F

    2000-01-01

    The Sc/Si multilayers are suggested as high-reflectivity coatings for a VUV interval of 35-50 nm. Fabricated mirrors show the normal incidence reflectivity of 30-50% which is high enough to effectively manipulate the beams of synchrotron radiation and compact discharge and laser-driven X-ray lasers. The obtained values are not, however, limiting for the Sc/Si coatings. Theoretical estimations as well as electron microscopy studies of Sc-Si interfaces indicate a large potential for further raising the reflectivity.

  15. Magnetic properties of Sc{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, M. [Lab. de Cristallographie, CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Deportes, J. [Lab. Louis Neel, CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Ouladdiaf, B. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France); Sayetat, F. [Lab. de Cristallographie, CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1995-02-09

    The magnetic properties and their thermal dependences of Sc{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 1.96}, Sc{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 2} and Sc{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 2.04} are compared with those of TiFe{sub 2}. The substitution changes the iron-iron distances. Consequently, the Fe atoms on the 6h site show in addition to the antiferromagnetic component a small ferromagnetic one, and a weak magnetic moment appears on the 2a site. ((orig.)).

  16. The OGLE-II event sc5_2859 a Classical Nova outburst?

    CERN Document Server

    Afonso, C; Andersen, J; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Bareyre, P; Beaulieu, J P; Blanc, G; CSmith, M; Charlot, X; Coutures, C; De Kat, J; Ferlet, R; Fouqué, P; Glicenstein, J F; Goldman, B; Gould, A; Graff, D; Gros, M; Hamadache, C; Haïssinski, J; Le Guillou, Laurent; Lesquoy, E; Loup, C; Magneville, C; Marquette, J B; Maurice, E; Maury, A; Milsztajn, A; Moniez, M; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perdereau, O; Prévôt, L; Rahal, Y R; Rich, J; Spiro, M; Tisserand, P; Vidal-Madjar, A; Vigroux, L; Wagner, R M; Zylberajch, S

    2006-01-01

    The OGLE-II event sc5_2859 was previously identified as the third longest microlensing event ever observed. Additional photometric observations from the EROS (Experience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres) survey and spectroscopic observations of the candidate star are used to test the microlensing hypothesis.The combined OGLE and EROS data provide a high quality coverage of the light curve. The colour of the sc5_2859 event is seen to change with time. A spectrum taken in 2003 exhibits a strong Halpha emission line. The additionnal data show that the OGLE-II sc5_2859 event is actually a classical nova outburst.

  17. Assembly of a supercrystal (SC) of the CMS endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Williams et al., RAL

    2004-01-01

    The first three pictures show the insertion of the first three rows of crystals into the supercrystal SC03 on Jan. 2004 and the completion of the SC endstops. Fig. 4 shows a complete supercrystal and Fig. 5 its components (alveolar, interface plate, housing, optical fibre, insert, crystal and VPT, endstop). A set of 25 inserts is shown in Fig. 6, while Fig. 7 shows housing, interface plates and inserts. Finally, a SC rear view showing the Vacum Phototriode (VPT) wires through the inserts can be seen in Fig. 8. Fig. 9 and 10 show two supercrystals under test on Dee F and R, respectively.

  18. Lanthanide-doped NaScF4 nanoprobes: crystal structure, optical spectroscopy and biodetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yu; Tu, Datao; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Yongsheng; Kong, Jintao; Hu, Ping; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Xueyuan

    2013-06-01

    Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal decomposition method. The biotinylated NaScF4:Er3+/Yb3+ NPs were demonstrated for their applications as a heterogeneous UC luminescence bioprobe to detect avidin with a detection limit of 180 pM. After bioconjugation with amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs also exhibited specific recognition of cancer cells overexpressed with uPA receptor (uPAR, an important marker of tumor biology and metastasis), showing great potentials in tumor-targeted bioimaging.Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal

  19. Preliminary Tests Of The Decris-sc Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, A; Bechterev, V; Bogomolov, S L; Bondarenko, P G; Datskov, V I; Dmitriev, S; Drobin, V; Lebedev, A; Leporis, M; Malinowski, H; Nikiforov, A; Paschenko, S V; Seleznev, V; Shishov, Yu A; Smirnov, Yu; Tsvineva, G; Yakovlev, B; Yazvitsky, N Yu

    2004-01-01

    A new "liquid He-free" superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source DECRIS-SC, to be used as injector for the IC-100 small cyclotron, has been designed by FLNR and LHE JINR. The main feature is that a compact refrigerator of Gifford-McMahon type is used to cool the solenoid coils. For the reason of very small cooling power at 4.2 K (about 1 W) our efforts were to optimize the magnetic structure and minimize an external heating of the coils. The maximum magnetic field strength is 3 T and 2 T in injection and extraction region respectively. For the radial plasma confinement a hexapole made of NdFeB permanent magnet is used. The source will be capable of ECR plasma heating using different frequencies (14 GHz or 18 GHz). To be able to deliver usable intensities of solids, the design is also allow axial access for evaporation oven and metal samples using the plasma sputtering technique. Very preliminary results of the source test are presented.

  20. Transition energy and oscillator strength of Sc18+ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Wen; Yang Di; Hu Mu-Hong; Han Qiu-Ju; Li Jin-Ying

    2005-01-01

    The transition energies and the dipole oscillator strengths for the 1s22s-1s2np (2 ≤ n ≤ 9) and 1s22p-1s2nd (3≤n ≤ 9) of lithium-like Sc18+ ion are calculated by using the full core plus correlation method. The fine structure splittings of 1s2np and 1s2nd (n ≤ 9) states are determined from the expectation values of spin-orbit and spin-otherorbit interaction operators. The quantum defects of these series, as function of principal quantum number n, are obtained. The agreement between the f-values obtained from three alternative formulae is excellent. Comparisons of our results with experimental data available in the literature are carried out. Combining the single-channel quantum defect theory with the discrete oscillator strengths obtained in this work, this paper obtains the behaviour of discrete oscillator strengths and oscillator strength densities corresponding to the bound-free transitions adjacent to ionization threshold.

  1. INTERVIU CU DOAMNA SIMONA CAROBENE, ADMINISTRATORUL SC PROIECT MOZAIC SRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Pascaru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabrica de mozaic, înregistrată la Oficiul Registrului Comerţului în aprilie 2012 a luat fiinţă în cadrul unui proiect cu finanţare europeană nerambursabilă și are în prezent statutul de unitate protejată autorizată. În cadrul acesteia sunt angajați 10 tineri post instituţionalizați, pentru care integrarea în viaţa socială şi profesională este dificilă. Întreprinderea socială SC Proiect Mozaic SRL este rezultatul întâlnirii dintre sectorul social, non-profit şi sectorul business, deoarece are la bază un parteneriat cu un important grup de firme din domeniul construcţiilor şi amenajărilor interioare din București. În paralel cu activitatea de producţie a mozaicului, ocazional, Proiect Mozaic oferă către clienți și servicii de ambalare și asamblare produse.

  2. Stem cells and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, LingLing; Hong, Tao

    2008-04-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the neurodegenerative changes or apoptosis of neurons involved in networks, which are important to specific physiological functions. With the development of old-aging society, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is on the increase. However, it is difficult to diagnose for most of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, there are too few effective therapies. Advances in stem cell biology have raised the hope and possibility for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, stem cells have been widely attempted to treat neurodegenerative diseases of animal model. Here we review the progress and prospects of various stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell and neural stem cells and so on, for the treatments of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington' disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Lou Gehrig's disease.

  3. Stem cells and neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU LingLing; HONG Tao

    2008-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the neurodegenerative changes or apoptosis of neurons involved in networks, which are important to specific physiological functions. With the development of old-aging society, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is on the increase. However, it is difficult to diagnose for most of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, there are too few effective therapies. Advances in stem cell biology have raised the hope and possibility for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, stem cells have been widely attempted to treat neurodegenerative diseases of animal model. Here we review the progress and prospects of various stem cells,including embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell and neural stem cells and so on, for the treatments of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Lou Gehrig's disease.

  4. Stem cells and neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the neurodegenerative changes or apoptosis of neurons involved in networks, which are important to specific physiological functions. With the de-velopment of old-aging society, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is on the increase. How-ever, it is difficult to diagnose for most of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, there are too few effective therapies. Advances in stem cell biology have raised the hope and possibility for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, stem cells have been widely attempted to treat neurodegen-erative diseases of animal model. Here we review the progress and prospects of various stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell and neural stem cells and so on, for the treatments of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Hunt-ington’s disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Lou Gehrig’s disease.

  5. Formation Processes of Nanocomposite Strengthening Particles in Rapidly Quenched Al-Sc-Zr Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kotko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition processes of supersaturated solid solution of aluminium alloys alloyed with Sc and Zr have been studied in the work. The binary hypereutectic Al-Sc alloys, hyperperitectic Al-Zr alloys and ternary Al-Sc-Zr alloys were chosen. Alloys were obtained by the melt-spinning. Melts were quenched from temperatures of Т = 1000 C and Т = 1400 ºC. The study of the structure of rapidly solidifyed binary Al alloys alloyed with Sc and Zr showed that the crystallization of anomalously supersaturated solid solution (Tquen. = 1400 ºC or the crystallization with the formation of "fan" structure (Tquen. = 1000 ºC are possible depending on the quenching temperature of the melt. The decomposition of anomalously supersaturated solid solution is continuous, with the precipitation of nano-sized spherical Al3X (X-Sc, Zr particles of L12-ordered phase which is isomorphous to matrix. It was found that the loss of thermal stability of Al-Sc alloys is due to the loss of coherence of the strengthening Al3Sc phase. In Al-Zr alloys the loss of strength is due to the formation of a stable tetragonal DO23-ordered A13Zr phase. After co-alloying of Al by Sc and Zr a bimodal grained structure was observed for the hypereutectic ternary alloy (Tquen. = 400ºC. Nano-sized grains of 50-60 nm were present on the boundaries of 1-2 µm large-sized grains. TEM shows the formation of nanocomposite Al3Zr/Al3Sc particles. The formation of Al3Zr shell changes the nature of the interfacial fit of the particle with the matrix and slows down the decomposition during the coalescence. Ternary Al-Sc-Zr alloys have significantly higher thermal stability during aging as compared to binary Al-Sc and Al-Zr alloys. Decomposition processes of supersaturated solid solution of aluminium alloys alloyed with Sc and Zr have been studied in the work. The binary hypereutectic Al-Sc alloys, hyperperitectic Al-Zr alloys and ternary Al-Sc-Zr alloys were chosen. Alloys were

  6. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium–Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes—Sc2TiC@Ih-C80, Sc2TiC@D5h-C80 and Sc2TiC2@Ih-C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the TiIV/TiIII Redox Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B.; Samoylova, Nataliya A.; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Balch, Alan L.; Popov, Alexey A.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc–Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4C2@C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3C2@C80, isomers of Sc2C2@C82, and the family Sc2C2n (2n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3CH@C80. The Sc–Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2TiC@C2n (2n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2TiC2@C2n (2n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2TiC@Ih-C80, Sc2TiC@D5h-C80, and Sc2TiC2@Ih-C80, were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2TiC@Ih-C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2TiC- and Sc2TiC2-containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster–cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements. PMID:27459520

  7. The enhancement of neural stem cell survival and growth by coculturing with expanded Sertoli cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bingyang; Deng, Lei; Shi, Xiaolin; Dai, Sheng; Zhang, Hu; Wang, Yonghong; Bi, Jingxiu; Guo, Meijin

    2012-01-01

    Sertoli cells (SCs) have been described as the "nurse cells" of testis to provide essential growth factors and to create a proper environment for the development of other cells (e.g., germinal and neural stem cell). However, the physiological functions of the SCs obtained from different culture conditions are different in a coculturing system, and thus the optimal SC culturing condition should be investigated in vitro. In this paper, primary Sertoli cells were isolated from a 12-day-old mouse and expanded in two different culture conditions: a two dimensional (2D) plastic tissue disc and a three dimensional (3D) microcarrier culture system. They were then cocultured with neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from 14-day-old mouse embryos. The metabolic activities of SCs(2D) (SCs in 2D) and SCs(3D) (SCs in 3D) and the amount of proteins secreted from two culturing systems were compared. The results show that the metabolic activity and the amount of secreted proteins from SCs(3D) were higher than both from SCs(2D). Three coculturing groups: NSCs+SC(2D), NSCs+SC(3D), and NSCs +SC-conditioned medium (SCCM, control group) were also compared regarding cell morphology and the numbers of neurons, neural outgrowths and neurospheres. The quantity of neurons, neural outgrowths and neurospheres were the highest in the NSCs+SC(3D) group. SCs cultured in the 3D system had a strong trophic effect on NSCs and enhanced their survival and growth. Besides, the mRNA of trophic and nutritive factors such as Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and Interleukin-1 α (IL-1 α) secreted by the SCs from both 2D and 3D culture system were analyzed by real time-PCR and gel assay. The mRNA transcription of GDNF and IL-1α is more apparent in the 3D culture system than that from the 2D one. The coculturing system of NSCs+SC(3D) is a promising candidate for future neural stem cell transplantation.

  8. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu; Tatiana Maron-Gutierrez; Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez Garcia; Marcelo Marcos Morales; Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions ne...

  9. Advances in stem cell research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In 1998, biologists Thomson and Gearhart successfully derived stem cells from human embryos. One year later, several researchers discovered that adult stem cells still retain the ability to be differentiated into unrelated types of cells. Advances in stem cell research open a promising direction for applied medical science. Moreover, it may also force scientists to reconsider the fundamental theory about how cells grow up. Stem cell research was considered by Science as the top of the ten breakthroughs of science of the year[1]. This paper gives a survey of recent advances in stem cell research. 1 Overview In the 1980s, embryonic stem cell and/or embryonic germ cell line (ES cell line, EG cell line) of multifarious mammalian animals, especially those of non-human pri-mates, had been established. In 1998, Thomson and Shamblott obtained ES, EG cell lines from human blasto-cysts and gonad ridges of early human embryos, respec-tively. Their research brought up an ethical debate about whether human embryos can be used as experimental materials. It was not appeased until 1999 when research-ers discovered that stem cells from adults still retain the ability to become different kinds of tissue cells. For in-stance, brain cells can become blood cells[2], and cells from bone marrow can become cells in liver. Scientists believe, for a long time, that cells can only be developed from early pluripotent embryo cells; the differentiation potential of stem cells from mature tissues is restricted to only one of the cell types of the tissue where stem cells are obtained. Recent stem cell researches, however, sub-verted the traditional view of stem cells. These discoveries made scientists speed ahead with the work on adult stem cells, hoping to discover whether their promise will rival that of ES cells.

  10. Bioprinting for stem cell research

    OpenAIRE

    Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest to apply bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized proteins can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto...

  11. GPCRs in Stem Cell Function

    OpenAIRE

    Doze, Van A.; PEREZ, DIANNE M.

    2013-01-01

    Many tissues of the body cannot only repair themselves, but also self-renew, a property mainly due to stem cells and the various mechanisms that regulate their behavior. Stem cell biology is a relatively new field. While advances are slowly being realized, stem cells possess huge potential to ameliorate disease and counteract the aging process, causing its speculation as the next panacea. Amidst public pressure to advance rapidly to clinical trials, there is a need to understand the biology o...

  12. Regulating the leukemia stem cell

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are responsible for sustaining and propagating malignant disease, and, as such, are promising targets for therapy. Studies of human LSCs have served an important role in defining the major tenets of the cancer stem cell model, which center on the frequencies of cancer stem cells, their potential hierarchical organization, and their degree of maturation. LSCs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have recently been studied using mouse syngeneic models of leukemia induced b...

  13. Impact of stem cell source on allogeneic stem cell transplantation outcome in hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatović Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Peripheral blood (PB is used more frequently as a source of stem cells (SCs for allogeneic transplantation. However, the influence of cell source on the clinical outcome of SC transplantation is not yet well established. The aim of this study was to compare the results of PBSC transplantation (PBSCT with bone marrow transplantation (BMT on the basis of engraftment, frequency and severity of immediate (mucositis, acute Graft versus Host Disease - aGvHD and delayed (chronic GvHD - cGvHD complications, as well as transplant-related mortality (TRM, transfusion needs, relapses and overall survival (OS. Methods. We analyzed 158 patients, women/men ratio 64/94 median age 29 (range 9-57, who underwent allogeneic SC transplantation between 1989 and 2009. All included patients had diseases as follows: acute myeloid leukemia (AML - 39, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL - 47, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML - 32, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS - 10, Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL - 2, multiple myeloma (MM - 3, granulocytic sarcoma (GrSa - 3, severe aplastic anemia (sAA - 22. The patients underwent transplantations were divided into two groups: BMT group (74 patients and PBSCT group (84 patients. Each recipient had HLA identical sibling donor. SCs from bone marrow were collected by multiple aspirations of iliac bone and from PB by one “Large Volume Leukapheresis” (after recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor, rHuG-CSF application (5-12 μg/kgbm, 5 days. Conditioning regimens were applied according to primary disease, GvHD prophylaxis consisted of combination of a cyclosporine A and methotrexate. Results. Engraftment, according to the count of polymorphonuclear and platelets, were significantly (p < 0.001 faster in the PBSCT vs BMT group. The needs for transfusion support were significantly (p < 0.01 higher in the BMT group. Those patients had more frequently oropharingeal mucositis grade 3/4 (33.3% vs 10.0%, p < 0.05. There were

  14. Report of AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group 74: in-air output ratio, Sc, for megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C; Ahnesjö, Anders; Lam, Kwok Leung; Li, X Allen; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Palta, Jatinder R; Sharpe, Michael B; Thomadsen, Bruce; Tailor, Ramesh C

    2009-11-01

    The concept of in-air output ratio (Sc) was introduced to characterize how the incident photon fluence per monitor unit (or unit time for a Co-60 unit) varies with collimator settings. However, there has been much confusion regarding the measurement technique to be used that has prevented the accurate and consistent determination of Sc. The main thrust of the report is to devise a theoretical and measurement formalism that ensures interinstitutional consistency of Sc. The in-air output ratio, Sc, is defined as the ratio of primary collision water kerma in free-space, Kp, per monitor unit between an arbitrary collimator setting and the reference collimator setting at the same location. Miniphantoms with sufficient lateral and longitudinal thicknesses to eliminate electron contamination and maintain transient electron equilibrium are recommended for the measurement of Sc. The authors present a correction formalism to extrapolate the correct Sc from the measured values using high-Z miniphantom. Miniphantoms made of high-Z material are used to measure Sc for small fields (e.g., IMRT or stereotactic radiosurgery). This report presents a review of the components of Sc, including headscatter, source-obscuring, and monitor-backscattering effects. A review of calculation methods (Monte Carlo and empirical) used to calculate Sc for arbitrary shaped fields is presented. The authors discussed the use of Sc in photon dose calculation algorithms, in particular, monitor unit calculation. Finally, a summary of Sc data (from RPC and other institutions) is included for QA purposes.

