Sample records for cepo prpo ndpo

  1. High-resolution nonresonant x-ray Raman scattering study on rare earth phosphate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huotari, Simo; Suljoti, Edlira; Sahle, Christoph J.; Raedel, Stephanie; Monaco, Giulio; de Groot, Frank M. F.


    We report high-resolution x-ray Raman scattering studies of high-order multipole spectra of rare earth 4d -> 4f excitations (the N-4,N-5 absorption edge) in nanoparticles of the phosphates LaPO4, CePO4, PrPO4, and NdPO4. We also present corresponding data for La 5p -> 5d excitations (the O-2,O-3

  2. Phase equilibria in the system Nd(PO3)3 - KPO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znamierowska, T.; Mizer, D.


    The system Nd(PO 3 ) 3 - KPO 3 has been investigated by differential thermal analysis (during heating), thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction and its phase diagram was proposed. It was discovered that initial metaphosphates react at a 1:1 molar ratio forming intermediate compound KNd(PO 3 ) 4 . It was found that it melts incongruently at 854 o C giving Nd(po)3) 3 and a liquid rich in KPO 3 . Phosphate KNd(PO 3 ) 4 is stable down to room temperature and does not show any polymorphic transitions. (author)

  3. Synthesis and luminescence of CePO4 and CePO4:Tb hollow and core-shell microspheres composed of single-crystal nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Mingyun; Sun Jianhua; Han Min; Xu Zheng; Tao Feifei; Yin Gui; Wei Xianwen; Zhu Jianmin; Jiang Xiqun


    Lanthanide phosphate microspheres composed of single-crystal CePO 4 and CePO 4 :Tb nanorods were successfully synthesized, respectively, using the functionalized composite aggregate as a template, which is composed of P123, H 6 P 4 O 13 and Ce 3+ , and also as a resource of reaction species with high chemical potential. The shape and the phase structure of the CePO 4 nanocrystal can be easily controlled via adjusting reaction temperature, monomer concentration and annealing temperature. SEM images show the spherical superstructure composed of nanorods. HRTEM and SAED images reveal the single-crystalline nature of nanorod and TEM images show the hollow interiors of the superstructure. XRD patterns indicate that the crystal structure of the nanorods is hexagonal before and monoclinic after annealing. The formation mechanism was proposed. Strong UV and green luminescence were observed for the CePO 4 and CePO 4 :Tb microspheres, respectively. The synthesis method can be extended to the fabrication of NRHS and core-shell microspheres of other rare-earth or doped LnPO 4 materials for wide applications

  4. Room-temperature synthesis and photoluminescence of hexagonal CePO4 nanorods (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Zhang, K.; Zhao, H. Y.


    Hexagonal CePO4 nanorods were synthesized via a simple chemical precipitation route at room-temperature without the presence of surfactants and then characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Hexagonal CePO4 nanorods exhibit strong ultraviolet absorption and ultraviolet luminescence, which correspond to the electronic transitions between 4f and 5d state of Ce3+ ions.

  5. Phase evolution and photoluminescence enhancement of CePO4 nanowires from a low phosphate concentration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Pengfei; Yu Ranbo; Zong Lingbo; Wang Jiali; Wang Dan; Deng Jinxia; Chen Jun; Xing Xianran


    Uniform CePO 4 nanowires have been successfully synthesized in a low phosphate concentration system through a single-step hydrothermal process. The low phosphate concentration might decrease the surface PO 4 3− adsorption of the as-synthesized CePO 4 nanowires efficiently and benefit their photoluminescence. The CePO 4 nanowires were identified to go through phase evolution from pure monoclinic to mixed hexagonal and monoclinic phase by only increasing the initial molar ratio of cerium and phosphate source (denoted as Ce/P). Interestingly, the strongest photoluminescence was observed in the CePO 4 nanowires synthesized with the initial Ce/P of 4:1, which proved to be the critical phase evolution point between the hexagonal and monoclinic CePO 4 . Therefore, the strong photoluminescence could be explained by the existence of the structure-sensitive energy level in the CePO 4 . This kind of photoluminescence enhancement would be a meaningful reference for design of other photoluminescent materials, in which the photoluminescent emission might be related to the structure-sensitive energy level. Additionally, the growth processes of CePO 4 nanowires based on related well-designed experiments were proposed.

  6. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of CePO4 nanostructures: Correlation between the structural and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma-Ramírez, D.; Domínguez-Crespo, M.A.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Dorantes-Rosales, H.; Ramírez-Meneses, E.; Rodríguez, E.


    Highlights: • An enhancement in the hydrothermal synthesis for obtaining of CePO 4 is presented. • Microwave energy can replace the energy by convection for obtaining CePO 4 . • CePO 4 demonstrates to be an option to increase the optical properties of polymers. • Adjusting the pH, the sintering process is not necessary to obtain the desire phase. • CePO 4 morphologies undergo evolution from nanorods to semispherical nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this work, the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method is proposed as an alternative to the synthesis of cerium phosphate (CePO 4 ) nanostructures to evaluate the influence of different synthesis parameters on both the structural and optical properties. In order to reach this goal, two different sets of experiments were designed, varying the reaction temperature (130 and 180 °C), synthesis time (15 and 30 min) and sintering temperature (400 and 600 °C), maintaining a constant pH = 3. Thereafter, two experimental conditions were selected to assess changes in the properties of CePO 4 nanopowders with pH (1, 5, 9 and 11). The crystal structure and morphology of the nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Diffuse reflectance properties of CePO 4 with different microstructures were studied. The results demonstrated that by using the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method, the shape, size and structural phase of CePO 4 can be modulated by using relatively low synthesis temperatures and short reaction times, and depending on pH, a sintering process is not needed to obtain either a desired phase or size. Under the selected experimental conditions, the materials underwent an evolution from nanorods to semispherical nanoparticles, accompanied by a phase transition from hexagonal to monoclinic

  7. Conductivity of Composite Material Based on System NdPO4·nH2OCsH2PO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfimova, Tatiana; Bjerrum, Niels J.; Li, Qingfeng


    The goal of the present study was to obtain a comprehensive knowledge about synthesis conditions, structure, thermal behavior and conductivity properties of neodymiumorthophosphates in order to analyze of use this material in intermediate temperature fuel cells due to their thermal and chemical...... stability properties.The impedance spectroscopy technique (IS) was used to measure the conductivity. The conductivity of composites observed to be lower than conductivity of pure CsH2PO4 but had improved sufficiently conductivity of pure NdPO4·nH2O...

  8. Comparison of neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) and carbamylerythropoietin (CEPO) against ischemia-like oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and NMDA excitotoxicity in mouse hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Maria; Rom Poulsen, Frantz; Noraberg, Jens


    of hematopoietic bioactivity, is the chemically modified, EPO-derivative carbamylerythropoietin (CEPO). For comparison of the neuroprotective effects of CEPO and EPO, we subjected organotypic hippocampal slice cultures to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) excitotoxicity. Hippocampal...... slice cultures were pretreated for 24 h with 100 IU/ml EPO (=26 nM) or 26 nM CEPO before OGD or NMDA lesioning. Exposure to EPO and CEPO continued during OGD and for the next 24 h until histology, as well as during the 24 h exposure to NMDA. Neuronal cell death was quantified by cellular uptake...... of propidium iodide (PI), recorded before the start of OGD and NMDA exposure and 24 h after. In cultures exposed to OGD or NMDA, CEPO reduced PI uptake by 49+/-3 or 35+/-8%, respectively, compared to lesion-only controls. EPO reduced PI uptake by 33+/-5 and 15+/-8%, respectively, in the OGD and NMDA exposed...

  9. Produção de fôlhas de diferentes variedades de amoreiras, durante o período de formação das mudas nos sistemas de cepo e fuste Leaf production of different mulberry tree varieties, during the period of seedlings formation by the systems "cepo" and "fuste"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Castilho Rúbia


    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados experimentais da produção de fôlhas em amoreiras de variedades comuns, durante o período de formação das mudas, com os sistemas denominados de cepo e fuste, em duas regiões, Limeira e Tatuí, do planalto paulista. Os resultados quanto à produção de fôlhas, em dois anos em cada região, permitiram as conclusões: Em Limeira, para a variedade Calabreza, o sistema de fuste foi muito superior ao de cepo. Para as variedades Fernão Dias e Lopes Lins, o sistema de fuste foi também superior, porém, de forma menos acentuada. Em Tatuí, no caso das variedades Calabreza e Fernão Dias, o sistema de cepo mostrou-se, ao contrário, mais produtivo. Para a variedade Lopes Lins, não houve diferença entre os dois sistemas de cultivo experimentados.In this paper the experimental results are reported on trials with leaf production carried out with common varieties of mulberry trees (Morus albaduring the period of seedlings formatioin by the systems known as "cepo" and "fuste", in two regions of the Paulista Plateau, namely Limeira and Tatuí. Regarding leaf production, in two years, for the regions, results allowed to reach the following conclusions: In Limeira, for the variety Calabreza, the system "fuste" showed highly superior to that named "cepo". As to the varieties Fernão Dias and Lopes Lins, the "fuste" system was also very satisfactory but not in a remarkable manner. In Tatui, as for the varieties Calabreza and Fernão Dias, the "cepo" system, on the contrary, showed to be more productive. Considering the variety Lopes Lins, there was not found any difference between the two tested cultivation systems.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure and optical properties of the catena-metaphosphates Ce(PO3)4 and U(PO3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppe, Henning A.; Daub, Michi


    The catena-metaphosphates of tetravalent cerium and tetravalent uranium were obtained as phase pure crystalline powders by reaction of the respective dioxides with phosphoric acid at 500 C. Ce(PO 3 ) 4 and U(PO 3 ) 4 crystallise in space group C2/c (Z = 16, a Ce = 13.7696(3) Aa, b Ce = 29.7120(7) Aa, c Ce = 8.9269(2) Aa, β Ce = 90.00(1) Aa 3 and a U = 13.786(3) Aa, b U = 29.843(6) Aa, c U = 8.9720(18) Aa, β U = 90.01(3) Aa 3 ). The vibrational and optical spectra of pale yellow Ce(PO 3 ) 4 and emerald-greenish U(PO 3 ) 4 are also reported. (orig.)

