WorldWideScience

Sample records for ceprate sc stem

  1. [Human amniotic epithelium (HAE) as a possible source of stem cells (SC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Guadalupe; García-Castro, Irma Lydia; Avila-González, Daniela; Molina-Hernández, Anayansi; Flores-Herrera, Héctor; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Díaz-Martínez, Fabián

    2015-01-01

    There have been major recent advances in the field of developmental biology due to the investigation on stem cells (SC). Stem cells are characterized by their capacity of auto-renewal and differentiation to different cellular phenotypes. Based on the developmental stage, they can be classified into two different types: embryonic SCs and adult SCs. It has been widely reported that several problems need to be resolved before their possible clinical applications. As a result, fetal membranes have been suggested as an alternative source of SCs. In the human amniotic epithelium, the presence of markers of pluripotent SC´s has been reported, and its capacity as a feeder layer for expansion of different SC types. Also, fetal membranes are a discarded product after delivery, and thus there are not any ethical issues related to its use. In conclusion, the human amniotic epithelium can be a strong candidate for regenerative medicine.

  2. Pubertal Bisphenol A Exposure Alters Murine Mammary Stem Cell (MaSC) Function Leading to Early Neoplasia in Regenerated Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Danhan; Gao, Hui; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Wu, Anqi; Yeh, I-Tien; Chen, Yidong; Zou, Yi; Huang, Changjiang; Walter, Christi A.; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to cause aberrant mammary gland morphogenesis and mammary neoplastic transformation. Yet, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that mammary glands exposed to BPA during a susceptible window may lead to its susceptibility to tumorigenesis through a stem-cell mediated mechanism. We exposed 21-day-old Balb/c mice to BPA by gavage (25 μg/kg/day) during puberty for 3 weeks, and a subset of animals were furthe...

  3. S-C Mylonites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lister, G.S.; Snoke, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of foliations are commonly developed in mylonites and mylonitic rocks: (a) S-surfaces related to the accumulation of finite strain and (b) C-surfaces related to displacement discontinuities or zones of relatively high shear strain. There are two types of S-C mylonites. Type I S-C mylonites

  4. File list: InP.PSC.10.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 35242 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.PSC.10.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ... ...InP.PSC.10.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Input control Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX590285,SRX5

  5. File list: InP.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 90285 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ... ...InP.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Input control Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX535242,SRX5

  6. File list: InP.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 90285 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ... ...InP.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Input control Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX535242,SRX5

  7. File list: His.PSC.10.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0286,SRX535238 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.10.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ... ...His.PSC.10.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Histone Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX590288,SRX535240,

  8. File list: Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 074908,SRX1074905 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ... ...Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX1074917,SRX1

  9. File list: His.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 909,SRX1074906 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ... ...His.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Histone Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX535239,SRX535240,

  10. File list: InP.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 35242 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ... ...InP.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Input control Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX590285,SRX5

  11. File list: Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 074905,SRX1074908 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ... ...Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX1074917,SRX1

  12. File list: His.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4916,SRX590286 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ... ...His.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Histone Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX590288,SRX535240,

  13. File list: Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 074908,SRX1074905 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ... ...Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX1074917,SRX1

  14. File list: His.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4906,SRX535241 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ... ...His.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Histone Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX535239,SRX661083,

  15. SC tuning fork

    CERN Multimedia

    The tuning fork used to modulate the radiofrequency system of the synchro cyclotron (SC) from 1957 to 1973. This piece is an unused spare part. The SC was the 1st accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990. In the SC the magnetic field did not change with time, and the particles were accelerated in successive pulses by a radiofrequency voltage of some 20kV which varied in frequency as they spiraled outwards towards the extraction radius. The frequency varied from 30MHz to about 17Mz in each pulse. The tuning fork vibrated at 55MHz in vacuum in an enclosure which formed a variable capacitor in the tuning circuit of the RF system, allowing the RF to vary over the appropriate range to accelerate protons from the centre of the macine up to 600Mev at extraction radius. In operation the tips of the tuning fork blade had an amplitude of movement of over 1 cm. The SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements from 1973 to 1975, including the installation of a...

  16. 肿瘤干细胞表面标志物CD133单链抗体基因的分离与鉴定%Identification and characterization of single chain antibody of cancer stem cell surface marker CD133 scFv CD133

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩瑜; 周炳喜; 张延瑞; 韩双印

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify,construct and express scFv CD133,verify its biological function.Methods VL and VH were isolated from hybridoma of mAb CD133 by using antibody engineering technology.Its DNA sequencing and CDR were determined.scFv CD133 was then cloned into pET32a,transformed into Origami,induced by IPTG,purified by Ni2+-NTA His resin.Its affinity and specificity were tested by NH4SCN elution and ELISA.Results The size of VL and VH of scFv CD133 was 339 bp and 342 bp,which coded 113 and 114 amino acid separately.Its VL belonged to mouse Igκ chain and VH belonged to mouse IgG heavy chain subtype I.The molecular weight of scFv CD133 was about 27 × 103 which was testified by SDSPAGE and Western blot.Its affinity and specificity were also verified.Conclusion scFv CD133 has been successfully constructed and expressed in Origami,which could supply basis for target therapy of CD+133 cancer stem cell.%目的 分离、构建和表达抗人CD133单链抗体(scFvCD133),测定其生物学活性.方法 用抗体工程技术从抗人CD133单克隆抗体(mAb)杂交瘤细胞中分离抗体可变区基因(VL和VH),测定DNA序列并确定抗体互补决定区(CDR);将scFv CD133基因克隆至pET32a中,转化Origami菌株,IPTG诱导,Ni2+-NTA His树脂纯化单链抗体,梯度硫氰酸盐洗脱法和酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)法检测其亲和性和特异性.结果 scFvCD133基因VL和VH长度分别为339 bp和342 bp,各编码113和114个氨基酸,其中VL隶属于小鼠Ig κ轻链,VH隶属于小鼠Ig重链Ⅰ亚类.scFvCD133经SDS-PAGE和Western blot 分析证明相对分子质量为27 × 103,体外实验具有一定的亲和性和特异性.结论 获得scFv CD133基因,为CD+133肿瘤干细胞的靶向治疗奠定了基础.

  17. File list: ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX535239,SRX53...RX590290,SRX590286,SRX661084,SRX1074905,SRX1074908,SRX535237,SRX535241,SRX661085,SRX1074909,SRX1074906 http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX590288,SRX53...RX590290,SRX1074917,SRX1074916,SRX590285,SRX590286,SRX535242,SRX1074908,SRX1074905,SRX535238,SRX535237 http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX590288,SRX53...RX590290,SRX590289,SRX590285,SRX1074916,SRX1074917,SRX590286,SRX535242,SRX1074908,SRX1074905,SRX535237 http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX535239,SRX66...RX590289,SRX590285,SRX590290,SRX590286,SRX1074909,SRX1074908,SRX1074905,SRX1074906,SRX535237,SRX535241 http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ...

  1. First coil for the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1955-01-01

    The coils for the SC magnet were stored in the large hangar of the Cointrin Airport (to make sure that they would be available before snow and ice would block the roads and canals from Belgium, where they were built).

  2. Monitor of SC beam profiles

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution secondary emission grid for the measurement of SC beam profiles. Modern techniques of metal-ceramic bonding, developed for micro-electronics, have been used in its construction. (See Annual Report 1977 p. 105 Fig. 12.)

  3. Magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsubo, T., E-mail: tohtsubo@np.gs.niigata-u.ac.jp; Kawamura, Y.; Ohya, S. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [Niigata University, Radioisotope Center (Japan); Nishimura, K. [Toyama University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Muto, S. [Neutron Science Laboratory, KEK (Japan); Shinozuka, T. [Tohoku University, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonances were measured for {sup 48}Sc and {sup 44m}Sc oriented at 8 mK in an Fe host metal. The magnetic hyperfine splitting frequencies at an external magnetic field of 0.2 T were determined to be 63.22(11) MHz and 64.81(1) MHz for {sup 48}Sc and {sup 44m}Sc, respectively. With the known magnetic moment of {mu}({sup 44m}Sc)=+3.88 (1) {mu}{sub N}, the magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc is deduced as {mu}({sup 44}Sc)=+3.785(12) {mu}{sub N}. The measured magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc is discussed in terms of the shell model using the effective interactions.

  4. 2010 ARRA Lidar: Hampton County (SC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide high density LiDAR elevation data map of Hampton County, SC. Provide Bare Earth DEM (vegetation removal) of Hampton County, SC.

  5. Xemilofiban: SC 54684A, xemlofiban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Xemilofiban [SC 54684, SC 54684A (HCl), xemlofiban], a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist, is an orally available prodrug of a non-peptide mimetic of the tetrapeptide RGDF. It is converted to the active metabolite, SC 54701 (the free base form of SC 54701A). Development was initiated by Searle (Monsanto). Searle became part of Pharmacia Corporation, which was acquired by, and merged into, Pfizer in April 2003. Searle had co-development and co-marketing agreements with Sankyo in Japan; these have been discontinued. In January 2003, Pharmacia donated the intellectual property for xemilofiban to Western Michigan University. In February 2003, Western Michigan University granted an exclusive worldwide licence of xemilofiban to VDDI Pharmaceuticals (formerly Virtual Drug Development Inc.). Xemilofiban was in a phase III clinical trial, the Evaluation of Xemilofiban in Controlling Thrombotic Events (EXCITE) trial, with Searle (Monsanto) in the US and Europe for the treatment of thrombosis in patients with unstable angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction undergoing angioplasty. However, as xemilofiban demonstrated no significant clinical benefit, Searle discontinued its development. In Japan, Sankyo discontinued the development of xemilofiban for thrombosis at phase II following Searle's decision to drop the project. VDDI Pharmaceuticals plans to develop xemilofiban in cardiovascular disorders following on from the phase III studies completed by Pharmacia; a restructured dosing schedule and narrowed patient selection will be used. VDDI has research facilities worldwide and will utilise facilities in Ireland for the European clinical development programme; research facilities in the Southwest Michigan Innovation Center are planned while the head office of VDDI is based in Tennessee. Xemilofiban is in phase III development for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in conjunction with percutaneous coronary intervention.

  6. Materials Characterization of High-Temperature Epoxy Resins: SC-79 and SC-15/SC-79 Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Army composite applications. SC-15 is a toughened commercial vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding ( VARTM ) resin produced by Applied Poleramic Inc...very well in VARTM processes and has good damage resistance in structural and ballistic applications. However, the relatively low glass transition...low-viscosity, two-phase toughened, cycloaliphatic amine–cured commercial VARTM resin system designed to be easy to handle and have a long processing

  7. Modeling dynamics of mutants in heterogeneous stem cell niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriyari, L.; Mahdipour-Shirayeh, A.

    2017-02-01

    Studying the stem cell (SC) niche architecture is a crucial step for investigating the process of oncogenesis and obtaining an effective stem cell therapy for various cancers. Recently, it has been observed that there are two groups of SCs in the SC niche collaborating with each other to maintain tissue homeostasis: border stem cells (BSCs), which are responsible in controlling the number of non-stem cells as well as stem cells, and central stem cells (CeSCs), which regulate the SC niche. Here, we develop a bi-compartmental stochastic model for the SC niche to study the spread of mutants within the niche. The analytic calculations and numeric simulations, which are in perfect agreement, reveal that in order to delay the spread of mutants in the SC niche, a small but non-zero number of SC proliferations must occur in the CeSC compartment. Moreover, the migration of BSCs to CeSCs delays the spread of mutants. Furthermore, the fixation probability of mutants in the SC niche is independent of types of SC division as long as all SCs do not divide fully asymmetrically. Additionally, the progeny of CeSCs have a much higher chance than the progeny of BSCs to take over the entire niche.

  8. Update on the NSF PAARE Program at SC State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald K.; Ajello, Marco; Brittain, Sean D.; Cash, Jennifer; Hartmann, Dieter; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve B.; King, Jeremy R.; Leising, Mark D.; Smith, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    We report on results from our NSF PAARE program during Year 2 of the project. Our partnership under this PAARE award includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) as well as individual investigators at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon University. Our recent work on variable and peculiar stars, work with the Kepler Observatory and our educational products in cosmology for non-STEM majors will be presented. We have successfully piloted sharing our teaching resources by offering an upper-level astrophysics course taught at Clemson via video conferencing , allowing a graduating senior from SC State to take a course not available through his home institution. Additionally, we are working on a memorandum of agreement between the two institutions that will allow for the seamless transfer of an undergraduate from SC State to Clemson’s graduate program in physics and astronomy. Our curriculum work includes new web-based cosmology activities and laboratory experiments. SC State undergraduates are reporting at this conference on their work with the light curves of semiregular variables using Kepler data. Additionally, we are heavily involved in the Citizen CATE Experiment. A PAARE scholarship student from SC State and the PAARE PI traveled to Indonesia for the March 2016 solar eclipse. Their results are also being presented elsewhere at this conference (see Myles McKay’s poster). Support for this work includes our NSF PAARE award AST-1358913 as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Additional support has been provided by the South Carolina Space Grant Consortium and from NASA to SC State under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. CATE work has been supported by NASA SMD award NNX16AB92A to the National Solar Observatory. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu

  9. Academic Training - Pulsed SC Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 2, 3, June 29, 30, 31 May, 1, 2 June 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Pulsed SC Magnets by M. Wilson Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mech...

  10. Main: 3SC2 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3SC2 小麦 Bread Wheat Triticum aestivum Serine Carboxypeptidase Ii Chains A And B Nam... 1WHS; X-ray; A=6-260, B=266-418.|PDB; 1WHT; X-ray; A=5-260, B=266-418.|PDB; 3SC2; X-ray; A=1-259, B=266-417...WHDAPRSMLPIYRELIAAGLRIWVFSGDTDAVVPLTATRYSIGALGLPTTTSWYPWYDDQEVGGWSQVYKGLTLVSVRGAGHEVPLHRPRQALVLFQYFLQGKPMPGQTKNAT wheat_3SC2.jpg ...

  11. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  12. Cs3ScCl6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Ward

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystals of tricaesium scandium(III hexachloride were obtained as a side product from the reaction of U, SnCl2, Sc, and S in a CsCl flux at 1073 K. Cs3ScCl6 crystallizes in the Rb3YCl6 structure type. The asymmetric unit comprises three Cs sites, two Sc sites, and six Cl sites, all of which have site symmetry 1, except for the two Sc sites that have site symmetries of 2 and -1, respectively. The structure is composed of isolated [ScCl6]3− octahedra that are surrounded by Cs+ cations. Two Cs+ cations have interactions with eight Cl− anions, while the third has interactions with ten Cl− anions.

  13. SC-FDMA for mobile communications

    CERN Document Server

    Abd El-Samie, Fathi E

    2013-01-01

    SC-FDMA for Mobile Communications examines Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA). Explaining this rapidly evolving system for mobile communications, it describes its advantages and limitations and outlines possible solutions for addressing its current limitations. The book explores the emerging trend of cooperative communication with SC-FDMA and how it can improve the physical layer security. It considers the design of distributed coding schemes and protocols for wireless relay networks where users cooperate to send their data to the destination. Supplying you with the re

  14. z206sc_video_observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents video observations from cruise Z206SC for the Santa Barbara Channel region and beyond in southern California. The vector data file is...

  15. z107sc_video_observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents video observations from cruise Z107SC for the Santa Barbara Channel region and beyond in southern California. The vector data file is...

  16. Bandwidth challenge teams at SC2003 conference

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Results from the fourth annual High-Performance Bandwidth Challenge, held in conjunction with SC2003, the international conference on high-performance computing and networking which occurred last week in Phoenix, AZ (1 page).

  17. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  18. Human umbilical cord-drived mesenchymal stem cells as vehicles of CD20 specific-TRAIL fusion protein against non-Hodgkin’ s lymphoma%脐带间充质干细胞运载scFvCD20:sTRAIL融合蛋白对B-淋巴瘤细胞的生长抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范冬梅; 张晓龙; 张晴; 卢杨; 杨圆圆; 袁向飞; 张砚君; 熊冬生

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the therapeutic effect of a novel double-target system,in which human umbilical cord-derived MSCs were used as vehicles to deliver fusion protein scFvCD20:sTRAIL to non-Hodgkin ’ s lymphoma. Methods: The traditional methods in molecular biology were used to construct lentivirus expression vectors pLenR. scFvCD20: sTRAIL and contrast vectors. Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs ( HUMSCs ) were labeled with the copGFP by transducing with pseudo viral particles which had been packaged in 293T cells with four plasmid-lentivirus packaging system. Fusion protein scFvCD20:sTRAIL were secreted from MSC. scFvCD20:sTRAIL after that HUMSCs were infected by pseudo viral particles. CCK8 assay was applied to detect the antigen-restricted cell death induced by scFvCD20:sTRAIL in CD20-positive BJAB and Raji cells as well as CD20-negtive Jurkat cells and human normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To evaluate the therapeutic effect of MSC. scFvCD20:sTRAIL in vivo,ge-netically modified HUMSCs were intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice with BJAB cells. The volume of tumor was measured every three days, and the inhibition ratio of tumor was calculated according to tumor volume. Results: Lentivirus expression vectors pLenR. scFvCD20:sTRAIL, pLenR. ISZ:sTRAIL, pLenR. scFvCD20 and pLenR. CopGFP were successfully constructed and these constructs could be expressed stably in HUMSCs by lentivirus transduction. scFvCD20:sTRAIL fusion protein produced a potent inhibition of cell proliferation in CD20-positive BJAB cells,moderate inhibition of the growth of Raji cells,and weak inhibition in CD20-negtive Jurkat cells when compared with ISZ-sTRAIL treatment,and it had no effect on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The MSC. scFvCD20:sTRAIL treatment significantly inhibited the tumor growth when compared with those treated with MSC. ISZ-sTRAIL. Conclusion: A double-target therapeutic system is well established, in which HUMSCs

  19. Sc3N and Sc2C2 encapsulated B40: Smarter than its carbon analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Esha V.; Roy, Debesh R.

    2016-10-01

    A detailed comparative investigation on the recently synthesised B40 and C40 along with their metal nitride (Sc3N)and carbide (Sc2C2) encapsulated endohedral fullerenes, is performed under density functional theory for the first time. The structures, electronic, thermodynamic and magnetic properties of all the considered compounds are explored in detail. The present study identifies borospherene (B40) and its encapsulated nitride (Sc3N@B40) and carbide (Sc2C2@B40) endohedral borofullerenes as the better candidates for future novel nano-applications compared to their carbon bucky ball analogues.

  20. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  1. Sc20C60: a volleyballene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Hong-Man; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as ``Volleyballene''. Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (~1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable.An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as ``Volleyballene''. Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (~1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sc20C60: a Volleyballene_SI. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07784b

  2. Recrystallization and Morphology of Microstructure in Al-Sc Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jun; Zhang Zonghua

    2007-01-01

    Minor addition of Sc to aluminum results in the rapid precipitation of homogeneously distributed Al3Sc dispersoids. The presence of Al3Sc dispersoids is more effective recrystallization inhibitors. Our work established the precipitation of homogeneously distributed Al3Sc dispersoids, which are coherent with the matrix, have the L12 structure. It was also established that the addition of Sc was effective in improving the recrystallization resistance.

  3. Norma Audio Revo SC-/PA-150

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Norma audio是意大利一间顶级HI-Fi音响器材生产商。这款IRevo SC-2/PA-150为正是公司旗下的一款高端型号产品。其中,Revo SC-2前置放大器的放大电路以低噪音、高速和宽频作为设计重点,能反映出音频信号中的每一个细节。

  4. K2SC: K2 Systematics Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigrain, Suzanne; Parviainen, Hannu; Pope, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    K2SC (K2 Systematics Correction) models instrumental systematics and astrophysical variability in light curves from the K2 mission. It enables the user to remove both position-dependent systematics and time-dependent variability (e.g., for transit searches) or to remove systematics while preserving variability (for variability studies). K2SC automatically computes estimates of the period, amplitude and evolution timescale of the variability for periodic variables and can be run on ASCII and FITS light curve files. Written in Python, this pipeline requires NumPy, SciPy, MPI4Py, Astropy (ascl:1304.002), and George (ascl:1511.015).

  5. Influence of oxygen in the cultivation of human mesenchymal stem cells in simulated microgravity: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Versari; J. Klein-Nulend; J. van Loon; S. Bradamante

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that human Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (AT-MSCs) cultured in simulated microgravity (sim-μg) in standard laboratory incubators alter their proliferation and differentiation. Recent studies on the stem cell (SC) niches and the influence of oxygen on SC pro

  6. Magnet measuring equipment of SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Checking the positioning of the magnet measuring equipment installed between the poles of SC2. The steel structure in front of the magnet is designed to house the rotary condenser and to shield it from the stray magnetic field of the accelerator.

  7. Magnet measuring equipment of SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Checking the positioning of the magnet measuring equipment installed between the poles of SC2. The steel structure in front of the magnet is designed to house the rotary condenser and to shield it from the stray magnetic field of the accelerator. On the left, Marinus van Gulik. (See Photo Archive 7402005 and Annual Report 1974, p. 44.)

  8. The Synchrocyclotron (SC) in building 300

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    The red magnet of CERN's first accelerator, the Synchrocyclotron (SC), has occupied a large part of Hall 300 since it was installed in the late 1950s. The remaining part of the 300-square-metre building has been used as a storage room since the accelerator was shut down in 1990. Now a public exhibition will breathe new life into the hall.

  9. Lessons Learned about Human Stem Cell Responses to Ionizing Radiation Exposures: A Long Road Still Ahead of Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Mykyta; Neumann, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Human stem cells (hSC) possess several distinct characteristics that set them apart from other cell types. First, hSC are self-renewing, capable of undergoing both asymmetric and symmetric cell divisions. Second, these cells can be coaxed to differentiate into various specialized cell types and, as such, hold great promise for regenerative medicine. Recent progresses in hSC biology fostered the characterization of the responses of hSC to genotoxic stresses, including ionizing radiation (IR). Here, we examine how different types of hSC respond to IR, with a special emphasis on their radiosensitivity, cell cycle, signaling networks, DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. We show that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) possess unique characteristics in how they react to IR that clearly distinguish these cells from all adult hSC studied thus far. On the other hand, a manifestation of radiation injuries/toxicity in human bodies may depend to a large extent on hSC populating corresponding tissues, such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC), neural hSC, intestine hSC, etc. We discuss here that hSC responses to IR differ notably across many types of hSC which may represent the distinct roles these cells play in development, regeneration and/or maintenance of homeostasis. PMID:23899786

  10. Endometrial stem cells in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Javad; Tan, Aaron; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    First described in 2004, endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) are adult stem cells isolated from the endometrial tissue. EnSCs comprise of a population of epithelial stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and side population stem cells. When secreted in the menstrual blood, they are termed menstrual stem cells or endometrial regenerative cells. Mounting evidence suggests that EnSCs can be utilized in regenerative medicine. EnSCs can be used as immuno-modulatory agents to attenuate inflammation, are implicated in angiogenesis and vascularization during tissue regeneration, and can also be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, EnSCs can be used in tissue engineering applications and there are several clinical trials currently in place to ascertain the therapeutic potential of EnSCs. This review highlights the progress made in EnSC research, describing their mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal potentials both in vitro and in vivo.

  11. LHCb Data Replication During SC3

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, A

    2006-01-01

    LHCb's participation in LCG's Service Challenge 3 involves testing the bulk data transfer infrastructure developed to allow high bandwidth distribution of data across the grid in accordance with the computing model. To enable reliable bulk replication of data, LHCb's DIRAC system has been integrated with gLite's File Transfer Service middleware component to make use of dedicated network links between LHCb computing centres. DIRAC's Data Management tools previously allowed the replication, registration and deletion of files on the grid. For SC3 supplementary functionality has been added to allow bulk replication of data (using FTS) and efficient mass registration to the LFC replica catalog.Provisional performance results have shown that the system developed can meet the expected data replication rate required by the computing model in 2007. This paper details the experience and results of integration and utilisation of DIRAC with the SC3 transfer machinery.

  12. Single chain Fab (scFab fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenneis Mariam

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The connection of the variable part of the heavy chain (VH and and the variable part of the light chain (VL by a peptide linker to form a consecutive polypeptide chain (single chain antibody, scFv was a breakthrough for the functional production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli. Being double the size of fragment variable (Fv fragments and requiring assembly of two independent polypeptide chains, functional Fab fragments are usually produced with significantly lower yields in E. coli. An antibody design combining stability and assay compatibility of the fragment antigen binding (Fab with high level bacterial expression of single chain Fv fragments would be desirable. The desired antibody fragment should be both suitable for expression as soluble antibody in E. coli and antibody phage display. Results Here, we demonstrate that the introduction of a polypeptide linker between the fragment difficult (Fd and the light chain (LC, resulting in the formation of a single chain Fab fragment (scFab, can lead to improved production of functional molecules. We tested the impact of various linker designs and modifications of the constant regions on both phage display efficiency and the yield of soluble antibody fragments. A scFab variant without cysteins (scFabΔC connecting the constant part 1 of the heavy chain (CH1 and the constant part of the light chain (CL were best suited for phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. Beside the expression system E. coli, the new antibody format was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Monovalent and divalent fragments (DiFabodies as well as multimers were characterised. Conclusion A new antibody design offers the generation of bivalent Fab derivates for antibody phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. This antibody format is of particular value for high throughput proteome binder generation projects, due to the avidity effect and the possible use of

  13. The SC gets ready for visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Hall 300, which houses the Synchrocyclotron (SC), CERN’s first accelerator, is getting ready to host a brand-new exhibition. The site will be one of the stops on the new visit itineraries that will be inaugurated for the 2013 CERN Open Day.   The Synchrocyclotron through the years. Just as it did in the late 1950s, when the accelerator was first installed, the gigantic red structure of the Synchrocyclotron's magnet occupies a large part of the 300-square-metre hall. “We have completed the first phase of the project that will give the SC a new lease of life,” says Marco Silari, the project leader and a member of CERN’s Radiation Protection Group. “We have removed all the equipment that was not an integral part of the accelerator. The hall is now ready for the civil-engineering work that will precede the installation of the exhibition.” The SC was witness to a big part of the history of CERN. The accelerator produced ...

  14. Chemo Resistance of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    cell self-renewal pathways generates tumors driven by cells that maintain stem cell character- istics. Materials and Methods Dissociation of mammary...of America Q12) was placed s.c. on the back of the neck of the mouse by using a trocar , and 400 mammospheres were mixed with 2.5 105 normal human

  15. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Schwann Cell Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering of Schwann cells (SCs) can serve a number of purposes, such as in vitro SC-related disease modeling, treatment of peripheral nerve diseases or peripheral nerve injury, and, potentially, treatment of CNS diseases. SCs can be generated from autologous stem cells in vitro by recapitu

  16. Stem cells and heart: an open future or a mirage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Bassareo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells (SC look like to be the possible solution to a number of human pathologies, including those involving the heart. In fact, some studies based on animal models suggest that SC can be used to repair the damaged cardiac tissue, such as in case of myocardial infarction. In fact it has been demonstrated that it would be possible to produce a quantity of SC sufficient to repair an animal heart having physiology and dimensions as the human heart.The aim of this short review is to examine the different subtypes of SC potentially involved in the heart repair (autologous and heterologous processes as well as the serious concerns that have still to be overcome before considering SC a sure therapy for the heart diseases: rejections, oncogenesis due to SC high proliferative activity, difficult in ruling their differentiation, massive SC death when introducing them in an ischemic environment, ethical problems when SC are derived from embryos. Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  17. Magnetism in Sc-doped ZnO with zinc vacancies: A hybrid density functional and GGA + U approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the zinc vacancy effects on the electronic structures and magnetic properties of Sc-doped ZnO, by performing first-principles calculations within both GGA + U and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional methods. We find that Sc impurities stabilize considerably Zn vacancies. The electronic and magnetic analysis shows a half metallic ferromagnetic character with a total magnetic moment of 2.01 μ B. The magnetism mainly stems from the O 2p states around the Zn vacancies. Calculations with the hybrid density functional agree with the GGA + U results but give an accurate description of the electronic structure for pure ZnO and Sc-doped ZnO with Zn vacancies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ViSC Social Competence Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Hoffmann, Christine; Schiller, Eva-Maria; Stefanek, Elisabeth; Spiel, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    The ViSC Social Competence Program has been implemented in Austrian schools within the scope of a national strategy plan, Together Against Violence. The program is a primary preventive program designed for grades 5 to 8. The prevention of aggression and bullying is defined as a school development task, and the initial implementation of the program lasts one school year. The program consists of universal and specific actions that are implemented through in-school teacher training and a class project for students. The program was evaluated with a randomized intervention control group design. Data were collected from teachers and students. Results suggest that the program reduces aggression in schools.

  19. Mammary stem cells: Novel markers and novel approaches to increase lactation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue r...

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Assessing Sc1 for GCSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that investigations that `fit' the National Curriculum or examination board criteria are few in number. The fair testing emphasis means that pupils all over the country are finding out what affects the rate of a chemical reaction, the rate of photosynthesis or, in the case of Physics, the resistance of a wire. This book focuses on nine of the most common Sc1 investigations and how to prepare for them, manage and assess them. The author, a GCSE examiner, has turned his expertise into a handbook for improving Sc1 performance in the classroom. He has produced a book that would be extremely useful to both newly qualified teachers and experienced teachers. The first aim of the book, however, is to explain the requirements of Sc1. This is done comprehensively with examples of what the jargon means in practice. By breaking down the elements of planning, obtaining evidence, analysing evidence and evaluating, it is easy to see the subtleties of the mark descriptors. At first glance there seems to be little difference between the type of scientific knowledge needed for planning at level 6 and level 8. However, the level 8 statement specifies `detailed' scientific knowledge and understanding, which would mean a student should use equations from physics or symbolic chemical equations to support their arguments. One of the most useful sections in the book details the marking problems that can arise with some investigations. For example, in an investigation into electromagnets it is difficult for students to provide sufficient relevant scientific theory to satisfy the requirements of planning at level 6. One of the problems with Sc1 is that certain requirements, such as graph plotting, are difficult for many students. This book provides exercises that can be given to students to improve those skills. Each of the nine investigations is covered in great detail. Each investigation begins with an introduction detailing the rationale for choosing it, whether students

  1. Stem cell therapy for retinal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Mauricio Garcia,; Luisa Mendon?a; Rodrigo Brant; Murilo Abud; Caio Regatieri; Bruno Diniz

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss about current knowledgeabout stem cell (SC) therapy in the treatment of retinaldegeneration. Both human embryonic stem cell andinduced pluripotent stem cell has been growth inculture for a long time, and started to be explored inthe treatment of blinding conditions. The Food andDrug Administration, recently, has granted clinical trialsusing SC retinal therapy to treat complex disorders, asStargardt's dystrophy, and patients with geographicatrophy, providing good outcomes. This study'sintent is to overview the critical regeneration of thesubretinal anatomy through retinal pigment epitheliumtransplantation, with the goal of reestablish importantpathways from the retina to the occipital cortex of thebrain, as well as the differentiation from pluripotentquiescent SC to adult retina, and its relationshipwith a primary retinal injury, different techniques oftransplantation, management of immune rejection andtumorigenicity, its potential application in improvingpatients' vision, and, finally, approaching future directionsand challenges for the treatment of several conditions.

  2. Construction of multiform scFv antibodies using linker peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihua Wang; Cengjie Zheng; Ying Liu; Huirong Zheng; Zonghua Wang

    2008-01-01

    Multiform single chain variable fragments (acFvs) including different length linker scFvs and bispecific seFv were constructed. The linker lengths of 0, 3, 5, 8, 12, and 15 amino acids between VH and VL of antideoxynivalenol (anti-DON) scFv were used to analyze the affinities of scFvs. The affinity constants of these scFvs increased when the linker was lower than 12 amino acids. The affinity constant would not change when the linker was longer than 12 amino acids. Fusion gene of anti-DON seFv and antizearalenone (anti-ZEN) scFv was also constructed through eormection by a short peptide tinker DNA to express a bispecific scFv. The affinity constants assay showed that the two scFvs of fusion bispecific scFv remained their own affinity compared to their parental scFvs. Competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect DON and ZEN in contaminated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples, and the results indicated that this bispecifie acFv was applicable in DON and ZEN detection. This work confirmed that bispecific scFv could be successfully obtained, and might also have an application in diagnosing fungal infection, and breeding transgertic plants.

  3. Overexpression of Id1 in transgenic mice promotes mammary basal stem cell activity and breast tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Dong-Hui; Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Won, Hee-Young; Jang, Ki-Seok; MIN, KYUENG-WHAN; Jang, Si-Hyong; Woo, Jong-Kyu; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kong, Gu

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding (Id)1 is a crucial regulator of mammary development and breast cancer progression. However, its effect on stemness and tumorigenesis in mammary epithelial cells remains undefined. Herein, we demonstrate that Id1 induces mammary tumorigenesis by increasing normal and malignant mammary stem cell (MaSC) activities in transgenic mice. MaSC-enriched basal cell expansion and increased self-renewal and in vivo regenerative capacity of MaSCs are observed in th...

  4. Bovine mammary stem cells: Transcriptome profiling and the stem cell niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification and transcriptome analysis of mammary stem cells (MaSC) are important steps toward understanding the molecular basis of mammary epithelial growth, homeostasis and tissue repair. Our objective was to evaluate the molecular profiles of four categories of cells within the bovine mammary ...

  5. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  6. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is introduced in this paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AlCl3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCl3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing, flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  7. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is in troduced inthis paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AiCI3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCI3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing,flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  8. Anomalous Halo Formation in an Arc-Melted ScNi-Sc2Ni Off-Eutectic Binary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diverse non-equilibrium eutectic structures have attracted numerous experimental and theoretical studies. One special type is the formation of a halo of one phase around a primary dendrite of another phase. In our experiments, it was occasionally observed that ScNi halos grow as dendritic morphology around the primary Sc 2 Ni dendrites in an arc-melted ScNi-Sc 2 Ni off-eutectic binary alloy. The formation of this anomalous halo structure was then well reproduced by employing quantitative phase-field simulations. Based on the phase-field simulation, It was found that (i the large undercooling and growth velocity of the ScNi phase during solidification causes the formation of halos; and (ii the released latent heat induces the recalescence phenomenon, and changes the solidification sequence largely, resulting in the anomalous halo structure in the Sc-34 at % Ni alloy.

  9. Energy dependence of deformation parameters in the SC(p,p') SC reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.W.; Glashausser, C.; de Swiniarski, R.; Nanda, S.; Carey, T.A.; Cornelius, W.; Moss, J.M.; McClelland, J.B.; Comfort, J.R.; Escudie, J.

    1986-01-01

    Values of deformation parameters have been extracted from macroscopic coupled-channels analyses of inelastic proton scattering to the first 2 , 3 , and 4 states of SC over the energy range from 200 to 700 MeV. The apparent deformations are almost unchanged over this energy interval; they agree also with nucleon scattering data at much lower energies and at 800 MeV and 1 GeV.

  10. IEC SC15E: Report on liaison activities of CIGRÉ-SC15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    WG’s activities under CIGRÉ SC15:WG 15.01 - Fluid impregnated systems.WG 15.02 - Dielectric Liquids.WG 15.03 - Gas Insulation.WG 15.04 - Outdoor Insulation.WG 15.05 - Capacitors.WG 15.07 - Solid Insulating Materials for Rotating Machines.WG 15/33.08 - Insulation Monitoring and Life Estimation. WG...

  11. Development of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) against influenza virus targeting hemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tai-Wei; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Tseng, Yen-Tzu; Yang, Yu-Chih; Liu, Wen-Chun; Wang, Sheng-Cyuan; Chou, Mei-Ju; Lin, Yu-Jen; Wang, Yueh; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Wu, Suh-Chin; Chang, Ding-Kwo

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) are widespread in birds and domestic poultry, occasionally causing severe epidemics in humans and posing health threats. Hence, the need to develop a strategy for prophylaxis or therapy, such as a broadly neutralizing antibody against IAV, is urgent. In this study, single-chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display technology was used to select scFv fragments recognizing influenza envelope proteins. The Tomlinson I and J scFv phage display libraries were screened against the recombinant HA2 protein (rHA2) for three rounds. Only the third-round elution sample of the Tomlinson J library showed high binding affinity to rHA2, from which three clones (3JA18, 3JA62, and 3JA78) were chosen for preparative-scale production as soluble antibody by E. coli. The clone 3JA18 was selected for further tests due to its broad affinity for influenza H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1. Simulations of the scFv 3JA18-HA trimer complex revealed that the complementarity-determining region of the variable heavy chain (VH-CDR2) bound the stem region of HA. Neutralization assays using a peptide derived from VH-CDR2 also supported the simulation model. Both the selected antibody and its derived peptide were shown to suppress infection with H5N1 and H1N1 viruses, but not H3N2 viruses. The results also suggested that the scFvs selected from rHA2 could have neutralizing activity by interfering with the function of the HA stem region during virus entry into target cells.

  12. 76 FR 58401 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 38586). We received no... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on waters of...

  13. Human bulbar conjunctival hemodynamics in hemoglobin SS and SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanek, Justin; Gaynes, Bruce; Lim, Jennifer I; Molokie, Robert; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2013-08-01

    The known biophysical variations of hemoglobin (Hb) S and Hb C may result in hemodynamic differences between subjects with SS and SC disease. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare conjunctival hemodynamics between subjects with Hb SS and SC hemoglobinopathies. Image sequences of the conjunctival microcirculation were acquired in 9 healthy control subjects (Hb AA), 24 subjects with SC disease, and 18 subjects with SS disease, using a prototype imaging system. Diameter (D) and blood velocity (V) measurements were obtained in multiple venules of each subject. Data were categorized according to venule caliber by averaging V and D for venules with diameters less than (vessel size 1) or greater than (vessel size 2) 15 µm. V in vessel size 2 was significantly greater than V in vessel size 1 in the AA and SS groups (P ≥ 0.009), but not in the SC group (P = 0.1). V was significantly lower in the SC group as compared to the SS group (P = 0.03). In AA and SS groups, V correlated with D (P ≤ 0.005), but the correlation was not statistically significant in the SC group (P = 0.08). V was inversely correlated with hematocrit in the SS group for large vessels (P = 0.03); however, no significant correlation was found in the SC group (P ≥ 0.2). Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular hemodynamics in SS and SC disease may advance understanding of sickle cell disease pathophysiology and thereby improve therapeutic interventions.

  14. Thermal stability of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei-tao; YAN De-sheng; RONG Li-jian

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitates in the cold worked Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy after elevated temperature exposure was investigated. The evaluation was conducted using room temperature tensile, Vicker's hardness, optical metallography and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with the backscatter. The results show that the Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitates and mechanical properties have no obvious change, and the grains keep elongated along the working direction as that in cold worked sample after exposure at 300 ℃ for 1 000 h. The coarsening of Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitates occurs and is no longer effective on the recrystallization resistance, and partial recrystallization is observed after 400 ℃ exposure. In particular, after 500 ℃ exposure, the hardness decreases drastically and the alloy has fully recrystallized due to the obvious coarsening of Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitates.

  15. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy growth of GaN, InGaN, ScN, and ScAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD); hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE); gallium nitride (GaN); indium gallium nitride (InGaN); scandium nitride (ScN); scandium aluminum nitride (ScAlN); semiconductors; thin films; nanowires; III nitrides; crystal growth - We studied the HVPE growth of different III ni

  16. Effective single chain antibody (scFv) concentrations in vivo via adenoviral vector mediated expression of secretory scFv

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, WO; Gomez-Navarro, J; Buchsbaum, DJ; Xiang, J; Casado, E; Barker, SD; Mahasreshti, PJ; Haisma, HJ; Barnes, MN; Siegal, GP; Alvarez, RD; Hemminki, A; Nettelbeck, DM; Curiel, DT

    2002-01-01

    Single chain antibodies (scFv) represent powerful interventional agents for the achievement of targeted therapeutics. The practical utility of these agents have been limited, however, by difficulties related to production of recombinant scFv and the achievement of effective and sustained levels of s

  17. Cyclotron production of {sup 43}Sc for PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, Rafał [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewski, Seweryn [Synektik S.A., Research and Development Center, Warsaw (Poland); Szkliniarz, Katarzyna [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Sitarz, Mateusz [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Abbas, Kamel [Nuclear Security Unit, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, European Commission, Ispra (Italy); Choiński, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Jastrzębski, Jerzy [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Majkowska, Agnieszka [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Simonelli, Federica [Nuclear Decommissioning Unit, Joint Research Centre, Ispra Site Management Directorate, European Commission, Ispra (Italy); Stolarz, Anna; Trzcińska, Agnieszka [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Zipper, Wiktor [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Bilewicz, Aleksander [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-12-04

    Recently, significant interest in {sup 44}Sc as a tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been observed. Unfortunately, the co-emission by {sup 44}Sc of high-energy γ rays (E{sub γ} = 1157, 1499 keV) causes a dangerous increase of the radiation dose to the patients and clinical staff. However, it is possible to produce another radionuclide of scandium—{sup 43}Sc—having properties similar to {sup 44}Sc but is characterized by much lower energy of the concurrent gamma emissions. This work presents the production route of {sup 43}Sc by α irradiation of natural calcium, its separation and purification processes, and the labeling of [DOTA,Tyr3] octreotate (DOTATATE) bioconjugate. Natural CaCO{sub 3} and enriched [{sup 40}Ca]CaCO{sub 3} were irradiated with alpha particles for 1 h in an energy range of 14.8–30 MeV at a beam current of 0.5 or 0.25 μA. In order to find the optimum method for the separation of {sup 43}Sc from irradiated calcium targets, three processes previously developed for {sup 44}Sc were tested. Radiolabeling experiments were performed with DOTATATE radiobioconjugate, and the stability of the obtained {sup 43}Sc-DOTATATE was tested in human serum. Studies of {sup nat}CaCO{sub 3} target irradiation by alpha particles show that the optimum alpha particle energies are in the range of 24–27 MeV, giving 102 MBq/μA/h of {sup 43}Sc radioactivity which creates the opportunity to produce several GBq of {sup 43}Sc. The separation experiments performed indicate that, as with {sup 44}Sc, due to the simplicity of the operations and because of the chemical purity of the {sup 43}Sc obtained, the best separation process is when UTEVA resin is used. The DOTATATE conjugate was labeled by the obtained {sup 43}Sc with a yield >98 % at elevated temperature. Tens of GBq activities of {sup 43}Sc of high radionuclidic purity can be obtainable for clinical applications by irradiation of natural calcium with an alpha beam.

  18. Effects of cooling rate on solidification behavior of dilute Al-Sc and Al-Sc-Zr solid solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金头男; 聂祚仁; 徐国富; 阮海琼; 杨军军; 付静波; 左铁镛

    2004-01-01

    Six alloys with different compositions of Al-0.1%Sc, Al-0.3%Sc, Al-0.3%Zr, Al-0.1% Sc-0. 1%Zr,Al-0.3%Sc-0.1%Zr and Al-0.3%Sc-0.3%Zr were prepared by casting in a wedge shaped copper mould. The hardness test, microstructure observation, and DSC thermal analysis were applied to fully investigate the solidification behavior of the wedge tip (whose cooling rate is 1 000 K/s) and the top surface (cooling rate 100 K/s) of each casting. The results show that the cast structures in the hypoeutectic region of Al-Sc alloys are slightly affected by cooling rates during the solidification. In the case of hypereutectic alloy of Al-0.3%Sc-0.3%Zr , the cast grains were remarkably refined under the condition of a 100 K/s cooling rate, however, under a 1 000 K/s cooling rate condition,solute atoms contribute nothing to the grain-refinement, due to the eutectic concentration becomes higher. The hardness can be improved to a greater degree by Sc single addition, compared to single Zr addition, but it can be improved even greater when Sc added together with Zr. It is sensitive to cooling rate, the higher the cooling rate, the greater the hardness. By combining the results of TEM examination and DSC analysis, it can be seen that a supersaturated Al solid solution forms during the solidification, and the solubility of Sc in Al solution can be improved by increasing the cooling rate.

  19. Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Thakur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in the body. Often called as Magic Seeds, stem cells are produced in bone marrow and circulate in blood, albeit at a relatively low concentration. These virtues together with the ability of stem cells to grow in tissue culture have paved the way for their applications to generate new and healthy tissues and to replace diseased or injured human organs. Although possibilities of stem cell applications are many, much remains yet to be understood of these remarkable magic seeds. Conclusion: This presentation shall briefly cover the origin of stem cells, the pros and cons of their growth and division, their potential application, and shall outline some examples of the contributions of radiolabeled stem cells, in this rapidly growing branch of biomedical science

  20. The influence of shear-velocity heterogeneity on ScS2/ScS amplitude ratios and estimates of Q in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Carlos A. M.; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2016-08-01

    Regional waveforms of deep-focus Tonga-Fiji earthquakes indicate anomalous traveltime differences (ScS2-ScS) and amplitude ratios (ScS2/ScS) of the phases ScS and ScS2. The correlation between the ScS2-ScS delay time and the ScS2/ScS amplitude ratio suggests that shear wave apparent Q in the mantle below the Tonga-Fiji region is highest when shear wave velocities are lowest. This observation is unexpected if temperature variations were responsible for the seismic anomalies. Using spectral element method waveform simulations for four tomographic models, we demonstrate that focusing and scattering of shear waves by long-wavelength 3-D heterogeneity in the mantle may overwhelm the signal from intrinsic attenuation in long-period ScS2/ScS amplitude ratios. The tomographic models reproduce the trends in recorded ScS2-ScS difference times and ScS2/ScS amplitude ratios. Although they cannot be ruled out, variations in shear wave attenuation (i.e., the quality factor Q) are not necessary to explain the data.

  1. Neurospheres from rat adipose-derived stem cells could be induced into functional Schwann cell-like cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Yanchang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schwann cells (SC which are myelin-forming cells in peripheral nervous system are very useful for the treatment of diseases of peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. However, it is difficult to obtain sufficient large number of SC for clinical use, so alternative cell systems are desired. Results Using a procedure similar to the one used for propagation of neural stem cells, we could induce rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC into floating neurospheres. In addition to being able to differentiate into neuronal- and glial-like cells, neurospheres could be induced to differentiate into SC-like cells. SC-like cells were bi- or tri-polar in shape and immunopositive for nestin and SC markers p75, GFAP and S-100, identical to genuine SC. We also found that SC-like cells could induce the differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells efficiently, perhaps through secretion of soluble substances. We showed further that SC-like cells could form myelin structures with PC12 cell neurites in vitro. Conclusion These findings indicated that ADSC could differentiate into SC-like cells in terms of morphology, phenotype and functional capacities. SC-like cells induced from ADSC may be useful for the treatment of neurological diseases.

  2. Pascal-SC a computer language for scientific computation

    CERN Document Server

    Bohlender, Gerd; von Gudenberg, Jürgen Wolff; Rheinboldt, Werner; Siewiorek, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Perspectives in Computing, Vol. 17: Pascal-SC: A Computer Language for Scientific Computation focuses on the application of Pascal-SC, a programming language developed as an extension of standard Pascal, in scientific computation. The publication first elaborates on the introduction to Pascal-SC, a review of standard Pascal, and real floating-point arithmetic. Discussions focus on optimal scalar product, standard functions, real expressions, program structure, simple extensions, real floating-point arithmetic, vector and matrix arithmetic, and dynamic arrays. The text then examines functions a

  3. III-V compound SC for optoelectronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Mokkapati

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available III-V compound semiconductors (SC have played a crucial role in the development of optoelectronic devices for a broad range of applications. Major applications of InP or GaAs based III-V compound SC are devices for optical fiber communications, infrared and visible LEDs/LDs and high efficiency solar cells. GaN based compounds are extremely important for short wavelength light emitters used in solid state lighting systems. We review the important device applications of various III-V compound SC materials.

  4. Gadolinium scandium germanide, Gd2Sc3Ge4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumohan Misra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Gd2Sc3Ge4 adopts the orthorhombic Pu5Rh4-type structure. The crystal structure contains six sites in the asymmetric unit: two sites are statistically occupied by rare-earth atoms with Gd:Sc ratios of 0.967 (4:0.033 (4 and 0.031 (3:0.969 (3, one site (.m. symmetry is occupied by Sc atoms, and three distinct sites (two of which with .m. symmetry are occupied by Ge atoms. The rare-earth atoms form two-dimensional slabs with Ge atoms occupying the trigonal-prismatic voids.

  5. Mammary gland stem cells: More puzzles than explanations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suneesh Kaimala; Suneesh Kaimala; Satish Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers. At present, Lin–CD29hiCD49fhiCD24+/modSca-1– cells of the mammary gland have been reported to be enriched with MaSCs. We suggest that the inclusion of stem cell markers like Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and the mammary gland differentiation marker BRCA-1 may further narrow down the search for MaSCs. In addition, we have discussed some of the other unresolved puzzles on the mammary gland stem cells, such as their similarities and/or differences with mammary cancer stem cells, use of milk as source of mammary stem cells and the possibility of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional mammary gland structures in this review. Nevertheless, it is the lack of identity for a MaSC that is curtailing the advances in some of the above and other related areas.

  6. Infectivity-associated PrP(Sc) and disease duration-associated PrP(Sc) of mouse BSE prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Disease-related prion protein (PrP(Sc)), which is a structural isoform of the host-encoded cellular prion protein, is thought to be a causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, the specific role of PrP(Sc) in prion pathogenesis and its relationship to infectivity remain controversial. A time-course study of prion-affected mice was conducted, which showed that the prion infectivity was not simply proportional to the amount of PrP(Sc) in the brain. Centrifugation (20,000 ×g) of the brain homogenate showed that most of the PrP(Sc) was precipitated into the pellet, and the supernatant contained only a slight amount of PrP(Sc). Interestingly, mice inoculated with the obtained supernatant showed incubation periods that were approximately 15 d longer than those of mice inoculated with the crude homogenate even though both inocula contained almost the same infectivity. Our results suggest that a small population of fine PrP(Sc) may be responsible for prion infectivity and that large, aggregated PrP(Sc) may contribute to determining prion disease duration.

  7. A Thymic Epithelial Stem Cell Pool Persists throughout Ontogeny and Is Modulated by TGF-β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ucar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult tissue-specific stem cells (SCs mediate tissue homeostasis and regeneration and can give rise to all lineages in the corresponding tissue, similar to the early progenitors that generate organs in the first place. However, the developmental origins of adult SCs are largely unknown. We recently identified thymosphere-forming stem cells (TSFCs in the adult mouse thymus, which display genuine stemness features and can generate the two major thymic epithelial cell lineages. Here, we show that embryonic TSFCs possess stemness features but differ from adult TSFCs in surface marker profile. Our findings support the model of a continuous thymic SC lineage that is maintained throughout ontogeny. TGF-β signaling differentially affects embryonic versus adult thymosphere formation, suggesting that thymic epithelial SC potency depends on both developmental stage and environmental signals. Collectively, our findings suggest that embryonic TSFCs contribute to an adult SC pool and that TSFC plasticity is controlled by TGF-β signaling.