  15. Low-dimensional ScO2 with tunable electronic and magnetic properties: first-principles studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Wu, Jian; Yin, Wen-Jin; Zhang, Yan-Ning

    2016-01-13

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted extensive attention due to their appealing properties for device applications. In this work, we explored the structure stability, electronic structure and magnetism of low-dimensional scandium dioxides, ScO2, by using the first-principles calculations. The results demonstrate that bulk ScO2, monolayers and nanoribbons (NRs) are thermodynamically stable, implying a high possibility of fabricating ScO2 nanocrystals in experiments. Despite the metallic characteristics of bulk ScO2, low-dimensional ScO2 possesses various electronic behaviors that can be further modulated by crystal structure and dimensionality. The results also show that the ground states of ScO2 monolayers and NRs are ferromagnetic (FM) with about 1 μ B per ScO2 formula. Our studies expand a new realm in low-dimensional TMDs, with tunable electronic and magnetic properties. PMID:26571138

  16. Stem cells: A new paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Sachin; Singh N

    2006-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is emerging as a potentially revolutionary new way to treat disease and injury, with wide-ranging medical benefits. It aims to repair damaged and diseased body-parts with healthy new cells provided by stem cell transplants. Disease and disorders with no therapies or at best, partially effective ones, are the lure of the pursuit of stem cell research. Recently a plethora of work has been done in this field in world around including India. However, Stem cell research presents ...

  17. The creep behaviour of single-crystal turbine blade alloys basing on nickel SC 16 with [011] orientation; Das Kriechverhalten der einkristallinen Nickelbasisturbinenschaufellegierung SC 16 MIT [011]-Orientierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingelhoeffer, H.; Chrzanowski, U.; Kraemer, E.; Frenz, H.; Ziebs, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the creep behaviour of single-crystal turbine blade alloys basing on nickel SC 16 compared to the material IN 738 LC while submitted to creep strain. The creep properties of samples with [011] and [001]-orientation are compared with each other. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das Kriechverhalten der einkristallinen Nickelbasissuperlegierung SC 16 im Vergleich zum Werkstoff IN 738 LC unter Kriechbeanspruchung dargestellt. Dabei werden die Kriecheigenschaften von Proben mit [011]- und [001]-Orientierung gegenuebergestellt. (orig./MM)

  18. SC-600型双气压呼吸机二次设计开发%Second Design and Development of SC-600 Type Double Pressure Breathing Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌

    2016-01-01

    In view of the large noise and high failure rate of the valve of the SC-600 type double pressure breathing machine during clinical using, the paper describes the main improvement methods of the second design and development of this type of machine.%该文针对SC-600型双气压呼吸机在临床使用过程中发现的噪音过大、呼吸比例阀故障率高等质量问题,阐述了该设备的二次设计开发的主要改进方法。

  19. Synthesis and properties of Yb:Sc2O3 transparent ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Benxue; HU Chen; LI Jiang; KOU Huamin; SHI Yun; LIU Wenbin; PAN Yubai

    2011-01-01

    Yb:Sc2O3 transparent ceramics were fabricated by solid-state reaction and vacuum sintering method.CaO was added as sintering aids by a high energy ball milling.Transparent nearly-fully dense samples were obtained after 1840 ℃ sintering.Using transmitted-light microscope we get the grain sizes are more than 1 00 μm.Using spectrophotometer we get the absorption coefficient centered at 975 nm was 2.65 cm-1.The phosphorescence spectra showed that the line-widths (FWHM) at 975 and 1041 nm were about 4 and 10 nm and the lifetime of Yb ions in Sc2O3 transparent ceramics was about 883 μs.According to the absorption and fluorescence band centers of Yb:Sc2O3 transparent ceramics,the level scheme of Yb3+ ions in Sc2O3 ceramics could be gotten.

  20. Al-rich part phase relation in Al-Mg-Sc system at 430 ℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏长清; 曾凡浩; 古一

    2003-01-01

    Phase relation of the aluminium-magnesium-scandium system in the Al-rich range at 430 ℃ was investigated by means of multiphase diffusion couples along with electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques. It consists of five single-phase fields, four 2-phase fields and one 3-phase field. The maximum solid solubilities of Mg and Sc in α(Al) solid solution at 430 ℃ are about 15.27%Mg(mole fraction) and 0.33%Sc, respectively. The maximum solid solubilities of Sc in Mg2Al3 and Mg17Al12 are about 1.08% and 0.03% at the same temperature. The diffusion path at 430 ℃ was constructed and interpreted by means of the Al-Mg-Sc equilibrium phase diagram assuming that local equilibrium is established at the phase boundaries.

  1. The importance of chromosome studies in Roberts syndrome/SC phocomelia and other cohesinopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerkes, Erica H.; van der Kevie-Kersemaekers, Anne-Marie F.; Yakin, Mariam; Smeets, Dominique F. C. M.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Roberts syndrome/SC phocomelia is a rare, autosomal recessive syndrome characterised by pre- and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, craniofacial anomalies, mental retardation, and tetraphocomelia in varying degrees of severity. The clinical diagnosis can be challenging in phenotypically mil

  2. Damping values for seismic design of nuclear power plant SC structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the research work of experimental testing method, analysis of test results and proposed damping values for seismic design of nuclear power plant SC (steel-plate concrete) structures

  3. Expression of recombinant human anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, N; Ai, L; Dong, Y Y; Liu, X M; Wang, D Z; Wang, N; Li, X W; Wang, F W; Li, Xk; Li, H Y; Jiang, C

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α scFv-Fc was expressed in TKO mutant Arabidopsis thaliana seeds using plant-specific codons. Immunoblotting using a human IgG1 antibody detected the expression of anti-TNF-α proteins in plants. Results from qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the time of harvest significantly affected the protein yield and quality. Our results indicate that the Phaseolus vulgaris β-phaseolin promoter directed anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc expression in A. thaliana seeds, with a maximum yield obtained at 20-days of development. Although the yield of anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc protein was not very high, accumulation of recombinant proteins in seeds is an attractive and simple method that can be used to purify biologically active anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc. PMID:27420937

  4. Al-Cu based welding wire with minor Sc-Zr alloying and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹志民; 郭飞跃; 潘青林; 宋练鹏

    2003-01-01

    A kind of Al-Cu-(Sc, Zr, Mn, Ti, V, B) welding wire was developed by adding minor Sc, Zr, Mn, V, B, and was used for welding 2195 aluminum alloy plate with a thickness of 2 mm. Mechanical properties and microstructure of welding wire and welding joint were studied. The results show that strength coefficient of the welding joint is 0.70 and the weakest area lies in the softened zone of HAZ. It is indicated that this welding wire adding minor Sc, Zr, Mn, V, B is an ideal welding wire for 2195 Al-Li alloy plate. The high strength of the weld comes from grain-refining strengthening and precipitation strengthening of Al2Cu, Al3Sc and Al3Zr.

  5. Curriculum (Study Programme) for the M.Sc., Medialogy, at Aalborg University in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf; Lavatino, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    Defining and describing the education, M.Sc., Medialogy. The curriculum (Study Programme) describes semesters, themes, projectunits, courses and contents of the eduation. offered at Aalborg University in Copenhagen....

  6. DiSC aitab käitumist parandada / Ain Kivesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivesti, Ain

    2008-01-01

    DiSC testi abil on võimalik saada ülevaade personaalsetest käitumishoiakutest ning vastavalt olukorrale on võimalik harjumuspärast reageerimisstiili radikaalselt muuta. Kommenteerivad Jorma Sarv ja Paavo Pilv

  7. Promising electron mobility and high thermal conductivity in Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xian-Hu; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yuhong; Huang, Qing; He, Jian; Francisco, Joseph S.; Luo, Kan; Du, Shiyu

    2016-03-01

    MXenes, the new 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, have recently attracted extensive attention due to their diverse applications and excellent performances. However, the thermal and electrical properties of most MXene materials are yet to be studied. In this work, we investigate the electrical and thermal properties of semiconducting Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes using first-principles calculations. Both of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes are determined to show excellent carrier mobilities. The electron mobility in the Sc2CF2 MXene is found to be strongly anisotropic at room temperature, with values of 5.03 × 103 and 1.07 × 103 cm2 V-1 s-1 in the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. The predicted electron mobility in the zigzag direction of the Sc2CF2 is nearly four-fold that in the armchair direction of the promising semiconductor phosphorene. In contrast to Sc2CF2, Sc2C(OH)2 presents approximately isotropic electron mobility. The values at room temperature in the zigzag and armchair directions are calculated as 2.06 × 103 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.19 × 103 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. In regard to the thermal properties, the thermal conductivities of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes have been determined. The predicted values are higher than those of most metals and semiconducting low-dimensional materials, such as monolayer MoS2 and phosphorene. In particular, the room-temperature thermal conductivity along the Sc2CF2 armchair direction has been determined to be as high as 472 W m-1 K-1 based on a flake length of 5 μm, which is even higher than that of the best traditional conductor silver. The corresponding value in the zigzag direction of Sc2CF2 is calculated to be 178 W m-1 K-1. The thermal conductivity in Sc2C(OH)2 is less anisotropic and lower compared to that in Sc2CF2. The room-temperature value in the armchair (zigzag) direction is determined to be 173 W m-1 K-1 (107 W m-1 K-1). Based on their excellent electron mobilities and high thermal

  8. Label-free assessment of adipose-derived stem cell differentiation using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multiphoton microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mouras, Rabah; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Downes, Andrew R; Elfick, Alistair P D

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Adult stem cells (SCs) hold great potential as likely candidates for disease therapy but also as sources of differentiated human cells in vitro models of disease. In both cases, the label-free assessment of SC differentiation state is highly desirable, either as a quality-control technology ensuring cells to be used clinically are of the desired lineage or to facilitate in vitro time-course studies of cell differentiation. We investigate the potential of nonlinear optical microscopy...

  9. 超导ECR离子源DECRIS-SC2%Project of the Superconducting ECR Ion Source DECRIS-SC2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.V.Bekhterev; V.V.Seleznev; A.Shishov; G.P.Tsvineva; N.YU.Yazvitsky; B.I.Yakovlev; S.L.Bogomolov; V.I.Datskov; V.M.Drobin; S.N.Dmitriev; A.A.Efremov; V.N.Loginov; A.N.Lebedev; H.Malinowski

    2007-01-01

    A new compact version of the"liquid He-free"superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source,to be used as an injector for the U-400M cyclotron,is presently under construction at the FLNR in collaboration with LHE(JINR).The axial magnetic field of the source is created by the superconducting magnet,and the NdFeB hexapole is used for the radial plasma confinement.The microwave frequency of 14GHz will be used for ECR plasma heating.The DECRIS-SC2 superconducting magnet is designed for the induction of a magnetic field on the axis of the source of up to 1.4T (extraction side) and 1.9T (injection side) at nominal current of 75A.Cooling of the coils is carried out by GM cryocooler with cooling power of 1W at the temperature 4.5K.The basic design features of the superconducting magnet and of the ion source are presented.The main parts of the source are in production.The first beam test of the source is expected in the beginning of 2007.

  10. Correlative characterization of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase in an Al–Zn–Mg based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.H., E-mail: jie-hua.li@hotmail.com [Institute of Casting Research, Montanuniversität Leoben, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Wiessner, M. [Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Albu, M. [Institute for Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy (Austria); Wurster, S. [Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Sartory, B. [Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Hofer, F. [Institute for Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy (Austria); Schumacher, P. [Institute of Casting Research, Montanuniversität Leoben, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Austrian Foundry Research Institute, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2015-04-15

    Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction, focused ion beam, transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the structural information of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, i.e. size, shape, element distribution and orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix. It was found that (i) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases have a cubic three-dimensional morphology, with a size of about 6–10 μm, (ii) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases are located within the α-Al matrix, and exhibit a cube to cube orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix, and (iii) a layer by layer growth was observed within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. Al, Cu, Si and Fe are enriched in the α-Al matrix between the layers of cellular eutectic Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, while Sc, Ti and Zr are enriched in small Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. A peritectic reaction and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed to interpret the observed layer by layer growth. This paper demonstrates that the presence of impurities (Fe, Si, Cu, Ti) in the diffusion field surrounding the growing Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particle enhances the heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. - Highlights: • Most fine cubic primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases were observed within the α-Al matrix. • A layer by layer growth within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase was observed. • A peritectic and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed. • Impurities in diffusion fields enhance heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr)

  11. Correlative characterization of primary Al3(Sc,Zr) phase in an Al–Zn–Mg based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction, focused ion beam, transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the structural information of primary Al3(Sc,Zr) phase, i.e. size, shape, element distribution and orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix. It was found that (i) most primary Al3(Sc,Zr) phases have a cubic three-dimensional morphology, with a size of about 6–10 μm, (ii) most primary Al3(Sc,Zr) phases are located within the α-Al matrix, and exhibit a cube to cube orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix, and (iii) a layer by layer growth was observed within primary Al3(Sc,Zr) phases. Al, Cu, Si and Fe are enriched in the α-Al matrix between the layers of cellular eutectic Al3(Sc,Zr) phase, while Sc, Ti and Zr are enriched in small Al3(Sc,Zr) phases. A peritectic reaction and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al3Sc and Al was proposed to interpret the observed layer by layer growth. This paper demonstrates that the presence of impurities (Fe, Si, Cu, Ti) in the diffusion field surrounding the growing Al3(Sc,Zr) particle enhances the heterogeneous nucleation of Al3(Sc,Zr) phases. - Highlights: • Most fine cubic primary Al3(Sc,Zr) phases were observed within the α-Al matrix. • A layer by layer growth within primary Al3(Sc,Zr) phase was observed. • A peritectic and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al3Sc and Al was proposed. • Impurities in diffusion fields enhance heterogeneous nucleation of Al3(Sc,Zr)

  12. STEm Minority Graduate Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Kaen E

    2012-09-20

    ABSTRACT The state of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in the United States has seen some unfavorable assessments over the past decade. In early February, 2010 the House of Representatives heard testimony on undergraduate and graduate education. The message from the panel, which included experts from academia, STEM-based industries, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) was dire and required an urgent response. The experts along with the committee's chairperson, U. S. Representative Daniel Lipinski (D-IL) cited that the complexity of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics applications and coursework and the methodology utilized to teach these subjects are forcing students out of these disciplines. As the National Academies described in its 2007 report Rising Above the Gathering Storm, successful STEM education is not just an academic pursuit it's a necessity for competing in the knowledge-based economy that the United States had a key role in creating. The potential for action is being made available again as the America COMPETES Act of 2007 is up for reauthorization. Its initial focus was on STEM education at the K-12 levels, but efforts at the undergraduate and graduate levels are needed to retain students to fill the jobs left vacant as baby boomers retire. The Educational Advancement Alliance, Inc. (EAA) has for two decades created programs that have not only addressed the issues of ensuring that students are aptly prepared for college but have focused its efforts over the past decade on increasing the number of students who pursue degrees in STEM disciplines. For the EAA, the introduction of the wonders of science begins at the elementary and middle school level via the Learning Lab, a state-of-the-art mobile science laboratory that visits students in grades 4-6 at the various schools throughout Philadelphia and The Math/Tech Academy which meets on Saturdays for students in grades 5-7. For the past two years

  13. Proteome of human stem cells from periodontal ligament and dental pulp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Eleuterio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many adult tissues contain a population of stem cells with the ability to regenerate structures similar to the microenvironments from which they are derived in vivo and represent a promising therapy for the regeneration of complex tissues in the clinical disorder. Human adult stem cells (SCs including bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs have been characterized for their high proliferative potential, expression of characteristic SC-associated markers and for the plasticity to differentiate in different lineage in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of this study is to define the molecular features of stem cells from oral tissue by comparing the proteomic profiles obtained with 2-DE followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF of ex-vivo cultured human PDLSCs, DPSCs and BMSCs. Our results showed qualitative similarities in the proteome profiles among the SCs examined including some significant quantitative differences. To enrich the knowledge of oral SCs proteome we performed an analysis in narrow range pH 4-7 and 6-9, and we found that DPSCs vs PDLSCs express differentially regulated proteins that are potentially related to growth, regulation and genesis of neuronal cells, suggesting that SCs derived from oral tissue source populations may possess the potential ability of neuronal differentiation which is very consistent with their neural crest origin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies some differentially expressed proteins by using comparative analysis between DPSCs and PDLSCs and BMSCs and suggests that stem cells from oral tissue could have a different cell lineage potency compared to BMSCs.