  11. Selective detection of Fe2+ by combination of CePO4:Tb3+ nanocrystal-H2O2 hybrid system with synchronous fluorescence scan technique. (United States)

    Chen, Hongqi; Ren, Jicun


    A new method for quenching kinetic discrimination of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+), and sensitive detection of trace amount of Fe(2+) was developed by using synchronous fluorescence scan technique. The principle of this assay is based on the quenching kinetic discrimination of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) in CePO(4):Tb(3+) nanocrytals-H(2)O(2) hybrid system and the Fenton reaction between Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2). Stable, water-soluble and well-dispersible CePO(4):Tb(3+) nanocrystals were synthesized in aqueous solutions, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS). We found that both Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) could quench the synchronous fluorescence of CePO(4):Tb(3+) nanocrytals-H(2)O(2) system, but their quenching kinetics velocities were quite different. In the presence of Fe(3+), the synchronous fluorescent intensity was unchanged after only one minute, but in the presence of Fe(2+), the synchronous fluorescent intensity decreased slowly until 28 min later. The Fenton reaction between Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) resulted in hydroxyl radicals which effectively quenched the synchronous fluorescence of the CePO(4):Tb(3+) nanocrystals due to the oxidation of Ce(3+) into Ce(4+) by hydroxyl radicals. Under optimum conditions, the linear range for Fe(2+) is 3 nM-2 μM, and the limit of detection is 2.0 nM. The method was used to analyze water samples.

  12. Facile sonochemical synthesis and morphology control of CePO4 nanostructures via an oriented attachment mechanism: Application as luminescent probe for selective sensing of Pb2+ ion in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiralizadeh Dezfuli, Amin; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz


    CePO 4 nanostructures with hexagonal phase were controllably synthesized using Ce(NO 3 ) 3 reaction with NH 4 H 2 PO 4 through a sonochemical method by simply varying the reaction conditions. By adding ethanol and polyethylene glycol (PEG), coral-reef nanostructures (CRNs) were synthesized and controlling over pH caused to nanorods/nanowires. Oriented attachment (OA) is proposed as dominant mechanism on the growth of nanostructures which is in competition with Ostwald ripening (OR). The crystal structure and morphology of the nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), respectively. The luminescent properties of CePO 4 with different morphologies have been studied. Among the nanostructures, nanoparticles with the highest intensity of fluorescent have been used as luminescent probe for selective sensing of Pb 2+ ion in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Facile sonochemical method has been used for synthesis of CePO 4 nanostructures. • Coral-reef as a new morphology of nanostructures is introduced. • CePO 4 NPs have been used as luminescent probe for selective sensing of Pb 2+ ion

  13. High pressure behavior of complex phosphate K2Ce[PO4]2: Grüneisen parameter and anharmonicity properties (United States)

    Mishra, Karuna Kara; Bevara, Samatha; Ravindran, T. R.; Patwe, S. J.; Gupta, Mayanak K.; Mittal, Ranjan; Krishnan, R. Venkata; Achary, S. N.; Tyagi, A. K.


    Herein we reported structural stability, vibrational and thermal properties of K2Ce[PO4]2, a relatively underexplored complex phosphate of tetravalent Ce4+ from in situ high-pressure Raman spectroscopic investigations up to 28 GPa using a diamond anvil cell. The studies identified the soft phonons that lead to a reversible phase transformation above 8 GPa, and a phase coexistence of ambient (PI) and high pressure (PII) phases in a wider pressure region 6-11 GPa. From a visual representation of the computed eigen vector displacements, the Ag soft mode at 82 cm-1 is assigned as a lattice mode of K+ cation. Pressure-induced positional disorder is apparent from the substantial broadening of internal modes and the disappearance of low frequency lattice and external modes in phase PII above 18 GPa. Isothermal mode Grüneisen parameters γi of the various phonon modes are calculated and compared for several modes. Using these values, thermal properties such as average Grüneisen parameter, and thermal expansion coefficient are estimated as 0.47, and 2.5 × 10-6 K-1, respectively. The specific heat value was estimated from all optical modes obtained from DFT calculations as 314 J-mol-1 K-1. Our earlier reported temperature dependence of phonon frequencies is used to decouple the "true anharmonic" (explicit contribution at constant volume) and "quasi harmonic" (implicit contribution brought out by volume change) contributions from the total anharmonicity. In addition to the 81 cm-1 Ag lattice mode, several other lattice and external modes of PO43- ions are found to be strongly anharmonic.

  14. Patterning Luminescent Nanocrystalline LaPO4 : Eu and CePO4 : Tb Particles Embedded in Hybrid Organosilica with Soft-Lithographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid U. Khan


    Full Text Available Eu3+-doped LaPO4 and Tb3+-doped CePO4 luminescent nanoparticles embedded in hybrid organosilica were patterned by two soft lithographic techniques. The role of various parameters such as solution chemistry, thermal protocols, and modification of the mold-substrate surface energies related to pattern shape formation and adhesion to the substrates have been studied. The shrinkage of the oxide patterns and shape evolution during the process was also examined. The patterns were characterized with optical and photoluminescence (PL microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Compositional analyses were carried out with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, low-energy ion scattering (LEIS, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS. The results indicated that the final patterns obtained with these two techniques for the same material have different shapes and adherence to the substrates.

  15. Luminescence Properties of Ca19Ce(PO4)14:A (A = Eu3+/Tb3+/Mn2+) Phosphors with Abundant Colors: Abnormal Coexistence of Ce4+/3+-Eu3+ and Energy Transfer of Ce3+ → Tb3+/Mn2+ and Tb3+-Mn2. (United States)

    Shang, Mengmeng; Liang, Sisi; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun


    A series of Eu 3+ /Tb 3+ /Mn 2+ -ion-doped Ca 19 Ce(PO 4 ) 14 (CCPO) phosphors have been prepared via the conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction process. Under UV radiation, the CCPO host presents a broad blue emission band from Ce 3+ ions, which are generated during the preparation process because of the formation of deficiency. The Eu 3+ -doped CCPO phosphors can exhibit magenta to red-orange emission as a result of the abnormal coexistence of Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ /Eu 3+ and the metal-metal charge-transfer (MMCT) effect between Ce 3+ and Eu 3+ . When Tb 3+ /Mn 2+ are doped into the hosts, the samples excited with 300 nm UV light present multicolor emissions due to energy transfer (ET) from the host (Ce 3+ ) to the activators with increasing activator concentrations. The emitting colors of CCPO:Tb 3+ phosphors can be tuned from blue to green, and the CCPO:Mn 2+ phosphors can emit red light. The ET mechanism from the host (Ce 3+ ) to Tb 3+ /Mn 2+ is demonstrated to be a dipole-quadrapole interaction for Ce 3+ → Tb 3+ and an exchange interaction for Ce 3+ → Mn 2+ in CCPO:Tb 3+ /Mn 2+ . Abundant emission colors containing white emission were obtained in the Tb 3+ - and Mn 2+ -codoped CCPO phosphors through control of the levels of doped Tb 3+ and Mn 2+ ions. The white-emitted CCPO:Tb 3+ /Mn 2+ phosphor exhibited excellent thermal stability. The photoluminescence properties have shown that these materials might have potential for UV-pumped white-light-emitting diodes.

  16. Joining of 25CePO4/ZrO2 and ZrO2 on Green State Without Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hai; LIU Jia-chen; LIU Ming-zheng; WANG Li-juan; HUO Wei-rong


    High-yielding low-cost vanadium oxide nanotubes were prepared by hydrothermal self-assembling process from vanadium pentoxide and organic molecules as structure-directing templates. Moreover, a new method was discovered to determine the content of V (IV) in vanadium oxide nanotubes by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). This method can be extended to determine the content of low oxidation state in other transition metal oxide nanomaterials.