  8. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al-Sc-Zr and Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 C. The precipitation of the Al6Mn- and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particles of a size ~ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al3Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al6Mn and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al3Sc-phase and the Al 6Mn-phase precipitation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Design of SC walls and slabs for impulsive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Amit H. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-11-11

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures have historically been the preferred choice for blast resistant structures because of their mass and the ductility provided by steel reinforcement. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls are a viable alternative to RC for protecting the infrastructure against explosive threats. SC structures consist of two steel faceplates with a plain concrete core between them. The steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete using stud anchors and connected to each other using tie bars. SC structures provide mass from the concrete infill and ductility from the continuous external steel faceplates. This dissertation presents findings and recommendations from experimental and analytical investigations of the performance of SC walls subjected to far-field blast loads.

  10. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC) AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE),...

  11. Electrochemical Characterization of Ni/(Sc)YSZ Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Tania; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of Ni/(Sc)YSZ cermets for solid oxide cells (SOCs) were performed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), under varying experimental conditions and upon redox cycling, using three different designs of symmetric cells. The deconvolution and fitting of the obtained impedance...... parameters. Initial degradation results for both Ni/ScYSZ and Ni/YSZ based anodes under very high steam content are also reported. ©2010 COPYRIGHT ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  12. The NSF PAARE Projects at SC State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, Sean D.; Cash, Jennifer; Hartmann, Dieter; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve B.; King, Jeremy R.; Leising, Mark D.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    We review our progress over the past 7.5 years and the path forward under the NSF program "Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)". Our first project, "A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)" was a part of the 2008 PAARE cohort which we finished on September 30, 2015. We will summarize the results of those years and look at our way forward under a second PAARE award made in August 2014 (POCA II). Our partnership under the second PAARE award includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) as well as individual investigators at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon University. Our recent work on variable and peculiar stars, work with the Kepler Observatory and our educational products in cosmology for non-STEM majors will be presented as well as our success with undergraduate and graduate students. We will also discuss how we are sharing resources with Clemson through distance learning and undergraduate research projects. Our support includes NSF awards AST-0750814 and AST-1358913 to South Carolina State University as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu/paare/

  13. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    '. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products....

  14. Redesigning Introductory Science Courses to Teach Sustainability: Introducing the L(SC)2 Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. D.; Campbell-Stone, E.; Massey, G.

    2008-12-01

    promoting scientific literacy, L(SC)2 courses explicitly promote mastery of fundamental quantitative and qualitative skills critical to science and commonly a barrier to student success in science. Scientific content addresses the principles and disciplines necessary to tackle the multifaceted problems that must be solved in any sustainability transition and illustrates the limitations on what can be accomplished. Finally, social context adds the place-based component that is critical to sustainability science while revealing how science impacts students' everyday lives. Experience in addressing realistic, real-life problems fosters the habits of mind necessary to address these problems and instills a sense of social and political efficacy and responsibility. The L(SC)2 course paradigm employs a variety of educational tools (active problem-based learning, collaborative work, peer instruction, interdisciplinarity, and global context-based instruction) that improve lasting comprehension by creating a more effective learning environment. In this paradigm, STEM students learn that although there may be a technically or scientifically optimal solution to a problem, it must be responsive to a society's social, legal, cultural and religious parameters. Conversely, students in non-STEM fields learn that solutions to societal problems must be scientifically valid and technologically feasible. The interaction of STEM and non-STEM students in L(SC)2 courses builds bridges between the natural and social sciences that are critical for a successful sustainability transition and lacking in most traditional science courses.

  15. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... original cell’s DNA, cytoplasm and cell membrane. About stem cells Stem cells are the foundation of development in ...

  16. Numerical Model of Streaming DEP for Stem Cell Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Natu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells are of special interest due to their potential in neurogenesis to treat spinal cord injuries and other nervous disorders. Flow cytometry, a common technique used for cell sorting, is limited due to the lack of antigens and labels that are specific enough to stem cells of interest. Dielectrophoresis (DEP is a label-free separation technique that has been recently demonstrated for the enrichment of neural stem/progenitor cells. Here we use numerical simulation to investigate the use of streaming DEP for the continuous sorting of neural stem/progenitor cells. Streaming DEP refers to the focusing of cells into streams by equilibrating the dielectrophoresis and drag forces acting on them. The width of the stream should be maximized to increase throughput while the separation between streams must be widened to increase efficiency during retrieval. The aim is to understand how device geometry and experimental variables affect the throughput and efficiency of continuous sorting of SC27 stem cells, a neurogenic progenitor, from SC23 cells, an astrogenic progenitor. We define efficiency as the ratio between the number of SC27 cells over total number of cells retrieved in the streams, and throughput as the number of SC27 cells retrieved in the streams compared to their total number introduced to the device. The use of cylindrical electrodes as tall as the channel yields streams featuring >98% of SC27 cells and width up to 80 µm when using a flow rate of 10 µL/min and sample cell concentration up to 105 cells/mL.

  17. Cripto is essential to capture mouse epiblast stem cell and human embryonic stem cell pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenzano, Alessandro; Pascale, Emilia; D'Aniello, Cristina; Acampora, Dario; Bassalert, Cecilia; Russo, Francesco; Andolfi, Gennaro; Biffoni, Mauro; Francescangeli, Federica; Zeuner, Ann; Angelini, Claudia; Chazaud, Claire; Patriarca, Eduardo J; Fico, Annalisa; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2016-09-02

    Known molecular determinants of developmental plasticity are mainly transcription factors, while the extrinsic regulation of this process has been largely unexplored. Here we identify Cripto as one of the earliest epiblast markers and a key extracellular determinant of the naive and primed pluripotent states. We demonstrate that Cripto sustains mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal by modulating Wnt/β-catenin, whereas it maintains mouse epiblast stem cell (EpiSC) and human ESC pluripotency through Nodal/Smad2. Moreover, we provide unprecedented evidence that Cripto controls the metabolic reprogramming in ESCs to EpiSC transition. Remarkably, Cripto deficiency attenuates ESC lineage restriction in vitro and in vivo, and permits ESC transdifferentiation into trophectoderm lineage, suggesting that Cripto has earlier functions than previously recognized. All together, our studies provide novel insights into the current model of mammalian pluripotency and contribute to the understanding of the extrinsic regulation of the first cell lineage decision in the embryo.

  18. Comparative study on the stem cell phenotypes of C6 cells under different culture conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Suo-jun; YE Fei; XIE Rui-fan; HU Feng; WANG Bao-feng; WAN Feng; GUO Dong-sheng; LEI Ting

    2011-01-01

    Background Glioma stem cell (GSC) hypothesis posits that a subpopulation of cells within gliomas have true clonogenic and tumorigenic potential. Significantly, a more controversial correlate to GSC is that cells in different culture conditions might display distinct stem cell properties. Considering these possibilities, we applied an approach comparing stem cell characteristics of C6 glioma cells under different culture conditions.Methods C6 cells were cultured under three different growth conditions, i.e., adherent growth in conventional 10% serum medium, non-adherent spheres growth in serum-free medium, as well as adherent growth on laminin-coated flask in serum-free medium. Growth characteristics were detected contrastively through neurosphere formation assay and cell cycle analysis. Markers were determined by immunofluorescence, relative-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR,Western blotting and flow cytometry. Side population cells were analyzed via flow cytometry. Tumor models were detected by magnetic resonance imaging and hematoxylin & eosin staining. Data analyses were performed with SPSS software (17.0).Results C6 cells (C6-Adh, C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh) showed distinctive growth patterns and proliferation capacity.Compared to suspending C6-SC-Sph, adherent C6-Adh and C6-SC-Adh displayed higher growth ratio. C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh showed enhanced capability of neurosphere formation and self-renewal. High side population ratio was detected in C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh. CD133 was not detected in all three kinds of cells. Conversely, Nestin and β-Ⅲ-tubulin were demonstrated positive, nonetheless with no statistical significance (P >0.05). Interestingly, lower expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein was demonstrated in C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh. C6-Adh, C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh were all displayed in situ oncogenicity, while statistical difference of survival time was not confirmed.Conclusions C6 glioma cell line is endowed with some GSC

  19. Medialogy (English Information Brochure on the education M.Sc.,Medialogy, 3rd to 10th semester (B.Sc. & M.Sc) - For graduates from higher study programmes such as Multimedia Design and IT Graduates)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    An information brochure, 24 pages, in English which describes the education M.Sc., Medialogy, offered by Aalborg University in Copenhagen and Esbjerg. The brochure describes the 3rd to 10th semester (B.Sc. and M.Sc. degree) of the education. The information is primarily directed toward potential...

  20. Piezoelectric coefficients and spontaneous polarization of ScAlN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Miguel A; Zhang, Siyuan; Riekkinen, Tommi; Ylilammi, Markku; Moram, Michelle A; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Molarius, Jyrki; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-06-24

    We present a computational study of spontaneous polarization and piezoelectricity in Sc(x)Al(1-x)N alloys in the compositional range from x = 0 to x = 0.5, obtained in the context of density functional theory and the Berry-phase theory of electric polarization using large periodic supercells. We report composition-dependent values of piezoelectric coefficients e(ij), piezoelectric moduli d(ij) and elastic constants C(ij). The theoretical findings are complemented with experimental measurement of e33 for a series of sputtered ScAlN films carried out with a piezoelectric resonator. The rapid increase with Sc content of the piezoelectric response reported in previous studies is confirmed for the available data. A detailed description of the full methodology required to calculate the piezoelectric properties of ScAlN, with application to other complex alloys, is presented. In particular, we find that the large amount of internal strain present in ScAlN and its intricate relation with electric polarization make configurational sampling and the use of large supercells at different compositions necessary in order to accurately derive the piezoelectric response of the material.

  1. The {\\sc Majorana Demonstrator} Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Combs, D C; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Esterline, J; Fast, J E; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guiseppe, V E; Gusey, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Hegai, A; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Knecht, A; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; MacMullin, S; Martin, R D; Mertens, S; Mizouni, L; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Phillips, D G; Poon, A W P; Pushkin, K; Radford, D C; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Ronquest, M C; Schubert, A G; Shanks, B; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Snyder, N; Steele, D; Strain, J; Suriano, A M; Thompson, J; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Young, A R; Yu, C-H; Yumatov, V

    2013-01-01

    The {\\sc Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the isotope Ge-76 with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. The observation of this rare decay would indicate the neutrino is its own antiparticle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. The {\\sc Demonstrator} is being assembled at the 4850-foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. The array will be situated in a low-background environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. Here we describe the science goals of the {\\sc Demonstrator} and the details of its design.

  2. Transport of one SC coil through the village of Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    1956-01-01

    In 1952, before CERN was officially founded, two accelerator projects were launched: one for an innovative accelerator to operate at an energy level unequalled at the time, the other for a more standard machine, a Synchro-Cyclotron (SC) to operate at 600 MeV. Design work on the SC was started in 1952 and carried out by teams scattered throughout Europe. Once construction began in 1954, CERN had to arrange road transport for the first of what has since been a long series of spectacular component deliveries, such as those of the machine's two magnetic coils each weighing 60 tonnes and measuring 7.2 metres in diameter. Above, one of them is seen passing through the village of Meyrin. The SC was commissioned in 1957 and was operational for 34 years!

  3. Estudo medico da hemoglobinopatia SC em negroides paulistas

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Ribeiro Gomes

    1988-01-01

    Resumo: A hemoglobinopatia SC é a segunda síndrome falcêmica mais importante no Brasil, devido à sua significativa prevalência entre negróides e também pelas manifestações clínicas apresentadas Apesar disso, ela tem sido pouco estudada em nosso país, não existindo na literatura nacional nenhum trabalho específico sobre essa doença. No presente trabalho, procurou-se investigar o significado médico da doença SC no Estado de são Paulo, analisando-se dois tipos de casuísticas de pacientes SC. Em ...

  4. Experience with OpenMP for MADX-SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Imperio, Nicholas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Montag, Christophe [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Yu, Kwangmin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Kapin, Valery [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); McIntosh, Eric [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Renshall, Harry [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Schmidt, Frank [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    MADX-SC allows the treatment of frozen space charge using beam-beam elements in a thin lattice, i.e. one can take advantage of the standard set-up of MAD-X lattices without the need for specialized codes for the space-charge (SC) evaluation. The idea is to simulate over many turns without the problem of noise as in the PIC SC codes. For the examples under study, like the PS and RHIC, it would be desirable to simulate up to 1 million turns or more. To this end one had to make an effort to optimize the scalar speed and, most importantly, get a speed-up of approximately a factor of 5 using OpenMP.

  5. Bayesian narrowband interference mitigation in SC-FDMA

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Anum

    2015-08-12

    This paper presents a novel narrowband interference (NBI) mitigation scheme for SC-FDMA systems. The proposed scheme exploits the frequency domain sparsity of the unknown NBI signal and adopts a low complexity Bayesian sparse recovery procedure. In practice, however, the sparsity of the NBI is destroyed by a grid mismatch between NBI sources and SC-FDMA system. Towards this end, an accurate grid mismatch model is presented and a sparsifying transform is utilized to restore the sparsity of the unknown signal. Numerical results are presented that depict the suitability of the proposed scheme for NBI mitigation.

  6. Product policy of SC Electrecord S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Candidate Cristina Andreescu (Manolache

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The global brand has the advantage of the scale economy, facilitates the company image and prestige and sometimes benefits even from its origin country effect. Its use is quite difficult (the semantic variations can impede the use of the same brand. The international brands act as a restriction against standardisation (the product should not be differentiated as there are internationally accepted and recognized brands. This paper makes an overview description of the general market environment, but also of the arket environment of SC ELECTRECORD S.A.; it underlines the product characteristics as well as the commercial diagnosis within SC ELECTRECORD S.A.

  7. Determination of Sc by Ion-exchanger Colorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ion-exchanger colorimetry for scandium in the form of ternary color system "Sc(Ⅲ)-CPA-pc-Ac" was developed. The influences of types and grain sizes of resin, adsorption modes and the acidity on the determination were studied systematically, and the optimum operating conditions and the allowable amounts of foreign ions were determined. In comparison with the ordinary solution colorimetry, both of the sensitivity and the selectivity of this ion-exchanger colorimetry are improved obviously. The preliminary uses of this method to the determination of Sc(Ⅲ) in two synthetic samples were satisfied.

  8. Radiation protection Group (SC/RP) desperately seeking...

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Hervé, Y. Donjoux / SC

    2006-01-01

    We are trying to trace two transit permits (passavants), which constitute the customs clearance documentation for two 'AD6'portable radiation detectors. The two permits (No. 1308 and No. 1309) were sent in the same internal mail envelope towards the middle of March 2006 but never reached their final destination. After weeks of searching in vain, we are now appealing for your help. If you have these two permits in your possession, please get in touch with us. Many thanks in advance. A.HERVE - SC/RP- ( 163168 / 70927) Y.DONJOUX - SC/RP - (160105 / 73171)

  9. Thermoelectric performance of functionalized Sc 2 C MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S.

    2016-07-05

    Functionalization of the MXene Sc2C, which has the rare property to realize semiconducting states for various functionalizations including O, F, and OH, is studied with respect to the electronic and thermal behavior. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is obtained for OH functionalization and an additional 30% decrease can be achieved by confining the phonon mean free path to 100 nm. Despite a relatively low Seebeck coefficient, Sc2C(OH)2 is a candidate for intermediate-temperature thermoelectric applications due to compensation by a high electrical conductivity and very low lattice thermal conductivity.

  10. Tetrahedron dynamics in the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn6Sc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euchner, H; Yamada, T; Rols, S; Ishimasa, T; Kaneko, Y; Ollivier, J; Schober, H; Mihalkovic, M; de Boissieu, M

    2013-03-20

    A comparison of periodic approximants and their quasicrystalline counterparts offers the opportunity to better understand the structure, physical properties and stabilizing mechanisms of these complex phases. We present a combined experimental and molecular dynamics study of the lattice dynamics of the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and compare it to recently published results obtained for the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn(6)Sc. Both phases, quasicrystal and approximant, are built up from large atomic clusters which contain a tetrahedral shell at the cluster centre and are packed either quasiperiodically or on a bcc lattice. Using quasielastic neutron scattering and atomic scale simulations, we show that in the quasicrystal the tetrahedra display a dynamics similar to that observed in the 1/1-approximant: the tetrahedra behave as a 'single molecule' and reorient dynamically on a timescale of the order of a few ps. The tetrahedra reorientation is accompanied by a large distortion of the surrounding cluster shells which provide a unique dynamical flexibility to the quasicrystal. However, whereas in the 1/1-approximant the tetrahedron reorientation is observed down to T(c) = 160 K, where a phase transition takes place, in the quasicrystal the tetrahedron dynamics is gradually freezing from 550 to 300 K, similarly to a glassy system.

  11. The stem cell and tissue engineering research in Chinese ophthalmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; LIU Jingbo

    2007-01-01

    Much has been considerably developed recently in the ophthalmic research of stem cell (SC) and tissue engineering (TE).They have become closer to the clinical practice,standardized and observable.Leading edge research of SC and TE on the ocular surface reconstruction,neuroregeneration and protection,and natural animal model has become increasingly available.However,challenges remain on the way,especially on the aspects of function reconstruction and specific differentiation.This paper reviews the new developments in this area with an intention of identifying research priorities for the future.

  12. Programmable SC biquad using one single capacitor bank

    OpenAIRE

    Torralba Silgado, Antonio Jesús; Pérez Vega-Leal, Alfredo; García Franquelo, Leopoldo

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for programming SC circuits using a single time-multiplexed capacitor bank, achieving a significant reduction in capacitance area. Simulation results of a programmable biquad low pass filter show the validity of the proposed method.

  13. South Carolina's SC LENDS: Optimizing Libraries, Transforming Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Rogan; McBride, Ray; Lundberg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Since SC LENDS started operating in June 2009, more public libraries have come on board. All of this on the back end connects to a Mozilla-based staff client that has distributions for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows, using SSL encryption to keep communications secure and private between remote libraries and the servers hosted at a high-end…

  14. 77 FR 14700 - Safety Zones; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... establish temporary moving safety zones during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on...

  15. 76 FR 38586 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... establish a temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring...

  16. 78 FR 54583 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ..., telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on waters of...

  17. 77 FR 51471 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC in the Federal Register (77 FR...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston,...

  18. 44gSc from metal calcium targets for PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Gagnon, K.; Engle, J. W.;

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost and efficient method for producing pre-clinical scale quantities of 44gSc is presented. Production involves proton irradiation of natural unenriched calcium metal followed by rapid separation of radioscandium from the target using hydroxmate functionalized resin.© 2012 American Institu...

  19. Toelating Herbasan SC welkom voor dahlia, A. coronaria en narcis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Koster, A.T.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Onlangs is Herbasan SC voor de onkruidbestrijding in onder meer dahlia, narcis en Anemone coronaria toegelaten. PPO ging na hoe het middel het beste is in te zetten. In dit artikel zijn de resultaten van het onderzoek vermeld en een advies voor toepassing

  20. Envíos Confianza, S.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID); S.C. Envíos Confianza

    2009-01-01

    Presentación acerca de Envíos Confianza, S.C., en el cual da a conocer su historia, misión, visión, valores, efecto de las remesas en comunidades e impacto de la crisis financiera. Además, señala la proyección para el 2009-2011.

  1. 78 FR 20369 - South Carolina Disaster #SC-00021

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION South Carolina Disaster SC-00021 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of South Carolina dated 03/29/2013. Incident: Windsor Green Condo Complex Fire. Incident Period: 03/16/2013....

  2. Calibration of the DLP-SC-3300-02 probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    This report douments the calibration measurement of the DLP-SC-3300-02 dual-linearly polarized near-field probe. The measurement comprises radiation pattern, diretivity, gain, spetra of spherial wave coefients, polarization charateristis, and complex channel balance at 41 frequencies, as well...

  3. Genome Sequence of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Strain SC16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastrojo, Alberto; López-Muñoz, Alberto Domingo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), also known as Human herpesvirus 1, is a highly prevalent human neurotropic pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including lethal encephalitis. Here, we report the genome sequence of the HSV-1 strain SC16. PMID:28126930

  4. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The catalogue contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd semester...... projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  5. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The following pages contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short master projects as well as regular 3rd...... semester projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  6. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This catalogue contains a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd...... semester projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  7. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan

    The report contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd semester...... projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  8. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  9. Effect of Sc on Precipitation Hardening of AlSi6Mg Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Sc on precipitation hardening of AlSi6Mg was studied. Zr was previously reported that it increased the effectiveness of Sc in wrought aluminum in many areas so Zr was also used together with Sc in this study.Different levels of Sc and Zr additions were added to AlSi6Mg before casting in the permanent mold. The samples were precipitation hardened at different aging temperatures and for various aging time before testing for tensile strength and hardness. It was found that Sc addition into Al6SiMg can change its response to age hardening. Additions of Sc and Sc with Zr increased both yield strength and hardness for both aging temperatures. In addition, Sc was found to modify eutectic Si to obtain fibrous morphology. This effect of Sc on eutectic silicon modification has never been reported before.

  10. Role of cell death in the propagation of PrP(Sc) in immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenichi; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have suggested that macrophages, dendritic cells, and follicular dendritic cells play an important role in the propagation of PrP(Sc). Both accumulation and proteolysis of PrP(Sc) have been demonstrated in peripheral macrophages. Macrophages may act as reservoirs for PrP(Sc) particles if the cells die during transient PrP(Sc) propagation. However, whether cell death plays a role in PrP(Sc) propagation in macrophages remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the possibility of propagation and transmission of PrP(Sc) between dead immune cells and living neural cells. We found that under specific conditions, transient PrP(Sc) propagation occurs in dead cells, indicating that interaction between PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) on plasma membrane lipid rafts might be important for PrP(Sc) propagation. Co-culturing of killed donor PrP(Sc)-infected macrophages with recipient N2a-3 neuroblastoma cells accelerated PrP(Sc) transmission. Our results suggest that cell death may play an important role in PrP(Sc) propagation, whereas transient PrP(Sc) propagation in macrophages has little effect on PrP(Sc) transmission.

  11. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    SUBTITLE Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making Improve...to determine whether Fetal Mammary Stem Cell (fMaSC) signatures correlate with response to chemotherapy and metastasis in different breast cancer...positioned to achieve its aims. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast Cancer Prognosis, Mammary Stem Cells, Embryonic Development, Single Cell Transcriptomics 16

  12. Stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redi, Carlo Alberto; Monti, Manuela; Merico, Valeria; Neri, Tui; Zanoni, Mario; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    The application of stem cells to regenerative medicine is one of the actual hot topics in biomedicine. This research could help the cure of a number of diseases that are affecting a large share of the population. Some good results in cell replacement have already been obtained (infarcted heart, diabetes, Parkinson disease), apart from those of more traditional applications like severe burns and blood tumors. We are now facing crucial questions in stem cell biology. One of the key questions is how a cell begins to proliferate or differentiate. Genome reprogramming, both following nuclear transfer and cytoplast action, will likely highlight some of the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. In turn, these clues should be useful to the production of populations of reprogrammed cells that could develop into tissues or, in the future, into proper organs. We will overview what stem cells are, what roles they play in normal developmental processes and how stem cells could have the potential to treat diseases.

  13. Why STEM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) defines STEM as a new transdisciplinary subject in schools that integrates the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a single course of study. There are three major problems with this definition: There is no consensus in support of the ITEEA…

  14. Two anionically derivatized scandium oxoselenates(IV): ScF[SeO3] and Sc2O2[SeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Stefan; Chou, Sheng-Chun; Schleid, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Scandium fluoride oxoselenate(IV) ScF[SeO3] and scandium oxide oxoselenate(IV) Sc2O2[SeO3] could be synthesized through solid-state reactions. ScF[SeO3] was obtained phase-pure, by reacting mixtures of Sc2O3, ScF3 and SeO2 (molar ratio: 1:1:3) together with CsBr as fluxing agent in corundum crucibles embedded into evacuated glassy silica ampoules after firing at 700 °C for seven days. Sc2O2[SeO3] first emerged as by-product during the attempts to synthesize ScCl[SeO3] following aforementioned synthesis route and could later be reproduced from appropriate Sc2O3/SeO3 mixtures. ScF[SeO3] crystallizes monoclinically in space group P21/m with a=406.43(2), b =661.09(4), c=632.35(4) pm, β=93.298(3)° and Z=2. Sc2O2[SeO3] also crystallizes in the monoclinic system, but in space group P21/n with a=786.02(6), b=527.98(4), c=1086.11(8) pm, β=108.672(3)° for Z=4. The crystal structures of both compounds are strongly influenced by the stereochemically active lone pairs of the ψ1-tetrahedral [SeO3]2- anions. They also show partial structures, where the derivatizing F- or O2- anions play an important role. For ScF[SeO3] chains of the composition 2+ ∞ 1[FSc2/2] form from connected [FSc2]5+ dumbbells, while [OSc3]7+ pyramids and [OSc4]10+ tetrahedra units are condensed to layers according to 2+ ∞ 2[O2Sc2 ] in Sc2O2[SeO3].

  15. Comparison of the transcriptpmes of long-tern label retaining-cells and C cells microdissected from mammary epithelium: an initial study to character potential stem/progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) account for the cell lineage of mammary epithelia and provide for mammary growth, development and tissue homeostasis. The presence of MaSC was clearly demonstrated by the generation of an entire mammary gland from a single cell implanted into epithelium-ablated mammary fat...

  16. Dynamical stability and evolution of the discs of Sc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, B

    1997-01-01

    We examine the local stability of galactic discs against axisymmetric density perturbations with special attention to the different dynamics of the stellar and gaseous components. In particular the discs of the Milky Way and of NGC 6946 are studied. The Milky Way is shown to be stable, whereas the inner parts of NGC 6946, a typical Sc galaxy from the Kennicutt (1989) sample, are dynamically unstable. The ensuing dynamical evolution of the composite disc is studied by numerical simulations. The evolution is so fierce that the stellar disc heats up dynamically on a short time scale to such a degree, which seems to contradict the morphological appearance of the galaxy. The star formation rate required to cool the disc dynamically is estimated. Even if the star formation rate in NGC 6946 is at present high enough to meet this requirement, it is argued that the discs of Sc galaxies cannot sustain such a high star formation rate for longer periods.

  17. Structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Ti2SC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongzhi Fu; Wenfang Liu; Tao Gao

    2011-12-01

    The structural parameters, elastic constants and thermodynamic properties of Ti2SC were investigated under pressure and temperature by using first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. The obtained results are in agreement with the available experimental data. The bulk moduli along the - and -axes, $B_{a}$ and $B_{c}$, almost linearly increase with pressure, and the former is always smaller than the latter. The ratio of $B_{c}/B_{a}$ has a trend of gradual increase as the pressure increases. It is found that the elastic constants, anisotropy and Debye temperature of Ti2SC increase with pressure, while axial compressibility along the - and -axes decreases with pressure. The thermal properties including the equation of state, the Grüneisen parameter , the anisotropies $\\Delta_{p}, \\Delta_{S1}$ and $\\Delta_{S2}$, and the heat capacity are estimated at various pressures and temperatures.

  18. Search for naive human pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone Aparecida Siqueira Fonseca; Roberta Montero Costas; Lygia Veiga Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Normal mouse pluripotent stem cells were originallyderived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocystsand shown to be the in vitro equivalent of those preimplantationembryonic cells, and thus were calledembryonic stem cells (ESCs). More than a decade later,pluripotent cells were isolated from the ICM of humanblastocysts. Despite being called human ESCs, thesecells differ significantly from mouse ESCs, includingdifferent morphology and mechanisms of control ofpluripotency, suggesting distinct embryonic originsof ESCs from the two species. Subsequently, mousepluripotent stem cells were established from the ICMderivedepiblast of post-implantation embryos. Thesemouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are morphologicaland epigenetically more similar to human ESCs. Thisraised the question of whether cells from the humanICM are in a more advanced differentiation stage thantheir murine counterpart, or whether the availableculture conditions were not adequate to maintain thosehuman cells in their in vivo state, leading to a transitioninto EpiSC-like cells in vitro . More recently, novel cultureconditions allowed the conversion of human ESCs intomouse ESC-like cells called naive (or ground state)human ESCs, and the derivation of naive human ESCsfrom blastocysts. Here we will review the characteristicsof each type of pluripotent stem cells, how (andwhether) these relate to different stages of embryonicdevelopment, and discuss the potential implications ofnaive human ESCs in research and therapy.

  19. A Study on the Fluorescence System of Sc-BPMPHD-CTMAB and Its Analytical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Introduction The fluorescence of Sc3+ itself in solution is not observed. After complexed with an organic ligand with a chromophore, Sc3+ makes the ligand, which has no or has weak fluorescence, emit strong fluorescence.

  20. Status of Simulation Tools for the ILD ScECAL

    OpenAIRE

    Kotera, Katsushige; anduze, marc; Boudry, Vincent; Brient, Jean-Claude; Jeans, Daniel; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Miyamoto, Akiya; de Freitas, Paulo Mora; Musat, Gabriel; Ono, Hiroaki; Takeshita, Tohru; Uozumi, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    The scintillator-strip electromagnetic calorimeter (ScECAL) is one of the calorimeter technic for the ILC. To achieve the fine granularity from the strip-segmented layers the strips in odd layers are orthogonal with respect to those in the even layers. In order to extract the best performance from such detector concept, a special reconstruction method and simulation tools are being developed in ILD collaboration. This manuscript repots the status of developing of those tools.

  1. QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF BAKERY PRODUCTS: A CASE STUDY IN SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta- Luminiţa STRÂMBEANU RISTEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the benefits of implementing HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points to company S.C. "DOBRE AND SONS" S.R.L. Constanta, Romania. The data have been provided by the above mentioned manufacturer. The objectives of S.C. "DOBRE AND SONS" S.R.L. are protecting the health of the consumers of the products and their satisfaction regarding the consumption of products that are nutritional, tasty, fresh, free from microbiological, chemical and physical hazard, as well as possessing stable properties during the validity for consumption. In this respect, there has been implemented and maintained an integrated management system of food quality and safety according to SR EN ISO 9001:2008, SR EN ISO 22000:2005 and according to IFS standard, version 5/2007, which consists of determining the potential biological, chemical and physical hazards that might affect the safety of bread and bakery products, or the health of the consumer. HACCP team is analyzing hazard using one of the recommended techniques: brainstorming or the cause - effect diagram. In conclusion, the company S.C. "DOBRE AND SONS" S.R.L. Constanta, Romania provides awareness and employee involvement at all levels in achieving the appointed objectives.

  2. Naive and primed murine pluripotent stem cells have distinct miRNA expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Jouneau, A.; Ciaudo, C.; Sismeiro, O.; Brochard, V.; Jouneau, L.; Vandormael-Pournin, S; Coppee, J.-Y.; Zhou, Q.; Heard, E.; Antoniewski, C.; Cohen-Tannoudji, M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last years, the microRNA (miRNA) pathway has emerged as a key component of the regulatory network of pluripotency. Although clearly distinct states of pluripotency have been described in vivo and ex vivo, differences in miRNA expression profiles associated with the developmental modulation of pluripotency have not been extensively studied. Here, the authors performed deep sequencing to profile miRNA expression in naive (embryonic stem cell [ESC]) and primed (epiblast stem cell [EpiSC...

  3. Crystal fields of dilute Tb, Dy, or Er in Sc obtained by magnetization measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, J.; Touborg, P.

    1976-01-01

    Crystal-field parameters for dilute Sc-Tb, Sc-Dy, and Sc-Er alloys have been obtained by fitting theoretical expressions to the experimentally measured paramagnetic susceptibility. The initial susceptibility was measured and corrected for the effects of ordering at the lowest temperatures in the ...

  4. Preparation and characterization of Sc doped MgB2 wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Burdusel, M.

    2016-01-01

    The in-situ technique was used to manufacture scandium (Sc) doped MgB2 wires in a composite Cu–Nb sheath. After reaction at 700 °C, at most 1 at.% Mg was replaced by Sc in the MgB2 phase, without significant influence on its superconducting transition temperature. For higher Sc concentrations...

  5. Overview of 2009 IEC/TC SC 77C Plenary Meeting%2009 IEC/TC SC 77C年会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟萃

    2009-01-01

    介绍了在法国召开的2009 IEC/TC SC 77C分技术委员会工作组会议讨论的IEC 61000-4-35、IEC 6100-5-9、IEC 6100-5-8三个标准项目实施情况、标准维护需求及新的技术工作.

  6. Acid-base chemistry in the formation of Mackay-type icosahedral clusters: μ3-acidity analysis of Sc-rich phases of the Sc-Ir system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yiming; Stacey, Timothy E; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2014-05-19

    The crystal structures of intermetallic phases offer a wealth of geometrical features (helices, multishelled clusters, and host-guest motifs) whose formation has yet to be explained or predicted by chemical theory. A recently developed extension of the acid-base concept to metallic systems, the μ3-acidity model, provides an avenue for developing this understanding for intermetallics formed from transition metals. In this Article, we illustrate how this approach can be used to understand one of the most striking geometrical entities to emerge in intermetallic chemistry, the Mackay cluster of icosahedral quasicrystals. We present μ3-acidity analyses, based on DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations, for a series of Sc-Ir intermetallics: ScIr (CsCl-type), Sc2Ir (Ti2Ni-type), Sc11Ir4, and the Mackay cluster containing phases Sc57Ir13 and Sc44Ir7. We begin by illustrating that a μ3-acidity model correctly predicts that each of these phases is stable relative to disproportionation into their neighboring compounds when a common set of Hückel parameters and d-orbital occupancies is used. Next, we explain these results by developing a relationship between the distance distribution of homoatomic contacts within an atom's coordination sphere and the μ3-neutralization it experiences. For a given average homoatomic distance, the role of heteroatomic contacts is higher when the distribution of homoatomic contacts is narrower. This effect is key to the strength of the acid-base neutralization of the Sc-rich phases, where the Sc atoms find a scarcity of Ir atoms from which to obtain neutralization. Under these circumstances, Sc-Ir contacts should be maximized, whereas the number and distance variations of the Sc-Sc contacts should be minimized. These expectations are borne out by the observed crystal structures. In particular, the Mackay clusters of Sc57Ir13 and Sc44Ir7, in which a central Ir atom is icosahedrally coordinated by a pentagonal dodecahedral array of face-sharing Sc

  7. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia.

  8. Al-Mg-Sc-Zr合金的再结晶%Recrystallization of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永红; 尹志民; 张杰; 潘青林; 彭志辉

    2002-01-01

    研究了添加微量Sc,Zr的Al-Mg合金的再结晶行为,结果表明:Al-Mg-Sc-Zr合金的再结晶起始温度为400℃,细小、弥散、与基体共格的析出相对位错和亚晶的钉扎作用是合金再结晶温度大幅度提高的主要原因,再结晶形核机制为亚晶聚合机制.%The recrystalization behavior of Al-Mg alloys with Sc and Zr additives was studied.It is found that the recrystallization of the alloy began at 400℃.The main reason of the great increase of recrystallization temperature is attributed to that the dislocations and subgrain boundaries.The recrystallizing nucleation mechanism was the subgrain boundary merging mechanism in the alloy are pinned by ultrafine dispersed coherent precipitates.

  9. Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy of Sc13C2 and Sc12C13C: Establishing AN Accurate Structure of ScC2 (tilde{X}2A1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Mark; Halfen, DeWayne T.; Min, Jie; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2016-06-01

    Pure rotational spectra of Sc13C2 and Sc12C13C (tilde{X}2A1) have been obtained using Fourier Transform Microwave methods. These molecules were created from scandium vapor in combination with 13CH4 and/or 12CH4, diluted in argon, using a Discharge Assisted Laser Ablation Source (DALAS). Transitions in the frequency range of 14-30 GHz were observed for both species including hyperfine splitting due to the nuclear spin of Sc (I = 7/2) and 13C (I = 1/2). Rotational, spin-rotational, and hyperfine constants have been determined for Sc13C2 and Sc12C13C, as well as a refined structure for ScC2. In agreement with theoretical calculations and previous Sc12C2 results, these data confirm a cyclic (or T-shaped) structure for this molecule. Scandium carbides have been shown to form endohedral-doped fullerenes, which have unique electrical and magnetic properties due to electron transfer between the metal and the carbon-cage. Spectroscopy of ScC2 provides data on model systems for comparison with theory.

  10. A mammary stem cell population identified and characterized in late embryogenesis reveals similarities to human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spike, Benjamin T; Engle, Dannielle D; Lin, Jennifer C; Cheung, Samantha K; La, Justin; Wahl, Geoffrey M

    2012-02-03

    Gene expression signatures relating mammary stem cell populations to breast cancers have focused on adult tissue. Here, we identify, isolate, and characterize the fetal mammary stem cell (fMaSC) state since the invasive and proliferative processes of mammogenesis resemble phases of cancer progression. fMaSC frequency peaks late in embryogenesis, enabling more extensive stem cell purification than achieved with adult tissue. fMaSCs are self-renewing, multipotent, and coexpress multiple mammary lineage markers. Gene expression, transplantation, and in vitro analyses reveal putative autocrine and paracrine regulatory mechanisms, including ErbB and FGF signaling pathways impinging on fMaSC growth. Expression profiles from fMaSCs and associated stroma exhibit significant similarities to basal-like and Her2+ intrinsic breast cancer subtypes. Our results reveal links between development and cancer and provide resources to identify new candidates for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.

  11. NAD⁺ repletion improves mitochondrial and stem cell function and enhances life span in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Ryu, Dongryeol; Wu, Yibo; Gariani, Karim; Wang, Xu; Luan, Peiling; D'Amico, Davide; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Lutolf, Matthias P; Aebersold, Ruedi; Schoonjans, Kristina; Menzies, Keir J; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-06-17

    Adult stem cells (SCs) are essential for tissue maintenance and regeneration yet are susceptible to senescence during aging. We demonstrate the importance of the amount of the oxidized form of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and its effect on mitochondrial activity as a pivotal switch to modulate muscle SC (MuSC) senescence. Treatment with the NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) induced the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and synthesis of prohibitin proteins, and this rejuvenated MuSCs in aged mice. NR also prevented MuSC senescence in the mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmd(mdx)/J) mouse model of muscular dystrophy. We furthermore demonstrate that NR delays senescence of neural SCs and melanocyte SCs and increases mouse life span. Strategies that conserve cellular NAD(+) may reprogram dysfunctional SCs and improve life span in mammals.

  12. LOCAL COLLISION SIMULATION OF AN SC WALL USING ENERGY ABSORBING STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUL-HUN CHUNG

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the local damage of a turbine in an auxiliary building of a nuclear power plant due to an external impact by using the LS-DYNA finite element program. The wall of the auxiliary building is SC structure and the material of the SC wall plate is high manganese steel, which has superior ductility and energy absorbance compared to the ordinary steel used for other SC wall plates. The effects of the material of the wall, collision speed, and angle on the magnitude of the local damage were evaluated by local collision analysis. The analysis revealed that the SC wall made of manganese steel had significantly less damage than the SC wall made of ordinary steel. In conclusion, an SC wall made of manganese steel can have higher effective resistance than an SC wall made of ordinary steel against the local collision of an airplane engine or against a turbine impact.

  13. Performance Analysis of OFDM 60GHz System and SC-FDE 60GHz System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xueyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of 60GHz wireless communication system with SC and OFDM is studied, the models of OFDM 60GHz system and SC 60GHz frequency domain equalization (SC-FDE system are established, and the bit error rate (BER performance of OFDM 60GHz system and SC-FDE 60GHz system in 802.15.3c channels is compared. The simulation results show that SC-FDE 60GHz system has a slight advantage over OFDM system in line-of-sight (LOS channels, while OFDM 60GHz system has a slight advantage over SC-FDE system in non-line-of-sight (NLOS channels. For 60GHz system, OFDM 60GHz system has a slight advantage over SC-FDE system in overcoming multipath fading, but the performance of both is close whether in the LOS or NLOS case.

  14. Heterogeneity of abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in murine scrapie prions determined by PrP(Sc)-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiki-Kaku, Yuko; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Tabeta, Naoko; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    In prion diseases, abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)) is considered as the main component of the infectious agent. Delineation of PrP(Sc) conformation is expected to be a critical factor in understanding properties of prions. However, practical methods to differentiate between conformers of PrP(Sc) are inadequate. Here, we used two PrP(Sc)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 3B7 and 3H6, and found that mAb 3H6 detected a limited portion of PrP(Sc) in five mice-adapted prion strains. The quantity of mAb 3H6-precipitated PrP(Sc) was significantly lesser in 22L compared to other strains. This result provides a direct evidence of the conformational heterogeneity of PrP(Sc) within the prion strains. Conformation-specific probes, like these mAbs, have the potential to be powerful tools for investigating conformational variations in PrP(Sc).

  15. Stem/progenitor cells in non-lactating versus lactating equine mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaas, Jan H; Chiers, Koen; Bussche, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2012-11-01

    The mammary gland is a highly regenerative organ that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation, and involution. Based on the facts that (i) mammary stem/progenitor cells (MaSC) are proposed to be the driving forces behind mammary growth and function and (ii) variation exists between mammalian species with regard to physiological and pathological functioning of this organ, we believe that studying MaSC from different mammals is of great comparative interest. Over the years, important data has been gathered on MaSC of men and mice, although knowledge on MaSC in other mammals remains limited. Therefore, the aim of this work was to isolate and characterize MaSC from the mammary gland of horses. Hereby, our salient findings were that the isolated equine cells met the 2 in vitro hallmark properties of stem cells, namely the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Moreover, the cells were immunophenotyped using markers for CD29, CD44, CD49f, and Ki67. Finally, we propose the mammosphere assay as a valuable in vitro assay to study MaSC during different physiological phases since it was observed that equine lactating mammary gland contains significantly more mammosphere-initiating cells than the inactive, nonlactating gland (a reflection of MaSC self-renewal) and, moreover, that these spheres were significantly larger in size upon initial cultivation (a reflection of progenitor cell proliferation). Taken together, this study not only extends the current knowledge of mammary gland biology, but also benefits the comparative approach to study and compare MaSC in different mammalian species.

  16. Structural transformations in Sc/Si multilayers irradiated by EUVlasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronov, D.L.; Zubarev, E.N.; Pershyn, Y.P.; Sevryukova, V.A.; Kondratenko, V.V.; Vinogradov, A.V.; Artioukov, I.A.; Uspenskiy, Y.A.; Grisham, M.; Vaschenko, G.; Menoni, C.S.; Rocca, J.J.

    2007-08-21

    Multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) are keyelements for numerous applications of coherent EUV sources such as newtabletop lasers and free-electron lasers. However the field ofapplications is limited by the radiation and thermal stability of themultilayers. Taking into account the growing power of EUV sources thestability of the optics becomes crucial. To overcome this problem it isnecessary to study the degradation of multilayers and try to increasetheir temporal and thermal stability. In this paper we report the resultsof detailed study of structural changes in Sc/Simultilayers when exposedto intense EUV laser pulses. Various types of surface damage such asmelting, boiling, shockwave creation and ablation were observed asirradiation fluencies increase. Cross-sectional TEM study revealed thatthe layer structure was completely destroyed in the upper part ofmultilayer, but still survived below. The layers adjacent tothe substrateremained intact even through the multilayer surface melted down, thoughthe structure of the layers beneath the molten zone was noticeablychanged. The layer structure in this thermally affected zone is similarto that of isothermally annealed samples. All stages of scandium silicideformation such as interdiffusion, solid-state amorphization, silicidecrystallization, etc., are present in the thermally affected zone. Itindicates a thermal nature of the damage mechanism. The tungstendiffusion barriers were applied to the scandium/silicon interfaces. Itwas shown that the barriers inhibited interdiffusion and increased thethermal stability of Sc/Si mirrors.

  17. V-ATPase, ScNhxlp and Yeast Vacuole Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan-Sheng Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Membrane fusion is the last step in trafficking pathways during which membrane vesicles fuse with target organelles to deliver cargos.It is a central cellular reaction that plays important roles in signal transduction,protein sorting and subcellular compartmentation.Recent progress in understanding the roles of ion transporters in vacuole fusion in yeast is summanzed in this article.It is becoming increasingly evident that the vacuolar proton pump V-ATPase and vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter ScNhxlp are key components of the vacuole fusion machinery in yeast.Yeast ScNhxlp regulates vacuole fusion by controlling the luminal pH.V-ATPases serve a dual role in vacuolar integrity in which they regulate both vacuole fusion and fission reactions in yeast.Fission defects are epistatic to fusion defects.Vacuole fission depends on the proton translocation activity of the V-ATPase; by contrast,the fusion reaction does not need the transport activity but requires the physical presence of the proton pump.Vo,the membrane-integral sector of the V-ATPase,forms trans-complexes between the opposing vacuoles in the terminal phase of vacuole fusion where the Vo trans-complexes build a continuous proteolipid channel at the fusion site to mediate the bilayer fusion.

  18. The first SC-SAGD pilot in the Grosmont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, S.C.; Barrett, K.; Riva, D.; Becker, L.; Brindle, G. [Laricina Energy Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In north-eastern Alberta, the Grosmont Formation is an Upper Devonian carbonate succession containing a vast amount of bitumen. In an attempt to exploit this resource, Laricina Energy Ltd. and OSUM Oil Sands Corp. built the first ever solvent-cyclic steam-assisted gravity drainage (SC-SAGD) pilot. In this process, solvent and/or steam are continuously injected at reservoir pressure to heat the reservoir and thus reduce bitumen viscosity. The aim of this paper is to present the pilot project and its initial results. The reservoir's geology, the recovery process, the drilling and completion challenges as well as the design and the operational plan are discussed in this paper. Steam injection started in December 2010 and indications show that the wells are progressing as planned. Results showed an uptime greater than 90% so far and this is expected to further improve in the future. The first SC-SAGD pilot is discussed and early phases showed excellent results from the project.

  19. Directed evolution of human scFvs in DT40 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Alfred W Y; Williams, Gareth T; Rada, Cristina; Sale, Julian E

    2016-02-01

    Cells that constitutively diversify their immunoglobulin genes can be used for selection of novel antibodies and for refining existing affinities and specificities. Here, we report an adaptation of the chicken DT40 system wherein its capacity for somatic hypermutation is harnessed to evolve human antibodies expressed as single-chain variable fragments (scFvs). Expression of membrane-anchored scFvs from within the rearranged Igλ locus created self-diversifying scFv libraries from which we could both select scFvs of a desired specificity and evolve both the specificity and affinity of existing scFvs by iterative expansion and selection. From these scFvs, we were able to create fully human IgG antibodies with nanomolar affinities. We further enhanced the functionality of the system by creating a pool of DT40 scFv lines with high levels of mutation driven by the overexpression of a hyperactive variant of activation-induced deaminase. From this library, we successfully isolated scFvs that bound the spliceosome factor CWC15 and the cytokine human IFNγ. Our results demonstrate the flexibility and utility of DT40 for rapid generation of scFv repertoires and efficient selection, evolution and affinity maturation of scFv specificities.

  20. Effect of Severe Plastic Deformation on Structure and Properties of Al-Sc-Ta and Al-Sc-Ti Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, Alla; Monastyrska, Tetiana; Davydenko, Olexandr; Molebny, Oleh; Polishchuk, Sergey

    2017-12-01

    The comparative analysis of the effect of monotonous and non-monotonous severe plastic deformations (SPD) on the structure and properties of aluminum alloys has been carried out. Conventional hydrostatic extrusion (HE) with a constant deformation direction and equal-channel angular hydroextrusion (ECAH) with an abrupt change in the deformation direction were chosen for the cases of monotonous and non-monotonous SPD, respectively. Model cast hypoeutectic Al-0.3%Sc alloys and hypereutectic Al-0.6%Sc alloys with Ta and Ti additives were chosen for studying. It was demonstrated that SPD of the alloys resulted in the segregation of the material into active and inactive zones which formed a banded structure. The active zones were shown to be bands of localized plastic deformation. The distance between zones was found to be independent of the accumulated strain degree and was in the range of 0.6-1 μm. Dynamic recrystallization in the active zones was observed using TEM. The dynamic recrystallization was accompanied by the formation of disclinations, deformation bands, low-angle, and high-angle boundaries, i.e., rotational deformation modes developed. The dynamic recrystallization was more intense during the non-monotonous deformation as compared with the monotonous one, which was confirmed by the reduction of texture degree in the materials after ECAH.

  1. SC1327-312 & SC1329-313 two galaxy groups in-between a major merging event observed with Beppo-SAX

    CERN Document Server

    Bardelli, S; Ettori, S; Molendi, S; Zucca, E; Colafrancesco, Sergio

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of two Beppo-SAX observations of the poor clusters SC1327-312 and SC1329-313. These objects are located in a huge structure, formed by three ACO clusters, which is probably the remnant of one of the largest and best studied major mergings known. Given the fact that these poor clusters are in between two interacting ACO clusters, the aim of this work is to study the physics of the intracluster medium and to look for the possible presence of shocks. We derived the gas distribution profiles, the global (i.e. within 0.3 Mpc) temperatures and abundances and the temperature profiles and maps for SC1327-312 and SC1329-313. Also the presence of soft excess in LECS and hard excess in PDS have been checked. We do not find evidence of regions where the gas is shocked or significantly heated. The image of SC1327-312 seems rather symmetric, while the gas profile of SC1329-313 shows disturbed, comet-like shaped isophotes, with the tail pointing toward A3562 and a compression toward SC1327-312. The pr...

  2. Preparation and characterization of Sc doped MgB2 wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivel, J.-C.; Burdusel, M.

    2016-09-01

    The in-situ technique was used to manufacture scandium (Sc) doped MgB2 wires in a composite Cu-Nb sheath. After reaction at 700 °C, at most 1 at.% Mg was replaced by Sc in the MgB2 phase, without significant influence on its superconducting transition temperature. For higher Sc concentrations in the nominal composition, the formation of Sc-rich impurity phases was evidenced by SEM/EDS observations. The critical current density and accommodation field of the wires are weakly dependant on the Sc content. It is believed that these effects are related more to modifications of the thermal behaviour of the precursor powders revealed by DTA measurements than to actual doping. The best performance was obtained in a wire with Mg:Sc = 0.995_0.005 atomic ratio.

  3. In vitro neutralization of prions with PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschuk, Ryan; Van der Merwe, Jacques; Marciniuk, Kristen; Potter, Andrew; Cashman, Neil; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases reflect the misfolding of a self-protein (PrP(C)) into an infectious, pathological isomer (PrP(Sc)). By targeting epitopes uniquely exposed by misfolding, our group developed PrP(Sc)-specific vaccines to 3 disease specific epitopes (DSEs). Here, antibodies induced by individual DSE vaccines are evaluated for their capacity to neutralize prions in vitro. For both purified antibodies and immunoreactive sera, the PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies were equally effective in neutralizing prions. Further, there was no significant increase in neutralizing activity when multiple DSEs were targeted within an assay. At a low antibody concentration, the PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies matched the neutralization achieved by an antibody that may act via both PrP(C) and PrP(Sc). At higher doses, however, this pan-specific antibody was more effective, potentially due to a combined deactivation of PrP(Sc) and depletion of PrP(C).