  14. A Top-Down Optimization Methodology for SC Filter Circuit Design Using Varying Goal Specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Hugo; Santos-Tavares, Rui; Paulino, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    Part 19: Electronics: Design International audience The design of Switched-Capacitor (SC) filters can be an arduous process, which becomes even more complex when the high gain amplifier is replaced by a low gain amplifier or a voltage follower. This eliminates the virtual ground node, requiring the compensation of the parasitic capacitances during the design phase. This paper proposes an automatic procedure for the design of SC filters using low gain amplifiers, based on a Genetic Algor...

  15. Effects of geometric and material parameters on failure modes of SC elements

    OpenAIRE

    Lohani, Vishesh

    2016-01-01

    A steel-concrete-steel composite (SC) element resembles double skin sandwich composite structure in which the concrete core is in-filled between steel skins. Mechanical shear connectors connect the skins and they are embedded in concrete. These connectors transfer shear forces and have an important role in performance of composite element. SC element is prone to different failure modes such as flexural failure, de-bonding between steel plate and concrete, and shear failure. There are 3 aims o...

  16. Influence of Sc on high temperature strengthening behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Vacuum arc melting technique was used to prepare Ti-6Al-4V alloy containing Sc (0.3% and 0.5%, mass fraction). The ingots were melted twice by vacuum self-consumable electrode arc furnace. Forging of ingots was started in β-phase region and finished in high (α+β)-phase region. Annealing after forging was performed in low (α+β)-phase region for 30 min. Isothermal high temperature compression tests were conducted using thermal simulation machine under Ar atmosphere at 850 ℃ and 1 000 ℃, and the strain rate were 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 s-1. Optical microscope(OM), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive spectrum(EDS) and transmission electron microscope(TEM) were used to study the microstructure evolution during high temperature deformation. The results show that, the peak stress value of alloys increases with increasing Sc content after deformation at 850 ℃,however, there is no obvious strengthening of Sc when the alloys are deformed at 1 000 ℃. Sc exists as Sc2O3 forms by internal oxidation during forging procedure, only minor Sc solutes in matrix. At 850 ℃, the interaction between dislocation and participated particles and twinning mechanism controls the deformation procedure accompanied recrystallization. At 1 000 ℃, the deformation of alloys containing Sc is mainly controlled by twinning, while the deformation of alloy without Sc is not only controlled by twinning,but also the interaction between dislocation and precipitated particles inside the twinning lamellar.

  17. Magnetic dipole moment of the doubly closed-shell plus one proton nucleus $^{49}$Sc

    CERN Multimedia

    Gaulard, C V; Walters, W; Nishimura, K; Muto, S; Bingham, C R

    It is proposed to measure the magnetic moment of $^{49}$Sc by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance on Oriented Nuclei (NMR-ON) method using the NICOLE on-line nuclear orientation facility. $^{49}$Sc is the neutron rich, doubly closed-shell, nucleus $^{48}$Ca plus one proton. Results will be used to deduce the effective g-factors in the $^{48}$Ca region with reference to nuclear structure and meson exchange current effects.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Highly Virulent Haemophilus parasuis Serotype 11 Strain SC1401

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ke; Jin, Jin; Wen, Xintian; He, Lvqin; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Wu, Rui; Zhao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis, a normal Gram-negative bacterium, may cause Glässer’s disease and pneumonia in pigs. This study aims to identify the genes related to natural competence of the serotype 11 strain SC1401, which frequently shows competence and high pathogenicity. SC1401 shows many differences from strains without natural competence within the molecular basis. We performed complete genome sequencing together with restriction modification system analysis to lay the foundation for later study. PMID:27445368

  19. CMS ECAL Endcap (EE) Dee Assembly - SC mounting on Dee 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Cockerill, D

    2007-01-01

    Protection panels on back of Dee 1, Completion of SC mounting, 03/10/2007: Completion of SC mounting (aart from the inner 3-2-1)on the first quadrant of Dee 1 and subsequent survey. 22-28/08/2007: The first supercrystals on Dee1, Dee1 in 867 with the first column of SCs ready for mounting, Dee1 with its protection panels over the laser monitoring fibre system

  20. Early Stages of Precipitation Process in Al-(Mn-)Sc-Zr Alloy Characterized by Positron Annihilation

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin

    2015-01-29

    Thermal effects on the precipitation stages in as-cast Al-0.70 at. pct Mn-0.15 at. pct Sc-0.05 at. pct Zr alloy were studied. The role of lattice defects was elucidated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening) enabling investigation of solutes clustering at the atomic scale. This technique has never been used in the Al-Sc- and/or Al-Zr-based alloys so far. Studies by positron annihilation were combined with resistometry, hardness measurements, and microstructure observations. Positrons trapped at defects are preferentially annihilated by Sc electrons. Lifetime of trapped positrons indicates that Sc atoms segregate at dislocations. Maximum fraction of positrons annihilated by Sc electrons occurring at 453 K (180 °C) suggests that clustering of Sc bound with vacancies takes place. It is followed by peak of this fraction at 573 K (300 °C). A rise of the contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Zr electrons starting at 513 K (240 °C) and attaining maximum also at 573 K (300 °C) confirms that Zr participates in precipitation of the Al3Sc particles already at these temperatures. The pronounced hardening at 573 K (300 °C) has its nature in the precipitation of the Al3Sc particles with a Zr-rich shell. The contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Mn electrons was found to be negligible. © 2015, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

  1. Strategisk anarki : en utredning av WeActivists strategiska funktion inom WeSC

    OpenAIRE

    Leijonborg, Lindström, Frida, Nils

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Title: Strategic Anarchy – a study on WeActivists' communicative function inside WeSC. Number of pages: 69 Authors: Frida Leijonborg, Nils Lindström Tutor: Jessica Gustafsson Course: Media and communication studies C Period: Second term 2013 University: Division of Media and Communication, department of information science, Uppsala University Purpose: Our aim with this paper is to examine the communicative role WeActivists play in WeSC's external communication, and also to investiga...

  2. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Adriamycin Induced Tubulointerstitial Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickri, Maha Baligh; Zaghloul, Somaya; Farouk, Mira; Fattah, Marwa Mohamed Abdel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives It was postulated that adriamycin (ADR) induce renal tubulointerstitial injury. Clinicians are faced with a challenge in producing response in renal patients and slowing or halting the evolution towards kidney failure. The present study aimed at investigating the relation between the possible therapeutic effect of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs), isolated from cord blood on tubular renal damage and their distribution by using ADR induced nephrotoxicity as a model in albino rat. Methods and Results Thirty three male albino rats were divided into control group, ADR group where rats were given single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 5 mg/kg adriamycin. The rats were sacrificed 10, 20 and 30 days following confirmation of tubular injury. In stem cell therapy group, rats were injected with HMSCs following confirmation of renal injury and sacrificed 10, 20 and 30 days after HMSCs therapy. Kidney sections were exposed to histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric and serological studies. In response to SC therapy, vacuolated cytoplasm, dark nuclei, detached epithelial lining and desquamated nuclei were noticed in few collecting tubules (CT). 10, 20 and 30 days following therapy. The mean count of CT showing desquamated nuclei and mean value of serum creatinine revealed significant difference in ADR group. The mean area% of Prussian blue+ve cells and that of CD105 +ve cells measured in subgroup S1 denoted a significant increase compared to subgroups S2 and S3. Conclusions ADR induced tubulointerstitial damage that regressed in response to cord blood HMSC therapy. PMID:24298366

  3. Advancing the STEM Workforce through STEM-Centric Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Preparing for the future is not what it used to be. Yet, advising students, preparing lessons, and promoting the value of STEM options remains constant. As a result, technical and engineering educators seek clarity about the future of careers, career development, and ways to promote STEM options. Recently, the ITEEA conference allowed the author…

  4. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...... in porcine pre-implantation development compared to the mouse and human. Expression of oct4, nanog and sox2 differs in the zona-enclosed porcine blastocyst compared to its mouse and human counterparts, which may suggest that other factors may be responsible for maintaining porcine pluripotency in the early...

  5. Epidermal stem cell dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sieber-Blum, Maya

    2011-01-01

    Wong and Reiter have explored the possibility that hair follicle stem cells can give rise to basal cell carcinoma (BCC). They expressed in mice an inducible human BCC-derived oncogenic allele of Smoothened, SmoM2, under the control of either the cytokeratin 14 (K14) or cytokeratin 15 (K15) promoter. Smoothened encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor protein in the hedgehog pathway, the misregulation of which is implicated in BCC and other human cancers. Chronic injury is thought to be a contribu...

  6. Lattice resolution STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lattice-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) contrast, derived from coherent or incoherent scattering mechanisms, is finding application over a diverse range of problems on the atomic scale, particularly with the availability of coherent FEGs. Fundamental for the understanding of such contrast is the propagation within a crystal of a focused coherent probe formed by a collapsing spherical wave. Current Bloch wave descriptions construct the total wave function from a coherent superposition of Bloch states excited from a series of incident plane waves that span the full range of transverse momentum components in the focused probe. However this implementation of boundary conditions using phase-linked plane waves may be misleading in that the possibility of exciting antisymmetric states which provides the cross-talk between adjacent columns of atoms - appears at first sight to be excluded. We match the total probe wave function to a crystal wave function which incorporates all transverse momenta in the incident probe. This revised implementation of boundary conditions leads to a simple formula for excitation amplitude which enables the probe position dependent excitation of both symmetric and antisymmetric Bloch states to be predicted. Shortcomings of previous models for incoherent contrast are that interference between waves associated with mixed dynamic form factors for incoherent contrast is not addressed, and that an intensity contribution from dechannelled electrons is not taken into account. This simple revision of boundary conditions leads to a rigorous formulation for (i) coherent and (n) incoherent lattice resolution STEM contrast. The former (i) does not require principles of reciprocity to be invoked, and the latter (n) follows from a simple generalization of the theory of channelling contrast for ADF, BSE and ALCHEMI for an incident plane wave. Phase associated with products of transition amplitudes that occur in mixed

  7. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... blood-forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

  8. EngenuitySC Commercialization and Entrepreneurial Training Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Meghan; Hutton, Katherine R

    2012-12-31

    A team led by EngenuitySC has performed education and outreach on development of advanced energy markets that will enable wider use of clean energy technologies. This report details the efforts that have made significant advances to improve the market place through education, outreach, and increased communications between industry members. The project resulted in two self-funded industry clusters known as the Fuel Cell Collaborative and NuHub. This project has focused on building and strengthening the leading clean energy clusters in South Carolina: nuclear energy and fuel cell technologies. For the nuclear industry, a new cluster was developed that is now known as NuHub. This cluster has already engaged over 25 nuclear industry leaders or suppliers, four public sector partners, six community economic development foundations, and nearly ten academic partners in a 175 mile radius between Augusta, Georgia and Charlotte, North Carolina. Our outreach has touched over 2,000 stakeholders through the website alone, not including the public audiences and members of the business community reached through news stories and releases that were distributed to over 620 print and online publications. NuHub has established a formal leadership structure, developed subcommittees to focus on industry issues, instituted educational programs for the workforce, and created an industry funding structure that will sustain the industry cluster and mission. NuHub has participated in a wide-variety of community building and outreach activities since its formation under this grant. In the two years since its creation in 2010, we have initiated efforts focused in four main areas that correlate with the four NuHub subcommittees including: innovation, workforce development, industry engagement, and marketing and communications. NuHub successfully raised over $160,000 in both public and private funding, which has supported work to grow the cluster and engage partners including NuScale, Fluor, and

  9. Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

    2006-04-01

    From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware

  10. A blue-emitting Sc silicate phosphor for ultraviolet excited light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhu, Ge; Xin, Shuangyu; Ding, Xin; Xu, Ju; Wang, Yuansheng; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-11-01

    A blue-emitting phosphor BaSc2Si3O10:Eu(2+) was synthesized using the conventional solid-state reaction. The crystallographic occupancy of Eu(2+) in the BaSc2Si3O10 matrix was studied based on the Rietveld refinement results and the photoluminescence properties. BaSc2Si3O10 exhibits blue emission ascribed to (3)T2-(1)A1 and (3)T1-(1)A1 charge transfer of SiO4(4-) excited by 360 nm. All the phosphors of BaSc2Si3O10:Eu(2+) exhibit strong broad absorption bands in the near ultraviolet range, and give abnormal blue emission upon 330 nm excitation. The abnormal phenomenon was explored in detail through many pieces of experimental evidence. The concentration of Eu(2+) is optimized to be 3 mol% according to emission intensity and the quenching mechanism is verified to be a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. The CIE coordinates of BaSc2Si3O10:0.03Eu(2+) are calculated to be (0.15, 0.05) and BaSc2Si3O10:0.03Eu(2+) shows similar thermal stability to commercial BaMgAl10O17:Eu(2+). PMID:26242881

  11. Corrosion behavior of an Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guangxing; TAO Binwu; LIU Jianhua; LI Songmei

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of an Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy was studied and compared with that of an Al-6Mg-Zr alloy.The addition of scandium into the Al-6Mg-Zr alloy reduced the susceptibility to exfoliation corrosion. By using the constant load tensile method in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, the resistance to SCC of the Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy was higher than that of the Al-6Mg-Zr alloy. When the specimens were not applied with an anodic current, the Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy was resistance to SCC and no brittle cracking was found on the fracture surface. When an anodic current was applied, the Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy specimens failed as a result of accelerated corrosion rather than SCC. It was believed that the addition of scandium resulted in (Al3Sc, Zr) particles that greatly refmed grains and promoted the formation of homogeneous discontinuous distribution of β-phase in the alloy base, which much contributed to good corrosion resistance of the Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy.

  12. Detergents modify proteinase K resistance of PrP Sc in different transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Johanna; Wemheuer, Wiebke M; Wrede, Arne; Graham, Catherine; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brenig, Bertram; Richt, Jürgen A; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J

    2012-05-25

    Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrP(Sc)). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrP(Sc) against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most commonly used detergents on eight different TSE agents derived from different species and distinct prion disease forms. For a high throughput we used a membrane adsorption assay to detect small amounts of prion aggregates, as well as Western blotting. Tissue lysates were prepared using DOC, SLS, SDS or Triton X-100 in different concentrations and these were digested with various amounts of proteinase K. Detergents are able to enhance or diminish the detectability of PrP(Sc) after proteinase K digestion. Depending on the kind of detergent, its concentration - but also on the host species that developed the TSE and the disease form or prion type - the detectability of PrP(Sc) can be very different. The results obtained here may be helpful during the development or improvement of a PrP(Sc) detection method and they point towards a detergent effect that can be additionally used for decontamination purposes. A plausible explanation for the detergent effects described in this article could be an interaction with the lipids associated with PrP(Sc) that may stabilize the aggregates.

  13. Structural, electronic and elastic properties of M2SC (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ab initio calculations, we have studied the structural, electronic and elastic properties of M2SC, with M = Ti, Zr and Hf. Geometrical optimization of the unit cell are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The band structures show that all three materials are conducting. The analysis of the site and momentum projected densities shows that the bonding is achieved through a hybridization of M-atom d states with S and C-atom p states. The Md-Sp bonds are lower in energy and are stiffer than Md-Cp bonds. The elastic constants are calculated using the static finite strain technique. We derived the bulk and shear moduli, Young's moduli and Poisson's ratio for ideal polycrystalline M2SC aggregates. We estimated the Debye temperature of M2SC from the average sound velocity. This is a quantitative theoretical prediction of the elastic properties of Ti2SC, Zr2SC, and Hf2SC compounds, and it still awaits experimental confirmation

  14. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    One option under current study for the Terrestrial Planet Finder-Occulter (TPF-O) observatory shares some key features of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Both are space telescopes with a primary mirror aperture of around 2.4 meters and designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths, with the major difference in science capability being that TPF-O has an areal FOV on the order of 100 times larger than that of HST. This larger FOV, whose science camera is also expected to provide fine guidance, and other mission differences, mean that most TPF-O SC bus subsystems will have very different requirements than those of HST. Unlike HST in LEO, TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large FOV require much higher performance data processing and communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. TPF-O will have a specialized tracking system that allows the formation flying occulter to maintain its required position. However, despite these additional features, the velocity required for reaching SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require TPF-O to have a compact and low-mass design relative to HST. Finally, TPF-O may utilize a modular design to reduce development cost and, if it required, allow servicing using approaches different from those of HST.