  17. Theory of Correlated Pairs of Electrons Oscillating in Resonant Quantum States to Reach the Critical Temperature in a Metal


    Aroche, Raúl Riera; Rosas-Cabrera, Rodrigo Arturo; Burgos, Rodrigo Arturo Rosas; Betancourt-Riera, René; Betancourt-Riera, Ricardo


    The formation of Correlated Electron Pairs Oscillating around the Fermi level in Resonant Quantum States (CEPO-RQS), when a metal is cooled to its critical temperature T=Tc, is studied. The necessary conditions for the existence of CEPO-RQS are analyzed. The participation of electron-electron interaction screened by an electron dielectric constant of the form proposed by Thomas Fermi is considered and a physical meaning for the electron-phonon-electron interaction in the formation of the CEPO...

  18. Erythropoietin and carbamylated erythropoietin promote histone deacetylase 5 phosphorylation and nuclear export in rat hippocampal neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hye-Ryeong; Kim, Yong-Seok; Son, Hyeon


    Erythropoietin (EPO) produces neurotrophic effects in animal model of neurodegeneration. However, clinical use of EPO is limited due to thrombotic risk. Carbamylated EPO (cEPO), devoid of thrombotic risk, has been proposed as a novel neuroprotective and neurotrophic agent although the molecular mechanisms of cEPO remain incomplete. Here, we show a previously unidentified role of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in the actions of EPO and cEPO. EPO and cEPO regulate the HDAC5 phosphorylation at two critical sites, Ser259 and Ser498 through a protein kinase D (PKD) dependent pathway. In addition, EPO and cEPO rapidly stimulates nuclear export of HDAC5 in rat hippocampal neurons which expressing HDAC5-GFP. Consequently, EPO and cEPO enhanced the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) target gene expression. Taken together, our results reveal that EPO and cEPO mediate MEF2 target gene expression via the regulation of HDAC5 phosphorylation at Ser259/498, and suggest that HDAC5 could be a potential mechanism contributing to the therapeutic actions of EPO and cEPO.

  19. Erythropoietin and carbamylated erythropoietin promote histone deacetylase 5 phosphorylation and nuclear export in rat hippocampal neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hye-Ryeong [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Seok [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyeon, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)


    Erythropoietin (EPO) produces neurotrophic effects in animal model of neurodegeneration. However, clinical use of EPO is limited due to thrombotic risk. Carbamylated EPO (cEPO), devoid of thrombotic risk, has been proposed as a novel neuroprotective and neurotrophic agent although the molecular mechanisms of cEPO remain incomplete. Here, we show a previously unidentified role of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in the actions of EPO and cEPO. EPO and cEPO regulate the HDAC5 phosphorylation at two critical sites, Ser259 and Ser498 through a protein kinase D (PKD) dependent pathway. In addition, EPO and cEPO rapidly stimulates nuclear export of HDAC5 in rat hippocampal neurons which expressing HDAC5-GFP. Consequently, EPO and cEPO enhanced the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) target gene expression. Taken together, our results reveal that EPO and cEPO mediate MEF2 target gene expression via the regulation of HDAC5 phosphorylation at Ser259/498, and suggest that HDAC5 could be a potential mechanism contributing to the therapeutic actions of EPO and cEPO.

  20. Phase Composition and Long-Term Conductivity of Acceptor Doped Ce(PO3)4 and CeP2O7 with Variable P/Metal Ratio and of CeP2O7-KH2PO4 Composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hallinder, Jonathan; Lapina, Alberto


    The thermal evolution of the phase composition of CeP2O7 and Ce(PO3)4 with 10 mol% Y and Gd doping, respectively, was examined by in-situ powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry with in-line mass spectroscopy. The phase composition depends critically on the P to metal ratio, the annealing...... temperature, humidity and time. CeP2O7 and Ce(PO3)4 were completely decomposed to CePO4 following a 1100 h long conductivity test at 155°C. The conductivity of 10 mol% Gd doped Ce(PO3)4 (synthesized with P:(Ce + Gd) = 5.0) reaches a value of 6.4·10−2 S·cm−1 at 150°C under wet conditions (pH2O = 0.2 atm...

  1. Environmentally benign novel green pigments: Pr1–xCaxPO4 (x= 0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rare earth based materials have recently attracted considerable attention as potential eco-friendly colourants for low temperature as well as high temperature applications. In the present study, we have synthesized a series of Ca-doped PrPO4 compounds with the general formula, Pr1–CaPO4 ( = 0–0.4 in steps of 0.1) ...

  2. Effect of carbamylated erythropoietin on retinopathy of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jiang


    Objective:To study the effect of carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO) on retinopathy of diabetic rats.Methods: Male SD rats were selected as experimental animals and randomly divided into control group, DM group and CEPO group, and diabetic animal models were established and then given CEPO intervention. 2 weeks after intervention, the retina was collected to detect the expression of angiogenesis molecules, apoptosis molecules and oxidative stress pathway molecules.Results: HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-1, Bax, Caspase-3, Nrf-2, ARE, HO-1 and NQO-1 mRNA expression in retina of DM group were significantly higher than those of control group while TKLK, PEDF, Bcl-2 and Survivin mRNA expression were significantly lower than those of control group; HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-1, TKLK and PEDF mRNA expression in retina of CEPO group were not significantly different from those of DM group, Bcl-2, Survivin, Nrf-2, ARE, HO-1 and NQO-1 mRNA expression were significantly higher than those of DM group, and Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression were significantly lower than those of DM group.Conclusion:CEPO can reduce the apoptosis and oxidative stress injury of the retina tissue in diabetic rats without affecting the angiogenesis.

  3. Stochastic reactive power dispatch in hybrid power system with intermittent wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghavi, Reza; Seifi, Ali Reza; Samet, Haidar


    Environmental concerns besides fuel costs are the predominant reasons for unprecedented escalating integration of wind turbine on power systems. Operation and planning of power systems are affected by this type of energy due to the intermittent nature of wind speed inputs with high uncertainty in the optimization output variables. Consequently, in order to model this high inherent uncertainty, a PRPO (probabilistic reactive power optimization) framework should be devised. Although MC (Monte-Carlo) techniques can solve the PRPO with high precision, PEMs (point estimate methods) can preserve the accuracy to attain reasonable results when diminishing the computational effort. Also, this paper introduces a methodology for optimally dispatching the reactive power in the transmission system, while minimizing the active power losses. The optimization problem is formulated as a LFP (linear fuzzy programing). The core of the problem lay on generation of 2m + 1 point estimates for solving PRPO, where n is the number of input stochastic variables. The proposed methodology is investigated using the IEEE-14 bus test system equipped with HVDC (high voltage direct current), UPFC (unified power flow controller) and DFIG (doubly fed induction generator) devices. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated in the case study. - Highlights: • This paper uses stochastic loads in optimization process. • AC–DC load flow is modified to use some advantages of DC part in optimization process. • UPFC and DFIG are simulated in a way that could be effective in optimization process. • Fuzzy set has been used as an uncertainty analysis tool in the optimization

  4. Um olhar econômico sobre a fotografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Mayara Komarchesqui


    Full Text Available Resenha do livro Economia da arte e da cultura, organizado por César Bolaño, Cida Golin e Valério Brittos. São Paulo: Itaú Cultural; São Leopoldo: Cepos/Unisinos; Porto Alegre: PPGCOM/UFRGS; São Cristóvão: Obscom/UFS, 2010, 237 p.

  5. Transcription of Nanofibrous Cerium Phosphate Using a pH-Sensitive Lipodipeptide Hydrogel Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Llusar


    Full Text Available A novel and simple transcription strategy has been designed for the template-synthesis of CePO4·xH2O nanofibers having an improved nanofibrous morphology using a pH-sensitive nanofibrous hydrogel (glycine-alanine lipodipeptide as structure-directing scaffold. The phosphorylated hydrogel was employed as a template to direct the mineralization of high aspect ratio nanofibrous cerium phosphate, which in-situ formed by diffusion of aqueous CeCl3 and subsequent drying (60 °C and annealing treatments (250, 600 and 900 °C. Dried xerogels and annealed CePO4 powders were characterized by conventional thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TG, and Wide-Angle X-ray powder diffraction (WAXD and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD techniques. A molecular packing model for the formation of the fibrous xerogel template was proposed, in accordance with results from Fourier-Transformed Infrarred (FTIR and WAXD measurements. The morphology, crystalline structure and composition of CePO4 nanofibers were characterized by electron microscopy techniques (Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy/High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM/HRTEM, and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy working in High Angle Annular Dark-Field (STEM-HAADF with associated X-ray energy-dispersive detector (EDS and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy-Electron Energy Loss (STEM-EELS spectroscopies. Noteworthy, this templating approach successfully led to the formation of CePO4·H2O nanofibrous bundles of rather co-aligned and elongated nanofibers (10–20 nm thick and up to ca. 1 μm long. The formed nanofibers consisted of hexagonal (P6222 CePO4 nanocrystals (at 60 and 250 °C, with a better-grown and more homogeneous fibrous morphology with respect to a reference CePO4 prepared under similar (non-templated conditions, and transformed into nanofibrous monoclinic monazite (P21/n around 600 °C. The nanofibrous morphology

  6. Pharmacological Effects of Erythropoietin and its Derivative Carbamyl erythropoietin in Cerebral White Matter Injury (United States)