  4. Sulfated dextrans enhance in vitro amplification of bovine spongiform encephalopathy PrP(Sc and enable ultrasensitive detection of bovine PrP(Sc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Murayama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prions, infectious agents associated with prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle, and scrapie in sheep and goats, are primarily comprised of PrP(Sc, a protease-resistant misfolded isoform of the cellular prion protein PrP(C. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA is a highly sensitive technique used to detect minute amounts of scrapie PrP(Sc. However, the current PMCA technique has been unsuccessful in achieving good amplification in cattle. The detailed distribution of PrP(Sc in BSE-affected cattle therefore remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report here that PrP(Sc derived from BSE-affected cattle can be amplified ultra-efficiently by PMCA in the presence of sulfated dextran compounds. This method is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc from the saliva, palatine tonsils, lymph nodes, ileocecal region, and muscular tissues of BSE-affected cattle. Individual differences in the distribution of PrP(Sc in spleen and cerebrospinal fluid samples were observed in terminal-stage animals. However, the presence of PrP(Sc in blood was not substantiated in the BSE-affected cattle examined. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The distribution of PrP(Sc is not restricted to the nervous system and can spread to peripheral tissues in the terminal disease stage. The finding that PrP(Sc could be amplified in the saliva of an asymptomatic animal suggests a potential usefulness of this technique for BSE diagnosis. This highly sensitive method also has other practical applications, including safety evaluation or safety assurance of products and byproducts manufactured from bovine source materials.

  5. DC-SC Photoinjector with Low Emittance at Peking University

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang Rong; Hao, J; Huang, Senlin; Lu Xiang Yang; Quan, Shengwen; Zhang, Baocheng; Zhao, Kui

    2005-01-01

    High average power Free Electron Lasers require the high quality electron beams with the low emittance and the sub-picosecond bunches. The design of DC-SC photoinjector, directly combining a DC photoinjector with an SRF cavity, can produce high average current beam with moderate bunch charge and high duty factor. Because of the DC gun, the emittance increases quickly at the beginning, so a carefully design is needed to control that. In this paper, the simulation of an upgraded design has been done to lower the normalized emittance below 1.5mm·mrad. The photoinjector consists of a DC gap and a 2+1/2-cell SRF cavity, and it is designed to produce 4.2 MeV electron beams at 100pC bunch charge and 81.25MHz repetition rate (8 mA average current).

  6. Mean pion multiplicities in Ar+Sc collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Naskręt, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results for mean negatively charged pion multiplicities $\\langle \\pi^- \\rangle$ using the $h^-$ method are presented for central Ar+Sc collisions at 13, 19, 30, 40, 75 and 150\\textit{A} GeV/c beam momentum. The data were recorded by the NA61/SHINE detector at the CERN SPS. Starting with rapidity distributions ${dn}/{dy}$ the procedure of obtaining total multiplicities is presented. The mean number of wounded nucleons $\\langle W\\rangle$ extracted from the Glissando MC model is used to calculate the ratio $\\langle \\pi^- \\rangle/\\langle W\\rangle.$ The results are compared to those from other experiments and their dependence on colliding systems and collision energy is discussed.

  7. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan Christian

    The following pages contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short master projects as well as regular 3rd...... semester projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering. Each project description provides a brief overview of the purpose as well as the main activities. Further, a weighting between theoretical analysis, experimental work and computer modelling has been proposed. Usually...... page. Furthermore, other ideas for projects may be discussed with a potential supervisor. Many private engineering companies have a homepage on which they state that they would like to collaborate with students on a master project....

  8. Domain structure and phase transition in Sc-doped zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunauer, G.; Boysen, H.; Frey, F.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2002-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the domain structure associated with the ferroelastic phase transition (Fm↔R bar 3 m) in ZrO2 doped with 11% Sc2O3 has been determined from a peak shape analysis of high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction data. In the temperature region of coexisting phases the observed characteristic anisotropic broadening and asymmetry of the lines is modelled by three different phases: a main rhombohedral phase, a distorted rhombohedral phase with a smaller c/a ratio, and a cubic phase. The latter two are assigned to the internal structure of the domain walls between two adjacent twin domains. The size and amount of the cubic phase show an initially slow increase with temperature followed by a very steep increase and a slow one after that. The size of the (main) rhombohedral domains remains nearly constant, while (micro-) strain in the distorted regions gradually decreases.

  9. Final Report for DOE Grant Number DE-SC0001481

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Edison [Rice University

    2013-12-02

    This report covers research activities, major results and publications supported by DE-SC-000-1481. This project was funded by the DOE OFES-NNSA HEDLP program. It was a joint research program between Rice University and the University of Texas at Austin. The physics of relativistic plasmas was investigated in the context of ultra-intense laser irradiation of high-Z solid targets. Laser experiments using the Texas Petawatt Laser were performed in the summers of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Numerical simulations of laser-plasma interactions were performed using Monte Carlo and Particle-in-Cell codes to design and support these experiments. Astrophysical applications of these results were also investigated.

  10. Toward low-cost affinity reagents: lyophilized yeast-scFv probes specific for pathogen antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A Gray

    Full Text Available The generation of affinity reagents, usually monoclonal antibodies, remains a critical bottleneck in biomedical research and diagnostic test development. Recombinant antibody-like proteins such as scFv have yet to replace traditional monoclonal antibodies in antigen detection applications, in large part because of poor performance of scFv in solution. To address this limitation, we have developed assays that use whole yeast cells expressing scFv on their surfaces (yeast-scFv in place of soluble purified scFv or traditional monoclonal antibodies. In this study, a nonimmune library of human scFv displayed on the surfaces of yeast cells was screened for clones that bind to recombinant cyst proteins of Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric pathogen of humans. Selected yeast-scFv clones were stabilized by lyophilization and used in detection assay formats in which the yeast-scFv served as solid support-bound monoclonal antibodies. Specific binding of antigen to the yeast-scFv was detected by staining with rabbit polyclonal antibodies. In flow cytometry-based assays, lyophilized yeast-scFv reagents retained full binding activity and specificity for their cognate antigens after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature in the absence of desiccants or stabilizers. Because flow cytometry is not available to all potential assay users, an immunofluorescence assay was also developed that detects antigen with similar sensitivity and specificity. Antigen-specific whole-cell yeast-scFv reagents can be selected from nonimmune libraries in 2-3 weeks, produced in vast quantities, and packaged in lyophilized form for extended shelf life. Lyophilized yeast-scFv show promise as low cost, renewable alternatives to monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and research.

  11. Stem cells, a two-edged sword: Risks and potentials of regenerative medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The recent advancements in stem cell (SC) biology have led to the concept of regenerative medicine, which is based on the potential of SC for therapies aimed to facilitate the repair of degenerating or injured tissues. Nonetheless, prior to large scale clinical appli- cations, critical aspects need to be further addressed, including the long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of SC-based treatments. Most problematic among the risks of SC-based therapies, in addition to the pos- sible rejection or loss of function of the infused cells, is their potential neoplastic transformation. Indeed, SCs may be used to cure devastating diseases, but their specific properties of self-renewal and clonogenicity may render them prone to generate cancers. In this respect, 'Stemness' might be seen as a two-edged sword, its bright side being represented by normal SCs, its dark side by cancer SCs. A better understand- ing of SC biology will help fulfill the promise of regen- erative medicine aimed at curing human pathologies and fighting cancer from its roots.

  12. Model of Dees and Rotco for the 600 MeV SC

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The accelerating frequency of the 600 MeV Synchro-Cyclotron (SC) was modulated by the varying capacity of a rotating condenser ("Rotco", the most delicate component of the SC). A 1/5-scale model, dating from the design-period of the SC, was used to study improvements to the SC RF-system, and also the acceleration of ions, first Helium and, at the time of this picture, Carbon. In the middle of the picture is the case containing the Dees. To the left, at the wide end of the cone, a rotco. Reinhold Hohbach is busy with measurements. See also 7805235 (Annual Report 1978, p.110).

  13. Nuclear Level Density and Gamma-Ray Strength Function of 43Sc

    CERN Document Server

    Bürger, A; Hilaire, S; Guttormsen, M; Harissopulos, S; Kmiecik, M; Konstantinopoulos, T; Krticka, M; Lagoyannis, A; Lönnroth, T; Mazurek, K; Norrby, M; Nyhus, H T; Perdikakis, G; Siem, S; Spyrou, A; Syed, N U H; 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.064328

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear level density and the gamma-ray strength function have been determined for 43Sc in the energy range up to 2 MeV below the neutron separation energy using the Oslo method with the 46Ti(p,alpha)43Sc reaction. A comparison to 45Sc shows that the level density of 43Sc is smaller by an approximately constant factor of two. This behaviour is well reproduced in a microscopical/combinatorial model calculation. The gamma-ray strength function is showing an increase at low gamma-ray energies, a feature which has been observed in several nuclei but which still awaits theoretical explanation.

  14. Ferromagnetism carried by highly delocalized hybrid states in Sc-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Benali Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-05-29

    We present first-principles results for Sc-doped ZnOthin films. Neighboring Sc atoms in the surface and/or subsurface layers are found to be coupled ferromagnetically, where only two of the possible configurations induce spin polarization. In the first configuration, the polarization is carried by the Sc d states as expected for transition metaldoping. However, there is a second configuration which is energetically favorable. It is governed by polarized hybrid states of the Zns, O p, and Sc d orbitals. Such highly delocalized states can be an important ingredient for understanding the magnetism of dopedZnOthin films.

  15. Atomic bonding and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Zr-Sc alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高英俊; 班冬梅; 韩永剑; 钟夏平; 刘慧

    2004-01-01

    The valence electron structures of Al-Mg alloy with minor Sc and Zr were calculated according to the empirical electron theory(EET) in solid. The results show that because of the strong interaction of Al atom with Zr and Sc atom in melting during solidification, the Al3 Sc and Al3 (Sc1-xZrx) particles which act as heterogeneous nuclear are firstly crystallized in alloy to make grains refine. In progress of solidification, the Al-Sc, Al-Zr-Sc segregation regions are formed in solid solution matrix of Al-Mg alloy owing to the strong interaction of Al atom with Zr, Scatoms in bulk of alloy, so in the following homogenization treatment, the finer dispersed Al3 Sc and Al3 (Sc1-x Zrx) second-particles which are coherence with the matrix are precipitated in the segregation region. These finer second particles with the strong Al-Zr, Al-Sc covalent bonds can strengthen the covalent bonds in matrix of the alloy, and also enhance the hardness and strength of Al-Mg alloy. Those finer second-particles precipitated in interface of sub-grains can also strengthen the covalence bonds there, and effectively hinder the interface of sub-grains from migrating and restrain the sub-grains from growing, and cause better thermal stability of Al-Mg alloy.

  16. Is belief larger than fact: expectations, optimism and reality for translational stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubela Tania

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell (SC therapies hold remarkable promise for many diseases, but there is a significant gulf between public expectations and the reality of progress toward clinical application. Public expectations are fueled by stakeholder arguments for research and public funding, coupled with intense media coverage in an ethically charged arena. We examine media representations in light of the expanding global landscape of SC clinical trials, asking what patients may realistically expect by way of timelines for the therapeutic and curative potential of regenerative medicine? Methods We built 2 international datasets: (1 3,404 clinical trials (CT containing 'stem cell*' from ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Search Portal; and (2 13,249 newspaper articles on SC therapies using Factiva.com. We compared word frequencies between the CT descriptions and full-text newspaper articles for the number containing terms for SC type and diseases/conditions. We also developed inclusion and exclusion criteria to identify novel SC CTs, mainly regenerative medicine applications. Results Newspaper articles focused on human embryonic SCs and neurological conditions with significant coverage as well of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In contrast, CTs used primarily hematopoietic SCs, with an increase in CTs using mesenchymal SCs since 2007. The latter dominated our novel classification for CTs, most of which are in phases I and II. From the perspective of the public, expecting therapies for neurological conditions, there is limited activity in what may be considered novel applications of SC therapies. Conclusions Given the research, regulatory, and commercialization hurdles to the clinical translation of SC research, it seems likely that patients and political supporters will become disappointed and disillusioned. In this environment, proponents need to make a concerted effort to temper

  17. Baculovirus display of single chain antibody (scFv using a novel signal peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Gaëlle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cells permissive to virus can become refractory to viral replication upon intracellular expression of single chain fragment variable (scFv antibodies directed towards viral structural or regulatory proteins, or virus-coded enzymes. For example, an intrabody derived from MH-SVM33, a monoclonal antibody against a conserved C-terminal epitope of the HIV-1 matrix protein (MAp17, was found to exert an inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication. Results Two versions of MH-SVM33-derived scFv were constructed in recombinant baculoviruses (BVs and expressed in BV-infected Sf9 cells, N-myristoylation-competent scFvG2/p17 and N-myristoylation-incompetent scFvE2/p17 protein, both carrying a C-terminal HA tag. ScFvG2/p17 expression resulted in an insoluble, membrane-associated protein, whereas scFvE2/p17 was recovered in both soluble and membrane-incorporated forms. When coexpressed with the HIV-1 Pr55Gag precursor, scFvG2/p17 and scFvE2/p17 did not show any detectable negative effect on virus-like particle (VLP assembly and egress, and both failed to be encapsidated in VLP. However, soluble scFvE2/p17 isolated from Sf9 cell lysates was capable of binding to its specific antigen, in the form of a synthetic p17 peptide or as Gag polyprotein-embedded epitope. Significant amounts of scFvE2/p17 were released in the extracellular medium of BV-infected cells in high-molecular weight, pelletable form. This particulate form corresponded to BV particles displaying scFvE2/p17 molecules, inserted into the BV envelope via the scFv N-terminal region. The BV-displayed scFvE2/p17 molecules were found to be immunologically functional, as they reacted with the C-terminal epitope of MAp17. Fusion of the N-terminal 18 amino acid residues from the scFvE2/p17 sequence (N18E2 to another scFv recognizing CD147 (scFv-M6-1B9 conferred the property of BV-display to the resulting chimeric scFv-N18E2/M6. Conclusion Expression of scFvE2/p17 in insect cells using a BV

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Bichat's Fat Pad: In Vitro Comparison with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Subcutaneous Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccaioli, Eugenio; Niada, Stefania; Rasperini, Giulio; Ferreira, Lorena Maria; Arrigoni, Elena; Yenagi, Vijay; Brini, Anna Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) are progenitor cells used in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Since Bichat's fat pad is easily accessible for dentists and maxillo-facial surgeons, we compared the features of ASCs from Bichat's fat pad (BFP-ASCs) with human ASCs from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SC-ASCs). BFP-ASCs isolated from a small amount of tissue were characterized for their stemness and multidifferentiative ability. They showed an important clonogenic ability and the typical mesenchymal stem cell immunophenotype. Moreover, when properly induced, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation markers, such as alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen deposition and lipid vacuoles formation, were promptly observed. Growth of both BFP-ASCs and SC-ASCs in the presence of human serum and their adhesion to natural and synthetic scaffolds were also assessed. Both types of ASCs adapted rapidly to human autologous or heterologous sera, increasing their proliferation rate compared to standard culture condition, and all the cells adhered finely to bone, periodontal ligament, collagen membrane, and polyglycol acid filaments that are present in the oral cavity or are commonly used in oral surgery. At last, we showed that amelogenin seems to be an early osteoinductive factor for BFP-ASCs, but not SC-ASCs, in vitro. We conclude that Bichat's fat pad contains BFP-ASCs with stemness features that are able to differentiate and adhere to biological supports and synthetic materials. They are also able to proliferate in the presence of human serum. For all these reasons we propose BFP-ASCs for future therapies of periodontal defects and bone regeneration.

  19. Production of single chain Fab (scFab fragments in Bacillus megaterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dübel Stefan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The demand on antigen binding reagents in research, diagnostics and therapy raises questions for novel antibody formats as well as appropriate production systems. Recently, the novel single chain Fab (scFab antibody format combining properties of single chain Fv (scFv and Fab fragments was produced in the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. In this study we evaluated the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the recombinant production of scFab and scFvs in comparison to E. coli. Results The lysozyme specific D1.3 scFab was produced in B. megaterium and E. coli. The total yield of the scFab after purification obtained from the periplasmic fraction and culture supernatant of E. coli was slightly higher than that obtained from culture supernatant of B. megaterium. However, the yield of functional scFab determined by analyzing the antigen binding activity was equally in both production systems. Furthermore, a scFv fragment with specificity for the human C reactive protein was produced in B. megaterium. The total yield of the anti-CRP scFv produced in B. megaterium was slightly lower compared to E. coli, whereas the specific activity of the purified scFvs produced in B. megaterium was higher compared to E. coli. Conclusion B. megaterium allows the secretory production of antibody fragments including the novel scFab antibody format. The yield and quality of functional antibody fragment is comparable to the periplasmic production in E. coli.

  20. Expression and bioactivity identification of soluble MG7 scFv

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Cai Yu; Jie Ding; Bo-Rong Pan; Dai-Ming Fan; Xue-Yong Zhang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To examine the molecular mass and identify thebioactivity of MG7 scFv for its application as a targetingmediator in gene therapy of gastric cancer.METHODS: Two strongly positive recombinant phage clonesscreened from MG7 recombinant phage antibody library wereseparately transfected into E. coli TG1. Plasmid wasisolated from the transfected E. coli TG1 and digested byEcoR Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ to examine the length of exogenousscFv gene. Then, the positive recombinant phage cloneswere individually transfected into E. coli HB2151. Thetransfectant was cultured and induced by IPTG. Perplasmicextracts was prepared from the induced transfectant byosmotic shock. ELISA was used to examine the antigen-binding affinity of the soluble MG7 scFv. Immunodottingassay was adopted to evaluate the yield of soluble MG7 scFvproduced by transfected E. coli HB2151. Western blot wasused to examine the molecular mass of MG7 scFv. Finally,the nucleotide sequence of MG7 scFv was examined by DNAsequencing.RESULTS: Two positive recombinant phage clones werefound to contain the exogenous scFv gene. ELISA showedthat MG7 scFv had strong antigen-binding affinity.Immuodotting assay showed that transfected E. coli HB2151could successfully produce the soluble MG7 scFv with highyield via induction by IPTG. The molecular mass of MG7scFv was 30 kDa by western blot. DNA sequencingdemonstrated that the VH and VL genes of MG7 scFv were363bp and 321 bp, respectively.CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed the solubleMG7 scFv which possessed strong antigen-binding affinity.

  1. SLIT/ROBO2 Signaling Promotes Mammary Stem Cell Senescence by Inhibiting Wnt Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwyndolen Harburg

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available WNT signaling stimulates the self-renewal of many types of adult stem cells, including mammary stem cells (MaSCs, but mechanisms that limit this activity are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that SLIT2 restricts stem cell renewal by signaling through ROBO2 in a subset of basal cells to negatively regulate WNT signaling. The absence of SLIT/ROBO2 signaling leads to increased levels of nuclear β-catenin. Robo2 loss does not increase the number of stem cells; instead, stem cell renewal is enhanced in the absence of SLIT/ROBO2 signaling. This is due to repressed expression of p16 INK4a, which, in turn, delays MaSC senescence. Together, our studies support a model in which SLITs restrict the expansion of MaSCs by countering the activity of WNTs and limiting self-renewal.

  2. NiO-ScSZ and Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ-based anodes under internal dry reforming of simulated biogas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Y.; Sasaki, K.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with NiO-ScSZ and Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ-based anodes were operated by directly feeding a fuel mixture of CH 4, CO 2 and N 2 (CH 4 to CO 2 ratio of 3:2). Stable operation under constant current load (200 mA cm -2) was achieved with a NiO-ScSZ type anode during 200 h operating hours at 900 °C. Less stable operation occurred with a Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ type anode. In the case of SOFC with Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ as the anode, the methane reforming activity was higher than that with NiO-ScSZ. This was explained by change in the microstructure promoting reforming reactions. However, the addition of MgO resulted in degradation of electrochemical performance due to increase in ohmic resistance of the anode material during operation.

  3. PrP(C) from stem cells to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Lannerée, Séverine; Hirsch, Théo Z; Hernandez-Rapp, Julia; Halliez, Sophie; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Launay, Jean-Marie; Mouillet-Richard, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The cellular prion protein PrP(C) was initially discovered as the normal counterpart of the pathological scrapie prion protein PrP(Sc), the main component of the infectious agent of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. While clues as to the physiological function of this ubiquitous protein were greatly anticipated from the development of knockout animals, PrP-null mice turned out to be viable and to develop without major phenotypic abnormalities. Notwithstanding, the discovery that hematopoietic stem cells from PrP-null mice have impaired long-term repopulating potential has set the stage for investigating into the role of PrP(C) in stem cell biology. A wealth of data have now exemplified that PrP(C) is expressed in distinct types of stem cells and regulates their self-renewal as well as their differentiation potential. A role for PrP(C) in the fate restriction of embryonic stem cells has further been proposed. Paralleling these observations, an overexpression of PrP(C) has been documented in various types of tumors. In line with the contribution of PrP(C) to stemness and to the proliferation of cancer cells, PrP(C) was recently found to be enriched in subpopulations of tumor-initiating cells. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role played by PrP(C) in stem cell biology and discuss how the subversion of its function may contribute to cancer progression.

  4. Final Technical Report – DOE Grant DE-SC0005904

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dear, Jody [Connecticut State Univ. System, Hartford, CT (United States)

    2013-10-23

    DOE grant DE-SC0005904 was allocated to fund the faculty development, curriculum development and travel to support the four institutions of the Connecticut State University System’s (CSUS) Initiative for Nanotechnology-related Equipment, Faculty Development and Curriculum Development. DOE grant DE-SC0005072 was also awarded for this program. In 2010, CSUS had identified the establishment of nanotechnology programs and infrastructure as a priority. At that time, the system set the goal of establishing an academic initiative in nanotechnology for the CSUS, beginning with the development of a series of courses at the graduate level. Implementation was planned via a collaborative effort including faculty from all four of the CSUS campuses. The CSUS Nanotechnology Working Group [CSUS NWG] was established to accomplish this goal. A faculty member from the Physics Department at Southern Connecticut State University [SCSU] was assigned the task of organizing and coordinating the work of the CSUS NWG. Representatives from each of the four CSUS campuses were appointed to join the CSUS NWG with the following initial representation: SCSU [Physics and Biology], Western Connecticut State University (WCSU) [Chemistry], Eastern Connecticut State University (ECSU) [Chemistry] and Central Connecticut State University (CCSU) [Chemistry. As a further outcome it was determined that this collaborative effort would lead to the establishment of a formal nanotechnology center, serving as the nucleus of CSUS student and faculty learning and research. This CSUS Nanotechnology Center [CSUS-NC] was to be located at Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU). The goal of this grant was to provide funding for curriculum and faculty development necessary to facilitate the development and implementation of a collaborative Graduate Certificate in Nanotechnology for the Connecticut State University System. This outcome has been successfully achieved. The courses and structure of the Graduate

  5. EngenuitySC Commercialization and Entrepreneurial Training Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Meghan; Hutton, Katherine R

    2012-12-31

    A team led by EngenuitySC has performed education and outreach on development of advanced energy markets that will enable wider use of clean energy technologies. This report details the efforts that have made significant advances to improve the market place through education, outreach, and increased communications between industry members. The project resulted in two self-funded industry clusters known as the Fuel Cell Collaborative and NuHub. This project has focused on building and strengthening the leading clean energy clusters in South Carolina: nuclear energy and fuel cell technologies. For the nuclear industry, a new cluster was developed that is now known as NuHub. This cluster has already engaged over 25 nuclear industry leaders or suppliers, four public sector partners, six community economic development foundations, and nearly ten academic partners in a 175 mile radius between Augusta, Georgia and Charlotte, North Carolina. Our outreach has touched over 2,000 stakeholders through the website alone, not including the public audiences and members of the business community reached through news stories and releases that were distributed to over 620 print and online publications. NuHub has established a formal leadership structure, developed subcommittees to focus on industry issues, instituted educational programs for the workforce, and created an industry funding structure that will sustain the industry cluster and mission. NuHub has participated in a wide-variety of community building and outreach activities since its formation under this grant. In the two years since its creation in 2010, we have initiated efforts focused in four main areas that correlate with the four NuHub subcommittees including: innovation, workforce development, industry engagement, and marketing and communications. NuHub successfully raised over $160,000 in both public and private funding, which has supported work to grow the cluster and engage partners including NuScale, Fluor, and

  6. High-efficient physical adsorption and detection of formaldehyde using Sc- and Ti-decorated graphdiyne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Gao, Pengfei; Guo, Lei; Wen, Yanni; Fang, Dangqi; Gong, Baihua; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Shengli

    2017-03-01

    In sensitive analysis, the ultimate limit is to achieve reliable detection on trace amount of molecules. In this work, Sc- and Ti-decorated graphdiyne were proposed as promising materials for high-efficient molecular detection. Using density functional theory calculations, we investigated the electronic response of single Sc- and Ti-atom-decorated graphdiyne to HCHO (as a typical air pollutant). Thermodynamic analysis predicted that Sc or Ti adatom could be stabilized on the corner sites of single-layer graphdiyne sheet, with migration barriers high enough to prevent Sc or Ti adatom aggregation. The adsorption of HCHO on Sc- or Ti-decorated graphdiyne was found stronger than on pristine graphene or graphdiyne, which provides a prerequisite for molecular sensing. The electronegativity of HCHO leads to strong electronic attraction from Sc or Ti adatom to HCHO, resulting in a remarkable decrease of carrier density in graphdiyne. On Ti-decorated graphdiyne, the electronic attraction of HCHO appears to be stronger than on Sc-decorated graphdiyne and changes the system from metal to n-doped semiconductor. Quantum transport calculations show a decrease of current caused by the adsorbed HCHO. The results systematically exhibit the electronic response of Sc- or Ti-decorated graphdiyne to HCHO and suggest them as promising materials for molecule detection.

  7. 33 CFR 110.72c - Lake Murray, S.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Murray, S.C. 110.72c Section 110.72c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72c Lake Murray, S.C. (a) The area beginning at the...

  8. Hydrogenation reactions using scCO2 as a solvent in microchannel reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Juta; Mori, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Shū

    2005-05-28

    We have developed an effective microfluidic system for hydrogenation reactions in scCO(2); the reactions proceeded very rapidly (within 1 second), by making the best use of scCO(2) and utilizing the large specific interfacial area of the microchannel reactor, and high reaction productivity was attained in each channel.

  9. Renormalized molecular levels in a Sc3N@C-80 molecular electronic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larade, Brian; Taylor, Jeremy Philip; Zheng, Q. R.;

    2001-01-01

    We address several general questions about quantum transport through molecular systems by an ab initio analysis of a scandium-nitrogen doped C-80 metallofullerene device. Charge transfer from the Sc3N is found to drastically change the current-voltage characteristics: the current through the Sc3N...

  10. SC-535, a Novel Oral Multikinase Inhibitor, Showed Potent Antitumor Activity in Human Melanoma Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melanoma is considered as one of the most aggressive and deadliest cancers and current targeted therapies of melanoma often suffer limited efficacy or drug resistance. Discovery of novel multikinase inhibitors as anti-melanoma drug candidates is still needed. Methods: In this investigation, we assessed the in vitro and in vivo anti-melanoma activities of SC-535, which is a novel small molecule multikinase inhibitor discovered by us recently. We analyzed inhibitory effects of SC-535 on various melanoma cell lines and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC in vitro. Tumor xenografts in athymic mice were used to examine the in vivo activity of SC-535. Results: SC-535 could efficiently inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 1/2/3, B-RAF, and C-RAF kinases. It showed significant antiangiogenic potencies both in vitro and in vivo and considerable anti-proliferative ability against several melanoma cell lines. Oral administration of SC-535 resulted in dose-dependent suppression of tumor growth in WM2664 and C32 xenograft mouse models. Studies of mechanisms of action indicated that SC-535 suppressed the tumor angiogenesis and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in human melanoma cells. SC-535 possesses favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Conclusion: All of these results support SC-535 as a potential candidate for clinical studies in patients with melanoma.

  11. Superconductivity at 3.1 K in the orthorhombic ternary silicide ScRuSi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Bin-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Chuan; Yu, Jia; Pan, Bo-Jin; Mu, Qing-Ge; Liu, Tong; Chen, Gen-Fu; Ren, Zhi-An

    2017-02-01

    We report the synthesis, crystal structure, superconductivity and physical property characterizations of the ternary equiatomic compound ScRuSi. Polycrystalline samples of ScRuSi were prepared by an arc-melting method. The as-prepared samples were identified as the orthorhombic Co2P-type o-ScRuSi by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. Electrical resistivity measurements show o-ScRuSi to be a metal which superconducts below a T c of 3.1 K; the upper critical field μ 0 H c2(0) is estimated to be 0.87 T. The magnetization and specific heat measurements confirm the bulk type-II superconductivity in o-ScRuSi, with a specific heat jump within the BCS weak coupling limit. o-ScRuSi is the first Co2P-type superconductor to contain scandium. After annealing at 1273 K for a week, o-ScRuSi transforms into hexagonal Fe2P-type h-ScRuSi, which is a Pauli-paramagnetic metal with no superconductivity observed above 1.8 K.

  12. Structural and electronic studies of metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs-C72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Wang, Taishan; Wu, Jingyi; Feng, Lai; Xiang, Junfeng; Ma, Yihan; Zhang, Zhuxia; Jiang, Li; Shu, Chunying; Wang, Chunru

    2013-07-01

    We present a metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72, whose structure has been baffling for many years. A motional endohedral Sc2C2 cluster, special molecule geometry and electronic structure were found in Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72. The paramagnetic Sc2C2@Cs-C72 anion radical was successfully prepared by a chemical reduction method and hyperfine couplings in the ESR spectrum were observed.We present a metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72, whose structure has been baffling for many years. A motional endohedral Sc2C2 cluster, special molecule geometry and electronic structure were found in Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72. The paramagnetic Sc2C2@Cs-C72 anion radical was successfully prepared by a chemical reduction method and hyperfine couplings in the ESR spectrum were observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, HPLC chromatogram, and DFT calculations. CCDC 917712. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01739g

  13. Establishment and characterization of Roberts syndrome and SC phocomelia model medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiro; Nakahira, Kumiko; Hasegawa, Taeko; Uchida, Kaoru; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Takeda, Shunichi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Shimada, Atsuko; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2012-06-01

    Roberts syndrome and SC phocomelia (RBS/SC) are genetic autosomal recessive syndromes caused by establishment of cohesion 1 homolog 2 ( ESCO 2) mutation. RBS/SC appear to have a variety of clinical features, even with the same mutation of the ESCO2 gene. Here, we established and genetically characterized a medaka model of RBS/SC by reverse genetics. The RBS/SC model was screened from a mutant medaka library produced by the Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes method. The medaka mutant carrying the homozygous mutation at R80S in the conserved region of ESCO2 exhibited clinical variety (i.e. developmental arrest with craniofacial and chromosomal abnormalities and embryonic lethality) as characterized in RBS/SC. Moreover, widespread apoptosis and downregulation of some gene expression, including notch1a, were detected in the R80S mutant. The R80S mutant is the animal model for RBS/SC and a valuable resource that provides the opportunity to extend knowledge of ESCO2. Downregulation of some gene expression in the R80S mutant is an important clue explaining non-correlation between genotype and phenotype in RBS/SC.

  14. Characterization of early transient accumulation of PrP(Sc) in immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhelaly, Abdelazim Elsayed; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2013-09-27

    PrP(Sc) is known to elicit no specific immune response and the immune cells are suspected to support its accumulation. In the present study, we investigated the response of some immune cell types to PrP(Sc) to characterize an observed early transient accumulation of PrP(Sc). After cells were treated with PrP(Sc)-brain homogenate, PrP(Sc) was transiently accumulated for the first 8-12h post-exposure then completely cleared by the 5th day of the experiment. The accumulated PrP(Sc) was not a de novo product of the cell PrP(C). Further investigation of this phenomenon revealed some potential factors influencing it. These factors included cholesterol homeostasis, temperature, the degradation power of the cell and the availability of sufficient PrP(C). Our in vitro results suggest that immune cells, especially macrophages are potential risk factors for the accumulation and intercellular spread of PrP(Sc) if the complete clearance of PrP(Sc) were not fulfilled.

  15. Curriculum (Study Programme) for the M.Sc., Medialogy, at Aalborg University in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf; Lavatino, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    Defining and describing the education, M.Sc., Medialogy. The curriculum (Study Programme) describes semesters, themes, projectunits, courses and contents of the eduation. offered at Aalborg University in Copenhagen.......Defining and describing the education, M.Sc., Medialogy. The curriculum (Study Programme) describes semesters, themes, projectunits, courses and contents of the eduation. offered at Aalborg University in Copenhagen....

  16. PRODUCTION, ISOLATION AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF THE ENDOHEDRAL FULLERENE Sc2@C80 (Ⅰ-Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunru Wang; Lihua Gan; Chunli Bai; Hisanori Shinohara

    2004-01-01

    The isolation of multiple-isomers of Sc2@C80 (Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ) endohedral metallofullerenes is reported for the first time. The new C80-based Sc-metallofullerenes are characterized by UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy and detailed chromatographic retention time data. A close relationship between the isomer structure and the corresponding HPLC retention time of the metallofullerenes is presented.

  17. Implementation of LTE SC-FDMA on the USRP2 Software Defined Radio Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn; Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the implementation of a Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) transceiver running over the Universal Software Radio Peripheral 2 (USRP2). SC-FDMA is the air interface which has been selected for the uplink in the latest Long Term Evolution (LTE...

  18. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. 165.708 Section 165.708 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. (a... Cooper River. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 1983. (2) All waters within 100 yards of...

  19. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transplant is a procedure that infuses healthy blood stem cells into your body to replace your damaged or ... A bone marrow transplant is also called a stem cell transplant. A bone marrow transplant may be necessary ...

  20. Tracking adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippert, Hugo J; Clevers, Hans

    2011-02-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context, rather than outside their natural environment. The mouse is an attractive model in which to study adult mammalian stem cells, as numerous experimental systems and genetic tools are available. In this review, we describe strategies commonly used to identify and functionally characterize adult stem cells in mice and discuss their potential, limitations and interpretations, as well as how they have informed our understanding of adult stem-cell biology. An accurate interpretation of physiologically relevant stem-cell assays is crucial to identify adult stem cells and elucidate how they self-renew and give rise to differentiated progeny.

  1. Effect of Sc addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of 1460 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of minor addition of Sc on microstructure, age hardening behavior, tensile properties and fracture morphology of 1460 alloy have been studied. It is found that Sc content increase from 0.11 wt% to 0.22 wt% is favorable for grain refinement in as-cast alloy but results in a coarsening of Cu-rich particles. The alloy with 0.11 wt% Sc exhibits enhanced mechanical properties and age hardening effect. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM investigations on the alloy with 0.11 wt% Sc have suggested that a large amount of Al3(Sc, Zr particles precipitated at the earlier aging may inhibit recrystallization effectively.

  2. Homogenization and Recrystallization of Al-6Mg Alloys with and without Sc and Zr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锋; 尹志民; 黄伯云; 贺跃辉; 陈苏里

    2004-01-01

    Plates of Al-6Mg alloys with and without scandium were prepared by semi-continuous cast, homogenization, hot-rolled, cold-rolled and annealing. Based on studying of effects of temperature and time on hardness and conductivity during homogenization, it was found that homogenization of ingot with Sc and Zr can result in dispersion strengthening. Recrystallization temperature of alloys was studied by hardness method and optical metallographic method. Staring recrystallization temperature of Al-6Mg alloys with Sc and Zr is 375 ℃, increasing by 150 ℃ than Al-6Mg alloys without Sc and Zr. Mechanical properties (σb, σ0.2, δ) of hot-rolled alloy with Sc and Zr are 400 MPa, 280 MPa and 18%; cold-rolled and anneal alloy with Sc and Zr are 420 MPa, 310 MPa and 12% respectively.

  3. Preliminary Tests Of The Decris-sc Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, A; Bechterev, V; Bogomolov, S L; Bondarenko, P G; Datskov, V I; Dmitriev, S; Drobin, V; Lebedev, A; Leporis, M; Malinowski, H; Nikiforov, A; Paschenko, S V; Seleznev, V; Shishov, Yu A; Smirnov, Yu; Tsvineva, G; Yakovlev, B; Yazvitsky, N Yu

    2004-01-01

    A new "liquid He-free" superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source DECRIS-SC, to be used as injector for the IC-100 small cyclotron, has been designed by FLNR and LHE JINR. The main feature is that a compact refrigerator of Gifford-McMahon type is used to cool the solenoid coils. For the reason of very small cooling power at 4.2 K (about 1 W) our efforts were to optimize the magnetic structure and minimize an external heating of the coils. The maximum magnetic field strength is 3 T and 2 T in injection and extraction region respectively. For the radial plasma confinement a hexapole made of NdFeB permanent magnet is used. The source will be capable of ECR plasma heating using different frequencies (14 GHz or 18 GHz). To be able to deliver usable intensities of solids, the design is also allow axial access for evaporation oven and metal samples using the plasma sputtering technique. Very preliminary results of the source test are presented.

  4. Transition energy and oscillator strength of Sc18+ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Wen; Yang Di; Hu Mu-Hong; Han Qiu-Ju; Li Jin-Ying

    2005-01-01

    The transition energies and the dipole oscillator strengths for the 1s22s-1s2np (2 ≤ n ≤ 9) and 1s22p-1s2nd (3≤n ≤ 9) of lithium-like Sc18+ ion are calculated by using the full core plus correlation method. The fine structure splittings of 1s2np and 1s2nd (n ≤ 9) states are determined from the expectation values of spin-orbit and spin-otherorbit interaction operators. The quantum defects of these series, as function of principal quantum number n, are obtained. The agreement between the f-values obtained from three alternative formulae is excellent. Comparisons of our results with experimental data available in the literature are carried out. Combining the single-channel quantum defect theory with the discrete oscillator strengths obtained in this work, this paper obtains the behaviour of discrete oscillator strengths and oscillator strength densities corresponding to the bound-free transitions adjacent to ionization threshold.

  5. Spectrophotometric Distances to Galactic H\\,{\\sc{ii}} Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Moisés, A P; Figuerêdo, E; Blum, R D; Conti, P S; Barbosa, C L

    2010-01-01

    We present a near infrared study of the stellar content of 35 H\\,{\\sc{ii}} regions in the Galactic plane. In this work, we have used the near infrared domain $J-$, $H-$ and $K_{s}-$ band color images to visually inspect the sample. Also, color-color and color-magnitude diagrams were used to indicate ionizing star candidates, as well as, the presence of young stellar objects such as classical TTauri Stars (CTTS) and massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). We have obtained {\\it Spitzer} IRAC images for each region to help further characterize them. {\\it Spitzer} and near infrared morphology to place each cluster in an evolutionary phase of development. {\\it Spitzer} photometry was also used to classify the MYSOs. Comparison of the main sequence in color-magnitude diagrams to each observed cluster was used to infer whether or not the cluster kinematic distance is consistent with brightnesses of the stellar sources. We find qualitative agreement for a dozen of the regions, but about half the regions have near infr...

  6. INTERVIU CU DOAMNA SIMONA CAROBENE, ADMINISTRATORUL SC PROIECT MOZAIC SRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Pascaru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabrica de mozaic, înregistrată la Oficiul Registrului Comerţului în aprilie 2012 a luat fiinţă în cadrul unui proiect cu finanţare europeană nerambursabilă și are în prezent statutul de unitate protejată autorizată. În cadrul acesteia sunt angajați 10 tineri post instituţionalizați, pentru care integrarea în viaţa socială şi profesională este dificilă. Întreprinderea socială SC Proiect Mozaic SRL este rezultatul întâlnirii dintre sectorul social, non-profit şi sectorul business, deoarece are la bază un parteneriat cu un important grup de firme din domeniul construcţiilor şi amenajărilor interioare din București. În paralel cu activitatea de producţie a mozaicului, ocazional, Proiect Mozaic oferă către clienți și servicii de ambalare și asamblare produse.

  7. Domain structure and phase transition in Sc-doped zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunauer, G.; Boysen, H.; Frey, F. [Institute for Crystallography und Applied Mineralogy, LMU Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Ehrenberg, H. [Institute for Materials Science, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2002-01-21

    The temperature dependence of the domain structure associated with the ferroelastic phase transition (Fm{sup 3-bar}m{r_reversible}R{sup 3-bar}m) in ZrO{sub 2} doped with 11% Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been determined from a peak shape analysis of high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction data. In the temperature region of coexisting phases the observed characteristic anisotropic broadening and asymmetry of the lines is modelled by three different phases: a main rhombohedral phase, a distorted rhombohedral phase with a smaller c/a ratio, and a cubic phase. The latter two are assigned to the internal structure of the domain walls between two adjacent twin domains. The size and amount of the cubic phase show an initially slow increase with temperature followed by a very steep increase and a slow one after that. The size of the (main) rhombohedral domains remains nearly constant, while (micro-) strain in the distorted regions gradually decreases. (author)

  8. Tracking adult stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippert, H.J.G.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context,

  9. Downregulation of the Musca domestica peptidoglycan recognition protein SC (PGRP-SC) leads to overexpression of antimicrobial peptides and tardy pupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yifu; Tang, Ting; Gu, Jihai; Sun, Lingling; Gao, Xiaobin; Ma, Xianyong; Wang, Xiaochun; Liu, Fengsong; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-10-01

    PGRP (peptidoglycan recognition protein) is a conserved protein family that recognizes the peptidoglycan in bacterial cell wall and causes the activation of various innate immune responses. Previous studies have reported that PGRP-SCs in Drosophila dampen the activation of Immune Deficiency (Imd) pathway to microbial infection, and participate in the lifespan extension of the insects. To facilitate understanding the function of PGRP-SCs from an evolutionary angle, we identified and functionally characterized the PGRP-SC gene in the housefly Musca domestica, a species that has adapted to a septic environment much harsher than the natural habitat of Drosophila. The gene designated as MdPGRP-SC was found most abundantly expressed in the 3rd instar larvae, and is expressed at this developmental stage predominantly in the gut. MdPGRP-SC was virtually unchanged in whole larvae after a septic injury at the second larval instar, while two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), diptericin and attacin, were upregulated in the first 24h but not later. Through dsRNA microinjection, MdPGRP-SC was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi), and caused the significant increased expression of diptericin and attacin. The pupation of MdPGRP-SC-depleted larvae was severely suppressed compared to controls. Opposite to the expression trend of MdPGRP-SC, a spontaneous active expression of diptericin and attacin was found in pre-pupae but not in third instar larvae. Taken together, our study reveals that downregulation of MdPGRP-SC leads to the overexpression of the AMPs, and is involved in the larvae-to-pupa transition of housefly.

  10. Culture and characterization of mammary cancer stem cells in mammospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscitelli, Eleonora; Cocola, Cinzia; Thaden, Frank Rüdiger; Pelucchi, Paride; Gray, Brian; Bertalot, Giovanni; Albertini, Alberto; Reinbold, Rolland; Zucchi, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    Mammospheres (MMs) are a model for culturing and maintaining mammary gland stem cells (SCs) or cancer stem cells (CSCs) ex situ. As MMs recapitulate the micro-niche of the mammary gland or a tumor, MMs are a model for studying the properties of SCs or CSCs, and for mapping, isolating, and characterizing the SC/CSC generated lineages. Cancer stem cells share with normal SCs the properties of self-renewal and the capacity to generate all cell types and organ structures of the mammary gland. Analysis of human tumor samples suggests that CSCs are heterogeneous in terms of proliferation and differentiation potential. Mammospheres from CSCs likewise display heterogeneity. This heterogeneity makes analysis of CSC generated MMs challenging. To identify the unique and diverse properties of MM derived CSCs, comparative analysis with MMs obtained from normal SCs is required. Here we present protocols for identifying and enriching cells with SC features from a cancer cell line using the LA7CSCs as a model. A comprehensive and comparative approach for identifying, isolating, and characterizing MMs from SCs and CSCs from human breast is also introduced. In addition, we describe detailed procedures for identifying, isolating, and characterizing mammary gland specific cell types, generated during MM formation.

  11. Tissue Regeneration and Stem Cell Distribution in Adriamycin Induced Glomerulopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickri, Maha Baligh; Fattah, Marwa Mohamed Abdel; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Glomerulosclerosis develops secondary to various kidney diseases. It was postulated that adriamycin (ADR) induce chronic glomerulopathy. Treatment combinations for one year did not significantly modify renal function in resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Recurrence of FSGS after renal transplantation impacts long-term graft survival and limits access to transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the relation between the possible therapeutic effect of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs), isolated from cord blood on glomerular damage and their distribution by using ADR induced nephrotoxicity as a model in albino rat. Methods and Results Thirty three male albino rats were divided into control group, ADR group where rats were given single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 5 mg/kg adriamycin. The rats were sacrificed 10, 20 and 30 days following confirmation of glomerular injury. In stem cell therapy group, rats were injected with HMSCs following confirmation of renal injury and sacrificed 10, 20 and 30 days after HMSCs therapy. Kidney sections were exposed to histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric and serological studies. In response to SC therapy multiple Malpighian corpuscles (MC) appeared with patent Bowman's space (Bs) 10 and 20 days following therapy. One month following therapy no remarkable shrunken glomeruli were evident. Glomerular area and serum creatinine were significantly different in ADR group in comparison to control and SC therapy groups. Conclusions ADR induced glomerulosclerosis regressed in response to cord blood HMSC therapy. A reciprocal relation was recorded between the extent of renal regeneration and the distribution of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:24298364

  12. Nanotechnology to drive stem cell commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Eriberto; Carraro, Amedeo; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Sbricoli, Luca; Guazzo, Riccardo; Stellini, Edoardo; Roman, Marco; Pinton, Paolo; Sivolella, Stefano; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    Stem cells (SCs) are undifferentiated cells responsible for the growth, homeostasis and repair of many tissues. The maintenance and survival of SCs is strongly influenced by several stimuli from the local microenvironment. The majority of signaling molecules interact with SCs at the nanoscale level. Therefore, scaffolds with surface nanostructures have potential applications for SCs and in the field of regenerative medicine. Although some strategies have already reached the field of cell biology, strategies based on modification at nanoscale level are new players in the fields of SCs and tissue regeneration. The introduction of the possibility to perform such modifications to these fields is probably due to increasing improvements in nanomaterials for biomedical applications, as well as new insights into SC biology. The aim of the present review is to exhibit the most recent applications of nanostructured materials that drive the commitment of adult SCs for potential clinical applications.

  13. Avance normativo del SC 8 de AENOR “Conservación, restauración y rehabilitación de edificios” = Standardisation Advance of AENOR SC 8 “Conservation, Restoration and Rehabilitation of Buildings”

    OpenAIRE

    Recopar, Editor

    2014-01-01

    Avance normativo del SC 8 de AENOR “Conservación, restauración y rehabilitación de edificios” = Standardisation Advance of AENOR SC 8 “Conservation, Restoration and Rehabilitation of Buildings”

  14. 超导ECR离子源DECRIS-SC2%Project of the Superconducting ECR Ion Source DECRIS-SC2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.V.Bekhterev; V.V.Seleznev; A.Shishov; G.P.Tsvineva; N.YU.Yazvitsky; B.I.Yakovlev; S.L.Bogomolov; V.I.Datskov; V.M.Drobin; S.N.Dmitriev; A.A.Efremov; V.N.Loginov; A.N.Lebedev; H.Malinowski

    2007-01-01

    A new compact version of the"liquid He-free"superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source,to be used as an injector for the U-400M cyclotron,is presently under construction at the FLNR in collaboration with LHE(JINR).The axial magnetic field of the source is created by the superconducting magnet,and the NdFeB hexapole is used for the radial plasma confinement.The microwave frequency of 14GHz will be used for ECR plasma heating.The DECRIS-SC2 superconducting magnet is designed for the induction of a magnetic field on the axis of the source of up to 1.4T (extraction side) and 1.9T (injection side) at nominal current of 75A.Cooling of the coils is carried out by GM cryocooler with cooling power of 1W at the temperature 4.5K.The basic design features of the superconducting magnet and of the ion source are presented.The main parts of the source are in production.The first beam test of the source is expected in the beginning of 2007.

  15. Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

    2006-04-01

    From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware

  16. One-neutron knockout from {sup 51-55}Sc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwertel, S.; Maierbeck, P.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Bildstein, V.; Boehmer, M.; Eppinger, K.; Faestermann, T.; Friese, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Maier, L.; Winkler, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Kruecken, R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver (Canada); Kroell, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Alvarez-Pol, H.; Benjamim, E.A.; Benlliure, J.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gascon, M.; Kurtukian, T.; Perez, D.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aksouh, F.; Aumann, T.; Behr, K.; Boretzky, K.; Bruenle, A.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L.V.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Gorska, M.; Kojouharov, I.; Klimkiewicz, A.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Schaffner, H.; Simon, H.; Stanoiu, M.; Suemmerer, K.; Weick, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Borge, M.J.G.; Pascual-Izarra, C.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Buerger, A. [University of Oslo, SAFE/OCL, Oslo (Norway); CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Casarejos, E.; Brown, B.A. [University of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Enders, J.; Schrieder, G. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Hansen, P.G. [Michigan State University, NSCL, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Jonson, B.; Nyman, G. [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola och Goeteborgs Universitet, Experimentell Fysik, Goeteborg (Sweden); Kanungo, R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Saint Mary' s University, Halifax (Canada); Kiselev, O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Larsson, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola och Goeteborgs Universitet, Experimentell Fysik, Goeteborg (Sweden); Le Bleis, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Mahata, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Nilsson, T. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola och Goeteborgs Universitet, Experimentell Fysik, Goeteborg (Sweden); Prochazka, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Rossi, D. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Sitar, B. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Otsuka, T. [University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Tostevin, J.A. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Guildford (United Kingdom); Rae, W.D.M. [Garsington, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Results are presented from a one-neutron knockout experiment at relativistic energies of {approx} 420 A MeV on {sup 51-55}Sc using the GSI Fragment Separator as a two-stage magnetic spectrometer and the MINIBALL array for gamma-ray detection. Inclusive longitudinal momentum distributions and cross-sections were measured enabling the determination of the contributions corresponding to knockout from the {nu}p{sub 1/2}, {nu}p{sub 3/2}, (L = 1) and {nu}f{sub 7/2}, {nu}f{sub 5/2} (L = 3) neutron orbitals. The observed L = 1 and L = 3 contributions are compared with theoretical cross-sections using eikonal knockout theory and spectroscopic factors from shell model calculations using the GXPF1A interaction. The measured inclusive knockout cross-sections generally follow the trends expected theoretically and given by the spectroscopic strength predicted from the shell model calculations. However, the deduced L = 1 cross-sections are generally 30-40% higher while the L = 3 contributions are about a factor of two smaller than predicted. This points to a promotion of neutrons from the {nu}f{sub 7/2} to the {nu}p{sub 3/2} orbital indicating a weakening of the N = 28 shell gap in these nuclei. While this is not predicted for the phenomenological GXPF1A interaction such a weakening is predicted by recent calculations using realistic low-momentum interactions V{sub low} {sub k} obtained by evolving a chiral N3LO nucleon-nucleon potential. (orig.)