  15. One-neutron knockout from {sup 51-55}Sc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwertel, S.; Maierbeck, P.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Bildstein, V.; Boehmer, M.; Eppinger, K.; Faestermann, T.; Friese, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Maier, L.; Winkler, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Kruecken, R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver (Canada); Kroell, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Alvarez-Pol, H.; Benjamim, E.A.; Benlliure, J.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gascon, M.; Kurtukian, T.; Perez, D.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aksouh, F.; Aumann, T.; Behr, K.; Boretzky, K.; Bruenle, A.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L.V.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Gorska, M.; Kojouharov, I.; Klimkiewicz, A.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Schaffner, H.; Simon, H.; Stanoiu, M.; Suemmerer, K.; Weick, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Borge, M.J.G.; Pascual-Izarra, C.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Buerger, A. [University of Oslo, SAFE/OCL, Oslo (Norway); CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Casarejos, E.; Brown, B.A. [University of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Enders, J.; Schrieder, G. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Hansen, P.G. [Michigan State University, NSCL, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Jonson, B.; Nyman, G. [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola och Goeteborgs Universitet, Experimentell Fysik, Goeteborg (Sweden); Kanungo, R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Saint Mary' s University, Halifax (Canada); Kiselev, O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Larsson, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola och Goeteborgs Universitet, Experimentell Fysik, Goeteborg (Sweden); Le Bleis, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Mahata, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Nilsson, T. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola och Goeteborgs Universitet, Experimentell Fysik, Goeteborg (Sweden); Prochazka, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Rossi, D. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Sitar, B. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Otsuka, T. [University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Tostevin, J.A. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Guildford (United Kingdom); Rae, W.D.M. [Garsington, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Results are presented from a one-neutron knockout experiment at relativistic energies of {approx} 420 A MeV on {sup 51-55}Sc using the GSI Fragment Separator as a two-stage magnetic spectrometer and the MINIBALL array for gamma-ray detection. Inclusive longitudinal momentum distributions and cross-sections were measured enabling the determination of the contributions corresponding to knockout from the {nu}p{sub 1/2}, {nu}p{sub 3/2}, (L = 1) and {nu}f{sub 7/2}, {nu}f{sub 5/2} (L = 3) neutron orbitals. The observed L = 1 and L = 3 contributions are compared with theoretical cross-sections using eikonal knockout theory and spectroscopic factors from shell model calculations using the GXPF1A interaction. The measured inclusive knockout cross-sections generally follow the trends expected theoretically and given by the spectroscopic strength predicted from the shell model calculations. However, the deduced L = 1 cross-sections are generally 30-40% higher while the L = 3 contributions are about a factor of two smaller than predicted. This points to a promotion of neutrons from the {nu}f{sub 7/2} to the {nu}p{sub 3/2} orbital indicating a weakening of the N = 28 shell gap in these nuclei. While this is not predicted for the phenomenological GXPF1A interaction such a weakening is predicted by recent calculations using realistic low-momentum interactions V{sub low} {sub k} obtained by evolving a chiral N3LO nucleon-nucleon potential. (orig.)

  16. Gastrointestinal stem cell up-to-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirvulet, V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract depends on stem cells with properties of self-renewal, clonogenicity, and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential gastric, intestinal, colonic stem cells new markers and the signaling pathways provide hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. This review provides an overview of the different types of stem cells, focusing on tissue-restricted adult stem cells.

  17. Stem cells in gastroenterology and hepatology

    OpenAIRE

    Quante, Michael; Timothy C Wang

    2009-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract and liver depends on stem cells with properties of longevity, self-renewal and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential esophageal, gastric, intestinal, colonic, hepatic and pancreatic stem cells provides hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have the potential to give rise to any cell type ...

  18. What makes cancer stem cell markers different?

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten, Uwe; Goletz, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Since the cancer stem cell concept has been widely accepted, several strategies have been proposed to attack cancer stem cells (CSC). Accordingly, stem cell markers are now preferred therapeutic targets. However, the problem of tumor specificity has not disappeared but shifted to another question: how can cancer stem cells be distinguished from normal stem cells, or more specifically, how do CSC markers differ from normal stem cell markers? A hypothesis is proposed which might help to solve t...

  19. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  20. Deconstruction Geography: A STEM Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlhar, Adam M.; Duffield, Stacy K.

    2015-01-01

    This article will define the engineering design process used to create an integrated curriculum at STEM Center Middle School, and it features the planning, implementation, and revision of the Deconstruction Geography unit. The Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Center opened in the fall of 2009 as a way to relieve overcrowding at the…

  1. LncRNAs in Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shanshan Hu; Ge Shan

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs are critical regulatory factors in essentially all forms of life. Stem cells occupy a special position in cell biology and Biomedicine, and emerging results show that multiple ncRNAs play essential roles in stem cells. We discuss some of the known ncRNAs in stem cells such as embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, adult stem cells, and cancer stem cells with a focus on long ncRNAs. Roles and functional mechanisms of these lncRNAs are summa...

  2. Stem cells for spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Joshua; Kueper, Janina; Leon, Kaplan; Liebergall, Meir

    2015-01-26

    In the past few years, stem cells have become the focus of research by regenerative medicine professionals and tissue engineers. Embryonic stem cells, although capable of differentiating into cell lineages of all three germ layers, are limited in their utilization due to ethical issues. In contrast, the autologous harvest and subsequent transplantation of adult stem cells from bone marrow, adipose tissue or blood have been experimentally utilized in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases ranging from myocardial infarction to Alzheimer's disease. The physiologic consequences of stem cell transplantation and its impact on functional recovery have been studied in countless animal models and select clinical trials. Unfortunately, the bench to bedside translation of this research has been slow. Nonetheless, stem cell therapy has received the attention of spinal surgeons due to its potential benefits in the treatment of neural damage, muscle trauma, disk degeneration and its potential contribution to bone fusion. PMID:25621119

  3. Stem cells for spine surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joshua Schroeder; Janina Kueper; Kaplan Leon; Meir Liebergall

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, stem cells have become the focusof research by regenerative medicine professionals andtissue engineers. Embryonic stem cells, although capableof differentiating into cell lineages of all three germlayers, are limited in their utilization due to ethical issues.In contrast, the autologous harvest and subsequenttransplantation of adult stem cells from bone marrow,adipose tissue or blood have been experimentally utilizedin the treatment of a wide variety of diseases rangingfrom myocardial infarction to Alzheimer's disease. Thephysiologic consequences of stem cell transplantationand its impact on functional recovery have been studiedin countless animal models and select clinical trials.Unfortunately, the bench to bedside translation of thisresearch has been slow. Nonetheless, stem cell therapyhas received the attention of spinal surgeons due to itspotential benefits in the treatment of neural damage,muscle trauma, disk degeneration and its potentialcontribution to bone fusion.

  4. Two-gap superconductivity in R2Fe3Si5 (R=Lu, Sc and Sc5Ir4Si10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Tamegai, Yasuyuki Nakajima, Tsuyoshi Nakagawa, Guoji Li and Hisatomo Harima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available R2Fe3Si5 (R= Sc, Y, Lu contains nonmagnetic iron and has a relatively high superconducting transition temperature Tc among iron-containing superconductors. An anomalous temperature dependence of specific heat C(T has been reported for polycrystalline samples down to 1 K. We have grown R2Fe3Si5 single crystals, confirmed the anomalous C(T dependence, and found a second drop in specific heat below 1 K. In Lu2Fe3Si5, we can reproduce C(T below Tc, assuming two distinct energy gaps 2Δ 1/kBTc = 4.4 and 2Δ 2/kBTc = 1.1, with nearly equal weights, indicating that Lu2Fe3Si5 is a two-gap superconductor similar to MgB2. Hall coefficient measurements and band structure calculation also support the multiband contributions to the normal-state properties. The specific heat in the Sc2Fe3Si5 single crystals also shows the two-gap feature. R5Ir4Si10 (R = Sc, rare earth is also a superconductor where competition between superconductivity and the charge-density wave is known for rare earths but not for Sc. We have performed detailed specific heat measurements on Sc5Ir4Si10 single crystals and found that C(T deviates slightly from the behavior expected for weak-coupling superconductors. C(T for these superconductors can also be reproduced well by assuming two superconducting gaps.

  5. Human Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells in Adaptations to Exercise; Effects of Resistance Exercise Contraction Mode and Protein Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean

    2014-01-01

    protein constitute key factors in regulation of human skeletal muscle mass; however, the influence of divergent resistance exercise contraction modes and protein supplementation on SC content, is not well described. The overall aim of the present thesis was to investigate whether eccentric versus...... concentric resistance training and ingestion of protein influence myocellular adaptations, with special emphasis on muscle stem cell adaptations, during both acute and prolonged resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle. Paper I. Whey protein supplementation accelerates satellite cell proliferation during....... In conclusion, protein supplementation may accelerate SC proliferation as part of regeneration or remodeling processes after maximal eccentric exercise. Paper II. Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of exercise contraction mode. The aim of paper II was to investigate...

  6. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Sun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34, and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC assay. The best conditions obtained for SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:3, v/v, and that for phenolics extraction was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:1, v/v. Meantime, flavonoids and phenolics were found to be mainly responsible for the DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts, but not for the chelating activity on ferrous ion according to Pearson correlation analysis. Furthermore, several unreported flavonoids such as apigenin, vitexin, luteolin, etc., have been detected in the extracts from A. grossedentata stems.

  7. Leaving STEM: STEM Ph.D. Holders in Non-STEM Careers. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Berger, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    During the last few decades, national, state, and institutional-level initiatives have been implemented to build and expand the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce by recruiting and retaining groups of individuals that have been traditionally underrepresented in STEM in higher education. The underlying theory of…

  8. Characterization of normal and cancer stem cells: One experimental paradigm for two kinds of stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mayol, Jean-François; Loeuillet, Corinne; Hérodin, Francis; Wion, Didier

    2009-01-01

    The characterization of normal stem cells and cancer stem cells uses the same paradigm. These cells are isolated by a Fluorescent-Activated Cell Sorting step and their stemness is assayed following implantation into animals. However, differences exist between these two kinds of stem cells. Therefore, the translation of the experimental procedures used for normal stem cell isolation into the cancer stem cell research field is a potential source of artefacts. In addition, normal stem cell thera...

  9. Gene function in early mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Pearl A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the genes that drive embryonic stem cell differentiation. However, such knowledge is necessary if we are to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells. To uncover the genetic determinants of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC differentiation, we have generated and analyzed 11-point time-series of DNA microarray data for three biologically equivalent but genetically distinct mESC lines (R1, J1, and V6.5 undergoing undirected differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs over a period of two weeks. Results We identified the initial 12 hour period as reflecting the early stages of mESC differentiation and studied probe sets showing consistent changes of gene expression in that period. Gene function analysis indicated significant up-regulation of genes related to regulation of transcription and mRNA splicing, and down-regulation of genes related to intracellular signaling. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genes showing the largest expression changes were more likely to have originated in metazoans. The probe sets with the most consistent gene changes in the three cell lines represented 24 down-regulated and 12 up-regulated genes, all with closely related human homologues. Whereas some of these genes are known to be involved in embryonic developmental processes (e.g. Klf4, Otx2, Smn1, Socs3, Tagln, Tdgf1, our analysis points to others (such as transcription factor Phf21a, extracellular matrix related Lama1 and Cyr61, or endoplasmic reticulum related Sc4mol and Scd2 that have not been previously related to mESC function. The majority of identified functions were related to transcriptional regulation, intracellular signaling, and cytoskeleton. Genes involved in other cellular functions important in ESC differentiation such as chromatin remodeling and transmembrane receptors were not observed in this set. Conclusion Our analysis profiles for the first time gene expression at a very early stage of m

  10. Selection, affinity maturation, and characterization of a human scFv antibody against CEA protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CEA is a tumor-associated antigen abundantly expressed on several cancer types, including those naturally refractory to chemotherapy. The selection and characterization of human anti-CEA single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) is a first step toward the construction of new anticancer monoclonal antibodies designed for optimal blood clearance and tumor penetration. The human MA39 scFv, selected for its ability to recognize a CEA epitope expressed on human colon carcinomas, was first isolated from a large semi-synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library, panned on human purified CEA protein. Subsequently, by in vitro mutagenesis of a gene encoding for the scFv MA39, a new library was established, and new scFv antibodies with improved affinity towards the CEA cognate epitope were selected and characterized. The scFv MA39 antibody was affinity-maturated by in vitro mutagenesis and the new scFv clone, E8, was isolated, typed for CEA family member recognition and its CEACAM1, 3 and 5 shared epitope characterized for expression in a large panel of human normal and tumor tissues and cells. The binding affinity of the scFv E8 is in a range for efficient, in vivo, antigen capture in tumor cells expressing a shared epitope of the CEACAM1, 3 and 5 proteins. This new immunoreagent meets all criteria for a potential anticancer compound: it is human, hence poorly or not at all immunogenic, and it binds selectively and with good affinity to the CEA epitope expressed by metastatic melanoma and colon and lung carcinomas. Furthermore, its small molecular size should provide for efficient tissue penetration, yet give rapid plasma clearance

  11. Low Temperature Synthesis and Characterization of AlScMo3O12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Truitt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in low and negative thermal expansion materials has led to significant research on compounds that exhibit this property, much of which has targeted the A2M3O12 family (A = trivalent cation, M = Mo, W. The expansion and phase transition behavior in this family can be tuned through the choice of the metals incorporated into the structure. An undesired phase transition to a monoclinic structure with large positive expansion can be suppressed in some solid solutions by substituting the A-site by a mixture of two cations. One such material, AlScMo3O12, was successfully synthesized using non-hydrolytic sol-gel chemistry. Depending on the reaction conditions, phase separation into Al2Mo3O12 and Sc2Mo3O12 or single-phase AlScMo3O12 could be obtained. Optimized conditions for the reproducible synthesis of stoichiometric, homogeneous AlScMo3O12 were established. High resolution synchrotron diffraction experiments were carried out to confirm whether samples were homogeneous and to estimate the Al:Sc ratio through Rietveld refinement and Vegard’s law. Single-phase samples were found to adopt the orthorhombic Sc2W3O12 structure at 100 to 460 K. In contrast to all previously-reported A2M3O12 compositions, AlScMo3O12 exhibited positive thermal expansion along all unit cell axes instead of contraction along one or two axes, with expansion coefficients (200–460 K of αa = 1.7 × 10−6 K−1, αb = 6.2 × 10−6 K−1, αc = 2.9 × 10−6 K−1 and αV = 10.8 × 10−6 K−1, respectively.

  12. The inhibition of lung cancer cell growth by intracellular immunization with LC-1 ScFv

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, LC-l, recognizing lung cancer associated common antigens was obtained in authors' laboratory. Its single chain Fv fragment (ScFv) named LC-1 ScFv was constructed based on recombinant phage displayed techniques. For expression on cell membrane, LC-1 ScFv was cloned into pDisplay vector, which directed the cloned gene to express as cell membrane bound protein. The resulting plasmid was sequenced and then introduced by the lipofectin method into a lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1. G418 resistant cells were obtained by G418 selection. After transfection, LC-1 ScFv expression was observed by Western blot analysis and the expression of cognate antigens was down-regulated as shown in ELISA assay. SPC-A-1-pDisplay-ScFv cells grew in vitro at lower speed than the control intact cells and the cells transfected with vacant vector. Flow cytometry analysis detected a substantial increase in G1 phase and decrease in S phase in population of SPC-A-1-pDisplay-ScFv cells compared to SPC-A-1 and SPC-A1-pDisplay cells. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that c-myc expression was down-regulated in SPC-A-1-pDisplay-ScFv cells. It seems that the antigens recognized by LC-1 may be in some way involved in a growth stimulating pathway and the antibody blocking of the function of the antigens shut down the pathway and thus down-regulate the expression of c-myc and growth of the cells.

  13. A Global Record of Surface Earth Oxygenation from Sedimentary V/Sc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, C. B.; Schoene, B.; Johnston, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    One of the simplest methods to investigate changes in oxidation potential in geologic environments is to examine a pair of otherwise similar elements with dramatically different redox chemistry. The first-row transition metals Sc and V represent one such pair, with generally similar mass, radius, and ionization energies up to the trivalent redox state. However, as a d3 transition metal, Sc is limited to a maximum oxidation state of 3+, while d5 vanadium may be further oxidized to form tetravalent and pentavalent ions. Due to the greater incompatibility of pentavalent (relative to trivalent) metal cations in silicate melts, V/Sc ratio has been applied to the silicate rock record as a tracer of magma redox - indicating roughly constant mantle oxygen fugacity over Earth history1,2. As a result, the solid earth represents a boundary condition with constant V/Sc observed over geologic time1. However, oxidation state also affects the weathering, solubility, and coordination behaviour of V and Sc, resulting in a potential redox signal in the sedimentary V/Sc record. We apply the weighted bootstrap resampling approach of [2] to a geochemical dataset of ~87,000 sedimentary whole-rock analyses from the EarthChem portal3. The resulting trends reveal a 4 Gyr record of V/Sc redox chemistry, with the great oxidation event represented as an upward step ca. 2.5 Ga, and Phanerozoic variation suggestive of low oxygen in the early Paleozoic, increasing to twin maxima circa 270 Ma and 130 Ma, remarkably similar to that predicted by the COPSE model4, and broadly congruent with the Phanerozoic biochar record5. Li, Z.-X. A. & Lee, C.-T. A. EPSL 228, 483-493 (2004). Keller, C. B. & Schoene, B. Nature 485, 490-493 (2012). EarthChem Bergman, N. M. Am. J. Science 304, 397-437 (2004). Glasspool, I. J. & Scott, A. C. Nat. Geosci. 3, 627-630 (2010).

  14. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early...... studies, human or mouse epithelium was implanted as fragments into the mouse gland, more recent technical progress has allowed the self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of distinct cell populations or even individual cells to be interrogated. Here, we review and discuss similarities...

  15. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  16. Stem cells in infantile hemangioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao TAO; Xiao-dong HE; Jia-Ren LIU; Qian LIU

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Background:Infantile hemangioma (IH)is the most common tumor of infancy and the pathogenesis is still unclear.Recent new evidences have been shown that IH arises from stem cells.Data sources:Based on recent origi-nal publications from Pub Med,Elsevier and Google Scholar,a large number of articles about pathogenesis and treatment of IH were selected by their titles and abstracts.Results:The hemangioma-derived stem cells expressed stem cell-specif-ic marker CD133 and mesenchymal markers CD29,CD44,and comprised between 0.1%and 1%of the cells in prolifer-ating-phase IH.During the proliferative phase,stem cells differentiated into large amounts of endothelial cells and peri-cytes;while during the involuting phase,stem cells became less and predominantly differentiated toward adipocytes.Sig-naling pathways like VEGF/VEGFR,Notch signaling,were found to be related to these processes.Corticosteroids,Ra-pamycin and propranolol had a significant effect on stem cells by inhibiting the cell growth or differentiation,or participat-ing in maintaining the cell stability.Conclusions:Stem cells derived from hemangioma play an important role in the pathogenesis of IH,and may be important targets of therapy.