    Liu, Wei

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the predominant form of brain injury in the premature infant and the most common cause of cerebral palsy, yet no therapy currently exists for this serious human disorder. As PVL often occurs in preterm infants suffering from cerebral hypoxia/ischemia with or without prior exposure to maternal-fetal infection/inflammation, we used hypoxia/ischemia with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, to produce clinically relevant PVL-like lesions in the white matter in postnatal day six (P6) mice. We studied the white matter pathology under different conditions, such as different durations of hypoxia and different doses of LPS, to evaluate the effects of those etiological factors on neonatal white matter injury. Distinct related pathological events were investigated at different time points during the progression of PVL. We used immunohistochemistry, histological analysis, and electron microscopy (EM) to study demylination that occurs in the white matter area, which is consistent with the pathology of human PVL. Previous studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) and its derivative carbamylated EPO (CEPO) are neuroprotective in various experimental models of brain injury. However, none of these studies investigated their efficacy against white matter injury using appropriate animal models of PVL. We produced unilateral or bilateral white matter injury in P6 mice using unilateral carotid ligation (UCL) followed by hypoxia (6% oxygen, 35 min) or by UCL/hypoxia plus LPS injection, respectively. We administered a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of EPO or CEPO (5000 IU/kg) immediately after the insult, and found both drugs to provide significant protection against white matter injury in PVL mice compared to vehicle-treated groups. In addition, EPO and CEPO treatments attenuated neurobehavioral dysfunctions in an acute manner after PVL injury. EPO and CEPO have relatively few adverse effects, and thus may be a therapeutic agent

  7. Transformation of ceria nanoparticles in cucumber plants is influenced by phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui, Yukui; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yanbei; Ma, Yuhui; He, Xiao; Gui, Xin; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong; Chu, Shengqi; Guo, Zhi; Chai, Zhifang; Zhao, Yuliang; Zhang, Zhiyong


    Transformation is a critical factor that affects the fate and toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment and living organisms. This paper aims to investigate the effect of phosphate on the transformation of CeO 2 NPs in hydroponic plants. Cucumber seedlings were treated with 2000 mg/L CeO 2 NPs in nutrient solutions with or without adding phosphate (+P or –P) for 3 weeks. Large quantities of needle-like CePO 4 was found outside the epidermis in the +P group. While in the –P group, CePO 4 only existed in the intercellular spaces and vacuole of root cells. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) indicates that content and percentage of Ce-carboxylates in the shoots of –P group (418 mg/kg, 67.5%) were much higher than those in the +P group (30.1 mg/kg, 21%). The results suggest that phosphate might influence the transformation process of CeO 2 NPs in plants and subsequently their ultimate fate in the ecosystem. - Highlights: • We compared the transformation of CeO 2 NPs in cucumber plants with and without phosphate in nutrient solutions. • Results of TEM and STXM show that CePO 4 located differently in roots between +P and –P group. • The chemical species distributions of Ce in shoots were different between +P and –P group by XANES. • Phosphate significantly affected the transformation of CeO 2 NPs in plants. - CeO 2 NPs can be partially transformed to CePO 4 and Ce carboxylates in hydroponic plants. Phosphate significantly affected the transformation of CeO 2 NPs and subsequent translocation of Ce species

  8. JPRS Report, East Europe. Reference Aid: Abbreviations in the Polish Press. (United States)


    Stalinowskich blogoslawionej pamieci bulgarski biezacego miesiaca baza morska Biblioteka Miejska brori masowego razenia bulletin Office of...34Centrosan" "Centro- sprzet" "Centrowet" "Cepede" "Cepelia" CePO ceram. CEZAS CFIS CGZ CH CHAS ChAT CHC ChD Centrala Morska Importowo...Administration "Gama" Gdanska Agencja Morska i Asekuracyjna gat. gatunek gaz. gazeta GDO Gdanska Dyrekcja Odbudowy gen. broni general broni gen. bryg

  9. Bistable luminescence of trivalent rare-earth ions in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, Jose Garcia; Ramirez O, Maria de la; Rodenas, Airan; Jaque, Daniel; Bausa, Luisa; Bettinelli, Marco; Speghini, Adolfo; Cavalli, Enrico; Ivleva, Lioudmila


    In this work, we have examined three new bistable systems based on the luminescence of three different crystals activated with trivalent rare earth ions. We have focussed our attention on Yb 3+ ions activators, for which the most relevant results are obtained. The first crystal, Sr 0.6 Ba 0.4 Nb 2 O 6 , is a ferroelectric material with a relatively low phase transition temperature (∼370 K), which provides bistability in the luminescence of Yb 3+ ions due to the thermal hysteresis associated with phase transition. The second crystal, LiNbO 3 , provides an intrinsic bistability in the luminescence of Yb 3+ ions, which is driven by changes in the excitation intensity. In the third crystal, NdPO 4 , a new mechanism of excitation intensity driven bistability is obtained when activated with Yb 3+ ions, due to a interplay between the Nd 3+ ↔Yb 3+ energy transfer and back transfer processes

  10. Thermal Stability and Proton Conductivity of Rare Earth Orthophosphate Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfimova, Tatiana; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf


    as the rhabdophane structure is preserved. The bound hydrate water is accommodated in the rhabdophane structure and is stable at temperatures of up to 650 oC. The thermal stability of the hydrate water and the phosphate structure are of significance for the proton conductivity. The LaPO4·0.6H2O and NdPO4•0.5H2O......Hydrated orthophosphate powders of three rare earth metals, lanthanum, neodymium and gadolinium, were prepared and studied as potential proton conducting materials for intermediate temperature electrochemical applications. The phosphates undergo a transformation from the rhabdophane structure...... to the monazite structure upon dehydration. The thermal stability of the hydrate is studied and found to contain water of two types, physically adsorbed and structurally bound hydrate water. The adsorbed water is correlated to the specific surface area and can be reversibly recovered when dehydrated as long...

  11. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for the treatment of colorectal cancer: a literature review and recommendations from the Comité de l’évolution des pratiques en oncologie (United States)

    Morneau, Mélanie; Boulanger, Jim; Charlebois, Patrick; Latulippe, Jean-François; Lougnarath, Rasmy; Thibault, Claude; Gervais, Normand


    Background Adoption of the laparoscopic approach for colorectal cancer treatment has been slow owing to initial case study results suggesting high recurrence rates at port sites. The use of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer still raises a number of concerns, particularly with the technique’s complexity, learning curve and longer duration. After exploring the scientific literature comparing open and laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of colorectal cancer with respect to oncologic efficacy and short-term outcomes, the Comité de l’évolution des pratiques en oncologie (CEPO) made recommendations for surgical practice in Quebec. Methods Scientific literature published from January 1995 to April 2012 was reviewed. Phase III clinical trials and meta-analyses were included. Results Sixteen randomized trials and 10 meta-analyses were retrieved. Analysis of the literature confirmed that for curative treatment of colorectal cancer, laparoscopy is not inferior to open surgery with respect to survival and recurrence rates. Moreover, laparoscopic surgery provides short-term advantages, including a shorter hospital stay, reduced analgesic use and faster recovery of intestinal function. However, this approach does require a longer operative time. Conclusion Considering the evidence, the CEPO recommends that laparoscopic resection be considered an option for the curative treatment of colon and rectal cancer; that decisions regarding surgical approach take into consideration surgeon experience, tumour stage, potential contraindications and patient expectations; and that laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer be performed only by appropriately trained surgeons who perform a sufficient volume annually to maintain competence. PMID:24067514

  12. Electron paramagnetic resonance of V4+ in the lanthanum and cerium orthophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.C. de.


    The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectrum of V 4+ was investigated in polycrystalline samples of lanthanum orthophosphate (LaPO 4 ) and cerium orthophosphate (CePO 4 ) doped with 0.2 wt % vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ). Measurements were performed at room temperature and 9.5 GHz. In LaPO 4 , two non-equivalent axial sites were inferred from the EPR spectra. The most stable of these two sites is probably substitutional. In CePO 4 , a single axial spectrum was observed. It was attributed to V 4+ in substitutional sites. A central, wide line was also seen; it was attributed to ferromagnetic clusters of vanadium ions. Photoacoustic absorption spectra were also recorded for the two compounds. The EPR and photoacoustic absorption data, when analyzed using the molecular orbital theory, show that for both lanthanum orthophosphate and cerium orthophosphate the ground orbital (d sub(x) 2 sub(-y) 2) of the unpainred electron is purely ionic, while the excited orbitals d sub(xy) and d sub(xz,yz) are partly covalent. The degree of covalency is higher for the d sub(xy) orbital. Finally, it should be pointed out that part of the theory used for the interpretation of the EPR and photoacoustic absorption spectra (study of the ligand field splitting of a d orbital in a site of distorted capped antiprism structure) was developed by the author in the present work and is therefore an original contribution. (Author) [pt

  13. Efficiency of box-traps and leg-hold traps with several bait types for capturing small carnivores (Mammalia in a disturbed area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Michalski


    Full Text Available Capturing small carnivores is often necessary for obtaining key ecological data. We compared the efficiency of box and leg-hold traps, using live and dead bait, to capture six carnivore species (Herpailurus yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroyi, 1803, Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, and Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782. The use of leg-hold traps significantly increased the capture rate of carnivores (5.77% and non-target species (non-carnivores, 11.54%. Dead bait significantly attracted more non-carnivores than carnivores and live bait was more efficient for capturing carnivores (2.56% than non-carnivores (0.77%. Both box and leg-hold traps caused some minor injuries (swelling and claw loss. We provide recommendations for the ethical use of these trap and bait types. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 315-320. Epub 2007 March. 31.La captura de pequeños carnívoros es una práctica común para obtener datos ecológicos. Comparamos la eficiencia de cepos (trampas acolchadas y trampas tomahawk para capturar seis especies carnívoras (Herpailurus yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroyi, 1803, Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, and Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, utilizando carnadas vivas y muertas. Con los cepos se incrementó significativamente la tasa de captura de carnívoros (5.77% y otros mamíferos (no-carnívoros, 11.54%. La carnada muerta atrajo significativamente mas no-carnívoros que carnívoros, mientras que con la carnada viva se capturaron más carnívoros (2.56% vs 0.77% no-carnívoros. Ambos tipos de trampas; cepos y tomahawk, causaron algunas pequeñas lastimaduras (inflamación y pérdida de garras. Hacemos algunas recomendaciones para el uso ético de este tipo de trampas y cebos.