  17. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium-Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes-Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the Ti(IV) /Ti(III) Redox Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B; Samoylova, Nataliya A; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L; Popov, Alexey A

    2016-09-05

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc-Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4 C2 @C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3 C2 @C80 , isomers of Sc2 C2 @C82 , and the family Sc2 C2 n (2 n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3 CH@C80 . The Sc-Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2 TiC@C2 n (2 n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2 TiC2 @C2 n (2 n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 , and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 , were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2 TiC- and Sc2 TiC2 -containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster-cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements.

  18. Compuestos perazufrados de platino(II) con ditioéteres y tiolatos fluorados. Estructuras cristalinas de [Pt(SC6F5)2 (p-C6H4FSCH2CH2-p-SC6H4F)], [Pt(p-SC6HF4)...

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Bautista; Agusti Bertran; Sylvain Bernès; Ubaldo Duran; Hugo Torrens

    2003-01-01

    En este articulo se describen la síntesis y caracterización de los compuestos cis-[PtCl2(RfSCH2CH2SRf)], Rf = C6F5, p-SC6HF4, o-SC6H4F, m-SC6H4F, p-SC6H4F, m-SC6H4(CF3), y las reacciones de estos compuestos con (SC6F5)– y (p-SC6HF4)– que generan cis- [Pt(SC6F5)2(RfSCH2CH2SRf)] y cis-[Pt(p-SC6HF4) 2(RfSCH2CH2 SRf)], Rf = o-SC6H4F, m-SC6H4F, p-SC6H4F, m-SC6H4(CF3). Para estos compuestos, los datos de RMN de 19F obtenidos a diferentes temperaturas, muestran la presencia e interconversion de isóm...

  19. Validity evaluation of Sc x Al1-x N material constants based on SAW characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Yamazaki, Kenta; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-11-01

    This paper is aimed at examining the validity of material constants reported for use in surface acoustic wave (SAW) device simulations. First, based on the full set of material constants calculated by first principle, bulk acoustic wave velocities are calculated for Sc x Al1-x N and compared with published experimental results. Then, the effects of the Sc x Al1-x N material constants with different Sc content on acoustic characteristics are calculated and the influence of shear vibrations on SAW characteristics are recognized. Then, a series of SAW devices are fabricated on Sc x Al1-x N film/Si substrate structure with various Cu and ScAlN thicknesses h Cu and h ScAlN, respectively, and measured variations of phase velocity V and effective electromechanical coupling factor K\\text{e}2 with these parameters are compared with the calculation. The fairly well-agreed results indicate a reliable set of Sc x Al1-x N material constants for SAW device simulations.

  20. Growth and Holographic Storage Properties of Sc, Fe Co-Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The holographic storage properties of Fe (0.03% (mass fraction) Fe2O3):LiNbO3 doped with Sc at different levels (0, 1%, 2%, 3%) were investigated.The Sc threshold concentration in Fe:LiNbO3 was implied to be about 3%(mole fraction) because O-H vibration absorption peak of Sc (3%):Fe:LiNbO3 was at 3508 cm-1, compared with 3484 cm-1 of crystals with lower Sc doping level.Sc(3%):Fe:LiNbO3 exhibited higher optical damage resistance ability.The threshold intensity (wavelength 488 nm) of Sc (3%):Fe:LiNbO3 was 2.2×102 W·cm-2, two orders of magnitude higher than that of Fe:LiNbO3.Holographic storage properties of the crystals were determined in an extraordinary polarized laser of wavelength 632.8 nm by a two-wave coupling method.It was found that in terms of holographic storage properties, the optimal doping concentration of Sc was 2%(mole fraction) among this crystal series.

  1. New separation method of no-carrier-added {sup 47}Sc from titanium targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, B.; Majkowska, A.; Kasperek, A.; Krajewski, S.; Bilewicz, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warszawa (Poland). Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry Center

    2012-07-01

    Radionuclides with medium energy beta emission and a several day half-life are attractive candidates for radioimmunotherapy. Among the most promising in this category is {sup 47}Sc produced by fast neutron irradiation (E{sub n} > 1 MeV) of titanium target with high energy neutrons in {sup 47}Ti(n,p){sup 47}Sc nuclear reaction. In the previously reported production scheme the dissolution of the TiO{sub 2} target in hot concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and evaporation of the resulting solution were the most time-consuming steps. The present paper describes new, simple and efficient production method of {sup 47}Sc, where the slow dissolution of the target is avoided. After irradiation in fast neutron flux {sup 47}TiO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}{sup 47}TiF{sub 6} targets were dissolved in HF solutions. Next {sup 47}Sc was separated from the target using anion exchange resin Dowex 1 with 0.4 M HF + 0.06 M HNO{sub 3} solution as eluent. The eluted {sup 47}Sc was adsorbed on cation exchange resin and eluted with 0.5 M of ammonium acetate. The 47Sc separation yield in the proposed procedure is about 90% with the separation time less than 2 h. The obtained no-carrier-added {sup 47}Sc was used to label DOTATATE conjugate with 96% labeling yield. (orig.)

  2. CERN Technical Training 2004: New Short Courses (SC) on Microsoft Outlook

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Technical Training programme is now proposing a new format for courses on Microsoft Outlook. Three two-hours Short Courses (SC) will cover basic and advanced functionalities of the recommended mail client for email at CERN. Each module can be followed independently. The next scheduled sessions will take place as follows: Outlook (SC I): E-mail. Next session: 31.8.2004 (9h00-11h00) Outlook (SC II): Calendar, Tasks and Notes. Next session: 31.8.2004 (14h00-16h00) Outlook (SC III): Meetings and Delegation. Next session: 7.9.2004 (14h00-16h00) In particular, SC I will cover how to open, create and send email, work with attachments, use stationery, organise mail, and work with the address book, SC II will show how to work with the calendar, tasks and notes, and SC III will cover how to organise and manage meetings, work with meeting requests, share tasks, and use email and calendar delegation. The number of participants to each session is limited to 8. The instructor is English-French bilingual, and she...

  3. CERN Technical Training 2004: New Short Courses (SC) on Microsoft Outlook

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Technical Training programme is now proposing a new format for courses on Microsoft Outlook. Three two-hours Short Courses (SC) will cover basic and advanced functionalities of the recommended mail client for email at CERN. Each module can be followed independently. The next scheduled sessions will take place as follows: Outlook (SC I): E-mail. Next session: 22.10.2004 (9h00-11h00) Outlook (SC II): Calendar, Tasks and Notes. Next session: 22.10.2004 (14h00-16h00) Outlook (SC III): Meetings and Delegation. Next session: 9.11.2004 (14h00-16h00) In particular, SC I will cover how to open, create and send email, work with attachments, use stationery, organise mail, and work with the address book, SC II will show how to work with the calendar, tasks and notes, and SC III will cover how to organise and manage meetings, work with meeting requests, share tasks, and use email and calendar delegation. The number of participants to each session is limited to 8. The instructor is English-French bilingual, and...

  4. Technical Training: CERN Technical Training 2004 - New Short Courses (SC) on Microsoft Outlook

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Technical Training programme is now proposing a new format for courses on Microsoft Outlook. Three two-hours Short Courses (SC) will cover basic and advanced functionalities of the recommended mail client for email at CERN. Each module can be followed independently. The next scheduled sessions will take place as follows: Outlook (SC I): E-mail. Next session: 31.8.2004 (9h00-11h00) Outlook (SC II): Calendar, Tasks and Notes. Next session: 31.8.2004 (14h00-16h00) Outlook (SC III): Meetings and Delegation. Next session: 7.9.2004 (14h00-16h00) In particular, SC I will cover how to open, create and send email, work with attachments, use stationery, organise mail, and work with the address book, SC II will show how to work with the calendar, tasks and notes, and SC III will cover how to organise and manage meetings, work with meeting requests, share tasks, and use email and calendar delegation. The number of participants to each session is limited to 8. The instructor is English-French bilingual, and s...

  5. Differential dynamics of splicing factor SC35 during the cell cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaushlendra Tripathi; Veena K Parnaik

    2008-09-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing factors are enriched in nuclear domains termed interchromatin granule clusters or nuclear speckles. During mitosis, nuclear speckles are disassembled by metaphase and reassembled in telophase in structures termed mitotic interchromatin granules (MIGs). We analysed the dynamics of the splicing factor SC35 in interphase and mitotic cells. In HeLa cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-SC35, this was localized in speckles during interphase and dispersed in metaphase. In telophase, GFP-SC35 was highly enriched within telophase nuclei and also detected in MIGs. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that the mobility of GFP-SC35 was distinct in different mitotic compartments. Interestingly, the mobility of GFP-SC35 was 3-fold higher in the cytoplasm of metaphase cells compared with interphase speckles, the nucleoplasm or MIGs. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) caused changes in the organization of nuclear compartments such as nuclear speckles and nucleoli, with corresponding changes in the mobility of GFP-SC35 and GFP-fibrillarin. Our results suggest that the dynamics of SC35 are significantly influenced by the organization of the compartment in which it is localized during the cell cycle.

  6. Production, purification, and characterization of scFv TNF ligand fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Andrea; Wyzgol, Agnes; Wajant, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) specific for tumor-associated cell surface antigens are the most broadly used reagents to direct therapeutic or diagnostic effector molecules, such as toxins, radioisotopes, and CD3-stimulating scFvs, to tumors. One novel class of effector molecules that can be targeted to tumors by scFvs are ligands of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. Typically, these molecules have apoptosis inducing and/or immune stimulating properties and are therefore highly attractive for cancer treatment. N-terminal fusion of scFvs does not interfere with the receptor binding capabilities of TNF ligands and thus allows the straightforward generation of scFv TNF ligand fusion proteins. We report here a protocol for the purification of eukaryotically produced scFv TNF ligand fusion proteins based on affinity chromatography on anti-Flag agarose and further describe assays for the determination of the targeting index of this type of scFv-targeted proteins.

  7. Differential Attack on Five Rounds of the SC2000 Block Cipher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Qiang Lv

    2011-01-01

    The SC2000 block cipher has a 128-bit block size and a user key of 128,192 or 256 bits,which employs a total of 6.5 rounds if a 128-bit user key is used.It is a CRYPTREC recommended e-government cipher in Japan.In this paper we address how to recover the user key from a few subkey bits of SC2000,and describe two 4.75-round differential characteristics with probability 2-126 of SC2000 and seventy-six 4.75-round differential characteristics with probability 2-127.Finally,we present a differential cryptanalysis attack on a 5-round reduced version of SC2000 when used with a 128-bit key; the attack requires 2125.68 chosen plaintexts and has a time complexity of 212575 5-round SC2000 encryptions.The attack does not threat the security of the full SC2000 cipher,but it suggests for the first time that the safety margin of SC2000 with a 128-bit key decreases below one and a half rounds.

  8. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  9. Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon R. Pine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation pathways are maintained within distinct cancer types, and destabilization of this machinery may participate in maintenance of cancer stem cells. Characterization of lung cancer stem cells is an area of active research and is critical for developing novel therapies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell signaling pathways and cell markers used to identify the lung cancer stem cells.

  10. Polycomb group genes Psc and Su(z)2 maintain somatic stem cell identity and activity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo Prado, Jose Rafael; Chen, Xin; Fuller, Margaret T

    2012-01-01

    Adult stem cells are essential for the proper function of many tissues, yet the mechanisms that maintain the proper identity and regulate proliferative capacity in stem cell lineages are not well understood. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that have recently emerged as important regulators of stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Here we describe the role of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) genes Posterior sex combs (Psc) and Suppressor of zeste two (Su(z)2) in restricting the proliferation and maintaining the identity of the Cyst Stem Cell (CySC) lineage in the Drosophila testis. In contrast, Psc and Su(z)2 seem to be dispensable for both germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance and germ cell development. We show that loss of Psc and Su(z)2 function in the CySC lineage results in the formation of aggregates of mutant cells that proliferate abnormally, and display abnormal somatic identity correlated with derepression of the Hox gene Abdominal-B. Furthermore, we show that tumorigenesis in the CySC lineage interferes non-cell autonomously with maintenance of GSCs most likely by displacing them from their niche.

  11. Synergistic capture of Clostridium botulinum Type A neurotoxin by scFv antibodies to novel epitopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Sean A.; Barr, John R.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Marks, James D.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    A non-immune library of human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was screened for binding to the Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain [BoNT/A (Hc)] with the goal of identifying scFv to novel epitopes. To do this, an antibody-mediated labeling strategy was used in which antigen-binding yeast clones were selected after labeling with previously characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the Hc. Twenty unique scFv clones were isolated that bound Hc. Of these, three also bound to full-length BoNT/A toxin complex with affinities ranging from 5 nM to 170 nM. Epitope binning showed that the three unique clones recognized at least two epitopes that were distinct from one another and from the detection MAbs. After production in E. coli, the scFv were coupled to magnetic particles and tested for their ability to capture BoNT/A holotoxin using an Endopep-MS assay. In this assay, toxin captured by scFv coated magnetic particles was detected by incubation of the complex with a peptide containing a BoNT/A-specific cleavage sequence. Mass spectrometry was used to detect the ratio of intact peptide to cleavage products as evidence for toxin capture. When tested individually, each of the scFv showed a weak positive Endopep-MS result. However, when the particles were coated with all three scFv simultaneously, they exhibited significantly higher Endopep-MS activity, consistent with synergistic binding. These results demonstrate novel approaches toward the isolation and characterization of scFv antibodies specific to unlabeled antigen. They also provide evidence that distinct scFv antibodies can work synergistically to increase the efficiency of antigen capture onto a solid support.

  12. Flow cytometry-based methods for assessing soluble scFv activities and detecting pathogen antigens in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Sean; Weigel, Kris M.; Miller, Keith D.; Ndung' u, Joseph; Buscher, Philippe; Tran, Thao N.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.

    2010-04-01

    Novel methods are reported for evaluating and utilizing single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies derived from yeast-display libraries. Yeast-display was used to select scFv specific to invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG) of Trypanosoma brucei. A limiting step in the isolation of scFv from nonimmune libraries is the conversion of highly active yeast-displayed scFv into soluble antibodies that can be used in standard immunoassays. Challenges include limited solubility or activity following secretion and purification of scFv. For this reason, few scFv derived from yeast-display platforms have moved into development and implementation as diagnostic reagents. To address this problem, assays were developed that employ both yeastdisplayed and secreted scFv as analytical reagents. The first is a competitive inhibition flow cytometry (CIFC) assay that detects secreted scFv by virtue of its ability to competitively inhibit the binding of biotinylated antigen to yeast-displayed scFv. The second is an epitope binning assay that uses secreted scFv toidentify additional yeast-displayed scFv that bind nonoverlapping or noncompeting epitopes on an antigen. The epitope binning assay was used not only to identify sandwich assay pairs with yeast-displayed scFv, but also to identify active soluble scFv present in low concentration in a crude expression extract. Finally, a CIFC assay was developed that bypasses entirely the need for soluble scFv expression, by using yeast displayed scFv to detect unlabeled antigen in samples. These methods will facilitate the continued development and practical implementation of scFv derived from yeast-display libraries.

  13. Magnetic properties of Sc{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, M. [Lab. de Cristallographie, CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Deportes, J. [Lab. Louis Neel, CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Ouladdiaf, B. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France); Sayetat, F. [Lab. de Cristallographie, CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1995-02-09

    The magnetic properties and their thermal dependences of Sc{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 1.96}, Sc{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 2} and Sc{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 2.04} are compared with those of TiFe{sub 2}. The substitution changes the iron-iron distances. Consequently, the Fe atoms on the 6h site show in addition to the antiferromagnetic component a small ferromagnetic one, and a weak magnetic moment appears on the 2a site. ((orig.)).

  14. Assembly of a supercrystal (SC) of the CMS endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Williams et al., RAL

    2004-01-01

    The first three pictures show the insertion of the first three rows of crystals into the supercrystal SC03 on Jan. 2004 and the completion of the SC endstops. Fig. 4 shows a complete supercrystal and Fig. 5 its components (alveolar, interface plate, housing, optical fibre, insert, crystal and VPT, endstop). A set of 25 inserts is shown in Fig. 6, while Fig. 7 shows housing, interface plates and inserts. Finally, a SC rear view showing the Vacum Phototriode (VPT) wires through the inserts can be seen in Fig. 8. Fig. 9 and 10 show two supercrystals under test on Dee F and R, respectively.

  15. Valence electron structure analysis of refining mecha-nism of Sc and Ti additions on aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI PieJie; YE YiCong; HE LiangJu

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of the difference of refining effect between Sc and Ti adding to aluminum can not be explained substantially with traditional theory. Valence electron structures of AI-Ti and Al-Sc alloys have been studied by using the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET). The covalent bond electron numbers and interfacial electron density differences are calculated. The conclusion is that, in the two alloys, different covalent bond electron numbers of nucleation particles, and different electron densities on the interface between the second phase particles and the matrix, fundamentally lead to the difference of refining effect between Sc and Ti adding to aluminum.

  16. Ionic conductivity of co-doped Sc2O3-ZrO2 ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Shobit; bin Najib, Waqas; Chen, Weiwu

    2012-01-01

    The oxide ionic conductivity of Sc0.18Zr0.82O1.91 doped with 0.5 mol.% of both Yb2O3 and In2O3 is evaluated at various temperatures in air. Among various co-doped compositions, In0.02Sc0.18Zr0.80O1.90 exhibits the highest grain ionic conductivity followed by Yb0.02Sc0.18Zr0.80O1.90 at 500°C. Howe...

  17. Upper boundary of the Pacific plate subducting beneath Hokkaido, Japan, estimated from ScSp phase

    OpenAIRE

    Osada, Kinue; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; YOMOGIDA, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional geometry of the upper boundary of the Pacific plate subducting beneath Hokkaido, Japan, was obtained using the ScSp phase: the phase converted from ScS (S wave reflected at the core-mantle boundary) to P wave at the plate boundary. Taking the advantage of a dense seismic network, "Hi-net", recently deployed across the Japanese islands, we applied several seismic array analyses to the recorded waveform data for a large nearby deep earthquake, in order to enhance very weak ScS...

  18. The Fifth Annual Sc2.0 and Synthetic Genomes Conference: Synthetic Genomes in High Gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Roy S K; Cai, Yizhi

    2016-09-16

    The Sc2.0 project is perhaps the largest synthetic biology project in the public domain, and ultimately aims to construct a new version of the humble brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each year, the Sc2.0 consortium gather to discuss progress in this ambitious project and highlight new developments at the forefront of synthetic genome engineering. This viewpoint summarizes some of the key moments of the 2016 conference, including updates on the Sc2.0 project itself, mammalian synthetic biology, DNA assembly automation, HGP-Write and a panel discussion on the social and ethical perspectives of synthetic biology.

  19. Promising electron mobility and high thermal conductivity in Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xian-Hu; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yuhong; Huang, Qing; He, Jian; Francisco, Joseph S; Luo, Kan; Du, Shiyu

    2016-03-21

    MXenes, the new 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, have recently attracted extensive attention due to their diverse applications and excellent performances. However, the thermal and electrical properties of most MXene materials are yet to be studied. In this work, we investigate the electrical and thermal properties of semiconducting Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes using first-principles calculations. Both of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes are determined to show excellent carrier mobilities. The electron mobility in the Sc2CF2 MXene is found to be strongly anisotropic at room temperature, with values of 5.03 × 10(3) and 1.07 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. The predicted electron mobility in the zigzag direction of the Sc2CF2 is nearly four-fold that in the armchair direction of the promising semiconductor phosphorene. In contrast to Sc2CF2, Sc2C(OH)2 presents approximately isotropic electron mobility. The values at room temperature in the zigzag and armchair directions are calculated as 2.06 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 2.19 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively. In regard to the thermal properties, the thermal conductivities of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes have been determined. The predicted values are higher than those of most metals and semiconducting low-dimensional materials, such as monolayer MoS2 and phosphorene. In particular, the room-temperature thermal conductivity along the Sc2CF2 armchair direction has been determined to be as high as 472 W m(-1) K(-1) based on a flake length of 5 μm, which is even higher than that of the best traditional conductor silver. The corresponding value in the zigzag direction of Sc2CF2 is calculated to be 178 W m(-1) K(-1). The thermal conductivity in Sc2C(OH)2 is less anisotropic and lower compared to that in Sc2CF2. The room-temperature value in the armchair (zigzag) direction is determined to be 173 W m(-1) K(-1) (107 W m(-1) K(-1)). Based on their excellent

  20. Sc-Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35-50 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Uspenskii, Y A; Vinogradov, A V; Fedorenko, A I; Kondratenko, V V; Pershin, Y P; Zubarev, E N; Mrowka, S; Schäfers, F

    2000-01-01

    The Sc/Si multilayers are suggested as high-reflectivity coatings for a VUV interval of 35-50 nm. Fabricated mirrors show the normal incidence reflectivity of 30-50% which is high enough to effectively manipulate the beams of synchrotron radiation and compact discharge and laser-driven X-ray lasers. The obtained values are not, however, limiting for the Sc/Si coatings. Theoretical estimations as well as electron microscopy studies of Sc-Si interfaces indicate a large potential for further raising the reflectivity.

  1. Crystal structure of triple oxides HO/sub 2/ScNbO/sub 7/ and Sm/sub 2/ScTaO/sub 7/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filip' ev, V.S.; Cherner, Ya.E.; Bunina, O.A.; Seregin, V.F.

    The structure of new Ho/sub 2/Sc NbO/sub 7/ and Sm/sub 2/ScTaO/sub 7/ compounds synthesized by the three-stage roasting at 1100-1350 deg C was investigated. Powdergrams of the synthesized compounds indicated to be like the cubic structure of pyrochlore type. Periods of unit cells were determined by Bragg reflex angles. The dependence of unreliability factor on values of the position parameter of oxygen x atoms was calculated. Data were obtained that indirectly indicated a substantial disorder in the disposition of Ho and Sc atoms over A and B positions. Values of bond lengths and valence angles were presented.

  2. Placental-derived stem cells: Culture, differentiation andchallenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising approach to clinicalhealing in several diseases. A great variety of tissues(bone marrow, adipose tissue, and placenta) arepotentially sources of stem cells. Placenta-derivedstem cells (p-SCs) are in between embryonic andmesenchymal stem cells, sharing characteristics withboth, such as non-carcinogenic status and property todifferentiate in all embryonic germ layers. Moreover,their use is not ethically restricted as fetal membranesare considered medical waste after birth. In this context,the present review will be focused on the biologicalproperties, culture and potential cell therapy usesof placental-derived stem cells. Immunophenotypecharacterization, mainly for surface marker expression,and basic principles of p-SC isolation and culture(mechanical separation or enzymatic digestion ofthe tissues, the most used culture media, cell platingconditions) will be presented. In addition, somepreclinical studies that were performed in differentmedical areas will be cited, focusing on neurological,liver, pancreatic, heart, muscle, pulmonary, and bonediseases and also in tissue engineering field. Finally,some challenges for stem cell therapy applications willbe highlighted. The understanding of the mechanismsinvolved in the p-SCs differentiation and the achievementof pure cell populations (after differentiation) arekey points that must be clarified before bringing thepreclinical studies, performed at the bench, to themedical practice.

  3. Tumor-stem cells interactions by fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleshina, Aleksandra V.; Cherkasova, Elena I.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Turchin, Ilya V.; Kiseleva, Ekaterina V.; Dashinimaev, Erdem B.; Shirmanova, Marina V.; Zagaynova, Elena V.

    2013-02-01

    Recently, great deal of interest is investigation the function of the stem cells (SC) in tumors. In this study, we studied «recipient-tumor- fluorescent stem cells » system using the methods of in vivo imaging and laser scanning microscopy (LSM). We used adipose-derived adult stem (ADAS) cells of human lentiviral transfected with the gene of fluorescent protein Turbo FP635. ADAS cells were administrated into nude mice with transplanted tumor HeLa Kyoto (human cervical carcinoma) at different stages of tumor growth (0-8 days) intravenously or into tumor. In vivo imaging was performed on the experimental setup for epi - luminescence bioimaging (IAP RAS, Nizhny Novgorod). The results of the imaging showed localization of fluorophore tagged stem cells in the spleen on day 5-9 after injection. The sensitivity of the technique may be improved by spectral separation autofluorescence and fluorescence of stem cells. We compared the results of in vivo imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSM 510 META, Carl Zeiss, Germany). Internal organs of the animals and tumor tissue were investigated. It was shown that with i.v. injection of ADAS, bright fluorescent structures with spectral characteristics corresponding to TurboFP635 protein are locally accumulated in the marrow, lungs and tumors of animals. These findings indicate that ADAS cells integrate in the animal body with transplanted tumor and can be identified by fluorescence bioimaging techniques in vivo and ex vivo.

  4. Lanthanide-doped NaScF4 nanoprobes: crystal structure, optical spectroscopy and biodetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yu; Tu, Datao; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Yongsheng; Kong, Jintao; Hu, Ping; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Xueyuan

    2013-06-01

    Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal decomposition method. The biotinylated NaScF4:Er3+/Yb3+ NPs were demonstrated for their applications as a heterogeneous UC luminescence bioprobe to detect avidin with a detection limit of 180 pM. After bioconjugation with amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs also exhibited specific recognition of cancer cells overexpressed with uPA receptor (uPAR, an important marker of tumor biology and metastasis), showing great potentials in tumor-targeted bioimaging.Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal

  5. Biocompatibility Assessment of PLCL-Sericin Copolymer Membranes Using Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewalin Inthanon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells based tissue engineering requires biocompatible materials, which allow the cells to adhere, expand, and differentiate in a large scale. An ideal biomaterial for clinical application should be free from mammalian products which cause immune reactivities and pathogen infections. We invented a novel biodegradable poly(L-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone-sericin (PLCL-SC copolymer membrane which was fabricated by electrospinning. Membranes with concentrations of 2.5 or 5% (w/v SC exhibited qualified texture characteristics with a noncytotoxic release profile. The hydrophilic properties of the membranes were 35–40% higher than those of a standard PLCL and commercial polystyrene (PS. The improved characteristics of the membranes were due to an addition of new functional amide groups, C=O, N–H, and C–N, onto their surfaces. Degradation of the membranes was controllable, depending on the content proportion of SC. Results of thermogram indicated the superior stability and crystallinity of the membranes. These membranes enhanced human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSC proliferation by increasing cyclin A and also promoted cell adhesion by upregulating focal adhesion kinase (FAK. On the membranes, hWJMSC differentiated into a neuronal lineage with the occurrence of nestin. These data suggest that PLCL-SC electrospun membrane represents some properties which will be useful for tissue engineering and medical applications.

  6. From stem cells to bone: phenotype acquisition, stabilization, and tissue engineering in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeladze, Jan O; Reseland, Janne E; Duroux-Richard, Isabelle; Apparailly, Florence; Jorgensen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The regeneration of bone tissue depends on the concerted actions of a plethora of signals that recruit mesenchymal stem cells for lineage-specific differentiation, with cellular phenotypes serving various functions throughout their life span. The signals are conveyed in hormones, growth factors, and mechanical forces, all of which ensure proper modeling and remodeling. Both processes are secured by indigenous and programmed metabolism in osteoblasts/osteocytes as well as in other stem cell (SC)-derived cell types (e.g., osteoclasts, bone lining cells) involved in the remodeling of the subject tissue. The focus of this review is the concerted action of these signals as well as the regulatory and/or stabilizing control circuits exhibited by a class of small RNAs, designated microRNAs. We discuss an in vitro approach for ensuring proper phenotype acquisition as well as the choice of scaffolds and animal models for in vivo tissue repair. This approach includes selection of SC niches to optimize bone formation in vivo, transcription factors important for osteoblastogenesis, the Wnt and Notch pathways of signaling, selection of delivery systems for gene therapy, use of appropriate matrices and scaffolds, in vivo mechanostimulation, choice of lesions to be repaired, and type of animal to use. We also discuss Wnt-related and SC-based treatment of osteoporosis. Throughout, we offer considerations for the selection of model systems and parameters to assess the entire procedure from initial SC selection to final bone repair, and conclude with a table summarizing our recommendations.

  7. Heterogeneous Structure of Stem Cells Dynamics: Statistical Models and Quantitative Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Paul; Deasy, Bridget M.; Gharaibeh, Burhan; Roehrs, Timo; Marculescu, Radu

    2014-04-01

    Understanding stem cell (SC) population dynamics is essential for developing models that can be used in basic science and medicine, to aid in predicting cells fate. These models can be used as tools e.g. in studying patho-physiological events at the cellular and tissue level, predicting (mal)functions along the developmental course, and personalized regenerative medicine. Using time-lapsed imaging and statistical tools, we show that the dynamics of SC populations involve a heterogeneous structure consisting of multiple sub-population behaviors. Using non-Gaussian statistical approaches, we identify the co-existence of fast and slow dividing subpopulations, and quiescent cells, in stem cells from three species. The mathematical analysis also shows that, instead of developing independently, SCs exhibit a time-dependent fractal behavior as they interact with each other through molecular and tactile signals. These findings suggest that more sophisticated models of SC dynamics should view SC populations as a collective and avoid the simplifying homogeneity assumption by accounting for the presence of more than one dividing sub-population, and their multi-fractal characteristics.

  8. [Developing of a new feeder-free system and characterization of human embryonic stem cell sublines derived in this system under autogenic and allogenic culturing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol'tsova, A M; Voronkina, I V; Gordeeva, O F; Zenin, V V; Lifantseva, N V; Musorina, A S; Smagina, L V; Iakovleva, T K; Polianskaia, G G

    2012-01-01

    A new feeder-free culture system for human embryonic stem cells (hESC) was developed. It consist of extracellular matrix proteins synthesized by feeder cells--mesenchymal stem cell line SC5-MSC, which was derived from initial hESC line SC5. The major ECM proteins--fibronectin and laminin--that maintain hESC growth in feeder-free system were identified. An essential component of this system is a SC5-MSC-conditioned medium. Two hESC sublines were derived. The subline SC5-FF was cultured in autogenic and subline SC7-FF in allogenic system. Sublines SC5-FF and SC7-FF passed through more than 300 and 115 cell population doublings, retained normal diploid karyotype and an ability of in vitro differentiation into derivates of three germ layers. These sublines express markers of undifferentiated hESC: alkaline phosphatase, Oct-4, SSEA-4, TRA-1-81 and multidrug resistance transporter--ABCG2. The RT-PCR analysis revealed that undifferentiated cells SC5-FF subline, like cells of initial feeder-maintained hESC line SC5, expressed genes OCT4 and NANOG, and germ line specific genes such as DPPA3/STELLA and DAZL. An expression of OCT4, NANOG, DPPA3/STELLA ans DAZL was down-regulated during embryonic bodies differentiation, whereas expression of somatic lineages specific genes like GATA4 and AFP (extra embryonic and embryonic endoderm), PAX6 (neuroectoderm) and BRY (mesoderm) was up-regulated. The comparative analysis of some typical features (karyotype structure, the average population doubling time and the number of undifferentiated cells in populations) did not reveal essential differences between initial SC5 and SC7 lines and their sublines SC5-FF and SC7-FF. This shows that feeder-free culture systems, which are much more stable than any feeder systems, do not break main hESC features during long cultivation and can be recommended for fundamental, biomedicine and pharmacological investigations, using hESCs.

  9. Formation Processes of Nanocomposite Strengthening Particles in Rapidly Quenched Al-Sc-Zr Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kotko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition processes of supersaturated solid solution of aluminium alloys alloyed with Sc and Zr have been studied in the work. The binary hypereutectic Al-Sc alloys, hyperperitectic Al-Zr alloys and ternary Al-Sc-Zr alloys were chosen. Alloys were obtained by the melt-spinning. Melts were quenched from temperatures of Т = 1000 C and Т = 1400 ºC. The study of the structure of rapidly solidifyed binary Al alloys alloyed with Sc and Zr showed that the crystallization of anomalously supersaturated solid solution (Tquen. = 1400 ºC or the crystallization with the formation of "fan" structure (Tquen. = 1000 ºC are possible depending on the quenching temperature of the melt. The decomposition of anomalously supersaturated solid solution is continuous, with the precipitation of nano-sized spherical Al3X (X-Sc, Zr particles of L12-ordered phase which is isomorphous to matrix. It was found that the loss of thermal stability of Al-Sc alloys is due to the loss of coherence of the strengthening Al3Sc phase. In Al-Zr alloys the loss of strength is due to the formation of a stable tetragonal DO23-ordered A13Zr phase. After co-alloying of Al by Sc and Zr a bimodal grained structure was observed for the hypereutectic ternary alloy (Tquen. = 400ºC. Nano-sized grains of 50-60 nm were present on the boundaries of 1-2 µm large-sized grains. TEM shows the formation of nanocomposite Al3Zr/Al3Sc particles. The formation of Al3Zr shell changes the nature of the interfacial fit of the particle with the matrix and slows down the decomposition during the coalescence. Ternary Al-Sc-Zr alloys have significantly higher thermal stability during aging as compared to binary Al-Sc and Al-Zr alloys. Decomposition processes of supersaturated solid solution of aluminium alloys alloyed with Sc and Zr have been studied in the work. The binary hypereutectic Al-Sc alloys, hyperperitectic Al-Zr alloys and ternary Al-Sc-Zr alloys were chosen. Alloys were

  10. DiSC aitab käitumist parandada / Ain Kivesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivesti, Ain

    2008-01-01

    DiSC testi abil on võimalik saada ülevaade personaalsetest käitumishoiakutest ning vastavalt olukorrale on võimalik harjumuspärast reageerimisstiili radikaalselt muuta. Kommenteerivad Jorma Sarv ja Paavo Pilv

  11. Synthesis and properties of Yb:Sc2O3 transparent ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Benxue; HU Chen; LI Jiang; KOU Huamin; SHI Yun; LIU Wenbin; PAN Yubai

    2011-01-01

    Yb:Sc2O3 transparent ceramics were fabricated by solid-state reaction and vacuum sintering method.CaO was added as sintering aids by a high energy ball milling.Transparent nearly-fully dense samples were obtained after 1840 ℃ sintering.Using transmitted-light microscope we get the grain sizes are more than 1 00 μm.Using spectrophotometer we get the absorption coefficient centered at 975 nm was 2.65 cm-1.The phosphorescence spectra showed that the line-widths (FWHM) at 975 and 1041 nm were about 4 and 10 nm and the lifetime of Yb ions in Sc2O3 transparent ceramics was about 883 μs.According to the absorption and fluorescence band centers of Yb:Sc2O3 transparent ceramics,the level scheme of Yb3+ ions in Sc2O3 ceramics could be gotten.

  12. 76 FR 23331 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation...

  13. 77 FR 4056 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  14. Local Impact Simulation of SC Wall Structures using Aircraft Engine Projectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chulhun; Lee, Jungwhee; Lee, Hanjoo [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Raeyoung; Hyun, Changhun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    SC wall structure developed for nuclear power plant buildings consists of plain concrete and two steel plates on both surface of the concrete, while RC structure consists of re bar and concrete. SC structure has higher scabbing resistance than RC structure due to the action of steel plate on the rear side of impact. Therefore SC structure is known as more effective structure from the viewpoint of aircraft crash than RC structure. However, most of the recent researches and experiments about local impact damage deal with RC structures, and the effect of re bar and steel plate is not considered reasonably. Although Walter et al. and Make-work et al. suggested a formula for evaluating perforation depth of steel plate covered RC walls, most of the previous researches about SC structure are focused on perforation and scabbing due to the impact of hard projectile, rather than soft projectile such as an aircraft. In this research a soft projectile, i. e. aircraft engine, is utilized for impact simulation of RC and SC walls. To evaluate local damage of SC wall structures, parametric study with the variables of wall thickness and steel ratio of the cover plate is performed, and the results are compared with those of RC structures. Since scabbing was prevented by the steel plates, penetration mode of damage was observed in SC walls while scabbing damage was occurred in RC walls. It is confirmed that the rear steel plate not only contains concrete debris, but also reduces the internal damage of the concrete walls. Penetration depth of SC walls did not largely vary due to the increasing steel ratio, and similar results to RC walls were observed when the wall thickness is larger than a certain value since the impact resistance of SC wall is mainly governed by the thickness of concrete part. Therefore, it is expected that similar level of impact resistance to RC structure can be produced with the minimum thickness of steel plates of SC structure. According to these results, SC

  15. Many facets of stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiarui Wu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Research area on stem cells is one of frontiers in biology.The collection of five research articles in this issue aims to cover timely developments in stem cell biology, ranging from generating and identifying stem cell line to manipulating stem cells, and from basic mechanism analysis to applied medical potential.These papers reflect the various research tasks in stem cell biology.

  16. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  17. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  18. Overexpression of Id1 in transgenic mice promotes mammary basal stem cell activity and breast tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Hui; Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Won, Hee-Young; Jang, Ki-Seok; Min, Kyueng-Whan; Jang, Si-Hyong; Woo, Jong-Kyu; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kong, Gu

    2015-07-10

    Inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding (Id)1 is a crucial regulator of mammary development and breast cancer progression. However, its effect on stemness and tumorigenesis in mammary epithelial cells remains undefined. Herein, we demonstrate that Id1 induces mammary tumorigenesis by increasing normal and malignant mammary stem cell (MaSC) activities in transgenic mice. MaSC-enriched basal cell expansion and increased self-renewal and in vivo regenerative capacity of MaSCs are observed in the mammary glands of MMTV-Id1 transgenic mice. Furthermore, MMTV-Id1 mice develop ductal hyperplasia and mammary tumors with highly expressed basal markers. Id1 also increases breast cancer stem cell (CSC) population and activity in human breast cancer lines. Moreover, the effects of Id1 on normal and malignant stem cell activities are mediated by the Wnt/c-Myc pathway. Collectively, these findings provide in vivo genetic evidence of Id1 functions as an oncogene in breast cancer and indicate that Id1 regulates mammary basal stem cells by activating the Wnt/c-Myc pathway, thereby contributing to breast tumor development.

  19. Die 3SC Trendforschung : ein kontinuierliches Programm zur Beobachtung des soziokulturellen Wandels von Sinus Sociovision

    OpenAIRE

    Appel, Cornelia

    2003-01-01

    Die 3SC Trendforschung ist neben der Lebensweltforschung und dem daraus hervorgegangenen Modell der Sinus-Milieus ein zentraler Forschungsansatz des Heidelberger Instituts Sinus Sociovision. Sinus Sociovision, Mitglied des ADM (Arbeitskreis Deutscher Markt- und Sozialforschungsinstitute e.V.), ist eines der führenden Institute für angewandte soziokulturelle Forschung in Deutschland. Die 3SC Trendforschung ist eine von drei Säulen des Forschungs- und Beratungsangebotes von Sinus Sociovision. H...

  20. RlSC & DSP Advanced Microprocessor System Design; Sample Projects, Fall 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Fredine, John E.; Goeckel, Dennis L.; Meyer, David G.; Sailer, Stuart E.; Schmottlach, Glenn E.

    1992-01-01

    RlSC & DSP Microprocessor System Design (EE 595M) provides students with an overview of reduced instruction set (RISC) microprocessors and digital signal processing (DSP) microprocessors, with emphasis on incorporating these devices in general purpose and embedded system designs, respectively. The first half of the course emphasizes design considerations for RlSC microprocessor based computer systems; a half-semester design project focuses on design principles that could be utilized in a gene...

  1. Influence of Sc on high temperature strengthening behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Vacuum arc melting technique was used to prepare Ti-6Al-4V alloy containing Sc (0.3% and 0.5%, mass fraction). The ingots were melted twice by vacuum self-consumable electrode arc furnace. Forging of ingots was started in β-phase region and finished in high (α+β)-phase region. Annealing after forging was performed in low (α+β)-phase region for 30 min. Isothermal high temperature compression tests were conducted using thermal simulation machine under Ar atmosphere at 850 ℃ and 1 000 ℃, and the strain rate were 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 s-1. Optical microscope(OM), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive spectrum(EDS) and transmission electron microscope(TEM) were used to study the microstructure evolution during high temperature deformation. The results show that, the peak stress value of alloys increases with increasing Sc content after deformation at 850 ℃,however, there is no obvious strengthening of Sc when the alloys are deformed at 1 000 ℃. Sc exists as Sc2O3 forms by internal oxidation during forging procedure, only minor Sc solutes in matrix. At 850 ℃, the interaction between dislocation and participated particles and twinning mechanism controls the deformation procedure accompanied recrystallization. At 1 000 ℃, the deformation of alloys containing Sc is mainly controlled by twinning, while the deformation of alloy without Sc is not only controlled by twinning,but also the interaction between dislocation and precipitated particles inside the twinning lamellar.

  2. Early Stages of Precipitation Process in Al-(Mn-)Sc-Zr Alloy Characterized by Positron Annihilation

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin

    2015-01-29

    Thermal effects on the precipitation stages in as-cast Al-0.70 at. pct Mn-0.15 at. pct Sc-0.05 at. pct Zr alloy were studied. The role of lattice defects was elucidated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening) enabling investigation of solutes clustering at the atomic scale. This technique has never been used in the Al-Sc- and/or Al-Zr-based alloys so far. Studies by positron annihilation were combined with resistometry, hardness measurements, and microstructure observations. Positrons trapped at defects are preferentially annihilated by Sc electrons. Lifetime of trapped positrons indicates that Sc atoms segregate at dislocations. Maximum fraction of positrons annihilated by Sc electrons occurring at 453 K (180 °C) suggests that clustering of Sc bound with vacancies takes place. It is followed by peak of this fraction at 573 K (300 °C). A rise of the contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Zr electrons starting at 513 K (240 °C) and attaining maximum also at 573 K (300 °C) confirms that Zr participates in precipitation of the Al3Sc particles already at these temperatures. The pronounced hardening at 573 K (300 °C) has its nature in the precipitation of the Al3Sc particles with a Zr-rich shell. The contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Mn electrons was found to be negligible. © 2015, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

  3. CMS ECAL Endcap (EE) Dee Assembly - SC mounting on Dee 1

    CERN Document Server

    Cockerill, D

    2007-01-01

    Protection panels on back of Dee 1, Completion of SC mounting, 03/10/2007: Completion of SC mounting (aart from the inner 3-2-1)on the first quadrant of Dee 1 and subsequent survey. 22-28/08/2007: The first supercrystals on Dee1, Dee1 in 867 with the first column of SCs ready for mounting, Dee1 with its protection panels over the laser monitoring fibre system

  4. Magnetic dipole moment of the doubly closed-shell plus one proton nucleus $^{49}$Sc

    CERN Multimedia

    Gaulard, C V; Walters, W; Nishimura, K; Muto, S; Bingham, C R

    It is proposed to measure the magnetic moment of $^{49}$Sc by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance on Oriented Nuclei (NMR-ON) method using the NICOLE on-line nuclear orientation facility. $^{49}$Sc is the neutron rich, doubly closed-shell, nucleus $^{48}$Ca plus one proton. Results will be used to deduce the effective g-factors in the $^{48}$Ca region with reference to nuclear structure and meson exchange current effects.

  5. STEM CELLS AND PROTEOMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yong-ming; GUO Tian-nan; HUANG Shi-ang

    2006-01-01

    The distinctive features of proteomics are large-scale and high throughput. The key techniques of proteomics are two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Stem cell can differentiate into all kinds of cells, tissues and organs. There are many proteins and cytokines involved in the process of differentiation. Applying proteomics techniques to the research of the complex process of stem cell differentiation is of great importance to study the mechanism and applications of stem cell differentiation.

  6. Corrosion behavior of an Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guangxing; TAO Binwu; LIU Jianhua; LI Songmei

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of an Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy was studied and compared with that of an Al-6Mg-Zr alloy.The addition of scandium into the Al-6Mg-Zr alloy reduced the susceptibility to exfoliation corrosion. By using the constant load tensile method in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, the resistance to SCC of the Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy was higher than that of the Al-6Mg-Zr alloy. When the specimens were not applied with an anodic current, the Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy was resistance to SCC and no brittle cracking was found on the fracture surface. When an anodic current was applied, the Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy specimens failed as a result of accelerated corrosion rather than SCC. It was believed that the addition of scandium resulted in (Al3Sc, Zr) particles that greatly refmed grains and promoted the formation of homogeneous discontinuous distribution of β-phase in the alloy base, which much contributed to good corrosion resistance of the Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy.

  7. Structures and phase transitions of ScH3 under high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Bo; Zhou Zhu-Wen; Chen De-Liang; Ling-hu Rong-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The structures and the phase transitions of ScH3 under high pressure are investigated using first-principles calculations.The calculated structural parameters at zero pressure agree well with the available experimental data.With increasing pressure,the transition sequence hcp (GdH3-type)→ C2/m →fcc→hcp (YH3-type)→Cmcm of ScH3 is predicted first; the corresponding transition pressures at 0 K are 23 GPa,25 GPa,348 GPa,and 477 GPa,respectively.The C2/m symmetry structure is a possible candidate but not a good one as the intermediate state from hexagonal to cubic in ScH3.On the other hand,via the analysis of the structures of hexagonal ScH2.9,cubic ScH3,and cubic ScH2,we find that the repulsive interactions of H-H atoms must play an important role in the transition from hexagonal to cubic.

  8. Precise ab initio calculations of the 3d transition-metal clusters: Sc2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya G. Kaplan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ground 5Σu− state of Sc2 was studied by the valence multireference configuration interaction method with single and double excitations plus Davidson correction (MRCISD(+Q at the complete basis set limit. The calculations were made under C2v symmetry restrictions, which allowed us to obtain at the dissociation limit the Sc atoms in different states (in all previous studies of Sc2 the D2h symmetry group was employed. From the Mulliken population analysis and energy calculations follows that in the ground state Sc2 dissociates in one Sc in the ground state and the other in the second excited quartet state, 4Fu. The corrected parameters of the ground potential curve are the following: Re = 5.2 bohr, De = 50.37 kcal/mol, and ωe = 234.5 cm-1. The dissociation energy in respect to the dissociation on two Sc in the ground states was estimated as De = 9.98 kcal/mol.

  9. Detergents modify proteinase K resistance of PrP Sc in different transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Johanna; Wemheuer, Wiebke M; Wrede, Arne; Graham, Catherine; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brenig, Bertram; Richt, Jürgen A; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J

    2012-05-25

    Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrP(Sc)). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrP(Sc) against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most commonly used detergents on eight different TSE agents derived from different species and distinct prion disease forms. For a high throughput we used a membrane adsorption assay to detect small amounts of prion aggregates, as well as Western blotting. Tissue lysates were prepared using DOC, SLS, SDS or Triton X-100 in different concentrations and these were digested with various amounts of proteinase K. Detergents are able to enhance or diminish the detectability of PrP(Sc) after proteinase K digestion. Depending on the kind of detergent, its concentration - but also on the host species that developed the TSE and the disease form or prion type - the detectability of PrP(Sc) can be very different. The results obtained here may be helpful during the development or improvement of a PrP(Sc) detection method and they point towards a detergent effect that can be additionally used for decontamination purposes. A plausible explanation for the detergent effects described in this article could be an interaction with the lipids associated with PrP(Sc) that may stabilize the aggregates.

  10. Unraveling the Sc(3+) Hydration Geometry: The Strange Case of the Far-Coordinated Water Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorati, Valentina; D'Angelo, Paola

    2016-07-05

    The hydration structure and dynamics of Sc(3+) in aqueous solution have been investigated using a combined approach based on quantum mechanical (QM) calculations, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. An effective Sc-water two-body potential has been generated from QM calculations and then used in the MD simulation of Sc(3+) in water, and the reliability of the entire procedure has been assessed by comparing the theoretical structural results with the EXAFS experimental data. The outstanding outcome of this work is that the Sc(3+) ion forms a well-defined capped square antiprism (SAP) complex in aqueous solution, where the eight water molecules closest to the ion are located at the vertexes of a SAP polyhedron, while the ninth water molecule occupying the capping position is unusually found at a very long distance from the ion. This far-coordinated water molecule possesses a degree of structure comparable with the other first shell molecules surrounding the ion at much shorter distances, and its presence gave us the unique opportunity to easily identify the geometry of the Sc(3+) coordination polyhedron. Despite very strong ion-water interactions, the Sc(3+) hydration shell is very labile, as the far-coordinated ligand allows first shell water molecules to easily exchange their positions both inside the solvation shell and with the rest of the solvent molecules.

  11. The role of interplanetary shock orientation on SC/SI rise time and geoeffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumaran, R.; Veenadhari, B.; Ebihara, Y.; Kumar, Sandeep; Prasad, D. S. V. V. D.

    2017-03-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks interact with the Earth's magnetosphere, resulting in compression of the magnetosphere which in turn increases the Earth's magnetic field termed as Sudden commencement/Sudden impulse (SC/SI). Apart from IP shock speed and solar wind dynamic pressure, IP shock orientation angle also plays a major role in deciding the SC rise time. In the present study, the IP shock orientation angle and SC/SI rise time for 179 IP shocks are estimated which occurred during solar cycle 23. More than 50% of the Shock orientations are in the range of 140°-160°. The SC/SI rise time decreases with the increase in the orientation angle and IP shock speed. In this work, the type of IP shocks i.e., Radio loud (RL) and Radio quiet (RQ) are examined in connection with SC/SI rise time. The RL associated IP shock speeds show a better correlation than RQ shocks with SC/SI rise time irrespective of the orientation angle. Magnetic Cloud (MC) associated shocks dominate in producing less rise time when compared to Ejecta (EJ) shocks. Magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are used for three different IP shock orientation categories to see the importance of orientation angle in determining the geoeffectiveness. Simulations results reveal that shocks hitting parallel to the magnetosphere are more geoeffective as compared to oblique shocks by means of change in magnetic field, pressure and Field Aligned Current (FAC).

  12. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Reduce Acute and Chronic Kidney Damage in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Burgos-Silva

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic kidney injuries (AKI and CKI constitute syndromes responsible for a large part of renal failures, and are today still associated with high mortality rates. Given the lack of more effective therapies, there has been intense focus on the use stem cells for organ protective and regenerative effects. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have shown great potential in the treatment of various diseases of immune character, although there is still debate on its mechanism of action. Thus, for a greater understanding of the role of MSCs, we evaluated the effect of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (AdSCs in an experimental model of nephrotoxicity induced by folic acid (FA in FVB mice. AdSC-treated animals displayed kidney functional improvement 24h after therapy, represented by reduced serum urea after FA. These data correlated with cell cycle regulation and immune response modulation via reduced chemokine expression and reduced neutrophil infiltrate. Long-term analyses, 4 weeks after FA, indicated that AdSC treatment reduced kidney fibrosis and chronic inflammation. These were demonstrated by reduced interstitial collagen deposition and tissue chemokine and cytokine expression. Thus, we concluded that AdSC treatment played a protective role in the framework of nephrotoxic injury via modulation of inflammation and cell cycle regulation, resulting in reduced kidney damage and functional improvement, inhibiting organ fibrosis and providing long-term immune regulation.