  17. [Stem cells and cardiac regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Lorenti, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by virtue of their functional attributes: absence of tissue specific differentitated markers, capable of proliferation, able to self-maintain the population, able to produce a large number of differentiated, functional progeny, able to regenerate the tissue after injury. Cell therapy is an alternative for the treatment of several diseases, like cardiac diseases (cell cardiomyoplasty). A variety of stem cells could be used for cardiac repair: from cardiac and extracardiac sources. Each cell type has its own profile of advantages, limitations, and practicability issues in specific clinical settings. Differentiation of bone marrow stem cells to cardiomyocyte-like cells have been observed under different culture conditions. The presence of resident cardiac stem cell population capable of differentiation into cardiomyocyte or vascular lineage suggests that these cells could be used for cardiac tissue repair, and represent a great promise for clinical application. Stem cells mobilization by cytokines may also offer a strategy for cardiac regeneration. The use of stem cells (embryonic and adult) may hold the key to replacing cells lost in many devastating diseases. This potential benefit is a major focus for stem cell research.

  18. AVOCADO SEEDLINGS MULTIPLE STEMS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCUS VINICIUS SANDOVAL PAIXÃO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the potential of multi-stems in avocado seeds according to their mass as well as the adventitious rooting of multi-stem budding with or without the use of auxin. The research was carried out at the Vegetation House of Federal Institute of Espírito Santo, Campus Santa Teresa -ES, with seeds of different masses: 100 g, in which each experimental unit was made of five seeds, distributed within five repetitions, under a completely randomized design. The seeds were put to germinate and the percentage number of emergence and multiple stems were evaluated. After 150 days, the following evaluations were carried out: survival of rooted cuttings; number of leaves; stem diameter; root length; root volume; root and shoot fresh mass; root and shoot dry mass; shoot height; absolute growth and shoot growth rate; shoot dry weight/root dry mass ratio; shoot height/stem diameter ratio; shoot height/root length and Dickson's quality index ratio. Avocado seeds with mass over 100 g and between 81-100 g presented higher percentage of multiple stems. Rods over 20 cm that were not treated with IBA (indole-3-butyric acid resulted on avocado plants of better quality. The use of IBA (2000 mg L-1 does not affect the rooting and growth of avocado's multi-stem plants.

  19. Phase relations of Al-4Mg-Sc-Zr quaternary system in Al-rich range at 430 ℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏长清; 曾凡浩; 古一

    2003-01-01

    The 430 ℃ isothermal section of the Al-4Mg-Sc-Zr quaternary system in the Al-rich range was determined by means of equilibrium alloys with the use of microstructure, X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe microanalysis. There coexist three single-phase fields, two two-phase fields and one three-phase field. It is established that the phase Al3Sc1-0.5Zr0-0.5 with L12 structure and Al3Zr1-0.8Sc0-0.2 with DO23 structure are in equilibrium with the α solid solution, Zr being dissolved in Al3Sc, further substituting for about 50% Sc(mole fraction) whilst Sc is present in the phase Al3Zr and the maximum substitution for Zr is about 20%.

  20. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A;

    2011-01-01

    This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and fetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem...... cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed....

  1. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May;

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self......-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type of cells, e.g., to osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and possibly other cell types including hepatocytes and astrocytes. Due to their ease of culture and multipotentiality, hMSC are increasingly employed as a source for cells suitable for a number...

  2. Stem cells in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Rama Kumar M, Madhu Varma K, Kalyan Satish R, Manikya kumar Nanduri.R, Murali Krishnam Raju S, Mohan rao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. Serving as a sort of repair system for the body, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. However, progress in stem cell biology and tissue engineering may present new options for replacing heavily damaged or lost teeth, or even individual tooth structures. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential impact of dental pulp stem cells on regenerative endodontics.

  3. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  4. Chromatin, epigenetics and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Tim C; Nuber, Ulrike A

    2005-03-01

    Epigenetics is a term that has changed its meaning with the increasing biological knowledge on developmental processes. However, its current application to stem cell biology is often imprecise and is conceptually problematic. This article addresses two different subjects, the definition of epigenetics and chromatin states of stem and differentiated cells. We describe mechanisms that regulate chromatin changes and provide an overview of chromatin states of stem and differentiated cells. Moreover, a modification of the current epigenetics definition is proposed that is not restricted by the heritability of gene expression throughout cell divisions and excludes translational gene expression control. PMID:15819395

  5. Metastasis and stem cell pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Barnhart, Bryan C.; Simon, M. Celeste

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have described a small population of self-renewing and multipotent cells within tumors termed “cancer stem cells.” These cells share many traits with somatic and embryonic stem cells and are thought to be responsible for driving tumor progression in a growing list of neoplastic diseases. Cells within solid tumors encounter hypoxia due to poor vascular function. Both long-standing and emerging data describe hypoxic effects on somatic and embryonic stem cells, and it is likely th...

  6. Conductivity ageing studies on 1M10ScSZ (M4+=Ce, Hf)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Shobit; Bin Najib, Waqas; Bonanos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    The long-term conductivity stability is tested on zirconia based electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications. The ageing studies have been performed on the samples of ZrO2 co-doped with 10mol% of Sc2O3 and 1mol% MO2, where M = Ce or Hf (denoted respectively 1Ce10ScSZ and 1Hf10Sc......SZ) in oxidising and reducing atmospheres, at 600°C for 3000h. At 600°C, these compositions show initial conductivity of around 9–12mS∙cm−1 in air. After 3000h of ageing, no phase transitions are observed in any of the samples. For the first 1000h, the degradation rate is higher than in the subsequent 2000h......; thereafter, conductivity degrades linearly with time for all samples. In air, the loss in the conductivity is lower than in reducing conditions. The 1Ce10ScSZ shows the highest degradation rate of 3.8%/1000h in wet H2/N2 after the first 1000h of ageing. A colour change of the 1Ce10ScSZ sample from white...

  7. Unexpected magnetic behavior in amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafari, M., E-mail: mohammad.ghafari@kit.edu, E-mail: skamali@utsi.edu; Gleiter, H. [Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sakurai, Y.; Itou, M. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan); Peng, G.; Fang, Y. N.; Feng, T. [Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Hahn, H. [Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt (TUD), Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kamali, S., E-mail: mohammad.ghafari@kit.edu, E-mail: skamali@utsi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, Tennessee 37388 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    An amorphous alloy Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} has been prepared by rapid quenching from the melt. The results of magnetization measurements show that this alloy has the highest Curie temperature reported for any amorphous transition metal based alloys. Furthermore, for a Co based amorphous alloy, the magnetic moment is remarkably high. Moreover, the alloy exhibits soft magnetic properties. Based on the findings, amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} appears to be an attractive candidate for applications as a soft magnetic material. The temperature dependence of the reduced magnetization can be described by the Bloch power law. The results show that the B coefficient of the amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy, which is a measure of the rigidity of spin waves, exhibits the lowest value observed until now for any amorphous alloy and is comparable to crystalline alloys. It is found that the Sc atoms in the Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy lead to an increase of the itinerant spin moment of Co atoms, and, in contrast to this behaviour, to a decrease of the local 3d-electrons of Co.

  8. Fast conversion of scFv to Fab antibodies using type IIs restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmark, Hanna; Huovinen, Tuomas; Matikka, Tero; Pettersson, Tiina; Lahti, Maria; Lamminmäki, Urpo

    2015-11-01

    Single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody libraries are widely used for developing novel bioaffinity reagents, although Fab or IgG molecules are the preferred antibody formats in many final applications. Therefore, rapid conversion methods for combining multiple DNA fragments are needed to attach constant domains to the scFv derived variable domains. In this study we describe a fast and easy cloning method for the conversion of single framework scFv fragments to Fab fragments using type IIS restriction enzymes. All cloning steps excluding plating of the Fab transformants can be done in 96 well plates and the procedure can be completed in one working day. The concept was tested by converting 69 scFv clones into Fab format on 96 well plates, which resulted in 93% success rate. The method is particularly useful as a high-throughput tool for the conversion of the chosen scFv clones into Fab molecules in order to analyze them as early as possible, as the conversion can significantly affect the binding properties of the chosen clones.

  9. Microstructure dependent fatigue crack growth in Al–Mg–Sc alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mengjia [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Pan, Qinglin, E-mail: csupql@163.com [The Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shi, Yunjia; Wang, Ying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-08-12

    The fatigue crack growth behavior of Al–Mg–Sc alloy was investigated by tensile testing and fatigue testing. Different annealing treatments were applied to the alloy. Microstructure characterization of the alloy was carried out by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The size of Al{sub 3}(Sc{sub 1−x}Zr{sub x}) particle was calculated by software. The fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate (da/dN) was discussed with stress intensity factor range (ΔK) in Paris's region. The Paris exponent m and constants C were used to calculate the fatigue life. The fatigue process and crack closure effects were discussed with the yield strength and tensile strength of Al–Mg–Sc alloy. Results show that the microstructure, tensile strength and fatigue crack growth rate were greatly dependent on the annealing temperature, and the high resistance of Al–Mg–Sc alloy was mainly due to the combination microstructures of sub-grains, dislocations and these Al{sub 3}(Sc{sub 1−x}Zr{sub x}) precipitates.

  10. Isolation of anti-T cell receptor scFv mutants by yeast surface display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieke, M C; Cho, B K; Boder, E T; Kranz, D M; Wittrup, K D

    1997-11-01

    Yeast surface display and sorting by flow cytometry have been used to isolate mutants of an scFv that is specific for the Vbeta8 region of the T cell receptor. Selection was based on equilibrium binding by two fluorescently labeled probes, a soluble Vbeta8 domain and an antibody to the c-myc epitope tag present at the carboxy-terminus of the scFv. The mutants that were selected in this screen included a scFv with threefold increased affinity for the Vbeta8 and scFv clones that were bound with reduced affinities by the anti-c-myc antibody. The latter finding indicates that the yeast display system may be used to map conformational epitopes, which cannot be revealed by standard peptide screens. Equilibrium antigen binding constants were estimated within the surface display format, allowing screening of isolated mutants without necessitating subcloning and soluble expression. Only a relatively small library of yeast cells (3 x 10[5]) displaying randomly mutagenized scFv was screened to identify these mutants, indicating that this system will provide a powerful tool for engineering the binding properties of eucaryotic secreted and cell surface proteins.

  11. Spinal Cord Infarction in Hemoglobin SC Disease as an Amusement Park Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ryan; Raj, Ashok; Farber, Darren; Puri, Vinay; Bertolone, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is extremely rare in children, and only 2 other reports have described the occurrence of SCI in patients with hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC). Amusement park accidents are serious injuries. Patients with preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, cardiac disease, and recent back or neck injuries, may be at an increased risk. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with HbSC with a past history of only 2 admissions for pain crises, who presented to the emergency department with symptoms of SCI after riding a roller coaster. Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is an increasingly recognized cause of SCI after events that put strain on the axial skeleton, such as many amusement park rides. Although radiologic criteria for FCE have been proposed, FCE remains a diagnosis of exclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of SCI in a patient with HbSC and the first case of FCE after an amusement park accident. This case report highlights that HbSC may confound the differential diagnosis of SCI and aims to document an association with FCE in pediatric patients. PMID:27485695

  12. Spinal Cord Infarction in Hemoglobin SC Disease as an Amusement Park Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ryan; Raj, Ashok; Farber, Darren; Puri, Vinay; Bertolone, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is extremely rare in children, and only 2 other reports have described the occurrence of SCI in patients with hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC). Amusement park accidents are serious injuries. Patients with preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, cardiac disease, and recent back or neck injuries, may be at an increased risk. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with HbSC with a past history of only 2 admissions for pain crises, who presented to the emergency department with symptoms of SCI after riding a roller coaster. Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is an increasingly recognized cause of SCI after events that put strain on the axial skeleton, such as many amusement park rides. Although radiologic criteria for FCE have been proposed, FCE remains a diagnosis of exclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of SCI in a patient with HbSC and the first case of FCE after an amusement park accident. This case report highlights that HbSC may confound the differential diagnosis of SCI and aims to document an association with FCE in pediatric patients.

  13. Construction of Human ScFv Phage Display Library against Ovarian Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jinsong; BI Hao; YAO Qin; QU Shen; ZONG Yiqiang

    2006-01-01

    In order to construct a single chain fragment variable (ScFv) phage display library against ovarian tumor, by using RT-PCR, the human heavy chain variable region genes (VH) and light chain variable region genes (VL) were amplified from lymphocytes of ovarian tumor patients and subsequently assembled into ScFv genes by SOE. The resulting ScFv genes were electrotransformed into E.coli TG1 and amplified with the co-infection of helper phage M13KO7 to obtain phage display library. The capacity and titer of the resulting library were detected. The phage antibody library with a capacity of approximately 3 × 109 cfu/μg was obtained. After amplification with helper phage, the titer of antibody library reached 5 × 1012 cfu/mL. Human ScFv library against ovarian tumor was constructed successfully, which laid a foundation for the screening of ovarian tumor specific ScFv for the radioimmunoimaging diagnosis of ovarian tumor.

  14. Influence of Sc3+ on LiMn2O4 cathode materials at elevated temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huiyong; DENG Ganqun; GUO Yonglang

    2008-01-01

    Sc3+-doped lithium manganese oxides were synthesized by solid-state reaction. The influences of doping element on structure,mean valence of manganese, and electrochemical performances were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), galvanostatic charge-discharge and cyclic voltammetric tests, and also electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). XRD tests showed that doped lithium manganese oxides were pure spinel structure without other phases. Redox titration and visible spectrophotometry tests indicated that the mean valence of man-ganese in doped lithium manganese oxides was higher than that of pure one. LiSc0.02Mn1.98O4 remained 92.9% of the initial specific discharge capacity after 50th cycle at a constant current of 50 m/g, and the reversibility of LiSc0.02Mn1.98O4 was improved in comparison with pure LiMn2O4 at 50 ℃. EIS indicated that film deposition on spinel particles was suppressed because of Sc3+ doping, and the charge transfer be-tween the surface film and spinel particles with increasing temperature for Sc3+-doped materials became easier as compared with undoped one.

  15. Effect of minor Sc and Zr on superplasticity of Al-Mg-Mn alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effect of Sc and Zr on the superplastic properties of Al-Mg-Mn alloy sheets was investigated by control experiment.The superplastic properties and the mechanism of superplastic deformation of the two alloys were studied by means of optical microscope, scanning electronic microscope and transmission electron microscope. The elongation to failure of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy is larger than that of Al-Mg-Mn alloy at the same temperature and initial strain rate. The variation of strain rate sensitivity index is similar to that of elongation to failure. In addition, Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy exhibits higher strain rate superplastic property. The activation energies of the two alloys that are calculated by constitutive equation and linear regression method approach the energy of grain boundary diffusion. The addition of Sc and Zr decreases activation energy and improves the superplastic property of Al-Mg-Mn alloy. The addition of Sc and Zr refines the grain structure greatly. The main mechanism of superplastic deformation of the two alloys is grain boundary sliding accommodated by grain boundary diffusion. The fine grain structure and high density of grain boundary,benefit grain boundary sliding, and dynamic recrystallization brings new fine grain and high angle grain boundary which benefit grain boundary sliding too. Grain boundary diffusion, dislocation motion and dynamic recrystallization harmonize the grain boundary sliding during deformation.

  16. Microstructure dependent fatigue crack growth in Al–Mg–Sc alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatigue crack growth behavior of Al–Mg–Sc alloy was investigated by tensile testing and fatigue testing. Different annealing treatments were applied to the alloy. Microstructure characterization of the alloy was carried out by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The size of Al3(Sc1−xZrx) particle was calculated by software. The fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate (da/dN) was discussed with stress intensity factor range (ΔK) in Paris's region. The Paris exponent m and constants C were used to calculate the fatigue life. The fatigue process and crack closure effects were discussed with the yield strength and tensile strength of Al–Mg–Sc alloy. Results show that the microstructure, tensile strength and fatigue crack growth rate were greatly dependent on the annealing temperature, and the high resistance of Al–Mg–Sc alloy was mainly due to the combination microstructures of sub-grains, dislocations and these Al3(Sc1−xZrx) precipitates

  17. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  18. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial transcription factor, sc-mtTFB, shares features with sigma factors but is functionally distinct.

    OpenAIRE

    Shadel, G S; Clayton, D A

    1995-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria, sc-mtTFB is a 341-amino-acid transcription factor required for initiation of transcription from mitochondrial DNA promoters. Specific transcription in vitro requires only sc-mtTFB and the bacteriophage-related core sc-mtRNA polymerase. Mutational analysis of sc-mtTFB has defined two regions of the protein that are important for normal function both in vivo and in vitro. These regions overlap portions of the protein that exhibit similarity to conserved...

  19. Dose dependent side effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle labeling on cell motility in two fetal stem cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Diana

    Full Text Available Multipotent stem cells (SCs could substitute damaged cells and also rescue degeneration through the secretion of trophic factors able to activate the endogenous SC compartment. Therefore, fetal SCs, characterized by high proliferation rate and devoid of ethical concern, appear promising candidate, particularly for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide nanoparticles (SPIOn, routinely used for pre-clinical cell imaging and already approved for clinical practice, allow tracking of transplanted SCs and characterization of their fate within the host tissue, when combined with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. In this work we investigated how SPIOn could influence cell migration after internalization in two fetal SC populations: human amniotic fluid and chorial villi SCs were labeled with SPIOn and their motility was evaluated. We found that SPIOn loading significantly reduced SC movements without increasing production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. Moreover, motility impairment was directly proportional to the amount of loaded SPIOn while a chemoattractant-induced recovery was obtained by increasing serum levels. Interestingly, the migration rate of SPIOn labeled cells was also significantly influenced by a degenerative surrounding. In conclusion, this work highlights how SPIOn labeling affects SC motility in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, shedding the light on an important parameter for the creation of clinical protocols. Establishment of an optimal SPIOn dose that enables both a good visualization of grafted cells by MRI and the physiological migration rate is a main step in order to maximize the effects of SC therapy in both animal models of neurodegeneration and clinical studies.