  14. Incorporation of cesium into phosphates of apatitic and rhabdophane lattices. Application to the conditioning of separated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campayo, L.


    Two phosphate-based materials were investigated for cesium immobilization after its partitioning from spent nuclear fuel: apatites and rhabdophanes. The incorporation of cesium into the apatitic lattice creates steric stresses. These stresses induce the formation of secondary phases which are rapidly leached. The effectiveness of the cesium immobilization in this material is not therefore validated. A second phosphate CsCaNd(PO 4 ) 2 was consistently found at the end of the leach test and its properties were further characterized. The structure of CsCaNd(PO 4 ) 2 , which is rhabdophane-like, is made of large channels which enable the incorporation of the largest alkaline cations. The synthesis involves two intermediates: the monazite, NdPO 4 , and a soluble phosphate, CsCaPO 4 . The study of a rhabdophane with 10 wt.% of cesium reveals satisfactory intrinsic properties: a thermal stability up to 1100 C and a leach rate of 10 -2 g/(m 2 .d). The next step will be to improve the reaction yield. (author)

  15. Lanthanides in geological fluids: experimental study of standard thermodynamic properties and of solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourtier, E.


    Standard thermodynamic properties (STP) of lanthanides (Ln 3+ ) are necessary to predict their transport in hydrothermal fluids. New STP (apparent molal volumes and heat capacities) of Ln 3+ are determined with dilute (La 3+ , Nd 3+ , Gd 3+ , Yb 3+ ) triflates solutions, up to 300 deg. C and 300 bars, using a vibrating tube flow densimeter and a differential heat flow calorimeter. The triflate anion (CF 3 SO 3 ), stable at high temperature, does not form complexes with Ln 3+ . The STP of HCF 3 SO 3 and NaCF 3 SO 3 are measured in order to get the STP of CF 3 SO 3 . The solubility of the Nd-pure pole of monazite (NdPO 4 ) studied between 300 and 800 deg. C at 2 kbars in H 2 O and H 2 O+NaCl using weight loss and isotope dilution methods, is prograde for neutral pH. The study of Nd 3+ speciation at 650 deg. C and 300 deg. C, 2 kbars, shows that only hydroxylated species are present. These data allow the revision of Ln 3+ parameters in the HKF model. (author)

  16. Dissolution of britholites and monazite / brabantite solid solutions doped with actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Fou De Kerdaniel, E.


    In the field of the radwaste storage in underground repository, several matrices were considered as promising ceramics for the specific immobilization of actinides. Two of them, britholites and monazite/ brabantite solid solution, have been considered during this work. In order to examine the dissolution mechanisms occurring at the solid liquid interface, several leaching experiments have been conducted on (Ln III PO 4 ), brabantite (Ca II An IV (PO 4 ) 2 : An = Th, U) and britholites (Ca 9 Nd 0.5 An 0.5 IV (PO 4 ) 4.5 (SiO 4 ) 1.5 F 2 : An = Th, U). Some steady experiments, performed in under saturation conditions for various pH and temperature conditions allowed to evaluate the long term behaviour of such matrices through their chemical durability. On the contrary, the thermodynamic equilibria were examined through the leaching experiments performed near the saturation conditions. By the way, various secondary phases, precipitated onto the surface of altered samples have been identified and characterized. Among them, the (Nd, Ca, Th) - rhabdophane, novelly prepared in over- saturation experiments for a thorium weight loading lower than 11 % appeared to be metastable. Indeed, it turns into TPHPH (Th 2 (PO 4 ) 2 HPO 4 .H 2 O) and Nd - rhabdophane (NdPO 4 .1/2H 2 O) when increasing leaching time. (author)

  17. Selectivity of crystalline Ce(IV)-phosphate-sulphate hydrates for Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, and NH4+ in aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, K.H.; Psotta, L.


    The sequence of exchange-capacities of Cerium(IV)-phosphate-sulphate hydrate (CePO 4 ) 2 (HPO 4 )sub(0.74)(SO 4 )sub(0.26) . 4.74 H 2 O concerning the alkaline ions and the ammonium ion in water at 25 0 C for the case of a small excess of the exchanger (in relation to the equivalent amount) is given by Na + > K + > Rb + > NH 4 + > Cs + > Li + . The simple relation A const/r was found between the exchange-capacity A of these cations and their ionic radii r (given by Ladd); only for Li + the radius of the inner hydration-shell must be considered. The observations are consistent with Eisenmann's theory. (author)

  18. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard


    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......-politicization of Danish newspapers; but also that the news media as an arena of influence is only one part of the equation, since some of the corporatist political networks are still intact and working outside the media...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  19. Characterization of the corrosion protection mechanism of cerium-based conversion coatings on high strength aluminum alloys (United States)

    Pinc, William Ross

    The aim of the work presented in this dissertation is to investigate the corrosion protection mechanism of cerium-based conversion coatings (CeCCs) used in the corrosion protection of high strength aluminum alloys. The corrosion resistance of CeCCs involves two general mechanisms; barrier and active. The barrier protection mechanism was influenced by processing parameters, specifically surface preparation, post-treatment, and the use of gelatin. Post-treatment and the addition of gelatin to the coating solution resulted in fewer cracks and transformation of the coating to CePO4, which increased the corrosion resistance by improving the barrier aspect of CeCCs. CeCCs were found to best act as barriers when crack size was limited and CePO4 was present in the coating. CeCCs were found to protect areas of the substrate that were exposed in the coating, indicating that the coatings were more than simple barriers. CeCCs contained large cracks, underneath which subsurface crevices were connected to the surface by the cracks. Despite the observation that no cerium was present in crevices, coatings with crevices exhibited significant corrosion protection. The impedance of post-treated coatings with crevices increased during salt spray exposure. The increase in impedance was associated with the formation of protective oxides / hydroxides; however, crevice-free coatings also exhibited active protection leading to the conclusion that the formation of interfacial layers between the CeCC and the substrate also contributed to the active protection. Based on the overall results of the study, the optimal corrosion protection of CeCCs occurred when processing conditions produced coatings with morphologies and compositions that facilitated both the barrier and active protection mechanisms.

  20. Atomistic modelling study of lanthanide incorporation in the crystal lattice of an apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis-Achille, V.


    Studies of natural and synthetic apatites allow to propose such crystals as matrix for nuclear waste storage. The neodymium substituted britholite, Ca 9 Nd(PO 4 ) 5 (SiO 4 )F 2 . is a model for the trivalent actinide storage Neodymium can be substituted in two types of sites. The aim of this thesis is to compare the chemical nature of this two sites in fluoro-apatite Ca 9 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 and then in britholite, using ab initio atomistic modeling. Two approaches are used: one considers the infinite crystals and the second considers clusters. The calculations of the electronic structure for both were performed using Kohn and Sham density functional theory in the local approximation. For solids, pseudopotentials were used, and wave functions are expanded in plane waves. For clusters, a frozen core approximation was used, and the wave functions are expanded in a linear combination of Slater type atomic orbitals. The pseudopotential is semi-relativistic for neodymium, and the Hamiltonian is scalar relativistic for the clusters. The validation of the solid approach is performed using two test cases: YPO 4 and ScPO 4 . Two numerical tools were developed to compute electronic deformation density map, and calculate partial density of stases. A full optimisation of the lattice parameters with a relaxation of the atomic coordinates leads to correct structural and thermodynamic properties for the fluoro-apatite, compared to experience. The electronic deformation density maps do not show any significant differences. between the two calcium sites. but Mulliken analysis on the solid and on the clusters point out the more ionic behavior of the calcium in site 2. A neodymium substituted britholite is then studied. Neodymium location only induces local modifications in; the crystalline structure and few changes in the formation enthalpy. The electronic study points out an increase of the covalent character the bonding involving neodymium compared with the one related to calcium

  1. Lead diffusion in monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, E.


    Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO 4 monocrystals and in Nd 0.66 Ca 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 polycrystals from Nd 0.66 Pb 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 thin films to investigate Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ and Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 ± 24 kJ mol -1 and log(D 0 (m 2 s -1 )) equals -3.41 ± 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 μm grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)