  13. Report of AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group 74: in-air output ratio, Sc, for megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C; Ahnesjö, Anders; Lam, Kwok Leung; Li, X Allen; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Palta, Jatinder R; Sharpe, Michael B; Thomadsen, Bruce; Tailor, Ramesh C

    2009-11-01

    The concept of in-air output ratio (Sc) was introduced to characterize how the incident photon fluence per monitor unit (or unit time for a Co-60 unit) varies with collimator settings. However, there has been much confusion regarding the measurement technique to be used that has prevented the accurate and consistent determination of Sc. The main thrust of the report is to devise a theoretical and measurement formalism that ensures interinstitutional consistency of Sc. The in-air output ratio, Sc, is defined as the ratio of primary collision water kerma in free-space, Kp, per monitor unit between an arbitrary collimator setting and the reference collimator setting at the same location. Miniphantoms with sufficient lateral and longitudinal thicknesses to eliminate electron contamination and maintain transient electron equilibrium are recommended for the measurement of Sc. The authors present a correction formalism to extrapolate the correct Sc from the measured values using high-Z miniphantom. Miniphantoms made of high-Z material are used to measure Sc for small fields (e.g., IMRT or stereotactic radiosurgery). This report presents a review of the components of Sc, including headscatter, source-obscuring, and monitor-backscattering effects. A review of calculation methods (Monte Carlo and empirical) used to calculate Sc for arbitrary shaped fields is presented. The authors discussed the use of Sc in photon dose calculation algorithms, in particular, monitor unit calculation. Finally, a summary of Sc data (from RPC and other institutions) is included for QA purposes.

  14. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of a Specific Antiprostate Stem Cell Single Chain Antibody on Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Nejatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA is a highly glycosylated cell surface protein which is overexpressed in several malignancies including prostate, pancreas, and urinary bladder cancers. Tumor suppression has been reported by anti-PSCA antibody. Small and high affinity single chain antibodies (scFv have been introduced as effective agents for cancer immunotargeting approaches. In the present study, we used a phage antibody display library of scFv and selected two antibodies against two immunodominant epitopes of PSCA by panning process. The reactivity of the scFvs for the corresponding epitopes was determined by phage ELISA. The binding specificity of antibodies to PSCA-expressing prostate cancer cell line, DU-145, was analyzed by flow cytometry. The antiproliferative and apoptotic induction effects were evaluated by MTT and Annexin-V assays, respectively. Results represented functional scFv C5-II which could bind specifically to DU-145 cells and significantly inhibited the proliferation of these cells (61% with no effect on PSCA-negative cells. The antibody also induced apoptosis in the PSCA expressing cells. The percentage of the apoptotic cells after 24 hrs of exposure to 500 scFv/cell was 33.80%. These results demonstrate that the functional anti-PSCA scFv C5-II has the potential to be considered as a new agent for targeted therapy of prostate cancer.

  15. Dental stem cells: a future asset of ocular cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Peh, Gary Swee-Lim; Singhal, Shweta; Goh, Bee-Tin; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2015-11-10

    Regenerative medicine using patient's own stem cells (SCs) to repair dysfunctional tissues is an attractive approach to complement surgical and pharmacological treatments for aging and degenerative disorders. Recently, dental SCs have drawn much attention owing to their accessibility, plasticity and applicability for regenerative use not only for dental, but also other body tissues. In ophthalmology, there has been increasing interest to differentiate dental pulp SC and periodontal ligament SC (PDLSC) towards ocular lineage. Both can commit to retinal fate expressing eye field transcription factors and generate rhodopsin-positive photoreceptor-like cells. This proposes a novel therapeutic alternative for retinal degeneration diseases. Moreover, as PDLSC shares similar cranial neural crest origin and proteoglycan secretion with corneal stromal keratoctyes and corneal endothelial cells, this offers the possibility of differentiating PDLSC to these corneal cell types. The advance could lead to a shift in the medical management of corneal opacities and endothelial disorders from highly invasive corneal transplantation using limited donor tissue to cell therapy utilizing autologous cells. This article provides an overview of dental SC research and the perspective of utilizing dental SCs for ocular regenerative medicine.

  16. Two-gap superconductivity in R2Fe3Si5 (R=Lu, Sc and Sc5Ir4Si10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Tamegai, Yasuyuki Nakajima, Tsuyoshi Nakagawa, Guoji Li and Hisatomo Harima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available R2Fe3Si5 (R= Sc, Y, Lu contains nonmagnetic iron and has a relatively high superconducting transition temperature Tc among iron-containing superconductors. An anomalous temperature dependence of specific heat C(T has been reported for polycrystalline samples down to 1 K. We have grown R2Fe3Si5 single crystals, confirmed the anomalous C(T dependence, and found a second drop in specific heat below 1 K. In Lu2Fe3Si5, we can reproduce C(T below Tc, assuming two distinct energy gaps 2Δ 1/kBTc = 4.4 and 2Δ 2/kBTc = 1.1, with nearly equal weights, indicating that Lu2Fe3Si5 is a two-gap superconductor similar to MgB2. Hall coefficient measurements and band structure calculation also support the multiband contributions to the normal-state properties. The specific heat in the Sc2Fe3Si5 single crystals also shows the two-gap feature. R5Ir4Si10 (R = Sc, rare earth is also a superconductor where competition between superconductivity and the charge-density wave is known for rare earths but not for Sc. We have performed detailed specific heat measurements on Sc5Ir4Si10 single crystals and found that C(T deviates slightly from the behavior expected for weak-coupling superconductors. C(T for these superconductors can also be reproduced well by assuming two superconducting gaps.

  17. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Teens > Stem Cell Transplants Print ... Does it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  18. Dorsal root ganglia neurons and differentiated adipose-derived stem cells: an in vitro co-culture model to study peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, Alba C; Faroni, Alessandro; Reid, Adam J

    2015-02-26

    Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, located in the intervertebral foramina of the spinal column, can be used to create an in vitro system facilitating the study of nerve regeneration and myelination. The glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SC), are key facilitators of these processes; it is therefore crucial that the interactions of these cellular components are studied together. Direct contact between DRG neurons and glial cells provides additional stimuli sensed by specific membrane receptors, further improving the neuronal response. SC release growth factors and proteins in the culture medium, which enhance neuron survival and stimulate neurite sprouting and extension. However, SC require long proliferation time to be used for tissue engineering applications and the sacrifice of an healthy nerve for their sourcing. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) differentiated into SC phenotype are a valid alternative to SC for the set-up of a co-culture model with DRG neurons to study nerve regeneration. The present work presents a detailed and reproducible step-by-step protocol to harvest both DRG neurons and ASC from adult rats; to differentiate ASC towards a SC phenotype; and combines the two cell types in a direct co-culture system to investigate the interplay between neurons and SC in the peripheral nervous system. This tool has great potential in the optimization of tissue-engineered constructs for peripheral nerve repair.

  19. Investigating Preservice STEM Teacher Conceptions of STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radloff, Jeff; Guzey, Selcen

    2016-10-01

    Surrounding the national emphasis on improving STEM education, effective STEM educators are required. Connected, yet often overlooked, is the need for effective preservice STEM teaching instruction for incoming educators. At a basic level, preservice STEM teacher education should include STEM content, pedagogy, and conceptualization. However, the literature suggests no leading conception of STEM education, and little is known about how preservice STEM teachers are conceptualizing STEM education. In order to explore preservice STEM teacher conceptions of STEM education, preservice teachers at a large, Midwestern research university were given an open-ended survey eliciting both textual and visual responses. Here, we report and discuss the results of employing this instrument in relation with the current STEM conceptualization literature.

  20. Immunology of Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Yang

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of pluri-potent stem cells to repair the tissues in which stem cells reside holds great promise in development of novel cell replacement therapeutics for treating chronic and degenerative diseases. However,numerous reports show that stem cell therapy, even in an autologous setting, triggers lymphocyte infiltration and inflammation. Therefore, an important question to be answered is how the host immune system responds to engrafted autologous stem cells or allogeneous stem cells. In this brief review, we summarize the progress in several related areas in this field, including some of our data, in four sections: (1) immunogenicity of stem cells; (2)strategies to inhibit immune rejection to allograft stem cells; (3) immune responses to cancer stem cells; and (4)mesenchymal stem cells in immune regulation. Improvement of our understanding on these and other aspects of immune system-stem cell interplay would greatly facilitate the development of stem cell-based therapeutics for regenerative purposes.

  1. Survivin Modulates Squamous Cell Carcinoma-Derived Stem-Like Cell Proliferation, Viability and Tumor Formation in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lotti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous Cell Carcinoma-derived Stem-like Cells (SCC-SC originate from alterations in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC gene expression and sustain tumor development, invasion and recurrence. Since survivin, a KSC marker, is highly expressed in SCC-SC, we evaluate its role in SCC-SC cell growth and SCC models. Survivin silencing by siRNA decreases clonal growth of SCC keratinocytes and viability of total, rapidly adhering (RAD and non-RAD (NRAD cells from primary SCC. Similarly, survivin silencing reduces the expression of stem cell markers (OCT4, NOTCH1, CD133, β1-integrin, while it increases the level of differentiation markers (K10, involucrin. Moreover, survivin silencing improves the malignant phenotype of SCC 3D-reconstruct, as demonstrated by reduced epidermal thickness, lower Ki-67 positive cell number, and decreased expression of MMP9 and psoriasin. Furthermore, survivin depletion by siRNA in RasG12V-IκBα-derived tumors leads to smaller tumor formation characterized by lower mitotic index and reduced expression of the tumor-associated marker HIF1α, VEGF and CD51. Therefore, our results indicate survivin as a key gene in regulating SCC cancer stem cell formation and cSCC development.

  2. Equine epidermis: a source of epithelial-like stem/progenitor cells with in vitro and in vivo regenerative capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Sarah Y; Maes, Sofie; Martinello, Tiziana; Aerts, Désirée; Chiers, Koen; Mariën, Tom; Patruno, Marco; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Spaas, Jan H

    2014-05-15

    Besides the presence of somatic stem cells in hair follicles and dermis, the epidermis also contains a subpopulation of stem cells, reflecting its high regenerative capacity. However, only limited information concerning epidermis-derived epithelial-like stem/progenitor cells (EpSCs) is available to date. Nonetheless, this stem cell type could prove itself useful in skin reconstitution after injury. After harvesting from equine epidermis, the purified cells were characterized as EpSCs by means of positive expression for CD29, CD44, CD49f, CD90, Casein Kinase 2β, p63, and Ki67, low expression for cytokeratin (CK)14 and negative expression for CD105, CK18, Wide CK, and Pan CK. Furthermore, their self-renewal capacity was assessed in adhesion as well as in suspension. Moreover, the isolated cells were differentiated toward keratinocytes and adipocytes. To assess the regenerative capacities of EpSCs, six full-thickness skin wounds were made: three were treated with EpSCs and platelet-rich-plasma (EpSC/PRP-treated), while the remaining three were administered carrier fluid alone (PRP-treated). The dermis of EpSC/PRP-treated wounds was significantly thinner and exhibited more restricted granulation tissue than did the PRP-treated wounds. The EpSC/PRP-treated wounds also exhibited increases in EpSCs, vascularization, elastin content, and follicle-like structures. In addition, combining EpSCs with a PRP treatment enhanced tissue repair after clinical application.

  3. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human embryo

  4. Stem cells in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogliari, Karolyn Sassi; Marinowic, Daniel; Brum, Dario Eduardo; Loth, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical research have shown that stem cell therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for many diseases in which current medical treatments do not achieve satisfying results or cure. This article describes stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications in dermatology today.

  5. Making STEM Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Sheryl L.; Bryan, Joel A.; McConnell, Tom J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated approaches to education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), especially those set in the context of real-world situations, can motivate and deepen students' learning of the STEM subjects (National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council 2014). This article describes two integrated investigations used…

  6. Stem cells in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cell research. Instead, scientists have explored other cell sources, including progenitor and stem cells derived from adult tissues and stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid and placenta. In addition, novel techniques for generating stem cells in the laboratory are being developed. These techniques include somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which the nucleus of an adult somatic cell is placed into an oocyte, and reprogramming of adult cells to induce stem-cell-like behavior. Such techniques are now being used in tissue engineering applications, and some of the most successful experiments have been in the field of urology. Techniques to regenerate bladder tissue have reached the clinic, and exciting progress is being made in other areas, such as regeneration of the kidney and urethra. Cell therapy as a treatment for incontinence and infertility might soon become a reality. Physicians should be optimistic that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering will one day provide mainstream treatment options for urologic disorders.

  7. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to real

  8. Low Temperature Synthesis and Characterization of AlScMo3O12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Truitt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in low and negative thermal expansion materials has led to significant research on compounds that exhibit this property, much of which has targeted the A2M3O12 family (A = trivalent cation, M = Mo, W. The expansion and phase transition behavior in this family can be tuned through the choice of the metals incorporated into the structure. An undesired phase transition to a monoclinic structure with large positive expansion can be suppressed in some solid solutions by substituting the A-site by a mixture of two cations. One such material, AlScMo3O12, was successfully synthesized using non-hydrolytic sol-gel chemistry. Depending on the reaction conditions, phase separation into Al2Mo3O12 and Sc2Mo3O12 or single-phase AlScMo3O12 could be obtained. Optimized conditions for the reproducible synthesis of stoichiometric, homogeneous AlScMo3O12 were established. High resolution synchrotron diffraction experiments were carried out to confirm whether samples were homogeneous and to estimate the Al:Sc ratio through Rietveld refinement and Vegard’s law. Single-phase samples were found to adopt the orthorhombic Sc2W3O12 structure at 100 to 460 K. In contrast to all previously-reported A2M3O12 compositions, AlScMo3O12 exhibited positive thermal expansion along all unit cell axes instead of contraction along one or two axes, with expansion coefficients (200–460 K of αa = 1.7 × 10−6 K−1, αb = 6.2 × 10−6 K−1, αc = 2.9 × 10−6 K−1 and αV = 10.8 × 10−6 K−1, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of the difficulty of crystallization of organic compounds using the critical supersaturation ratio (Sc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Daiki; Ida, Yasuo; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    In the case of solvent selection, supersolubility is an index for improving crystallization behavior. However, supersolubility is affected by kinetic factors such as the cooling rate. An index for suitable solvent selection is needed. The supersaturation ratio (S) is one of the operation design indices of controlling crystallization behavior such as supersolubility. The S at 298 K (S298) of the pharmaceutical compounds theophylline, noscapine, clotrimazole, indomethacin, carbamazepine, naproxene and tolbutamide were measured in ethanol using a polythermal method. If the compound had a large lnS298, the cooling rate strongly affected the temperature of the cloud point in the cooling crystallization method. In order to estimate the crystallization behavior without the cooling rate effect, the critical supersaturation ratio (Sc) was proposed. Sc at 298 K (Sc298) was calculated from dissolution/cloud points at 0 K/min extrapolated from that of several heating/cooling rates to remove the kinetic effects on S. The lnSc298 values of theophylline, noscapine and clotrimazole were estimated in acetonitrile, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and isopropanol. The lnSc298 value of clotrimazole was the largest in all solvents. The results showed that lnSc298 was a simple index which could be used to evaluate the crystallization behavior resulting from the interaction between the solvent and the compound. In conclusion, the proposed lnSc298 should be useful for comparing the difficulty of crystallization which indicates how we should obtain desired crystals within a certain finite time period for development API in the manufacturing field without considering the effect of the heating/cooling rate.

  10. The inhibition of lung cancer cell growth by intracellular immunization with LC-1 ScFv

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, LC-l, recognizing lung cancer associated common antigens was obtained in authors' laboratory. Its single chain Fv fragment (ScFv) named LC-1 ScFv was constructed based on recombinant phage displayed techniques. For expression on cell membrane, LC-1 ScFv was cloned into pDisplay vector, which directed the cloned gene to express as cell membrane bound protein. The resulting plasmid was sequenced and then introduced by the lipofectin method into a lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1. G418 resistant cells were obtained by G418 selection. After transfection, LC-1 ScFv expression was observed by Western blot analysis and the expression of cognate antigens was down-regulated as shown in ELISA assay. SPC-A-1-pDisplay-ScFv cells grew in vitro at lower speed than the control intact cells and the cells transfected with vacant vector. Flow cytometry analysis detected a substantial increase in G1 phase and decrease in S phase in population of SPC-A-1-pDisplay-ScFv cells compared to SPC-A-1 and SPC-A1-pDisplay cells. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that c-myc expression was down-regulated in SPC-A-1-pDisplay-ScFv cells. It seems that the antigens recognized by LC-1 may be in some way involved in a growth stimulating pathway and the antibody blocking of the function of the antigens shut down the pathway and thus down-regulate the expression of c-myc and growth of the cells.

  11. Enrichment of Sc2O3 and TiO2 from bauxite ore residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bona; Li, Guanghui; Luo, Jun; Ye, Qing; Liu, Mingxia; Peng, Zhiwei; Jiang, Tao

    2017-06-05

    As a major byproduct generated in the alumina industry, bauxite ore residue is an important reserve of scandium and titanium. In this study, the feasibility and mechanism of enriching Sc2O3 and TiO2 from a non-magnetic material, which was obtained from carbothermal reductive roasting and magnetic separation of bauxite ore residue, were investigated based on a two-step (acidic and alkali) leaching process. It was revealed that approximately 78% SiO2 and 30-40% of CaO, FeO and Al2O3 were removed from a non-magnetic material with 0.0134wt.% Sc2O3 and 7.64wt.% TiO2 by phosphoric acidic leaching, while about 95% Al2O3 and P2O5 were further leached by subsequent sodium hydroxide leaching of the upper-stream leach residue. A Sc2O3-, TiO2- rich material containing 0.044wt.% Sc2O3 and 25.5wt.% TiO2 was obtained, the recovery and the enrichment factor of Sc2O3 and TiO2 were about 85% and 5, respectively. The enrichment of Sc2O3 was attributed to higher pH (>3.3) of phosphoric acid solution than its dissolution pH(0), and the enrichment of TiO2 was mainly associated with the insoluble perovskite (CaTiO3) in the acidic solution at ambient temperature. As Sc2O3 and TiO2 cannot be dissolved in the alkali solution, they were further enriched in the leach residue.

  12. Fast conversion of scFv to Fab antibodies using type IIs restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmark, Hanna; Huovinen, Tuomas; Matikka, Tero; Pettersson, Tiina; Lahti, Maria; Lamminmäki, Urpo

    2015-11-01

    Single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody libraries are widely used for developing novel bioaffinity reagents, although Fab or IgG molecules are the preferred antibody formats in many final applications. Therefore, rapid conversion methods for combining multiple DNA fragments are needed to attach constant domains to the scFv derived variable domains. In this study we describe a fast and easy cloning method for the conversion of single framework scFv fragments to Fab fragments using type IIS restriction enzymes. All cloning steps excluding plating of the Fab transformants can be done in 96 well plates and the procedure can be completed in one working day. The concept was tested by converting 69 scFv clones into Fab format on 96 well plates, which resulted in 93% success rate. The method is particularly useful as a high-throughput tool for the conversion of the chosen scFv clones into Fab molecules in order to analyze them as early as possible, as the conversion can significantly affect the binding properties of the chosen clones.

  13. ScVO4 under non-hydrostatic compression: a new metastable polymorph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Alka B.; Errandonea, D.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.

    2017-02-01

    The high-pressure (HP) behaviour of scandium vanadate (ScVO4) is investigated under non-hydrostatic compression. The compound is studied by means of synchrotron-based powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical-absorption techniques. The occurrence of a non-reversible phase transition is detected. The transition is from the zircon structure to the fergusonite-type structure and takes place around 6 GPa with nearly 10% volume discontinuity. XRD measurements on the pressure cycled sample confirm for the first time that the fergusonite-type ScVO4 can be recovered as the metastable phase at ambient conditions. Raman spectroscopic measurements verify the metastable phase to be of a fergusonite-type phase. Theoretical calculations also corroborate the experimental findings. The fergusonite phase is found to be stiffer than the ambient-pressure zircon phase, as indicated by the observed experimental and theoretical bulk moduli. The optical properties and lattice-dynamics calculation of the fergusonite ScVO4 are discussed. At ambient pressure the band gap of the zircon (fergusonite)-type ScVO4 is 2.75 eV (2.3 eV). This fact suggests that the novel metastable polymorph of ScVO4 can have applications in green technologies; for instance, it can be used as photocatalytic material for hydrogen production by water splitting.

  14. SC83288 is a clinical development candidate for the treatment of severe malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoraro, Stefano; Duffey, Maëlle; Otto, Thomas D; Wang, Yulin; Rösemann, Roman; Baumgartner, Roland; Fehler, Stefanie K; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Avery, Vicky M; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique; Vial, Henri J; Strobl, Stefan; Sanchez, Cecilia P; Lanzer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Severe malaria is a life-threatening complication of an infection with the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which requires immediate treatment. Safety and efficacy concerns with currently used drugs accentuate the need for new chemotherapeutic options against severe malaria. Here we describe a medicinal chemistry program starting from amicarbalide that led to two compounds with optimized pharmacological and antiparasitic properties. SC81458 and the clinical development candidate, SC83288, are fast-acting compounds that can cure a P. falciparum infection in a humanized NOD/SCID mouse model system. Detailed preclinical pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies reveal no observable drawbacks. Ultra-deep sequencing of resistant parasites identifies the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ transporting PfATP6 as a putative determinant of resistance to SC81458 and SC83288. Features, such as fast parasite killing, good safety margin, a potentially novel mode of action and a distinct chemotype support the clinical development of SC83288, as an intravenous application for the treatment of severe malaria. PMID:28139658

  15. Influence of Sc3+ on LiMn2O4 cathode materials at elevated temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huiyong; DENG Ganqun; GUO Yonglang

    2008-01-01

    Sc3+-doped lithium manganese oxides were synthesized by solid-state reaction. The influences of doping element on structure,mean valence of manganese, and electrochemical performances were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), galvanostatic charge-discharge and cyclic voltammetric tests, and also electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). XRD tests showed that doped lithium manganese oxides were pure spinel structure without other phases. Redox titration and visible spectrophotometry tests indicated that the mean valence of man-ganese in doped lithium manganese oxides was higher than that of pure one. LiSc0.02Mn1.98O4 remained 92.9% of the initial specific discharge capacity after 50th cycle at a constant current of 50 m/g, and the reversibility of LiSc0.02Mn1.98O4 was improved in comparison with pure LiMn2O4 at 50 ℃. EIS indicated that film deposition on spinel particles was suppressed because of Sc3+ doping, and the charge transfer be-tween the surface film and spinel particles with increasing temperature for Sc3+-doped materials became easier as compared with undoped one.

  16. AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with enhanced microfluidic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. B.; Fu, Y. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xuan, W. P.; Chen, J. K.; Wang, X. Z.; Mayrhofer, P.; Duan, P. F.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Luo, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the characterization of scandium aluminum nitride (Al1-x Sc x N, x  =  27%) films and discusses surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on them. Both AlScN and AlN films were deposited on silicon by sputtering and possessed columnar microstructures with (0 0 0 2) crystal orientation. The AlScN/Si SAW devices showed improved electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2, ~2%) compared with pure AlN films (droplets, and the acoustic streaming and pumping velocities were 2  ×  and 3  ×  those of the AlN/Si SAW devices, respectively. Mechanical characterization showed that the Young’s modulus and hardness of the AlN film decreased significantly when Sc was doped, and this was responsible for the decreased acoustic velocity and resonant frequency, and the increased temperature coefficient of frequency, of the AlScN SAW devices.

  17. Conductivity ageing studies on 1M10ScSZ (M4+=Ce, Hf)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Shobit; Bin Najib, Waqas; Bonanos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    The long-term conductivity stability is tested on zirconia based electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications. The ageing studies have been performed on the samples of ZrO2 co-doped with 10mol% of Sc2O3 and 1mol% MO2, where M = Ce or Hf (denoted respectively 1Ce10ScSZ and 1Hf10Sc......SZ) in oxidising and reducing atmospheres, at 600°C for 3000h. At 600°C, these compositions show initial conductivity of around 9–12mS∙cm−1 in air. After 3000h of ageing, no phase transitions are observed in any of the samples. For the first 1000h, the degradation rate is higher than in the subsequent 2000h......; thereafter, conductivity degrades linearly with time for all samples. In air, the loss in the conductivity is lower than in reducing conditions. The 1Ce10ScSZ shows the highest degradation rate of 3.8%/1000h in wet H2/N2 after the first 1000h of ageing. A colour change of the 1Ce10ScSZ sample from white...

  18. Microstructure dependent fatigue crack growth in Al–Mg–Sc alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mengjia [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Pan, Qinglin, E-mail: csupql@163.com [The Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shi, Yunjia; Wang, Ying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-08-12

    The fatigue crack growth behavior of Al–Mg–Sc alloy was investigated by tensile testing and fatigue testing. Different annealing treatments were applied to the alloy. Microstructure characterization of the alloy was carried out by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The size of Al{sub 3}(Sc{sub 1−x}Zr{sub x}) particle was calculated by software. The fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate (da/dN) was discussed with stress intensity factor range (ΔK) in Paris's region. The Paris exponent m and constants C were used to calculate the fatigue life. The fatigue process and crack closure effects were discussed with the yield strength and tensile strength of Al–Mg–Sc alloy. Results show that the microstructure, tensile strength and fatigue crack growth rate were greatly dependent on the annealing temperature, and the high resistance of Al–Mg–Sc alloy was mainly due to the combination microstructures of sub-grains, dislocations and these Al{sub 3}(Sc{sub 1−x}Zr{sub x}) precipitates.

  19. Isolation of anti-T cell receptor scFv mutants by yeast surface display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieke, M C; Cho, B K; Boder, E T; Kranz, D M; Wittrup, K D

    1997-11-01

    Yeast surface display and sorting by flow cytometry have been used to isolate mutants of an scFv that is specific for the Vbeta8 region of the T cell receptor. Selection was based on equilibrium binding by two fluorescently labeled probes, a soluble Vbeta8 domain and an antibody to the c-myc epitope tag present at the carboxy-terminus of the scFv. The mutants that were selected in this screen included a scFv with threefold increased affinity for the Vbeta8 and scFv clones that were bound with reduced affinities by the anti-c-myc antibody. The latter finding indicates that the yeast display system may be used to map conformational epitopes, which cannot be revealed by standard peptide screens. Equilibrium antigen binding constants were estimated within the surface display format, allowing screening of isolated mutants without necessitating subcloning and soluble expression. Only a relatively small library of yeast cells (3 x 10[5]) displaying randomly mutagenized scFv was screened to identify these mutants, indicating that this system will provide a powerful tool for engineering the binding properties of eucaryotic secreted and cell surface proteins.

  20. Spinal Cord Infarction in Hemoglobin SC Disease as an Amusement Park Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ryan; Raj, Ashok; Farber, Darren; Puri, Vinay; Bertolone, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is extremely rare in children, and only 2 other reports have described the occurrence of SCI in patients with hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC). Amusement park accidents are serious injuries. Patients with preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, cardiac disease, and recent back or neck injuries, may be at an increased risk. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with HbSC with a past history of only 2 admissions for pain crises, who presented to the emergency department with symptoms of SCI after riding a roller coaster. Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is an increasingly recognized cause of SCI after events that put strain on the axial skeleton, such as many amusement park rides. Although radiologic criteria for FCE have been proposed, FCE remains a diagnosis of exclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of SCI in a patient with HbSC and the first case of FCE after an amusement park accident. This case report highlights that HbSC may confound the differential diagnosis of SCI and aims to document an association with FCE in pediatric patients.

  1. Construction of Human ScFv Phage Display Library against Ovarian Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jinsong; BI Hao; YAO Qin; QU Shen; ZONG Yiqiang

    2006-01-01

    In order to construct a single chain fragment variable (ScFv) phage display library against ovarian tumor, by using RT-PCR, the human heavy chain variable region genes (VH) and light chain variable region genes (VL) were amplified from lymphocytes of ovarian tumor patients and subsequently assembled into ScFv genes by SOE. The resulting ScFv genes were electrotransformed into E.coli TG1 and amplified with the co-infection of helper phage M13KO7 to obtain phage display library. The capacity and titer of the resulting library were detected. The phage antibody library with a capacity of approximately 3 × 109 cfu/μg was obtained. After amplification with helper phage, the titer of antibody library reached 5 × 1012 cfu/mL. Human ScFv library against ovarian tumor was constructed successfully, which laid a foundation for the screening of ovarian tumor specific ScFv for the radioimmunoimaging diagnosis of ovarian tumor.

  2. [On plant stem cells and animal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yun; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of plant and animal stem cells can highlight core aspects of stem-cell biology. In both kingdoms, stem cells are defined by their clonogenic properties and are maintained by intercellular signals. The signaling molecules are different in plants and animals stem cell niches, but the roles of argonaute and polycomb group proteins suggest that there are some molecular similarities.

  3. Preliminary Analysis of the Social and Scientific Impact of the UAEM-ININ M.Sc. and D.Sc. Graduate Programme in Medical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsoura, Eleni; Isaac-Olive, Keila; Torres-Garcia, Eugenio; Camacho-Lopez, Miguel Angel; Hardy-Perez, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1994, the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) started in Mexico a teaching and training programme (Diplomado) in Radiotherapy Medical Physics. Based on this experience, the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM) and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) launched two years later, the first Graduate Programme in Science (M.Sc. and D.Sc.), specialised in Medical Physics in Mexico. A preliminary analysis of the social and scientific impact of the UAEM-ININ Programme is presented in this work based on the achievements attained, regarding the number of graduated Medical Physicists, their geographic and academic origin, their current professional activities and the number of scientific publications produced as a result of the thesis, as well as their citations.

  4. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  5. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  6. A small molecule (pluripotin as a tool for studying cancer stem cell biology: proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D Mertins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSC are thought to be responsible for tumor maintenance and heterogeneity. Bona fide CSC purified from tumor biopsies are limited in supply and this hampers study of CSC biology. Furthermore, purified stem-like CSC subpopulations from existing tumor lines are unstable in culture. Finding a means to overcome these technical challenges would be a useful goal. In a first effort towards this, we examined whether a chemical probe that promotes survival of murine embryonic stem cells without added exogenous factors can alter functional characteristics in extant tumor lines in a fashion consistent with a CSC phenotype. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The seven tumor lines of the NCI60 colon subpanel were exposed to SC-1 (pluripotin, a dual kinase and GTPase inhibitor that promotes self-renewal, and then examined for tumorigenicity under limiting dilution conditions and clonogenic activity in soft agar. A statistically significant increase in tumor formation following SC-1 treatment was observed (p<0.04. Cloning efficiencies and expression of putative CSC surface antigens (CD133 and CD44 were also increased. SC-1 treatment led to sphere formation in some colon tumor lines. Finally, SC-1 inhibited in vitro kinase activity of RSK2, and another RSK2 inhibitor increased colony formation implicating a role for this kinase in eliciting a CSC phenotype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings validate a proof of concept study exposure of extant tumor lines to a small molecule may provide a tractable in vitro model for understanding CSC biology.

  7. Neuropharmacological properties of neurons derived from human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Leanne; Shan, Mu; Przyborski, Stefan A; Hirakawa, Ryoko; Halliwell, Robert F

    2011-09-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells have enormous potential value in neuropharmacology and drug discovery yet there is little data on the major classes and properties of receptors and ion channels expressed by neurons derived from these stem cells. Recent studies in this lab have therefore used conventional patch-clamp electrophysiology to investigate the pharmacological properties of the ligand and voltage-gated ion channels in neurons derived and maintained in vitro from the human stem cell (hSC) line, TERA2.cl.SP12. TERA2.cl.SP12 stem cells were differentiated with retinoic acid and used in electrophysiological experiments 28-50 days after beginning differentiation. HSC-derived neurons generated large whole cell currents with depolarizing voltage steps (-80 to 30 mV) comprised of an inward, rapidly inactivating component and a delayed, slowly deactivating outward component. The fast inward current was blocked by the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (0.1 μM) and the outward currents were significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium ions (TEA, 5 mM) consistent with the presence of functional Na and K ion channels. Application of the inhibitory neurotransmitters, GABA (0.1-1000 μM) or glycine (0.1-1000 μM) evoked concentration dependent currents. The GABA currents were inhibited by the convulsants, picrotoxin (10 μM) and bicuculline (3 μM), potentiated by the NSAID mefenamic acid (10-100 μM), the general anaesthetic pentobarbital (100 μM), the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and the anxiolytics chlordiazepoxide (10 μM) and diazepam (10 μM) all consistent with the expression of GABA(A) receptors. Responses to glycine were reversibly blocked by strychnine (10 μM) consistent with glycine-gated chloride channels. The excitatory agonists, glutamate (1-1000 μM) and NMDA (1-1000 μM) activated concentration-dependent responses from hSC-derived neurons. Glutamate currents were inhibited by kynurenic acid (1 mM) and NMDA responses were blocked by MgCl(2) (2 mM) in a

  8. Phase relations of Al-4Mg-Sc-Zr quaternary system in Al-rich range at 430 ℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏长清; 曾凡浩; 古一

    2003-01-01

    The 430 ℃ isothermal section of the Al-4Mg-Sc-Zr quaternary system in the Al-rich range was determined by means of equilibrium alloys with the use of microstructure, X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe microanalysis. There coexist three single-phase fields, two two-phase fields and one three-phase field. It is established that the phase Al3Sc1-0.5Zr0-0.5 with L12 structure and Al3Zr1-0.8Sc0-0.2 with DO23 structure are in equilibrium with the α solid solution, Zr being dissolved in Al3Sc, further substituting for about 50% Sc(mole fraction) whilst Sc is present in the phase Al3Zr and the maximum substitution for Zr is about 20%.

  9. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors.......Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable...

  10. Gyrase-dependent stabilization of pSC101 plasmid inheritance by transcriptionally active promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, S L; Miller, C A; Cohen, S N

    1991-09-01

    The pSC101 plasmid encodes a cis-acting genetic locus termed par that ensures the stable inheritance of plasmids in a population of dividing cells. In the absence of selection, par-defective plasmids are lost rapidly from the bacterial population. We report here that the stability of par-deleted pSC101 derivatives is restored by introducing certain adventitious bacterial promoters onto the plasmid. Stabilization requires active transcription from the inserted promoter and is affected by the site and orientation of the insertion, the length of the nascent transcript and DNA gyrase activity. While a promotor-associated overall increase in negative superhelicity of plasmid DNA was observed, stabilized inheritance appeared to be dependent on localized rather than generalized supercoiling. Our demonstration that promoter-induced DNA supercoiling can mimic the effects of the pSC101 par locus provides evidence that the previously reported superhelicity-generating effects of par are intrinsic to its function.

  11. Comparison of Response between RC and SC Containment Structures Subjected to Aircraft Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Shup; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Hyo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Since the aircraft terror to the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, an aircraft impact problem has been increasingly interested. The possibilities of aircraft impacts against nuclear power plants are one of important category. To date, the impact load of the analysis on aircraft impacts has been applied to target structures in local areas by using the impact force-time history function of Riera. However, Riera forcing function is not recommended at the expectation of unreasonable damage or perforation to target structures. The numerical analysis of rc and sc containment structures subjected to aircraft impact is performed by using the AUTODYN-3D. It is carried out the four different types for RC and SC structures. Thus, in this study, the different behaviors of containment structures and the safety of SC structure are expected

  12. Normal-2SC mixed phase of quark matter in compact stars for large coupling constant

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilera, D N; Grigorian, H

    2004-01-01

    We study the consequences of changing the ratio $\\eta$ between the coupling constant in the diquark channel and the coupling constant in the messon channel to a quark matter equation of state under compact stars constraints. A nonlocal chiral quark model is used and the quark interaction is represented via formfactor functions. We found that a mixed phase of 2SC quark matter and normal quark matter (N-2SC) is likely to occur for rather large $\\eta$, 0.86 $\\leq \\eta \\leq$ 1.1 in the interior of compact stars for Gaussian formfactor. For the two other formfactors the range of the mixed phase is shifted to lower values of $\\eta$. This result leads us to suggest that, if the coupling is not so large, spin-1 channels may be more likely to occur rather than the 2SC phase for intermediate densities in the interior of compact stars.

  13. High efficiency recovery and epitope specific sorting of an scFv yeast display library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Robert W.; Coleman, James R.; Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Michael

    2004-03-01

    In order to more productively utilize the rich source of antigen specific reagents present in the previously described non-immune scFv yeast display library (Feldhaus et al., 2003) one must be able to efficiently isolate and characterize clones within the library. To this end, we have developed and validated a magnetic bead sorting technique utilizing the Miltenyi MacsTm system to recover greater than 90% of the antigen specific clones present in the library. In combination with flow cytometry, we rapidly reduced diversity and enriched for antigen specific clones in three rounds of selection. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of pre-existing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for antigen labeling and subsequent flow cytometric sorting and characterization of epitope specific scFv. Combining these two improvements in library screening allowed isolation and characterization of 3 epitope specific scFv (including a previously uncharacterized epitope) to a 6 kd protein, epidermal growth factor EGF.

  14. Dislocation Core Structure and Peierls Stress of B2-Based AlSc in {110} Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. R.; Wu, X. Z.; Zhang, T.; Tian, Y. X.; Yan, Z. X.; Zhu, H. Z.

    2016-10-01

    The core structure and Peierls stress of , , and dislocations in {110} plane of B2-based AlSc (B2-AlSc) have been investigated using improved dislocation equations combined with the generalized stacking fault (GSF) energy. The truncated approximation method is utilized to construct the dissociated and undissociated dislocations in AlSc, then the effects of dislocation angles on the elastic strain energy and misfit energy are presented. Specifically, with increasing dislocation angle, the misfit energy, elastic strain energy, and total energy, and their corresponding stresses, decrease on the {110} and {110} slip systems. However, for {110} dislocation, all energies and corresponding stresses exhibit the relationship 0° > 54.7° > 35.3° > 90°. The misfit energy is always smaller than the elastic strain energy, even by one or two orders of magnitude, and their phases are always opposite.

  15. Laboratory oscillator strengths of Sc I in the near-infrared region for astrophysical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pehlivan, A; Hartman, H

    2015-01-01

    Context. Atomic data is crucial for astrophysical investigations. To understand the formation and evolution of stars, we need to analyse their observed spectra. Analysing a spectrum of a star requires information about the properties of atomic lines, such as wavelengths and oscillator strengths. However, atomic data of some elements are scarce, particularly in the infrared region, and this paper is part of an effort to improve the situation on near-IR atomic data. Aims. This paper investigates the spectrum of neutral scandium, Sc i, from laboratory measurements and improves the atomic data of Sc i lines in the infrared region covering lines in R, I, J, and K bands. Especially, we focus on measuring oscillator strengths for Sc i lines connecting the levels with 4p and 4s configurations. Methods. We combined experimental branching fractions with radiative lifetimes from the literature to derive oscillator strengths (f - values). Intensity-calibrated spectra with high spectral resolution were recorded with Fouri...

  16. Magnetic anisotropy in the incommensurate ScFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rećko, K., E-mail: k.recko@uwb.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, University of Białystok, K. Ciołkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Białystok (Poland); Dobrzyński, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltan 7, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Waliszewski, J.; Szymański, K. [Faculty of Physics, University of Białystok, K. Ciołkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Białystok (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Neutron scattering and magnetization data are used for estimation of the spin ordering in ScFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8}. Results of experimental measurements are compared with the ground state configurations obtained by simulated annealing algorithms. The origins of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the scandium intermetallic alloy and the conditions of the coexistence of two different magnetic modulations as a function of the exchange integrals are discussed. The influence of the dipolar interactions for the noncollinearity and incommensurability in ScFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8} was determined. - Highlights: • We found dipolar and DM interactions as the anisotropy origins of 3d–3d–3p alloy. • We covered the explanation of incommensurability and noncollinearity of ScFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8}. • We discussed the magnetism resulting from competitiveness of exchange effects.

  17. Thermodynamics-Based Computational Design of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidemenopoulos, G. N.; Katsamas, A. I.; Kamoutsi, H.

    2010-04-01

    Alloying additions of Sc and Zr raise the yield strength of Al-Mg alloys significantly. We have studied the effects of Sc and Zr on the grain refinement and recrystallization resistance of Al-Mg alloys with the aid of computational alloy thermodynamics. The grain refinement potential has been assessed by Scheil-Gulliver simulations of solidification paths, while the recrystallization resistance (Zener drag) has been assessed by calculation of the precipitation driving forces of the Al3Sc and Al3Zr intermetallics. Microstructural performance indices have been derived, used to rank several alloy composition variants, and finally select the variant with the best combination of grain refinement and recrystallization resistance. The method can be used, with certain limitations, for a thermodynamics-based design of Al-Mg and other alloy compositions.

  18. Thermal neutron capture and resonance integral cross sections of {sup 45}Sc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Do, Nguyen; Duc Khue, Pham; Tien Thanh, Kim [Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 10 Dao Tan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Thi Hien, Nguyen [Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 10 Dao Tan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun [Department of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Manwoo [Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan 619-953 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    The thermal neutron cross section (σ{sub 0}) and resonance integral (I{sub 0}) of the {sup 45}Sc(n,γ){sup 46}Sc reaction have been measured relative to that of the {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au reaction by means of the activation method. High-purity natural scandium and gold foils without and with a cadmium cover of 0.5 mm thickness were irradiated with moderated pulsed neutrons produced from the Pohang Neutron Facility (PNF). The induced activities in the activated foils were measured with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. In order to improve the accuracy of the experimental results the counting losses caused by the thermal (G{sub th}) and resonance (G{sub epi}) neutron self-shielding, the γ-ray attenuation (F{sub g}) and the true γ-ray coincidence summing effects were made. In addition, the effect of non-ideal epithermal spectrum was also taken into account by determining the neutron spectrum shape factor (α). The thermal neutron cross-section and resonance integral of the {sup 45}Sc(n,γ){sup 46}Sc reaction have been determined relative to the reference values of the {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au reaction, with σ{sub o,Au} = 98.65 ± 0.09 barn and I{sub o,Au} = 1550 ± 28 barn. The present thermal neutron cross section has been determined to be σ{sub o,Sc} = 27.5 ± 0.8 barn. According to the definition of cadmium cut-off energy at 0.55 eV, the present resonance integral cross section has been determined to be I{sub o,Sc} = 12.4 ± 0.7 barn. The present results are compared with literature values and discussed.

  19. Isolation and characterization of anti c-met single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamsari, Elmira Safaie; Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Bagheri, Salman; Riazi-Rad, Farhad; Younesi, Vahid; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Sepideh Safaei; Baradaran, Behzad; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Met is the cell surface receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) involved in invasive growth programs during embryogenesis and tumorgenesis. There is compelling evidence suggesting important roles for c-Met in colorectal cancer proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and survival. Hence, a molecular inhibitor of an extracellular domain of c-Met receptor that blocks c-Met-cell surface interactions could be of great thera-peutic importance. In an attempt to develop molecular inhibitors of c-Met, single chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display libraries Tomlinson I + J against a specific synthetic oligopeptide from the extracellular domain of c-Met receptor were screened; selected scFv were then characterized using various immune techniques. Three c-Met specific scFv (ES1, ES2, and ES3) were selected following five rounds of panning procedures. The scFv showed specific binding to c-Met receptor, and significantly inhibited proliferation responses of a human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-116). Moreover, anti- apoptotic effects of selected scFv antibodies on the HCT-116 cell line were also evaluated using Annexin V/PI assays. The results demonstrated rates of apoptotic cell death of 46.0, 25.5, and 37.8% among these cells were induced by use of ES1, ES2, and ES3, respectively. The results demonstrated ability to successfully isolate/char-acterize specific c-Met scFv that could ultimately have a great therapeutic potential in immuno-therapies against (colorectal) cancers.

  20. Local character of the highest antiferromagnetic Ce-system CeTi{1-x}Sc{x} Ge

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The highest antiferromagnetic (AFM) temperature in Ce based compounds has been reported for CeScGe with Tn=47K, but its local or itinerant nature was not deeply investigated yet. In order to shed more light into this unusually high ordering temperature we have investigated structural, magnetic, transport and thermal properties of CeTi{1-x}Sc{x}Ge alloys within the range of stability of the CeScSi-type structure: 0.25

  1. Significance Assessment of Site 16SC61, Luling Revetment, Mississippi River M-116.7-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    After 1731, they increasingly switched to cultivating fruit trees and vegetables, and to raising poultry and cattle. This resulted in an improvement of...the city, many vegetables, corn, milk products and poultry , but very little indigo and sugar. This is because the inhabitants do not have enough...Items from Trench 1, 16SC61. TIL7 160-163 3.62-3.59 Kaolin pipestem 1 Table 21. Metal from Trench 1, 16SC61. T1L4 T1L7 TIL7 TOTAL 160-164 166-169 172-177

  2. Preparation, microstructure and properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Sc alloy tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何振波; 尹志民; 林森; 邓英; 商宝川; 周向

    2010-01-01

    The Al-6.0Zn-2.0Mg-0.2Sc-0.10Zr hollow tube ingots, prepared by semi-continuous casting technology, were subjected to ho- mogenization treatment, hot extrusion, intermediate annealing, tension, solution and aging treatment. The microstructures and properties of as-cast Al-Zn-Mg-Sc alloy at different homogenization treatment conditions were studied using hardness measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The results showed th...

  3. Axial compression behavior and partial composite action of SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai

    Steel-plate reinforced concrete (SC) composite walls typically consist of thick concrete walls with two exterior steel faceplates. The concrete core is sandwiched between the two steel faceplates, and the faceplates are attached to the concrete core using shear connectors, for example, ASTM A108 steel headed shear studs. The shear connectors and the concrete infill enhance the stability of the steel faceplates, and the faceplates serve as permanent formwork for concrete placement. SC composite walls were first introduced in the 1980's in Japan for nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. They are used in the new generation of nuclear power plants (GIII+) and being considered for small modular reactors (SMR) due to their structural efficiency, economy, safety, and construction speed. Steel faceplates can potentially undergo local buckling at certain locations of NPP structures where compressive forces are significant. The steel faceplates are usually thin (0.25 to 1.50 inches in Customary units, or 6.5 to 38 mm in SI units) to maintain economical and constructional efficiency, the geometric imperfections and locked-in stresses induced during construction make them more vulnerable to local buckling. Accidental thermal loading may also reduce the compressive strength and exacerbate the local buckling potential of SC composite walls. This dissertation presents the results from experimental and numerical investigations of the compressive behavior of SC composite walls at ambient and elevated temperatures. The results are used to establish a slenderness limit to prevent local buckling before yielding of the steel faceplates and to develop a design approach for calculating the compressive strength of SC composite walls with non-slender and slender steel faceplates at ambient and elevated temperatures. Composite action in SC walls is achieved by the embedment of shear connectors into the concrete core. The strength and stiffness of shear connectors govern the level of

  4. Population of positive-parity states in Sc53 through one-proton knockout

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, S.; Gade, A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Cook, J. M.; Deacon, A. N.; Dinca, D.-C.; Freeman, S. J.; Glasmacher, T.; Hansen, P. G.; Kay, B. P.; Mantica, P. F.; Mueller, W. F.; Terry, J. R.; Tostevin, J. A.; Zhu, S.

    2010-02-01

    The one-proton knockout reaction Be9(Ti54,Sc53+γ)X at 72 MeV/nucleon has been measured. The location of the first 3/2- state at 2110(3) keV was confirmed, and new γ-ray transitions were observed at 1111(2), 1273(2), 1539(4), and 2495(5) keV. Large spectroscopic strength to excited states in Sc53 was found and attributed to the knockout of sd-shell protons.

  5. Supervising M.Sc. Students working in the 100 Gigabit Ethernet field using OPNET Modeler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert; Wessing, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with supervision methods for M.Sc. students who are using OPNET Modeler for their thesis work within the field of 100 Gigabit Ethernet. We detail how we use OPNET Modeler in our M.Sc. projects at the Technical University of Denmark. In particular, we discuss on how we teach...... students to learn OPNET independently and in a short timeframe, and we outline what students find challenging and rewarding by using OPNET Modeler. Furthermore, we show some cases on how OPNET was applied in specific projects within the field of 100 Gigabit Ethernet....

  6. Synergistic Antivascular and Antitumor Efficacy with Combined Cediranib and SC6889 in Intracranial Mouse Glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merryl R Lobo

    Full Text Available Prognosis remains extremely poor for malignant glioma. Targeted therapeutic approaches, including single agent anti-angiogenic and proteasome inhibition strategies, have not resulted in sustained anti-glioma clinical efficacy. We tested the anti-glioma efficacy of the anti-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor cediranib and the novel proteasome inhibitor SC68896, in combination and as single agents. To assess anti-angiogenic effects and evaluate efficacy we employed 4C8 intracranial mouse glioma and a dual-bolus perfusion MRI approach to measure Ktrans, relative cerebral blood flow and volume (rCBF, rCBV, and relative mean transit time (rMTT in combination with anatomical MRI measurements of tumor growth. While single agent cediranib or SC68896 treatment did not alter tumor growth or survival, combined cediranib/SC68896 significantly delayed tumor growth and increased median survival by 2-fold, compared to untreated. This was accompanied by substantially increased tumor necrosis in the cediranib/SC68896 group (p<0.01, not observed with single agent treatments. Mean vessel density was significantly lower, and mean vessel lumen area was significantly higher, for the combined cediranib/SC68896 group versus untreated. Consistent with our previous findings, cediranib alone did not significantly alter mean tumor rCBF, rCBV, rMTT, or Ktrans. In contrast, SC68896 reduced rCBF in comparison to untreated, but without concomitant reductions in rCBV, rMTT, or Ktrans. Importantly, combined cediranib/SC68896 substantially reduced rCBF, rCBV. rMTT, and Ktrans. A novel analysis of Ktrans/rCBV suggests that changes in Ktrans with time and/or treatment are related to altered total vascular surface area. The data suggest that combined cediranib/SC68896 induced potent anti-angiogenic effects, resulting in increased vascular efficiency and reduced extravasation, consistent with a process of vascular normalization. The study represents the first demonstration

  7. Dll1- and Dll4-mediated Notch signaling is required for homeostasis of intestinal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrinet, Luca; Rodilla, Veronica; Liu, Zhenyi; Chen, Shuang; Koch, Ute; Espinosa, Lluis; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Kopan, Raphael; Lewis, Julian; Radtke, Freddy

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Ablation of Notch signaling within the intestinal epithelium results in loss of proliferating crypt progenitors, due to their conversion into post-mitotic secretory cells. We aimed to confirm that Notch was active in stem cells (SC), investigate consequences of loss of Notch signaling within the intestinal SC compartment, and identify the physiological ligands of Notch in mouse intestine. Furthermore, we investigated whether the induction of goblet cell differentiation that results from loss of Notch requires the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4). Methods Trasgenic mice that carried a reporter of Notch1 activation were used for lineage tracing experiments. The in vivo functions of the Notch ligands Jagged1 (Jag1), Delta-like1 (Dll1), Delta-like4 (Dll4), and the transcription factor Klf4 were assessed in mice with inducible, gut-specific gene targeting (Vil-Cre-ERT2). Results Notch1 signaling was found to be activated in intestinal SC. Although deletion of Jag1 or Dll4 did not perturb the intestinal epithelium, inactivation of Dll1 resulted in a moderate increase in number of goblet cells without noticeable effects of progenitor proliferation. However, simultaneous inactivation of Dll1 and Dll4 resulted in the complete conversion of proliferating progenitors into post-mitotic goblet cells, concomitant with loss of SC (Olfm4+, Lgr5+ and Ascl2+). Klf4 inactivation did not interfere with goblet cell differentiation in adult wild-type or in Notch pathway-deficient gut. Conclusions Notch signaling in SC and progenitors is activated by Dll1 and Dll4 ligands and is required for maintenance of intestinal progenitor and SC. Klf4 is dispensable for goblet cell differentiation in intestines of adult Notch-deficient mice. PMID:21238454

  8. Moving epithelia: Tracking the fate of mammalian limbal epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nick

    2015-09-01

    Lineage tracing allows the destiny of a stem cell (SC) and its progeny to be followed through time. In order to track their long-term fate, SC must be permanently marked to discern their distribution, division, displacement and differentiation. This information is essential for unravelling the mysteries that govern their replenishing activity while they remain anchored within their niche microenvironment. Modern-day lineage tracing uses inducible genetic recombination to illuminate cells within embryonic, newborn and adult tissues, and the advent of powerful high-resolution microscopy has enabled the behaviour of labelled cells to be monitored in real-time in a living organism. The simple structural organization of the mammalian cornea, including its accessibility and transparency, renders it the ideal tissue to study SC fate using lineage tracing assisted by non-invasive intravital microscopy. Despite more than a century of research devoted to understanding how this tissue is maintained and repaired, many limitations and controversies continue to plague the field, including uncertainties about the specificity of current SC markers, the number of SC within the cornea, their mode of division, their location, and importantly the signals that dictate cell migration. This communication will highlight historical discoveries as well as recent developments in the corneal SC field; more specifically how the progeny of these cells are mobilised to replenish this dynamic tissue during steady-state, disease and transplantation. Also discussed is how insights gleaned from animal studies can be used to advance our knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms that govern modelling and remodelling of the human cornea in health and disease.