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Tooth Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Ling Ye; Xue-dong Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Tooth loss compromises human oral health. Although several prosthetic methods, such as artificial denture and dental implants, are clinical therapies to tooth loss problems, they are thought to have safety and usage time issues. Recently, tooth tissue engineering has attracted more and more attention. Stem cell based tissue engineering is thought to be a promising way to replace the missing tooth. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells which can differentiate into a variety of cell types. The potential MSCs for tooth regeneration mainly include stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from the apical part of the papilla (SCAPs), stem cells from the dental follicle (DFSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). This review outlines the recent progress in the mesenchymal stem cells used in tooth regeneration.

  1. The expansion of adult stem/progenitor cells and their marker expression fluctuations are linked with pituitary plastic adaptation during gestation and lactancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Alicia Maldré; Guido, Carolina Beatriz; Sosa, Liliana Del Valle; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Mukdsi, Jorge; Petiti, Juan Pablo; Torres, Alicia Ines

    2016-08-01

    Extensive evidence has revealed variations in the number of hormone-producing cells in the pituitary gland, which occur under physiological conditions such as gestation and lactancy. It has been proposed that new hormone-producing cells differentiate from stem cells. However, exactly how and when this takes place is not clear. In this work, we used immunoelectron microscopy to identify adult pituitary stem/progenitor cells (SC/P) localized in the marginal zone (MZ), and additionally, we detected GFRa2-, Sox2-, and Sox9-positive cells in the adenoparenchyma (AP) by fluorescence microscopy. Then, we evaluated fluctuations of SC/P mRNA and protein level markers in MZ and AP during gestation and lactancy. An upregulation in stemness markers was shown at term of gestation (AT) in MZ, whereas there were more progenitor cell markers in the middle of gestation and active lactancy. Concerning committed cell markers, we detected a rise in AP at beginning of lactancy (d1L). We performed a BrdU uptake analysis in MZ and AP cells. The highest level of BrdU uptake was observed in MZ AT cells, whereas in AP this was detected in d1L, followed by a decrease in both the MZ and AP. Finally, we detected double immunostaining for BrdU-GFRa2 in MZ AT cells and BrdU-Sox9 in the AP d1L cells. Taken together, we hypothesize that the expansion of the SC/P niche took place mainly in MZ from pituitary rats in AT and d1L. These results suggest that the SC niche actively participates in pituitary plasticity during these reproductive states, contributing to the origin of hormone cell populations. PMID:27302752

  2. Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are the building blocks for all other cells in an organism. The human body has about 200 different types of cells and any of those cells can be produced by a stem cell. This fact emphasizes the significance of stem cells in transplantational medicine, regenerative therapy and bioengineering. Whether embryonic or adult, these cells can be used for the successful treatment of a wide range of diseases that were not treatable before, such as osteogenesis imperfecta in children, different forms of leukemias, acute myocardial infarction, some neural damages and diseases, etc. Bioengineering, e.g. successful manipulation of these cells with multipotential capacity of differentiation toward appropriate patterns and precise quantity, are the prerequisites for successful outcome and treatment. By combining in vivo and in vitro techniques, it is now possible to manage the wide spectrum of tissue damages and organ diseases. Although the stem-cell therapy is not a response to all the questions, it provides more...

  3. Uses of mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    M. Delgado; González-Rey, Elena; Büscher, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating systemic infiammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in a subject. The invention provides compositions, uses and methods for the treatment of SIRS.

  4. Myocardial infarction and stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ananda Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent loss of cardiomyocytes and scar tissue formation after myocardial infarction (MI results in an irreversible damage to the cardiac function. Cardiac repair (replacement, restoration, and regeneration is, therefore, essential to restore function of the heart following MI. Existing therapies lower early mortality rates, prevent additional damage to the heart muscle, and reduce the risk of further heart attacks. However, there is need for treatment to improve the infarcted area by replacing the damaged cells after MI. Thus, the cardiac tissue regeneration with the application of stem cells may be an effective therapeutic option. Recently, interest is more inclined toward myocardial regeneration with the application of stem cells. However, the potential benefits and the ability to improve cardiac function with the stem cell-based therapy need to be further addressed. In this review, we focus on the clinical applications of stem cells in the cardiac repair.

  5. Humboldt River main stem, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data...

  6. Cancer Stem Cells in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fumitaka Takeshita; Tomohiro Fujiwara; Takahiro Ochiya; Makiko Ono; Ryou-u Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory is generally acknowledged as an important field of cancer research, not only as an academic matter but also as a crucial aspect of clinical practice. CSCs share a variety of biological properties with normal somatic stem cells in self-renewal, the propagation of differentiated progeny, the expression of specific cell markers and stem cell genes, and the utilization of common signaling pathways and the stem cell niche. However, CSCs differ from normal stem cel...

  7. 25 YEARS OF EPIDERMAL STEM CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadially, Ruby

    2011-01-01

    This is a chronicle of concepts in the field of epidermal stem cell biology and a historic look at their development over time. The last 25 years have seen the evolution of epidermal stem cell science, from first fundamental studies to a sophisticated science. The study of epithelial stem cell biology was aided by the ability to visualize the distribution of stem cells and their progeny through lineage analysis studies. The excellent progress we have made in understanding epidermal stem cell ...

  8. Interpreting stem diameter changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölttä, T.; Sevanto, S.; Nikinmaa, E.

    2009-12-01

    Detecting phloem transport in stem diameter changes Teemu Hölttä1, Sanna Sevanto2, Eero Nikinmaa1 1Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland 2Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland Introduction The volume of living cells and xylem conduits vary according to pressures they are subjected to. Our proposition is that the behavior of the inner bark diameter variation which cannot be explained by changes in xylem water status arise from changes in the osmotic concentration of the phloem and cambial growth. Materials and methods Simultaneous xylem and stem diameter measurements were conducted between June 28th to October 4th 2006 in Southern Finland on a 47-year old, 15 meter tall, Scots pine tree (DBH 15 cm) at heights of 1.5 and 10 meters. The difference between the measured inner bark diameter and the inner bark diameter predicted from xylem diameter change with a simple model (assuming there was no change in the osmotic concentration of the phloem) is hypothesized to give the changes in the osmotic concentration of the inner bark. The simple model calculates the radial water exchange between the xylem and phloem driven by the water potential changes in the xylem. Results and Discussion The major signal in the inner bark diameter was the transpiration rate as assumed, but also a signal arising from the change in the osmotic concentration (Fig 1a). The predicted osmotic concentration of the phloem typically increased during the afternoon due to the loading of photosynthesized sugars to the phloem. Inner bark osmotic concentration followed the photosynthesis rate with a 3 and 4 hour time-lag at the top and base, respectively (Fig 1b). The connection between photosynthesis and the predicted change in phloem osmotic concentration was stronger in the upper part of the tree compared to lower part. The changes in the predicted osmotic concentration were not similar every day, indicating that

  9. Dislocation Core Structure and Peierls Stress of B2-Based AlSc in {110} Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. R.; Wu, X. Z.; Zhang, T.; Tian, Y. X.; Yan, Z. X.; Zhu, H. Z.

    2016-10-01

    The core structure and Peierls stress of , , and dislocations in {110} plane of B2-based AlSc (B2-AlSc) have been investigated using improved dislocation equations combined with the generalized stacking fault (GSF) energy. The truncated approximation method is utilized to construct the dissociated and undissociated dislocations in AlSc, then the effects of dislocation angles on the elastic strain energy and misfit energy are presented. Specifically, with increasing dislocation angle, the misfit energy, elastic strain energy, and total energy, and their corresponding stresses, decrease on the {110} and {110} slip systems. However, for {110} dislocation, all energies and corresponding stresses exhibit the relationship 0° > 54.7° > 35.3° > 90°. The misfit energy is always smaller than the elastic strain energy, even by one or two orders of magnitude, and their phases are always opposite.

  10. Magnetic anisotropy in the incommensurate ScFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rećko, K., E-mail: k.recko@uwb.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, University of Białystok, K. Ciołkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Białystok (Poland); Dobrzyński, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltan 7, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Waliszewski, J.; Szymański, K. [Faculty of Physics, University of Białystok, K. Ciołkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Białystok (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Neutron scattering and magnetization data are used for estimation of the spin ordering in ScFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8}. Results of experimental measurements are compared with the ground state configurations obtained by simulated annealing algorithms. The origins of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the scandium intermetallic alloy and the conditions of the coexistence of two different magnetic modulations as a function of the exchange integrals are discussed. The influence of the dipolar interactions for the noncollinearity and incommensurability in ScFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8} was determined. - Highlights: • We found dipolar and DM interactions as the anisotropy origins of 3d–3d–3p alloy. • We covered the explanation of incommensurability and noncollinearity of ScFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8}. • We discussed the magnetism resulting from competitiveness of exchange effects.

  11. Comparison of Response between RC and SC Containment Structures Subjected to Aircraft Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Shup; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Hyo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Since the aircraft terror to the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, an aircraft impact problem has been increasingly interested. The possibilities of aircraft impacts against nuclear power plants are one of important category. To date, the impact load of the analysis on aircraft impacts has been applied to target structures in local areas by using the impact force-time history function of Riera. However, Riera forcing function is not recommended at the expectation of unreasonable damage or perforation to target structures. The numerical analysis of rc and sc containment structures subjected to aircraft impact is performed by using the AUTODYN-3D. It is carried out the four different types for RC and SC structures. Thus, in this study, the different behaviors of containment structures and the safety of SC structure are expected

  12. Vibrational structure of C 84 and Sc 2@C 84 analyzed by IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, M.; Pichler, T.; Kuzmany, H.; Zerbetto, F.; Yamamoto, E.; Shinohara, H. N.

    1997-06-01

    The isomer III of Sc 2@C 84 was separated by multi-cycle HPLC purification. We present temperature dependent IR absorption measurements of Sc 2@C 84 which have been performed between 50 and 300 K and between 400 and 5000 cm -1, respectively. The vibrational structure of the endohedral compound is compared to the structure of unfilled C 84. We find a strong overall broadening of the vibrational modes in Sc 2@C 84. Also some of the vibrational absorption lines are strongly enhanced if compared to the spectrum for the empty cage. With decreasing temperature, a dramatic narrowing of the lines in the spectral range between 700 and 800 cm -1 is observed.

  13. Precursors to ScS Phases and dipping interface in the upper mantle beneath southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Ichiro

    1980-10-01

    Longitudinally polarized precursors to ScS phases observed in the Shikoku and Chugoku districts, southwestern Japan, are interpreted as ScSp arrivals, resulting from ScSto-P conversions at a dipping interface in the upper mantle. An ScSp phase recorded in the Tohoku district, northeastern Japan, also is examined. The location of the conversion interface, beneath the Shikoku district, determined from the ScSp observations agrees with the upper boundary of the descending Philippine Sea plate inferred from the seismicity pattern of subcrustal earthquakes. It has been proposed on the basis of no seismic activity in the upper mantle that the leading edge of the downgoing Philippine Sea plate has not reached the upper mantle beneath the Chugoku district. The ScSp observations, however, present a possibility of the existence of an aseismic continuation of the Philippine Sea plate in the upper mantle beneath the Chugoku district. An alternative interpretation of the conversion interface may be possible. The interface inferred in the present study may correspond to a boundary between the asthenosphere and an aseismic dead slab which had descended from the Nankai trough at the previous cycle of plate convergence. This ScS-to-P conversion interface may be closely related to the late Quaternary volcanism in the Chugoku district. Low-velocity zones are required in the vicinity of the inclined ScS-to-P conversion interfaces in the upper mantle beneath southwestern and northeastern Japan in order to explain the observed relative polarity between the ScSp and ScS phases. The first-order discontinuity of the velocity contrast of about 6%, which has been suggested between the lithosphere and overlying asthenosphere, cannot simultaneously explain all of the observed amplitudes, periods, and polarity of the ScSp phases. The simplest model which explains these observations is the low-velocity zone with the sharp upper and transitional lower boundaries. This low-velocity zone may be

  14. Laboratory oscillator strengths of Sc I in the near-infrared region for astrophysical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pehlivan, A; Hartman, H

    2015-01-01

    Context. Atomic data is crucial for astrophysical investigations. To understand the formation and evolution of stars, we need to analyse their observed spectra. Analysing a spectrum of a star requires information about the properties of atomic lines, such as wavelengths and oscillator strengths. However, atomic data of some elements are scarce, particularly in the infrared region, and this paper is part of an effort to improve the situation on near-IR atomic data. Aims. This paper investigates the spectrum of neutral scandium, Sc i, from laboratory measurements and improves the atomic data of Sc i lines in the infrared region covering lines in R, I, J, and K bands. Especially, we focus on measuring oscillator strengths for Sc i lines connecting the levels with 4p and 4s configurations. Methods. We combined experimental branching fractions with radiative lifetimes from the literature to derive oscillator strengths (f - values). Intensity-calibrated spectra with high spectral resolution were recorded with Fouri...

  15. Comparison of Response between RC and SC Containment Structures Subjected to Aircraft Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the aircraft terror to the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, an aircraft impact problem has been increasingly interested. The possibilities of aircraft impacts against nuclear power plants are one of important category. To date, the impact load of the analysis on aircraft impacts has been applied to target structures in local areas by using the impact force-time history function of Riera. However, Riera forcing function is not recommended at the expectation of unreasonable damage or perforation to target structures. The numerical analysis of rc and sc containment structures subjected to aircraft impact is performed by using the AUTODYN-3D. It is carried out the four different types for RC and SC structures. Thus, in this study, the different behaviors of containment structures and the safety of SC structure are expected

  16. Neural stem cell derived tumourigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Froldi; Milán Szuperák; Cheng, Louise Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the developing Drosophila CNS, two pools of neural stem cells, the symmetrically dividing progenitors in the neuroepithelium (NE) and the asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts (NBs) generate the majority of the neurons that make up the adult central nervous system (CNS). The generation of a correct sized brain depends on maintaining the fine balance between neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, which are regulated by cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic cues. In this review, we wil...

  17. Modeling Stem Cell Induction Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Grácio; Joaquim Cabral; Bruce Tidor

    2012-01-01

    Technology for converting human cells to pluripotent stem cell using induction processes has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. However, the production of these so called iPS cells is still quite inefficient and may be dominated by stochastic effects. In this work we build mass-action models of the core regulatory elements controlling stem cell induction and maintenance. The models include not only the network of transcription factors NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, but also important e...

  18. Stem cell transplantation for neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fish, JD; Grupp, SA

    2007-01-01

    High-risk neuroblastoma is a childhood malignancy with a poor prognosis. Gradual improvements in survival have correlated with therapeutic intensity, and the ability to harvest, process and store autologous hematopoietic stem cells has allowed for dose intensification beyond marrow tolerance. The use of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue in consolidation has resulted in improvements in survival, although further advances are still needed. Newer approaches to...

  19. Articular cartilage stem cell signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Camilla; Lindahl, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The view of articular cartilage as a non-regeneration organ has been challenged in recent years. The articular cartilage consists of distinct zones with different cellular and molecular phenotypes, and the superficial zone has been hypothesized to harbour stem cells. Furthermore, the articular cartilage demonstrates a distinct pattern regarding stem cell markers (that is, Notch-1, Stro-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1). These results, in combination with the positive identification of...

  20. Stem Cells in Regenerative Endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Forghani

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, clinical endodontics includes procedures that are based on the ability of stem cells to accomplish repair (eg, direct pulp capping, apexogenesis, apexification, and even pulpal regeneration). An attempt is made to critically assess the current status in pulp regeneration therapy. Methods: Systematically, 2 distinctly different strategies exist involving stem cells for the repair and/or regeneration of damaged tissues: first, the acellular approach with in situ s...

  1. Electronic cloning and characterization of sugarcane ScASADH gene using bioinformatics tools%甘蔗天冬氨酰半醛脱氢酶基因的电子克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宁; 张玉叶; 苏亚春; 罗俊; 王建华; 苏炜华; 许莉萍; 阙友雄

    2013-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence of one sugarcane aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase gene(ScASADH gene)was abtained by in silico cloning using EF576477 sequence from Oryza sativa.as the probe sequence.Some characters of the ScASADH gene encoding amino acid,including the composition of amino acid sequence,physical and chemical properties,subcellular localization,transmembrane domain,hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity,secondary and tertiary structure of protein plus functional domains,were analyzed by bioinformatics tools.The results showed that the full-length ScASADH gene from sugarcane was 1711 bp,including one 1128bp open reading frame(ORF)which encodes a polypeptide of 375 amino acids.The encoded protein of ScASADH gene,with the presence of signal peptide and several conserved domain sequences,was soluble and located in nucleus,and the corresponding secondary structure of this protein was mainly composed of random coil.The function of the ScASADH protein was mainly involved with translation.Electronic expression analysis revealed that the ScASADH gene was constitutively expressed in the sugarcane root tip,seedling,inflorescence,leaf and stem,and the expression of this gene in the stem of sugarcane was much higher than that in all the other four types of sugarcane tissues.the expression of this gene was regulated under the stresses of Gluconacetobacter and Colletotrichum falcatum.%应用电子克隆技术,以水稻EF576477序列为探针,获得了甘蔗天冬氨酰半醛脱氢酶基因(aspartate-semialdehyde dehy-drogenase,ASADH)的一条cDNA全长序列,命名为ScASADH.采用生物信息学方法,对该基因编码蛋白从氨基酸组成、理化性质、亚细胞定位、跨膜结构域、疏水性/亲水性、高级结构及功能域等方面进行预测和分析.结果表明:该基因全长1711bp,包含一个1128 bp的开放阅读框,编码375个氨基酸,该基因编码蛋白定位于细胞核,为可溶性蛋白,存在信号肽,二级结构原件多为无规卷

  2. Enhanced hardness in epitaxial TiAlScN alloy thin films and rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Bivas [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Lawrence, Samantha K.; Bahr, David F. [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Schroeder, Jeremy L.; Birch, Jens [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Sands, Timothy D. [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    High hardness TiAlN alloys for wear-resistant coatings exhibit limited lifetimes at elevated temperatures due to a cubic-AlN to hexagonal-AlN phase transformation that leads to decreasing hardness. We enhance the hardness (up to 46 GPa) and maximum operating temperature (up to 1050 °C) of TiAlN-based coatings by alloying with scandium nitride to form both an epitaxial TiAlScN alloy film and epitaxial rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices on MgO substrates. The superlattice hardness increases with decreasing period thickness, which is understood by the Orowan bowing mechanism of the confined layer slip model. These results make them worthy of additional research for industrial coating applications.