  2. Danish wind power export and cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, H.; Hvelplund, F.; Alberg OEstergaard, P. (and others)


    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both local resources and international market mechanisms. This is done in a way which makes it possible for our neighbouring countries to follow a similar path. Moreover, Denmark has a strategy to raise this share to 50 percent and the necessary measures are in the process of being implemented. Recently, a study made by the Danish think tank CEPOS claimed the opposite, i.e. that most of the Danish wind power has been exported in recent years. However, this claim is based on an incorrect interpretation of statistics and a lack of understanding of how the international electricity markets operate. Consequently, the results of the CEPOS study are in general not correct. Moreover, the CEPOS study claims that using wind turbines in Denmark is a very expensive way of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions and that this is the reason for the high energy taxes for private consumers in Denmark. These claims are also misleading. The cost of CO{sub 2} reduction by use of wind power in the period 2004-2008 was only 20 EUR/ton. Furthermore, the Danish wind turbines are not paid for by energy taxes. Danish wind turbines are given a subsidy via the electricity price which is paid by the electricity consumers. In the recent years of 2004-2008, such subsidy has increased consumer prices by 0.54 EURO/kWh on average. On the other hand, however, the same electricity consumers also benefitted from the wind

  3. Selectivity of crystalline Cesup(IV) phosphate sulphate hydrates for Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+ Cs+, and NH4+ in absolute methanol and absolute dimethylsulphoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, K.H.; Psotta, L.


    The sequence of exchange capacities of Cerium(IV) phosphate sulphate hydrate (CePO 4 ) 2 (HPO 4 )sub(0.74(SO 4 )sub(0.26) . 4.74 H 2 O for alkalimetal ions and ammoniumions in absolute methanol at 25 0 C for the case of a small excess of the exchanger (in relation to the equivalent amount) is given by K + > Rb + >= NH 4 + > Cs + > Na + > Li + . Between the exchange capacity A of these cations and their ionic radii r (given by Ladd) exists the simple relation A = const./r. For Na + the radius of the inner hydration shell must be considered. In absolute dimethyl-sulphoxide under the same conditions the sequence is K + >= NH 4 + > Rb + > Na + > Cs + > Li + . For K + , NH 4 + , Rb + and Cs + the exchange capacity is given by A = const./r. + const. . r 4 . The sequences of the alkali ions in both solvents are among the group of 13 sequences which are physicaly significant according to Eisenmann's theory. The results are compared with the observations made with water as solvent. (author)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of cerium containing iron phosphate based glass-ceramics (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Liao, Qilong; Wang, Fu; Zhu, Hanzhen


    The structure and properties of xCeO2-(100-x)(40Fe2O3-60P2O5), where x = 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mol%, glass-ceramics prepared by melting and slow cooling method have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results show that the 40Fe2O3-60P2O5 sample is homogeneously amorphous and the sample containing 2 mol% CeO2 has a small amount of FePO4 phase embedded. For the sample containing up to 4 mol% CeO2, monazite CePO4 and a small amount of FePO4 appear. Spectra analysis show that the structure networks of the glass-ceramics mainly consist of orthophosphate, along with pyrophosphate and a small amount of metaphosphate units. Moreover, the leaching rates of Fe and Ce are about 3.5 × 10-5 g m-2 d-1 and 5.0 × 10-5 g m-2 d-1 respectively after immersion in deionized water at 90 °C for 56 days, indicating their good chemical durability. The conclusions imply that the prepared method may be a promising process to immobilize nuclear waste into glass-ceramic matrix.

  5. Concentrations of rare elements in some Australian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diatloff, E.; Smith, F.W.; Asher, C.J.


    Total, exchangeable, and soil solution concentrations were measured for 15 rare earth elements (REEs) in 9 soils from Queensland and New South Wales. In a further 10 acid soils, effects of amendment with CaCO 3 or CaSO 4 . 2H 2 O were measured on the concentrations of REEs in soil solution. The total concentration of the REEs in soil solutions from unamended soils ranged from below the detection limit (0.007 μM) to 0.64 μM. Lanthanum (La) and cerium (Ce) were the REEs present in the greatest concentrations, the highest concentrations measured in the diverse suite of soils being 0.13 μM La and 0.51 μM Ce. Rare earth elements with higher atomic numbers were present in very low concentrations. Exchangeable REEs accounted for 0.07 to 12.6% of the total REEs measured in the soils. Addition of CaCO 3 increased soil solution pH and decreased REE concentrations in soil solution, whilst CaSO 4 . 2H 2 O decreased soil solution pH and increased the concentrations of REEs in soil solution. Solubility calculations suggest that CePO 4 may be the phase controlling the concentration of Ce in soil solution. 33 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Crystal structure and cation exchanging properties of a novel open framework phosphate of Ce (IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevara, Samatha; Achary, S. N., E-mail:; Tyagi, A. K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Insitute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Patwe, S. J. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sinha, A. K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Mishra, R. K.; Kumar, Amar; Kaushik, C. P. [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)


    Herein we report preparation, crystal structure and ion exchanging properties of a new phosphate of tetravalent cerium, K{sub 2}Ce(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. A monoclinic structure having framework type arrangement of Ce(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} units formed by C2O{sub 8} square-antiprism and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra is assigned for K{sub C}e(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The K{sup +} ions are occupied in the channels formed by the Ce(PO{sub 4})6 and provide overall charge neutrality. The unique channel type arrangements of the K+ make them exchangeable with other cations. The ion exchanging properties of K2Ce(PO4)2 has been investigated by equilibrating with solution of 90Sr followed by radiometric analysis. In optimum conditions, significant exchange of K+ with Sr2+ with Kd ~ 8000 mL/g is observed. The details of crystal structure and ion exchange properties are explained and a plausible mechanism for ion exchange is presented.

  7. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A.


    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R ampersand D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl 2 Ti 6 O 16 ) and rutile (TiO 2 ). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 ), zircon (ZrSiO 4 ), and monazite (CePO 4 ), to name a few of the most promising. R ampersand D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO 2 powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues

  8. Carbon quantum dots-based recyclable real-time fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase with adenosine triphosphate as substrate. (United States)

    Qian, Zhaosheng; Chai, Lujing; Tang, Cong; Huang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Jianrong; Feng, Hui


    A convenient, reliable, and highly sensitive real-time assay for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the continuous and recyclable way is established on the basis of aggregation and disaggregation of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) through the competitive assay approach. CQDs and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were used as the fluorescent indicator and substrate for ALP activity assessment, respectively. Richness of carboxyl groups on the surface of CQDs enables their severe aggregation triggered by cerium ions, which results in effective fluorescence quenching. Under the catalytic hydrolysis of ALP, ATP can be rapidly transformed to phosphate ions. Stronger affinity of phosphate ions to cerium ions than carboxyl groups is taken advantage of to achieve fluorescence recovery induced by redispersion of CQDs in the presence of ALP and ATP. Quantitative evaluation of ALP activity in a broad range from 4.6 to 383.3 U/L with the detection limit of 1.4 U/L can be realized in this way, which endows the assay with high enough sensitivity for practical detection in human serum. The assay can be used in a recyclable way for more than three times since the generated product CePO4 as a precipitate can be easily removed from the standard assay system. This strategy broadens the sensing application of fluorescent CQDs with excellent biocompatibility and provides an example based on disaggregation in optical probe development.

  9. The Nasal Route as a Potential Pathway for Delivery of Erythropoietin in the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar García-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Intranasal delivery provides a practical, noninvasive method of bypassing the blood-brain barrier (BBB in order to deliver therapeutic agents to the brain. This method allows drugs that do not cross the BBB to be delivered to the central nervous system in a few minutes. With this technology, it will be possible to eliminate systemic administration and its potential side effects. Using the intranasal delivery system, researchers have demonstrated neuroprotective effects in different animal models of stroke using erythropoietin (EPO as a neuroprotector or other different types of EPO without erythropoiesis-stimulating activity. These new molecules retain their ability to protect neural tissue against injury and they include Asialoerythropoietin (asialoEPO carbamylated EPO (CEPO, and rHu-EPO with low sialic acid content (Neuro-EPO. Contrary to the other EPO variants, Neuro-EPO is not chemically modified, making it biologically similar to endogenous EPO, with the advantage of less adverse reactions when this molecule is applied chronically. This constitutes a potential benefit of Neuro-EPO over other variants of EPO for the chronic treatment of neurodegenerative illnesses. Nasal administration of EPO is a potential, novel, neurotherapeutic approach. However, it will be necessary to initiate clinical trials in stroke patients using intranasal delivery in order to obtain the clinical evidence of its neuroprotectant capacity in the treatment of patients with acute stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders. This new therapeutic approach could revolutionize the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders in the 21st century.