  9. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial transcription factor, sc-mtTFB, shares features with sigma factors but is functionally distinct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, G S; Clayton, D A

    1995-04-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria, sc-mtTFB is a 341-amino-acid transcription factor required for initiation of transcription from mitochondrial DNA promoters. Specific transcription in vitro requires only sc-mtTFB and the bacteriophage-related core sc-mtRNA polymerase. Mutational analysis of sc-mtTFB has defined two regions of the protein that are important for normal function both in vivo and in vitro. These regions overlap portions of the protein that exhibit similarity to conserved region 2 of bacterial sigma factors. One mutation in this region of sc-mtTFB (tyrosine 108 to arginine [Y108R]) has a defective phenotype that matches that observed for mutations in the corresponding residue of Bacillus subtilis sigma A and sigma E proteins. However, mutations in the sigma 2.4-like region, including a 5-amino-acid deletion corresponding to crucial promoter-contacting amino acids of sigma factors, did not eliminate the ability of sc-mtTFB to initiate transcription specifically in vitro. This suggests a mechanism of promoter recognition for sc-mtRNA polymerase different from that used by bacterial RNA polymerases. Two mutations in a basic region of sc-mtTFB resulted in defective proteins that were virtually dependent on supercoiled DNA templates in vitro. These mutations may have disrupted a DNA-unwinding function of sc-mtTFB that is only manifested in vitro and is partially rescued by DNA supercoiling.

  10. Human pluripotent stem cells:Towards therapeutic development for the treatment of lifestyle diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miwako; Nishio; Masako; Nakahara; Akira; Yuo; Kumiko; Saeki

    2016-01-01

    There are two types of human pluripotent stem cells: Embryonic stem cells(ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells(iPSCs),both of which launched themselves on clinical trials after having taken measures to overcome problems: Blocking rejections by immunosuppressants regarding ESCs and minimizing the risk of tumorigenicity by depleting exogenous gene components regarding iP SCs.It is generally assumed that clinical applications of human pluripotent stem cells should be limited to those cases where there are no alternative measures for treatments because of the risk in transplanting those cells to living bodies.Regarding lifestyle diseases,we have already several therapeutic options,and thus,development of human pluripotent stem cell-based therapeutics tends to be avoided.Nevertheless,human pluripotent stem cells can contribute to the development of new therapeutics in this field.As we will show,there is a case where only a short-term presence of human pluripotent stem-derived cells can exert long-term therapeutic effects even after they are rejected.In those cases,immunologically rejections of ESC-or allogenic iP SC-derived cells may produce beneficial outcomes by nullifying the risk of tumorigenesis without deterioration of therapeutic effects.Another utility of human pluripotent stem cells is the provision of an innovative tool for drug discovery that are otherwise unavailable.For example,clinical specimens of human classical brown adipocytes(BAs),which has been attracting a great deal of attention as a new target of drug discovery for the treatment of metabolic disorders,are unobtainable from living individuals due to scarcity,fragility and ethical problems.However,BA can easily be produced from human pluripotent stem cells.In this review,we will contemplate potential contribution of human pluripotent stem cells to therapeutic development for lifestyle diseases.

  11. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone, cartilage, stromal cells that support blood formation, fat, and fibrous tissue. Cell-based therapies —Treatment in which stem cells are induced to differentiate into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cells or ...

  12. Induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddhartha Bhowmik; LI Yong

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a recent development which has brought a promise of great therapeutic values. The previous technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been ineffective in humans. Recent discoveries show that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed by a transient over expression of a small number of genes; they can undergo induced pluripotency. iPS were first produced in 2006. By 2008, work was underway to remove the potential oncogenes from their structure. In 2009, protein iPS (piPS) cells were discovered. Surface markers and reporter genes play an important role in stem cell research. Clinical applications include generation of self renewing stem cells, tissue replacement and many more. Stem cell therapy has the ability to dramatically change the treatment of human diseases.

  13. Innovation and STEM Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Julia Link

    2015-01-01

    How do schools with a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fit in with state goals to increase innovation and to boost the economy? This article briefly discusses how educators can encourage creativity and innovation.

  14. What are Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadshah Farhat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are undifferentiated self regenerating multi potential cells. There are three types of stem cells categories by the ability to form after cells and correlated with the body’s development process. Totipotent: these stem cells can form an entire organism such as fertilized egg. Ploripotent: ploripotent cells are those that can form any cell in the body but cannot form an entire organism such as developing embryo’s totipotent cells become ploripotent  Multipotent: Multi potent stem cells are those that can only form specific cells in the body such as blood cells based. Based on the sources of stem cells we have three types of these cells: Autologous: Sources of the patient own cells are (Autologous either the cells from patient own body or his or her cord blood. For this type of transplant the physician now usually collects the periphery rather than morrow because the procedure is easier on like a bane morrow harvest it take place outside of an operating room, and the patient does not to be under general unsetting . Allogenic: Sources of stem cells from another donore are primarily relatives (familial allogenic or completely unrelated donors. Xenogenic: In these stem cells from different species are transplanted e .g striatal porcine fetal mesan cephalic (FVM xenotransplants for Parkinson’s disease. On sites of isolation such as embryo, umbilical cord and other body tissues stem cells are named embnyonic, cord blood, and adult stem cells. The scope of results and clinical application of stem cells are such as: Neurodegenerative conditions (MS,ALS, Parkinson’s, Stroke, Ocular disorders- Glaucoma, retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Auto Immune Conditions (Lupus, MS,R. arthritis, Diabetes, etc, Viral Conditions (Hepatitis C and AIDS, Heart Disease, Adrenal Disorders, Injury(Nerve, Brain, etc, Anti aging (hair, skin, weight control, overall well being/preventive, Emotional disorders, Organ / Tissue Cancers, Blood cancers, Blood diseases

  15. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  16. Smooth Muscle Precursor Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Yan Hui; Wei, Yi; Green, Morgaine; Wani, Prachi; Zhang, Pengbo; Pera, Renee Reijo; Chen, Bertha

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in using stem cells (SC) to regenerate a deficient urethral sphincter in patients with urinary incontinence. The smooth muscle component of the sphincter is a significant contributor to sphincter function. However, current translational efforts for sphincter muscle restoration focus only on skeletal muscle regeneration because they rely on adult mesenchymal SC as cell source. These adult SC do not yield sufficient smooth muscle cells (SMCs) for transplantation. We may be able to overcome this limitation by using pluripotent stem cell (PSC) to derive SMCs. Hence, we sought to investigate whether smooth muscle precursor cells (pSMCs) derived from human PSCs can restore urethral function in an animal model generated by surgical urethrolysis and ovariectomy. Rats were divided into four groups: control (no intervention), sham saline (surgery + saline injection), bladder SMC (surgery + human bladder SMC injection), and treatment (surgery + pSMC injection, which includes human embryonic stem cell (hESC) H9-derived pSMC, episomal reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived pSMC, or viral reprogrammed iPSC-derived pSMC). pSMCs (2 × 106 cells/rat) were injected periurethrally 3 weeks postsurgery. Leak point pressure (LPP) and baseline external urethral sphincter electromyography were measured 5 weeks postinjection. Both iPSC-derived pSMC treatment groups showed significantly higher LPP compared to the sham saline group, consistent with restoration of urethral sphincter function. While the difference between the H9-derived pSMC treatment and sham saline group was not significant, it did show a trend toward restoration of the LPP to the level of intact controls. Our data indicate that pSMCs derived from human PSCs (hESC and iPSC) can restore sphincter function. PMID:26785911

  17. Smooth muscles and stem cells of embryonic guts express KIT, PDGFRRA, CD34 and many other stem cell antigens: suggestion that GIST arise from smooth muscles and gut stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is believed to original from interstitial cells of (ICC) present in Auerbach's nerve plexus. GIST frequently shows gain-of-function mutations of KIT and PDGFRA. In practical pathology, GIST is diagnosed by positive immunostaining or KIT and/or CD34. The author herein demonstrates that human embryonic gastrointestinal tract smooth muscles (HEGITSM) and human embryonic stem gastrointestinal cells (HEGISC) consistently express KIT, CD34, NCAM, PDGFRA and other stem cell (SC) antigens NSE, synaptophysin, chromogranin, bcl-2, ErbB, and MET throughout the embryonic development of 7-40 gestational week (GW). CK14 was negative. The author examines 42 cases (7-40 GW) of embryonic GI tract (EGI). The HEGISM, HEGIST, and gall bladder smooth muscles (SM) were consistently positive for KIT, CD34, NCAM, PDGFRA, synaptophysin, chromogranin, NSE, bcl-2, ErbB2, and MET in foregut, stomach, GB, midgut, and hindgut throughout the fetal life (7-40 GW). The stem cells (SC) were seen to create the SM, nerves, ICC, and other all structures of GI tract. In adult gastrointestinal walls (n=30), KIT, CD34, PDGFRA, and S100 proteins were expressed in Auerbach's nerve plexus and ICC. The bronchial and vascular SM of embryos did not express these molecules. In GIST, frequent expressions of KIT (100%, 30/30), CD34 (90%, 27/30), and PDGFRA (83%, 25/30) were seen. In general, characteristics of tumors recapitulate their embryonic life. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that GIST may be originated from GI SM and/or GI SC in addition to ICC.

  18. Developmental signaling pathways regulating mammary stem cells and contributing to the etiology of triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Maria Cristina; Bertolette, Daniel; Castro, Nadia P; Klauzinska, Malgorzata; Cuttitta, Frank; Salomon, David S

    2016-04-01

    Cancer has been considered as temporal and spatial aberrations of normal development in tissues. Similarities between mammary embryonic development and cell transformation suggest that the underlying processes required for mammary gland development are also those perturbed during various stages of mammary tumorigenesis and breast cancer (BC) development. The master regulators of embryonic development Cripto-1, Notch/CSL, and Wnt/β-catenin play key roles in modulating mammary gland morphogenesis and cell fate specification in the embryo through fetal mammary stem cells (fMaSC) and in the adult organism particularly within the adult mammary stem cells (aMaSC), which determine mammary progenitor cell lineages that generate the basal/myoepithelial and luminal compartments of the adult mammary gland. Together with recognized transcription factors and embryonic stem cell markers, these embryonic regulatory molecules can be inappropriately augmented during tumorigenesis to support the tumor-initiating cell (TIC)/cancer stem cell (CSC) compartment, and the effects of their deregulation may contribute for the etiology of BC, in particular the most aggressive subtype of BC, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This in depth review will present evidence of the involvement of Cripto-1, Notch/CSL, and Wnt/β-catenin in the normal mammary gland morphogenesis and tumorigenesis, from fMaSC/aMaSC regulation to TIC generation and maintenance in TNBC. Specific therapies for treating TNBC by targeting these embryonic pathways in TICs will be further discussed, providing new opportunities to destroy not only the bulk tumor, but also TICs that initiate and promote the metastatic spread and recurrence of this aggressive subtype of BC.

  19. FGL-functionalized self-assembling nanofiber hydrogel as a scaffold for spinal cord-derived neural stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng, Jin [Department of Neurology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng, Qixin, E-mail: zheng-qx@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Wu, Yongchao; Wu, Bin; Huang, Shuai; Fang, Weizhi; Guo, Xiaodong [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2015-01-01

    A class of designed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds has been shown to be a good biomimetic material in tissue engineering. Here, we specifically made a new peptide hydrogel scaffold FGLmx by mixing the pure RADA{sub 16} and designer functional peptide RADA{sub 16}-FGL solution, and we analyzed the physiochemical properties of each peptide with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and circular dichroism (CD). In addition, we examined the biocompatibility and bioactivity of FGLmx as well as RADA{sub 16} scaffold on spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (SC-NSCs) isolated from neonatal rats. Our results showed that RADA{sub 16}-FGL displayed a weaker β-sheet structure and FGLmx could self-assemble into nanofibrous morphology. Moreover, we found that FGLmx was not only noncytotoxic to SC-NSCs but also promoted SC-NSC proliferation and migration into the three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold, meanwhile, the adhesion and lineage differentiation of SC-NSCs on FGLmx were similar to that on RADA{sub 16}. Our results indicated that the FGL-functionalized peptide scaffold might be very beneficial for tissue engineering and suggested its further application for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. - Highlights: • RADA{sub 16} and RADA{sub 16}-FGL peptides were synthesized and characterized. • Rat spinal cord neural stem cells were successfully isolated and characterized. • We provided an induction method for mixed differentiation of neural stem cells. • FGL scaffold had good biocompatibility and bioactivity with neural stem cells.

  20. Investigating the Alometric Relationships between Leaf Area and Some of Vegetative Characteristics in SC704 Corn Hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Zeinali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the leaves are the main source of production of photosynthetic substances in plants, dry matter production and crop yield potential is largely dependent on the leaf surface, and many environmental changes affect growth and yield through changes in leaf area. Hence, green leaf area per plant and leaf area index is measured in almost all studies of crop physiology to understand the mechanism of yield alteration. However, measurement of leaf area compared with the other traits such as plant height and total plant dry weight is very difficult, need to precision instruments and spend more time and cost. Therefore, according to the allometric relationships in plants, extensive studies were done to find the relationship between leaf area and the other plant traits that their measurement is easier, faster and cheaper, and does not require expensive equipment. Using these relationships will be used to estimate plant leaf area with acceptable accuracy without measuring. Plant traits that have high correlation with leaf area and usually use to estimate the plant leaf area are the number of leaves or nodes per main stem, plant height, leaf dry weight and dry weight of vegetative parts of the plant. Allometric equations was used successfully to calculate leaf area for various crops such as cotton, wheat, chickpea, faba bean, peanuts, soybean and sweet sorghum. This study was conducted to obtain the allometric relationships between green leaf area (cm2 per plant with number of leaves or nodes per main stem, plant height, green leaf dry weight and dry weight of vegetative parts of the plant (gram per plant, and investigating the effect of plant density and planting date on these relationships in SC704 corn (Zea mays L. hybrid. Materials and Methods This study was conducted at Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources farm located at latitude 36 o 51’ N, longitude 54 o27’ E and altitude of 13 meters above sea level

  1. Thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tempel, L.

    2011-01-01

    An acceptance test for thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera with 8.0 µm low-wavelength-pass filter has been developed and performed on polycarbonate, PEN, quartz, Corning 1737 glass, G427 cone glas, G443 screen glass, Schott Zerodur, silicon and a bl

  2. Electronic Bands of ScC in the Region 620 - 720 NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiao-Wei; Merer, Anthony; Hsu, Yen-Chu

    2016-06-01

    ScC molecules have been observed by laser-induced fluorescence, following the reaction of laser-ablated scandium metal with acetylene under supersonic jet-cooled conditions. Rotational analyses have been carried out for about 40 bands of Sc{}12C and Sc{}13C in the region 14000 - 16000 cm-1. Two lower states are found, with Ω = 3/2 and 5/2, indicating that the ground state is ^4Π_i or ^2Δ. As yet we cannot distinguish between these alternatives, but note that the ground state of the isoelectronic YC molecule is ^4Π_i. The ground state bond length in ScC is 1.95{}_5 Å, and the vibrational frequency is 712 cm-1. At least eight electronic transitions occur in the region studied, the majority obeying the selection rule ΔΩ = +1. Rotational perturbations are widespread, consistent with a high density of excited electronic states. B. Simard, P.A. Hackett and W.J. Balfour, Chem. Phys. Lett., 230, 103 (1994).

  3. Atomic structure and phason modes of the Sc-Zn icosahedral quasicrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tsunetomo; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Euchner, Holger; Pay Gómez, Cesar; Bosak, Alexei; Fertey, Pierre; de Boissieu, Marc

    2016-07-01

    The detailed atomic structure of the binary icosahedral (i) ScZn7.33 quasicrystal has been investigated by means of high-resolution synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction and absolute scale measurements of diffuse scattering. The average atomic structure has been solved using the measured Bragg intensity data based on a six-dimensional model that is isostructural to the i-YbCd5.7 one. The structure is described with a quasiperiodic packing of large Tsai-type rhombic triacontahedron clusters and double Friauf polyhedra (DFP), both resulting from a close-packing of a large (Sc) and a small (Zn) atom. The difference in chemical composition between i-ScZn7.33 and i-YbCd5.7 was found to lie in the icosahedron shell and the DFP where in i-ScZn7.33 chemical disorder occurs on the large atom sites, which induces a significant distortion to the structure units. The intensity in reciprocal space displays a substantial amount of diffuse scattering with anisotropic distribution, located around the strong Bragg peaks, that can be fully interpreted as resulting from phason fluctuations, with a ratio of the phason elastic constants K 2/K 1 = -0.53, i.e. close to a threefold instability limit. This induces a relatively large perpendicular (or phason) Debye-Waller factor, which explains the vanishing of 'high-Q perp' reflections.

  4. High-performance Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulin, Sergiy A.; Schaefers, Franz; Feigl, Torsten; Kaiser, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    Results of soft x-ray reflection measurements of Cr/Sc multilayer mirrors close to the Sc absorption edge at 3.11 nm are presented. Improvements in the deposition technology and the adjustment of the multilayer period with an accuracy of better than 0.01 nm to this absorption edge enabled a step forward towards soft x-ray mirrors with an adequate reflectance that allow the realization of normal incidence optical components in the water window. In particular, reflectivity measurements performed at the PTB reflectometer at BESSY II in Berlin revealed a reflectivity of R = 14.8% at an incidence angle of θ = 1.5° and R = 15.0% at θ = 5°. Simulation results show that the interface widths between the Cr and Sc nanolayers are less than 0.4 nm. The annealing effect in short-period Cr/Sc multilayers was studied in the temperature range from 50°C to 500°C by X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Structural and phase transformations and the corresponding changes of the optical properties are presented and discussed.

  5. Dynamics of self-directed learning in M.Sc. nursing students: A qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH SHIRAZI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Working in the complex and ever changing healthcare settings forces the nurses and nursing students to be equipped with lifelong learning skills. One of the lifelong learning skills is self-directed learning. This study aimed to explore the M.Sc. nursing students’ self-directed learning activities. Methods: A qualitative design using conventional content analysis approach was used in this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve Iranian M.Sc. nursing students who were selected using purposive sampling. Results: Data analysis indicated that the M.Sc. nursing students performed different activities in their self-directed learning. These activities were categorized into four main themes and ten subthemes. The main themes were “sensory perceptions”, “knowledge construction”, “problem-centered orientation”, and “interaction with others”. Conclusion: According to the findings, the M.Sc. nursing students performed different intellectual and experiential self-directed activities for promoting their learning. Besides, the students’ perseverance and inquisitiveness played an important role in their self-directed learning in the challenging clinical environments.

  6. 75 FR 67968 - Arkwright Dump Site, Spartanburg, Spartanburg County, SC; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...] Arkwright Dump Site, Spartanburg, Spartanburg County, SC; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental... Dump Site located in Spartanburg, Spartanburg County, South Carolina for publication. DATES: The Agency..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-0892 or Site name Arkwright Dump Site by one of the...

  7. CERN Technical Training 2004: New Short Course III (SC III) on Microsoft Outlook - Meetings and Delegation

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Technical Training programme is now proposing a new format for courses on Microsoft Outlook. Three two-hours Short Courses (SC) cover basic and advanced functionalities of the recommended mail client for email at CERN. Each module can be followed independently. The next scheduled session of the 3rd module will take place as follows: Outlook (SC III): Meetings and Delegation. Next session: 9.11.2004 (14:00-16:00) SC III will cover how to organise and manage meetings, work with meeting requests, share tasks, and use email and calendar delegation. The number of participants to each session is limited to 8. The instructor is English-French bilingual, and she will be available some time after each session to answer specific questions, or provide further explanations following demand. The cost of attending any SC module on Outlook is 70.- CHF. The above session will be confirmed if there are enough participants, and the attendance costs will be lower in case of a full class. If you are interested in...

  8. 76 FR 9221 - Special Local Regulations; Patriot Challenge Kayak Race, Ashley River, Charleston, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Patriot Challenge Kayak Race... Guard is establishing special local regulations for the Patriot Challenge Kayak Race in Charleston, SC... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive notice of the Patriot Challenge Kayak Race...

  9. 78 FR 21258 - Special Local Regulations; Patriot Challenge Kayak Race, Ashley River; Charleston, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Patriot Challenge Kayak Race... Guard is establishing a special local regulation for the Patriot Challenge Kayak Race in Charleston, SC... 13, 2013, the Patriot Challenge Kayak Race is scheduled to take place on the waters of the...

  10. Pressure-induced structural transformations in the molybdate Sc-2(MoO4)(3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraguassu, W.; Maczka, M.; Filho, A. G. Sonza

    2004-01-01

    High pressure Raman scattering and x-ray diffraction studies of the molybdate Sc-2(MoO4)(3) are presented. A sequence of changing symmetry effects is observed through two structural phase transitions ending up with an amorphous state. The observed two structural phase transformations are reversib...

  11. Biogas Upgrading Using SOEC with a Ni-ScYSZ Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Bøgild Hansen, John; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Biogas consists mainly of CH4, CO2 and small amounts of H2S. The value of biogas will increase significantly if it is upgraded to pipeline quality by converting CO2 and H2O in the biogas to CO and H2 using a Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell (SOEC) followed by methanation. The Ni-ScYSZ-cermet electrode...

  12. Rheological Modeling with Hookean Bead-Spring Cubes (SC, BBC and FCC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denneman, A.I.M.; Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Mellema, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this study a general bead-spring model is used for predicting some rheological properties of a cubic bead-spring structure of arbitrary size immersed in a Newtonian solvent. The topology of this bead-spring structure is based upon the well-known cubic crystals (SC, BCC or FCC) and it consists of

  13. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium... Assistance on March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson... have occurred involving workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic...

  14. Automatic symbolic analysis of SC networks using a modified nodal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, V.A.; Petkovic, P.M.; Milanovic, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a symbolic analysis of Switched-Capacitor (SC) circuits in the z-domain using Modified Nodal Approach (MNA). We have selected the MNA method as one of the widely established approaches in circuit analysis. The analyses are performed using SymsimC symbolic simulator which also ena

  15. Electronic structure and physical properties of ScN in pressure: density-functional theory calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Peng-Fei; Wang Chong-Yu; Yu Tao

    2008-01-01

    Local density functional is investigated by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method for ScN in the hexagonal structure and the rocksalt structure and for hexagonal structures linking a layered hexagonal phase with wurtzite structure along a homogeneous strain transition path. It is found that the wurtzite ScN is unstable and the layered hexagonal phase, labelled as ho, in which atoms are approximately fivefold coordinated,is metastable, and the rocksalt ScN is stable. The electronic structure, the physical properties of the intermediate structures and the energy band structure along the transition are presented. It is found that the band gaps change from 4.0 to 1.0eV continuously when c/a value varies from 1.68 to 1.26. It is noticeable that the study of ScN provides an opportunity to apply this kind of material (in wurtzite[h]-derived phase).

  16. Final Report for Research supported by US DoE grant DE-SC0006721

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizard, Alain J. [Saint Michael' s College

    2014-08-27

    A final report is presented on research carried out by Alain J. Brizard (Principal Investigator) with funding provided by the U.S. DoE grant No. DE-SC0006721 during the period of 08/01/2011 to 07/31/2014.

  17. 77 FR 59451 - Pickens Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pickens County, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... abandon approximately 8.5 miles of rail line between approximate milepost 0.0 (at or near Pickens) and the end of the line at approximate milepost 8.5 (at or near Easley), in Pickens County, S.C. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 29671 and 29641. Pickens has certified that: (1) No...

  18. Spatial Frequency Scheduling for Uplink SC-FDMA based Linearly Precoded LTE Multiuser MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zihuai; Xiao, Pei; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) uplink Single Carrier (SC) Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) based linearly precoded multiuserMultiple InputMultiple Output (MIMO) systems with frequency domain packet scheduling. A mathematical expression...

  19. Far infrared transmittance of Sc2@C84 and Er2@C82

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grannan, S.M.; Birmingham, J.T.; Richards, P.L.; Bethune, D.S.; Vries, M.S. de; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Dorn, H.C.; Burbank, P.; Bailey, J.; Stevenson, S.

    1997-01-01

    We have measured the far infrared transmittance of Sc2@C84 and Er2@C82 at 1.5 K between 30 and 200 cm-1. Both materials are observed to have a large primary absorption feature centered at 95 cm-1 with a width of approximately 50 cm-1, as well as a number of secondary absorption features which are di

  20. SC-FDE for MMF short reach optical interconnects using directly modulated 850 nm VCSELs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teichmann, Victor S. C.; Barreto, Andre N.; Pham, Tien Thang

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of single-carrier frequency-domain equalization (SC-FDE) for the compensation of modal dispersion in short distance optical links using multimode fibers and 850 nm VCSELs. By post-processing of experimental data, we demonstrate, at 7.9% overhead, the error-free transmission (ov...

  1. Dynamics of self-directed learning in M.Sc. nursing students: A qualitative research

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIRAZI, FATEMEH; SHARIF, FARKHONDEH; MOLAZEM, ZAHRA; ALBORZI, MAHBOOBEH

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Working in the complex and ever changing healthcare settings forces the nurses and nursing students to be equipped with lifelong learning skills. One of the lifelong learning skills is self-directed learning. This study aimed to explore the M.Sc. nursing students’ self-directed learning activities. Methods: A qualitative design using conventional content analysis approach was used in this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve Iranian M.Sc. nursing students who were selected using purposive sampling. Results: Data analysis indicated that the M.Sc. nursing students performed different activities in their self-directed learning. These activities were categorized into four main themes and ten subthemes. The main themes were “sensory perceptions”, “knowledge construction”, “problem-centered orientation”, and “interaction with others”. Conclusion: According to the findings, the M.Sc. nursing students performed different intellectual and experiential self-directed activities for promoting their learning. Besides, the students’ perseverance and inquisitiveness played an important role in their self-directed learning in the challenging clinical environments. PMID:28124019

  2. Natural moisturizing factors (NMF) in the stratum corneum (SC). I. Effects of lipid extraction and soaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marisa; Visscher, Marty; Laruffa, Angela; Wickett, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Natural moisturizing factor (NMF) is essential for appropriate stratum corneum hydration, barrier homeostasis, desquamation, and plasticity. It is formed from filaggrin proteolysis to small, hygroscopic molecules including amino acids. We hypothesized that common lipid extraction and soaking in water would alter the level of NMF in the upper SC and its biophysical properties. A novel method of measuring and quantifying the amino acid components of NMF is presented. Adhesive tapes were used to collect samples of the stratum corneum (SC) and were extracted with 6mM perchloric acid for analysis by reverse-phase HPLC. HPLC results were standardized to the amount of protein removed by the tapes. An increase in NMF was found with increased SC depth. Also, the combination of extraction and soaking was found to increase NMF loss relative to control or to extraction or soaking alone. Our results indicate that common skin care practices significantly influence the water binding materials in the upper SC. The findings have implications for the evaluation and formulation of skin care products.

  3. 33 CFR 334.460 - Cooper River and tributaries at Charleston, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River and tributaries at... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.460 Cooper River and tributaries at Charleston, SC. (a) The areas: (1) That portion of the Cooper River beginning on the west...

  4. 33 CFR 334.470 - Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River and Charleston....470 Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. (a) The restricted areas. (1) Area No. 1 is that portion of the Cooper River beginning near the westerly shore north of Shipyard Creek...

  5. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A4SC-2ONNF [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A4SC-2ONNF 1A4S 2ONN C F AQLVDSMPSASTGSVVVTDDLNYWGGRRIKSKDGATTEP...KVMEMSAK-TVKHVTLELGGKSPLLIFKDCELENAVRGALMANFLTQGQVCTNGTRVFVQREIMPQFLEEVVKRTKAIVVG...ALETLDNGKPYVISYLVDLDMVLKCLRYYAGWADKYHGKTIPIDGDFFSYTRHEPVGVCGQIIPWNFPLLMQAWKLGPALATGNVVVMKVAEQTPLTALYVANLIKEA...----- EEE EEEEEE HHHHHHHH EEEE HHHHHHHHHH EEE GGG EEE GGG EEEEEEEEE -- EVID>...hain> 2ONN F 2ONNF

  6. 77 FR 74472 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... Renovable) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant... application from Energia Renovable for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

  7. Self-assembly of the hydrophobin SC3 proceeds via two structural intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vocht, Marcel L. de; Reviakine, Ilya; Ulrich, Wolf-Peter; Bergsma-Schutter, Wilma; Wösten, Han A.B.; Vogel, Horst; Brisson, Alain; Wessels, Joseph G.H.; Robillard, George T.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrophobins self assemble into amphipathic films at hydrophobic–hydrophilic interfaces. These proteins are involved in a broad range of processes in fungal development. We have studied the conformational changes that accompany the self-assembly of the hydrophobin SC3 with polarization-modulation in

  8. Erythropoietin Modification Enhances the Protection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Diabetic Rat-Derived Schwann Cells: Implications for Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes-triggered apoptosis of Schwann cells (SC contributes to the degradation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DNP. In recent years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC were applied to DPN repair and it was demonstrated that paracrine secretion played a key role in neuroprotection exerted by MSC. Erythropoietin (EPO is a potent cytokine capable of reducing apoptosis of SC. However, the expression of EPO in MSC is limited. In this study, we hypothesized that overexpression of EPO in MSC (EPO-MSC may significantly improve their neuroprotective potentials. The EPO overexpression in MSC was achieved by lentivirus transduction. SC derived from the periphery nerve of diabetic rats were cocultured with MSC or EPO-MSC in normal or high glucose culture condition, respectively. In normal glucose culture condition, the overexpression of EPO in MSC promoted the MSC-induced restoration of SC from diabetic rats, including increases in GSH level and cell viability, decrease in TUNEL apoptosis, upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins, p-Akt, and Bcl-2, and downregulation of proapoptotic proteins, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax. The subsequent results in high glucose culture condition showed similar promotions achieved by EPO-MSC. Thus, it could be concluded that EPO-MSC possessed a potent potential in hampering apoptosis of SC, and the suppression was probably attributed to attenuating oxidative stress and regulating apoptosis related protein factors.

  9. Signaling Networks among Stem Cell Precursors, Transit-Amplifying Progenitors, and their Niche in Developing Hair Follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Rezza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle (HF is a complex miniorgan that serves as an ideal model system to study stem cell (SC interactions with the niche during growth and regeneration. Dermal papilla (DP cells are required for SC activation during the adult hair cycle, but signal exchange between niche and SC precursors/transit-amplifying cell (TAC progenitors that regulates HF morphogenetic growth is largely unknown. Here we use six transgenic reporters to isolate 14 major skin and HF cell populations. With next-generation RNA sequencing, we characterize their transcriptomes and define unique molecular signatures. SC precursors, TACs, and the DP niche express a plethora of ligands and receptors. Signaling interaction network analysis reveals a bird’s-eye view of pathways implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Using a systematic tissue-wide approach, this work provides a comprehensive platform, linked to an interactive online database, to identify and further explore the SC/TAC/niche crosstalk regulating HF growth.

  10. Erythropoietin Modification Enhances the Protection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Diabetic Rat-Derived Schwann Cells: Implications for Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuyun

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes-triggered apoptosis of Schwann cells (SC) contributes to the degradation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DNP). In recent years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were applied to DPN repair and it was demonstrated that paracrine secretion played a key role in neuroprotection exerted by MSC. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a potent cytokine capable of reducing apoptosis of SC. However, the expression of EPO in MSC is limited. In this study, we hypothesized that overexpression of EPO in MSC (EPO-MSC) may significantly improve their neuroprotective potentials. The EPO overexpression in MSC was achieved by lentivirus transduction. SC derived from the periphery nerve of diabetic rats were cocultured with MSC or EPO-MSC in normal or high glucose culture condition, respectively. In normal glucose culture condition, the overexpression of EPO in MSC promoted the MSC-induced restoration of SC from diabetic rats, including increases in GSH level and cell viability, decrease in TUNEL apoptosis, upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins, p-Akt, and Bcl-2, and downregulation of proapoptotic proteins, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax. The subsequent results in high glucose culture condition showed similar promotions achieved by EPO-MSC. Thus, it could be concluded that EPO-MSC possessed a potent potential in hampering apoptosis of SC, and the suppression was probably attributed to attenuating oxidative stress and regulating apoptosis related protein factors.

  11. SOX9: a stem cell transcriptional regulator of secreted niche signaling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaja, Meelis; Keyes, Brice E; Lin, Mingyan; Pasolli, H Amalia; Genander, Maria; Polak, Lisa; Stokes, Nicole; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-02-15

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cyclical periods of growth, which are fueled by stem cells (SCs) at the base of the resting follicle. HF-SC formation occurs during HF development and requires transcription factor SOX9. Whether and how SOX9 functions in HF-SC maintenance remain unknown. By conditionally targeting Sox9 in adult HF-SCs, we show that SOX9 is essential for maintaining them. SOX9-deficient HF-SCs still transition from quiescence to proliferation and launch the subsequent hair cycle. However, once activated, bulge HF-SCs begin to differentiate into epidermal cells, which naturally lack SOX9. In addition, as HF-SC numbers dwindle, outer root sheath production is not sustained, and HF downgrowth arrests prematurely. Probing the mechanism, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify SOX9-dependent transcriptional changes and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify SOX9-bound genes in HF-SCs. Intriguingly, a large cohort of SOX9-sensitive targets encode extracellular factors, most notably enhancers of Activin/pSMAD2 signaling. Moreover, compromising Activin signaling recapitulates SOX9-dependent defects, and Activin partially rescues them. Overall, our findings reveal roles for SOX9 in regulating adult HF-SC maintenance and suppressing epidermal differentiation in the niche. In addition, our studies expose a role for SCs in coordinating their own behavior in part through non-cell-autonomous signaling within the niche.

  12. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1990-12-31

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele`s pivot. The Schiele`s pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele`s pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele`s pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  13. Coordinate regulation of stem cell competition by Slit-Robo and JAK-STAT signaling in the Drosophila testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Rachel R; Greenspan, Leah J; Ramachandran, Kapil V; Matunis, Erika L

    2014-11-01

    Stem cells in tissues reside in and receive signals from local microenvironments called niches. Understanding how multiple signals within niches integrate to control stem cell function is challenging. The Drosophila testis stem cell niche consists of somatic hub cells that maintain both germline stem cells and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs). Here, we show a role for the axon guidance pathway Slit-Roundabout (Robo) in the testis niche. The ligand Slit is expressed specifically in hub cells while its receptor, Roundabout 2 (Robo2), is required in CySCs in order for them to compete for occupancy in the niche. CySCs also require the Slit-Robo effector Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) to prevent over-adhesion of CySCs to the niche, and CySCs mutant for Abl outcompete wild type CySCs for niche occupancy. Both Robo2 and Abl phenotypes can be rescued through modulation of adherens junction components, suggesting that the two work together to balance CySC adhesion levels. Interestingly, expression of Robo2 requires JAK-STAT signaling, an important maintenance pathway for both germline and cyst stem cells in the testis. Our work indicates that Slit-Robo signaling affects stem cell function downstream of the JAK-STAT pathway by controlling the ability of stem cells to compete for occupancy in their niche.

  14. Coordinate regulation of stem cell competition by Slit-Robo and JAK-STAT signaling in the Drosophila testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel R Stine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells in tissues reside in and receive signals from local microenvironments called niches. Understanding how multiple signals within niches integrate to control stem cell function is challenging. The Drosophila testis stem cell niche consists of somatic hub cells that maintain both germline stem cells and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs. Here, we show a role for the axon guidance pathway Slit-Roundabout (Robo in the testis niche. The ligand Slit is expressed specifically in hub cells while its receptor, Roundabout 2 (Robo2, is required in CySCs in order for them to compete for occupancy in the niche. CySCs also require the Slit-Robo effector Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl to prevent over-adhesion of CySCs to the niche, and CySCs mutant for Abl outcompete wild type CySCs for niche occupancy. Both Robo2 and Abl phenotypes can be rescued through modulation of adherens junction components, suggesting that the two work together to balance CySC adhesion levels. Interestingly, expression of Robo2 requires JAK-STAT signaling, an important maintenance pathway for both germline and cyst stem cells in the testis. Our work indicates that Slit-Robo signaling affects stem cell function downstream of the JAK-STAT pathway by controlling the ability of stem cells to compete for occupancy in their niche.

  15. A Novel Role for Matrix Metalloproteinases In Regulating Mammary Stem Cell Function via the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessenbrock, Kai; Dijkgraaf, Gerrit J. P.; Lawson, Devon A.; Littlepage, Laurie E.; Shahi, Payam; Pieper, Ursula; Werb, Zena

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The microenvironment provides cues that control the behavior of epithelial stem and progenitor cells. Here, we identify matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) as a novel regulator of Wnt signaling and mammary stem cell (MaSC) activity. We show that MMP3 overexpression promotes hyperplastic epithelial growth, surprisingly, in a non-proteolytic manner via its hemopexin (HPX) domain. We demonstrate that MMP3-HPX specifically binds and inactivates Wnt5b, a non-canonical Wnt ligand that inhibits canonical Wnt signaling and mammary epithelial outgrowth in vivo. Indeed, transplants overexpressing MMP3 display increased canonical Wnt signaling, demonstrating that MMP3 is an extracellular regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. MMP3-deficient mice exhibit decreased MaSC populations and diminished mammary reconstituting activity, while MMP3 overexpression elevates MaSC function indicating that MMP3 is necessary for the maintenance of MaSCs. Our study reveals a novel mechanism by a microenvironmental protease that regulates Wnt signaling and impacts adult epithelial stem cell function. PMID:23871604

  16. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Sc3+ doped Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angadi, V. Jagdeesha; Choudhury, Leema; Sadhana, K.; Liu, Hsiang-Lin; Sandhya, R.; Matteppanavar, Shidaling; Rudraswamy, B.; Pattar, Vinayak; Anavekar, R. V.; Praveena, K.

    2017-02-01

    Sc3+ doped Mn0.5Zn0.5ScyFe2-yO4 (y=0.00, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) nanoparticles were synthesized by solution combustion method using mixture of fuels were reported for the first time. The mixture of fuels plays an important role in obtaining nano crystalline, single phase present without any heat treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the formation of the single-phase ferrites which crystallize in cubic spinel structure. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) exhibit two prominent bands around 360 cm-1 and 540 cm-1 which are characteristic feature of spinel ferrite. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs revealed the nanoparticles to be nearly spherical in shape and of fairly uniform size. The room temperature impedance spectra (IS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) measurements were carried out in order to study the effect of doping (Sc3+) on the characteristic properties of Mn-Zn ferrites. Further, the frequency dependent dielectric constant and dielectric loss were found to decrease with increasing multiple Sc3+ concentration. Nyquist plot in the complex impedance spectra suggest the existence of multiple electrical responses. Magnetic measurements reveals that saturation magnetization (Ms), remnant magnetization (Mr), magnetic moment (ηB) and magnetic particle size (Dm) increase with Sc3+ ion concentration up to x=0.03 and then decrease. The values of spin canting angle (αY-K) and the magnetic particle size (Dm) are found to be in the range of 68-75° and 10-19 nm respectively with Sc3+ concentration. The room temperature Mössbauer spectra were fitted with two sextets corresponding to ions at tetrahedral (A-) and octahedral (B-) sites confirms the spinel lattice. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra's has shown that high concentration of scandium doping leads to an increase in dipolar interaction and decrease in super exchange interaction.

  17. Recombinant norovirus-specific scFv inhibit virus-like particle binding to cellular ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Michele E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses cause epidemic outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in all age-groups. The rapid onset and ease of person-to-person transmission suggest that inhibitors of the initial steps of virus binding to susceptible cells have value in limiting spread and outbreak persistence. We previously generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb 54.6 that blocks binding of recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLP to Caco-2 intestinal cells and inhibits VLP-mediated hemagglutination. In this study, we engineered the antigen binding domains of mAb 54.6 into a single chain variable fragment (scFv and tested whether these scFv could function as cell binding inhibitors, similar to the parent mAb. Results The scFv54.6 construct was engineered to encode the light (VL and heavy (VH variable domains of mAb 54.6 separated by a flexible peptide linker, and this recombinant protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris. Purified scFv54.6 recognized native VLPs by immunoblot, inhibited VLP-mediated hemagglutination, and blocked VLP binding to H carbohydrate antigen expressed on the surface of a CHO cell line stably transfected to express α 1,2-fucosyltransferase. Conclusion scFv54.6 retained the functional properties of the parent mAb with respect to inhibiting norovirus particle interactions with cells. With further engineering into a form deliverable to the gut mucosa, norovirus neutralizing antibodies represent a prophylactic strategy that would be valuable in outbreak settings.

  18. 2D-ELDOR using full Sc- fitting and absorption lineshapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yun-Wei; Costa-Filho, Antonio; Freed, Jack H.

    2007-10-01

    Recent progress in developing 2D-ELDOR (2D electron-electron double resonance) techniques to better capture molecular dynamics in complex fluids, particularly in model and biological membranes, is reported. The new "full Sc- method", which corrects the spectral analysis for the phase distortion effects present in the experiments, is demonstrated to enhance the sensitivity of 2D-ELDOR in reporting on molecular dynamics in complex membrane environments. That is, instead of performing spectral fitting in the magnitude mode, our new method enables simultaneous fitting of both the real and imaginary components of the Sc- signal. The full Sc- fitting not only corrects the phase distortions in the experimental data but also more accurately determines instrumental dead times. The phase corrections applied to the Sc- spectrum enable the extraction of the pure absorption-mode spectrum, which is characterized by much better resolution than the magnitude-mode spectrum. In the absorption mode, the variation of homogeneous broadening, which reports on the dynamics of the spin probe, can even be observed by visual inspection. This new method is illustrated with results from model membranes of dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-cholesterol binary mixtures, as well as with results from plasma membrane vesicles of mast cells. In addition to the dynamic parameters, which provide quantitative descriptions for membranes at the molecular level, the high-resolution absorption spectra themselves may be used as a "fingerprint" to characterize membrane phases and distinguish coexisting components in biomembranes. Thus we find that 2D-ELDOR is greatly improved with the new "full Sc- method" especially for exploring the complexity of model and biological membranes.

  19. 2D-ELDOR using full S(c-) fitting and absorption lineshapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yun-Wei; Costa-Filho, Antonio; Freed, Jack H

    2007-10-01

    Recent progress in developing 2D-ELDOR (2D electron-electron double resonance) techniques to better capture molecular dynamics in complex fluids, particularly in model and biological membranes, is reported. The new "full S(c-) method", which corrects the spectral analysis for the phase distortion effects present in the experiments, is demonstrated to enhance the sensitivity of 2D-ELDOR in reporting on molecular dynamics in complex membrane environments. That is, instead of performing spectral fitting in the magnitude mode, our new method enables simultaneous fitting of both the real and imaginary components of the S(c-) signal. The full S(c-) fitting not only corrects the phase distortions in the experimental data but also more accurately determines instrumental dead times. The phase corrections applied to the S(c-) spectrum enable the extraction of the pure absorption-mode spectrum, which is characterized by much better resolution than the magnitude-mode spectrum. In the absorption mode, the variation of homogeneous broadening, which reports on the dynamics of the spin probe, can even be observed by visual inspection. This new method is illustrated with results from model membranes of dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-cholesterol binary mixtures, as well as with results from plasma membrane vesicles of mast cells. In addition to the dynamic parameters, which provide quantitative descriptions for membranes at the molecular level, the high-resolution absorption spectra themselves may be used as a "fingerprint" to characterize membrane phases and distinguish coexisting components in biomembranes. Thus we find that 2D-ELDOR is greatly improved with the new "full S(c-) method" especially for exploring the complexity of model and biological membranes.

  20. ΔNp63 promotes stem cell activity in mammary gland development and basal-like breast cancer by enhancing Fzd7 expression and Wnt signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rumela; Wei, Yong; Hwang, Julie; Hang, Xiang; Andres Blanco, Mario; Choudhury, Abrar; Tiede, Benjamin; Romano, Rose-Anne; DeCoste, Christina; Mercatali, Laura; Ibrahim, Toni; Amadori, Dino; Kannan, Nagarajan; Eaves, Connie J; Sinha, Satrajit; Kang, Yibin

    2014-10-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cancer is populated and maintained by tumour-initiating cells (TICs) with stem-like properties similar to those of adult tissue stem cells. Despite recent advances, the molecular regulatory mechanisms that may be shared between normal and malignant stem cells remain poorly understood. Here we show that the ΔNp63 isoform of the Trp63 transcription factor promotes normal mammary stem cell (MaSC) activity by increasing the expression of the Wnt receptor Fzd7, thereby enhancing Wnt signalling. Importantly, Fzd7-dependent enhancement of Wnt signalling by ΔNp63 also governs tumour-initiating activity of the basal subtype of breast cancer. These findings establish ΔNp63 as a key regulator of stem cells in both normal and malignant mammary tissues and provide direct evidence that breast cancer TICs and normal MaSCs share common regulatory mechanisms.

  1. Medialogi (Dansk informations brochure om Medialogi-uddannelsen, 1. til 10. semester (B.Sc. & Cand.Scient))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Informationsbrochure, 28 sider, om Medialogi uddannelsen (Cand. Scient.), der udbydes af Aalborg Universitet i Aalborg, Esbjerg og København. Brochuren beskriver 1. til 10. semester af uddannelsen (B.Sc. og M.Sc.). Informationen er primært rettet mod potentielle ansøgere til Medialogi uddannelsen...

  2. Identification of the Most Stable Sc2C80 Isomers: Structure, Electronic Property, and Molecular Spectra Investigations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静怡; 王太山; 舒春英; 吕鑫; 王春儒

    2012-01-01

    A systematic density functional theory investigation has been carried out to explore the possible structures of Sc2C80 at the BMK/6-31 G(d) level. The results clearly show that Sc2@C80-Ih, Sc2@Cso-Dsh, and Sc2C2@C78-C2v can be identified as three isomers of Sc2C80 metallofullerene with the lowest energy. Frontier molecular orbital analysis indicates that the two Sc2@C80 isomers have a charge state as (Sc〉)2@ C60 and the Sc2C2@C78 has a charge state of (Sc3+)2 C22- @ C784-. Moreover, the metal-cage covalent interactions have been studied to reveal the dynamics of endohedral moiety. The vertical electron affinity, vertical ionization potential, infrared spectra and 13C nuclear mag- netic resonance spectra have been also computed to further disclose the molecular structures and properties.

  3. SC1, an immunoglobulin-superfamily cell adhesion molecule, is involved in the brain metastatic activity of lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUBOTA, YUKA; KIRIMURA, NAOKI; SHIBA, HATSUKI; ADACHI, KAZUHIDE; TSUKAMOTO, YASUHIRO

    2015-01-01

    SC1 is a cell adhesion molecule that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily; this molecule was initially purified from the chick embryonic nervous system and was reported to exhibit homophilic adhesion activity. SC1 is transiently expressed in various organs during development and has been identified in numerous neoplastic tissues, including lung cancer and colorectal carcinomas. The present study focused on the encephalic metastasis of lung cancer cells with respect to the potential function of SC1, as this molecule is known to be consistently expressed in the central nervous system as well as lung cancers. SC1 complementary DNA was introduced into A549 cells, a human lung cancer-derived cell line. The stable overexpression of the SC1 protein in A549 cells was demonstrated to enhance the self-aggregation of the cells. In addition, the SC1 transfectants enhanced the metastatic and invasive potential to the encephalic parenchyma following implantation into nude mice. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that cell adhesion due interactions between SC1 on brain tissue and SC1 on lung cancer cells was involved in the malignant aspects of lung cancer, including invasion and metastasis to the brain. PMID:26622821

  4. Curriculum (Study Programme) for the 3rd to 6th semester of the B.Sc., Medialogy, at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Serafin, Stefania; Lavatino, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    Major revision of the original curriculum of the B.Sc., Medialogy. Significant changes (extensive restructuring) in comparison with the first version of the curriculum.......Major revision of the original curriculum of the B.Sc., Medialogy. Significant changes (extensive restructuring) in comparison with the first version of the curriculum....

  5. Effect of minor Sc and Zr addition on microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Liang; PAN Qing-lin; HE Yun-bin; WANG Chang-zhen; LIANG Wen-jie

    2007-01-01

    Three kinds of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu based alloys with 0.22%, 0.36%(Sc+Zr) (mass fraction, %), and without Sc, Zr addition were prepared by ingot metallurgy. By using optical microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the effects of microalloying elements of Sc, Zr on the microstructure of super-high-strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys related to mechanical properties were investigated. The tensile properties and microstructures of the studied alloys under different heat treatment conditions were studied. The addition of minor Sc, Zr results in the formation of Al3(Sc,Zr) particles. These particles are highly effective in refining the microstructures, retarding recrystallization, pinning dislocations and subboundaries. The strength of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys was greatly improved by simultaneously adding minor Sc, Zr, meanwhile the ductility of the studied alloys remains at a higher level. The 0.36%(Sc+Zr) alloys gain the optimal properties after 465 ℃/h solution and 120 ℃/24 h aging. The increment of strength is mainly due to strengthening of fine grain and substructure and precipitation of Al3(Sc, Zr) particles.