  3. Preliminary Analysis of the Social and Scientific Impact of the UAEM-ININ M.Sc. and D.Sc. Graduate Programme in Medical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsoura, Eleni; Isaac-Olive, Keila; Torres-Garcia, Eugenio; Camacho-Lopez, Miguel Angel; Hardy-Perez, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1994, the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) started in Mexico a teaching and training programme (Diplomado) in Radiotherapy Medical Physics. Based on this experience, the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM) and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) launched two years later, the first Graduate Programme in Science (M.Sc. and D.Sc.), specialised in Medical Physics in Mexico. A preliminary analysis of the social and scientific impact of the UAEM-ININ Programme is presented in this work based on the achievements attained, regarding the number of graduated Medical Physicists, their geographic and academic origin, their current professional activities and the number of scientific publications produced as a result of the thesis, as well as their citations.

  4. Diabetes and Stem Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Fujimaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common serious metabolic diseases that results in hyperglycemia due to defects of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The present review focuses on the alterations to the diabetic neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle, including stem cells in both tissues, and the preventive effects of physical activity on diabetes. Diabetes is associated with various nervous disorders, such as cognitive deficits, depression, and Alzheimer’s disease, and that may be caused by neural stem cell dysfunction. Additionally, diabetes induces skeletal muscle atrophy, the impairment of energy metabolism, and muscle weakness. Similar to neural stem cells, the proliferation and differentiation are attenuated in skeletal muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. However, physical activity is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration to the neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle. Physical activity improves neurogenic capacity of neural stem cells and the proliferative and differentiative abilities of satellite cells. The present review proposes physical activity as a useful measure for the patients in diabetes to improve the physiological functions and to maintain their quality of life. It further discusses the use of stem cell-based approaches in the context of diabetes treatment.

  5. Diabetes and stem cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Shin; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Takemasa, Tohru; Asashima, Makoto; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common serious metabolic diseases that results in hyperglycemia due to defects of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The present review focuses on the alterations to the diabetic neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle, including stem cells in both tissues, and the preventive effects of physical activity on diabetes. Diabetes is associated with various nervous disorders, such as cognitive deficits, depression, and Alzheimer's disease, and that may be caused by neural stem cell dysfunction. Additionally, diabetes induces skeletal muscle atrophy, the impairment of energy metabolism, and muscle weakness. Similar to neural stem cells, the proliferation and differentiation are attenuated in skeletal muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. However, physical activity is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration to the neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle. Physical activity improves neurogenic capacity of neural stem cells and the proliferative and differentiative abilities of satellite cells. The present review proposes physical activity as a useful measure for the patients in diabetes to improve the physiological functions and to maintain their quality of life. It further discusses the use of stem cell-based approaches in the context of diabetes treatment.

  6. The first principle study of Ni2ScGa and Ni2TiGa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We computed the electronic structure, elastic moduli, vibrational properties, and Ni2TiGa and Ni2ScGa alloys in the cubic L21 structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of these alloys are in good agreement with available data. In cubic systems, there are three independent elastic constants, namely C11, C12 and C44. We calculated elastic constants in L21 structure for Ni2TiGa and Ni2ScGa using the energy-strain method. The electronic band structure, total and partial density of states for these alloys were investigated within density functional theory using the plane-wave pseudopotential method implemented in Quantum-Espresso program package. From band structure, total and projected density of states, we observed metallic characters of these compounds. The electronic calculation indicate that the predominant contributions of the density of states at Fermi level come from the Ni 3d states and Sc 3d states for Ni2TiGa, Ni 3d states and Sc 3d states for Ni2ScGa. The computed density of states at Fermi energy are 2.22 states/eV Cell for Ni2TiGa, 0.76 states/eV Cell for Ni2ScGa. The vibrational properties were obtained using a linear response in the framework at the density functional perturbation theory. For the alloys, the results show that the L21 phase is unstable since the phonon calculations have imagine modes

  7. Dental Stem Cell in Tooth Development and Advances of Adult Dental Stem Cell in Regenerative Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiali; Xu, Xin; Lin, Jiong; Fan, Li; Zheng, Yuting; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are considered as a promising treatment for many clinical usage such as tooth regeneration, bone repairation, spinal cord injury, and so on. However, the ideal stem cell for stem cell-based therapy still remains to be elucidated. In the past decades, several types of stem cells have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs) and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), which may be a good source for stem cell-based therapy in certain disease, especially when they origin from neural crest is considered. In this review, the specific characteristics and advantages of the adult dental stem cell population will be summarized and the molecular mechanisms of the differentiation of dental stem cell during tooth development will be also discussed.

  8. Synergistic Antivascular and Antitumor Efficacy with Combined Cediranib and SC6889 in Intracranial Mouse Glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merryl R Lobo

    Full Text Available Prognosis remains extremely poor for malignant glioma. Targeted therapeutic approaches, including single agent anti-angiogenic and proteasome inhibition strategies, have not resulted in sustained anti-glioma clinical efficacy. We tested the anti-glioma efficacy of the anti-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor cediranib and the novel proteasome inhibitor SC68896, in combination and as single agents. To assess anti-angiogenic effects and evaluate efficacy we employed 4C8 intracranial mouse glioma and a dual-bolus perfusion MRI approach to measure Ktrans, relative cerebral blood flow and volume (rCBF, rCBV, and relative mean transit time (rMTT in combination with anatomical MRI measurements of tumor growth. While single agent cediranib or SC68896 treatment did not alter tumor growth or survival, combined cediranib/SC68896 significantly delayed tumor growth and increased median survival by 2-fold, compared to untreated. This was accompanied by substantially increased tumor necrosis in the cediranib/SC68896 group (p<0.01, not observed with single agent treatments. Mean vessel density was significantly lower, and mean vessel lumen area was significantly higher, for the combined cediranib/SC68896 group versus untreated. Consistent with our previous findings, cediranib alone did not significantly alter mean tumor rCBF, rCBV, rMTT, or Ktrans. In contrast, SC68896 reduced rCBF in comparison to untreated, but without concomitant reductions in rCBV, rMTT, or Ktrans. Importantly, combined cediranib/SC68896 substantially reduced rCBF, rCBV. rMTT, and Ktrans. A novel analysis of Ktrans/rCBV suggests that changes in Ktrans with time and/or treatment are related to altered total vascular surface area. The data suggest that combined cediranib/SC68896 induced potent anti-angiogenic effects, resulting in increased vascular efficiency and reduced extravasation, consistent with a process of vascular normalization. The study represents the first demonstration

  9. Preparation, microstructure and properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Sc alloy tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何振波; 尹志民; 林森; 邓英; 商宝川; 周向

    2010-01-01

    The Al-6.0Zn-2.0Mg-0.2Sc-0.10Zr hollow tube ingots, prepared by semi-continuous casting technology, were subjected to ho- mogenization treatment, hot extrusion, intermediate annealing, tension, solution and aging treatment. The microstructures and properties of as-cast Al-Zn-Mg-Sc alloy at different homogenization treatment conditions were studied using hardness measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The results showed th...

  10. Health physics experience during 46Sc radiotracer injection at Kolkata Port, Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the suitability of dumping site for dredged sediment, 46Sc in scandium glass matrix is mainly used for the investigation at ports and harbours. In this paper authors share Health Physics experience on control of personnel exposure in order to achieve ALARA. About 260 GBq of 46Sc was used for sediment transport study near SAGAR Island at Kolkata Port, Kolkata. During the study, the maximum dose was found to be less than 0.37 mSv, which is 1.23 % of the authorized annual effective dose limits for occupational radiation worker. The average dose for the experiment was computed as 0.21 mSv. (author)

  11. Supervising M.Sc. Students working in the 100 Gigabit Ethernet field using OPNET Modeler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert; Wessing, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with supervision methods for M.Sc. students who are using OPNET Modeler for their thesis work within the field of 100 Gigabit Ethernet. We detail how we use OPNET Modeler in our M.Sc. projects at the Technical University of Denmark. In particular, we discuss on how we teach...... students to learn OPNET independently and in a short timeframe, and we outline what students find challenging and rewarding by using OPNET Modeler. Furthermore, we show some cases on how OPNET was applied in specific projects within the field of 100 Gigabit Ethernet....

  12. On measuring the UNK SC-dipole bending strength with rotating pick-up coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience in measuring the SC-dipole bending strength with the spotting method shown this measurement to be the most complicated and expensive. A convenient and simple method of rotating pick-up coil, which can not provide the required accuracy, may be used for this measurement combined with NMR measurements in the dipole central part. The physical ground and description of the method are given in the paper. The analysis of the errors and measurement results of the SPDMI SC-dipoles are presented. 9 refs..; 7 figs

  13. High-pressure study of substrate material ScAlMgO4

    OpenAIRE

    Errandonea, D.; R. S. Kumar; Ruiz-Fuertes, J.; Segura, A.; Haussuehl, E.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the structural properties of ScAlMgO4 studied under quasi-hydrostatic pressure using synchrotron high-pressure x-ray diffraction up to 40 GPa. We also report on single-crystal studies of ScAlMgO4 performed at 300 K and 100 K. We found that the low-pressure phase remains stable up to 24 GPa. At 28 GPa, we detected a reversible phase transformation. The high-pressure phase is assigned to a monoclinic distortion of the low-pressure phase. No additional phase transition is observed u...

  14. Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds increase the efficacy of stem cell-mediated therapy of surgically resected glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagó, Juli R; Pegna, Guillaume J; Okolie, Onyi; Mohiti-Asli, Mahsa; Loboa, Elizabeth G; Hingtgen, Shawn D

    2016-06-01

    Engineered stem cell (SC)-based therapy holds enormous promise for treating the incurable brain cancer glioblastoma (GBM). Retaining the cytotoxic SCs in the surgical cavity after GBM resection is one of the greatest challenges to this approach. Here, we describe a biocompatible electrospun nanofibrous scaffold (bENS) implant capable of delivering and retaining tumor-homing cytotoxic stem cells that suppress recurrence of post-surgical GBM. As a new approach to GBM therapy, we created poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA) bENS bearing drug-releasing human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We discovered that bENS-based implant increased hMSC retention in the surgical cavity 5-fold and prolonged persistence 3-fold compared to standard direct injection using our mouse model of GBM surgical resection/recurrence. Time-lapse imaging showed cytotoxic hMSC/bENS treatment killed co-cultured human GBM cells, and allowed hMSCs to rapidly migrate off the scaffolds as they homed to GBMs. In vivo, bENS loaded with hMSCs releasing the anti-tumor protein TRAIL (bENS(sTR)) reduced the volume of established GBM xenografts 3-fold. Mimicking clinical GBM patient therapy, lining the post-operative GBM surgical cavity with bENS(sTR) implants inhibited the re-growth of residual GBM foci 2.3-fold and prolonged post-surgical median survival from 13.5 to 31 days in mice. These results suggest that nanofibrous-based SC therapies could be an innovative new approach to improve the outcomes of patients suffering from terminal brain cancer. PMID:27016620

  15. Control of embryonic stem cell metastability by L-proline catabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Casalino; Stefania Comes; Giuseppina Lambazzi; Benedetta De Stefano; Stefania Filosa; Sandro De Falco; Dario De Cesare; Gabriella Minchiotti; Eduardo Jorge Patriarca

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) metastability, i.e. their capacity to fluctuate between different states of pluripotency, are not fully resolved. We developed and used a novel automation platform, the Cellmaker, to screen a library of metabolites on two ESC-based phenotypic assays (i.e. proliferation and colony phenotype) and identified two metabolically related amino acids, namely L-proline (L-Pro) and L-ornithine (L-Orn), as key regulators of ESC metastability. Both compounds,but mainly L-Pro, force ESCs toward a novel epiblast stem cell (EpiSC)-like state, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Unlike EpiSCs, L-Pro-induced cells (PiCs) contribute to chimeric embryos and rely on leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF) to self-renew.Furthermore, PiCs revert to ESCs or differentiate randomly upon removal of either L-Pro or LIF, respectively. Remarkably, PiC generation depends on both L-Pro metabolism (uptake and oxidation) and Fgf5 induction, and is strongly counteracted by antioxidants,mainly L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C, Vc). ESCs (←→) PiCs phenotypic transition thus represents a previously undefined dynamic equilibrium between pluripotent states, which can be unbalanced either toward an EpiSC-like or an ESC phenotype by L-Pro/L-Orn or Vc treatments, respectively. All together, our data provide evidence that E5C metastability can be regulated at a metabolic level.Kevwords: embryonic stem cells, L-proline, vitamin C, colony phenotype, pluripotent states, metastability

  16. Differential properties of human ACL and MCL stem cells may be responsible for their differential healing capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Freddie H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human anterior cruciate ligament (hACL and medial collateral ligament (hMCL of the knee joint are frequently injured, especially in athletic settings. It has been known that, while injuries to the MCL typically heal with conservative treatment, ACL injuries usually do not heal. As adult stem cells repair injured tissues through proliferation and differentiation, we hypothesized that the hACL and hMCL contain stem cells exhibiting unique properties that could be responsible for the differential healing capacity of the two ligaments. Methods To test the above hypothesis, we derived ligament stem cells from normal hACL and hMCL samples from the same adult donors using tissue culture techniques and characterized their properties using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and flow cytometry. Results We found that both hACL stem cells (hACL-SCs and hMCL stem cells (hMCL-SCs formed colonies in culture and expressed stem cell markers nucleostemin and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4. Moreover, both hACL-SCs and hMCL-SCs expressed CD surface markers for mesenchymal stem cells, including CD44 and CD90, but not those markers for vascular cells, CD31, CD34, CD45, and CD146. However, hACL-SCs differed from hMCL-SCs in that the size and number of hACL-SC colonies in culture were much smaller and grew more slowly than hMCL-SC colonies. Moreover, fewer hACL-SCs in cell colonies expressed stem cell markers STRO-1 and octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (Oct-4 than hMCL-SCs. Finally, hACL-SCs had less multi-differentiation potential than hMCL-SCs, evidenced by differing extents of adipogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis in the respective induction media. Conclusions This study shows for the first time that hACL-SCs are intrinsically different from hMCL-SCs. We suggest that the differences in their properties contribute to the known disparity in healing capabilities between the two ligaments.

  17. A Comparison of Culture Characteristics between Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Dental Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoff, Nurul Hidayat; Alshehadat, Saaid Ayesh; Azlina, Ahmad; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Hamid, Suzina Sheikh Abdul

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the field of stem cell biology is of major interest among researchers due to its broad therapeutic potential. Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialised cell types. Stem cells can be classified into two main types: adult stem cells (adult tissues) and embryonic stem cells (embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development). This review will discuss two types of adult mesenchymal stem cells, dental ...

  18. Enabling stem cell therapies through synthetic stem cell–niche engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Peerani, Raheem; Zandstra, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    Enabling stem cell–targeted therapies requires an understanding of how to create local microenvironments (niches) that stimulate endogenous stem cells or serve as a platform to receive and guide the integration of transplanted stem cells and their derivatives. In vivo, the stem cell niche is a complex and dynamic unit. Although components of the in vivo niche continue to be described for many stem cell systems, how these components interact to modulate stem cell fate is only beginning to be u...

  19. Oxygen "getter" effects on microstructure and carrier transport in low temperature combustion-processed a-InXZnO (X = Ga, Sc, Y, La) transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Smith, Jeremy; Yan, Aiming; Kim, Myung-Gil; Zhao, Wei; Dravid, Vinayak P; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2013-07-24

    In oxide semiconductors, such as those based on indium zinc oxide (IXZO), a strong oxygen binding metal ion ("oxygen getter"), X, functions to control O vacancies and enhance lattice formation, hence tune carrier concentration and transport properties. Here we systematically study, in the IXZO series, the role of X = Ga(3+) versus the progression X = Sc(3+) → Y(3+) → La(3+), having similar chemical characteristics but increasing ionic radii. IXZO films are prepared from solution over broad composition ranges for the first time via low-temperature combustion synthesis. The films are characterized via thermal analysis of the precursor solutions, grazing incidence angle X-ray diffraction (GIAXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging. Excellent thin-film transistor (TFT) performance is achieved for all X, with optimal compositions after 300 °C processing exhibiting electron mobilities of 5.4, 2.6, 2.4, and 1.8 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for Ga(3+), Sc(3+), Y(3+), and La(3+), respectively, and with I(on)/I(off) = 10(7)-10(8). Analysis of the IXZO TFT positive bias stress response shows X = Ga(3+) to be superior with mobilities (μ) retaining >95% of the prestress values and threshold voltage shifts (ΔV(T)) of lattice formation. We conclude that the metal oxide lattice formation enthalpy (ΔH(L)) and metal ionic radius are the best predictors of IXZO oxygen getter efficacy.