  10. Impact of Lubricant Additives on thePhysicochemical Properties and Activity of Three‐Way Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Xie


    Full Text Available As alternative lubricant anti‐wear additives are sought to reduce friction and improve overall fuel economy, it is important that these additives are also compatible with current emissions control catalysts. In the present work, an oil‐miscible phosphorous‐containing ionic liquid (IL, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2‐ethylhexyl phosphate ([P66614][DEHP], is evaluated for its impact on three‐way catalysts (TWC and benchmarked against the industry standard zinc‐dialkyl‐dithio‐phosphate (ZDDP. The TWCs are aged in different scenarios: neat gasoline (no‐additive, or NA, gasoline+ZDDP, and gasoline+IL. The aged samples, along with the as‐received TWC, are characterized through various analytical techniques including catalyst reactivity evaluation in a bench‐flow reactor. The temperatures of 50% conversion (T50 for the ZDDP‐aged TWCs increased by 30, 24, and 25 °C for NO, CO, and C3H6, respectively, compared to the no‐additive case. Although the IL‐aged TWC also increased in T50 for CO and C3H6, it was notably less than ZDDP, 7 and 9 °C, respectively. Additionally, the IL‐aged samples had higher water‐gas‐shift reactivity and oxygen storage capacity than the ZDDP‐aged TWC. Characterization of the aged samples indicated the predominant presence of CePO4 in the ZDDP‐aged TWC aged by ZDDP, while its formation was retarded in the case of IL where higher levels of AlPO4 is observed. Thus, results in this work indicate that the phosphonium‐phosphate IL potentially has less adverse impact on TWC than ZDDP.

  11. Hot and cold pressing of (La,Ce)PO4-based nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floran, R.J.; Rappaz, M.; Abraham, M.M.; Boatner, L.A.


    Synthetic analogs of the mineral monazite [(Ce,La,Ca,Th,U)(P,Si)O 4 ] are promising host phases for the isolation of actinide wastes. In the present investigation, the optimal conditions necessary to form high-density, simulated waste pellets from calcined LaPO 4 and CePO 4 powders have been examined. Pellets that are close to the theoretical density are necessary in order to minimize porosity and hence potential avenues along which fluid/waste interactions can take place. Calcined powders prepared by a urea precipitation process were cold pressed and hot pressed under a range of controlled conditions to form coherent, cylindrical pellets. Changes in density were examined as a function of pressure, temperature and duration of sintering. For cold-pressed pellets, a significant increase in density occurs during sintering between 1000 0 C and 1100 0 C. This increase is correlated with substantial grain coarsening of the pellet microstructure. A comparison of cold and hot pressing techniques suggests that, only after sintering, does the density of cold-pressed pellets approach (but not equal) that of the hot-pressed pellets. Densities >90% of the theoretical value of 5.11 g/cm 3 are easily attainable by hot pressing without sintering. The significance of density differences on pellet stability will be investigated in future leaching studies. The apparent advantages of the higher densities achieved by hot pressing must be weighed against the increased technological/engineering complexities involved when working at sustained high temperatures in a remote environment. Thus the cold pressing technique may ultimately prove more practical for large-scale commercial operations

  12. Oxygen diffusion in monazite (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Nakamura, M.; Watson, E. B.


    We report measurements of oxygen diffusion in natural monazites under both dry, 1-atm conditions and hydrothermal conditions. For dry experiments, 18O-enriched CePO4 powder and monazite crystals were sealed in Ag-Pd capsules with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO) and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels, where monazite grains were encapsulated with 18O-enriched water. Following the diffusion anneals, oxygen concentration profiles were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the reaction 18O(p,α)15N. Over the temperature range 850-1100 °C, the Arrhenius relation determined for dry diffusion experiments on monazite is given by: Under wet conditions at 100 MPa water pressure, over the temperature range 700-880 °C, oxygen diffusion can be described by the Arrhenius relationship: Oxygen diffusion under hydrothermal conditions has a significantly lower activation energy for diffusion than under dry conditions, as has been found the case for many other minerals, both silicate and nonsilicate. Given these differences in activation energies, the differences between dry and wet diffusion rates increase with lower temperatures; for example, at 600 °C, dry diffusion will be more than 4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion under hydrothermal conditions. These disparate diffusivities will result in pronounced differences in the degree of retentivity of oxygen isotope signatures. For instance, under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust) and high lower-crustal temperatures (∼800 °C), monazite cores of 70-μm radii will preserve O isotope ratios for about 500,000 years; by comparison, they would be retained at this temperature under wet conditions for about 15,000 years.

  13. Cr-substitution effect on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cr{sub x}Ce{sub 1−x}PO{sub 4} (x = 0.00, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.20) nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadhalaoui, Amor [Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Zarzouna, Bizerte 7021 (Tunisia); Dhaouadi, Hassouna, E-mail: [Laboratoire Matériaux Traitement et Analyse, INRAP, Technopôle Sidi-Thabet, Tunis 2020 (Tunisia); Marouani, Houda [Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Zarzouna, Bizerte 7021 (Tunisia); Kouki, Abdessalem [L3M, FSB, Zarzouna, Bizerte 7021 (Tunisia); Madani, Adel [Department of Physics, Applied Science College, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah (Saudi Arabia); Rzaigui, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Zarzouna, Bizerte 7021 (Tunisia)


    Graphical abstract: The Cr{sub x}Ce{sub 1−x}PO{sub 4} (x = 0.00, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.20) nanorods synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. - Highlights: • Cr{sub x}Ce{sub 1−x}PO{sub 4} (x = 0.00–0.20) nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Mean crystallite size of the products decreases with Cr-content. • Obvious improvements of the electrical conductivity comparatively to CePO4. - Abstract: Cr{sub x}Ce{sub 1−x}PO{sub 4} (x = 0.00–0.20) nanorods were synthesized using the hydrothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD results revealed the formation of a pure CePO{sub 4} hexagonal phase. TEM images confirmed the nano-size character of the as-prepared samples. Impedance spectroscopy analysis was used to analyze the electrical behavior of samples as a function of frequency at different temperatures. The increase of Cr-amount led to an increase in the total conductivities and decreased the activation energies (E{sub a} (x = 0.00) = 1.08 eV to E{sub a} (x = 0.20) = 0.80 eV). The optical properties of Cr{sub x}Ce{sub 1−x}PO{sub 4} nanomaterials were investigated using UV–vis spectroscopy. The band-gap energy values decreased with increasing Cr-content showing a red-shift trend. The improvement of the electrical conductivity and optical properties makes the Cr{sub x}Ce{sub 1−x}PO{sub 4} nanomaterials possible candidates to be used as electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells, in photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications.

  14. Synthesis and thermic behaviour (stability and sintering) of rare earth ortho-phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, S.


    Rare earth ortho-phosphates, LnPO 4 ,nH 2 O (Ln = La, Ce or Y), were synthesized by precipitation in aqueous media. The effect of pH, temperature, reagents stoichiometry and ripening time on the chemical composition and the morphology of the precipitates have been precised. The study of the thermal behaviour showed the presence of meta-phosphates as a secondary phase in the temperature range 1000 C - 1400 C that was very detrimental to the sintering. It is removed by calcining the powders at 1400 C. Thermogravimetry proved to be the best technique in order to insure the purity of the precipitates since it allows the detection of this phase down to a lower threshold than that associated with the other investigated characterization methods (IR or Raman spectrometry, chemical analysis, XRD, DTA). The monazites (La or Ce)PO 4 densify at 1400 C by natural sintering whereas the xenotime YPO 4 is not yet densified at 1500 C. Hot pressing at that temperature is required to its densification. The mechanical properties of the monazites remain low (sf about 120 MPa, K IC about 1.2 MPa.m 1/2 ). The xenotime ceramic is much more mechanically resistant (sf about 320 MPa, K IC about 1.5 MPa.m 1/2 ). An important acicular growth of the grains during the sintering of the xenotime (that occurs also during the synthesis process) is considered to be responsible for the behaviour and properties differences between this material and monazites. (author)

  15. Radiation damage produced by swift heavy ions in rare earth phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, Anton


    This work is devoted to the study of radiation damage produced by swift heavy ions in rare earth phosphates, materials that are considered as perspective for radioactive waste storage. Single crystals of rare earth phosphates were exposed to 2.1 GeV gold (Au) and 1.5 GeV xenon (Xe) ions of and analyzed mainly by Raman spectroscopy. All phosphates were found almost completely amorphous after the irradiation by 2.1 GeV Au ions at a fluence of 1 x 10 13 ions/cm 2 . Radiation-induced changes in the Raman spectra include the intensity decrease of all Raman bands accompanied by the appearance of broad humps and a reduction of the pronounced luminescence present in virgin samples. Analyzing the Raman peak intensities as a function of irradiation fluence allowed the calculation of the track radii for 2.1 GeV Au ions in several rare earth phosphates, which appear to be about 5.0 nm for all studied samples. Series of samples were studied to search for a trend of the track radius depending on the rare earth element (REE) cation. Among the monoclinic phosphates both Raman and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) suggest no significant change of the track radius with increasing REE mass. In contrast, within the tetragonal phosphates Raman spectroscopy data suggests a possible slight decreasing trend of the track radius with the increase of REE atomic number. That finding, however, requires further investigation due to the low reliability of the qualitative Raman analysis. Detailed analysis of Raman spectra in HoPO 4 showed the increase of peak width at the initial stage of the irradiation and subsequent decrease to a steady value at higher fluences. This observation suggested the existence of a defect halo around the amorphous tracks in HoPO 4 . Raman peaks were found to initially shift to lower wavenumbers with reversing this trend at the fluence of 5 x 10 11 for NdPO 4 and 1 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 for HoPO 4 . At the next fluence steps peaks moved in the other direction, passed