  6. Structure, phase transition, and controllable thermal expansion behaviors of Sc(2-x)Fe(x)Mo₃O₁₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meimei; Liu, Xinzhi; Chen, Dongfeng; Huang, Qingzhen; Wu, Hui; Liu, Yuntao

    2014-09-02

    The crystal structures, phase transition, and thermal expansion behaviors of solid solutions of Sc(2-x)Fe(x)Mo3O12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) have been examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron powder diffraction (NPD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). At room temperature, samples crystallize in a single orthorhombic structure for the compositions of x thermal expansion, and the volumetric coefficients of thermal expansion derived from XRD and NPD are 0.28 × 10(-6) °C(-1) (250-800 °C) and 0.65 × 10(-6) °C(-1) (227-427 °C), respectively. NPD results of Sc2Mo3O12 (x = 0) and Sc(1.3)Fe(0.7)Mo3O12 (x = 0.7) indicate that Fe substitution for Sc induces reduction of the mean Sc(Fe)-Mo nonbond distance and the different thermal variations of Sc(Fe)-O5-Mo2 and Sc(Fe)-O3-Mo2 bond angles. The correlation between the displacements of oxygen atoms and the variation of unit cell parameters was investigated in detail for Sc2Mo3O12.

  7. Naked (C5Me5)(2)M cations (M = Sc, Ti, and V) and their fluoroarene complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwkamp, MW; Budzelaar, PHM; Gercama, J; Morales, ID; de Wolf, J; Meetsma, A; Troyanov, SI; Teuben, JH; Hessen, B; Budzelaar, Peter H.M.; Hierro Morales, Isabel Del; Troyanov, Sergei I.

    2005-01-01

    The ionic metallocene complexes [Cp*M-2][BPh4] (CP* = C5Me5) of the trivalent 3d metals Sc, Ti, and V were synthesized and structurally characterized. For M Sc, the anion interacts weakly with the metal center through one of the phenyl groups, but for M = Ti and V, the cations are naked. They each c

  8. Escargot Restricts Niche Cell to Stem Cell Conversion in the Drosophila Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Voog

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells reside within specialized microenvironments, or niches, that control many aspects of stem cell behavior. Somatic hub cells in the Drosophila testis regulate the behavior of cyst stem cells (CySCs and germline stem cells (GSCs and are a primary component of the testis stem cell niche. The shutoff (shof mutation, characterized by premature loss of GSCs and CySCs, was mapped to a locus encoding the evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Escargot (Esg. Hub cells depleted of Esg acquire CySC characteristics and differentiate as cyst cells, resulting in complete loss of hub cells and eventually CySCs and GSCs, similar to the shof mutant phenotype. We identified Esg-interacting proteins and demonstrate an interaction between Esg and the corepressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP, which was also required for maintenance of hub cell fate. Our results indicate that niche cells can acquire stem cell properties upon removal of a single transcription factor in vivo.

  9. Síndrome hemofagocítico y salmonelosis en un paciente con hemoglobinopatía SC Hemophagocytic syndrome and salmonellosis in a patient with SC hemoglobinipathy

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Fernando Pinto; Javier Molina; Francisco Cuellar; Amado Karduss

    1989-01-01

    Se informa el caso de un joven de 14 años con hemoglobinopatía SC que tuvo un síndrome hemofagocítico (SH) secundario a salmonelosis. Se discuten las características de este síndrome y su diagnóstico diferencial. Se hace énfasis en la importancia de considerarlo entre las posibilidades diagnósticas dada la frecuencia en Colombia de las infecciones que pueden desencadenarlo, a saber: tuberculosis, salmonelosis y ...

  10. 链霉菌SC120细胞毒活性代谢产物的研究%A CYTOTOXIC METABOLITE OF STREPTOMYCES SP. SC120

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继栋; 魏孝义; 朱西儒; 谢海辉; 陈贻竹

    2003-01-01

    在研究链霉菌Streptomyces sp. SC120抗荔枝霜疫霉菌活性代谢产物的过程中,分离得到一对人鼻咽癌细胞具有细胞毒作用的抗生素.通过UV、IR、HR-MS、1H-NMR、13C-NMR、DEPT、1H-1H COSY、HMQC、HMBC等波谱分析,鉴定其结构与Pimprinine相同.首次报道Pimprinine对人鼻咽癌细胞具有细胞毒作用.

  11. PTEN, Stem Cells, and Cancer Stem Cells*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Reginald; Wu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Like normal stem cells, “cancer stem cells” have the capacity for indefinite proliferation and generation of new cancerous tissues through self-renewal and differentiation. Among the major intracellular signaling pathways, WNT, SHH, and NOTCH are known to be important in regulating normal stem cell activities, and their alterations are associated with tumorigenesis. It has become clear recently that PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) is also critical for stem cell...

  12. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge; Garcia-Martinez; Bjorn; Bakker; Klaske; M; Schukken; Judith; E; Simon; Floris; Foijer

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells(IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to reality. However,as somatic cells might have accumulated various chromosomal abnormalities,including aneuploidies throughout their lives,the resulting IPSCs might no longer carry the perfect blueprint for the tissue to be generated,or worse,become at risk of adopting a malignant fate. In this review,we discuss the contribution of aneuploidy to healthy tissues and how aneuploidy can lead to disease. Furthermore,we review the differences between how somatic cells and stem cells respond to aneuploidy.

  13. Stem Properties of Autobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Berdichevskyy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the stem properties of the autobacteria as part of the activation syndrome and persistence of the endogenous microflora in the adaptation process of the macroorganism to stress, as well as the ability of the bacteria to stimulate the cells of the macroorganism to manifest stem properties. The essence of this syndrome involves testing the tissue with the autobacteria of their "host" body to identify the foci of cellular insolvency with the subsequent inclusion of the autostrains in the implementation phase of the catabolic and anabolic inflammations. Considering the genetic tropism of the microbes to the organ-specific tissue of the area affected, the existence of the stem properties of the autobacteria is assumed to be realized in the process of reparative regeneration. The great clinical significance of further study of this phenomenon is not excluded.

  14. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  15. Construction, Expression and In Vitro Biological Behaviors of Ig scFv Fragment in Patients with Chronic B Cell Leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lijuan; LIAO Wenjun; ZHU Huifen; LEI Ping; WANG Zhihua; SHAO Jingfang; ZHANG Yue; SHEN Guanxin

    2006-01-01

    The expression vector of SmIg scFv fragment was constructed in patient with B cell chronic lymphocyte leukemia (B-CLL) and expressed in E. coli to obtain scFv fragment, and the effect of the protein on the proliferation of stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated in vitro. Two pairs of primers were designed, and variable region genes of light chain and heavy chain were amplified by PCR respectively from the pGEM-T vectors previously constructed in our laboratory which containing light chain gene or Fd fragment of heavy chain gene. The PCR product was digested, purified and inserted into pHEN2 vector to construct the soluble expression vector pHEN2-scFv. After the induction by IPTG, the scFv protein was identified by SDSPAGE electrophoresis and purified by Ni-NTA-Chromatography. MTT was used to determine the effect of purified protein on the proliferation of stimulated PBMC in vitro. Plasmid PCR and restriction enzyme digestion of pHEN2-scFv revealed the pHEN2-scFv vector was constructed successfully. Id-scFv protein was expressed in positive clone after induced by IPTG. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the relative molecular weight of fusion protein was about 30 kD (1 kD=0.9921 ku),which was consistent with the theoretically predicted value. Proliferation of PBMC could be induced by purified Id-scFv. It was suggested that the expression vector of SmIg scFv fragment was constructed successfully, and scFv protein was expressed and secreted from E. coli, which could induce proliferation of PBMC. This may lay an experimental foundation for further research of IdHSP complex vaccine for B-CLL.

  16. Generation of a recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) targeting 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Motohiro; Tadakuma, Tomomi; Hayashi, Hideki; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2010-01-01

    We generated a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (m(5)dCyd) using phage display technology. The heavy and light chain variable region genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from hybridoma cell line FMC9 and assembled as an scFv fragment with a flexible linker (Gly(4)-Ser)(3). The scFv DNA fragment was then cloned into pCANTAB-5E, and a phage displaying the scFv was produced. Antigen-positive phage clones were successfully selected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The scFv was modified with FLAG and His tags for detection and purification. The scFv reacted strongly with m(5)dCyd and weakly with 5-methylcytidine (m(5)Cyd) but not with cytidine (Cyd) and 1-methyladenosine in a manner similar to the monoclonal antibody (MoAb). Although the specificities of scFv and MoAb were almost identical, the sensitivity of the scFv (IC(50) 0.054 microg/ml) was approximately 80 times higher than that of the parent MoAb (IC(50) 4.27 microg/ml), determined by inhibition ELISA. As a biochemical application of this scFv, we quantified the m(5)dCyd content of genomic DNA by enzymatic hydrolysis using inhibition ELISA. The cancer cell lines HeLa, HeLa S3 and MDA-MB-453 contained approximately 1% of the methylated DNA in total genomic DNA, as did peripheral blood cell genomic DNA from healthy volunteers, but HT29 and T-47D showed hypomethylation compared with the HeLa, HeLa S3 and MDA-MB-453 cell lines. The scFv generated here may be applicable to the assessment of cellular DNA methylation levels and is more sensitive than the MoAb.

  17. Oxygen "getter" effects on microstructure and carrier transport in low temperature combustion-processed a-InXZnO (X = Ga, Sc, Y, La) transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Smith, Jeremy; Yan, Aiming; Kim, Myung-Gil; Zhao, Wei; Dravid, Vinayak P; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2013-07-24

    In oxide semiconductors, such as those based on indium zinc oxide (IXZO), a strong oxygen binding metal ion ("oxygen getter"), X, functions to control O vacancies and enhance lattice formation, hence tune carrier concentration and transport properties. Here we systematically study, in the IXZO series, the role of X = Ga(3+) versus the progression X = Sc(3+) → Y(3+) → La(3+), having similar chemical characteristics but increasing ionic radii. IXZO films are prepared from solution over broad composition ranges for the first time via low-temperature combustion synthesis. The films are characterized via thermal analysis of the precursor solutions, grazing incidence angle X-ray diffraction (GIAXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging. Excellent thin-film transistor (TFT) performance is achieved for all X, with optimal compositions after 300 °C processing exhibiting electron mobilities of 5.4, 2.6, 2.4, and 1.8 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for Ga(3+), Sc(3+), Y(3+), and La(3+), respectively, and with I(on)/I(off) = 10(7)-10(8). Analysis of the IXZO TFT positive bias stress response shows X = Ga(3+) to be superior with mobilities (μ) retaining >95% of the prestress values and threshold voltage shifts (ΔV(T)) of lattice formation. We conclude that the metal oxide lattice formation enthalpy (ΔH(L)) and metal ionic radius are the best predictors of IXZO oxygen getter efficacy.

  18. Stem cell therapy for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K O Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy holds immense promise for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Research on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into islet cells has defined the developmental stages and transcription factors involved in this process. However, the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells are limited by ethical concerns, as well as the potential for teratoma formation. As a consequence, alternative forms of stem cell therapies, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, have become an area of intense study. Recent advances in stem cell therapy may turn this into a realistic treatment for diabetes in the near future.

  19. Stem cells and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Margaret A; Rando, Thomas A

    2015-12-04

    Research into stem cells and aging aims to understand how stem cells maintain tissue health, what mechanisms ultimately lead to decline in stem cell function with age, and how the regenerative capacity of somatic stem cells can be enhanced to promote healthy aging. Here, we explore the effects of aging on stem cells in different tissues. Recent research has focused on the ways that genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and the extrinsic environmental milieu influence stem cell functionality over time. We describe each of these three factors, the ways in which they interact, and how these interactions decrease stem cell health over time. We are optimistic that a better understanding of these changes will uncover potential strategies to enhance stem cell function and increase tissue resiliency into old age.

  20. The Stem Cell Conundrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the beginning of this year, Kelly Reynolds,a US-national diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), became the one of the latest overseas patient to undergo stem cell treatment at the Nanshan Hospital in Shenzhen.Confined to a wheelchair and with limited use of his hands,the 39-year old received four fetal stem cell injections over a three-week period. So far,the results have been positive and Reynolds, acording to his personal blog page, is upbeat about the long-term benefits.

  1. Performance analysis of combined transmit SC/Receive MRC in Nakagami fading channels%Nakagami衰落信道上组合SC/MRC的性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光球

    2007-01-01

    研究Nakagami衰落信道上组合发射机选择合并(SC)/接收机最大比合并(MRC)天线分集系统的性能.使用矩生成函数方法,推导采用组合SC/MRC天线分集和相干检测的MPSK(M进制相移键控)、MQAM(M进制正交幅度调制)、MPAM(M进制脉冲幅度调制)、BFSK(二进制频移键控)、最小相关BFSK(BFSKmin)、差分编码BPSK(DE-BPSK)和预编码MSK(最小频移键控)等几种M进制数字调制方式在Nakagami衰落信道上的误符号率性能,获得了M进制数字调制系统误符号率性能的精确数学表达式.数值计算结果阐明了发射天线和接收天线数目以及衰落参数对数字调制系统误符号率性能的影响.

  2. Síndrome hemofagocítico y salmonelosis en un paciente con hemoglobinopatía SC Hemophagocytic syndrome and salmonellosis in a patient with SC hemoglobinipathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Pinto

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se informa el caso de un joven de 14 años con hemoglobinopatía SC que tuvo un síndrome hemofagocítico (SH secundario a salmonelosis. Se discuten las características de este síndrome y su diagnóstico diferencial. Se hace énfasis en la importancia de considerarlo entre las posibilidades diagnósticas dada la frecuencia en Colombia de las infecciones que pueden desencadenarlo, a saber: tuberculosis, salmonelosis y leishmaniasis.

    We report a case of hemophagocytlc syndrome occurrlng In a 14 year old boy with SC hemoglobinopathy and salmonellosis; the clinical features of the syndrome are discussed; the need to consider this syndrome In the differential diagnosis is emphazised, since several of the infections that may lead to It- tuberculosis, salmonellosis, lelsmaniasis. are frequently found in colombian patients

  3. Hydroxyurea decreases hospitalizations in pediatric patients with Hb SC and Hb SB+ thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebensburger JD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey D Lebensburger, Rakeshkumar J Patel, Prasannalaxmi Palabindela, Christina J Bemrich-Stolz, Thomas H Howard, Lee M HilliardDivision of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAPurpose: Patients with hemoglobin SC (Hb SC and hemoglobin SB+ (Hb SB+ thalassemia suffer from frequent hospitalizations yet strong evidence of a clinical benefit of hydroxyurea (HU in this population is lacking. Patients with recurrent hospitalizations for pain crisis are offered HU at our institution based on small cohort data and anecdotal benefit. This study identifies outcomes from a large cohort of patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia who were treated with HU for 2 years.Materials and methods: A retrospective review was conducted of 32 patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia who were treated with HU. We reviewed the number, and reasons for hospitalization in the 2 years prior to, and 2 years post-HU treatment as well as laboratory changes from baseline, over 1 year.Results: Patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia started on HU for frequent pain, had a significant reduction in hospitalizations over 2 years as compared to the 2 years prior to HU initiation (mean total hospitalizations/year: pre-HU: 1.6 vs post-HU 0.4 hospitalizations, P<0.001; mean pain hospitalizations/year: pre-HU 1.5 vs post-HU 0.3 hospitalizations, P<0.001. Patients demonstrated hematologic changes including an increase in percent fetal hemoglobin (%HbF pre–post HU (4.5% to 7.7%, P=0.002, mean corpuscular volume (74 to 86 fL, P<0,0001, and decrease in absolute neutrophil count (5.0 to 3.2×109/L, P=0.007. Patients with higher doses of HU demonstrated the greatest reduction in hospitalizations but this was unrelated to absolute neutrophil count.Conclusion: This cohort of patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia provides additional support for using HU in patients with recurrent hospitalizations for pain. A large randomized multicenter trial of

  4. Investigation on Mg and Sc co-doped Ceria electrolyte for IT-SOFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Ravi Chandran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline form of pure ceria (CeO2 and metal (Mg or Sc doped ceria was attempted for 10 mol %. Also, Mg and Sc co-doped ceria with Ce1-x(Mg0.5Sc0.5xO2 (x=0-0.24 was prepared as an electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs by co-precipitation method. The synthesized different compositions of pure and doped nanocrystalline powders were then subjected to powder X-ray diffraction (XRD for phase and structural identification. All the nanocrystalline samples were found to be ceria based solid solutions of fluorite type structures. A.C. impedance spectroscopy measurements in the frequency range of 50Hz to 5MHz was carried out to study the grain, grain boundary and ionic conductivity of doped ceria samples in the temperature range of 400-600oC. The sample Ce0.84(Mg0.5Sc0.50.16O2 composition showed highest ionic conductivity i.e., 1.923 x 10-2 S/cm at 500oC. Its morphology and composition was investigated using scanning electron microscopic analysis (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS and conductivity behavior was compared with those of pure ceria and singly doped ceria electrolytes namely Ce0.9Mg0.1O2 and Ce0.9Sc0.1O2. The impedance analysis reveals that the sample Ce0.9Mg0.1O2 was found to have higher ionic conductivity compared to Ce0.9Sc0.1O2 in the temperature range of 400–600°C. The co-doped ceria showed a much higher conductivity in air at 500oC in comparison to that of singly doped ceria. Therefore, these co-doped ceria are also the more ideal electrolyte materials for IT-SOFCs. Nyquist plot shows the major contributions were due to the grain boundary resistance contributions which accounts for the higher ionic conductivity in case of the dopants. These dopant effect on the ceria is discussed in detail.

  5. Laser biomodulation on stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

    2001-08-01

    Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

  6. Quel rôle pour les scénarios Facteur 4 dans la construction de la décision publique ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Bibas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plusieurs exercices de prospective de long terme ont été élaborés pour définir les trajectoires énergétiques permettant de respecter le Facteur 4 en France. Sept ont été identifiés et sont analysés à la fois du point de vue méthodologique et des résultats. Une réflexion est alors menée sur le rôle de la scénarisation. Paradoxalement, les résultats de ces analyses montrent qu’un seul des scénarios permet d’atteindre le Facteur 4, démontrant ainsi les limites de ces études. D’un point de vue méthodologique, les modèles d’ingénieur utilisés apparaissent comme des boites noires, avec leurs propres hypothèses technologiques et qui rendent les résultats peu appropriables par le non-spécialiste. L’enjeu est donc d’accompagner les travaux de modélisation par des échanges au sein d’une plateforme entre modélisateurs, économistes, technologues, sociologues et représentants de la société civile. Pour renforcer leur légitimité, ces scénarios doivent ainsi participer à l’appropriation sociale et politique des résultats scientifiques.Seven long-term prospective studies representing the energy trajectories consistent with a Factor Four, i.e. a 75% reduction of greenhouse gases emissions in 2050 in France have been identified. We analyze their methodology and the high dispersion of results. Then we discuss the role of scenario-making. Among them, only one of the scenarios achieves the Factor Four, thereby showing the limitations of these studies. On the methodological side, the engineering models used appear as black boxes, each using their own technological hypotheses and not readily understandable by the non-specialist. Therefore, exchanges between modelers, economists, technologists, sociologists and representatives of the civil society are a key factor for these scenario elaboration as their legitimacy stems from social and politic appropriation of scientific results.

  7. L-Arginine ethylester enhances in vitro amplification of PrP(Sc) in macaques with atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy and enables presymptomatic detection of PrP(Sc) in the bodily fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Y; Ono, F; Shimozaki, N; Shibata, H

    2016-02-12

    Protease-resistant, misfolded isoforms (PrP(Sc)) of a normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in the bodily fluids, including blood, urine, and saliva, are expected to be useful diagnostic markers of prion diseases, and nonhuman primate models are suited for performing valid diagnostic tests for human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). We developed an effective amplification method for PrP(Sc) derived from macaques infected with the atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) prion by using mouse brain homogenate as a substrate in the presence of polyanions and L-arginine ethylester. This method was highly sensitive and detected PrP(Sc) in infected brain homogenate diluted up to 10(10) by sequential amplification. This method in combination with PrP(Sc) precipitation by sodium phosphotungstic acid is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) contained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva, urine, and plasma of macaques that have been intracerebrally inoculated with the L-BSE prion. Furthermore, PrP(Sc) was detectable in the saliva or urine samples as well as CSF samples obtained at the preclinical phases of the disease. Thus, our novel method may be useful for furthering the understanding of bodily fluid leakage of PrP(Sc) in nonhuman primate models.

  8. Information on Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Current Research » Focus on Research Focus on Stem Cell Research Stem cells possess the unique ability to differentiate into many ... they also retain the ability to produce more stem cells, a process termed self-renewal. There are multiple ...

  9. Stem Cell Transplants (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Parents > Stem Cell Transplants Print A A A What's in this ... Recovery Coping en español Trasplantes de células madre Stem cells are cells in the body that have the ...

  10. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or mer

  11. Stem cells and genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we have discussed a role of stem cells in the treatment of genetic diseases including cochlear and retinal regeneration. The most perceptive use of stem cells at the genetic diseases is cellular repair of tissues affected by a genetic mutation when stem cells without such mutation are transplanted to restore normal tissue function.

  12. Mammary-Stem-Cell-Based Somatic Mouse Models Reveal Breast Cancer Drivers Causing Cell Fate Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer genomics has provided an unprecedented opportunity for understanding genetic causes of human cancer. However, distinguishing which mutations are functionally relevant to cancer pathogenesis remains a major challenge. We describe here a mammary stem cell (MaSC organoid-based approach for rapid generation of somatic genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs. By using RNAi and CRISPR-mediated genome engineering in MaSC-GEMMs, we have discovered that inactivation of Ptpn22 or Mll3, two genes mutated in human breast cancer, greatly accelerated PI3K-driven mammary tumorigenesis. Using these tumor models, we have also identified genetic alterations promoting tumor metastasis and causing resistance to PI3K-targeted therapy. Both Ptpn22 and Mll3 inactivation resulted in disruption of mammary gland differentiation and an increase in stem cell activity. Mechanistically, Mll3 deletion enhanced stem cell activity through activation of the HIF pathway. Thus, our study has established a robust in vivo platform for functional cancer genomics and has discovered functional breast cancer mutations.

  13. Characterization of mitochondrial populations during stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerscher, Petra; Bussie, Blakely S; DeSimone, Katherine M; Dunn, David A; Lipke, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in numerous physiological and pathophysiological phenomena in the developing and adult human heart. Alterations in structural aspects of cellular mitochondrial composition as a function of changes in physiology can easily be visualized using fluorescence microscopy. Commonly, mitochondrial location, number, and morphology are reported qualitatively due to the lack of automated and user-friendly computer-based analysis tools. Mitochondrial Quantification using MATLAB (MQM) is a computer-based tool to quantitatively assess these parameters by analyzing fluorescently labeled mitochondria within the cell; in particular, MQM provides numerical information on the number, area, and location of mitochondria within a cell in a time-efficient, automated, and unbiased way. This chapter describes the use of MQM's capabilities to quantify mitochondrial changes during human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) differentiation into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes (SC-CMs), which follows physiological pathways of human heart development.

  14. Stem cell heterogeneity revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne S; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    The skin forms a protective, water-impermeable barrier consisting of heavily crosslinked epithelial cells. However, the specific role of stem cells in sustaining this barrier remains a contentious issue. A detailed analysis of the interfollicular epidermis now proposes a model for how a composite...... of cells with different properties are involved in its maintenance....

  15. STEM Sense and Nonsense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charette, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    If you can believe the daily flood of mass media stories, journal articles, and white papers, the United States is facing a STEM worker crisis. Business leaders and politicians warn that the nation is falling hopelessly behind in the global economic race because our students are unprepared for and uninterested in science, technology, engineering,…

  16. A Problem with STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Striking differences between physics and biology have important implications for interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The author is a physicist with interdisciplinary connections. The research group in which he works, the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics at the University of Texas at Austin, is…

  17. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  18. Acute Splenic Sequestration Crisis in a 70-Year-Old Patient With Hemoglobin SC Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Squiers BSE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old African American female with a past medical history significant for chronic bilateral shoulder pain and reported sickle cell trait presented with acute-onset bilateral thoracolumbar pain radiating to her left arm. Two days after admission, Hematology was consulted for severely worsening microcytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Examination of the patient’s peripheral blood smear from admission revealed no cell sickling, spherocytes, or schistocytes. Some targeting was noted. A Coombs test was negative. The patient was eventually transferred to the medical intensive care unit in respiratory distress. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed a diagnosis of hemoglobin SC disease. A diagnosis of acute splenic sequestration crisis complicated by acute chest syndrome was crystallized, and red blood cell exchange transfusion was performed. Further research is necessary to fully elucidate the pathophysiology behind acute splenic sequestration crisis, and the role of splenectomy to treat hemoglobin SC disease patients should be better defined.

  19. Theoretical Calculations of Transition Probabilities and Oscillator Strengths for Sc(Ⅲ) and Y(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-yi Zhang; Neng-wu Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The Weakest Bound Electron Potential Model theory is used to calculate transition probability-values and oscillator strength-values for individual lines of Sc(Ⅲ) and Y(Ⅲ). In this method, by solving the SchrSdinger equation of the weakest bound electron, the expressions of energy eigenvalue and the radial function can be obtained. And a coupled equation is used to determine the parameters which are needed in the calculations. The ob-tained results of Sc(Ⅲ) from this work agree very well with the accepted values taken from the National Institute of Standards and Technoligy (NIST) data base, most deviations are within the accepted level. For Y(Ⅲ) there are no accepted values reported by the NIST data base. So we compared our results of Y(Ⅲ) with other theoretical results, good agreement is also obtained.

  20. Atomic physics modeling of transmission spectra of Sc-doped aerogel foams to support OMEGA experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, H. M.; Lanier, N. E.; Kline, J. L.; Fontes, C. J.; Perry, T. S.; Fryer, C. L.; Brown, C. R. D.; Morton, J. W.; Hager, J. D.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    We present synthetic transmission spectra generated with PrismSPECT utilizing both the ATBASE model and the Los Alamos opacity library (OPLIB) to evaluate whether an alternative choice in atomic data will impact modeling of experimental data from radiation transport experiments using Sc-doped aerogel foams (ScSi6O12 at 75 mg/cm3 density). We have determined that in the 50-200 eV Te range there is a significant difference in the 1s-3p spectra, especially below 100 eV, and for Te = 200 eV above 5000 eV in photon energy. Examining synthetic spectra generated using OPLIB with 300 resolving power reveals spectral sensitivity to Te changes of ˜3 eV.

  1. Fatigue Performance of Friction-Stir-Welded Al-Mg-Sc Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhemchuzhnikova, Daria; Mironov, Sergey; Kaibyshev, Rustam

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue behavior of a friction-stir-welded Al-Mg-Sc alloy was examined in cast and hot-rolled conditions. In both cases, the joints failed in the base material region and therefore the joint efficiency was 100 pct. The specimens machined entirely from the stir zone demonstrated fatigue strength superior to that of the base material in both preprocessed tempers. It was shown that the excellent fatigue performance of friction-stir joints was attributable to the ultra-fine-grained microstructure, the low dislocation density evolved in the stir zone, and the preservation of Al3Sc coherent dispersoids during welding. The formation of such structure hinders the initiation and growth of fatigue microcracks that provides superior fatigue performance of friction-stir welds.

  2. Generation and Characterization of an scFv Directed against Site II of Rabies Glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukra M. Aavula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant antibody phage display technology is a vital tool that facilitates identification of specific binding molecules to a target enabling the rapid generation and selection of high affinity, fully human, or mouse antibody product candidates essentially directed towards disease target appropriate for antibody therapy. In this study, a recombinant single-chain Fv antibody fragment (scFv A11 was isolated from immune spleen cells obtained from mice immunized with inactivated rabies virus (Pasteur strain using standard methodology and was characterized for its specificity towards the rabies virus glycoprotein. Epitope mapping using peptide libraries and truncated glycoprotein polypeptides suggested that A11 bound to the antigenic site II of rabies glycoprotein against which a majority of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies are directed. The use of the above technology could, therefore, allow development of scFvs with different specificities against the rabies glycoprotein as an alternative to the more cumbersome protocols used for the development of monoclonal antibodies.

  3. Two-dimensional nanoscale correlations in the strong negative thermal expansion material ScF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handunkanda, Sahan U.; Occhialini, Connor A.; Said, Ayman H.; Hancock, Jason N.

    2016-12-01

    We present diffuse x-ray scattering data on the strong negative thermal expansion (NTE) material ScF3 and find that two-dimensional nanoscale correlations exist at momentum-space regions associated with possibly rigid rotations of the perovskite octahedra. We address the extent to which rigid octahedral motion describes the dynamical fluctuations behind NTE by generalizing a simple model supporting a single floppy mode that is often used to heuristically describe instances of NTE. We find this model has tendencies toward dynamic inhomogeneities and its application to recent and existing experimental data suggest an intricate link between the nanometer correlation length scale, the energy scale for octahedral tilt fluctuations, and the coefficient of thermal expansion in ScF3. We then investigate the breakdown of the rigid limit and propose a resolution to an outstanding debate concerning the role of molecular rigidity in strong NTE materials.

  4. Special Issue: SC13 – The International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gropp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical papers program for SC13 received 449 submissions of which 90 where selected for the program giving an acceptance rate of 20%. A rigorous peer review process, including author rebuttals and a 1.5 day face-to-face program committee meeting ensured that selected papers were the very best in our field. One of the tasks at the face-to-face meeting was also to select finalists for the best paper award, from which one is selected by a committee during the conference. To further highlight their achievement of being selected as the very top tier of all the submitted papers to SC13, the authors of these finalist papers were offered the opportunity to publish extended versions of their papers in this special issue journal; all eight authors accepted.

  5. Structural characterization and ytterbium spectroscopy in Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galceran, M. [Fisica i Cristal.lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, c/ Marcel. li Domingo, s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Pujol, M.C., E-mail: mariacinta.pujol@urv.ca [Fisica i Cristal.lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, c/ Marcel. li Domingo, s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Carvajal, J.J.; Mateos, X. [Fisica i Cristal.lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, c/ Marcel. li Domingo, s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Zaldo, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Aguilo, M.; Diaz, F. [Fisica i Cristal.lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, c/ Marcel. li Domingo, s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Ytterbium-doped scandium oxide nanocrystals measuring less than 25 nm with compositions of Sc{sub 2-x}Yb{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0.001-1) were prepared using the modified Pechini method. The Yb:Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals were obtained by calcination at low temperature such as 1073 K for 2 h. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) were used to perform the structural characterization of nanocrystals; these studies indicated that the nanocrystals have high crystalline quality with cubic structure and Ia3-bar space group. The morphology and particle size were studied using electron microscopy. A detailed study of the effect of the nanodimension and the ytterbium concentration on the spectroscopic characteristics of Yb{sup 3+} as an active ion was carried out in terms of optical absorption, optical emission and fluorescence decay time at room and low temperature.

  6. A Differential MIMO SC-FDE Transceiver Design over Multipath Fast Fading Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Juinn-Horng; Hwang, Jeng-Kuang

    In this paper, we propose a new differential MIMO single-carrier system with frequency-domain equalization (SC-FDE) aided by the insertion of cyclic prefix. This block transmission system not only inherits all the merits of the SISO SC-FDE system, but is also equipped with a differential space-time block coding (DSTBC) such as to combat the fast-changing frequency selective fading channels without the needs to estimate and then compensate the channel effects. Hence, for practical applications, it has the additional merits of decoding simplicity and robustness against high mobility transmission environments. Computer simulations show that the proposed system can provide diversity benefit as the non-differential system does, while greatly reducing the receiver complexity.

  7. Spectroscopy of the odd-odd fp-shell nucleus 52Sc from secondary fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Gade, A; Brown, B A; Campbell, C M; Carpenter, M P; Cook, J M; Deacon, A N; Dinca, D C; Freeman, S J; Glasmacher, T; Janssens, R V F; Kay, B P; Mantica, P F; Müller, W F; Terry, J R; Zhu, S

    2006-01-01

    The odd-odd fp-shell nucleus 52Sc was investigated using in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy following secondary fragmentation of a 55V and 57Cr cocktail beam. Aside from the known gamma-ray transition at 674(5)keV, a new decay at E_gamma=212(3) keV was observed. It is attributed to the depopulation of a low-lying excited level. This new state is discussed in the framework of shell-model calculations with the GXPF1, GXPF1A, and KB3G effective interactions. These calculations are found to be fairly robust for the low-lying level scheme of 52Sc irrespective of the choice of the effective interaction. In addition, the frequency of spin values predicted by the shell model is successfully modeled by a spin distribution formulated in a statistical approach with an empirical, energy-independent spin-cutoff parameter.

  8. mini Style 松下直板手机SC3评测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    松下2005年最拉风的产品莫过于6系列和7系列的折叠机.屏幕清晰靓丽.可谓出尽风头。同时.松下还发布了两款低端直板手机.使得产品线更趋丰富,A210和SC3造型小巧到极至.一规矩方正一可爱圆润.是非常不错的学生机。尽管上市有些时日.仍得到用户关注.其中SC3更是得到师哥靓妹的青睐。

  9. Pressure-induced phase transition for ScVO{sub 4}: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shu-Fang, E-mail: shengshf@gmail.com [School of Physical Science and Information Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Communication Science and Technology, Liaocheng 252059 (China)

    2013-10-01

    We theoretically investigated the structural stability and electronic properties of ScVO{sub 4} by the first-principles pseudopotential method. The tetragonal zircon-type and scheelite-type structures, LaTaO{sub 4}-type structure of ScVO{sub 4} have been considered. The calculations indicate that the LaTaO{sub 4}-type phase is not stable in the pressure 0–100 GPa, and the structural phase transformation from zircon to scheelite-type structure occurs at 5.4 GPa. The band structure shows that zircon-type structure at zero pressure and scheelite-type structure at transition pressure have direct gaps of 2.58 eV and 2.35 eV, respectively. The detailed volume changes during the phase transition were analyzed.

  10. Anomalously high thermoelectric power factor in epitaxial ScN thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerdsongpanya, Sit; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini;

    2011-01-01

    Thermoelectric properties of ScN thin films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering on Al2O3(0001) wafers are reported. X-ray diffraction and elastic recoil detection analyses show that the composition of the films is close to stoichiometry with trace amounts (∼1 at. % in total) of C, O, and F. We...... found that the ScN thin-film exhibits a rather low electrical resistivity of ∼2.94 μΩm, while its Seebeck coefficient is approximately ∼−86 μV/K at 800 K, yielding a power factor of ∼2.5 × 10−3 W/mK2. This value is anomalously high for common transition-metal nitrides. © 2011 American Institute...

  11. Improving SC-FDMA performance by Turbo Equalization in UTRA LTE Uplink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Priyanto, Basuki Endah; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2008-01-01

    does not have stringent power constraints. In this paper, a turbo equalization technique to improve Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) performance is proposed. A new adaptive coefficients solution for frequency domain equalization is considered. The work is in the context...... that the turbo equalizer can improve the BLER performance around 1 dB with only a few iterations, and improve the SC-FDMA performance over OFDM, especially at high coding rate.......Turbo equalization is known as an advanced iterative equalization and decoding technique that allows to enhance the performance of the data transmission over a frequency selective fading channel. The turbo equalizer will result in extra receiver complexity, but isolated to the base-station, which...

  12. Using laser to measure stem thickness and cut weed stems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Andreasen, C.

    2002-01-01

    Stem thickness of the weed Solanum nigrum and the crop sugarbeet was determined with a He-Ne laser using a novel non-destructive technique measuring stem shadow. Thereafter, the stems were cut close to the soil surface with a CO2 laser. Treatments were carried out on pot plants, grown...... in the greenhouse, at two different growth stages, and plant dry matter was measured 2-5 weeks after treatment. The relationship between plant dry weight and laser energy was analysed using two different non-linear dose-response regression models; one model included stem thickness as a variable, the other did not....... A binary model was also tested. The non-linear model incorporating stem thickness described the data best, indicating that it would be possible to optimize laser cutting by measuring stem thickness before cutting. The general tendency was that more energy was needed the thicker the stem. Energy uses...

  13. Effects of SC-560 in Combination with Cisplatin or Taxol on Angiogenesis in Human Ovarian Cancer Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 inhibitor, SC-560, combined with cisplatin or taxol, on angiogenesis in human ovarian cancer xenografts. Mice were treated with intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of SC-560 6 mg/kg/day, i.p. injections of cisplatin 3 mg/kg every other day and i.p. injections of taxol 20 mg/kg once a week for 21 days. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF mRNA levels were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; microvessel density (MVD was determined by immunohistochemistry; and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 levels were determined using ELISA. Expression levels of VEGF mRNA and MVD in treatment groups were inhibited significantly when compared with the control group (p < 0.05 for all, and SC-560 combined with cisplatin displayed a greater reduction in the expression of VEGF and MVD than SC-560 or cisplatin alone (p < 0.05. SC-560 combined with taxol showed a greater inhibition on VEGF mRNA expression than SC-560 or taxol alone (p < 0.05. The level of PGE2 in treatment groups was significantly reduced when compared with the control group (p < 0.01 for all. These findings may indicate that cisplatin or taxol supplemented by SC-560 in human ovarian cancer xenografts enhances the inhibition effect of cisplatin or taxol alone on angiogenesis.

  14. Pubertal bisphenol A exposure alters murine mammary stem cell function leading to early neoplasia in regenerated glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danhan; Gao, Hui; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Wu, Anqi; Yeh, I-Tien; Chen, Yidong; Zou, Yi; Huang, Changjiang; Walter, Christi A; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2014-04-01

    Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to cause aberrant mammary gland morphogenesis and mammary neoplastic transformation. Yet, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that mammary glands exposed to BPA during a susceptible window may lead to its susceptibility to tumorigenesis through a stem cell-mediated mechanism. We exposed 21-day-old Balb/c mice to BPA by gavage (25 μg/kg/d) during puberty for 3 weeks, and a subset of animals were further challenged with one oral dose (30 mg/kg) of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) at 2 months of age. Primary mammary cells were isolated at 6 weeks, and 2 and 4 months of age for murine mammary stem cell (MaSC) quantification and function analysis. Pubertal exposure to the low-dose BPA increased lateral branches and hyperplasia in adult mammary glands and caused an acute increase of MaSC in 6-week-old glands and a delayed increase of luminal progenitors in 4-month-old adult gland. Most importantly, pubertal BPA exposure altered the function of MaSC from different age groups, causing early neoplastic lesions in their regenerated glands similar to those induced by DMBA exposure, which indicates that MaSCs are susceptible to BPA-induced transformation. Deep sequencing analysis on MaSC-enriched mammospheres identified a set of aberrantly expressed genes associated with early neoplastic lesions in patients with human breast cancer. Thus, our study for the first time shows that pubertal BPA exposure altered MaSC gene expression and function such that they induced early neoplastic transformation.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Electrical Conductivity and Permittivity of SC-TiO 2 -EG Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal, Jacek; Barylyak, Adriana; Besaha, Khrystyna; Bobitski, Yaroslav V.; Cholewa, Marian; Zawlik, Izabela; Szmuc, Kamil; Cebulski, Józef; żyła, Gaweł

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents experimental studies of dielectric properties of nanofluids based on ethylene glycol and SC-TiO2 nanoparticles with average size of 15-40 nm with various mass concentrations. The dielectric permittivity both real part and imaginary part as a function of temperature and frequency were measured. Also, dependence ac conductivity on frequency, temperature, and mass concentration were investigated. Based on the curves of ac conductivity, dc conductivity was calculated, and 400 % enhancement in dc conductivity was exposed.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Electrical Conductivity and Permittivity of SC-TiO 2 -EG Nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal, Jacek; Barylyak, Adriana; Besaha, Khrystyna; Bobitski, Yaroslav V; Cholewa, Marian; Zawlik, Izabela; Szmuc, Kamil; Cebulski, Józef; Żyła, Gaweł

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents experimental studies of dielectric properties of nanofluids based on ethylene glycol and SC-TiO2 nanoparticles with average size of 15-40 nm with various mass concentrations. The dielectric permittivity both real part and imaginary part as a function of temperature and frequency were measured. Also, dependence ac conductivity on frequency, temperature, and mass concentration were investigated. Based on the curves of ac conductivity, dc conductivity was calculated, and 400 % enhancement in dc conductivity was exposed.

  17. Production Potential of 47Sc Using Spallation Neutron Flux at the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Ohio DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The views expressed in this document are those of the author and do...targets at the Los Alamos National Laboratory ( LANL ) Isotope Production Facility (IPF). Targets were activated for 1 hr using an average proton beam...for 47SC production is the unique neutron flux that results from this unique beam/target structure [8]. 1.3 Summary The remainder of this document is

  18. Three-phase-boundary dynamics at the Ni/ScYSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Hansen, Karin Vels; Norrman, Kion;

    2009-01-01

    Chronoamperometry using a three-electrode cell configuration was undertaken with a nickel point-electrode acting as the working electrode on a polished ScYSZ electrolyte in a hydrogen atmosphere at 750–850 °C. High anodic overpotentials resulted in the occurrence of distinct sawtooth oscillation...... of the current oscillations. A mechanism accounting for the observed phenomena and possible implications for solid oxide fuel cell operation are presented...

  19. Puzzling γ-ray strength functions in 44,45Sc and 50,51V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Chankova, R.; Ingebretsen, F.; Lönnroth, T.; Messelt, S.; Rekstad, J.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Voinov, A.

    2008-05-01

    The nuclear physics group at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory (OCL) has developed a method to extract nuclear level density and γ-ray strength function simultaneously from primary γ-ray spectra. The resulting γ-ray strength functions of 44,45Sc and 50,51V show an unexpected, large enhancement at low γ-ray energies, indicating an increased probability of emitting low-energy γ rays in the quasi-continuum.

  20. Sickle Cell Disease: quality of life in patients with hemoglobin SS and SC disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Sickle cell disease comprises chronic, genetically determined disorders, presenting significant morbidity and high prevalence in Brazil. The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of life of sickle cell disease patients (hemoglobin SS and SC) and their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS Data was collected from clinical records and semi-structured interviews consisting of clinical questionnaires and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief qu...

  1. Fatal pulmonary thromboembolism associated with hemoglobin SC disease in a 15 year-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Trolez Amancio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of hemoglobin SC disease complicated by fatal pulmonarythromboembolism in a 15 year-old Brazilian boy, submitted to autopsy. Thiscase shows the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of sickle celldisease, which generates systemic involvement in youth and the importanceof considering the hypercoagulability in these patients. The autopsy was veryinstructive, revealing the florid morphologic aspect of sickle cell disease andits complications.

  2. Precise Determination of 40Ti Mass by Measuring the 40Sc Isospin Analogue State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-Ping(柳卫平); E. Roeckl; M. Pfützner; L. Chulkov; A. Piechaczek; R. Raabe; I. Reusen; G. Vancraeynest; A. Wohr; M. Hellstrom2; R. Collatz; J. Benlliure; D. Cortina Gil; F. Farget; H. Grawe; Z. Hu; N. Iwasa

    2001-01-01

    The mass of 40 Ti has been determined by using the isobaric multiplet mass equation method. The experimental data of the 40Tiβ-decay were used to determine the level of the isospin analogue state of 40Sc. The ground-state mass excess and the QEc value for 40 Ti were determined to be -9060 ± 12 keV and 11 466 ± 13keV, respectively.

  3. PrP(Sc) detection and infectivity in semen from scrapie-infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Richard; Bulgin, Marie S; Chang, Binggong; Sorensen-Melson, Sharon; Petersen, Robert B; LaFauci, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    A scrapie-positive ewe was found in a flock that had been scrapie-free for 13 years, but housed adjacent to scrapie-positive animals, separated by a wire fence. Live animal testing of the entire flock of 24 animals revealed seven more subclinical scrapie-positive ewes. We hypothesized that they may have contracted the disease from scrapie-positive rams used for breeding 4 months prior, possibly through the semen. The genotypes of the ewe flock were highly scrapie-susceptible and the rams were infected with the 'Caine' scrapie strain having a short incubation time of 4.3-14.6 months in sheep with 136/171 VQ/VQ and AQ/VQ genotypes. PrP(Sc) accumulates in a variety of tissues in addition to the central nervous system. Although transmission of prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, has been achieved via peripheral organ or tissue homogenates as well as by blood transfusion, neither infectivity nor PrP(Sc) have been found in semen from scrapie-infected animals. Using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification followed by a surround optical fibre immunoassay, we demonstrate that semen from rams infected with a short-incubation-time scrapie strain contains prion disease-associated-seeding activity that generated PrP(Sc) in sPMCA (serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification). Injection of the ovinized transgenic mouse line TgSShpPrP with semen from scrapie-infected sheep resulted in PrP(Sc)-seeding activity in clinical and, probably as a result of the low titre, non-clinical mouse brain. These results suggest that the transmissible agent, or at least the seeding activity, for sheep scrapie is present in semen. This may be a strain-specific phenomenon.

  4. Structural and Controllable Thermal Expansion Properties of Sc2-xAlxMo3O12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Mei-mei; CHEN; Dong-feng

    2013-01-01

    Materials with controllable thermal expansion are the subject of fundamental studies because of the important applications in high-precision optical mirrors,fiber optic systems,and electronic materials.Samples Sc2-xAlxMo3O12(x=0.0,0.3,0.7,1.0,1.3,1.7,and 2.0)were prepared by the solid-state reaction,

  5. Thermodynamic modeling of the RE–Pb (RE = Sc, Dy, Gd) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iddaoudi, A., E-mail: iddaoudi19@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et Energétique, LTE, Université Ibn-Zohr, B.P. 8106 Agadir (Morocco); Servant, C., E-mail: colette.servant@orange.fr [Laboratoire de Physicochimie de l’Etat Solide, ICMMO, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Selhaoui, N.; Kardellass, S.; Mahdouk, K.; Bouirden, L. [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et Energétique, LTE, Université Ibn-Zohr, B.P. 8106 Agadir (Morocco)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Rare earth (RE) and Pb alloys or compounds are interesting as magnetic materials. • The phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of RE–Pb (RE = Sc, Dy, Gd) systems have been assessed. • The CALPHAD method was used with the Redlich–Kister model to optimize the solution phases. • A self-consistent set of thermodynamic parameters has been evaluated. • A good agreement was found between the calculation and experiments. -- Abstract: The phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of RE–Pb (RE = Sc, Dy, Gd) systems have been assessed by means of the CALPHAD method. The solution phases (liquid, fcc, bcc and hcp) were described by the sublattice formalism and the excess term of the Gibbs energy with the Redlich–Kister equation. The stoichiometric intermetallic compounds (Sc{sub 5}Pb{sub 3}, Sc{sub 6}Pb{sub 5}, Dy{sub 5}Pb{sub 4}, DyPb, DyPb{sub 2}, DyPb{sub 3}, β-Gd{sub 5}Pb{sub 4}, α-Gd{sub 5}Pb{sub 4}, Gd{sub 11}Pb{sub 10}, Gd{sub 6}Pb{sub 7}, GdPb{sub 2} and GdPb{sub 2}) were modeled as line compounds. The non-stoichiometric Dy{sub 5}Pb{sub 3} and Gd{sub 5}Pb{sub 3} phases with a narrow homogeneity range were modeled using a two-sublattice model with substitution. A consistent set of the thermodynamic parameters leading to a reasonable agreement between the calculated results and literature data was obtained.

  6. Peak effect of flux pinning in Sc5Ir4Si10 superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Shi, Z. X.; Gu, D. M.; Miura, M.; Tamegai, T.

    2010-10-01

    Magnetic hysteresis loops (MHLs) have been comparatively measured on both textured and single crystalline Sc5Ir4Si10 superconductors. Critical current densities and flux pinning forces are calculated from MHLs by Bean model. Three kinds of peaks of the flux pinning force are found at low fields near zero, intermediated fields, and high fields near the upper critical field, respectively. The characters and origins of these peaks are studied in detail.

  7. Inoculation with Metal-Mobilizing Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. SC2b and Its Role in Rhizoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strain SC2b was isolated from the rhizosphere of Sedum plumbizincicola grown in lead (Pb)/zinc (Zn) mine soils and characterized as Bacillus sp. based on (1) morphological and biochemical characteristics and (2) partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing analysis. Strain SC2b exhibited high levels of resistance to cadmium (Cd) (300 mg/L), Zn (730 mg/L), and Pb (1400 mg/L). This strain also showed various plant growth-promoting (PGP) features such as utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, solubilization of phosphate, and production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore. The strain mobilized high concentration of heavy metals from soils and exhibited different biosorption capacity toward the tested metal ions. Strain SC2b was further assessed for PGP activity by phytagar assay with a model plant Brassica napus. Inoculation of SC2b increased the biomass and vigor index of B. napus. Considering such potential, a pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of inoculating the metal-resistant PGPB SC2b on growth and uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb by S. plumbizincicola in metal-contaminated agricultural soils. Inoculation with SC2b elevated the shoot and root biomass and leaf chlorophyll content of S. plumbizincicola. Similarly, plants inoculated with SC2b demonstrated markedly higher Cd and Zn accumulation in the root and shoot system, indicating that SC2b enhanced Cd and Zn uptake by S. plumbizincicola through metal mobilization or plant-microbial mediated changes in chemical or biological soil properties. Data demonstrated that the PGPB Bacillus sp. SC2b might serve as a future biofertilizer and an effective metal mobilizing bioinoculant for rhizoremediation of metal polluted soils.

  8. Inhibition of the signal transduction through the AtoSC system by histidine kinase inhibitors in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Evaggelos C; Theodorou, Marina C; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2011-08-01

    AtoSC two-component system participates in many indispensable processes of Escherichia coli. We report here that the AtoSC signal transduction is inhibited by established histidine kinase inhibitors. Closantel, RWJ-49815 and TNP-ATP belonging to different chemical classes of inhibitors, abrogated the in vitro AtoS kinase autophosphorylation. However, when AtoS was embedded in the membrane fractions, higher inhibitor concentrations were required for total inhibition. When AtoS interacted with AtoC forming complex, the intrinsic histidine kinase was protected by the response regulator, requiring increased inhibitors concentrations for partially AtoS autophosphorylation reduction. The inhibitors exerted an additional function on AtoSC, blocking the phosphotransfer from AtoS to AtoC, without however, affecting AtoC~P dephosphorylation. Their in vivo consequences through the AtoSC inhibition were elucidated on atoDAEB operon expression, which was inhibited only in AtoSC-expressing bacteria where AtoSC was induced by acetoacetate or spermidine. The inhibitor effects were extended on the AtoSC regulatory role on cPHB [complexed poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] biosynthesis. cPHB was decreased upon the blockers only in acetoacetate-induced AtoSC-expressing cells. Increased ATP amounts during bacterial growth reversed the inhibitory TNP-ATP-mediated effect on cPHB. The alteration of pivotal E. coli processes as an outcome of AtoSC inhibition, establish this system as a target of two-component systems inhibitors.