  20. Road for understanding cancer stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Erzik, Can

    2007-01-01

    offer an opportunity to use these cells as future therapeutic targets. Therefore, model systems in this field have become very important and useful. This review will focus on the state of knowledge on cancer stem cell research, including cell line models for cancer stem cells. The latter will, as models......There is increasing evidence suggesting that stem cells are susceptive to carcinogenesis and, consequently, can be the origin of many cancers. Recently, the neoplastic potential of stem cells has been supported by many groups showing the existence of subpopulations with stem cell characteristics...... in tumor biopsies such as brain and breast. Evidence supporting the cancer stem cell hypothesis has gained impact due to progress in stem cell biology and development of new models to validate the self-renewal potential of stem cells. Recent evidence on the possible identification of cancer stem cells may...

  1. Stem cell research in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengyi SUN; Shi ZUO

    2008-01-01

    The traditional view that adult human liver tumors, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), arise from mature cell types has been challenged in recent dec-ades. The results of several studies suggest that HCC can be derived from liver stem cells. There are four levels of cells in the liver stem cell lineage: hepatocytes, hepatic stem cells/oval cells, bone marrow stem cells and hepato-pancreas stem cells. However, whether HCC is resulted from the differentiation block of stem cells and, moreover, which liver stem cell lineage is the source cell of hepatocarcinogenesis remain controversial. In this review, we focus on the current status of liver stem cell research and their roles in carcinogenesis of HCC, in order to explore new approaches for stem cell therapy of HCC.

  2. Observation of coexistence of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases in Sc substituted BiFeO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durga Rao, T.; Asthana, Saket, E-mail: asthanas@iith.ac.in; Niranjan, Manish K.

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Coexisting ferro- and antiferroelectric phases in Sc substituted compounds. • Structural studies (XRD and Raman) supports the incorporation of Sc at B-site. • Presence of non-centrosymmetric monoclinic phase correlates with AFE ordering. • Grain resistance and activation energies increase with the Sc-content. • Electrical relaxations are originated due to oxygen vacancy movements. - Abstract: Polycrystalline BiFe{sub 1−x}Sc{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) compounds were prepared using solid state reaction route. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that Sc substitution stabilized the crystal structure in rhombohedral structure with R3c space group along with nominal percentage of monoclinic structure with Cm space group. Raman and FTIR measurements revealed that the substituent replaced Fe-ions and caused structural distortions. Co-existence of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases were observed in Sc substituted BiFeO{sub 3} and antiferroelectric phase is found to be evolved at the expense of ferroelectric phase with the Sc content. The electric field driven effects indicated that antiferroelectric phase was suppressed and ferroelectric phase was enriched. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant (ε{sub r}) and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) at different temperatures were investigated. Further, grain resistances and grain boundary resistances were increased with the Sc content. Activation energies estimated from dielectric, impedance and modulus data indicated that these relaxations originated presumably due to the oxygen vacancy movements.

  3. Medialogi (Dansk informations brochure om Medialogi-uddannelsen, 1. til 10. semester (B.Sc. & Cand.Scient))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Informationsbrochure, 28 sider, om Medialogi uddannelsen (Cand. Scient.), der udbydes af Aalborg Universitet i Aalborg, Esbjerg og København. Brochuren beskriver 1. til 10. semester af uddannelsen (B.Sc. og M.Sc.). Informationen er primært rettet mod potentielle ansøgere til Medialogi uddannelsen...

  4. Curriculum (Study Programme) for the 3rd to 6th semester of the B.Sc., Medialogy, at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Serafin, Stefania; Lavatino, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    Major revision of the original curriculum of the B.Sc., Medialogy. Significant changes (extensive restructuring) in comparison with the first version of the curriculum.......Major revision of the original curriculum of the B.Sc., Medialogy. Significant changes (extensive restructuring) in comparison with the first version of the curriculum....

  5. Naked (C5Me5)(2)M cations (M = Sc, Ti, and V) and their fluoroarene complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwkamp, MW; Budzelaar, PHM; Gercama, J; Morales, ID; de Wolf, J; Meetsma, A; Troyanov, SI; Teuben, JH; Hessen, B; Budzelaar, Peter H.M.; Hierro Morales, Isabel Del; Troyanov, Sergei I.

    2005-01-01

    The ionic metallocene complexes [Cp*M-2][BPh4] (CP* = C5Me5) of the trivalent 3d metals Sc, Ti, and V were synthesized and structurally characterized. For M Sc, the anion interacts weakly with the metal center through one of the phenyl groups, but for M = Ti and V, the cations are naked. They each c

  6. Effect of minor Sc and Zr addition on microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Liang; PAN Qing-lin; HE Yun-bin; WANG Chang-zhen; LIANG Wen-jie

    2007-01-01

    Three kinds of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu based alloys with 0.22%, 0.36%(Sc+Zr) (mass fraction, %), and without Sc, Zr addition were prepared by ingot metallurgy. By using optical microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the effects of microalloying elements of Sc, Zr on the microstructure of super-high-strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys related to mechanical properties were investigated. The tensile properties and microstructures of the studied alloys under different heat treatment conditions were studied. The addition of minor Sc, Zr results in the formation of Al3(Sc,Zr) particles. These particles are highly effective in refining the microstructures, retarding recrystallization, pinning dislocations and subboundaries. The strength of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys was greatly improved by simultaneously adding minor Sc, Zr, meanwhile the ductility of the studied alloys remains at a higher level. The 0.36%(Sc+Zr) alloys gain the optimal properties after 465 ℃/h solution and 120 ℃/24 h aging. The increment of strength is mainly due to strengthening of fine grain and substructure and precipitation of Al3(Sc, Zr) particles.

  7. Effect of minor Sc and Zr addition on grain refinement of as-cast AI-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Yongdong; Zhang Xinming; Cao Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    The optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed to investigate the influence of joint addition of Sc and Zr on grain refinement of AI-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys.Results show that the addition of 0.20% Sc has a little effect on grain refinement because Sc is mainly dissolved into the matrix and hardly any primary Al3Sc particles are precipitated. The alloy with addition of 0.30% Sc and 0.16%Zr has more equiaxed grains than that of others,giving cast grain sizes as fine as 13μm. This is because the Sc substitutes for AI atom in the AI-Zr crystal cell and forms AI-Sc-Zr unit cell,which grows and becomes AI3(Scx,Zr1.x)particle,acting as a nucleus for the formation of a-AI. The addition of 0.04% Ti and 0.008% B makes the grain size drop from 250 μm to 50 μm. Its refinement effect is less than the 13 μm achieved by the alloy including 0.30% Sc and 0.16% Zr.

  8. SC-IAT范式下大学生感恩的内隐性%An Implicit Study on Undergraduates’Gratitude under SC-IAT Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何安明; 惠秋平; 刘华山

    2014-01-01

    objective:To explore the feasibility of measuring undergraduates’gratitude by Single Category Implicit Association Test( SC-IAT)and analyze the relationship between implicit gratitude and explicit gratitude. Procedures and Methods:Preliminary research se-lected 20 words related to grace from the modern Chinese dictionary,and selected each 20 positive/negative words related to gratitude from Chinese idioms dictionary,according to the evaluation results of 65 undergraduates,the 8 words related to grace,and each 8 posi-tive/negative words were screened out for the formal research. In formal research,the SC-IAT gratitude measurement procedures was developed with software inquisit 3. 0. 2. 0,144 undergraduates were simultaneously assigned to receive SC-IAT test and explicit grati-tude measurement by Adolescent Gratitude Scale( AGS),and the relationship between implicit gratitude and explicit gratitude was ana-lyzed via correlate technology. Results:Implicit effects of undergraduates’gratitude measured by SC-IAT was significant(p0. 05),and there was no significant correlation between implicit gratitude and explicit gratitude(p>0. 05). Conclusions:(1)The undergraduates generally have positive implicit gratitude;(2)Implicit gratitude is separated from explicit gratitude,they belong to two different constructions.%目的:研究探讨了单类内隐联想测验( SC-IAT)测量大学生感恩的可行性,并分析内隐感恩与外显感恩的关系。方法:采用inquisit3.0.2.0编制SC-IAT感恩测量程序,测量了大学生的内隐感恩;采用青少年感恩量表( AGS)测量了大学生的外显感恩,并运用相关技术分析两者之间的关系。结果:采用SC-IAT测量大学生感恩的内隐效应显著,内隐感恩不存在性别、生源地和独生与否等人口统计学指标上的显著差异,大学生的内隐感恩与外显感恩之间相关不显著。结论:(1)大学生整体上存在着积极的内隐感恩(;2

  9. Images of women in STEM fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how eighth-grade students perceived images of women in STEM and non-STEM careers. Thirty-six images were posted on-line; we measured five characteristics of each image. Forty students participated in the study. We found that there were significant differences in attractiveness, creativity, and intelligence between STEM and non-STEM images. There were no significant differences for good at her job and organization. In addition, there were no significant differences among STEM and non-STEM images of women of the same race.

  10. Extinction Models for Cancer Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sehl, Mary; Zhou, Hua; Sinsheimer, Janet ,; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells) that must exist for the survival of an adequate number of normal stem cells. Our main tool...

  11. A novel mouse model for non-invasive single marker tracking of mammary stem cells in vivo reveals stem cell dynamics throughout pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Tiede

    Full Text Available Mammary stem cells (MaSCs play essential roles for the development of the mammary gland and its remodeling during pregnancy. However, the precise localization of MaSCs in the mammary gland and their regulation during pregnancy is unknown. Here we report a transgenic mouse model for luciferase-based single marker detection of MaSCs in vivo that we used to address these issues. Single transgene expressing mammary epithelial cells were shown to reconstitute mammary glands in vivo while immunohistochemical staining identified MaSCs in basal and luminal locations, with preponderance towards the basal position. By quantifying luciferase expression using bioluminescent imaging, we were able to track MaSCs non-invasively in individual mice over time. Using this model to monitor MaSC dynamics throughout pregnancy, we found that MaSCs expand in both total number and percentage during pregnancy and then drop down to or below baseline levels after weaning. However, in a second round of pregnancy, this expansion was not as extensive. These findings validate a powerful system for the analysis of MaSC dynamics in vivo, which will facilitate future characterization of MaSCs during mammary gland development and breast cancer.

  12. PDGF, NT-3 and IGF-2 in combination induced transdifferentiation of muscle-derived stem cells into Schwann cell-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    Full Text Available Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs are multipotent stem cells with a remarkable long-term self-renewal and regeneration capacity. Here, we show that postnatal MDSCs could be transdifferentiated into Schwann cell-like cells upon the combined treatment of three neurotrophic factors (PDGF, NT-3 and IGF-2. The transdifferentiation of MDSCs was initially induced by Schwann cell (SC conditioned medium. MDSCs adopted a spindle-like morphology similar to SCs after the transdifferentiation. Immunocytochemistry and immunoblot showed clearly that the SC markers S100, GFAP and p75 were expressed highly only after the transdifferentiation. Flow cytometry assay showed that the portion of S100 expressed cells was more than 60 percent and over one fourth of the transdifferentiated cells expressed all the three SC markers, indicating an efficient transdifferentiation. We then tested neurotrophic factors in the conditioned medium and found it was PDGF, NT-3 and IGF-2 in combination that conducted the transdifferentiation. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to use specific neurotrophic factors to transdifferentiate MDSCs into Schwann cell-like cells, which might be therapeutically useful for clinical applications.

  13. Induction of Functional Recovery by Co-transplantation of Neural Stem Cells and Schwann Cells in a Rat Spinal Cord Contusion Injury Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN LI; CHONG-RAN SUN; HAN ZHANG; KAM-SZE TSANG; JUN-HUA LI; SHAO-DONG ZHANG; YI-HUA AN

    2007-01-01

    Objeetive To smdy the transplantation efficacy of neural stem cells(NSCs)and Schwann cells(SC)in a rat model of spinal cord contusion injury.Methods Multipotent neural stem cells(NSCs)and Schwann cells were harvested from the spinal cords of embryomc rats at 16 days post coitus and sciatic nerves of newborn rats,respectively.The differential characteristics of NSCs in vitro induced by either serunl-based culture or co-culture with SC were analyzed by immunofluorescence.NSCs and SCs were co-transplanted into adult rats having undergone spinal cord contusion at T9 level.The animals were weekly monitored using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating system to evaluate functional recovery from contusion-induced spinal cord injury.Migration and differentiation of transplanted NSCs were studied in tissue sections using immunohistochemical staining.Results Embryomc spinal cord-derived NSCs differentiated into a large number of oligodendrocytes in serum-based culture upon the withdrawal of mitogens.In cocultures with SCs,NSCs differentiated into neuron more readily.Rats with spinal cord contusion injury which had undergone transplantation of NSCs and SCs into the intraspinal cavity demonstrated a moderate improvement in momr functions.Conclusions SC may contribute to neuronal differentiation of NSCs in vitro and in vivo.Transplantation of NSCs and SCs into the affected area may be a feasible approach to promoting motor recovery in patients after spinal cordin jury.

  14. Stem cells: sources and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Manuela; Perotti, Cesare; Del Fante, Claudia; Cervio, Marila; Redi, Carlo Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The historical, lexical and conceptual issues embedded in stem cell biology are reviewed from technical, ethical, philosophical, judicial, clinical, economic and biopolitical perspectives. The mechanisms assigning the simultaneous capacity to self-renew and to differentiate to stem cells (immortal template DNA and asymmetric division) are evaluated in the light of the niche hypothesis for the stemness state. The induction of cell pluripotency and the different stem cells sources are presented (embryonic, adult and cord blood). We highlight the embryonic and adult stem cell properties and possible therapies while we emphasize the particular scientific and social values of cord blood donation to set up cord blood banks. The current scientific and legal frameworks of cord blood banks are reviewed at an international level as well as allogenic, dedicated and autologous donations. The expectations and the challenges in relation to present-day targeted diseases like diabetes mellitus type I, Parkinson's disease and myocardial infarction are evaluated in the light of the cellular therapies for regenerative medicine. PMID:23283430

  15. Comparison of the texture evolution in cold rolled DC and SC AA 5182 aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot bands of direct chill cast (DC) and strip cast (SC) AA 5182 aluminum alloys were annealed at 454 deg. C for 3 h, and then cold rolled to different reductions. The ODFs of the cold rolled samples were determined by X-ray diffraction in order to compare the texture evolution of DC and SC AA 5182 aluminum alloys during rolling. The texture volume fractions were computed by a new method, in which the Euler space representing all possible crystallographic orientations in rolling was subdivided into the cube, r-cube, Goss, r-Goss, β fiber, and random orientation regions based on the slip pattern combined with the characteristics of microstructure and texture. Empirical formulae of the texture volume fractions and true strain were constructed to predict the texture of cold rolled DC and SC AA 5182 aluminum alloys. The results show that the processing method (DC vs. SC) strongly affects the texture after annealing at 454 deg. C and the texture evolution during the subsequent rolling

  16. Automatic symbolic analysis of SC networks using a modified nodal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, V.A.; Petkovic, P.M.; Milanovic, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a symbolic analysis of Switched-Capacitor (SC) circuits in the z-domain using Modified Nodal Approach (MNA). We have selected the MNA method as one of the widely established approaches in circuit analysis. The analyses are performed using SymsimC symbolic simulator which also ena

  17. Biogas Upgrading Using SOEC with a Ni-ScYSZ Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Bøgild Hansen, John; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Biogas consists mainly of CH4, CO2 and small amounts of H2S. The value of biogas will increase significantly if it is upgraded to pipeline quality by converting CO2 and H2O in the biogas to CO and H2 using a Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell (SOEC) followed by methanation. The Ni-ScYSZ-cermet electrode...

  18. Thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tempel, L.

    2011-01-01

    An acceptance test for thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera with 8.0 µm low-wavelength-pass filter has been developed and performed on polycarbonate, PEN, quartz, Corning 1737 glass, G427 cone glas, G443 screen glass, Schott Zerodur, silicon and a bl

  19. Atomic structure and phason modes of the Sc-Zn icosahedral quasicrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tsunetomo; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Euchner, Holger; Pay Gómez, Cesar; Bosak, Alexei; Fertey, Pierre; de Boissieu, Marc

    2016-07-01

    The detailed atomic structure of the binary icosahedral (i) ScZn7.33 quasicrystal has been investigated by means of high-resolution synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction and absolute scale measurements of diffuse scattering. The average atomic structure has been solved using the measured Bragg intensity data based on a six-dimensional model that is isostructural to the i-YbCd5.7 one. The structure is described with a quasiperiodic packing of large Tsai-type rhombic triacontahedron clusters and double Friauf polyhedra (DFP), both resulting from a close-packing of a large (Sc) and a small (Zn) atom. The difference in chemical composition between i-ScZn7.33 and i-YbCd5.7 was found to lie in the icosahedron shell and the DFP where in i-ScZn7.33 chemical disorder occurs on the large atom sites, which induces a significant distortion to the structure units. The intensity in reciprocal space displays a substantial amount of diffuse scattering with anisotropic distribution, located around the strong Bragg peaks, that can be fully interpreted as resulting from phason fluctuations, with a ratio of the phason elastic constants K 2/K 1 = -0.53, i.e. close to a threefold instability limit. This induces a relatively large perpendicular (or phason) Debye-Waller factor, which explains the vanishing of 'high-Q perp' reflections. PMID:27437112

  20. UAS Integration in the NAS Project Overview: RTCA SC-228 Plenary DAA Working Group 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation is intended to allow the public to know and understand NASA's plans for integrated test to allow them the opportunity to provide feedback and suggestions. The integrated testing will support verification and validation of the RTCA SC-228 UAS minimum operation performance standard requirements.