  16. Effects of amorphous silica coating on cerium oxide nanoparticles induced pulmonary responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jane; Mercer, Robert R.; Barger, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cohen, Joel M.; Demokritou, Philip; Castranova, Vincent


    Recently cerium compounds have been used in a variety of consumer products, including diesel fuel additives, to increase fuel combustion efficiency and decrease diesel soot emissions. However, cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) nanoparticles have been detected in the exhaust, which raises a health concern. Previous studies have shown that exposure of rats to nanoscale CeO 2 by intratracheal instillation (IT) induces sustained pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. In the present study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to CeO 2 or CeO 2 coated with a nano layer of amorphous SiO 2 (aSiO 2 /CeO 2 ) by a single IT and sacrificed at various times post-exposure to assess potential protective effects of the aSiO 2 coating. The first acellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and BAL cells were collected and analyzed from all exposed animals. At the low dose (0.15 mg/kg), CeO 2 but not aSiO 2 /CeO 2 exposure induced inflammation. However, at the higher doses, both particles induced a dose-related inflammation, cytotoxicity, inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and tissue inhibitor of MMP at 1 day post-exposure. Morphological analysis of lung showed an increased inflammation, surfactant and collagen fibers after CeO 2 (high dose at 3.5 mg/kg) treatment at 28 days post-exposure. aSiO 2 coating significantly reduced CeO 2 -induced inflammatory responses in the airspace and appeared to attenuate phospholipidosis and fibrosis. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed Ce and phosphorous (P) in all particle-exposed lungs, whereas Si was only detected in aSiO 2 /CeO 2 -exposed lungs up to 3 days after exposure, suggesting that aSiO 2 dissolved off the CeO 2 core, and some of the CeO 2 was transformed to CePO 4 with time. These results demonstrate that aSiO 2 coating reduce CeO 2 -induced inflammation, phospholipidosis and fibrosis. - Highlights: • Both CeO 2 and aSiO 2 /CeO 2 particles were detected in the respective particle-exposed lungs. • The


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nadie reconocía en él patria ni bandera. Cuando llegaba a los pagos de Quirihue, Rere, San Pedro, Tinguiririca, Puchacay o Maule, los inquilinos y mayordomos de las haciendas rehuían de su compañía porque leían en las cicatrices de su rostro, en los tatuajes de su cuerpo o en su hablar tosco y extraño, al hombre que vivía recorriendo caminos, huyendo de su propio nombre y de la justicia. Procreado en la violencia de un momento que nadie recordaba, su vida se inició en el mundo de los miserables, recogiendo las migajas con sabor a vino y cebolla, a charqui y queso añejo, para luego cazar furtivamente corderos, cabras y gallinas que degollaba con inusual calma para alimentar a su madre y a sus hermanastros; su juventud pasó entre muchas pendencias, grillos, cadenas, cepos y amores, aventuras y malones, para convertirse en hombre el día aciago en que por primera vez limpió de la hoja de su cuchillo la sangre de otro ser humano. Siempre llegaba y se iba en silencio, sin más nombre que sus apodos, que hablaban de otras muertes y de otras tierras, de asaltos, cuatrerismo y picardías; muchos se medían contra su sombra, otros se afanaban por ser sus conocidos y muy pocos podían llamarle amigo; bebedor incansable de aguardiente durante la vendimia y cantor alegre en las pulperías de extramuros, era un jugador empedernido de dados y naipes, de rayuelas y carreras ‘a la chilena’. Transitaba como sombra por fuertes, pagos y villas, puestos y vados, dejando tras de sí la extraña sensación de nunca haber pisado esa tierra. Sus historias en las noches lluviosas eran interminables, atrayendo sobre sí el halo de los hombres solitarios y andariegos que deslumbraban a las mujeres y niños, y que ejercían una fatal envidia entre los huasos e inquilinos. En su vida se entrecruzaban corregidores, comandantes y cabos de fuertes con la misma abundancia que lonkos, machis y caciques; hablaba con facilidad las dos lenguas, preparaba pócimas de


    Cobin, Rhoda H; Goodman, Neil F


    cardiovascular disease, age, and time from menopause. 2. the use of transdermal as compared with oral estrogen preparations may be considered less likely to produce thrombotic risk and perhaps the risk of stroke and coronary artery disease. 3. when the use of progesterone is necessary, micronized progesterone is considered the safer alternative. 4. in symptomatic menopausal women who are at significant risk from the use of hormone replacement therapy, the use of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and possibly other nonhormonal agents may offer significant symptom relief. 5. AACE does not recommend use of bioidentical hormone therapy. 6. AACE fully supports the recommendations of the Comité de l'Évolution des Pratiques en Oncologie regarding the management of menopause in women with breast cancer. 7. HRT is not recommended for the prevention of diabetes. 8. In women with previously diagnosed diabetes, the use of HRT should be individualized, taking in to account age, metabolic, and cardiovascular risk factors. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; ACE = American College of Endocrinology; BMI = body mass index; CAC = coronary artery calcification; CEE = conjugated equine estrogen; CEPO = Comité de l'Évolution des Pratiques en Oncologie; CAD = coronary artery disease; CIMT = carotid intima media thickness; CVD = cardiovascular disease; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; HRT = hormone replacement therapy; HT = hypertension; KEEPS = Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MBS = metabolic syndrome; MPA = medroxyprogesterone acetate; RR = relative risk; SERM = selective estrogen-receptor modulator; SSRI = selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor; VTE = venous thrombo-embolism; WHI = Women's Health Initiative.

  19. Monazite-type ceramics for the immobilization of minor actinides plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, Julia Maria


    the samples bombarded with Au ions show initiating effects of radiation damages enduring doses of D dpa = 0.02 and 0.06, respectively, whereas a dose of D dpa = 1.65 produced an amorphisation to a great extent in a lamella sample. However, crystalline areas remained due to recrystallisation processes in the material. The flexibility of the Sm-monazite's crystal structure, necessary for the incorporation of radionuclides, is required for the use of SmPO 4 ceramics as a suitable waste form. Therefore, Sm was substituted by other lanthanide cations, that served as surrogates for minor actinides such as Np, Am, and Cm or for Pu. Actinides reveal a similar behaviour as the lanthanides and in case of trivalent actinides (e.g. Am, Cm) also favour the monazite structure as endmembers. For the coupled substitutions, needed for the incorporation of tetravalent actinides (e. g. Np, Pu), also the resulting mean values of cationic radii have to be considered. These radii can reach into a limit range, where the stability field of the monazite structure usually changes into that of the xenotime structure. Hence, knowledge of the structural limitations of monazite is essential. Therefore, on the one hand Sm 1-x Ce x PO 4 solid solutions were synthesised in the range of x = 0 to 1 and characterised. The formation of a complete solid solution between the endmembers SmPO 4 and CePO 4 were examined by structural investigations of the long- and short-range order. On the other hand, Terbium was incorporated gradually in the Sm-monazite up to the complete substitution of Sm. The TbPO 4 -endmember generally forms the tetragonal xenotime structure. Within the Sm 1-x Tb x PO 4 system, solid solutions show the monazite crystal structure over a wide range up to x = 0.75, before the xenotime structure is formed. Furthermore, in situ high-pressure Raman experiments were carried out on (Sm,Tb)PO 4 solid solutions to investigate the resistance of external stress of the different crystal

  20. Introducción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Augusto Ferro


    órica”, Silvana López sitúa su mirada crítica en el escrutinio de la poética del escritor argentino, proponiéndose leerla como un complejo entramado de tematizaciones de las diversas instancias de procesos de reescritura. El punto nodal de su argumentación está centrado en que el escribir aparece en su narrativa como una modalidad exhibida del reescribir, particularidad que le imprime a los textos de Libertella una productividad con múltiples entradas y salidas que conlleva la puesta en escena de una escritura de la huella, de una escritura como proceso en el que se encuentran implicadas la lectura, la escritura y la exhibición de esa lectura/escritura. El ensayo aborda la configuración de una poética que se muestra como una literatura de segundo grado y que, en su artificialidad, pivotea entre la tradición y la fundición de la letra antigua, entre la literatura latinoamericana y la literatura legitimada por el canon occidental, entre el mercado literario y la mónada o pequeño cepo gramatical en el que emerge lainasibilidad de la palabra literaria. Héctor Libertella está situado en una de de las genealogías más productivas de la tradición argentina que se configura como una literatura conceptual; es decir, textualidad es que consisten en una intensa reflexión sobre las condiciones de posibilidad del sentido literario. Silvana López, para adentrarse en ese corpus, se mueve en la tensión y la interdependencia entre el lector crítico centrado en la letra de los textos y el memoralista que indaga en el archivo de una vasta biblioteca teórica. En ese vaivén va tensando la reflexión sobre el sentido de la obra libertelliana, cumpliendo de ese modo con uno de los designios de la crítica literaria que no se deja seducir por los espasmos del mercado: el rescate de textualidades en las que residen yacimientos inagotables de sentido, que sólo son posibles en lo que hemos convenido en llamar literatura. Hebert Benítez Pessolano, en “El temido infierno de la