  9. Mechanical, electronic, optical, thermodynamic properties and superconductivity of ScGa3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, F.; Hossain, M. A.; Ali, M. S.; Islam, A. K. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The rare occurrence of type-I superconductivity in binary system ScGa3 has experimentally been shown recently. In the present paper we study the electronic, optical, thermodynamic properties and some aspects of superconductivity of this compound using first-principles calculations. The mechanical properties like elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Pugh's ductility index, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, elastic anisotropy factor, Peierls stress are calculated for the first time. The material is anisotropic and brittle. Electronic band structure, density of states, Fermi surfaces and bonding nature have also been studied. The optical functions are estimated and discussed for the first time. The high reflectivity is found in the ultraviolet regions up to ~13 eV and thus ScGa3 can serve as a possible shielding material for ultraviolet radiation. Thermal effects on some macroscopic properties of ScGa3 are predicted using the quasi-harmonic Debye model and phonon approximation in the temperature and hydrostatic pressure in the ranges of 0-1000 K and 0-40 GPa, respectively. The calculated electron-phonon coupling constant λ=0.52 yields Tc=2.6 K, which is in very good agreement with the experimentally observed value. The value of the coupling constant and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter (κ=0.09) indicate that the compound is a weak-coupled type-I rare binary BCS superconductor.

  10. Cereal crops as viable production and storage systems for pharmaceutical scFv antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, E; Vaquero, C; Torres, E; Sack, M; Nicholson, L; Drossard, J; Williams, S; Keen, D; Perrin, Y; Christou, P; Fischer, R

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the stable expression of a medically important antibody in the staple cereal crops rice and wheat. We successfully expressed a single-chain Fv antibody (ScFvT84.66) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a well characterized tumor-associated marker antigen. scFv constructs were engineered for recombinant antibody targeting to the plant cell apoplast and ER. Up to 30 microg/g of functional recombinant antibody was detected in the leaves and seeds of wheat and rice. We confirmed that transgenic dry seeds could be stored for at least five months at room temperature, without significant loss of the amount or activity of scFvT84.66. Our results represent the first transition from model plant expression systems, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis, to widely cultivated cereal crops, such as rice and wheat, for expression of an antibody molecule that has already shown efficacy in clinical applications. Thus, we have established that molecular pharming in cereals can be a viable production system for such high-value pharmaceutical macromolecules. Our findings provide a strong foundation for exploiting alternative uses of cereal crops both in industrialized and developing countries.

  11. Mechanical, electronic, optical, thermodynamic properties and superconductivity of ScGa{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, F. [Department of Physics, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi (Bangladesh); Hossain, M.A. [Department of Physics, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh, Tangail 1902 (Bangladesh); Ali, M.S. [Department of Physics, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi (Bangladesh); Islam, A.K.M.A., E-mail: azi46@ru.ac.bd [International Islamic University Chittagong, 154/A College Road, Chittagong 4203 (Bangladesh)

    2015-01-15

    The rare occurrence of type-I superconductivity in binary system ScGa{sub 3} has experimentally been shown recently. In the present paper we study the electronic, optical, thermodynamic properties and some aspects of superconductivity of this compound using first-principles calculations. The mechanical properties like elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Pugh's ductility index, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, elastic anisotropy factor, Peierls stress are calculated for the first time. The material is anisotropic and brittle. Electronic band structure, density of states, Fermi surfaces and bonding nature have also been studied. The optical functions are estimated and discussed for the first time. The high reflectivity is found in the ultraviolet regions up to ∼13 eV and thus ScGa{sub 3} can serve as a possible shielding material for ultraviolet radiation. Thermal effects on some macroscopic properties of ScGa{sub 3} are predicted using the quasi-harmonic Debye model and phonon approximation in the temperature and hydrostatic pressure in the ranges of 0–1000 K and 0–40 GPa, respectively. The calculated electron–phonon coupling constant λ=0.52 yields T{sub c}=2.6 K, which is in very good agreement with the experimentally observed value. The value of the coupling constant and the Ginzburg–Landau parameter (κ=0.09) indicate that the compound is a weak-coupled type-I rare binary BCS superconductor.

  12. Acute Sickle Hepatic Crisis after Liver Transplantation in a Patient with Hb SC Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Gillis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute sickle hepatic crisis (ASHC has been observed in approximately 10% of patients with sickle cell disease. It occurs predominantly in patients with homozygous (Hb SS sickle cell anemia and to a lesser degree in patients with Hb SC disease, sickle cell trait, and Hb S beta thalassemia. Patients commonly present with jaundice, right upper quadrant pain, nausea, low-grade fever, tender hepatomegaly, and mild to moderate elevations in serum AST, ALT, and bilirubin. We describe the case of a patient with a history of hemoglobin SC disease and cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C presenting approximately 1 year after liver transplantation with an ASHC. The diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy. Our patient was treated with RBC exchange transfusions, IV hydration, and analgesia and made a complete recovery. Only a limited number of patients with sickle cell disease have received liver transplants, and, to our knowledge, this is the first case of ASHC after transplantation in a patient with Hb SC disease.

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of Ti12M clusters (M=Sc to Zn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Houqian; Xu, Ning

    2016-12-01

    The geometries, electronic, and magnetic properties of the 3d atom doped icosahedron (ICO) Ti12M (M=Sc to Zn), where a dopant atom replaces either the centra l(Ti12Mc) or surface (Ti12Ms) Ti atom in ICO Ti13 cluster, have been systematically investigated by using the density functional theory. The structures of all the optimized Ti12Mc and Ti12Ms clusters are distorted ICO. Sc, Ni, Cu, and Zn atoms prefer to displace surface Ti atom, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe atoms prefer to displace central Ti atom. The position of impurity atom depends on the strength of the interaction between the central atom and the surface atoms. As compared to the pure Ti13 cluster, Ti12Mc and Ti12Ms (M=V, Fe, Co, and Ni) clusters are more stable, Ti12Mc and Ti12Ms (M=Sc, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn) are less stable. Both Ti12Nis and Ti12Nic are magic clusters, which originate from their electronic as well as geometric closed shells. Because the exchange interaction prevails over the crystal field in Ti12M clusters, the valence electrons fill molecular orbitals in terms of Hund's rule of maximum spin.

  14. Cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of LC-1 ScFv with GFP tag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Min; GONG Xing-guo; YU Hong; LI Jian-yong

    2005-01-01

    Total RNA was isolated from the hybridoma cell line (LC-1), which secretes anti-lung adenocarcinoma monoclonal antibody, and was transferred into cDNA. Based on the FR1 (framework region 1) and FR4 conserved regions of LC-I gene, the variable regions of heavy chain (Vh) and light chain (Vl) were amplified, and the Vh and modified Vl were connected to single chain Fv (ScFv) by SOE-PCR (splice overlap extension PCR). The modified ScFv was fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP)and introduced into E. coli JMi09. The fusion protein induced by IPTG (Isopropylthiogalactoside) was about 57000 on a 10%SDS-PAGE gel (10% Sds Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis), and primarily manifested as inclusion bodies. The renatured protein purified by Ni-NTA Superflow resins showed ability to bind to antigen on SPC-A-1 lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, the induced host cells fluoresced bright green under 395 nm wavelength, which indicated that the expected protein with dual activity was expressed in the prokaryotic system. The ScFv with GFP tag used in this research can be applied as a new reagent to detect immunological dye, and provide a feasible way to detect adenocarcinoma in a clinical setting.

  15. EMP Attachment 3 DOE-SC PNNL Site Dose Assessment Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.

    2011-12-21

    This Dose Assessment Guidance (DAG) describes methods to use to determine the Maximally-Exposed Individual (MEI) location and to estimate dose impact to that individual under the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). This guidance applies to public dose from radioactive material releases to the air from PNNL Site operations. This document is an attachment to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) and describes dose assessment guidance for radiological air emissions. The impact of radiological air emissions from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) PNNL Site is indicated by dose estimates to a maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). Reporting requirements associated with dose to members of the public from radiological air emissions are in 40 CFR Part 61.94, WAC 246-247-080, and DOE Order 458.1. The DOE Order and state standards for dose from radioactive air emissions are consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose standards in 40 CFR 61.92 (i.e., 10 mrem/yr to a MEI). Despite the fact that the current Contract Requirements Document (CRD) for the DOE-SC PNNL Site operations does not include the requirement to meet DOE CRD 458.1, paragraph 2.b, public dose limits, the DOE dose limits would be met when EPA limits are met.

  16. Doping of BiScO3-PbTiO3 Ceramics for Enhanced Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp; Sayir, Ali; Dynys, Fred

    2008-01-01

    High-temperature piezoelectrics are a key technology for aeronautics and aerospace applications such as fuel modulation to increase the engine efficiency and decrease emissions. The principal challenge for the insertion of piezoelectric materials is the limitation on upper use temperature which is due to low Curie-Temperature (T(sub c) and increasing electrical conductivity. BiScO3 -PbTiO3 (BS-PT) system is a promising candidate for improving the operating temperature for piezoelectric actuators due to its high TC (>400 C). Effects of Zr and Mn doping of the BS-PT ceramics have been studied and all electrical and electromechanical properties for Sc-deficient and Ti-deficient BS- PT ceramics are reported as a function of electrical field and temperature. Donor doping with Zr and Mn (in Sc deficient compositions) increased the DC-resistivity and decreased tan at all temperatures. Resulting ceramics exhibited saturated hysteresis loops with low losses and showed no dependence on the applied field (above twice the coercive field) and measurement frequency.

  17. FPA Tuned Fuzzy Logic Controlled Synchronous Buck Converter for a Wave/SC Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAHIN, E.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flower pollination algorithm (FPA tuned fuzzy logic controlled (FLC synchronous buck converter (SBC for an integrated wave/ supercapacitor (SC hybrid energy system. In order to compensate the irregular wave effects on electrical side of the wave energy converter (WEC, a SC unit charged by solar panels is connected in parallel to the WEC system and a SBC is controlled to provide more reliable and stable voltage to the DC load. In order to test the performance of the designed FLC, a classical proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller is also employed. Both of the controllers are optimized by FPA which is a pretty new optimization algorithm and a well-known optimization algorithm of which particle swarm optimization (PSO to minimize the integral of time weighted absolute error (ITAE performance index. Also, the other error-based objective functions are considered. The entire energy system and controllers are developed in Matlab/Simulink and realized experimentally. Real time applications are done through DS1104 Controller Board. The simulation and experimental results show that FPA tuned fuzzy logic controller provides lower value performance indices than conventional PID controller by reducing output voltage sags and swells of the wave/SC energy system.

  18. A self-consistent determination of the RVB and SC gaps in the YRZ ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zi-Ye; Wang, Xiao-Min; Jiang, Hong-Min

    2017-03-01

    A correct understanding of the origin of the pseudogap in high temperature (high-T c) cuprate superconductors is considered to be a peripheral breakthrough in the understanding of the microscopic mechanism of the high-T c superconductivity. Yang-Rice-Zhang (YRZ) ansatz is an important phenomenological theory to describe the phenomenon of pseudogap. However, in the framework of YRZ, the pseudogap (resonant valence bond (RVB) gap) and the superconducting (SC) gap are unable to have a self-consistent determination at different doping concentrations, and this severely limits the application of the YRZ ansatz. Based on the YRZ ansatz, this study develops a technical method to determine the RVB and SC gaps in a self-consistent manner. It is revealed that the self-consistent calculations of the doping dependence of RVB, SC gaps and spectral function are not only consistent with the empirical gap formula in the YRZ framework, but also consistent with the doping evolution of the Fermi surface observed in the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments. Our method will greatly extend the applications of the YRZ ansatz, and will deepen our understanding of the origin of pseudogap as well as the mechanism of high-T c superconductivity.

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of Yb:Sc2O3 transparent ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Shen-Zhou; Yang Qiu-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Yb:Sc2O3 transparent ceramics are fabricated by a conventional ceramic process and sintering in H2 atmosphere.The room-temperature spectroscopic properties are investigated,and the Raman spectrum shows an obvious vibration characteristic band centred at 415 cm-1. There are three broad absorption bands around 891,937,and 971 nm,respectively.The strongest emission peak is centred at 1.04 μm with a broad bandwidth (11 nm) and an emission cross-section of 1.8× 10-20 cm2.The gain coefficient implies a possible laser ability in a range from 990 nm to 1425 nm.The energy-level structure shows that Yb:Sc2O3 ceramics have large Stark splitting at the ground state level due to their strong crystal field.All the results show that Yb:Sc2Oa transparent ceramics are a promising material for short pulse lasers.

  20. Inflammation and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigdar, Sarah; Li, Yong; Bhattacharya, Santanu; O'Connor, Michael; Pu, Chunwen; Lin, Jia; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Dongxi; Kong, Lingxue; Wei, Ming Q; Zhu, Yimin; Zhou, Shufeng; Duan, Wei

    2014-04-10

    Cancer stem cells are becoming recognised as being responsible for metastasis and treatment resistance. The complex cellular and molecular network that regulates cancer stem cells and the role that inflammation plays in cancer progression are slowly being elucidated. Cytokines, secreted by tumour associated immune cells, activate the necessary pathways required by cancer stem cells to facilitate cancer stem cells progressing through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migrating to distant sites. Once in situ, these cancer stem cells can secrete their own attractants, thus providing an environment whereby these cells can continue to propagate the tumour in a secondary niche.

  1. Gravitropism in Leafy Dicot Stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    A polarizing research microscope with rotating stage and associated camera equipment were ordered, and techniques of fixation and preparation of specimens were perfected for studying possible changes in orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls of gravistimulated dicot stems. Acid ethephon solutions or acid without ethephon caused elongation of stem tissues where they were applied; stems bent away from the side of application. Acid solutions applied to the bottom of horizontal stems greatly delayed bending. Research in tissue sensitivity changes during gravitropic bending of soybean hypocotyls while immersed in auxin and in castor bean stems is also reported.

  2. Synthesis and Reaction of [MnRe(CO)6(μ-SH)(μ-SC(H)PPri3)(PPh3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis, the crystal structure and the reaction of the hetero-binuclear complex [MnRe(CO)6(μ-SH)(μ-SC(H)PPri3)(PPh3)] are reported. The results of single crystal X-ray structure analysis showed that the fragments Mn(CO)3 and Re(CO)3 were bridged by SH and SC(H)PPri3. The title complexes can react with BunLi and RX forming complexes MnRe(CO)6(μ-SR)(μ-SC(H)PPri3)(PPh3) (R = Me, CH2CH=CH2, SnBu3n).

  3. Stem cells and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingbo

    2008-05-09

    Stem cells can differentiate into a variety of cells to replace dead cells or to repair damaged tissues. Recent evidence indicates that stem cells are involved in the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis, an alloimmune initiated vascular stenosis that often results in transplant organ failure. Although the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis is not yet fully understood, recent developments in stem cell research have suggested novel mechanisms of vascular remodeling in allografts. For example, stem cells derived from the recipient may repair damaged endothelial cells of arteries in transplant organs. Further evidence suggests that stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells may be released from both bone marrow and non-bone marrow tissues. Vascular stem cells appear to replenish cells that died in donor vessels. Concomitantly, stem/progenitor cells may also accumulate in the intima, where they differentiate into smooth muscle cells. However, several issues concerning the contribution of stem cells to the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis are controversial, eg, whether bone marrow-derived stem cells can differentiate into smooth muscle cells that form neointimal lesions of the vessel wall. This review summarizes recent research on the role of stem cells in transplant arteriosclerosis, discusses the mechanisms of stem cell homing and differentiation into mature endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and highlights the controversial issues in the field.

  4. Materials as stem cell regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-06-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.

  5. Genome Sequencing of Bacillus subtilis SC-8, Antagonistic to the Bacillus cereus Group, Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented-Soybean Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SC-8 is a Gram-positive bacterium displaying narrow antagonistic activity for the Bacillus cereus group. B. subtilis SC-8 was isolated from Korean traditional fermented-soybean food. Here we report the draft genome sequence of B. subtilis SC-8, including biosynthetic genes for antibiotics that may have beneficial effects for control of food-borne pathogens. PMID:22207744

  6. The FERRUM Project: experimental and theoretical transition rates of forbidden [Sc II] lines and radiative lifetimes of metastable Sc II levels

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, H; Lundin, P; Schef, P; Hibbert, A; Lundberg, H; Mannervik, S; Norlin, L -O; Royen, P

    2008-01-01

    Context. In many plasmas, long-lived metastable atomic levels are depopulated by collisions (quenched) before they decay radiatively. In low-density regions, however, the low collision rate may allow depopulation by electric dipole (E1) forbidden radiative transitions, so-called forbidden lines (mainly M1 and E2 transitions). If the atomic transition data are known, these lines are indicators of physical plasma conditions and used for abundance determination. Aims. Transition rates can be derived by combining relative intensities between the decay channels, so-called branching fractions (BFs), and the radiative lifetime of the common upper level. We use this approach for forbidden [Sc ii] lines, along with new calculations. Methods. Neither BFs for forbidden lines, nor lifetimes of metastable levels, are easily measured in a laboratory. Therefore, astrophysical BFs measured in Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra of the strontium filament of Eta Carinae are combined with lifetime measurements u...

  7. Interaction in (Ti,Sc)Fe{sub 2}-H{sub 2} and (Zr,Sc)Fe{sub 2}-H{sub 2} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotov, T.; Movlaev, E. [Chemistry Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lenin Hill, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mitrokhin, S. [Chemistry Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lenin Hill, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Mitrokhin@hydride.chem.msu.ru; Verbetsky, V. [Chemistry Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lenin Hill, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-14

    Results of investigation of hydrogen sorption properties of Ti(Zr){sub x}Sc{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2} (x = 1, 0.8 and 0.5) alloys are presented. The measurements were performed for pressures up to 3000 atm. In case of titanium alloys hydride formation was established only for x = 0.5. Estimated equilibrium absorption pressure for x = 0.8 and 1.0 was too high for experimental limits of the device. In case of zirconium alloys hydride formation was found for all three concentrations. Absorption-desorption isotherms were measured for the first time for ZrFe{sub 2}-H{sub 2} system. Calculated enthalpy of hydrogen desorption was found to be 21.3 kJ/mole H{sub 2}.

  8. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  9. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, John J. (Bingham County, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  10. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  11. Structural characterization and biological activities of SC4,an acidic polysaccharide from Salvia chinensis%石见穿酸性多糖SC4的结构特征和生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠平; 方积年; 李晓玉; 萧晓秋

    2002-01-01

    AIM:To study the chemical characterization and some biological activities of an acidic polysaccharide,named SC4 from Salvia chinensis.METHODS:Chemical and spectral methods were employed to identify the structural characterization of SC4.Effect of SC4 on the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes both in vivo and in vitro was measured at various concentrations,and the protective effects of SC4 on PC12 cells against H2O2-induced injury was observed.RESULTS:SC4 was a highly branched polysaccharide with mean molecular weight of 4.5 × 105,composed of Rha,Xyl,Set,Gal,and GalA in the molar ratio of 1.0:7.0:5.3:1.2:4.2.Methylation analysis and NMR identified the linkages of the residues of SC4.SC4 increased the B-lymphocyte proliferation and spleen weight remarkably while no obvious changes were examined in T-lymphocyte proliferation,thymus weight,and the level of IgG and C3 in blood of mice.Moreover,SC4 enhanced the PC12 cells viability after H2O2 treatment.CONCLU-SION:SC4,the acidic polysaccharide with complicated structure,was a B-lymphocyte stimulator and protected PC12 cells at the concentration of 20 mg/L against H2O2-induced injury.%目的:研究从石见穿(Salvia chinensis)中得到的酸性多糖SC4的化学结构和生物活性.方法:利用化学和光谱方法分析了SC4的结构特征,并观察了SC4对淋巴细胞增殖的影响以及增强PC12细胞对抗H2O2造成的损伤的作用.结果:SC4的分子量为4.5×105,由Rha,Xyl,Ser,Gal和GalA组成,摩尔比为1.0:7.0:5.3:1.2:4.2.甲基化和13C NMR进一步确定了SC4中各糖残基的连接方式.SC4能显著促进B淋巴细胞的增殖,增加小鼠脾重,增强PC12细胞对抗H2O2造成的氧化损伤的能力.结论:SC4为一多分枝的酸性多糖,其免疫活性的靶细胞为B淋巴细胞,并显著增强PC12细胞对抗H2O2造成的损伤的能力.

  12. b172sc.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity B-1-72-SC in Central California from 11/11/1972 to 11/15/1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetics data along with transit satellite navigation data was collected as part of field activity B-1-72-SC in Central...

  13. Design of IGBT driver based on 2SC0108T%基于2SC0108T的IGBT驱动器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白娅梅; 李钰玺; 张亚军

    2011-01-01

    针对IGBT驱动电路复杂且保护功能不尽完善的问题,设计了一个基于2SC0108T的即插即用型IGBT驱动器,以及相应的前级驱动电路、后级功率驱动电路和故障报警电路.该驱动器具有直接模式和半桥模式、驱动信号硬件互锁、硬件死区时间可调节、IGBT过流及短路保护、驱动电源过欠压监控和易于安装的特点.结合英飞凌EconoDUAL3封装IGBT模块,完成了即插即用型IGBT驱动器的硬件设计及调试,有效减小了双绞线传输方式寄生电容及寄生电感的影响.%Aiming at the problems of IGBT drive circuity complexity and indequate protection, a plug-and-play IGBT driver is designed based on the 2SC0108T, and the primary side and secondary side drive circuitry and failure alarm circuitry are designed. Two modes including direct mode and half-bridge mode are available. Drive signals are interlocked by hardware and the dead time is adjustable. It possesses the functions of over-current and short-circuit protection, low-voltage and over-voltage monitoring as well as easily Installation. Based on the EconoDUAL3 IGBT module, the hardware of the plug-and-play driver is designed and the functions are tested. It effectively reduces the impact of parasitic inductance and capacitance exists in the twisted pair transmission.

  14. IEC SC 32B Low-voltage fuses strategic business plan (SBP)%IEC SC 32B低压熔断器战略业务方案(SBP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆云; 季慧玉

    2010-01-01

    分析了低压熔断器的市场需求和技术趋势,介绍了IEC SC 32B低压熔断器分技术委员会的SC 32B战略业务方案(SBP),包括系统联络情况、目标和战略、行动方案及与IEC网站的有效链接.

  15. Effects of micro-alloying with Sc and Mn on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Mg based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xian-ming; LUO Cheng-ping; PAN Qing-lin; YIN Zhi-ming

    2005-01-01

    An extensive investigation was made on the effects of micro-alloying with small amounts of Sc and Mn on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Al-Mg based alloys. It is found that the micro-alloying can significantly enhance the tensile strength of the alloys, and eliminate the dendritic cast structure in it. Many fine,spherical and dispersive Al3Sc particles are found in the annealed Al-Mg-Mn-Sc alloys, which can strongly pin up dislocations and subgrain boundaries, thus strongly retarding the recrystallization of the alloys. The strengthening of the micro-alloyed Al-Mg alloys is attributed to the precipitation strengthening by the Al3Sc particles and to the substructure strengthening.

  16. Effects of substituting ytterbium for scandium on the microstructure and age-hardening behaviour of Al–Sc alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, N.Q., E-mail: quoctuan1884@gmail.com [CT2M – Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, University of Minho, Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Pinto, A.M.P.; Puga, H. [CT2M – Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, University of Minho, Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Rocha, L.A. [CT2M – Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, University of Minho, Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Faculdade de Ciências de Bauru, SP 17033-360 (Brazil); Barbosa, J. [CT2M – Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, University of Minho, Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal)

    2014-04-01

    In order to reduce the cost of Al–Sc alloys and maintain their mechanical properties, the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–0.24 wt% Sc–0.07 wt% Yb in comparison with Al–0.28 wt% Sc alloys were studied. The aging behaviour, precipitate morphologies, precipitate coarsening and precipitation hardening of both alloys were investigated. The average diameter and the size distribution of nanoscale Al{sub 3}Sc and Al{sub 3}(Sc,Yb) precipitates at various aging conditions were measured. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM were used to deeply understand the precipitate evolution. A maximum hardness around 73 (HV{sub 30}) was obtained with a precipitate diameter from 4.3 to 5.6 nm for both alloys.

  17. Over-Expression of ScMnSOD, a SOD Gene Derived from Jojoba, Improve Drought Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-fei; ZHANG Gen-fa; SUN Wei-min; LI Ze-qin; BAI Rui-xue; LI Jing-xiao; SHI Zi-han; GENG Hong-wei; ZHENG Ying; ZHANG Jun

    2013-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is mainly distributed in desert, and the molecular mechanisms of jojoba in response to abiotic stress still remain elusive. In this paper, we cloned and characterized a SOD gene from jojoba named as ScMnSOD, and introduced into Arabidopsis to investigate its functions of responding to drought stress. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed an improvement in drought tolerance. Moreover, under a water deifcit condition, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was remarkably decreased in the transgenic lines compared to the WT. Furthermore, the ScMnSOD promoter was cloned to the 5´-upstream of GUS coding region in a binary vector, and introduced into Arabidopsis. And results showed that ScMnSOD expression can be induced by drought, salt, ABA, and low temperature. In conclusion, ScMnSOD plays an important role in drought tolerance which is, at least partially, attributed to its role in ROS detoxiifcation.

  18. Effect of Sc and Zr on the in-plane anisotropy of Al-Mg-Mn alloy sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yongyi; YIN Zhimin; YANG Jin; DU Yuxuan

    2005-01-01

    The Al-Mg-Mn alloy sheets with and without trace Sc and Zr were investigated by means of tensile test, X-ray diffraction, optical microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The indexes of in-plane anisotropy (IIPA) of their tensile mechanical properties were calculated and their inverse pole figures were obtained by Harris method. The two alloy sheets have the same law of in-plane anisotropy and remarkable in-plane anisotropy of mechanical properties, and the IIPA of the alloy sheet with Sc and Zr is bigger than that of the alloy sheet without Sc and Zr. The relationships of the in-plane anisotropy and the anisotropy of the crystallographic texture were analyzed based on the model of monocrystal. It is the common action of the anisotropy of crystallography and microstructures that causes the in-plane anisotropy of their mechanical sotropy of the alloy sheet containing trace Sc and Zr.

  19. ETV TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES: LUBRIZOL ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMS PURIFILTER SC17L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Lubrizol Engine Control Systems Purifilter SC17L manufactured by Lubrizol Engine Control Systems. The technology is a precious and base metal, passively regenerated particulate filter...

  20. Origins of pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, B A J; Chuva De Sousa Lopes, S M

    2011-08-01

    Different types of pluripotent stem cells can be identified and cultured in vitro. Here an overview is presented of the various pluripotent stem cells types. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells that have been cultured in vitro provided the groundwork for future pluripotent cell cultures. Conditions established for these cells such as culture on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and the importance of fetal calf serum were initially also used for the culture of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell masses of blastocysts. Embryonic stem cells derived from human blastocysts were found to require different conditions and are cultured in the presence of activin and basic fibroblast growth factor. Recently pluripotent stem cells have also been derived from mouse peri-implantation epiblasts. Since these epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) require the same conditions as the human ES cells it has been suggested that human ES cells are more similar to mouse EpiSCs than to mouse ES cells. Pluripotent cell lines have also been derived from migratory primordial germ cells and spermatogonial stem cells. The creation of pluripotent stem cells from adult cells by the introduction of reprogramming transcription factors, so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells allowed the derivation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells without the need of creation of a human blastocyst after cloning by somatic cells nuclear transfer. Recently it has become clear however that iPS cells may be quite different to ES cells in terms of epigenetics.

  1. Common stemness regulators of embryonic and cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiana; Hadjimichael; Konstantina; Chanoumidou; Natalia; Papadopoulou; Panagiota; Arampatzi; Joseph; Papamatheakis; Androniki; Kretsovali

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells(ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells is regulated by a well characterized gene transcription circuitry. The circuitry is assembled by ESC specific transcription factors, signal trans-ducing molecules and epigenetic regulators. Growing understanding of stem-like cells, albeit of more complex phenotypes, present in tumors(cancer stem cells), provides a common conceptual and research frame-work for basic and applied stem cell biology. In this review, we highlight current results on biomarkers, gene signatures, signaling pathways and epigenetic regulators that are common in embryonic and cancer stem cells. We discuss their role in determining the cell phenotype and finally, their potential use to design next generation biological and pharmaceutical approaches for regenerative medicine and cancer therapies.

  2. Journal of STEM Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in 2009, the North Carolina Virtual Public Schools worked with researchers at the William and Ida Friday Institute to produce and evaluate the use of game creation by secondary students as a form of learning content related to career awareness in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines, with particular emphasis in computer science areas. The study required the development of different forms of multimedia, inclusive with content and activities that could ...

  3. Effects of Sc and Y substitution on the structure and thermoelectric properties of Yb14MnSb11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkemper, Jason H.; Klemenz, Sebastian; Albert, Barbara; Bux, Sabah K.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2016-10-01

    Yb14MnSb11 is the most efficient bulk p-type thermoelectric material for high temperature applications. Materials with Y and Sc substitutions in Yb14MnSb11 were made both in Sn-flux and by ball milling. These small 3+ rare earth (RE) cations were introduced with the goal of providing chemical pressure on the structure. The RE3+ cation is smaller than Yb2+ and also donates one additional electron to this p-type semiconductor. In Yb14-xRExMnSb11 (RE = Sc, Y) the maximum x was about 0.5. X-ray diffraction experiments on the single crystals obtained from Sn-flux showed that Sc preferentially substitutes for Yb(1) and Yb(3), and decreases the size of the unit cell by about 0.3%. Y substitutes on all Yb sites and increases the size of the unit cell by about 0.2%. Samples with Yb14-xRExMnSb11 (x~0.3) were prepared via powder metallurgy and spark plasma sintering for transport and thermal conductivity measurements. Electron microprobe of the Sc-substituted sample showed small regions (≤1 μ m) containing greater amounts of Sc, and X-ray powder diffraction of the ball milled Sc sample could be fitted as phase pure Yb14-xScxMnSb11. Y-substituted samples showed larger regions of excess Y in electron microprobe, and small amounts of Yb4Sb3 in X-ray powder diffraction. The Sc sample has slightly reduced carrier concentration over optimized Yb14MnSb11, while the Y samples have even lower carrier concentrations. These carrier concentrations lead to comparable resistivity to Yb14MnSb11 in the Sc-substituted material, and higher resistivities in the Y-substituted material. All materials had similar Seebeck coefficients that slightly exceed Yb14MnSb11 at high temperatures, with the Sc-substituted sample having the highest despite having a higher carrier concentration. Sc-substituted samples also had a slightly higher thermal conductivity over the Y-substituted samples, which had comparable thermal conductivity to Yb14MnSb11. The zT values of the Sc and Y substituted samples are

  4. In vivo production of scFv-displaying biopolymer beads using a self-assembly-promoting fusion partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grage, Katrin; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant production and, in particular, immobilization of antibody fragments onto carrier materials are of high interest with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this study, the recombinant production of scFv-displaying biopolymer beads intracellularly in Escherichia coli was investigated. An anti-beta-galactosidase scFv (single chain variable fragment of an antibody) was C-terminally tagged with the polymer-synthesizing enzyme PhaC from Cupriavidus necator by generating the respective hybrid gene. The functionality of the anti-beta-galactosidase scFv-PhaC fusion protein was assessed by producing the respective soluble fusion protein in an Escherichia coli AMEF mutant strain. AMEF (antibody-mediated enzyme formation) strains contain an inactive mutant beta-galactosidase, which can be activated by binding of an anti-beta-galactosidase antibody. In vivo activation of AMEF beta-galactosidase indicated that the scFv is functional with the C-terminal fusion partner PhaC. It was further demonstrated that polymer biosynthesis and bead formation were mediated by the scFv-PhaC fusion protein in the cytoplasm of recombinant E. coli when the polymer precursor was metabolically provided. This suggested that the C-terminal fusion partner PhaC acts as a functional insolubility partner, providing a natural cross-link to the bead and leading to in vivo immobilization of the scFv. Overproduction of the fusion protein at the polymer bead surface was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of purified beads. Antigen binding functionality and specificity of the beads was assessed by analyzing the binding of beta-galactosidase to scFv-displaying beads and subsequently eluting the bound protein at pH 2.7. A strong enrichment of beta-galactosidase suggested the functional display of scFv at the bead surface as well as the applicability of these beads for antigen purification. Binding of beta-galactosidase to the scFv-displaying beads was quantitatively

  5. Moments Of Microdiversity EGC Receivers And Macrodiversity SC Receiver Output Signal Over Gamma Shadowed Nakagami-m Multipath Fading Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Nebojša; Jaksić, Branimir S.; Matović, Ana; Matović, Marija; Smilić, Marko

    2015-11-01

    A system with macrodiversity selection combining (SC) receiver and for microdiversity equal gain combining (EGC) receivers is considered. Received signal is subjected, simultaneously to multipath fading and shadowing, resulting in signal envelope and signal power variation. Closed form expressions for moments of macrodiversity SC receiver output signal envelope are calculated. Numerical expressions are plotted to present the influences of Gamma shadowing severity and Nakagami-m severity on moments of proposed system output signal.

  6. Synthesis, microstructural characterization and optical properties of undoped, V and Sc doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amezaga-Madrid, P.; Antunez-Flores, W.; Ledezma-Sillas, J.E.; Murillo-Ramirez, J.G.; Solis-Canto, O.; Vega-Becerra, O.E.; Martinez-Sanchez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. and Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih., C.P. 31109 (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. and Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih., C.P. 31109 (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: > Undoped, V and Sc doped ZnO thin films by Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition. > Optimum substrate temperatures of 673 K and 623 K for Sc and V doped films. > Around one third of the dopants in solution were deposited into the films. > Crystallite and grain size decreased with the increase of dopant concentration. > Optical band gap increased from 3.29 to 3.32 eV for undoped to 7 Sc/Zn at. %. - Abstract: Many semiconductor oxides (ZnO, TiO{sub 2}, SnO{sub 2}) when doped with a low percentage of non-magnetic (V, Sc) or magnetic 3d (Co, Mn, Ni, Fe) cation behave ferromagnetically. They have attracted a great deal of interest due to the integration of semiconducting and magnetic properties in a material. ZnO is one of the most promising materials to carry out these tasks in view of the fact that it is optically transparent and has n or p type conductivity. Here, we report the synthesis, microstructural characterization and optical properties of undoped, V and Sc doped zinc oxide thin films. ZnO based thin films with additions of V and Sc were deposited by the Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition method. V and Sc were incorporated separately in the precursor solution. The films were uniform, transparent and non-light scattering. The microstructure of the films was characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Scanning Probe Microscopy. Average grain size and surface rms roughness were estimated by the measurement of Atomic Force Microscopy. The microstructure of doped ZnO thin films depended on the type and amount of dopant material incorporated. The optical properties were determined from specular reflectance and transmittance spectra. Results were analyzed to determine the optical constant and band gap of the films. An increase in the optical band gap with the content of Sc dopant was obtained.

  7. Bullying prevention in schools by targeting cognitions, emotions, and behavior: Evaluating the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen; Sipos-Gug, Sebastian; Tocai, Ioana; Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of a class-based antibullying prevention program on cognitions, emotions, and behaviors was investigated. The program consists of a cognitive-behavioral (Rational Emotive Behavioral Education; REBE) and a behavioral (Viennese Social Competence; ViSC) component. The REBE program is based on rational emotive behavioral theory and contains 9 student lessons. The ViSC program is based on social learning theory and comprises 10 student lessons. The order of the programs was experimentally manipulated. The REBE-ViSC program was implemented in 5 schools (14 classes), the ViSC-REBE program was implemented in 3 schools (9 classes), and 3 schools (11 classes) served as an untreated control group. Data were collected during 1 school year at pretest, midpoint, and posttest. Emotions (overt and internalizing anger), cognitions (learning and entitlement), and behaviors (bullying perpetration and bullying victimization) were measured with self-assessments. To examine the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC/ViSC-REBE program, multilevel growth models were applied (time points at Level 1, individuals at Level 2, and classes at Level 3). The analyses revealed that the program effects differed depending on the order of the programs. The REBE-ViSC condition was more effective in changing negative emotions than the ViSC-REBE condition; both experimental conditions were effective in reducing dysfunctional cognitions, whereas no behavioral change was found in the 2 experimental groups when compared with the control group. To improve program effectiveness regarding behavioral changes, a multilevel whole-school approach including a teacher component is recommended.

  8. K2SC: flexible systematics correction and detrending of K2 light curves using Gaussian process regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigrain, S.; Parviainen, H.; Pope, B. J. S.

    2016-07-01

    We present K2SC (K2 Systematics Correction), a PYTHON pipeline to model instrumental systematics and astrophysical variability in light curves from the K2 mission. K2SC uses Gaussian Process regression to model position-dependent systematics and time-dependent variability simultaneously, enabling the user to remove both (e.g. for transit searches) or to remove systematics while preserving variability (for variability studies). For periodic variables, K2SC automatically computes estimates of the period, amplitude and evolution time-scale of the variability. We apply K2SC to publicly available K2 data from Campaigns 3-5 showing that we obtain photometric precision approaching that of the original Kepler mission. We compare our results to other publicly available K2 pipelines, showing that we obtain similar or better results, on average. We use transit injection and recovery tests to evaluate the impact of K2SC on planetary transit searches in K2 Pre-search Data Conditioning data, for planet-to-star radius ratios down to Rp/R* = 0.01 and periods up to P = 40 d, and show that K2SC significantly improves the ability to distinguish between true and false detections, particularly for small planets. K2SC can be run automatically on many light curves, or manually tailored for specific objects such as pulsating stars or large amplitude eclipsing binaries. It can be run on ASCII and FITS light-curve files, regardless of their origin. Both the code and the processed light curves are publicly available, and we provide instructions for downloading and using them. The methodology used by K2SC will be applicable to future transit search missions such as TESS and PLATO.

  9. Ab Initio Calculations and Synthesis of Sc2InC-Y2InC Solid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    tribological materials. It will study a solid solution of this fascinating new class of nanolaminated materials using both theoretical and experimental means...Sc2InC-Y2InC solid solution using ab initio calculations and 2) to synthesize Sc2InC-Y2InC thin films using magnetron sputtering and to determine the correlation between composition, structure, and mechanical properties thereof.

  10. Stem cells in dentistry--part I: stem cell sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties.

  11. Pregnancy in Sickle Cell-Haemoglobin C (SC) Disease, A Retrospective Study of Birth Size and Maternal Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thame, Minerva M.; Singh-Minott, Indira; Osmond, Clive; Melbourne-Chambers, Roxanne H.; Serjeant, Graham R

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess pregnancy and fetal outcomes in Jamaican subjects with sickle cell-haemoglobin C (SC) disease. Study Design A retrospective chart review over 21 years (1992-2012) of all pregnancies in SC disease and a comparison group matched by gender and date of delivery in mothers with a normal haemoglobin (AA) phenotype at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica. There were 118 pregnancies in 81 patients with SC disease and 110 pregnancies in 110 in the normal comparison group. Corrections were made for repeat pregnancies from the same mother. Outcome measures included maternal weight at 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks gestation, maternal pregnancy complications, birth weight, head circumference and crown heel length and were used to analyse possible predictors of birth weight. Results First antenatal visits occurred later in women with SC disease, who also had lower haemoglobin level and lower systolic blood pressure. The prevalence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, ante-partum or postpartum haemorrhage did not differ between genotypes. Maternal weight gain was significantly lower in SC disease and there was a significantly lower birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age. Conclusions Pregnancy in SC disease is generally benign but mothers had lower weight gain and lower birth weight babies, the difference persisting after correction for gestational age. PMID:27235631

  12. Origin and dissemination of the pollen-part mutated SC haplotype which confers self-compatibility in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Júlia; Pedryc, Andrzej; Hegedus, Attila

    2007-01-01

    In China, its centre of origin, apricot (Prunus armeniaca) is self-incompatible. However, most European cultivars are self-compatible. In most cases, self-compatibility is a result of a loss-of-function mutation within the pollen gene (SFB) in the SC haplotype. Controlled pollinations performed in this work revealed that the cross 'Ceglédi óriás' (S8S9)x'Ceglédi arany' (SCS9) set well, as expected, but the reciprocal cross did not. Apricot S8, S9 and SC haplotypes were analysed using a multilevel approach including fruit set evaluation, pollen tube growth analysis, RNase activity assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and DNA sequencing of the S-RNase and SFB alleles. SFB8 was revealed to be the first known progenitor allele of a naturally occurring self-compatibility allele in Prunus, and consequently SC=The first intron of SC-RNase is a phase one intron, indicating its more recent evolutionary origin compared with the second intron. Sequence analysis of different cultivars revealed that more single nucleotide polymorphisms accumulated in SC-RNase than in SFBC. New methods were designed to allow high-throughput analysis of S genotypes of apricot cultivars and selections. S-RNase sequence data from various sources helped to elucidate the putative origin and dissemination of self-compatibility in apricot conferred by the SC haplotype.

  13. Lanthanide-doped Na xScF 3+ x nanocrystals: Crystal structure evolution and multicolor tuning

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Xue

    2012-05-23

    Rare-earth-based nanomaterials have recently drawn considerable attention because of their unique energy upconversion (UC) capabilities. However, studies of Sc 3+-based nanomaterials are still absent. Herein we report the synthesis and fine control of Na xScF 3+x nanocrystals by tuning of the ratio of oleic acid (OA, polar surfactant) to 1-octadecene (OD, nonpolar solvent). When the OA:OD ratio was increased from low (3:17) to high (3:7), the nanocrystals changed from pure monoclinic phase (Na 3ScF 6) to pure hexagonal phase (NaScF 4) via a transition stage at an intermediate OA:OD ratio (3:9) where a mixture of nanocrystals in monoclinic and hexagonal phases was obtained and the coexistence of the two phases inside individual nanocrystals was also observed. More significantly, because of the small radius of Sc 3+, Na xScF 3+x:Yb/Er nanocrystals show different UC emission from that of NaYF 4:Yb/Er nanocrystals, which broadens the applications of rare-earth-based nanomaterials ranging from optical communications to disease diagnosis. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Chemical Chaperones Increasing Expression Level of Soluble Single-chain Fv Antibody(scFv2F3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) is a selenoenzyme that protects the biomembrane and other cellular components against oxidative damage. The selenium-containing single chain Fv fragment of monoclonal antibody 2F3 (SescFv2F3 ) is a kind of GPX mimic and it has a wide clinical applications because of its high activity and low antigenicity. Se-scFv2F3 is generated by the chemical modification of the single chain Fy fragment of monoclonal antibody 2F3 ( scFv2F3 ), which can be expressed in E. coli. In this article, the effect of chemical chaperones, such as glycerol, glucose, and β-cyclodextrin added to the culture medium, on the expression of soluble scFv2F3 was investigated. The expression level was evaluated by the determination of soluble scFv2F3 contents in the whole cell lysates.The results suggest that both glycerol and β-cyclodextrin greatly increase the expression level of soluble scFv2F3, and β-cyclodextrin is found to be more effective compared with glycerol. Glucose has a slight effect on the expression level of soluble scFv2F3. This is the first example, wherein β-cyclodextrin has been used as a chemical chaperone during the cell culture to improve the expression level of recombinant proteins. In addition, chemical chaperones are found to decrease the toxic effect of IPTG on cells.

  15. Effects of minor Sc on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenbin; PAN Qinglin; Zou Liang; LIANG Wenjie; HE Yunbin; LIU Junsheng

    2009-01-01

    Five kinds of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr based alloys with different Sc additions were prepared by ingot metallurgy. The effects of minor Sc on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr based alloys were investigated using tensile tests, optical microscopy (OM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength are improved by 94 and 110 Mpa, respectively, and the elongation to failure remains at a reasonable extent (11.1%) in the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr based alloy with 0.21 wt.% Sc addition after solution heat treatment at 475℃ for 40 min and then aged at 120℃ for 24 h. The addition of minor Sc induces the formation of Al3(Sc,Zr) particles, which are highly effective in refining the cast microstructures, retarding recrystallization, and pinning dislocations. The increment of strength is attributed mainly to fine grain strengthening, precipitation strengthening of Al3(Sc,Zr) particles, and substructure strengthening.

  16. Separation of cyclotron-produced 44Sc from a natural calcium target using a dipentyl pentylphosphonate functionalized extraction resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, H.F.; Hernandez, R.; Barnhart, T.E.; Graves, S.; Cai, W.; Nickles, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Significant interest in 44Sc as a radioactive synthon to label small molecules for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been recently observed. Despite the efforts of several research groups, the ideal 44Sc production and separation method remains elusive. Herein, we propose a novel separation method to obtain 44Sc from the proton irradiation of calcium targets based on extraction chromatography, which promises to greatly simplify current production methodologies. Using the commercially available Uranium and Tetravalent Actinides (UTEVA) extraction resin we were able to rapidly ( 80% of the activity generated at end of bombardment (EoB) in small ~1 M HCl fractions (400 μL). The chemical purity of the 44Sc eluates was evaluated through chelation with DOTA and DTPA, and by trace metal analysis using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The distribution coefficients (Kd) of Sc(III) and Ca(II) in UTEVA were determined in HCl medium in a range of concentrations from zero to 12.1 M The 44Sc obtained with our method proved to be suitable for the direct labeling of small biomolecules for PET imaging, with excellent specific activities and radiochemical purity. PMID:25464172

  17. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of TIG and FSW Joints of a New Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guofu; Qian, Jian; Xiao, Dan; Deng, Ying; Lu, Liying; Yin, Zhimin

    2016-04-01

    A new Al-5.8%Mg-0.4%Mn-0.25%Sc-0.10%Zr (wt.%) alloy was successfully welded by tungsten inert gas (TIG) and friction stir welding (FSW) techniques, respectively. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the welded joints were investigated by microhardness measurements, tensile tests, and microscopy methods. The results show that the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation to failure are 358, 234 MPa, and 27.6% for TIG welded joint, and 376, 245 MPa and 31.9% for FSW joint, respectively, showing high strength and superior ductility. The TIG welded joint fails in the heat-affected zone and the fracture of FSW joint is located in stirred zone. Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy is characterized by lots of dislocation tangles and secondary coherent Al3(Sc,Zr) particles. The superior mechanical properties of the TIG and FSW joints are mainly derived from the Orowan strengthening and grain boundary strengthening caused by secondary coherent Al3(Sc,Zr) nano-particles (20-40 nm). For new Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy, the positive effect from secondary Al3(Sc, Zr) particles in the base metal can be better preserved in FSW joint than in TIG welded joint.

  18. Impact of stem cell source on allogeneic stem cell transplantation outcome in hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatović Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Peripheral blood (PB is used more frequently as a source of stem cells (SCs for allogeneic transplantation. However, the influence of cell source on the clinical outcome of SC transplantation is not yet well established. The aim of this study was to compare the results of PBSC transplantation (PBSCT with bone marrow transplantation (BMT on the basis of engraftment, frequency and severity of immediate (mucositis, acute Graft versus Host Disease - aGvHD and delayed (chronic GvHD - cGvHD complications, as well as transplant-related mortality (TRM, transfusion needs, relapses and overall survival (OS. Methods. We analyzed 158 patients, women/men ratio 64/94 median age 29 (range 9-57, who underwent allogeneic SC transplantation between 1989 and 2009. All included patients had diseases as follows: acute myeloid leukemia (AML - 39, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL - 47, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML - 32, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS - 10, Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL - 2, multiple myeloma (MM - 3, granulocytic sarcoma (GrSa - 3, severe aplastic anemia (sAA - 22. The patients underwent transplantations were divided into two groups: BMT group (74 patients and PBSCT group (84 patients. Each recipient had HLA identical sibling donor. SCs from bone marrow were collected by multiple aspirations of iliac bone and from PB by one “Large Volume Leukapheresis” (after recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor, rHuG-CSF application (5-12 μg/kgbm, 5 days. Conditioning regimens were applied according to primary disease, GvHD prophylaxis consisted of combination of a cyclosporine A and methotrexate. Results. Engraftment, according to the count of polymorphonuclear and platelets, were significantly (p < 0.001 faster in the PBSCT vs BMT group. The needs for transfusion support were significantly (p < 0.01 higher in the BMT group. Those patients had more frequently oropharingeal mucositis grade 3/4 (33.3% vs 10.0%, p < 0.05. There were

  19. ScVEGF-PEG-HBED-CC and scVEGF-PEG-NOTA conjugates: comparison of easy-to-label recombinant proteins for [{sup 68}Ga]PET imaging of VEGF receptors in angiogenic vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, Matthias [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: m.eder@dkfz.de; Krivoshein, Arcadius V.; Backer, Marina; Backer, Joseph M. [SibTech, Inc., Brookfield, CT 06804 (United States); Haberkorn, Uwe [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Eisenhut, Michael [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Introduction: VEGF receptors play a key role in angiogenesis and are important targets for several approved and many experimental drugs. Imaging of VEGF receptor expression in malignant tumors would provide important information, which can influence patient management. The aim of this study was the development of an easy-to-label positron-emitting tracer for imaging VEGF receptors. The tracer is based on engineered single-chain VEGF (scVEGF), expressed with cysteine-containing fusion tag (Cys-tag) for site-specific conjugation of PEGylated bifunctional chelating agents, HBED-CC or NOTA, suitable for labeling with {sup 68}Ga at ambient temperature. Methods: scVEGF-PEG-HBED-CC was synthesized by activating a single carboxyl group of the [Fe(HBED-CC)]{sup -} complex with N-hydroxysuccinimide. Reaction of the activated complex with NH{sub 2}-PEG-maleimide was followed by site-specific conjugation of PEGylated chelator to a thiol group in Cys-tag of scVEGF. The scVEGF-PEG-NOTA conjugate was synthesized using NHS-PEG-maleimide and p-NH{sub 2}-Bn-NOTA. {sup 68}Ga complexation was performed in HEPES buffer (pH 4.2) at room temperature. The functional activity after labeling was tested by radioligand cell binding assays. Biodistribution and PET studies in tumor-bearing mice were performed after 1, 2, 3 and 4 h postinjection. Results: The radiolabeling of scVEGF-PEG-HBED-CC proved more efficient than scVEGF-PEG-NOTA allowing to stop the reaction after 4 min (>97% radiochemical yield). Radioligand cell binding assays performed on HEK-293 cells overexpressing VEGFR-2 revealed no change in the binding properties of {sup 68}Ga-radiolabeled scVEGF relative to other scVEGF-based tracers. Both tracers showed comparable results in biodistribution, such as tumor accumulation and low liver uptake. The tracers were stable in 50% human serum for at least 72 h. Conclusions: The conjugates scVEGF-PEG-HBED-CC and scVEGF-PEG-NOTA revealed comparable in vivo characteristics and allowed easy

  20. Stem cells and neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the neurodegenerative changes or apoptosis of neurons involved in networks, which are important to specific physiological functions. With the de-velopment of old-aging society, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is on the increase. How-ever, it is difficult to diagnose for most of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, there are too few effective therapies. Advances in stem cell biology have raised the hope and possibility for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, stem cells have been widely attempted to treat neurodegen-erative diseases of animal model. Here we review the progress and prospects of various stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell and neural stem cells and so on, for the treatments of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Hunt-ington’s disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Lou Gehrig’s disease.